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Sample records for monarquia brasileira viva

  1. Viva Delay.

    PubMed

    Yahaghi, Hossein; Sorooshian, Shahryar; Yahaghi, Javad

    2016-06-28

    The time delay between submission of a thesis and Viva Voce is intolerable for students. This letter tries to draw the readers' attention to the effect of choosing the right examiner, in order to reduce the Viva Voce delay.

  2. Cohort Profile: Project Viva

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Gold, Diane R; Kleinman, Ken P; Litonjua, Augusto A; De Meo, Dawn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Sagiv, Sharon; Taveras, Elsie M; Weiss, Scott T; Belfort, Mandy B; Burris, Heather H; Camargo, Carlos A; Huh, Susanna Y; Mantzoros, Christos; Parker, Margaret G; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    We established Project Viva to examine prenatal diet and other factors in relation to maternal and child health. We recruited pregnant women at their initial prenatal visit in eastern Massachusetts between 1999 and 2002. Exclusion criteria included multiple gestation, inability to answer questions in English, gestational age ≥22 weeks at recruitment and plans to move away before delivery. We completed in-person visits with mothers during pregnancy in the late first (median 9.9 weeks of gestation) and second (median 27.9 weeks) trimesters. We saw mothers and children in the hospital during the delivery admission and during infancy (median age 6.3 months), early childhood (median 3.2 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). We collected information from mothers via interviews and questionnaires, performed anthropometric and neurodevelopmental assessments and collected biosamples. We have collected additional information from medical records and from mailed questionnaires sent annually to mothers between in-person visits and to children beginning at age 9 years. From 2341 eligible women, there were 2128 live births; 1279 mother-child pairs provided data at the mid-childhood visit. Primary study outcomes include pregnancy outcomes, maternal mental and cardiometabolic health and child neurodevelopment, asthma/atopy and obesity/cardiometabolic health. Investigators interested in learning more about how to obtain Project Viva data can contact Project_Viva@hphc.org. PMID:24639442

  3. The PhD Viva: A Space for Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the viva experiences of 87 social science PhD graduates from three Irish higher education institutions through a questionnaire that assessed outcome, preparation, conduct and post-viva. The majority were awarded their PhD with minor corrections, considered their viva as a summative assessment, and emphasised its purpose as…

  4. Viva viva? Women's meanings associated with male nudity in a 1970s "for women" magazine.

    PubMed

    Beggan, James K; Allison, Scott T

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been conducted with regard to how women view male nudity. The purpose of this analysis was to present an historical case study of Viva, a 1970s women's magazine geared toward the presentation of male nudity. Implicit in Viva's editorial direction was the assumption that women's sexuality is socially constructed and, thus, modifiable but also homologous to men's sexuality. Using sexual scripting theory as a sensitizing concept, a content analysis of women's letters to the editor was conducted. Letters justified inclusion of male nudity on the basis of principles of fairness and equality with men. In addition, letters tried to demarcate boundary conditions for what constituted acceptable male nudity in terms of the presence of erection, size, shape, and coloring of the penis, and whether inclusion of the penis was contextualized by other physical traits such as body musculature. Despite an early effort to modify cultural scripts on the basis of a constructivist world view, it was found that, ultimately, Viva advocated an essentialist viewpoint that reified existing conceptualizations of female sexuality as both static and uninterested in the visual representation of sexually related material. This study explored whether Viva's essentialist final position may have reflected financial exigencies rather than ideologies.

  5. An Informed Look at Doctoral Vivas (Oral Examinations) in the Preparation of Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Charles R., III; Robertson, Derek L.

    2012-01-01

    Viva voce is the Latin expression traditionally used to refer to doctoral oral examinations. Viva voce, or simply viva, examinations are a standard requirement for doctoral candidacy and degree completion in many counselor education programs. Despite the prevalent use of vivas as an assessment and learning tool, the counselor education literature…

  6. Viva Voce (Oral Examination) as an Assessment Method: Insights from Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Glenn; Lee, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    Viva voce (viva) or oral examinations are widely used in medical education, clinical examinations, and doctoral defenses, yet the assessment method is seldom adopted by university marketing departments. Correspondingly, the marketing education literature makes no reference to vivas as an alternative academic assessment technique. This research…

  7. Occupational Therapy Students as Peer Assessors in Viva Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Lynette

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated use of student peer assessors in second-year viva examinations as part of a problem based occupational therapy curriculum at the University of Newcastle (Australia). Overall ratings by three-person assessment panels (two students and one academic tutor) were significantly correlated providing support for the practice of peer assessment.…

  8. The clinical viva: an assessment of clinical thinking.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Debbie

    2013-04-01

    In order to enable Masters level pre-registration students to demonstrate sophisticated cognitive abilities, integration of knowledge, complex problem solving, critical opinion, lateral thinking and innovative action; an innovative assessment tool is required (Sadler, 2009). A clinical viva was devised to enable third year students in their final transitional placement prior to qualifying demonstrate both the art and science of nursing practice. The assessment combines some of the viva element of an Australian assessment model described by Levett-Jones et al. (2011), together with the think aloud approach suggested by Banning (2008); whereby the think aloud model acts as a catalyst for eliciting students' understandings and knowledge and the SOAP model is a mechanism for the assessment of students' understandings and knowledge. Rust (2002) calls for students to be afforded opportunities for regular formative feedback; therefore, the assessment includes a replica formative assessment, one week prior to the summative assessment. This formative test prevents assessment being seen as a snapshot of the student's development and encourages assessment for learning and is an approach which is suggested to discourage surface learning (Rust, 2002). A holistic rubric was developed in an attempt to capture the students' abilities against the six cognitive operators or heuristics suggested by Banning (2008). Open-ended questions were devised to be asked of the students as advocated by Levett-Jones et al. (2011), to uncover the student's cognitive abilities, integration of knowledge, complex problem solving, critical opinion, lateral thinking and innovative action. Roberts (2011) calls for new and innovative ways of assessing student learning which bridges the artificial divide between theory and practice and enables students to demonstrate both the art and science of nursing practice (p610). The clinical viva has the potential to be one such mechanism.

  9. The Doctoral "Viva Voce" as a Cultural Practice: The Gendered Production of Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossouard, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a recent small-scale phenomenological study into the student experience of the doctoral "viva voce". It was prompted by strong concerns about "viva voce" processes on the part of a Director of Graduate Studies in an English university. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 respondents…

  10. Supporting Students' Preparation for the Viva: Their Pre-Conceptions and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the pre-conceptions of doctoral students about the final examination, the viva voce and hence there is a shortage of evidence to underpin activities designed to prepare them for this experience. The present paper, which is based upon data from a wide range of focus groups of pre-viva students, seeks to…

  11. English as an Additional Language (EAL) "viva voce": The EAL Doctoral Oral Examination Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Is the doctoral "viva voce" a reasonable method of examination? This exploratory paper proposes that the doctoral "viva voce" (oral examination) is a slightly different hurdle for doctoral candidates for whom English is an additional language (EAL, also termed ESL) than for those whose first language is English. It investigates…

  12. Variations in Vivas: Quality and Equality in British PhD Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise; Leonard, Diana; David, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Explores how current concerns about quality assurance, standards, benchmarks, and performance indicators in higher education apply to the assessment of doctoral/research degrees in Britain, and in particular to the viva voce (oral) examination. (EV)

  13. VIVA (from virus variance), a library to reconstruct icosahedral viruses based on the variance of structural models.

    PubMed

    Cantele, Francesca; Lanzavecchia, Salvatore; Bellon, Pier Luigi

    2004-11-01

    VIVA is a software library that obtains low-resolution models of icosahedral viruses from projections observed at the electron microscope. VIVA works in a fully automatic way without any initial model. This feature eliminates the possibility of bias that could originate from the alignment of the projections to an external preliminary model. VIVA determines the viewing direction of the virus images by computation of sets of single particle reconstruction (SPR) followed by a variance analysis and classification of the 3D models. All structures are reduced in size to speed up computation. This limits the resolution of a VIVA reconstruction. The models obtained can be subsequently refined at best with use of standard libraries. Up today, VIVA has successfully solved the structure of all viruses tested, some of which being considered refractory particles. The VIVA library is written in 'C' language and is devised to run on widespread Linux computers.

  14. Improving Memory Subsystem Performance Using ViVA: Virtual Vector Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gebis, Joseph; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Williams, Samuel; Yelick, Katherine

    2009-01-12

    The disparity between microprocessor clock frequencies and memory latency is a primary reason why many demanding applications run well below peak achievable performance. Software controlled scratchpad memories, such as the Cell local store, attempt to ameliorate this discrepancy by enabling precise control over memory movement; however, scratchpad technology confronts the programmer and compiler with an unfamiliar and difficult programming model. In this work, we present the Virtual Vector Architecture (ViVA), which combines the memory semantics of vector computers with a software-controlled scratchpad memory in order to provide a more effective and practical approach to latency hiding. ViVA requires minimal changes to the core design and could thus be easily integrated with conventional processor cores. To validate our approach, we implemented ViVA on the Mambo cycle-accurate full system simulator, which was carefully calibrated to match the performance on our underlying PowerPC Apple G5 architecture. Results show that ViVA is able to deliver significant performance benefits over scalar techniques for a variety of memory access patterns as well as two important memory-bound compact kernels, corner turn and sparse matrix-vector multiplication -- achieving 2x-13x improvement compared the scalar version. Overall, our preliminary ViVA exploration points to a promising approach for improving application performance on leading microprocessors with minimal design and complexity costs, in a power efficient manner.

  15. Examining the British PhD viva: opening new doors or scarring for life?

    PubMed

    Carter, Bernie; Whittaker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The PhD viva -- regardless of its format -- has the potential to be a significant rite of passage for the student. It is an experience that can resonate for months or years afterwards. Part of the challenge is that for everyone involved -- student, supervisory team and examiners -- a degree of end-point uncertainty exists. These ambiguities and tensions are perhaps an inherent part of any examination but are particularly characteristic of the examination of the individual and unique body of work that constitutes the doctoral thesis. In recent years, increased attention has been placed on the processes that surround the examination, aiming to increase transparency, consistency and fairness. However, the process of examining a student and their thesis remains challenging and is surrounded by different agendas, ideologies and practices. This paper examines some of the issues surrounding the PhD viva, primarily focusing on the British viva whilst weaving in commentary about the Australian system.

  16. Introducing structured viva voce examination in medical undergraduate pharmacology: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dhasmana, D. C.; Bala, Suman; Sharma, Rajendra; Sharma, Taruna; Kohli, Saurabh; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Kalra, Juhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Viva voce examination is an important tool of evaluation in medical examinations marred by high subjectivity. Gross subjectivity in viva voce assessment can be reduced by structuring it. Materials and Methods: The marks obtained in theory and viva voce (traditional viva voce examination [TVVE]) of I sessional, II MBBS students were compared and a huge disparity was identified. A structured viva voce examination (SVVE) was then proposed and experimented as an objective and standardized alternative. Sets of equitable question cards for SVVE were prepared, each having eight questions with two parts each, arranged successively with increasing difficulty, domains of learning, and appropriate marks. The percentage variation in scoring in viva versus theory marks was calculated for both TVVE and SVVE, and students were grouped as Group I (+100 to +51%); Group II (+50 to −50%); Group III (−51 to −100%); Group IV (−101 to −150%); Group V (−151 to −200%); and Group VI (< −200%) variation, as? inappropriate, appropriate, inappropriate, erroneous, more erroneous and most erroneous respectively. Student’s feedback on the SVVE was also obtained. Results: In TVVE (n = 128), the students distributed were:none,17.2%, 23.4%, 22.7%, 11.7% and 25% in Group I, II, III, IV, V, and VI in contrast to SVVE (n = 107) as 7.5%, 57.9%, 19.6%, 6.5%, 5.6%, and 2.8%, respectively. Marked disparity of TVVE was annulled with SVVE. Student’s feedback was quite encouraging with 83% overall acceptability and almost 66% preferred SVVE. Conclusion: SVVE was more realistic as compared to TVVE. Most of the students favored this approach. PMID:28031609

  17. Cooperative Collection Management in the Consortial Environment: The VIVA Pilot Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson-Martula, Christopher; Pathak, Susanna Bartmann; Pfeiffer, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Offers a descriptive account and critical analysis of three cooperative collection development projects undertaken by the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA), a consortium of Virginia academic libraries. Reviews cooperative collection development processes and explains objectives that included cost effectiveness, improved access to information…

  18. Theorising the Academic Viva in Higher Education: The Argument for a Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The argument made in this essay is that it is necessary to theorize a form of assessment--the academic viva in higher education. It is threatened with extinction because of its high cost compared with written exams, multiple choice and other forms of assessment. However, little empirical research, both in Norway and internationally, has been…

  19. Preparing Doctoral Candidates for the Viva: Issues for Students and Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Jacqueline H.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD viva has been described as mysterious (Burnham 1994; Morley et al. 2002), unpredictable (Rugg & Petre 2004) and potentially frightening for students (Delamont et al. 2004), with its form and duration a function of the predilections of individual examiners as well as a function of differences across disciplines. Despite its myriad…

  20. Viva la Vida: helping Latino Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes live their lives to the fullest.

    PubMed

    Olson, Rebecca; Sabogal, Fabio; Perez, Ana

    2008-02-01

    Viva la Vida (Live Your Life) is a call to action for older Latinos to take charge of their diabetes and live life to the fullest. Lumetra, California's federally designated Medicare quality improvement organization, developed the Viva la Vida project to improve diabetes care among Latino Medicare beneficiaries in 4 Southern California counties. After researching barriers to good diabetes care among Latino seniors, Lumetra designed a multifaceted program targeting health care providers and Medicare beneficiaries through bilingual, low-literacy health education materials and tools, community and provider partnerships, and the mass media. The project succeeded in helping to reduce the disparity in glycosylated hemoglobin testing between White and Latino Medicare beneficiaries in the 4 program counties.

  1. Viva La Vida: Helping Latino Medicare Beneficiaries With Diabetes Live Their Lives to the Fullest

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Rebecca; Sabogal, Fabio; Perez, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Viva la Vida (Live Your Life) is a call to action for older Latinos to take charge of their diabetes and live life to the fullest. Lumetra, California’s federally designated Medicare quality improvement organization, developed the Viva la Vida project to improve diabetes care among Latino Medicare beneficiaries in 4 Southern California counties. After researching barriers to good diabetes care among Latino seniors, Lumetra designed a multifaceted program targeting health care providers and Medicare beneficiaries through bilingual, low-literacy health education materials and tools, community and provider partnerships, and the mass media. The project succeeded in helping to reduce the disparity in glycosylated hemoglobin testing between White and Latino Medicare beneficiaries in the 4 program counties. PMID:18172150

  2. Viva Mexico!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Judy; Hawkes, Brent

    This curriculum presentation outlines how to celebrate five Mexican holidays in the classroom: Cinco de Mayo, Dia de los Muertos, Fiesta, Las Posados, and Three Kings Day. The goal is to help children learn through hands-on activities and real-life experiences. The format for each holiday celebration includes a brief history with ideas for…

  3. Vulnerable but aloof versus naughty and nice: contrasting the presentation of male and female nude models in Viva and Playboy.

    PubMed

    Beggan, James K; Vencill, Jennifer A; Garos, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The current research examined contested meanings of nudity by comparing images of nude men and women that appeared in Viva, a 1970s women's magazine founded with the intention of foregrounding male nudity, to corresponding issues of Playboy. A major difference was obtained between male models and Playboy Playmates regarding direction of gaze and nudity. Although gaze aversion is often interpreted as a sign of submission and direct gaze is seen as a dominance cue, men in Viva displayed a high level of gaze aversion and women in Playboy often gazed directly at the camera, especially when their pubic area was exposed. Additional content analysis examined the personality characteristics attributed to male models in Viva and Playmates in Playboy in their biographical sketches. In Viva, men were presented as possessing "bad boy" traits that may have been intended to compensate for the loss of power associated with male nudity. Playmates could be viewed as being naughty (by virtue of posing nude) and nice in the characterization of their personalities.

  4. VIVA! Community Arts and Popular Education in the Americas. SUNY Series, Praxis: Theory in Action [with DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barndt, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This compelling collection of inspiring case studies from community arts projects in five countries will inform and inspire students, artists, and activists. "VIVA!" is the product of a five-year transnational research project that integrates place, politics, passion, and praxis. Framed by postcolonial theories of decolonization, the…

  5. Pulse-power characteristic of VIVA-1 (Versatile Inductive Voltage Adder)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimiya, K.; Hozumi, Y.; Aoyama, T.; Shigeta, M.; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Sekimoto, Y.; Masugata, Katsumi; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    1990-10-01

    Versatile Inductive Voltage Adder, (VIVA-1), with high potential gradient was successfully developed to be in operation. It was designed to produce output pulse of 4 MV, 60 ns by adding 2 MV pulses in 2 stages of induction cells, where amorphous cores are installed. Within approx. 40 percent of full charge voltage, pulse power characteristics of Marx generator, pulse forming line (PFL), transmission line (TL), and induction cells were tested for three types of loads: open circuit; dummy load of CuSO4 resistor; and electron diode. In open circuit test, approx. 2.0 MV of output voltage was obtained with good reproducibility. Dependence of output voltage on diode impedance was evaluated by using a dummy load, and good agreement was obtained with that expected. An E-beam diode was operated successfully, and approx. 18 kA of beam current was obtained at diode voltage of approx. 1 MV.

  6. A six-month evaluation of the VivaSight™ video double-lumen endotracheal tube after introduction into thoracic anaesthetic practice at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Rapchuk, I L; Kunju, Sam; Smith, I J; Faulke, D J

    2017-03-01

    For a six-month period, all airway options used for non-emergent patients undergoing thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation at a single institution were assessed after introduction of the VivaSight™ double-lumen endotracheal tube (VivaSight-DL), a novel double-lumen tube with an integrated camera. This device displays a continuous view of the position of the tube relative to the carina. A total of 72 patients had lung separation with the VivaSight-DL. Lung separation was achieved on first attempt without additional manipulation in 85% of cases. In only three cases (4%) was a fibreoptic bronchoscope required, in each instance to reposition the tube after intraoperative dislodgement. The VivaSight-DL represents a novel method of one-lung ventilation allowing rapid identification of intraoperative airway problems and reducing the need for fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

  7. Accidental falls in urgent and emergency care: results of the 2014 VIVA Survey.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Sousa, Carlos Augusto Moreira de; Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves de

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the cases of falls in urgent and emergency care services of 24 Brazilian capitals and the Federal District participating in the 2014 VIVA Survey. We sought to describe the epidemiological profile of victims, characterizing the event and the severity of injuries it caused and to perform an association study. We calculated the simple and relative frequencies of variables and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis for complex sample data in order to verify associations between falls and selected variables. Fall victims profile results show a predominance of males, age groups 0-9years and 20-39 years and brown skin. Outcomes show that 56% fell from own height, public road was the most frequent place of falls and 92.7% of people receiving care for falls suffered some kind of injury, of which most common were bruises, sprain and strains, followed by cut/laceration. In the final model, we were able to associate fall with gender, age, education, disability and place of the event. The likelihood of falls at school is 14% higher than at home, but falls in recreation areas, public roads and other places are less likely than at home.

  8. A Phase I Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of the Safety of 3% SPL7013 Gel (VivaGel®) in Healthy Young Women Administered Twice Daily for 14 Days

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Craig R.; Brown, Joelle; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Paull, Jeremy R. A.; Price, Clare F.; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety of VivaGel® used vaginally twice daily for 14 days among healthy, sexually-abstinent women, aged 18–24 years in the USA and Kenya. Design Randomized placebo controlled trial. Methods Participants were randomized 2∶1, VivaGel to placebo. Safety was assessed by comparing genitourinary (GU) adverse events (AEs), colposcopy findings, vaginal lactobacilli and laboratory abnormalities by arm. Results Fifty-four women were enrolled; 35 in the VivaGel arm and 19 in the placebo arm. Twenty-six (74%) and 10 (53%) women reported taking all doses of VivaGel and placebo, respectively. No grade 3 or 4 AEs, or serious AEs occurred. Twenty-five (71%) participants in the VivaGel arm compared to 10 (53%) participants in the placebo arm had at least one grade 1 or 2 GU AE associated with product use (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.8-2.2). All seven grade 2 GU AEs associated with product use occurred among four women in the VivaGel arm. Vulvar and cervical erythema, cervical lesions, symptomatic BV, urinary frequency and metrorrhagia were more common in the VivaGel arm than the placebo arm. Twenty-nine (83%) participants in the VivaGel arm had a colposcopic finding compared to 10 (53%) participants in the placebo arm (RR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.0-2.5). Two women in the VivaGel arm prematurely discontinued product use themselves due to a reported GU AE. Persistence of H2O2-producing and non-producing lactobacilli did not differ by study arm. Conclusions GU AEs and colposcopic findings consistent with mild epithelial irritation and inflammation occurred more commonly among women in the VivaGel arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT003311032 PMID:21311578

  9. GENOME-WIDE SCAN FOR SERUM GHRELIN DETECTS LINKAGE ON CHROMOSOME 1P36 IN HISPANIC CHILDREN: RESULTS FROM THE VIVA LA FAMILIA STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate genetic influence on serum ghrelin and its relationship with adiposity-related phenotypes in Hispanic children (n = 1030) from the Viva La Familia study (VFS). Anthropometric measurements and levels of serum ghrelin were estimated and genetic analyses conducte...

  10. A prospective comparison between written examination and either simulation-based or oral viva examination of intensive care trainees' procedural skills.

    PubMed

    Nunnink, L; Venkatesh, B; Krishnan, A; Vidhani, K; Udy, A

    2010-09-01

    We compared results of written assessment of intensive care trainees' procedural skills with results obtained from one of two live assessment formats for the purposes of assessing the concurrent validity of the different test methods. Forty-five Australasian senior trainees in intensive care medicine completed a written test relating to a procedural skill, as well as either a simulation format or oral viva assessment on the same procedural skill. We analysed correlation between written exam results and results obtained from simulation format or oral viva assessment. For those who completed the simulation format examination, we also maintained a narrative of actions and identified critical errors. There was limited correlation between written exam results and live (simulation or viva) procedure station results (r = 0.31). Correlation with written exam results was very low for simulation format assessments (r = 0.08) but moderate for oral viva format assessment (r = 0.58). Participants who passed a written exam based on management of a blocked tracheostomy scenario performed a number of dangerous errors when managing a simulated patient in that scenario. The lack of correlation between exam formats supports multi-modal assessment, as currently it is not known which format best represents workplace performance. Correlation between written and oral viva results may indicate redundancy between those test formats, whereas limited correlation between simulation and written exams may support the use of both formats as part of an integrated assessment strategy. We hypothesise that identification of critical candidate errors in a simulation format exam that were not exposed in a written exam may indicate better predictive validity for simulation format examination of procedural skills.

  11. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    PubMed

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-11-01

    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  12. Urban upgrading and its impact on health: a "quasi-experimental" mixed-methods study protocol for the BH-Viva Project.

    PubMed

    Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Dias, Maria Angélica de Salles; Reis, Priscila Brandão Dos; Dias, Cláudia Silva; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    There is little scientific evidence that urban upgrading helps improve health or reduce inequities. This article presents the design for the BH-Viva Project, a "quasi-experimental", multiphase, mixed-methods study with quantitative and qualitative components, proposing an analytical model for monitoring the effects that interventions in the urban environment can have on residents' health in slums in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A preliminary analysis revealed intra-urban differences in age-specific mortality when comparing areas with and without interventions; the mortality rate from 2002 to 2012 was stable in the "formal city", increased in slums without interventions, and decreased in slums with interventions. BH-Viva represents an effort at advancing methodological issues, providing learning and theoretical backing for urban health research and research methods, allowing their application and extension to other urban contexts.

  13. Measurement of mucosal biomarkers in a phase 1 trial of intravaginal 3% SPL 7013 gel (VivaGel®) to assess expanded safety

    PubMed Central

    MOSCICKI, Anna-Barbara; KAUL, Rupert; Yifei, MA; SCOTT, Mark E.; DAUD, Ibrahim I.; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; SHIBOSKI, Stephen; REBBAPRAGADA, Anuradha; HUIBNER, Sanja; COHEN, Craig R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the 3% SPL 7013 gel (VivaGel®) on mucosal immune markers hypothesized to be associated with HIV-1 acquisition. Design Phase 1, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in 54 young women in the U.S. and Kenya. Participants used carbopol gel with and without (placebo) SPL 7013 twice daily over 14 days. Cervical specimens were collected for cytokines, chemokines, T-cells, and dendritic cells at day (D) 0, 7, 14, and 21. A negative binomial regression model was used to assess differences between study arms. Results Several mucosal immune parameters were increased in the VivaGel® arm compared to placebo. For cytokines: D 7, IL-6 (p=0.05); D 14, IFN-γ (p=0.03), IL-2 (p=0.04), IL-5 (p=0.003) and IL-10 (p=0.001) were increased. On D 7, CD8+/CD69+ T-cells tended to be increased (p<0.08); limiting analysis to visits without blood or bacterial vaginosis, these findings were stronger: at D7, CD8+/CD69+ T-cells were increased in the VivaGel® arm (p<0.005), as were CD4+/CD69+ cells (p=0.001) and CD4+/CCR5+ T-cells (p=0.01). The changes described for D7 and 14 were no longer seen at D21. Conclusion Markers associated with inflammation and epithelial damage were reversibly elevated in the VivaGel® arm compared to the placebo arm after 7–14 days of twice daily product use. PMID:22067666

  14. Reliability of a viva assessment of clinical reasoning in an Australian pre-professional osteopathy program assessed using generalizability theory

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is situation-dependent and case-specific; therefore, assessments incorporating different patient presentations are warranted. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a multi-station case-based viva assessment of clinical reasoning in an Australian pre-registration osteopathy program using generalizability theory. Students (from years 4 and 5) and examiners were recruited from the osteopathy program at Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia. The study took place on a single day in the student teaching clinic. Examiners were trained before the examination. Students were allocated to 1 of 3 rounds consisting of 5 10-minute stations in an objective structured clinical examination-style. Generalizability analysis was used to explore the reliability of the examination. Fifteen students and 5 faculty members participated in the study. The examination produced a generalizability coefficient of 0.53, with 18 stations required to achieve a generalizability coefficient of 0.80. The reliability estimations were acceptable and the psychometric findings related to the marking rubric and overall scores were acceptable; however, further work is required in examiner training and ensuring consistent case difficulty to improve the reliability of the examination. PMID:28104901

  15. Reliability of a viva assessment of clinical reasoning in an Australian pre-professional osteopathy program assessed using generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Brett; Orrock, Paul; Grace, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is situation-dependent and case-specific; therefore, assessments incorporating different patient presentations are warranted. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a multi-station case-based viva assessment of clinical reasoning in an Australian pre-registration osteopathy program using generalizability theory. Students (from years 4 and 5) and examiners were recruited from the osteopathy program at Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia. The study took place on a single day in the student teaching clinic. Examiners were trained before the examination. Students were allocated to 1 of 3 rounds consisting of 5 10-minute stations in an objective structured clinical examination-style. Generalizability analysis was used to explore the reliability of the examination. Fifteen students and 5 faculty members participated in the study. The examination produced a generalizability coefficient of 0.53, with 18 stations required to achieve a generalizability coefficient of 0.80. The reliability estimations were acceptable and the psychometric findings related to the marking rubric and overall scores were acceptable; however, further work is required in examiner training and ensuring consistent case difficulty to improve the reliability of the examination.

  16. 76 FR 7511 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes; and Model ERJ 190-100..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket...

  17. 75 FR 19201 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...-212-AD; Amendment 39-16261; AD 2010-08-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-08-06 Empresa Brasileira de...)(2) of this AD; certificated in any category. (1) Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  18. 78 FR 66258 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...-194-AD; Amendment 39-17650; AD 2013-22-18] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... directive (AD) for certain Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER, - 135KE, -135KL... information identified in this AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER),...

  19. Viva la Evolucion!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haro, Robert P.

    1979-01-01

    Developments in library services to Hispanic Americans include special collection development and outreach services to non-users but change is coming too slowly for America's fastest growing minority. Professional education has responded slowly, if at all to the Hispanic population's needs. (MBR)

  20. VLA IMAGING OF VIRGO SPIRALS IN ATOMIC GAS (VIVA). I. THE ATLAS AND THE H I PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Aeree; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Crowl, Hugh; Vollmer, Bernd E-mail: jvangork@astro.columbia.edu E-mail: hugh@astro.yale.edu E-mail: bvollmer@astro.u-strasbg.fr

    2009-12-15

    We present the results of a new VLA H I Imaging survey of Virgo galaxies, the VLA Imaging survey of Virgo galaxies in Atomic gas (VIVA). The survey includes high-resolution H I data of 53 carefully selected late type galaxies (48 spirals and five irregular systems). The goal is to study environmental effects on H I gas properties of cluster galaxies to understand which physical mechanisms affect galaxy evolution in different density regions, and to establish how far out the impact of the cluster reaches. As a dynamically young cluster, Virgo contains examples of galaxies experiencing a variety of environmental effects. Its nearness allows us to study each galaxy in great detail. We have selected Virgo galaxies with a range of star formation properties in low to high density regions (at projected distances from M87, d {sub 87} = 0.3-3.3 Mpc). Contrary to previous studies, more than half of the galaxies in the sample ({approx}60%) are fainter than 12 mag in B{sub T} . Overall, the selected galaxies represent the late type Virgo galaxies (S0/a to Sd/Irr) down to m{sub p} {approx}< 14.6 fairly well in morphological type, systemic velocity, subcluster membership, H I mass, and deficiency. The H I observations were done in C short (CS) configuration of the VLA radio telescope, with a typical spatial resolution of 15'' and a column density sensitivity of {approx}3-5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} in 3{sigma} per 10 km s{sup -1} channel. The survey was supplemented with data of comparable quality from the NRAO archive, taken in CS or C configuration. In this paper, we present H I channel maps, total intensity maps, velocity fields, velocity dispersions, global/radial profiles, position-velocity diagrams and overlays of H I/1.4 GHz continuum maps on the optical images. We also present H I properties such as total flux (S {sub HI}), H I mass (M {sub HI}), linewidths (W{sub 20} and W{sub 50}), velocity (V{sub HI}), deficiency (def{sub HI}), and size (D {sup eff}{sub HI} and D {sup

  1. 75 FR 26883 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...-045-AD; Amendment 39-16286; AD 2010-10-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2010-10-07 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment...

  2. 75 FR 47184 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-116-AD; Amendment 39-16377; AD 2010-16-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... new AD: 2010-16-01 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16377. Docket No... 39-15577. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER)...

  3. 75 FR 52238 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...; AD 2010-18-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A... new AD: 2010-18-01 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16414. Docket No... Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170-100 LR, -100 STD, -100 SE, and -100...

  4. 76 FR 37244 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...-215-AD; Amendment 39-16659; AD 2011-08-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2011-08-09 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16659... all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER, -120FC, -120QC, and...

  5. 75 FR 9811 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER...: Empresa Brasileira De Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket No. FAA- 2010-0176; Directorate Identifier...

  6. 75 FR 27403 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135 and -145...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ...-041-AD; Amendment 39-16290; AD 2010-10-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... the following new AD: 2010-10-11 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16290... Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ, -135ER, -135KE, -135KL, -135LR,...

  7. 75 FR 45558 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira.... Relevant Service Information Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) has issued Service Bulletin...: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket No. FAA- 2010-0754; Directorate Identifier...

  8. 76 FR 2279 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket...

  9. 75 FR 7929 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 LR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...-16201; AD 2010-04-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-04-08 Empresa Brasileira de... ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  10. 76 FR 55781 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...-16786; AD 2011-18-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A... the following new AD: 2011-18-04 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Amendment 39-16786... to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) airplanes as identified in paragraphs (c)(1)...

  11. 76 FR 72855 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190 airplanes. This proposed AD results... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact...

  12. 75 FR 260 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes; and Model ERJ 190-100 STD, -100... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A....

  13. Genome-wide scan for serum ghrelin detects linkage on chromosome 1p36 in Hispanic children: results from the Viva La Familia study.

    PubMed

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Göring, Harald H H; Diego, Vincent P; Cai, Guowen; Mehta, Nitesh R; Haack, Karin; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2007-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate genetic influence on serum ghrelin and its relationship with adiposity-related phenotypes in Hispanic children (n=1030) from the Viva La Familia study (VFS). Anthropometric measurements and levels of serum ghrelin were estimated and genetic analyses conducted according to standard procedures. Mean age, body mass index (BMI), and serum ghrelin were 11+/-0.13 y, 25+/-0.24 kg/m2 and 38+/-0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Significant heritabilities (p<0.001) were obtained for BMI, weight, fat mass, percent fat, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and ghrelin. Bivariate analyses of ghrelin with adiposity traits showed significant negative genetic correlations (p<0.0001) with weight, BMI, fat mass, percent fat, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. A genome-wide scan for ghrelin detected significant linkage on chromosome 1p36.2 between STR markers D1S2697 and D1S199 (LOD=3.2). The same region on chromosome 1 was the site of linkage for insulin (LOD=3.3), insulinlike growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) (LOD=3.4), homeostatic model assessment method (HOMA) (LOD=2.9), and C-peptide (LOD=2.0). Several family-based studies have reported linkages for obesity-related phenotypes in the region of 1p36. These results indicate the importance of this region in relation to adiposity in children from the VFS.

  14. Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children of low socioeconomic status - the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Theresa A.; Adolph, Anne L.; Butte, Nancy F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to 1) assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and 2) test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic families at high risk for obesity. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess dietary intake in low-SES non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children enrolled in the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study. Multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls were recorded on two random, weekday occasions. Diet quality was evaluated according to United States (US) Dietary Guidelines. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using z-scores based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Subjects/Setting The study included 1030 Hispanic children and adolescents, ages 4-19 y, in Houston, Texas who participated between November 2000 and August 2004. Statistical analysis STATA was used for generalized estimating equations and random effects regression. Results Diet quality did not adhere to US dietary guidelines for fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, fiber, added sugar and sodium. Although energy intake was significantly higher in overweight children, food sources, diet quality, macro- and micronutrient composition were similar between non-overweight and overweight children. Relative to EAR or AI, mean nutrient intakes were adequate (70-98% probability) in the non-overweight and overweight children, except for vitamins D and E, pantothenic acid, calcium and potassium for which z-scores cannot be interpreted given the uncertainty of their AI's. Conclusion While the diets of low-SES, non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children were adequate in most essential nutrients, other components of a healthy diet, which promote long-term health, were suboptimal. Knowledge of the diet of high risk Hispanic children will inform nutritional interventions and

  15. 75 FR 53609 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... 2010-CE-045-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER... further information by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Empresa.... 39.13 [Amended] 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira...

  16. 76 FR 55783 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...-197-AD; Amendment 39-16796; AD 2011-18-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., 44701. Sec. 39.13 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2011-18-14 Empresa..., 2011. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to all Empresa Brasileira de...

  17. 75 FR 5685 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ...-060-AD; Amendment 39-16191; AD 2010-03-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., 44701. Sec. 39.13 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-03-07 Empresa..., 2010. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica...

  18. 75 FR 9814 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 STD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av.... 106(g), 40113, 44701. Sec. 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD:...

  19. 75 FR 7998 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135 and -145...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Empresa.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER): Docket...

  20. 75 FR 34357 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...-127-AD; Amendment 39-16328; AD 2010-12-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira..., 44701. Sec. 39.13 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-12-07 Empresa..., 2010. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to all Empresa Brasileira de...

  1. 77 FR 25644 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...) that apply to all Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 airplanes... system (AMS) controller card. Since we issued those ADs, we have determined that replacing the controller... AMS controller processor module with one containing new software, and would require a new AFM...

  2. 76 FR 26959 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Faria Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos-- SP, CEP... Empresa Brasileira de ] Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Faria Lima, 2170, Sao...

  3. Assessing the quality of a scientific journal: the case of Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria.

    PubMed

    Kieling, Christian; Gonçalves, Renata Rocha Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Scientific production in the field of Psychiatry is growing exponentially, as reflected by the number of scientific journals now available. Current strategies to objectively estimate the quality of a specific publication are mostly based on indexation and citation criteria. The concept of impact factor, a measure of the frequency with which an article has been cited in a particular period, is key to understanding the way journals are evaluated. The recent indexation of Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria in the two major medical databases has increased the journal's visibility, as indicated by the rising number of citations received over the last years. As researchers' scientific productivity measures are largely associated with citation indices of journals in which manuscripts are published, it is essential that Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria continues to attract high quality, innovative articles, with the ultimate goal of providing state-of-the-art continuing medical education for mental health professionals.

  4. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  5. [Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, a pioneer in medical historiography].

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Amanda; Nicolini, Gabriel Baptista

    2007-01-01

    I(It? This?) presents the general characteristics of the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, which contributed for the emergence of the field of medicine history in Brazil by inciting bibliographic production on the subject. The purpose of our analysis is to foster research on the history of medicine and of the sciences. From the description of the editorial aspects of the journal one can have an idea of how the research field was organized between 1940 and 1960. The periodical also allows for an overview of the exchange occurring between Brazilian and foreign historian physicians at that time.

  6. 76 FR 52220 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose..., 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 36/2, BRASIL; telephone: ++55 12 3927-5383;...

  7. [Beliefs about nursing in the Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem: reflections on ideals, science, and art].

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Estelina Souto; dos Santos, Geralda Fortina; Caldeira, Valda da Penha; Teixeira, Virgínia Mascarenhas Nascimento

    2002-01-01

    The inquiry of this study is the beliefs related to the nursing professional in the first decades of this activity in Brazil. The investigation presupposes that some of these beliefs are still current. The objective is to point out the beliefs expressed by Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem (Brazilian Journal of Nursing) in 33 articles, during the period between 1932 (when the journal was created) and 1954. Five notions of the nursing professional were identified through the analyses of the symbology presented on the cover of the periodical--Egyptian mythology; ideal, science and art, inscribed in a triangle. The categories established for nurses were: self-forgetful, heroine, socially committed, mercenary and bad angel. Finally, the study proposes an interpretation to the ideas presented in the triangle.

  8. Tabula viva chirurgi: a living surgical document

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Marius J; Joubert, Gina; van den Berg, Jan-Albert; van Zyl, Gert J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a private cardiac surgical practice. This information could also serve as a hermeneutical text for new wisdom. Methods: A personal database of 1 750 consecutive patients who had had coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery was statistically analysed. Mortality and major morbidity figures were compared with large registries. Risk factors for postoperative death were determined. Results: Over a period of 12 years, 1 344 (76.8%) males and 406 (23.2%) females were operated on. The observed mortality rate was 3.03% and the expected mortality rate (EuroSCORE) was 3.87%. After stepwise logistic regression, independent risk factors for death were urgency (intra-aortic balloon pump), renal impairment (chronic kidney disease, stage III), re-operation and an additional procedure. Apart from the 53 deaths, another 91 patients had major complications. Conclusion: Mortality and morbidity rates compared favourably with other international registries. Mortality was related to co-morbidities. This outcome contributes to a hermeneutical understanding focusing on new spiritual wisdom and meaning for the surgeon. PMID:27841902

  9. Viva Colombia/Colombia Viva! A Fantasy Trip for the Five Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ramirez, Lori Langer

    2006-01-01

    In the author's experience, Colombia is among the most misunderstood Spanish-speaking countries. Most of the news about Columbia involves drug trafficking or guerilla warfare, due to the many social and political problems that face the country. It is rare that the public is informed about the culture and people of this beautiful South American…

  10. [Dialogues between Clio and Asclepius: Ivolino de Vasconcellos and the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina].

    PubMed

    Amoroso, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    The Brazilian Institute for the History of Medicine was founded on 1945 by the physician Ivolino de Vasconcellos. Because the movement intended to be of national scope, the Federação Nacional de História da Medicina e Ciências Afins was also created (National Federation for the History of Medicine and Related Sciences). The latter group had a humanistic understanding of medicine, wherein the history of medicine played a central role; since this subject honored great names and achievements in medicine, members of the federation felt it was a prime tool in the ethical and humanistic training of healthcare professionals. Thus was born the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, which fostered scientific and academic production and events in the field of history of medicine and also registered the Federation's activities and scientific output.

  11. [As the twig is bent, so is the tree inclined: children and the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental's eugenic programs].

    PubMed

    Reis, J R

    2000-01-01

    Created in the early 1920s, at a moment when the country's psychiatric field was embracing the preventive outlook, the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental included within its members the elite of Brazilian psychiatry, along with a number of physicians and intellectuals. The article discusses the institution's proposals for intervention among children. The league ended up incorporating into its theoretical arsenal the basic themes of mental hygiene and eugenics as part of its general goal of collaborating in Brazil's process of "racial sanitation". With this objective in mind, and viewing the child as a "pre-citizen" who is a "fundamental part within the man of the future", league members included the children's issue in their projects and saw an imperative need for mental health care from early ages on.

  12. Viva China...A Tiger by the Tail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    military interventions” sometimes called the Banana Wars; so named because they were reportedly undertaken to protect the economic interests of large U.S...back together, and you come calling with a bouquet of flowers and start talking about doing all the things you’ve been asked to do before. But to the...University of Georgia Press, 1991), 63-70. 9 Ivan Musicant, The Banana Wars: A History of United States Military Intervention in Latin America from the

  13. VIVA: VLA imaging of Virgo galaxies in atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Aeree

    In this thesis I present high resolution HI maps and kinematics of 53 carefully selected galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The goal is to study details of the cluster environmental effect on galaxy evolution, i.e. in which density regions and by which processes do galaxies feel the impact of the cluster. Studying HI content is essential to achieve this goal as it is often a useful probe of both gas-gas and tidal interactions and also a reservoir of star formation. Virgo as a dynamically young and nearby cluster, it contains many candidates for various mechanisms at work (e.g. ram-pressure or turbulent/viscous stripping, thermal evaporation, and tidal interactions) and allows us to see the details. We have sampled 48 spirals and 5 irregular/dwarf systems which show a wide range of star formation properties from anemic to starburst. The galaxies in the sample are spread throughout the cluster from near the dense cluster core to the outskirts (0.3--3.3 Mpc in projection). The result has revealed a whole spectrum of gas stripping stages from severely HI stripped galaxies to the HI as it is leaving the disk. Most HI stripped but optically undisturbed galaxies are found within 0.5 Mpc radius in projection from the cluster center. These galaxies show signatures of ongoing interactions with the hot cluster gas. Galaxies with truncated HI disks are also found at lower density regions. Some of those might have gone through the cluster core a while ago and currently be in their way out. Some however show gas stripping epochs that is inconsistent with their locations within the cluster which requires more than a simple interaction with static cluster gas; such as tidal interactions with other galaxies or locally enhanced ram-pressure due to subclusters' falling in. Beyond this region, most galaxies show normal (.08 < or = [Special characters omitted.] < 1.2) to extended ([Special characters omitted.] > or = 1.2) HI disks. Especially, 7 galaxies were found with one-sided long Hi tails in intermediate to low density regions (0.6--1.0 Mpc in projection from the cluster center). Their HI distribution and kinematics are suggestive of current/recent stripping (within < 2 × 10 8 yrs before/after the peak pressure clue to the cluster gas). We argue that these galaxies are recent arrivals, falling into the cluster for the first time. It seems that galaxies already feel the cluster impact far out from the cluster center, by losing some gas in the outer disk through interactions with the cluster gas or tidal interactions with neighbors, or combinations of both.

  14. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  15. Audio Feedback to Physiotherapy Students for Viva Voce: How Effective Is "The Living Voice"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Wendy; Hollingworth, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Assessment and feedback remains one of the categories that students are least satisfied with within the United Kingdom National Student Survey. The Student Charter promotes the use of various formats of feedback to enhance student learning. This study evaluates the use of audio MP3 as an alternative feedback mechanism to written feedback for…

  16. A History of H i Stripping in Virgo: A Phase-space View of VIVA Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hyein; Chung, Aeree; Smith, Rory; Jaffé, Yara L.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the orbital histories of Virgo galaxies at various stages of H i gas stripping. In particular, we compare the location of galaxies with different H i morphology in phase space. This method is a great tool for tracing the gas stripping histories of galaxies as they fall into the cluster. Most galaxies at the early stage of H i stripping are found in the first infall region of Virgo, while galaxies undergoing active H i stripping mostly appear to be falling in or moving out near the cluster core for the first time. Galaxies with severely stripped, yet symmetric, H i disks are found in one of two locations. Some are deep inside the cluster, but others are found in the cluster outskirts with low orbital velocities. We suggest that the latter group of galaxies belong to a “backsplash” population. These present the clearest candidates for backsplashed galaxies observationally identified to date. We further investigate the distribution of a large sample of H i-detected galaxies toward Virgo in phase space, confirming that most galaxies are stripped of their gas as they settle into the gravitational potential of the cluster. In addition, we discuss the impact of tidal interactions between galaxies and group preprocessing on the H i properties of the cluster galaxies, and link the associated star formation evolution to the stripping sequence of cluster galaxies.

  17. VIVA LA SALUD INFANTILE: Pediatric obesity treatment in an underserved Hispanic community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity in the US disproportionately impacts minority populations who face socioeconomic and cultural barriers to weight management programs. The specific aim of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of diet behavior modification or diet behavior modification plus structured aerob...

  18. Viva Nuestra Amistad IV: Spanish Activity Packet (Long Live our Friendship).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Hubert

    This Spanish activity packet was designed to be used with the map study portion of each of twelve units in a second year course in Spanish. Each unit deals with a different Spanish-speaking country or place, such as Puerto Rico, Colombia, Venezuela, or Peru. Included here are worksheets, games, map outlines, crossword puzzles, skits, and cultural…

  19. Viva la Revolución: Rethinking Influenza A Virus Antigenic Drift

    PubMed Central

    Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid antigenic evolution of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin has precluded developing vaccines that provide durable protection. The yearly costs of influenza (circa $1011 in the USA alone) easily justify investments in better understanding the interaction of influenza with antibodies and other inducible elements of the immune system that potentially limit or circumvent antigenic variation. Here, I summarize exciting new findings that offer the possibility of a quantum improvement in vaccine efficacy, focusing on studies clearly documenting robust neutralizing antibody responses to the conserved stem region of the hemagglutinin. PMID:22034587

  20. A Manifesto of a Postcommunist, Poststructuralist Researcher: Post-"Viva Voce" Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2011-01-01

    This paper represents a reflective account of a recent Cambridge University graduate, who critically assesses her successes and struggles in establishing herself as a social science researcher in Western academia. Reflecting on her various (sometimes conflicting and sometimes, in a paradoxical way, complementary) identities, the author explains…

  1. Viva La Ciencia: Cuba’s Creative Scientists Aim to Make Knowledge Their Country’s Sugar Substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Rosalind; Hayes, Brian

    At first, peas served as particles in Ernesto Altshuler's experiment. A mechanical dispenser would drop the chícharos one by one into the space between two glass plates, forming a tidy two-dimensional approximation of a sand pile. Lattice structure appeared, then vanished, as the pile self-organized and went critical—avalanche! But Havana's insects soon found the peas in Altshuler's physics lab. For a physicist working under harsh economic conditions of Cuba in the early 1990s, options were few. Yet Altshuler's solution came as a byproduct of the crisis: Because of fuel shortages, the country had begun importing Chinese bicycles, and ball bearings were available in abundance. Thus the peas have been replaced by steel beads, but Altshuler and his students still call their machine the chícharotron.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RR Lyrae as tracers in the Virgo overdensity region (Vivas+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, A. K.; Zinn, R.; Farmer, J.; Duffau, S.; Ping, Y.

    2017-02-01

    In addition to the SDSS spectra, several RR Lyrae stars (RRLSs) were observed by our team with the 4.1m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR; 3500-6160Å) (Cerro Pachon, Chile) and the 3.5m Wisconsin Indiana Yale and NOAO (WIYN; 4000-6800Å at 4.6Å resolution) (Kitt Peak, USA) telescopes. Six RRLSs were observed with SOAR in 2014 February and March. 26 additional RRLSs were observed with WIYN in 2011 January. (4 data files).

  3. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it...

  4. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su

  5. Erratum: "VLA Imaging of Virgo Spirals in Atomic Gas (VIVA). I. The Atlas and The H I Properties" (2009, AJ, 138, 1741)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Crowl, Hugh; Vollmer, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    Table 3 and Figure 8 of our article contained some errors. In Table 3, Columns 11 and 13 have been corrected for six galaxies that are marked with an asterisk or a diamond, and footnotes have been updated. In Figure 8, the galaxy on the right side in the middle row should have read NGC 4522 not NGC 4405. The corrected Figure 8 appears below. Also, the following sentence was erroneously dropped from the acknowledgment: This work has been supported by NSF grants 00-98294 and 06-07643 to Columbia University and by grant 00-71251 to Yale University.

  6. Viva La Revolucion! "La Revolucion No Ha Terminado." Teaching the Mexican Revolution across the Curriculum. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludgate, Kathleen

    This presentation features materials for teaching about the Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940. The presentation is divided into four broad sections. The first section, "Why Teach the Mexican Revolution?" furnishes a rationale for teaching a course about a revolution that took place much closer to home than the Russian or Chinese Revolutions.…

  7. Using the M.Phil to Ph.D Transfer Viva as a Focus for the Collaborative Self Study of Examining Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomax, Pam; Parker, Zoe

    This paper questions the practice whereby the university teacher has sole power over judgments about doctoral student outcomes. The analysis is based on action research and a case study examination of one student's vive voca examination to transfer from the M.Phil to the Ph.D. program at Kingston University (England). In the examination process…

  8. Viva La Diferencia! Segundo Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Long Live the Difference! Second Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide, in English and Spanish, is designed to provide teachers with a scientific basis for identifying myths and distortions about men and women. A pre-test and post-test are included to measure the user's awareness of stereotypes. Object lessons address the following areas: (1) common sexual stereotypes; (2) sexual functions; (3) the…

  9. Improving Usage Statistics Processing for a Library Consortium: The Virtual Library of Virginia's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tansy E.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA). The VIVA statistics-processing system remains a work in progress. Member libraries will benefit from the ability to obtain the actual data from the VIVA site, rather than just the summaries, so a project to make these data available is currently being planned. The…

  10. 77 FR 24342 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... inspection requirements. Since we issued that AD, during full scale fatigue testing, cracks were found in... correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: During the airplane full scale... AD was prompted by cracks found in certain structural components during full scale fatigue testing...

  11. 75 FR 52263 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... incorrect stows of the RAT. JetBlue Airways states that the NPRM specifies that installing reinforcements or... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or...)(i)(A) and (f)(1)(i)(B) of this AD, install reinforcements in the RAT machined support or replace...

  12. 77 FR 16155 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... requires repetitive inspections for fuel leakage and cracks on the wing spar II, close to the rib 10 area, and repair if necessary. This AD was prompted by reports of fuel seepage at the left- hand wing, close... wing spar II, which could result in a fuel leak, consequent reduced structural integrity of...

  13. 76 FR 27237 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... formation of fatigue cracks accelerated by corrosion reducing the structural strength of the rear pressure... rear skin located between stringers 12 and 13. These marks may result in formation of fatigue cracks accelerated by corrosion reducing the structural strength of the rear pressure bulkhead, which may cause...

  14. Influencias africanas na lingua brasileira dos terreiros (African Influences in Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how determination of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in songs of voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in southern and northeastern Brazil is complicated by factors like existence of phonological correspondence without accompanying semantic correspondence, difficulty of determining meaning of word in a given text, and high…

  15. 77 FR 36224 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... aluminum sheets; modifying the lights assembly on the tail boom rear movable fairing; and replacing the....] * * * * * The required actions include installing or reworking, as applicable, metallic diverters and aluminum..., whichever occurs first: Install or rework, as applicable, metallic diverters and aluminum sheets; modify...

  16. 77 FR 58761 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... installing or reworking, as applicable, metallic diverters and aluminum sheets; modifying the light assembly... diverters and aluminum sheets; modifying the light assembly on the tail boom rear movable fairing; and... aluminum sheets; modify the light assembly on the tail boom rear movable fairing; and replace the...

  17. Transferências intergeracionais privadas na Amazônia rural brasileira

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza; VanWey, Leah Karin

    2010-01-01

    What motivates family members to share resources? Past research argues for, on the one hand, love and altruism, and on the other, the expectation of reciprocity. Drawing on this literature, this paper examines intergenerational transfers between small farmers and their non-coresident children in the rural area around the city of Altamira, Pará, Brazil. We apply GoM (Grade of Membership) models to create profiles of private transfers, using data collected in 2005 by a team from Indiana University. The results show three profiles: low intergenerational transfers, high levels of transfers of visits and help, and high levels of transfers of visits and money. There is no clear difference in profile by birth order, but we do find sex differences in profile. Men are more likely to send money while women provide time transfers (work and visits). Upward transfers are most common from children with high levels of education or living in urban areas, suggesting a repayment of prior investments made by parents. Thus, our empirical evidence supports theories arguing that transfers are motivated by intertemporal contracts between parents and children, and that altruistic theories of family transfers should be rethought among rural agricultural populations in contexts characterized by many environmental and institutional challenges. PMID:20927199

  18. 75 FR 47190 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... could cause the APU rod to break, affecting the APU support structure integrity. APU support structure..., affecting the APU support structure integrity. APU support structure failure could result in loss of power... this AD to state, ``APU support structure failure could result in loss of power of the APU and...

  19. 76 FR 81894 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... fatigue testing, cracks were found in certain structural components of the airplane. Analysis of these... or revised structural inspection requirements. We are proposing this AD to detect and correct fatigue... condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: During the airplane full scale fatigue test,...

  20. 76 FR 64785 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... the firewall of the auxiliary power unit (APU). This AD is being issued to detect and correct this... that a fire penetrates through the firewall of the APU. * * * * * We are issuing this AD to require... cracking in the firewall of the auxiliary power unit (APU). This AD is being issued to detect and...

  1. Brazilian guidelines for the management of candidiasis - a joint meeting report of three medical societies: Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Sociedade Paulista de Infectologia and Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Guimarães, Thaís; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Richtmann, Rosana; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio de; Salles, Mauro José Costa; Cunha, Clóvis Arns da; Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candida infections account for 80% of all fungal infections in the hospital environment, including bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical site infections. Bloodstream infections are now a major challenge for tertiary hospitals worldwide due to their high prevalence and mortality rates. The incidence of candidemia in tertiary public hospitals in Brazil is approximately 2.5 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. Due to the importance of this infection, the authors provide a review of the diversity of the genus Candida and its clinical relevance, the therapeutic options and discuss the treatment of major infections caused by Candida. Each topography is discussed with regard to epidemiological, clinical and laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations based on levels of evidence.

  2. 75 FR 68684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2, BRASIL... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2,...

  3. 75 FR 74670 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... possible ram air turbine (RAT) imbalance event, which may result in RAT structural failure, which... related balance washer causing a possible ram air turbine (RAT) imbalance event, which may result in RAT... the model, part number, and serial number of the RAT, and to determine if a certain symbol is...

  4. 76 FR 20503 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... possible ram air turbine (RAT) imbalance event, which may result in RAT structural failure, which... possible ram air turbine (RAT) imbalance event, which may result in RAT structural failure, which... number of the RAT, and to determine if a certain symbol is marked on affected RATs. Corrective...

  5. 75 FR 13689 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... section. Include ``Docket No. FAA-2008-1079; Directorate Identifier 2008-NM-116-AD'' at the beginning of...): Docket No. FAA- 2008-1079; Directorate Identifier 2008-NM-116-AD. Comments Due Date (a) We must...

  6. 75 FR 63048 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... regions of the elevators, elevators trim tabs, and ailerons do not present drain holes to avoid water... ] not present drain holes to avoid water accumulation inside of these flight control surfaces. Internal... present drain holes to avoid water accumulation inside of these flight control surfaces. Internal...

  7. 76 FR 13539 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... engine imbalance caused by a fan blade out could cause pylon to wing attachment failure and consequent... engine imbalance caused by a fan blade out could cause pylon to wing attachment failure and consequent... with the State of Design Authority, we have been notified of the unsafe condition described in the...

  8. 76 FR 5298 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Rutherford, Aerospace... requested using the procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Jim Rutherford,...

  9. 76 FR 40286 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-505 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Rutherford, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane... requested using the procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Jim Rutherford,...

  10. 76 FR 59240 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ...-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Rutherford, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...; e-mail: jim.rutherford@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a notice of... requested using the procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Jim Rutherford,...

  11. 76 FR 444 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Rutherford, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301... the procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Jim Rutherford, Aerospace...

  12. 75 FR 2060 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... rotor burst analysis has shown the possibility of loss of electrical power supply to the following aircraft systems: Air Data System (ADS), Ailerons, Multifunctional spoilers and rudder, which result in... specified products. The MCAI states: The result of re-assessment of rotor burst analysis has shown...

  13. 75 FR 9816 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... registered Fleet cost airplanes Replacement of RH check 3 $255, per 55 $14,025, per replacement cycle. valves... Revised Service Bulletin Reference Replacement for Right-Hand (RH) Engine on Model ERJ 170-100 LR, - 100... later, replace the low-stage check valve and associated seals of the RH engine's engine bleed...

  14. 75 FR 42585 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Revised Service Information: Replacement for Right-Hand (RH) Engine on Model ERJ 170-100 LR, -100 STD... later, replace the low-stage check valve and associated seals of the RH engine's engine bleed system... flight hours, whichever occurs later, replace the low-stage check valve and associated seals of the...

  15. 75 FR 63422 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... between the same harness and the oxygen tubing. The chafing of the wiring harness against the oxygen... oxygen tubing. The chafing of the wiring harness against the oxygen tubing could lead to a short circuit... affected region has also revealed the possibility of chafing between the same harness and the oxygen...

  16. 75 FR 14333 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and Model ERJ 190 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... condition as: It has been determined that due to an intermittent communication between AMS controller cards... communication between AMS controller cards and both Secondary Power Distribution Assemblies (SPDAs) the...

  17. 75 FR 43049 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...: --DC BUS 1 OFF displayed on Crew Alerting System--CAS in conjunction with STBY HTR FAIL (which means... issued AD No.: 2009-10- 01R2, dated July 28, 2010 (referred to after this as ``the MCAI''), to correct an... Alerting System--CAS in conjunction with STBY HTR FAIL (which means loss of power on DC BUS 1); or...

  18. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  19. 75 FR 31332 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... the fuel quantity measurement with the fuel master indicator and repeater indicator readings for each... that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by... air commerce. This regulation is within the scope of that authority because it addresses an...

  20. 75 FR 8557 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ..., and - 145MR airplanes: Revise the Airworthiness Limitations (ALS) of the Instructions for Continued..., and - 145MP airplanes: Revise the ALS of the ICA to incorporate Tasks 57- 26-00-250-815-A00, 57-26-00... all airplanes: Revise the ALS of the ICA to incorporate Tasks 57-10-00-250-801-A00 and...

  1. 75 FR 30284 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    .... * * * * * The corrective action is revising the Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) of the Instructions for...) Within 90 days after the effective date of this AD, revise the ALS of the ICA to incorporate...

  2. 76 FR 437 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... the airplane. * * * * * The corrective action is revising the Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS... Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) of the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA) to incorporate new...) Unless already done, do the following actions. (1) Before December 16, 2008, revise the ALS of the ICA...

  3. 75 FR 30277 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 STD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    .... * * * * * The corrective action is revising the Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) of the Instructions for... this AD: Revise the ALS of the ICA to include the tasks specified in Table 1 of this AD. These tasks... paragraph (f)(1) of this AD may be done by inserting a copy of EMBRAER TR 2-5 and TR 2-6 into ] the ALS...

  4. 75 FR 30287 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    .... The corrective action is revising the Airworthiness Limitations Section (ALS) of the Instructions for... NPRM from 200 flight cycles after revising the ALS to 500 flight cycles after revising the ALS. EMBRAER... request to extend the grace period to 500 flight cycles after revising the ALS. The commenter did...

  5. 75 FR 57666 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... that could cause the APU rod to break, affecting the APU support structure integrity. * * * * * APU support structure failure could result in loss of power of the APU and possible loss of control of the..., affecting the APU support structure integrity. * * * * * APU support structure failure could result in...

  6. 75 FR 13684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... section. Include ``Docket No. FAA-2008-1080; Directorate Identifier 2008-NM-118-AD'' at the beginning of...): Docket No. FAA- 2008-1080; Directorate Identifier 2008-NM-118-AD. Comments Due Date (a) We must...

  7. 76 FR 21822 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... results from reports of cracking in the firewall of the auxiliary power unit (APU). This AD is being... fuselage and empennage in the event that ] a fire penetrates through the firewall of the APU. * * * * * The...: This AD results from reports of cracking in the firewall of the auxiliary power unit (APU). This AD...

  8. 75 FR 19193 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... operational check of the firewall hydraulic shutoff valves , made during routine maintenance, has revealed... reduction of safety margins. The unsafe condition is failure of the firewall hydraulic shutoff valve, which, in combination with an engine fire, could result in the spread of an engine fire beyond the...

  9. Prolegomenos a um estudo da lingua brasileira nos terreiros de origem africana (Prolegomena to a Study of the Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites of African Origin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    Determination of the authenticity of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in the voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in Brazil requires establishing a socio-historical basis for the African diaspora and the current configuration of terreiros. The terreiros demonstrate varying linguistic repertoires according to their affiliation with candomble…

  10. 77 FR 61654 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... cross four local surface streets: Sanyo Avenue, Enrico Fermi Drive, Alta Road, and Siempre Viva Road.... SR-11 will include a full interchange at Enrico Fermi Drive and partial interchange at Siempre...

  11. Marshall Space Flight Center Wakes STS-135 Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flight Day 2 wakeup music was "Viva la Vida" performed by Coldplay, a song picked by STS-135 Pilot Doug Hurley. The song was accompanied by a special good morning message recorded by employees ...

  12. Multiprofessional committee on auditory health: COMUSA.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Doris Ruthy; Marone, Silvio Antonio Monteiro; Mendes, Beatriz C A; Cruz, Oswaldo Laercio Mendonça; Nóbrega, Manoel de

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2007, COMUSA is a multiprofessional committee comprising speech therapy, otology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics with the aim of debating and countersigning auditory health actions for neonatal, lactating, preschool and school children, adolescents, adults and elderly persons. COMUSA includes representatives of the Brazilian Audiology Academy (Academia Brasileira de Audiologia or ABA), the Brazilian Otorhinolaryngology and Cervicofacial Surgery Association (Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico Facial or ABORL), the Brazilian Phonoaudiology Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia or SBFa), the Brazilian Otology Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Otologia or SBO), and the Brazilian Pediatrics Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria or SBP).

  13. Characteristics of the Violence and Accidents Survey Conducted in Brazilian Sentinel Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Lima, Cheila Marina; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves de; Melo, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Bahia, Camila Alves; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata

    2017-01-01

    The Violence and Accidents Survey Conducted in Sentinel Emergency Departments (VIVA Survey) is the sentinel surveillance component of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System (VIVA). It was conducted for the first time in 2006 and again in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2014. The sample is comprised of victims of accidents and violence treated in Emergency Departments linked to the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). The services are selected intentionally. This isfollowed by probability sampling of 12-hour shifts by conglomerates in single-stage selection. Data is collected by trained interviewers using a standard form. The variables include data about the service site, the victim, the event, injury and case development. The VIVA Survey provides key information for the implementation of policies for addressing violence and accidents as well as for health and peace promotion policies.

  14. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  15. Exploratory Learning with Geodromo: Design of Emotional and Cognitive Factors within an Educational Cross-Media Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidarra, Jose; Martins, Olimpio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present Geodromo, a prototype of an educational multimedia system, part of the Portuguese "Ciencia Viva" (Live Science) educational program, which is aimed at young people and designed with innovative characteristics. The project is based on a robotic multimedia simulator and an online puzzle game aimed at the…

  16. SV40-IMMORTALIZED NON-TUMORIGENIC AND TUMORIGENIC CELL LINES DIFFER IN EXPRESSION OF HALLMARK VIRAL RESPONSE MRNAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SV40-Immortalized Non-Tumorigenic and Tumorigenic Cell Lines Differ in Expression of Hallmark Viral Response mRNAs.

    Prior to the use of an in vitra/in viva transformation system to examine the tumorigenic activity of environmental contaminants, in vitra gene expression pa...

  17. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  18. Dostoevsky: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellek, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Wellek, Philip Rahv, Murray Krieger, Irving Howe, Eliseo Vivas, D. H. Lawrence, Sigmund Freud, Dmitri Chizhevsky, V. V. Zenkovsky, Georg Lukacs, and Derek Traversi--all dealing with the biography and literary work of…

  19. When Is a Physical Concept Born? The Emergence of "Work" as a Magnitude of Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanderakis, Nikos Emmanouil

    2010-01-01

    The physical magnitude "work" has a long history. It emerged when two different practices, performed during the whole eighteenth century, met each other. The first was theoretical, practiced by philosophers and mathematicians, and was related mainly to the "living forces" (vires vivae). The second was empirical, practiced by engineers, and was…

  20. On How Thinking Shapes Speaking: Techniques to Enhance Students' Oral Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casamassima, Myrian; Insua, Florencia

    2015-01-01

    The institution at which the authors work--Asociación Ex Alumnos del Profesorado en Lenguas Vivas "Juan Ramón Fernández" (AEXALEVI)--is devoted to the teaching of foreign languages, particularly English, and it administers examinations all over Argentina. One central problem the authors identified in their work in the AEXALEVI Teachers'…

  1. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  2. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  3. Impaired Visual Size-Discrimination in Children with Movement Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gori, Monica; Tinelli, Francesca; Sandini, Giulio; Cioni, Giovanni; Burr, David

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory integration of spatial information occurs late in childhood, at around eight years (Gori, Del Viva, Sandini, & Burr, 2008). For younger children, the haptic system dominates size discrimination and vision dominates orientation discrimination: the dominance may reflect "sensory calibration," and could have direct consequences on…

  4. Local Government Regulation of the Movies: The Dallas System, 1966-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Examines what caused the decline and demise of the Dallas Motion Picture Classification Board (which rated films as to objectionable content) and with it the idea of the public ordering of motion picture content. Uses "Viva Maria" and "The Front Page" as case studies. (PA)

  5. Doctorateness as a Threshold Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafford, Vernon; Leshem, Shosh

    2009-01-01

    Achieving a doctorate presents candidates with certain challenges--undertaking the research, writing the thesis and defending both at their viva. Throughout that doctoral journey, candidates are expected to display doctorateness in their thesis via the characteristics of high-quality scholarly research. The blockages that occur and prevent…

  6. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...

  7. Overcoming Problems in Doctoral Writing through the Use of Visualisations: Telling Our Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Terry; Hussey, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students experience many challenges on the long journey towards completion. Common problems include: synthesising data, working at a conceptual level, clarifying the relationship of the parts of the thesis to the whole, finding a voice and completing a viva successfully. Few authors have addressed the use of visualisations to meet these…

  8. Communist Exploitation of Nationalism in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    the crowd and prolonged cheers at his closing phrases: "We are all Brazilians.’" (Somos todos Brasileiros) , "Long live Brazil."’ (Viva o Brasil ...Jornal do Comercio , 6 Jan. 1952, p. 3. 30FBIS No. 51, 12 Mar. 1952, ZYC9 Rio de Janeiro, 12 Mar. 1952. 31FBIS No. 194, 5 Oct. 1953, PRL7 Rio de

  9. Analyzing Current Serials in Virginia: An Application of the Ulrich's Serials Analysis System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Paul; Gasser, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    VIVA (the Virtual Library of Virginia) was one of the first subscribers to R. R. Bowker's Ulrich's Serials Analysis System (USAS). Creating a database that combined a union report of current serial subscriptions within most academic libraries in the state with the data elements present in Ulrich's made possible a comprehensive analysis designed…

  10. 78 FR 41952 - Certain Reduced Folate Nutraceutical Products and L-Methylfolate Raw Ingredients Used Therein...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... September 10, 2012, on behalf of South Alabama Medical Science Foundation of Mobile, Alabama (``SASF''); Merck & Cie of Altdorf, Switzerland (``Merck''); and Pamlab LLC of Covington, Louisiana (``Pamlab''). 77... Pharmaceuticals Inc. rather than Viva Pharmaceuticals LLC. On May 10, 2013, complainants SASF, Merck, and...

  11. Supervising the PhD: A Guide to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamont, Sara; Atkinson, Paul; Parry, Odette

    This handbook is a practical guide for the novice and experienced supervisor of Ph.D. students focusing on the British system. The book is organized to follow the progress of a student from starting out to a career after the viva voce examination. The chapters are: (1) "A Most Persuasive Piece of Argument"; (2) "Caught and Held by a…

  12. Integrated Testlets: A New Form of Expert-Student Collaborative Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiell, Ralph C.; Slepkov, Aaron D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated testlets are a new assessment tool that encompass the procedural benefits of multiple-choice testing, the pedagogical advantages of free-response-based tests, and the collaborative aspects of a viva voce or defence examination format. The result is a robust assessment tool that provides a significant formative aspect for students.…

  13. A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

  14. A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA - 4/07

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

  15. Cultural Representations in Foreign Language Teaching: A Critique of Four BBC Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    1992-01-01

    Examines four well-known BBC language courses, "Deutsch Direkt!""A Vous la France!""Viva Espana," and "Buongiorno Italia!" It is suggested that these courses focus on tourism, stereotyping both learners and the target culture and that the presentation of the cultural materials is unrealistic. (VWL)

  16. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    and New Zealand (BMTSANZ), East Mediterranean Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (EMBMT) and Sociedade Brasileira de Transplante de Medula Ossea...Institute SBT Sequence Based Typing FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation SBTMO Sociedade Brasileira de Transplanted de Medula Ossea FDA Food and Drug

  17. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    01, 2012 through December 30, 2012 8 of 16 and Marrow Transplantation Group (EMBMT) and Sociedade Brasileira de Transplante de Medula Ossea (SBTMO...Based Typing FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation SBTMO Sociedade Brasileira de Transplanted de Medula Ossea FDA Food and Drug Administration SCTOD Stem

  18. Biology and Ecology of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Middle East, with Special Emphasis on Phlebotomus Papatasi and Phlebotomus Alexandri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    leishmaniasis vector species. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 37: 10-14. Peterson, A. T., V. Sanchez-Cordero, C. B. Beard, and J. M...Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 37: 10-14. Peterson, A. T., C. Martinez-Campos, Y. Nakazawa, and E. Martinez-Meyer. 2005. Time-specific

  19. Tobago Prostate Survey: Prostate Cancer Risk in a Large Population-Based Study of Men of African Descent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    Bunker CH, Krill D, Patrick AL, Vivas C, Wagner T, Dhir R, Bastacky S, Brufsky A, Bartoletta R, Trump DL, Kuller L, Becich MJ. Comparison of the...the Caribbean Health Research Council, April 20-22, 2000, Port of Spain, Trinidad & Tobago. (Appendix) 3. Konety BR, Bunker CH, Krill D, Patrick AL...April 23, 1999; awarded Sept 29, 1999. This NIH grant application protocol and budget were carefully planned and written to extend and supplement the

  20. Exploring Accelerating Science Applications with FPGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Storaasli, Olaf O; Strenski, Dave

    2007-01-01

    FPGA hardware and tools (VHDL, Viva, MitrionC and CHiMPS) are described. FPGA performance is evaluated on two Cray XD1 systems (Virtex-II Pro 50 and Virtex-4 LX160) for human genome (DNA and protein) sequence comparisons for a computational biology code (FASTA). Scalable FPGA speedups of 50X (Virtex-II) and 100X (Virtex-4) over a 2.2 GHz Opteron were achieved. Coding and IO issues faced for human genome data are described.

  1. A new approach to assessing the water footprint of wine: an Italian case study.

    PubMed

    Lamastra, Lucrezia; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Novelli, Elisa; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-08-15

    Agriculture is the largest freshwater consumer, accounting for 70% of the world's water withdrawal. Water footprints (WFs) are being increasingly used to indicate the impacts of water use by production systems. A new methodology to assess WF of wine was developed in the framework of the V.I.V.A. project (Valutazione Impatto Viticoltura sull'Ambiente), launched by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2011 to improve the Italian wine sector's sustainability. The new methodology has been developed that enables different vines from the same winery to be compared. This was achieved by calculating the gray water footprint, following Tier III approach proposed by Hoekstra et al. (2011). The impact of water use during the life cycle of grape-wine production was assessed for six different wines from the same winery in Sicily, Italy using both the newly developed methodology (V.I.V.A.) and the classical methodology proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN). In all cases green water was the largest contributor to WF, but the new methodology also detected differences between vines of the same winery. Furthermore, V.I.V.A. methodology assesses water body contamination by pesticides application whereas the WFN methodology considers just fertilization. This fact ended highlights the highest WF of vineyard 4 calculated by V.I.V.A. if compared with the WF calculated with WFN methodology. Comparing the WF of wine produced with grapes from the six different wines, the factors most greatly influencing the results obtained in this study were: distance from the water body, fertilization rate, amount and eco-toxicological behavior of the active ingredients used.

  2. Racial discrimination, response to unfair treatment, and depressive symptoms among pregnant black and African American women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ertel, Karen A.; James-Todd, Tamarra; Kleinman, Kenneth; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Wright, Rosalind; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association between self-reported racial discrimination and prenatal depressive symptoms among black women. Methods Our study population consisted of two cohorts of pregnant women: the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress project (ACCESS) and Project Viva. We measured self-reported racial discrimination among black women using a modified Experiences of Discrimination scale (score 0–8). We assessed elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (≥13 on a 0–30 scale). Results Fifty-four percent of ACCESS and 78% of Viva participants reported experiencing racial discrimination. After adjusting for age, marital status, income, education, and nativity, a 1-U increment in Experiences of Discrimination score was associated with 48% increased odds of EDS (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.24–1.76) for ACCESS participants but was not significantly associated among Viva participants (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.92–1.37). In both cohorts, responding to unfair treatment by talking to others was associated with the lowest odds of EDS. Conclusions Our findings suggest that higher levels of perceived racial discrimination may increase depressive symptoms during pregnancy among U.S. black women. Interventions involving talking to others may aid in reducing the risk of depressive symptoms among black women experiencing higher levels of racial discrimination. PMID:23123506

  3. Strain-rate Dependence of Elastic Modulus Reveals Silver Nanoparticle Induced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Caporizzo, Matthew Alexander; Roco, Charles M; Ferrer, Maria Carme Coll; Grady, Martha E; Parrish, Emmabeth; Eckmann, David M; Composto, Russell John

    Force-displacement measurements are taken at different rates with an atomic force microscope to assess the correlation between cell health and cell viscoelasticity in THP-1 cells that have been treated with a novel drug carrier. A variable indentation-rate viscoelastic analysis, VIVA, is employed to identify the relaxation time of the cells that are known to exhibit a frequency dependent stiffness. The VIVA agrees with a fluorescent viability assay. This indicates that dextran-lysozyme drug carriers are biocompatible and deliver concentrated toxic material (rhodamine or silver nanoparticles) to the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells. By modelling the frequency dependence of the elastic modulus, the VIVA provides three metrics of cytoplasmic viscoelasticity: a low frequency modulus, a high frequency modulus and viscosity. The signature of cytotoxicity by rhodamine or silver exposure is a frequency independent twofold increase in the elastic modulus and cytoplasmic viscosity, while the cytoskeletal relaxation time remains unchanged. This is consistent with the known toxic mechanism of silver nanoparticles, where metabolic stress causes an increase in the rigidity of the cytoplasm. A variable indentation-rate viscoelastic analysis is presented as a straightforward method to promote the self-consistent comparison between cells. This is paramount to the development of early diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  4. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Sahin, Cem S.; Blasch, Erik P.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

  5. Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao

    2014-10-22

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  6. Hypothesis exploration with visualization of variance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics (CNP) at UCLA was an investigation into the biological bases of traits such as memory and response inhibition phenotypes—to explore whether they are linked to syndromes including ADHD, Bipolar disorder, and Schizophrenia. An aim of the consortium was in moving from traditional categorical approaches for psychiatric syndromes towards more quantitative approaches based on large-scale analysis of the space of human variation. It represented an application of phenomics—wide-scale, systematic study of phenotypes—to neuropsychiatry research. Results This paper reports on a system for exploration of hypotheses in data obtained from the LA2K, LA3C, and LA5C studies in CNP. ViVA is a system for exploratory data analysis using novel mathematical models and methods for visualization of variance. An example of these methods is called VISOVA, a combination of visualization and analysis of variance, with the flavor of exploration associated with ANOVA in biomedical hypothesis generation. It permits visual identification of phenotype profiles—patterns of values across phenotypes—that characterize groups. Visualization enables screening and refinement of hypotheses about variance structure of sets of phenotypes. Conclusions The ViVA system was designed for exploration of neuropsychiatric hypotheses by interdisciplinary teams. Automated visualization in ViVA supports ‘natural selection’ on a pool of hypotheses, and permits deeper understanding of the statistical architecture of the data. Large-scale perspective of this kind could lead to better neuropsychiatric diagnostics. PMID:25097666

  7. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com dados encontrados em investigações realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em muitos aspectos, noções e dificuldades similares manifestadas pelos estudantes.

  8. JPRS Report Latin America Reference Aid Abbreviations and Acronyms in the Latin American Press.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Companies (Br) ABEN Associpafo Brasileira de Energia Nuclear Brazilian Nuclear Energy Association (Br) ABERT Associacifo Brasileira de...CR) ACHESA Asociacion Chilena de Energia Solar Chilean Association of Solar Energy (Ch) ACI Agencia Central de Informaciön Central Information...Comissao Estadual de Energia E I 4 c t r i c a State Electric Power Commission (Br) 84 CEEO Centro de Estudios sobre Europa Occidental Center for

  9. Characterization and Targeting of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Subpopulation in Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    24510756 21. Bradley A, Zheng H, Ziebarth A, Sakati W, Branham-O’Connor M, Blumer JB, Liu Y, Kistner-Griffin E, Rodriguez-Aguayo C, Lopez-Berestein G...Landen CN, Villares G, Armaiz-Pena G, Carroll AR, Ozpolat B, Tekedereli I, Vivas-Mejia P, Coleman RL, Lopez-Berestein G, Sood AK. Silencing p130cas in...Kharghan V, Vasquez HG, Landen CN, Armaiz-Pena G, Carroll AR, Matsuo K, Shahzad MM, Spannuth WA, Mora EM, King ER, DeGeest K, Lutgendorf S, Sood AK

  10. Applying a Genetic Algorithm to Reconfigurable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, B. Earl; Weir, John; Trevino, Luis; Patrick, Clint; Steincamp, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of applying genetic algorithms to solve optimization problems that are implemented entirely in reconfgurable hardware. The paper highlights the pe$ormance/design space trade-offs that must be understood to effectively implement a standard genetic algorithm within a modem Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA, reconfgurable hardware environment and presents a case-study where this stochastic search technique is applied to standard test-case problems taken from the technical literature. In this research, the targeted FPGA-based platform and high-level design environment was the Starbridge Hypercomputing platform, which incorporates multiple Xilinx Virtex II FPGAs, and the Viva TM graphical hardware description language.

  11. [News of the inquiry about nursing needs and resources in the Brazilian Journal of Nursing (1955-1958)].

    PubMed

    Malta, Daniela Vieira; Pereira, Laís de Araújo; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco

    2014-01-01

    Social historical study that has as object news related to the Assessment of the Resources and Needs of Nursing in Brazil published in the Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem between 1955 and 1958. The primary source is constituted of copies of Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem published within the selected period of the study. The secondary sources are constituted of books, papers, dissertations and thesis related to the Nursing history. The data analysis was supported by the secondary sources and the thought of the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results evidenced that Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, in addition to making possible the dissemination of news about the Assessment provided visibility to it and, at last, had the symbolic effect of giving power and prestige to the Brazilian Nursing.

  12. “One-stop shop” spectral imaging for rapid on-site diagnosis of lung cancer: a future concept in nano-oncology

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Kaid; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Krauss, Leslie; Oezkan, Filiz; Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Werner, Robert; Theegarten, Dirk; Sakkas, Leonidas; Sakkas, Antonios; Hohenforst-Scmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Freitag, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Background There are currently many techniques and devices available for the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, rapid on-site diagnosis is essential for early-stage lung cancer, and in the current work we investigated a new diagnostic illumination nanotechnology. Methods Tissue samples were obtained from lymph nodes, cancerous tissue, and abnormal intrapulmonary lesions at our interventional pulmonary suites. The following diagnostic techniques were used to obtain the samples: endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscopy; flexible bronchoscopy; and rigid bronchoscopy. Flexible and rigid forceps were used because several of the patients were intubated using a rigid bronchoscope. In total, 30 tissue specimens from 30 patients were prepared. CytoViva® illumination nanotechnology was subsequently applied to each of the biopsy tissue slides. Results A spectral library was created for adenocarcinoma, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, usual interstitial pneumonitis, non-specific interstitial pneumonitis, typical carcinoid tumor, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, thymoma, epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, malt cell lymphoma, and Wegener’s granulomatosis. Conclusion The CytoViva software, once it had created a specific spectral library for each entity, was able to identify the same disease again in subsequent paired sets of slides of the same disease. Further evaluation of this technique could make this illumination nanotechnology an efficient rapid on-site diagnostic tool. PMID:24285923

  13. The Pendulum: From Constrained Fall to the Concept of Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Fabio; Falomo, Lidia; Fregonese, Lucio; Giannetto, Enrico; Giudice, Franco; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2006-08-01

    Kuhn underlined the relevance of Galileo’s gestalt switch in the interpretation of a swinging body from constrained fall to time metre. But the new interpretation did not eliminate the older one. The constrained fall, both in the motion of pendulums and along inclined planes, led Galileo to the law of free fall. Experimenting with physical pendulums and assuming the impossibility of perpetual motion Huygens obtained a law of conservation of vis viva at specific positions, beautifully commented by Mach. Daniel Bernoulli generalised Huygens results introducing the concept of potential and the related independence of the ‘work’ done from the trajectories (paths) followed: vis viva conservation at specific positions is now linked with the potential. Feynman’s modern way of teaching the subject shows striking similarities with Bernoulli’s approach. A number of animations and simulations can help to visualise and teach some of the pendulum’s interpretations related to what we now see as instances of energy conservation.

  14. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  15. Brazilians Teach Soccer to U.S. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horshok, John

    1977-01-01

    An international landmark exchange between the Confederacao Brasileira de Desportos (CBD) and Partners of the Americas is reported. In a two-week tour of the U.S., Brazilian soccer coaches performed clinics and seminars in 18 states for nearly 42,000 youngsters. (LBH)

  16. Quantitative Comparison of the in situ Microbial Communities in Different Biomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    without written permission from the Publisher. Copies of this book can be purchase from: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes...Boston, H.L. and White, D.C. (1991) Periphyton response along an industrial effluent gradient: Lipid-based physiological stress analysis and pattern

  17. Teacher-Training Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Leslie

    1977-01-01

    The Sociedade Brasileira de Cultura Inglesa of Sao Paolo, Brazil, is an English teaching center which also runs an introductory course to train teachers of English. This article describes some of the projects completed by prospective teachers; they include language games, pictures, cartoons, role-playing and writing creative dialogue. (CHK)

  18. Microalloyed HSLA (High Strength Low Alloy) Steels: Proceedings of Microalloying 󈨜 Held in Conjunction with the 1988 World Materials Congress, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-30 September 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Baixa (27) POSCO Steel Products. Pohang Iron and Liga e Alta Resistencia (acos BLAR) com Niobio. Steel Company Ltd. Conpany publication. Siderurgia...R.C.. Perspectivas Tecnologicas Chapas Grossas de Alta Resistencia Originadas para a Ind6stria Sideriirgica Brasileira. do Lingotamento Continuo

  19. Ohio State University Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA). Crystal Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Characterization of Optoelectronic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Packaging, Sociedade Brasileira de Microelectronica and International Microelectronic and Packaging Society, Campinas, Brazil, 1999. [5] C. M. Warnky...ing the weights of a laser’s spatial modes including curve fitting,5 matrix inversion ,6,7 M2 analysis,8 fre- quency mixing,9 and coherence

  20. CAS -- A Turboprop Solution for the COIN Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    required or even produced by Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica (Embraer) headquartered in Brazil. attractive... ,,7 Brazil Embraer EMB 314 Super...oftiltrotor technology, Bell produced several smaller designs, as they worked up to the MV-22. Sensing a strong civilian market , Bell partnered with the

  1. CAS - A Turboprop Solution for the COIN Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    may not be required or even produced by Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica (Embraer) headquartered in Brazil. attractive... ,,7 Brazil Embraer EMB 314...development oftiltrotor technology, Bell produced several smaller designs, as they worked up to the MV-22. Sensing a strong civilian market , Bell partnered

  2. The role of confocal microscopy in the dermato-oncology practice.

    PubMed

    Diaconeasa, A; Boda, D; Neagu, M; Constantin, C; Căruntu, C; Vlădău, L; Guţu, D

    2011-01-01

    Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new in vivo skin imaging technique. We present our one-year experience in RCM examinations in skin tumors and the retrospective analysis of patients enrolled in the Dermatological Department of 'N. Paulescu' Institute using the Fotofinder Dermoscope IIŴ for the dermatoscopy analysis and VivaScope 1500Ŵ for in vivo RCM. We established the rank of RCM in the complex algorithm of skin cancer diagnose, showing that the presented experience can open new possibilities to implement this automated image analyzing system in the routine practice. Our analyzed cases clearly showed that confocal microscopy, therefore, optical biopsy, could guide the clinician towards an accurate diagnosis before surgical removal. Moreover, we emphasized that the development of this technique increases the potential of future teledermatologic applications.

  3. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalate, S. A.; Kate, R. S.; Kim, J. H.; Pawar, S. M.; Deokate, R. J.

    2017-03-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were deposited viva spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperature. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties was reported. The X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis revealed that prepared CZTS thin film show kesterite phase without any secondary phases. Moreover, these analyses indicated the internal compressive stress relaxed with substrate temperature for all CZTS thin films. The homogeneous nature of CZTS thin films were observed from surface morphology and chemical composition study. The optical study provided good optical absorption (104 cm-1) in the visible region and band gap energy was decreased and found quite close to the optimum value of about 1.57 eV-1.49 eV for solar cell application.

  4. Maternal experiences of racism and violence as predictors of preterm birth: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Rich-Edwards, J; Krieger, N; Majzoub, J; Zierler, S; Lieberman, E; Gillman, M

    2001-07-01

    Chronic psychological stress may raise the risk of preterm delivery by raising levels of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Women who have been the targets of racism or personal violence may be at particularly high risk of preterm delivery. The aims of this study are to examine the extent to which: (1) maternal experiences of racism or violence in childhood, adulthood, or pregnancy are associated with the risk of preterm birth; (2) CRH levels are prospectively associated with risk of preterm birth; and (3) CRH levels are associated with past and current maternal experiences of racism or violence. We have begun to examine these questions among women enrolled in Project Viva, a Boston-based longitudinal study of 6000 pregnant women and their children.

  5. Anti-translational research: from the bedside back to the bench for reflectance confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The reflectance confocal microscope has made translational progress in dermatology. 0.5 micrometer lateral resolution, 0.75mm field-of-view and excellent temporal resolution at ~15 frames/second serve the VivaScope well in the clinic, but it may be overlooked in basic research. This work reviews high spatiotemporal confocal microscopy and presents images acquired of various samples: zebra fish embryo where melanocytes with excellent contrast overly the spinal column, chicken embryo, where myocardium is seen moving at 15 frames/ second, calcium spikes in dendrites (fluorescence mode) just beyond the temporal resolution, and human skin where blood cells race through the artereovenous microvasculature. For an introduction to confocal microscopy, see: http://dangareau.net.s69818.gridserver.com/science/confocal-microscopy

  6. Trypan Blue Staining to Determine Vaginal Exposure in Two Types of Plastic Vaginal Applicators Containing Two Different Microbicide Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Hemmerling, A; Harrison, WG; Brown, JM; Moscicki, AB; Oziemkowska, M; Bukusi, EA; Cohen, CR

    2013-01-01

    Dye staining of applicators has been shown to be a reliable and objective method to test vaginal insertion in clinical microbicide trials, but different plastics, dyes and product formulations may impact the accuracy of this method. Reportedly used applicators returned from three clinical trials were stained with 1% Trypan Blue. In a phase 1 study (VivaGel®), using gel-filled HTI polypropylene applicators, 1271 (97%) of applicators stained positive. In two phase 1 and 2a studies (LACTIN-V) using linear low-density polyethylene applicators to deliver a dry powder formulation, 57 (95%) and 135 (86%) tested positive, respectively. Dye staining of vaginal applicators is an objective, low cost measure suitable for low resource settings. PMID:22902667

  7. Trypan blue staining to determine vaginal exposure in two types of plastic vaginal applicators containing two different microbicide formulations.

    PubMed

    Hemmerling, Anke; Harrison, William G; Brown, Joelle Morgan; Moscicki, Barbara; Oziemkowska, Maria; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2012-09-01

    Dye staining of applicators has been shown to be a reliable and objective method to test vaginal insertion in clinical microbicide trials, but different plastics, dyes, and product formulations may impact the accuracy of this method. Reportedly used applicators returned from 3 clinical trials were stained with 1% trypan blue. In a phase 1 study (VivaGel), using gel-filled HTI polypropylene applicators, 1271 (97%) of applicators stained positive. In a phase 1 and a phase 2a study (LACTIN-V) using linear low-density polyethylene applicators to deliver a dry powder formulation, 57 (95%) and 135 (86%) tested positive, respectively. Dye staining of vaginal applicators is an objective low-cost measure suitable for low-resource settings.

  8. Assessment of mental health nursing competence using level III academic marking criteria: the Eastbourne assessment of practice scale.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, M

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of clinical competence in nursing represents a challenge to the profession. There is a need for assessment of practice skills through evaluative observation of performance but unfortunately such methods are not regularly used as a basis for assessment within most academic nursing institutions. Instead there is still a reliance upon more traditional types of academic assessment usually done through a written medium. Such methods whilst academically rigorous do not easily assess actual real life competence. This paper will describe how this tension was addressed through the development of a tool that combines observation of real life practice and viva style questioning with an assessment marking grid whose descriptors represent level III practice. Its inter rater reliability (rs = 0.88, P < 0.01) was established by 14 clinical nurse specialists in cognitive behaviour therapy who assessed a single video taped recording of a post-registration students performance whilst undergoing training in cognitive behaviour therapy.

  9. Effect of a Desensitizing Varnish on Microleakage of Two Self-Etch Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Saffarpour, Anna; Saffarpour, Aida; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Golmohamadi, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this in-vitro experimental study was to assess the effect of application of a desensitizing varnish on the enamel and dentin marginal seal. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two freshly extracted, intact human premolar teeth were divided into four groups (n=18). Class V cavities (3mm in length, 2mm in width and 2mm in depth) were prepared on the buccal surface of each tooth. The following sealing materials were applied in the four groups: One-step Clearfil S3 Bond (S3) self-etch adhesive, two-step Clearfil SE Bond (SE) self-etch adhesive, S3 Bond+ VivaSens desensitizing varnish (VS+S3) and Clearfil SE Bond + VivaSens (VS+SE). The cavities on the teeth were then incrementally filled with Z350 light-cure composite. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C, and were then thermocycled for 1000 cycles. Then, all the specimens were prepared for dye penetration test and were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin dye and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The teeth were then sectioned buccolingually along the center of restorations with a diamond disk. Microleakage at the tooth-restoration interface was assessed in the enamel and dentin margins blindly using dye penetration under a stereomicroscope at ×20 magnification. Results: There was significantly greater leakage at the enamel and dentin margins in group VS+SE than in group SE; also, these values were higher in group VS+S3 than in S3. Conclusion: Combined application of desensitizing varnish and self-etch adhesives seems to increase microleakage in composite restorations. Thus, its application is not suggested. PMID:27507991

  10. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  11. [The use of work process category for Brazilian nurses: a bibliographic analysis].

    PubMed

    Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida; Granja, Gabriela Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, in bibliographic production, how Brazilian nurses have been discussed "work process" in nursing practice. The bibliographic research was realized in Lilacs, in a period from January of 1993 to December of 2003, and focus the periodics: Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, Nursing (SP), Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, Revista latinoamericana de Enfermagem e Revista Texto e contexto de Enfermagem. The key words used were: process and work and care; process and work and nursing. The results show that is small the bibliographic production that using "work process" like a category of analysis of nursing practice, and there are a concentration of this production in articles that focus tools of nursing work In this study were find 40 articles and the most of them was published in Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem in the year of 2000.

  12. Intelligence Reforms in Brazil: Contemporary Challenges and the Legacy of the Past

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    implementing Law No. 9,883 of December 7, 1999, which created the Brazilian Intelligence System (Sistema Brasileiro de Inteligencia ,SISBIN), the SISBIN...important are the following: Brazilian Intelligence Agency (Agencia Brasileira de Inteligencia , ABIN), which is the central organ of SISBIN; the...Coordinating Office for Intelligence of the Federal Police (Coordenacao de Inteligencia do Departamento de Policia Federal, PF) of the Ministry of

  13. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-31

    to export the preliminary event donors for purpose of supporting address validations, manual mail merges, or automated letter merges. Key...means to fill this need. During this period of performance, the manual related typing process procedure was revised and updated. This process...Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia. 2012 MAR 01; http://dx.doi.org/10.5581/1516-8484.20120032. 34(2): 109-133. 108. Majhail NS, Rizzo JD, Lee SJ

  14. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    COMERCIO 21 Aug] 23 NEAR EAST & SOUTH ASIA EGYPT Agreements Signed to Develop Domestic Uranium [AL-JUMHURIYAH 2 Aug] 24 INDIA Two Large...Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (Nuclebras) to Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), and trans- ferred the shares of its capital stock...96.622 authorizes the establishment of Uranium of Brasil S.A. as a subsidiary of INB, with headquarters in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais State

  15. An Examination of Brazil and the United States as Potential Partners in a Joint Supersonic Military Fighter Aircraft Codevelopment and Production Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce Mr. Frank J. Devine, Executive Director Embraer, Empresa Brasileira De Aeronautica Mr. Salo Roth Vice President...Sales & Marketing , North America Mr. W. Bartels Program Manager For advice and help in writing the thesis Lieutanant Colonel Robert D. Materna, USAF...3.2.5 Current Market ........................... . 41 3.2.6 Future Prospects ........................... 44 3.2.7 Summary

  16. [Isolated splenic metastases from cervical cancer: a rare entity].

    PubMed

    Villalón-López, José Sebastián; Souto-del Bosque, Rosalía; Montañez-Lugo, Juan Ignacio; Chávez-González, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: las metástasis al bazo por tumores sólidos son excepcionales, su incidencia es apenas de 2.9 a 9%. Las metástasis esplénicas por cáncer cervicouterino son infrecuentes, solo se han reportado algunos casos. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 76 años de edad, con adenocarcinoma de endocervix moderadamente diferenciado; con invasión al estroma cervical y al canal endocervical, etapa clínica Ib1; el Ca-125 de 150 U. Se trató con histerectomía y linfadenectomía pélvica. Recibió radioterapia pélvica 45 Gy, seguida de braquiterapia 24 Gy. Dos años después tuvo dolor abdominal y, en una tomografía, se encontraron dos lesiones parenquimatosas esplénicas sin existir enfermedad en el resto de la cavidad abdominal y el tórax, tiene elevación del Ca-125 de 2,733 U. Se le realizó esplenectomía; el reporte histopatológico demostró metástasis esplénicas de adenocarcinoma bien diferenciado del endocervix. El estudio de inmunohistoquímica mostró positividad al antígeno carcinoembrionario, los receptores de estrógeno y progesterona resultaron negativos. El Ca-125 de 16 U/mL a ocho semanas de la cirugía. Recibió tratamiento adyuvante, seis ciclos con paclitaxel y cisplatino. A 12 meses de seguimiento la paciente está viva y sin actividad tumoral. Conclusiones: el bazo es un sitio poco común de metástasis. La esplenectomía se ha considerado el tratamiento apropiado para evitar complicaciones como: ruptura esplénica, trombosis de la vena esplénica y disminución del dolor originado por la esplenomegalia. Doce meses después de la cirugía la paciente está viva y sin evidencia de actividad tumoral.

  17. On the mechanism of nanoparticulate CeO2 toxicity to freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Angel, Brad M; Vallotton, Pascal; Apte, Simon C

    2015-11-01

    The factors affecting the chronic (72-h) toxicity of three nanoparticulate (10-34nm) and one micron-sized form of CeO2 to the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were investigated. To characterise transformations in solution, hydrodynamic diameters (HDD) were measured by dynamic light scatter, zeta potential values by electrophoretic mobility, and dissolution by equilibrium dialysis. The protective effects of humic and fulvic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on toxicity were also assessed. To investigate the mechanisms of algal toxicity, the CytoViva hyperspectral imaging system was used to visualise algal-CeO2 interactions in the presence and absence of DOC, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated by 'switching off' ROS production using UV-filtered lighting conditions. The nanoparticulate CeO2 immediately aggregated in solution to HDDs measured in the range 113-193nm, whereas the HDD and zeta potential values were significantly lower in the presence of DOC. Negligible CeO2 dissolution over the time course of the bioassay ruled out potential toxicity from dissolved cerium. The nanoparticulate CeO2 concentration that caused 50% inhibition of algal growth rate (IC50) was in the range 7.6-28mg/L compared with 59mg/L for micron-sized ceria, indicating that smaller particles were more toxic. The presence of DOC mitigated toxicity, with IC50s increasing to greater than 100mg/L. Significant ROS were generated in the nanoparticulate CeO2 bioassays under normal light conditions. However, 'switching off' ROS under UV-filtered light conditions resulted in a similar IC50, indicating that ROS generation was not the toxic mechanism. The CytoViva imaging showed negligible sorption of nanoparticulate CeO2 to algal cells in the presence of DOC, and strong sorption in its absence, suggesting that this was the toxic mechanism. The results suggest that DOC in natural waters will coat CeO2 particles and mitigate toxicity to algal cells.

  18. Effect of examination stress on mood, performance and cortisol levels in medical students.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruchi; Goyal, Manish; Tiwari, Sunita; Ghildiyal, Archana; Nattu, Shankar M; Das, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    Stress produces definable mental and physiological reactions in the body. Mild stress is beneficial in cognitive tasks and performance but persistently high stress may lead to neuropsychiatric illnesses like anxiety and depression. Examinations act as stressor and activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis causing an increase in cortisol level, which is reflected in saliva. Present study was done on 35 medical students. Their mood parameters were assessed, using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scoring, and salivary cortisol levels using quantitative ELISA. Subjects were evaluated for mood parameters two times, one during relaxed state (with no examinations in preceding 2 weeks and in coming 2 weeks) and another during stressed state (on the day of viva voce examination). The levels of mood parameters and salivary cortisol were significantly raised during examination stress. The changes in stress level significantly correlated with change in levels of anxiety and salivary cortisol though there was no significant effect on the performance. Males and females showed similar changes in mood parameters. This study suggests that as examinations act as unavoidable stressors, the medical educators as well as students should be made aware of the negative consequences of stress faced during medical training. Efficient relaxation program as well as counseling services should be provided to stressed students so that they are able to cope better with examination stress.

  19. W-SHAKE - the Waves that SHAKE our Earth, a Parents-in-Science Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Francisco; Silveira, Graça; Moreira, Guilherme; Afonso, Isabel; Custódio, Susana; Matias, Luís

    2014-05-01

    The catastrophes induced by earthquakes are among the most devastating, causing an elevated number of human losses and economic damages. In spite of being exposed to a moderate and large earthquakes, and as a result of the slow tectonic rates, the Portuguese society is, in general, little aware of the seismic risk. Earthquakes can't be predicted and the only way of mitigating their consequences is to understand their genesis, propagation and their effects in society. Children play a determinant role in the establishment of a real and long-lasting "culture of prevention", both through action and new attitudes. As adults they will have a greater knowledge of natural phenomena as well of the effects of human actions and their consequences. Parents and other caregivers have a critical function in encouraging and supporting their learning at home, in school, and throughout community. Teachers also play an important role in this effort and can be valuable partners with parents in cultivating learning confidence and skills in school-age youth. In this presentation we will give an overview of the project W-Shake, a Parents-in-Science Initiative to promote the study of seismology and related subjects. This project, supported by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, results from a direct cooperation between the parents association, science school-teachers and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  20. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-07-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women's birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women's personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts.

  1. Chemical and physical structures of proteinoids and related polyamino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Hajime; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Nomoto, Shinya

    Studies of polyamino acid formation pathways in the prebiotic condition are important for the study of the origins of life. Several pathways of prebiotic polyamino acid formation have been reported. Heating of monoammonium malate [1] and heating of amino acids in molten urea [2] are important pathways of the prebiotic peptide formation. The former case, globular structure called proteinoid microsphere is formed in aqueous conditions. The later case, polyamino acids are formed from unrestricted amino acid species. Heating of aqueous aspargine is also interesting pathway for the prebiotic polyamino acid formation, because polyamino acid formation proceeds in aqueous condition [3]. In this study, we analyzed the chemical structure of the proteinoids and related polyamino acids formed in the above three pathways using with mass spectrometer. In addition, their physical structures are analyzed by the electron and optical microscopes, in order to determine the self-organization abilities. We discuss the relation between the chemical and the physical structures for the origins of life. References [1] Harada, K., J. Org. Chem., 24, 1662 (1959), Fox, S. W., Harada, K., and Kendrick, J., Science, 129, 1221 (1959). [2] Terasaki, M., Nomoto, S., Mita, H., and Shimoyama, A., Chem. Lett., 480 (2002), Mita, H., Nomoto, S., Terasaki, M., Shimoyama, A., and Yamamoto, Y., Int. J. Astrobiol., 4, 145 (2005). [3] Kovacs, K and Nagy, H., Nature, 190, 531 (1961), Munegumi, T., Tanikawa, N., Mita, H. and Harada, K., Viva Origino, 22, 109 (1994).

  2. Giardia lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein triggers maturation of dendritic cells via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs.

    PubMed

    Lee, H-Y; Kim, J; Noh, H J; Kim, H-P; Park, S-J

    2014-12-01

    Much remains unknown about the mammalian immune response to Giardia lamblia, a protozoan pathogen that causes diarrhoeal outbreaks. We fractionated protein extracts of G. lamblia trophozoites by Viva-spin centrifugation, DEAE ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Resultant fractions were screened for antigenic molecules by western blots analysis using anti-G. lamblia antibodies (Abs), resulting in identification of G. lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein (GlBiP). Maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in response to recombinant GlBiP (rGlBiP) was detected by increased expression of surface molecules such as CD80, CD86 and MHC class II; these mature DCs, produced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-6). Especially, the truncated rGlBiP containing the heat-shock protein 70 domain-induced cytokine production from mouse DCs. rGlBiP-induced DC activation was initiated by TLR4 in a MyD88-dependent way and occurred through activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs as well as increased activity of NF-κB and AP-1. Moreover, CD4(+) T cells stimulated with rGlBiP-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ. Together, our results suggest that GlBiP contributes to maturation of DCs via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38, ERK1/2 MAPK, NF-κB and AP-1.

  3. [From guidelines to practice: evaluation of the pediatric care provided by a service of secondary reference in the north of the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Laura Monteiro de Castro; Alves, Cláudia Regina Lindgren; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Bueno, Mariana de Caux; de Moraes, Erica Furtado

    2013-06-01

    In the State of Minas Gerais, the Secondary Reference Viva Vida Centers (CVVRS) are one of the strategies deployed to tackle the problems in child health. This study sought to evaluate pediatric care provided in a CVVRS, using the guidelines defined when it was set up as a benchmark. A quantitative-qualitative approach was adopted, which included a cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling of 385 medical records of children registered with the program between 2007 and 2009, and analysis of focus groups with strategic actors of the initiative. There were divergences between the user profiles and the target audience in terms of age, hometown and clinical characteristics. Access and use of the service differed depending on the town, due to problems of misinformation concerning the proposal, difficulty of transportation and the fragility of the health network. The centers are considered an innovative and important initiative for the expansion and organization of the health network, though the intended logic is not effectively seen in practice. Interventions for articulation between the network services and adaptation of the agreed guidelines to the regional specificities are necessary.

  4. [Reports of domestic, sexual and other forms of violence against children in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira; Gomes, Daniela Lopes

    2012-09-01

    The scope of this article is to outline the scenario of domestic, sexual and other forms of violence against children (0-9 years old) in Brazil for the year 2010. It is based on data from reports of domestic, sexual and other forms of violence registered with SINAN - Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Continuous VIVA). Absolute and relative numbers are presented, derived from reported violence, discriminating between children under 1 year of age and those between 1-9 years old, due to the specificities that exist in these age groups. Throughout the country, the number of reports among those under 10 years of age is low (17.1%). Differences were found for the distribution of reports in the different Brazilian States. Few municipalities and few services reported violence to SINAN-Net in 2010 in the country. Some differences were found between children under 1 year of age and those between 1 and 9 years of age, as for instance the relationship between the profile of the violence, the victim and the perpetrator, and the handling of the case. The quality of the reported information is discussed showing the high level of unreported data in some spaces of the reporting form. Lack of information may prejudice comprehension of the phenomenon, interfering with the planning, organization and operation actions of the health services in the country.

  5. Resources and interest among faith based organizations for influenza vaccination programs

    PubMed Central

    Bond, K; Jones, K; Ompad, DC; Vlahov, D

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, annual influenza vaccination rates are suboptimal and are well below the national health objectives. Project VIVA mobilized community members and organizations to implement an influenza vaccination program in Harlem by administering vaccines in “non-traditional” venues, such as community-based organizations, pharmacies, and faith-based organizations (FBOs). FBOs have been recognized as important venues for health promotion initiatives within medically underserved communities. However, data regarding the extent of resources and interest in health promotion programs among FBOs are sparse. We conducted a telephone survey among 115 FBOs in three New York City neighborhoods with histories of low influenza immunization rates to identify the congregation’s health concerns, interest in serving as a community-based venue for influenza vaccinations, and existing resources for health programming. Twenty-six percent of the FBOs had an established health ministry, while 45% expressed interest in developing one. Seven percent included nurses among their health activities and 16.5% had contact with the local health department. Most FBOs expressed interest in common health promotions programs; 60% expressed interest in providing on-site influenza vaccination programs within their organization. Health programs within FBOs can be a point of access that may improve the health of their congregants as well as the larger community. PMID:22623183

  6. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in road traffic accidents attended at public urgent and emergency services.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Souto, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima, Cheila Marina de; Montenegro, Marli de Mesquita Silva

    2016-12-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle road traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Brazil. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents attended in public urgent and emergency services in the state capitals and the Federal District. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA Survey) in 2014. Data were analyzed according to sociodemographic, event and attendance characteristics. Proportional differences between genders were analyzed by chi-square test (Rao-Scott) with 5% significance level. Motorcyclist-related attendances (n = 9,673) reported a prevalence of men (gender ratio = 3.2), young people aged 20-39 years (65.7%), black / brown (73.6%), paid work (76.4%). Helmet use was reported by 79.1% of the victims, 13.3% had consumed alcohol in the six hours prior to the accident, 41.4% of the events were related to the victim's work. Accidents were more frequent on weekends, in the morning and late afternoon. These characteristics can support the development of public accident prevention policies and health promotion.

  7. Accidents involving Brazilian indigenous treated at urgent and emergency services of the Unified Health System.

    PubMed

    Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Njaine, Kathie; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Oliveira, Maria Conceição de

    2016-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the accidents with Brazilian indigenous treated at urgent and emergency services of the Unified Health System (SUS). Data were obtained from the 2014 Viva Survey, which included 86 services from 24 capitals and the Federal District. The demographic profile of the indigenous, the event and the attendance were characterized. Most of the attended people were male in the 20-39 years age group. Falls and traffic accidents were the main reasons for attendance. Alcohol use was informed by 5.6% of the attended people, a figure that increases to 19.1% in traffic accidents, 26.1% among drivers and 22.8% among motorcyclists. There was a statistical difference between genders in relation to age, disability, place of occurrence of the event, work-related event and victim's condition in the traffic accident. We emphasize the importance of providing visibility to accidents with indigenous and engage them in the prevention of such events. Data reliability depends on the adequate completion in indigenous health information systems.

  8. Carotid plaque characterization using CT and MRI scans for synergistic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzin, Matthew; Xu, Yiqin; Rao, Arhant; Madi, Saaussan; Bahadur, Ali; Lennartz, Michelle R.; Wang, Ge

    2014-09-01

    Noninvasive determination of plaque vulnerability has been a holy grail of medical imaging. Despite advances in tomographic technologies , there is currently no effective way to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with high sensitivity and specificity. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used, but neither provides sufficient information of plaque properties. Thus, we are motivated to combine CT and MRI imaging to determine if the composite information can better reflect the histological determination of plaque vulnerability. Two human endarterectomy specimens (1 symptomatic carotid and 1 stable femoral) were imaged using Scanco Medical Viva CT40 and Bruker Pharmascan 16cm 7T Horizontal MRI / MRS systems. μCT scans were done at 55 kVp and tube current of 70 mA. Samples underwent RARE-VTR and MSME pulse sequences to measure T1, T2 values, and proton density. The specimens were processed for histology and scored for vulnerability using the American Heart Association criteria. Single modality-based analyses were performed through segmentation of key imaging biomarkers (i.e. calcification and lumen), image registration, measurement of fibrous capsule, and multi-component T1 and T2 decay modeling. Feature differences were analyzed between the unstable and stable controls, symptomatic carotid and femoral plaque, respectively. By building on the techniques used in this study, synergistic CT+MRI analysis may provide a promising solution for plaque characterization in vivo.

  9. High-speed microscopic imaging of flagella motility and swimming in Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Lenaghan, Scott C; Davis, Corinne A; Henson, William R; Zhang, Zhili; Zhang, Mingjun

    2011-08-23

    We report, in this paper, several findings about the swimming and attachment mechanisms of Giardia lamblia trophozoites. These data were collected using a combination of a high-contrast CytoViva imaging system and a particle image velocimetry camera, which can capture images at speeds greater than 800 frames/s. Using this system, we discovered that, during rapid swimming of Giardia trophozoites, undulations of the caudal region contributed to forward propulsion combined with the beating of the flagella pairs. It was also discovered, in contrast to previous studies with 10 times slower image sampling technique, that the anterior and posterolateral flagella beat with a clearly defined power stroke and not symmetrical undulations. During the transition from free swimming to attachment, trophozoites modified their swimming behavior from a rapid rotating motion to a more stable planar swimming. While using this planar swimming motion, the trophozoites used the flagella for propulsion and directional control. In addition to examination of the posterolateral and anterior flagella, a model to describe the motion of the ventral flagella was derived, indicating that the ventral flagella beat in an expanding sine wave. In addition, the structure of the ventrocaudal groove creates boundary conditions that determine the form of beating of the ventral flagella. The results from this study indicate that Giardia is able to simultaneously generate both ciliary beating and typical eukaryotic flagellar beating using different pairs of flagella.

  10. Impact of infant feeding practices on childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F

    2009-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The current surge in childhood obesity in the United States is attributable to an interaction between a genetic predisposition toward obesity and a permissive environment. Several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been published on the association between breast-feeding and childhood obesity. In these analyses, adjustment for confounding factors attenuated or nullified the protective effect of breast-feeding on later obesity. The Viva La Familia Study was designed to identify genetic and environmental factors affecting obesity and its comorbidities in 1030 Hispanic children from 319 families. Odds ratios for potential risk factors associated with childhood overweight were computed using binary logistic regression for panel data. Early infant-feeding practices were not significant. Salient independent risk factors for childhood obesity in this cohort of Hispanic children were age, birth weight, maternal obesity, paternal obesity, number of children in the family, and the percentage of awake time spent in sedentary activity. Breast-feeding may have a small protective effect against childhood obesity, although residual confounding may exist. Human milk is exquisitely fitted for optimal infant growth and development and may uniquely modulate neuroendocrine and immunologic pathways involved in the regulation of body weight. Nevertheless, other genetic and environmental determinants such as socioeconomic status, parental obesity, smoking, birth weight, and rapid infancy weight gain far supersede infant-feeding practices as risk factors for childhood obesity.

  11. Cationic PLGA/Eudragit RL nanoparticles for increasing retention time in synovial cavity after intra-articular injection in knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Rae; Ho, Myoung Jin; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Choi, Young Wook; Kang, Myung Joo

    2015-01-01

    Positively surface-charged poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/Eudragit RL nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to increase retention time and sustain release profile in joints after intra-articular injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic aggregates with hyaluronic acid, an endogenous anionic polysaccharide found in high amounts in synovial fluid. The cationic NPs consisting of PLGA, Eudragit RL, and polyvinyl alcohol were fabricated by solvent evaporation technique. The NPs were 170.1 nm in size, with a zeta potential of 21.3 mV in phosphate-buffered saline. Hyperspectral imaging (CytoViva®) revealed the formation of the micrometer-sized filamentous aggregates upon admixing, due to electrostatic interaction between NPs and the polysaccharides. NPs loaded with a fluorescent probe (1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′ tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide, DiR) displayed a significantly improved retention time in the knee joint, with over 50% preservation of the fluorescent signal 28 days after injection. When DiR solution was injected intra-articularly, the fluorescence levels rapidly decreased to 30% of the initial concentration within 3 days in mice. From these findings, we suggest that PLGA-based cationic NPs could be a promising tool for prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents in joints selectively. PMID:26345227

  12. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

  13. Impaired visual size-discrimination in children with movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica; Tinelli, Francesca; Sandini, Giulio; Cioni, Giovanni; Burr, David

    2012-07-01

    Multisensory integration of spatial information occurs late in childhood, at around eight years (Gori, Del Viva, Sandini, & Burr, 2008). For younger children, the haptic system dominates size discrimination and vision dominates orientation discrimination: the dominance may reflect sensory calibration, and could have direct consequences on children born with specific sensory disabilities. Here we measure thresholds for visual discrimination of orientation and size in children with movement disorders of upper limbs. Visual orientation discrimination was very similar to the age-matched typical children, but visual size discrimination thresholds were far worse, in all eight individuals with early-onset movement disorder. This surprising and counterintuitive result is readily explained by the cross-sensory calibration hypothesis: when the haptic sense is unavailable for manipulation, it cannot be readily used to estimate size, and hence to calibrate the visual experience of size: visual discrimination is subsequently impaired. This complements a previous study showing that non-sighted children have reduced acuity for haptic orientation, but not haptic size, discriminations (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2010). Together these studies show that when either vision or haptic manipulation is impaired, the impairment also impacts on complementary sensory systems that are calibrated by that one.

  14. A randomized, controlled trial of the safety of candidate microbicide SPL7013 Gel when applied to the penis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Marcus Y.; Millwood, Iona Y.; Wand, Handan; Poynten, Mary; Law, Matthew; Kaldor, John M.; Wesselingh, Steve; Price, Clare F.; Clark, Laura J.; Paull, Jeremy R.A.; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the safety of the candidate vaginal microbicide SPL7013 Gel (VivaGel®) when applied to the penis. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-six healthy men (18 circumcised, 18 uncircumcised), were randomized in a 2:1 ratio and treated with 3% SPL7013 Gel (N=24) or placebo gel (N=12), applied once daily for 7 days. Genital toxicity was determined by interview, diary, and examination. Results There were 10 genital adverse events (AEs) in 6 men (25%) receiving SPL7013 Gel, and 5 genital AEs in 4 men (33%) receiving the placebo that were possibly or probably related to the study product (difference of −8%, 95% CI: −40% to 23%, p=0.70). The most common genital AEs were genital pruritus and application site erythema. All genital AEs were mild (grade 1), and all but one, in the placebo group, were transient. Analysis of vital signs, non-genital AEs, and laboratory results indicated no safety or tolerability issues with SPL7013 Gel, irrespective of circumcision status. There was no detectable absorption of SPL7013 into the plasma. Conclusions 3% SPL7013 Gel was safe and well tolerated, and comparable with placebo, when administered to the penis of both circumcised and uncircumcised men once daily for 7 days, with no evidence of systemic absorption or toxicity. PMID:19214122

  15. [Treatment of childhood injuries and violence in public emergency services].

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Denis Medeiros; Neves, Alice Cristina Medeiros das; Silva, Marta Alves da

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze the profile of treatment for accidents and violence involving children under 10 years of age in Brazil in the year 2011. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in 71 emergency services in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), located in the national capital and 24 state capitals. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health's system of sentinel surveillance services for Violence and Accidents (VIVA Survey). The highest proportion of injuries (67.4%) occurred inside the child's home. Among unintentional injuries, falls were the most frequent (52.4%), followed by running into objects or persons (21.8%) and traffic injuries (10.9%), especially as passengers (bicycles were an important means of transportation involved in the injuries). The vast majority of unintentional injuries are avoidable, and educational measures should be adopted, especially with parents, teachers, the community, and health workers, calling attention to the risks and the adoption of safe behaviors in the home, at school, and in leisure-time activities. Cases of violence are subject to mandatory reporting, and prompt measures should be taken to protect victims.

  16. [Accidents by external causes in adolescents: care in sentinel urgency and emergency services in the Brazilian State Capitals--2009].

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo; das Neves, Alice Cristina Medeiros; de Melo, Elza Machado; da Silva Junior, Jarbas Barbosa

    2012-09-01

    Adolescents are seeking new references and experiences, which may involve attitudes of risk and exposure to accidents and violence from external causes. These events constitute a serious Public Health problem. The scope of this study was to analyze the occurrence of accidents by external causes in adolescents from 10 to 19 years of age attended at sentinel urgency and emergency services in Brazil. Data from the 2009 Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA 2009) was analyzed in 74 emergency units in 23 state capitals and the Federal District. The findings revealed that 6,434 adolescents (89.8%) were victims of accidents and 730 (10.2 %) were victims of violence. The main causes of the accidents were falls and traffic accidents, and assaults were predominant in violence. For both accidents and violence, non-white male adolescents were predominant and the events occurred most frequently on the public highways. A marked increase was detected, with hospitalization of victims of violence between 15 and 19 years of age. Understanding the epidemiological reality of external causes among adolescents represents an important tool for health prevention and promotion policies and the culture of peace seeking to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  17. [Accidents and violence in childhood: survey evidence of emergency care for external causes--Brazil, 2009].

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Viegas, Anna Paula Bise; de Sá, Naiza Nayla Bandeira; da Silva Junior, Jarbas Barbosa

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the characteristics and magnitude of accidents and violence due to external causes in children from 0 to 9 years of age is becoming ever more important in Public Health. The scope of this paper was to analyze emergency care for accidents due to external causes in children. The Sentinel Urgency and Emergency Services of the Violence and Accident Vigilance System (VIVA Survey), performed in 74 urgency services in the Federal District and 23 State capitals in 2009 was used. Data of 7,123 children were analyzed: 6,897 (96.7%) victims of accidents and 226 (3.3%) of violence. In comparison with victims of violence, the visits for accidents were more frequent among white children from 2 to 5 years old occurring in the home (p < 0.05). Among the accidents, falls and burns predominated in the 0 to 1group, while traffic accidents were most frequent in the 6 to 9-year-old age group (p < 0.001). With respect to violence, the visits for neglect and physical assault predominated, respectively, in extreme age groups, with someone in the family being the perpetrator (p < 0.001). Information on the occurrence of external causes in children may support health promotion policies, besides guiding health professionals, teachers and families in the prevention of such causes.

  18. Sociodemographic and Perinatal Predictors of Early Pregnancy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Webster, Thomas F.; Mora, Ana Maria; Harris, Maria H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), used in food packaging and stain-resistant coatings, are suspected developmental toxicants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. We measured plasma PFAS concentrations during early pregnancy (median = 9.7 weeks gestation) among 1645 women in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999–2002. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of sociodemographic and perinatal predictors, including measures of pregnancy physiology (albumin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), with log-transformed plasma PFAS concentrations. Geometric mean concentrations for the four main PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were 25.4, 5.7, 2.5, and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively, comparable with general U.S. population concentrations during those years. Higher early pregnancy PFAS concentrations were associated with younger age (except PFNA), less educational attainment, nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding and higher prepregnancy body mass index in adjusted models. In addition, lower GFR was associated with 3–4% higher PFAS concentrations and higher albumin was associated with 4–6% higher PFAS concentrations. Our results show associations consistent (parity and breastfeeding) and less consistent (age and education) with previous studies. We also report associations with GFR and albumin, which were strongly related to PFAS concentrations and thus could confound estimates of PFAS–outcome associations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:26333069

  19. Multidisciplinary approach to follicular thyroid carcinoma with giant mandibular and multiple sites metastases Case report.

    PubMed

    De Pasquale, Loredana; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Bardazzi, Alessandro; Autelitano, Luca; Moro, Giacomina Pierina; Ghilardi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    I tumori metastatici in genere hanno una cattiva prognosi, con sopravvivenza breve e raramente sono candidabili al trattamento chirurgico. Nel caso dei carcinomi differenziati della tiroide, la prognosi è solitamente migliore, grazie alla possibilità di un approcio multidisciplinare e soprattutto al trattamento radiometabolico dei secodarismi, dopo l’asportazione del tumore primitivo. Il caso presentato riguarda una donna di 65 anni, che è giunta alla nostra osservazione per una tumefazione mandibolare, risultata successivamente una metastasi da carcinoma follicolare della tiroide, a partenza da un voluminoso gozzo cervico-mediastinico normofunzionante, con ulteriori secondarismi a livello polmonare. Dopo un accurato studio pre-operatorio la Paziente è stata sottoposta a resezione della mandibola sinistra con ricostruzione mediante una protesi metallica e a tiroidectomia totale. Successivamente è stata trattata con quattro cicli di terapia radiometabolica con buona risposta. La Paziente è viva, senza ulteriore progressione di malattia a un follow-up di quarantasei mesi. Anche nei casi di tumori differnziati della tiroide in fase metastatica, l’opzione chirurgica va presa in considerazione per consentire alle terapie complementari di migliorare la prognosi in termini di sopravvivenza.

  20. A genetic contribution to circulating cytokines and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Smith, C Wayne; Mehta, Nitesh R; Voruganti, V Saroja; Proffitt, J Michael; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-11-01

    Cytokines are considered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Study objectives are to determine the heritability of circulating cytokine levels, to investigate pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and to present genome scan results for cytokines in 1030 Hispanic children enrolled in VIVA LA FAMILIA Study. Cytokine phenotypes included monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), leptin, adiponectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1), C-reactive protein (CRP), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and eotaxin. Obesity-related phenotypes included body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), truncal FM and fasting serum insulin. Heritabilities ranged from 0.33 to 0.97. Pleiotropy was observed between cytokines and obesity traits. Positive genetic correlations were seen between CRP, leptin, MCP-1 and obesity traits, and negative genetic correlations with adiponectin, ICAM-1 and TGF-beta1. Genome-wide scan of sICAM-1 mapped to chromosome 3 (LOD=3.74) between markers D3S1580 and D3S1601, which flanks the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ). Suggestive linkage signals were found in other chromosomal regions for other cytokines. In summary, significant heritabilities for circulating cytokines, pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and linkage for sICAM-1 on chromosome 3q substantiate a genetic contribution to circulating cytokine levels in Hispanic children.

  1. 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran methyl methacrylate copolymer nonviral vector: still a long way toward the safety of aerosol gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, P; Hohenforst-Schmidt, W; Darwiche, K; Krauss, L; Sparopoulou, D; Sakkas, L; Gschwendtner, A; Huang, H; Turner, F J; Freitag, L; Zarogoulidis, K

    2013-10-01

    Revealing the lung tumor genome has directed the current treatment strategies toward targeted therapy. First line treatments targeting the genome of lung tumor cells have been approved and are on the market. However, they are limited by the small number of patients with the current investigated genetic mutations. Novel treatment administration modalities have been also investigated in an effort to increase the local drug deposition and disease control. In the current study, we investigated the safety of the new nonviral vector 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran methyl methacrylate copolymer (DDMC; Ryujyu Science), which belongs to the 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran family by aerosol administration. Thirty male BALBC mice, 2 month old, were included and divided into three groups. However, pathological findings indicated severe emphysema within three aerosol sessions. In addition, the CytoViva technique was applied for the first time to display the nonviral particles within the pulmonary tissue and emphysema lesions, and a spectral library of the nonviral vector was also established. Although our results in BALBC mice prevented us from further investigation of the DDMC nonviral vector as a vehicle for gene therapy, further investigation in animals with larger airways is warranted to properly evaluate the safety of the vector.

  2. The application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, W. Z.; Xu, A. E.; Xu, J.; Bi, Z. G.; Shang, Y. B.; Ren, Q. S.

    2010-08-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows noninvasive visualization of human skin in vivo, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanocytes and pigmented keratinocytes at the level of the basal layer form bright dermal papillary rings which are readily amenable to identify in confocal images. Our purpose was to explore the role of dermal papillary rings in assessment of lesion location, the diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. Seventy-one patients were imaged with the VivaScope 1500 reflectance confocal microscope provided by Lucid, Inc. The results indicate that dermal papillary rings can assess the location of lesion; the application of dermal papillary rings can provide diagnostic support and differential diagnosis for vitiligo, nevus depigmentosus, tinea versicolor, halo nevus, common nevi, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of NBUVB phototherapy plus topical 0.1 percent tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dermal papillary rings play an important role in the assessment the location of lesion, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. CLSM may be a promising tool for noninvasive examination in dermatology. However, larger studies are needed to expand the application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology.

  3. Procedural aspects of the organization of the comprehensive European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma examination

    PubMed Central

    Sunaric-Mégevand, Gordana; Aclimandos, Wagih

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma (EBOD) examination is one of 38 European medical specialty examinations. This review aims at disclosing the specific procedures and content of the EBOD examination. It is a descriptive study summarizing the present organization of the EBOD examination. It is the 3rd largest European postgraduate medical assessment after anaesthesiology and cardiology. The master language is English for the Part 1 written test (knowledge test with 52 modified type X multiple-choice questions) (in the past the written test was also available in French and German). Ophthalmology training of minimum 4 years in a full or associated European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) member state is a prerequisite. Problem-solving skills are tested in the Part 2 oral assessment, which is a viva of 4 subjects conducted in English with support for native language whenever feasible. The comprehensive EBOD examination is one of the leading examinations organized by UEMS European Boards or Specialist Sections from the point of number of examinees, item banking, and item contents. PMID:27464640

  4. Injected transfer orbit determination of lunar probe Chang'E 5T1 using short-arc rocket GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Haijian; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wang, Jiasong; Wang, Dan; Guo, Hai

    2015-10-01

    The injected transfer orbit of lunar probe Chang'E 5T1 (CE-5T1) is determined immediately after the probe separates from its launcher. As the first orbit in the lunar flight, the CE-5T1 injected transfer orbit is crucial to the consequence of rocket vehicle launch mission and the probe's subsequent midway orbital manoeuvre. In this paper, we discuss the problem of using rocket GPS measurements to determine the probe velocity increment due to mechanical separation, and subsequently the injected transfer orbit determination of CE-5T1. Motivated by the post-mission analysis of lunar probe Chang'E 3 (CE-3), we give theoretical evidence to explain the physical phenomenon of semi-major axis sudden change at the probe separation instant through the derivation of the Vis-Viva equation. In succession, we focus on the description of the procedure used for the orbit determination performed on separated arcs of rocket GPS measurements through the use of momentum conservation to determine the probe separation velocity. Finally, actual flight data of the CE-3 and CE-5T1 missions are used for the validation.

  5. Performance of immunoassays in screening for opiates, cannabinoids and amphetamines in post-mortem blood.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yukiko; Ojanperä, Ilkka; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki

    2003-01-28

    Several immunoassay methods for screening of abused drugs in whole blood were evaluated in post-mortem forensic toxicology. Blood samples known to be positive or negative for opiates, cannabinoids or amphetamines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were analysed by EMIT II Plus and EMIT d.a.u., Syva RapidTest and Triage 8 after acetone precipitation. In these experiments, the EMIT immunoassay method was modified by using the Dade Behring VIVA analyser to detect substances more sensitively. Low concentrations of abused drugs were detected in blood samples. The sensitivities of the modified EMIT method for opiates, cannabinoids and amphetamines were 100, 86 and 98%, respectively, whereas the values were below 86% with the other methods. The specificities of all immunoassay methods for opiates and cannabinoids were 83% or above but 51-85% for amphetamines. Sample rejection occurred in a few cases with the EMIT amphetamine assays. The modified EMIT immunoassay system presented here seems to be useful for screening of drugs of abuse in post-mortem blood samples, especially when urine is not available.

  6. [Completeness of notifications of violence perpetrated against adolescents in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Taciana Mirella Batista Dos; Cardoso, Mirian Domingos; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Santos, Yasmim Gabriella Cardoso; Paiva, Saul Martins; Melo, João Paulo Ramos; Silva, Lygia Maria Pereira

    2016-12-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the trend of completeness of the data on violence perpetrated against adolescents registered in the State of Pernambuco between 2009 and 2012. This involved a cross-sectional survey of 5,259 adolescents, who were the victims of violence reported in SINAN-VIVA of the Pernambuco State Health Department. Simple linear regression was used to investigate the trend of completeness of the variables. The percentages of completeness were considered to be dependent variables (Y) and the number of years as independent variables (X). The results show a significant increase of 204% in the number of notifications. However, of the 34 variables analyzed, 27 (79.4%) showed a stationary trend, 6 (17.6%) a downward trend, and only one variable (2.9%) an upward trend. Completeness was considered 'Very Poor' for the variables: Education (47.3%), Full Address (21.3%), Occurrence Time (38%) and Use of Alcohol by the Attacker (47%). Therefore, despite the large increase in the number of notifications, data quality continued to be compromised, hampering a more realistic analysis of this group.

  7. Characteristics of pulsed power generator by versatile inductive voltage adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsui, Kiyoshi; Shimiya, Kouichi; Masugata, Katsumi; Shigeta, Masao; Shibata, Kazuhiko

    2005-10-01

    A pulsed power generator by inductive voltage adder, versatile inductive voltage adder (VIVA-I), which features a high average potential gradient (2.5 MV/m), was designed and is currently in operation,. It was designed to produce an output pulse of 4 MV/60 ns by adding 2 MV pulses in two-stages of induction cells, where amorphous cores are installed. As a pulse forming line, we used a Blumlein line with the switching reversed, where cores are automatically biased due to the presence of prepulse. Good reproducibility was obtained even in the absence of the reset pulse. Within [similar]40% of full charge voltage, pulsed power characteristics of Marx generator, pulse forming line (PFL), transmission line (TL), and induction cells were tested for three types of loads; open-circuit, dummy load of liquid (CuSO4) resistor, and electron beam diode. In the open-circuit test, [similar]2.0 MV of output voltage was obtained with good reproducibility. Dependences of output voltage on diode impedances were evaluated by using various dummy loads, and the results were found as expected. An electron-beam diode was operated successfully, and [similar]18 kA of beam current was obtained at the diode voltage of [similar]1 MV.

  8. Formulating a Sulfonated Anti-Viral Dendrimer in a Vaginal Microbicidal Gel having Dual Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mumper, Russell J.; Bell, Michael A.; Worthen, David R.; Cone, Richard A.; Lewis, Gareth R.; Moench, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    SPL7013 is the sodium salt of a sulfonated dendrimer that has potent antiviral properties. VivaGel®, a topical gel containing 3% w/w SPL7013, has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated in human clinical studies. BufferGel® is a Carbopol®-based acidic buffering gel that enhances the natural protective action of the vagina to produce a broad-spectrum microbicidal environment. The positive attributes of both gels were combined into a combination vaginal microbicidal gel having dual mechanisms of action. A 3% w/w SPL7013 combination gel, pH 3.7, was developed and fully characterized, and was shown to have more than 2-fold greater acidic buffering capacity than BufferGel. Ultracentrifugation experiments demonstrated that SPL7013 was not sequestered or entropically trapped in the viscous gel, thereby confirming, along with viral challenge studies, that SPL7013 has sufficient mobility in the viscous gel to exert antiviral properties. PMID:19040181

  9. Assessment of Brazil’s Research Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-28

    117 Physical Review D 4.852 1970 Phys 106 Neotropical Entomology * 0 2004* Animal 105 Revista Brasileira De Ciencia Do Solo 0.289 2003 Geo 97 Genetics...1.59% 918 3.62% 2035 2.04% Entomology 1.53% 527 2.08% 550 0.55% Chemistry, Analytical 1.52% 691 2.73% 1201 1.20% Biology 1.47% 560 2.21% 738 0.74...far more than do either India or China. o Zoology, entomology , ecology, and marine & freshwater biology are covered. o USA, France, Germany, and

  10. Molecular Targets for Organophosphates in the Central Nervous System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    471-493, 1997. * Camara , A.L., Braga, M.F.M., Rocha, E.S., Santos, M.D., Cortes, W.S., Cintra, W.M., Aracava, Y., Maelicke, A., and Albuquerque, E.X... paciente . (Galantamine in the treatment of Alzheimer=s disease: from research to patient). Revista Brasileira de Neurologia 37:6-17, 2001. Wang, Y...494, 2004. Almeida, L.E.F., Pereira, E.F.R., Camara , A.L., Maelicke, A., and Albuquerque, E.X. Sensitivity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine

  11. [Nexus between postgraduation and nursing research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Gomes, Maria da Luz Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    The present text had a purpose of reflect about the connections between postgraduation an nursing research courses in Brazil. The origins used were magazines, with distinction for Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem and Escola Anna Nery-Revista de Enfermagem, annals of conferences, seminaries and research forums, like the oral deposition of the teacher Emerita EEAN/UFRJ, the doctor Vilma de Carvalho. Note, in this analysis, that the courses of post graduation gave effective impulse at scientific production for the nursing, permitting the advance in a critic valuation of the professional practice.

  12. Level of evidence of knee surgery in national journal.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Davi Araújo Veiga; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Luzo, Marcus Vinícius Malheiros; Filho, Mario Carneiro; Cohen, Moisés; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Select the studies related to knee surgery in the orthopedic literature published by Acta Ortopédica Brasileira (AOB) and the Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (RBO) and classify them according to the levels of evidence. We selected all studies published from 2000 to 2011 related to knee surgery in AOB and RBO. The following categorization was adopted: level 1: systematic review; level 2: clinical trial; level 3: cohort studies and case-control; level 4: number of cases; level 5: narrative review and others. We found in the national literature selected 255 studies related to knee surgery. In the Southeast were developed 212 articles (83.1%), 30 publications in the South (11.7%), Northeast 5 (2%), North and Central West 2 jobs each (0.8%). Four work performed in other country (1.6%). The most common issue was the anterior cruciate ligament in 58 studies (22.7%) and arthroplasty in 55 studies (21.5%). Most studies presented evidence level IV (27.8%) and V (50.2%). The national scientific production related to knee surgery presents itself expanding with predominant expression in the Southeast. Most studies related to knee surgery published in national journals have low level evidence and focuses on the approach of the anterior cruciate ligament and arthroplasty.

  13. Evolution of post-deployment indicators of oral health on the Family Health Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Danielle da Costa; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Ramos, Danielle Viana Ribeiro; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the evolution of indicators after the implementation of 21 Oral Healthcare Teams in the Family Health Strategy. Methods We used data from outpatient services of Oral Healthcare Teams to evaluate efficiency, access, percentage of absences and emergencies of oral healthcare professionals who worked in the partnership between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo, during the period 2009-2011. Results Percentages of emergencies, income, and access showed a significant difference during the period analyzed, but no difference for percentage of absences was found. When monthly analysis was made, it is noteworthy that at the beginning of service implementation a fluctuation occurred, which may indicate that the work was consolidated over the months, becoming capable of receiving new professionals and increasing the population served. Comparison of the indicators in that period with the goals agreed upon between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo made it possible to notice that the Oral Health Teams had a good performance. Conclusion The results showed that the goals were achieved reflecting the increasing number of professionals, the maturing of work processes in the Oral Health Teams, and optimization of the manpower available to perform the activities. Understanding these results will be important to guide the actions of Oral Health Teams for the following years and to assess the achievement of goals. PMID:25295445

  14. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Carlos; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio

    2010-04-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of "Clinics." We searched through PUBMED for noteworthy articles published in Brazilian medical journals included in the Journal of Citation Reports of the Institute of Scientific Information to better expose them to our readership. The following journals were examined: "Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia," "Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia," "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Reviews," "Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia," "Jornal de Pediatria," "Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular," "Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira," Revista da Escola de Enfermagem U.S.P." and "São Paulo Medical Journal." These journals publish original investigations in the field of cardiopulmonary disease. The search produced 71 references, which are briefly examined.

  15. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS IN ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY: SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS ON THE NATIONAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe; Moreira, Cesar Domingues; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether there has been any improvement in the quality and quantity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in nationally published journals through the application of standardized and validated scores. Methods: We electronically selected all RCTs published in the two indexed Brazilian journals that focus on orthopedics, over the period 2000-2009: Acta Ortopédica Brasileira (AOB) and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (RBO). These RCTs were identified and scored by two independent researchers in accordance with the Jadad scale and the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group score. The studies selected were grouped as follows: 1) publication period (2000-2004 or 2004-2009); 2) journal of publication (AOB or RBO). Results: Twenty-two papers were selected: 10 from AOB and 12 from RBO. No statistically significant differences were found between the proportions (nRCT/nTotal of published papers) of RCTs published in the two journals (p = 0.458), or in the Jadad score (p = 0.722) and Cochrane score (p = 0.630). Conclusion: The relative quality and quantity of RCTs in the journals analyzed were similar. There was a trend towards improvement of quality, but there was no increase in the number of RCTs between the two periods analyzed. PMID:27026971

  16. Windows of opportunities and technological innovation in the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Tigre, Paulo Bastos; Nascimento, Caio Victor Machado França do; Costa, Laís Silveira

    2016-11-03

    The Brazilian pharmaceutical industry is heavily dependent on external sources of inputs, capital, and technology. However, the emergence of technological opportunities and the development of biotechnology and the decline of the patent boom and resulting advances by generic drugs have opened windows of opportunities for the local industry. The article examines the Brazilian industry's innovative behavior vis-à-vis these opportunities, showing that although the industry as a whole invests little in innovation, a few large Brazilian companies have expanded their market share and stepped up their investments in research and development, supported by public policies for innovation. Resumo: A indústria farmacêutica brasileira caracteriza-se pela grande dependência de fontes externas de insumos, capital e tecnologia. O surgimento de oportunidades tecnológicas, associadas ao desenvolvimento da biotecnologia e ao fim do boom das patentes com o consequente avanço dos medicamentos genéricos, entretanto, vem abrindo janelas de oportunidades para a indústria local. Este artigo examina o comportamento inovador da indústria brasileira à luz dessas oportunidades, revelando que, embora o conjunto da indústria mantenha baixos níveis de investimentos em inovação, um pequeno grupo de grandes empresas nacionais vem ampliando sua participação no mercado e intensificando seus investimentos em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, apoiados por políticas públicas de inovação.

  17. Indicators for the evaluation of the quality of education and career development in the hard science: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arany-Prado, L. I.

    2003-08-01

    We report the results of the self-evaluation of the Astronomy Bachelor Course of the Observatório do Valongo (OV), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). We have created, heuristically, data indicators capable of quantifying the impact of curriculum and institutional improvements on the student's background and career development in the last 30 years. It is remarkable that the institution in study: i) has undergone appreciable recent development; ii) has its graduation course as a long term investment and an essentially complete database on past professors and students; iii) is inserted in a young scientific Society (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira - SAB), which has shown marked recent maturation and a large rate of growth. This enabled us to diagnose the evolution of the institution and its suitability to the different requirements of the astronomical career. We show that, in the hard science field, the increase of the number of graduated students and the decrease of the time spent as an undergraduate student are not sufficient, or even adequate, to evaluate the efficiency of education in science (Arany-Prado, L., 2003, Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física, vol. 25, no. 1, 105-115; http://sbf.if.usp.br/rbef/Vol25/Num1).

  18. Level of evidence of knee surgery in national journal☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Rosário, Davi Araújo Veiga; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Luzo, Marcus Vinícius Malheiros; Filho, Mario Carneiro; Cohen, Moisés; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Select the studies related to knee surgery in the orthopedic literature published by Acta Ortopédica Brasileira (AOB) and the Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (RBO) and classify them according to the levels of evidence. We selected all studies published from 2000 to 2011 related to knee surgery in AOB and RBO. The following categorization was adopted: level 1: systematic review; level 2: clinical trial; level 3: cohort studies and case–control; level 4: number of cases; level 5: narrative review and others. We found in the national literature selected 255 studies related to knee surgery. In the Southeast were developed 212 articles (83.1%), 30 publications in the South (11.7%), Northeast 5 (2%), North and Central West 2 jobs each (0.8%). Four work performed in other country (1.6%). The most common issue was the anterior cruciate ligament in 58 studies (22.7%) and arthroplasty in 55 studies (21.5%). Most studies presented evidence level IV (27.8%) and V (50.2%). The national scientific production related to knee surgery presents itself expanding with predominant expression in the Southeast. Most studies related to knee surgery published in national journals have low level evidence and focuses on the approach of the anterior cruciate ligament and arthroplasty. PMID:26229766

  19. "Piedra Dorada": a natural stone as an intrinsic part of two World Heritage Cities in Andalusia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sánchez-Valverde, Josefina; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    "Piedra Dorada" was used to construct some of the most important heritage buildings in the cities of Úbeda and Baeza, in Jaén (Spain). UNESCO declared these cities World Heritage Cities in 2003. Although there are some Iberian or Roman ruins in which is already possible to see the use of this stone, it is from the XVI century when "Piedra Dorada" is extensively used in the construction of the main historical buildings. Some of well-known monuments are Vázquez de Molina Palace or chain Palace (XVI), San Salvador Church (Sacred Chapel of El Salvador) (XVI) o the Royal Colegiata of Santa María la Mayor de los Reales Alcázares (XVI) in Úbeda or the Justice House-The House of the Corregidor (XVI), the Saint Cathedral of the Natividad de Nuestra Señora (XVI) or Jabalquinto Palace (XV), in Baeza, among many others. "Piedra Dorada" includes several varieties with similar mineralogical and chemical characteristics, called "Piedra Viva" or "Jabaluna", more cemented and used mainly with structural purposes (ashlars, columns, etc) and "Piedra Franca", less cemented and used mainly with decorative purposes (façades, statues, etc). From a geological point of view, "Piedra Dorada" is a medium to fine grain size bioclastic calcarenite, part of the upper Miocene-Pliocene deposits of the Guadalquivir Basin (Post Orogenic Neogene Basins of the Betic Chains). It is made up of quartz (8% to 29%), calcite and/or dolomite (34% to 80%), and some feldspar. The intergranular calcite cement proportion varies between 7% and 33%. Physical and mechanical properties are highly variable depending on the variety. "Piedra Viva" has an open porosity of 5,2%, bulk density of 2,63 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric pressure between 1,5-2,7 %, compressive strength (dry) between 20,1-18,0 MPa, flexural resistance (dry) between 87,3-77,0 MPa and salt crystallization loss of mass of 2,5%. "Piedra Franca" has an open porosity of 24,3%, bulk density of 2,00 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric

  20. Normative Reference Values for Handgrip Strength in Colombian Schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Morales, Olimpo; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Palacios-López, Adalberto; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel H; Vivas, Andrés; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Morales, O, Peña-Ibagon, JC, Palacios-López, A, Prieto-Benavides, DH, Vivas, A, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Alonso-Martínez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Normative reference values for handgrip strength in Colombian schoolchildren: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 217-226, 2017-The primary aim of this study was to generate normative handgrip (HG) strength data for 10 to 17.9 year olds. The secondary aim was to determine the relative proportion of Colombian children and adolescents that fall into established Health Benefit Zones (HBZ). This cross-sectional study enrolled 7,268 schoolchildren (boys n = 3,129 and girls n = 4,139, age 12.7 [2.4] years). Handgrip was measured using a hand dynamometer with an adjustable grip. Five HBZs (Needs Improvement, Fair, Good, Very Good, and Excellent) have been established that correspond to combined HG. Centile smoothed curves, percentile, and tables for the third, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile were calculated using Cole's LMS method. Handgrip peaked in the sample at 22.2 (8.9) kg in boys and 18.5 (5.5) kg in girls. The increase in HG was greater for boys than for girls, but the peak HG was lower in girls than in boys. The HBZ data indicated that a higher overall percentage of boys than girls at each age group fell into the "Needs Improvement" zone, with differences particularly pronounced during adolescence. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific HG reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  1. Environmental NGOs in Ecuador: an economic analysis of institutional change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C A

    1993-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America have grown more rapidly than has our understanding of the economic and political implications of this major institutional change. In Ecuador, between 1984 and late 1992, at least 24 new environmental NGOs emerged. An economist does a case study of them, especially Fundacion Natura (FN) in Ecuador, to understand their role and behavior which are a large part of environmental politics in Latin America. NGOs are successful because the public sector cannot meet the countries' needs and donors want to help NGOs, thereby providing the demand. For example, FN has received funding from USAID, World Wildlife Fund, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and other groups. FN charges donors 15% to cover administrative costs while many other NGOs do not receive international funding for administrative costs. FN is well connected with the public sector which is supportive and beneficial. FN activities complement the public sector's efforts in the environment. Further, it is well connected with private industry from whom it receives financial support. It has been criticized for supporting industry on some environmental issues, however. In fact, its Cuenca chapter split from FN in 1984 to form Tierra Viva, because FN sided with industry when industry wanted to build on agricultural land in Cuenca. FN's relationship with USAID is strained. FN is successful because it employs quality personnel who are committed to FN objectives. Yet FN and other NGOs do not have the monetary incentives for efficient production. Most other NGOs are financially strapped and depend on volunteers. The more radical environmental NGOs do not accept donations from the private sector and do not want to work with government. Despite the influence donors have on NGOs, the NGOs' powerful presence and their environmental education programs have consequences beyond donor control (e.g., FN and USAID).

  2. Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Fornalé, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates.

  3. Longitudinal association of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period and child obesity at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Peterson, Karen E; Gortmaker, Steven L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2011-10-01

    The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss strategy used. Using covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regression models, we estimated associations before and after adjusting for maternal weight-related variables including prepregnancy BMI. At 6 months postpartum, 53% mothers were trying to lose weight. At age 3 years, mean (s.d.) child BMI z-score was 0.44 (1.01) and 8.9% of children were obese. Children whose mothers were trying to lose weight at 6 months postpartum had higher BMI z-scores (0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18, 0.42)) and were more likely to be obese (3.0 (95% CI 1.6, 5.8)) at 3 years of age. Addition of maternal prepregnancy BMI to the models attenuated but did not eliminate the associations seen for BMI z-score (0.24 (95% CI 0.12, 0.36) and obesity (2.4 (95% CI 1.2, 4.7)). Attempting to lose weight by exercising alone was the only weight loss strategy that consistently predicted higher child BMI z-score (0.36 (95% CI 0.14, 0.58)) and odds of obesity (6.0 (95% CI 2.2, 16.5)) at age 3 years. In conclusion, we observed an association between maternal attempt to lose weight at 6 months postpartum, particularly through exercise alone, measured using a single item and child adiposity at age 3 years. This association should be thoroughly examined in future studies.

  4. Using seismology to raise science awareness in kindergarten and elementary levels, with the help of high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.; Moreira, G.; Afonso, I. P.; Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Melo, M. O.; Neto, R. P.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Hartmann, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching students, aged from 4 up to 18 years old, is a challenging task. It continuously implies new strategies and new subjects adapted to all of them. This is even more evident, when we have to teach natural-hazards scientific aspects and safe attitudes toward risk. We often see that most of the high-school students (16 -18 years old) are not motivated for extra-curricular activities implying science and/or behaviours changes. But, they have a very positive response when we give them some responsibility. On top of that, we also realised that young children are quite receptive to the involvement of older students in the school environment Taking this into consideration, our project use the k12 students to prepare scientific activities and subjects, based in questions, which they need to answer themselves. The students need to answer those questions and, only then, adapt and teach the right answers to the different school-levels. With this approach, we challenged the students to solve three questions: How to use a SEP seismometer at school, and its data? How to set up a shaking table? How to introduce waves and vibrations contents to all ages of students? During the project they developed many science skills, and worked in straight cooperation with teachers, the parents association and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz. As a result, it was possible to reach all school students with the help of the k-12 ones. This is an outcome of the project W-Shake, a Parents-in-Science Initiative to promote the study of seismology and related subjects. This project, supported by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, results from a direct cooperation between the parents association, science school-teachers and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  5. Violence against children: an analysis of mandatory reporting of violence, Brazil 2011.

    PubMed

    Rates, Susana Maria Moreira; de Melo, Elza Machado; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    This article aims to describe and analyze reporting of violence against children from 0 to 9 years of age, issued by the public health services, in Brazil. Data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (Viva-SINAN) were used. The frequency of selected variables was calculated by age group (0-1; 2-5 and 6-9 years of age) as well as their Prevalence Ratios (PR). 17.900 cases were reported: 33% in the 0-1 year group; 35,8% in the 2-5 year group; and 31,2% in the 6-9 year group. Physical violence predominated among boys (PR: 1.22; CI 95%: 1,16-1,28 ); 6-9 years old (PR: 1,19; CI 95%: 1,12-1.27 ). Sexual violence predominated among girls, mulatto/afro-descendant (PR: 1.12; CI 95 %: 1.06 to 1.19 ); 6-9 years (PR: 4.63; CI 95%: 4.22- 5.08) with more chances of occurring at home (PR: 1.38 , CI: 95%: 1.29-1.48); psychological violence prevailed among girls, mulatto/afro-descendant (PR: 1.10; CI 95 %: 1.03-1.18 ), 6-9 years old (PR: 2.95; CI 95%: 2.69- 3.23), at home (PR: 1.40; CI 95%: 1.29-1.53); negligence predominated among boys (PR: 1.33 ; 95% CI: 1.27-1.39); 0-1 years and their parents were the most prevalent perpetrators.The results indicate the need to strengthen intersectoral actions aiming at extending the social protection and care network.

  6. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2012-07-01

    Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years.

  7. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Kleinman, K; Gillman, M W

    2014-12-01

    We implemented six confounding adjustment methods: (1) covariate-adjusted regression, (2) propensity score (PS) regression, (3) PS stratification, (4) PS matching with two calipers, (5) inverse probability weighting and (6) doubly robust estimation to examine the associations between the body mass index (BMI) z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding v. formula only (n=437) and cesarean section v. vaginal delivery (n=1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were -0.33 (95% CI -0.53, -0.13) and -0.24 (-0.46, -0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller n (204-276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse probability weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from -0.01 to -0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method.

  8. Development of a Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Screening Algorithm for Discovery and Preclinical Testing of Topical Microbicides▿

    PubMed Central

    Lackman-Smith, Carol; Osterling, Clay; Luckenbaugh, Katherine; Mankowski, Marie; Snyder, Beth; Lewis, Gareth; Paull, Jeremy; Profy, Albert; Ptak, Roger G.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Watson, Karen M.; Cummins, James E.; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E.

    2008-01-01

    Topical microbicides are self-administered, prophylactic products for protection against sexually transmitted pathogens. A large number of compounds with known anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) inhibitory activity have been proposed as candidate topical microbicides. To identify potential leads, an in vitro screening algorithm was developed to evaluate candidate microbicides in assays that assess inhibition of cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 transmission, entry, and fusion. The algorithm advances compounds by evaluation in a series of defined assays that generate measurements of relative antiviral potency to determine advancement or failure. Initial testing consists of a dual determination of inhibitory activity in the CD4-dependent CCR5-tropic cell-associated transmission inhibition assay and in the CD4/CCR5-mediated HIV-1 entry assay. The activity is confirmed by repeat testing, and identified actives are advanced to secondary screens to determine their effect on transmission of CXCR4-tropic viruses in the presence or absence of CD4 and their ability to inhibit CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic envelope-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. In addition, confirmed active compounds are also evaluated in the presence of human seminal plasma, in assays incorporating a pH 4 to 7 transition, and for growth inhibition of relevant strains of lactobacilli. Leads may then be advanced for specialized testing, including determinations in human cervical explants and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells against primary HIV subtypes, combination testing with other inhibitors, and additional cytotoxicity assays. PRO 2000 and SPL7013 (the active component of VivaGel), two microbicide products currently being evaluated in human clinical trials, were tested in this in vitro algorithm and were shown to be highly active against CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 infection. PMID:18316528

  9. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of the bronchodilator response in children

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Sze Man; Gold, Diane R.; Sordillo, Joanne E.; Hoffman, Elaine B.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Weiss, Scott T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The bronchodilator response (BDR) reflects the reversibility of airflow obstruction and is recommended as an adjunctive test to diagnose asthma. The validity of the commonly used definition of BDR, a 12% or greater change in FEV1 from baseline, has been questioned in childhood. Objectives We sought to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the BDR test by using 3 large pediatric cohorts. Methods Cases include 1041 children with mild-to-moderate asthma from the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Control subjects (nonasthmatic and nonwheezing) were chosen from Project Viva and Home Allergens, 2 population-based pediatric cohorts. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, and areas under the curve were calculated for different BDR cutoffs. Results A total of 1041 cases (59.7% male; mean age, 8.9 ± 2.1 years) and 250 control subjects (46.8% male; mean age, 8.7 ± 1.7 years) were analyzed, with mean BDRs of 10.7% ± 10.2% and 2.7% ± 8.4%, respectively. The BDR test differentiated asthmatic patients from nonasthmatic patients with a moderate accuracy (area under the curve, 73.3%). Despite good specificity, a cutoff of 12% was associated with poor sensitivity (35.6%). A cutoff of less than 8% performed significantly better than a cutoff of 12% (P = .03, 8% vs 12%). Conclusions Our findings highlight the poor sensitivity associated with the commonly used 12% cutoff for BDR. Although our data show that a threshold of less than 8% performs better than 12%, given the variability of this test in children, we conclude that it might be not be appropriate to choose a specific BDR cutoff as a criterion for the diagnosis of asthma. PMID:23683464

  11. From Churches to Pavements: Urban Geology and Paleontology in Algarve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Rodrigues, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Urban environments were and are tremendous consumers of geologic resources, offering excellent places for Geosciences outreach activities. Since 2011, three distinct science outreach activities were planned, produced and performed in three Algarve cities - Faro (GeoStories of Faro's Downtown), Lagos (Geology at the Corner) and Tavira (From the Museum to the Convent). Urban structures - churches, monuments, buildings and urban equipments were the starting point of the geological and paleontological stories that constitute the core of these informal education visits which also combine Art History and Heritage aspects. The urban buildings were the narrative tool to these Geosciences stories being the characters the rocks and/or the fossils as well as the city itself. Beyond the natural science element, the analyzed objects have relevant esthetical, historical or symbolic dimensions, conferring this way two levels of interpretation to the stories: the geosciences level; the other, the Historical and Architectural Heritage. The nineteen visits had 350 participants - Tavira (6; 100), Faro (4; 70) e Lagos (9; 180). Promoting and contribute to the Geosciences (Geology and Paleontology) outreach was the main objective of these walks, as well as: - modify the way that the general population looks at urban buildings; - contribute to the informal education of a general public especially among the public which is interested in Architecture, History and Heritage; - integrate different areas of human knowledge - Geosciences and Architecture, History and Heritage. The visits were tested and implemented and presently constitute one of the science outreach activities of the Ciência Viva Centers in the Algarve. As a result of these visits three bilingual books (Portuguese and English) of the Geosciences walks were edited. The guides, with 120 pages each, focus on the geological and paleontological characteristics of the visited places as well as the art history framework of the

  12. Cellular interaction of different forms of aluminum nanoparticles in rat alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andrew J; Bleckmann, Charles A; Murdock, Richard C; Schrand, Amanda M; Schlager, John J; Hussain, Saber M

    2007-06-28

    Nanomaterials, with dimensions in the 1-100 nm range, possess numerous potential benefits to society. However, there is little characterization of their effects on biological systems, either within the environment or on human health. The present study examines cellular interaction of aluminum oxide and aluminum nanomaterials, including their effect on cell viability and cell phagocytosis, with reference to particle size and the particle's chemical composition. Experiments were performed to characterize initial in vitro cellular effects of rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383) after exposure to aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NP at 30 and 40 nm) and aluminum metal nanoparticles containing a 2-3 nm oxide coat (Al-NP at 50, 80, and 120 nm). Characterization of the nanomaterials, both as received and in situ, was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), and/or CytoViva150 Ultra Resolution Imaging (URI)). Particles showed significant agglomeration in cell exposure media using DLS and the URI as compared to primary particle size in TEM. Cell viability assay results indicate a marginal effect on macrophage viability after exposure to Al2O3-NP at doses of 100 microg/mL for 24 h continuous exposure. Al-NP produced significantly reduced viability after 24 h of continuous exposure with doses from 100 to 250 microg/mL. Cell phagocytotic ability was significantly hindered by exposure to 50, 80, or 120 nm Al-NP at 25 microg/mL for 24 h, but the same concentration (25 microg/mL) had no significant effect on the cellular viability. However, no significant effect on phagocytosis was observed with Al2O3-NP. In summary, these results show that Al-NP exhibit greater toxicity and more significantly diminish the phagocytotic ability of macrophages after 24 h of exposure when compared to Al2O3-NP.

  13. Practical Work in Earth Sciences Education: an experience with students in the context of a National Science Programme in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Luis; Praja, Joäo; Thompson, David

    2002-02-01

    The programme Ciencia Viva of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology aims to create a greater understanding of science and science education amongst scientists, teachers, school children and the general public, each of whom is encouraged to cooperate and interact through regular contacts. The purpose is to improve practical, experimental and other forms of investigative work. To accomplish such work in schools, an overview of the state of science education worldwide is presented in terms of old and new traditions of the teaching of the physical and historical sciences the latter including the teaching of fieldwork. Traditional practices are compared with those established recently in various parts of the world in which more carefully considered understanding of the nature of science and science education has been established. In illustration of good practice, an outline is offered of the nature and rationale of two sets of curricular materials. These were designed by a team comprising staff members of the University of Aveiro and secondary school teachers and were trialled in schools. These activities are concerned with the internal rock cycle and the internal energy of the Earth in relation to plate tectonic theory. They are also related to the processes of weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition of sedimentary rocks and structures (like wave and current ripple marks) which were formed as part of the external rock cycle driven by the Sun's energy. The account concludes with an outline of the sub programme 'Geology in Summer', a fieldwork programme which introduces a holistic understanding of the workings of the outer part of the Earth to the general public. Students' perspectives and teachers' views about these experiences are generally very positive and are presented at the end. The whole programme was evaluated by an international team of scientists and science educators.

  14. Maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child weight status in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B; Rifas-Shiman, S L; James-Todd, T; Ertel, K; Krieger, N; Kleinman, K P; Rich-Edwards, J W; Gillman, M W; Taveras, E M

    2012-12-01

    Among US racial/ethnic minority women, we examined associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child growth in the first 3 years of life. We analyzed data from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We restricted analyses to 539 mother-infant pairs; 294 were Black, 127 Hispanic, 110 Asian and 8 from additional racial/ethnic groups. During pregnancy, mothers completed the Experiences of Discrimination survey that measured lifetime experiences of racial discrimination in diverse domains. We categorized responses as 0, 1-2 or ≥3 domains. Main outcomes were birth weight for gestational age z-score; weight for age (WFA) z-score at 6 months of age; and at 3 years of age, body mass index (BMI) z-score. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, nativity, education, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, household income and child sex and age. Among this cohort of mostly (58.2%) US-born and economically non-impoverished mothers, 33% reported 0 domains of discrimination, 33% reported discrimination in 1-2 domains and 35% reported discrimination in ≥3 domains. Compared with children whose mothers reported no discrimination, those whose mothers reported ≥3 domains had lower birth weight for gestational age z-score (β -0.25; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.04), lower 6 month WFA z-score (β -0.34; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.03) and lower 3-year BMI z-score (β -0.33; 95% CI: -0.66, 0.00). In conclusion, we found that among this cohort of US racial/ethnic minority women, mothers' report of experiencing lifetime discrimination in ⩾ 3 domains was associated with lower fetal growth, weight at 6 months and 3-year BMI among their offspring.

  15. Adapting and improving resilience to climate change in communities (moravian community as a pilot), by creating new capabilities based on the implementation of a new water culture; protection and management of natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Gallo, A.

    2015-04-01

    Water, in all its dimensions and scope, concerns humans as civilization, individuals and communities immersed in an environment that faces serious environmental threats and changes. The efficient way to deal with this crisis is education of present and future generations, breaking paradigms, creating awareness and new development models, seeking community groups and forces to empower their water resource and care, manage and renew it in an efficient and sustainable manner. The multiple uses of water in personal uses, irrigation, agro-industry and clean energy production, transforms this resource in a strategic element to any nation. With support from the Centro Nacional de Alta Tecnologia (CeNAT), it was possible to formulate the "Agenda Ambiental de Moravia", agreeing to be the "Consejo Tecnico de Fuerzas Vivas" (CTFV) from Moravia - articulated network of stakeholders - the one that coordinate all actions refered to water Resources, pollution and cleaner technologies and protected Areas. CeNAT and CTFV have developed distinguished efforts to improve the Moravians quality of life, and this has led the initiative of constitution of a whole education and training project in rescuing the Upper Basin of the Rio Tarcoles, through the implementation of an ecological - recreative garden ("Parque Comunitario Pulmon Verde de Moravia"), fostersing good use of natural resources, and also works as a platform for training and awareness program in Sustainable Development, based on "Hacia una Nueva Cultura del Agua" (powered through the United Nations by Dr. Pedro Arrojo Agudo and his " Feria de Aguas, Rios y Pueblos", presented in many countries). This initiative is projected to the national and international communities, through the "Water International Conference", which propel initiatives, laws and decisions which enable the development of Costa Rica and other countries under a sustainable model, focused on this essential component for life on the planet.

  16. Infant breastfeeding duration and mid-childhood executive function, behavior, and social-emotional development

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Mandy B.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Bellinger, David C.; Harris, Maria H.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to examine associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in infancy with executive function, behavior, and social-emotional development in mid-childhood. Methods We studied 1037 participants in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort that enrolled pregnant mothers from 1999-2002 and followed children to 7-10 years. Main exposures were: (1) duration of any breastfeeding in the first 12 months and (2) duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months. Main outcomes were child executive function, behavior, and social-emotional development, assessed by (1) the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and (2) the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), completed independently by parents and teachers. Higher scores indicate greater problems. Results In linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographics, maternal intelligence, home environment, early child care, and maternal depression, longer breastfeeding duration was not associated with substantially better executive function, behavior, or social-emotional development. For example, for each additional month of any breastfeeding, the BRIEF Global Executive Composite score (parent) was 0.10 points higher (95% CI −0.01, 0.22) and the SDQ total difficulties score was 0.06 points higher (−0.01, 0.12). Breastfeeding duration was also not associated with BRIEF or SDQ subscales, nor was exclusive breastfeeding duration associated with any of the outcomes analyzed. Conclusion Despite beneficial effects on general intelligence, longer duration of any breastfeeding or of exclusive breastfeeding was not associated with better executive function, behavior, or social-emotional development in mid-childhood. PMID:26651091

  17. Juice and water intake in infancy and later beverage intake and adiposity: Could juice be a gateway drink?

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Long, Michael W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the tracking and significance of beverage consumption in infancy and childhood. Design and Methods Among 1163 children in Project Viva, we examined associations of fruit juice and water intake at 1 year (0 oz, 1–7 oz [small], 8–15 oz [medium], and ≥16 oz [large]) with juice and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and BMI z-score during early (median 3.1 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Results In covariate adjusted models, juice intake at one year was associated with greater juice and sugar sweetened beverages intake during early and mid-childhood and also greater adiposity. Children who drank medium and large amounts of juice at 1 year had higher BMI z-scores during both early (Medium: β=0.16 [95%CI=0.01, 0.32]; Large: β=0.28 [95%CI=0.01, 0.56]) and mid-childhood (Medium: β=0.23 [95%CI=0.07, 0.39]; Large: β=0.36 [95%CI=0.08, 0.64]). After covariate adjustment, associations between water intake at 1 year and beverage intake and adiposity later in childhood were null. Conclusions Higher juice intake at 1 year was associated with higher juice intake, sugar sweetened beverage intake, and BMI z-score during early and mid-childhood. Assessing juice intake during infancy could provide clinicians important data regarding future unhealthy beverage habits and excess adiposity during childhood. PMID:25328160

  18. Peculiarities of spectroscopic information of whole blood in atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairullina, Alphiya Y.; Oleinik, Tatiana V.; Yusupova, Lira B.; Prigoun, Natalia

    1995-01-01

    The coefficient of diffuse reflection and light transmission measurements in an optically thick layer of blood at atherosclerosis conditions under multiple scattering of light in the visual and nearest IR-spectra region (590 -900 nm) were measured for calculation of the absorption coefficients of the material of particles and surrounding medium K((lambda) ) and parameter Q (the latter parameter was defined by the sizes of erythrocytes and aggregates and by refraction coefficient of red cells relative to plasma at atherosclerosis). For the main quantitative spectroscopy of particles the K1((lambda) ) for known value of K((lambda) ) and the parameter Q determinations it is necessary to have the knowledge of relative volume part H occupied by particles. In the case of a high concentration of particles H >= 0.2 as it takes place in the blood the parameters Q and K((lambda) ) are in dependence of H (H - is hematocrit ration for the case of whole blood). It should be noted that spectroscopy of multiple scattering light can give some information out of main absorption bands with the higher accuracy and higher light scattering. The latter value provides the opportunity of determination of faint absorption bands which couldn't be achieved by other methods. The method proposed is characterized by absence of probe preparations, approach to in viva conditions, expressivity, and high informativity of each experiment. A many-fold investigation of the blood of healthy men in the spectral region 650 - 810 nm shows the electron spectrum of absorption of molecular hemoglobin hem is the most optically active blood spectra component K((lambda) ). The broadening of spectral investigations, as in short wave or long wave areas of the spectrum, by the use of multiple scattering methods for calculations of K((lambda) ) and Q((lambda) ) enlarges the number of chromophores studied.

  19. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    We implemented 6 confounding adjustment methods: 1) covariate-adjusted regression, 2) propensity score (PS) regression, 3) PS stratification, 4) PS matching with two calipers, 5) inverse-probability-weighting, and 6) doubly-robust estimation to examine the associations between the BMI z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding versus formula only (N = 437) and cesarean section versus vaginal delivery (N = 1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were −0.33 (95% CI −0.53, −0.13) and −0.24 (−0.46, −0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller N (204 to 276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse-probability-weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from −0.01 to −0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method. PMID:25171142

  20. Quality of DEMs derived from Kite Aerial Photogrammety System: a case study of Dutch coastal environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; Smith, Mike J.; Anders, Niels; Meesuk, Vorawit

    2014-05-01

    Coastal protection is one of the main challenges for the Netherlands, where a large proportion of anthropogenic activity is located below sea level (both residential and economic). The Dutch government is implementing an innovative method of coastal replenishment using natural waves and winds to relocate sand from one side to the other of the country. This requires close monitoring of the spatio-temporal evolution of beaches in order to correctly model the future direction and amount of sand movement. To do so -on the onshore beach- we tested a Kite-Aerial Photography System for monitoring the beach dynamics at Zandmotor (http://www.dezandmotor.nl/en-GB/). The equipment used for data collection were a commercial DSLR camera (Nikon D7000 with a 20mm lens), gyro-levelled rig, Sutton Flowform 16 kite and Leica GNSS Viva GS10, with GSM connection to the Dutch geodetic network. We flew using a 115 m line with an average inclination of 40 to 45°; this gave a camera vertical distance of ~80 m and pixel size of ~20 mm. The methodology follows that of Smith et al. (2009), and of Paron & Smith (2013), applied to a highly dynamic environment with low texture and small relief conditions. Here we present a comparison of the quality of the digital elevation model (DEM) generated from the same dataset using two different systems: Structure from Motion (SfM) using Agisoft Photoscan Pro and traditional photogrammetry using Leica Photograpmmetry Suite. In addition the outputs from the two data processing methods are presented, including both an image mosaic and DEM, and highlighting pros and cons of both methods. References Smith, M. J. et al. 2009. High spatial resolution data acquisition for the geosciences: kite aerial photography. ESPL, 34(1), 155-161. Paron, P., Smith, M.J. 2013. Kite aerial photogrammetry system for monitoring coastal change in the Netherlands. 8th IAG International Conference on Geomorphology, Paris, August.

  1. Longitudinal social cognitive influences on physical activity and sedentary time in Hispanic breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; Song, Jaejoon; Ortiz, Alexis; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Palacios, Cristina; Hughes, Daniel C.; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of two home-based exercise interventions (one culturally-adapted and one standard) on changes in Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) variables, physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST), and to determine the association between changes in SCT variables and changes in PA and ST in Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Method Project VIVA! was a 16-week randomized controlled pilot study to test the effectiveness and feasibility of a culturally-adapted exercise intervention for Mexican American and Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors in Houston, Texas and San Juan, Puerto Rico, respectively. Women (N=89) completed questionnaires on SCT variables, PA and ST and were then randomized to a 16-week culturally-adapted exercise program, a non-culturally adapted standard exercise intervention or a wait-list control group. Multiple regression models were used to determine associations between changes in SCT variables and changes in PA and ST. Results Participants were in their late 50s (58.5 ± 9.2 years) and obese (31.0 ± 6.5 kg/m2). Women reported doing roughly 34.5 minutes/day of PA and spending over 11 hours/day in sedentary activities. Across groups, women reported significant increases in exercise self-efficacy and moderate-intensity, vigorous-intensity, and total physical activity from baseline to follow-up (p<.05). Increased social support from family was associated with increases in vigorous-intensity PA. Increases in social modeling were associated with increases in moderate-intensity and total PA and decreases in ST from baseline to follow-up (p<.05). Conclusions Hispanic cancer survivors benefit from PA interventions that focus on increasing social support from family and friends and social modeling. PMID:26602701

  2. Reconstructive and rehabilitating methods in patients with dysphagia and nutritional disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Motsch, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    to 40% (American Institute of Cancer Research 1999). Esse oportet, ut vivas, non vivere ut edas. / Thou shouldst eat to live, not live to eat. Cicero 106 - 43 B.C. PMID:22073059

  3. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  4. [Science as a profession: an interview with Carlos Chagas Filho].

    PubMed

    Chagas Filho, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    The editing of this interview focuses on aspects of the extensive professional career of Carlos Chagas Filho, who was the founder of the Instituto de Biofísica of the Universidade do Brasil, currently the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. It highlights the scientific and political role he played in Brazilian science and on the international scene. His memoirs include his experience at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, where he began his scientific training; the efforts to create the Laboratório de Física Biológica, succeeded by the Instituto de Biofísica; his work on the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas and the Academia Brasileira de Ciências; the part he played at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; his time as president of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Vatican, which led him to ponder questions about the relationship between science and religion.

  5. Biothics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Guilhem, Dirce Bellezi; Garrafa, Volnei

    1999-07-01

    In this article the authors briefly sketch the nature of Brazilian bioethics. Bioethics emerged in Brazil later than in other Western countries and the 1990's were the most important period for the spread of the discipline in the country. It is in this period that some structural elements of bioethics were established, such as research groups, regulation of Local Research Ethics Committees (Comitês Locais de Etica em Pesquisa -- CEP), the creation of the National Commission of Ethics in Research with Human Beings (Comissão Nacional de Etica em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos -- CONEP) and the Brazilian Bioethics Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética -- SBB). With regard to theoretical work, Brazilian bioethics is clearly an importer of theories from countries central to the studies of bioethics, or, in other words, countries where biothics first emerged and was established. The most commonly used theory among Brazilian researchers is principalism.

  6. Nonextensive models for earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R.; França, G. S.; Vilar, C. S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2006-02-01

    We have revisited the fragment-asperity interaction model recently introduced by Sotolongo-Costa and Posadas [Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 048501 (2004)] by considering a different definition for mean values in the context of Tsallis nonextensive statistics and introducing a scale between the earthquake energy and the size of fragment γ∝r3 . The energy-distribution function (EDF) deduced in our approach is considerably different from the one obtained in the above reference. We have also tested the viability of this EDF with data from two different catalogs (in three different areas), namely, the NEIC and the Bulletin Seismic of the Revista Brasileira de Geofísica. Although both approaches provide very similar values for the nonextensive parameter q , other physical quantities, e.g., energy density, differ considerably by several orders of magnitude.

  7. The transfusion medicine we want

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia (ABHH), through its Board of Directors, hosted a national symposium called "Forum: The Transfusion Medicine we want", to discuss proposed policies and techniques related to the area. This meeting was held in São Paulo on August 19 and 20, 2010, with the participation of experts, authorities and representatives of organized groups of patients and users. The discussions were organized around three specific issues selected from over 100 suggestions sent to the ABHH through public consultation on the web: 1. Strategies; 2. Financing; 3. Blood products. A plenary session, held at the end of the meeting, adopted recommendations that are relevant to the different discussion topics. This document contains actions proposed by the ABHH to meet the demands discussed. PMID:23284248

  8. [Carlos Chagas Filho: an articulator of the history of sciences in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Domingues, Heloisa Maria Bertol

    2012-06-01

    A letter sent in 1982 by a group of scientists to the president of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico appealed for a policy of preservation of Brazilian scientific culture. The name of Carlos Chagas Filho topped the list of signatures thereby proving his commitment to that proposal, the ideological structure of which was part of his experience in scientific policy in Brazil and abroad. This document harks back to the practice of the history of the sciences in Brazil and the creation of places for the safeguard and organization of scientific memory, such as the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins, Casa de Oswaldo Cruz and the Sociedade Brasileira de História da Ciência, of which Carlos Chagas Filho was an inaugural member of the board of directors.

  9. Nonextensive models for earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; França, G S; Vilar, C S; Alcaniz, J S

    2006-02-01

    We have revisited the fragment-asperity interaction model recently introduced by Sotolongo-Costa and Posadas [Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 048501 (2004)] by considering a different definition for mean values in the context of Tsallis nonextensive statistics and introducing a scale between the earthquake energy and the size of fragment epsilon proportional to r3. The energy-distribution function (EDF) deduced in our approach is considerably different from the one obtained in the above reference. We have also tested the viability of this EDF with data from two different catalogs (in three different areas), namely, the NEIC and the Bulletin Seismic of the Revista Brasileira de Geofísica. Although both approaches provide very similar values for the nonextensive parameter , other physical quantities, e.g., energy density, differ considerably by several orders of magnitude.

  10. [Haydée Guanais Dourado: charisma and personality to the service of an ideal].

    PubMed

    Barreira, Ieda de Alencar; Baptista, Suely de Souza

    2002-01-01

    This is a descriptive-social study which looks at the performance of Haydée Guanais Dourado (HGD) in the Brazilian nursing scene, in the mid-20's. The objectives are to describe her personal and professional profile; analyze her participation in ABEn (Brazilian Association of Nursing) and discuss the relationship between her attributes and her contribution to the development of nursing in Brazil. The sources used consisted of Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem-REBEn (Brazilian Journal of Nursing), written documents and oral reports obtained from the Documentation Center of Anna Nery Nursing School in the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The analysis and the interpretation of the data were made by means of the triangulation of the primary and secondary sources, and the historical contextualization. The study evidenced the singularity of HGD and the importance of her contribution to the institutionalization of the nursing profession in the Brazilian society.

  11. [Rachel Haddock Lobo: her professional life and her contribution to REBEn].

    PubMed

    Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Oliveira, Sonô Taíra

    2002-01-01

    This is a historical study that analyses the formation process of the professional habitus of Rachel Haddock Lobo through the reconstruction of her biography. It also analyses her contribution as 1st editor in chief of Revista Annaes de Enfermagem (Brazilian Journal of Nursing), in 1932, which is currently called Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem. The preferential primary sources of this study included written documents and the oral testimony of one of Rachel Haddock Lobo's family members. Both sources were obtained from Centro de Documentação da Escola de Enfermagem Ana Nery (Documentation Center of Ana Neri School of Nursing). Data were analyzed through the concepts of habitus and social configuration by Norbert Elias. The analysis showed that Rachel Haddock Lobo gave expressive contribution to the creation process of the journal referred, which, on its turn, had an strategic importance on the formation of the identity of the Brazilian nursing professionals at that time.

  12. [REBEn in the context of the history of Brazilian nursing: the significance of remembering Dr. Glete de Alcântara].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Leite, Joséte Luzia; Leite, Juçara Luzia; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora

    2002-01-01

    This is a Social History study which aims at recuperating the professional trajectory of Glete de Alcântara in the Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem/REBEn (Brazilian Journal of Nursing), initially called Anais de Enfermagem. It is based on the concept of memory of Maurice Halbwach, and on the concept of generation of Daniel Pécaut. The study contextualizes the professional development of Glete de Alcântara in the history of the Brazilian nursing, highlighting the creation of the Nursing School of the University of São Paulo (EERP/USP) in Ribeirão Preto. The sources for the study were documents obtained in the Centro de Memória da Escola de Enfermagem (Memory Center of the School of Nursing) of Ribeirão Preto and in ABEN (Brazilian Association of Nursing) in Brasília. Data obtained in this association were mainly collected from its record books the journals.

  13. Brazilian Thalassemia Association protocol for iron chelation therapy in patients under regular transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Veríssimo, Monica Pinheiro de Almeida; Loggetto, Sandra Regina; Fabron Junior, Antonio; Baldanzi, Giorgio Roberto; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Fernandes, Juliano Lara; Araujo, Aderson da Silva; Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Berdoukas, Vasilios Antonios; Galanello, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of an iron chelating agent, patients with beta-thalassemia on regular transfusions present complications of transfusion-related iron overload. Without iron chelation therapy, heart disease is the major cause of death; however, hepatic and endocrine complications also occur. Currently there are three iron chelating agents available for continuous use in patients with thalassemia on regular transfusions (desferrioxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox) providing good results in reducing cardiac, hepatic and endocrine toxicity. These practice guidelines, prepared by the Scientific Committee of Associação Brasileira de Thalassemia (ABRASTA), presents a review of the literature regarding iron overload assessment (by imaging and laboratory exams) and the role of T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to control iron overload and iron chelation therapy, with evidence-based recommendations for each clinical situation. Based on this review, the authors propose an iron chelation protocol for patients with thalassemia under regular transfusions. PMID:24478610

  14. The transfusion medicine we want.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia (ABHH), through its Board of Directors, hosted a national symposium called "Forum: The Transfusion Medicine we want", to discuss proposed policies and techniques related to the area. This meeting was held in São Paulo on August 19 and 20, 2010, with the participation of experts, authorities and representatives of organized groups of patients and users. The discussions were organized around three specific issues selected from over 100 suggestions sent to the ABHH through public consultation on the web: 1. Strategies; 2. Financing; 3. Blood products. A plenary session, held at the end of the meeting, adopted recommendations that are relevant to the different discussion topics.This document contains actions proposed by the ABHH to meet the demands discussed.

  15. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in tropical forage Stylosanthes capitata Vogel.

    PubMed

    Santos, M O; Sassaki, R P; Chiari, L; Resende, R M S; DE Souza, A P

    2009-01-01

    Stylosanthes capitata is an important tropical pasture legume. Knowledge of genetic diversity and structure of S. capitata populations is of great importance for the conservation and germplasm management of this species. Thus, eight microsatellite markers were developed from an S. capitata-enriched library. They were characterized in 20 accessions from the germplasm collection of the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.16 to 0.85 and from 0.40 to 0.85, respectively. These microsatellites are the first set of molecular markers from this species and will contribute towards studies of genetic diversity, conservation and breeding of S. capitata.

  16. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernardete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Cláudio; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamad; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sérgio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25028944

  17. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Isola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernardete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot de; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis Dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Cláudio; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamad; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco de; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sérgio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumonia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document.

  18. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document.

  19. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernadete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Claudio; Malbouisson, Luis Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamed; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sergio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document.

  20. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25210957

  1. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25410835

  2. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernadete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Claudio; Malbouisson, Luis Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamed; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sergio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25295817

  3. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XI. Environmental effects on molecular gas and dust in spiral disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, C.; Bianchi, S.; Corbelli, E.; Giovanardi, C.; Hunt, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Boselli, A.; Cortese, L.; Magrini, L.; Zibetti, S.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Davies, J.; Baes, M.; Ciesla, L.; Clemens, M.; De Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Grossi, M.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.

    2012-09-01

    Aims: We investigate the dust-to-gas mass ratio and the environmental effects on the various components of the interstellar medium for a spatially resolved sample of Virgo spirals. Methods: We have used the IRAM-30 m telescope to map over their full extent NGC 4189, NGC 4298, NGC 4388, and NGC 4299 in the 12CO(1-0) and the 12CO(2-1) lines. We observed the same lines in selected regions of NGC 4351, NGC 4294, and NGC 4424. The CO observations are combined with Herschel maps in 5 bands between 100-500 μm from the HeViCS survey, and with HI data from the VIVA survey, to obtain spatially resolved dust and gas distributions. We studied the environmental dependencies by adding to our sample eight galaxies with 12CO(1-0) maps from the literature. Results: We estimate the integrated mass of molecular hydrogen for the galaxies observed in the CO lines. We find molecular-to-total gas mass fractions between 0.04 ≤ fmol ≤ 0.65, with the lowest values for the dimmest galaxy in the B-band. The integrated dust-to-gas ratio ranges between 0.011 and 0.004. For the 12 mapped galaxies we derive the radial distributions of the atomic gas, molecular gas, and dust. We also study the effect of different CO-to-H2 conversion factors. Both the molecular gas and the dust distributions show steeper radial profiles for HI-deficient galaxies and the average dust-to-gas ratio for these galaxies increases or stays radially constant. On scales of ~3 kpc, we find a strong correlation between the molecular gas and the 250 μm surface brightness that is tighter than average for non-deficient galaxies. The correlation becomes linear if we consider the total gas surface mass density. However, the inclusion of atomic hydrogen does not improve the statistical significance of the correlation. Conclusions: The environment can modify the distributions of molecules and dust within a galaxy, although these components are more tightly bound than the atomic gas. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with

  4. Racial/Ethnic and Socio-Contextual Correlates of Chronic Sleep Curtailment in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Michelle-Marie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the association between race/ethnicity and sleep curtailment from infancy to mid-childhood, and to determine the extent to which socioeconomic and contextual factors both explain racial/ethnic differences and are independently associated with sleep curtailment. Methods: We studied 1,288 children longitudinally in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study, from 6 months to 7 years of age. The main exposure was the child's race/ethnicity. The main outcome was a sleep curtailment score from 6 months to 7 years. The score ranged from 0–13, where 0 indicated maximal sleep curtailment and 13 indicated never having curtailed sleep. Results: The mean (standard deviation) sleep curtailment score was 10.2 (2.7) points. In adjusted models (β [95% CI]), black (−1.92, [−2.39, −1.45] points), Hispanic (−1.58, [−2.43, −0.72] points), and Asian (−1.71, [−2.55, −0.86] points) children had lower sleep scores than white children. Adjustment for sociodemographic covariates attenuated racial/ethnic differences in sleep scores for black (by 24%) and Hispanic children (by 32%) but strengthened the differences for Asian children by 14%. Further adjustment for environmental and behavioral variables did not substantially change these differences. Independently, low maternal education, living in households with incomes < $70,000, viewing more TV, and having a TV in the child's bedroom were associated with lower sleep scores. Conclusions: Chronic sleep curtailment from infancy to mid-childhood was more prevalent among black, Hispanic, and Asian children. These differences were partially but not entirely explained by socio-contextual variables. Independently, children from lower socioeconomic status and those with greater exposures to TV also had greater sleep curtailment. Citation: Peña MM, Rifas-Shiman SL, Gillman MW, Redline S, Taveras EM. Racial/ethnic and socio-contextual correlates of chronic sleep curtailment in childhood. SLEEP 2016

  5. Associations of cord blood metabolites with early childhood obesity risk

    PubMed Central

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Oken, Emily; Dreyfuss, Jonathan; Gall, Walt; Gillman, Matthew W.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Rapid postnatal weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome. To identify markers of rapid infancy weight gain and childhood obesity, we analyzed the metabolome in cord blood from infants differing in their postnatal weight trajectories. Methods We performed a nested case-control study within Project Viva, a longitudinal cohort of mothers and children. We selected cases (n=26) based on top quartile of change in weight-for-age 0-6 mo and BMI >85th percentile in mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Controls (n=26) were age- and sex-matched, had normal postnatal weight gain (2nd or 3rd quartile of change in weight-for-age 0-6 mo) and normal mid-childhood weight (BMI 25th-75th percentile). Cord blood metabolites were measured using untargeted LC/MS; individual metabolites and pathways differing between cases vs. controls were compared in categorical analyses. We adjusted metabolites for maternal age, maternal BMI, and breastfeeding duration (linear regression), and assessed whether metabolites improved the ability to predict case-control status (logistic regression). Results Of 415 detected metabolites, 16 were altered in cases vs. controls (T-test, nominal P<0.05). 3 metabolites were related to tryptophan: serotonin, tryptophan betaine, and tryptophyl leucine (46%, 48% and 26% lower in cases, respectively, P<0.05). Mean levels of 2 methyl donors, dimethylglycine and N-acetylmethionine, were also lower in cases (18% and 16% respectively, P=0.01). Moreover, the glutamine:glutamate ratio was reduced by 33% (P<0.05) in cases. Levels of serotonin, tryptophyl leucine, and N-acetylmethionine remained significantly different after adjustment for maternal BMI, age, and breastfeeding. Adding metabolite levels to logistic regression models including only clinical covariates improved the ability to predict case vs. control status. Conclusions Several cord blood metabolites are associated with rapid postnatal weight gain

  6. Applying a visual language for image processing as a graphical teaching tool in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchman, James J.; Tanimoto, Steven L.; Rowberg, Alan H.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1992-05-01

    Typical user interaction in image processing is with command line entries, pull-down menus, or text menu selections from a list, and as such is not generally graphical in nature. Although applying these interactive methods to construct more sophisticated algorithms from a series of simple image processing steps may be clear to engineers and programmers, it may not be clear to clinicians. A solution to this problem is to implement a visual programming language using visual representations to express image processing algorithms. Visual representations promote a more natural and rapid understanding of image processing algorithms by providing more visual insight into what the algorithms do than the interactive methods mentioned above can provide. Individuals accustomed to dealing with images will be more likely to understand an algorithm that is represented visually. This is especially true of referring physicians, such as surgeons in an intensive care unit. With the increasing acceptance of picture archiving and communications system (PACS) workstations and the trend toward increasing clinical use of image processing, referring physicians will need to learn more sophisticated concepts than simply image access and display. If the procedures that they perform commonly, such as window width and window level adjustment and image enhancement using unsharp masking, are depicted visually in an interactive environment, it will be easier for them to learn and apply these concepts. The software described in this paper is a visual programming language for imaging processing which has been implemented on the NeXT computer using NeXTstep user interface development tools and other tools in an object-oriented environment. The concept is based upon the description of a visual language titled `Visualization of Vision Algorithms' (VIVA). Iconic representations of simple image processing steps are placed into a workbench screen and connected together into a dataflow path by the user. As

  7. [Assessment of cytotoxicity and biosafety of polyphenolic extracts from olive pits].

    PubMed

    Veciana Galindo, C; Cortés Castell, E; Torro Montell, L; Sirvent Segura, E; Rizo Baeza, M M; Gil Guillén, V

    2014-06-01

    El olivo constituye una fuente de compuestos bioactivos, tanto en su fruto, como en sus subproductos. Algunos de sus compuestos han mostrado beneficios para la salud, siendo objetivo de este trabajo la evaluación de la bioseguridad in vitro e in vivo de extractos de huesos de aceituna ricos en polifenoles. Material y métodos: Se ha evaluado la citotoxicidad mediante adición de extracto de hueso de olivas disuelto en PBS(0-400 mg/l) a un cultivo de la línea celular THP1- XBlue-CD14 y evaluación de la viabilidad celular mediante la reacción de reducción de la resazurina por las células vivas. La bioseguridad se ha evaluado en pez cebra, incubando huevos fecundados en extracto de 0 a 100 mg/l durante 24 a 72 horas y midiendo los parámetros: a) letales (embriones muertos, huevos coagulados), b) subletales (movimientos espontáneos, pigmentación, edemas) y c) teratogénicos (malformaciones, retraso desarrollo). Resultados: La citotoxicidad (efecto tóxico cuando viabilidad inferior al 75%) del extracto de huesos de oliva en la línea celular THP1-XBlue-CD14, está en concentraciones superiores a 50 mg/l de extracto (viabilidad 77,5%), calculando una LD50 (dosis de letalidad 50%) superior a 800 mg/l. La bioseguridad in vivo con los embriones de pez cebra expuestos a concentraciones de extracto de 0- 100 mg/l mostró total viabilidad a 24, 48 y 72 horas post fecundación (hpf), no observándose mortalidad ni se apreciaron embriones con efectos subletales, teratógenos, ni adelanto o retraso en la eclosión. Se puede concluir que el extracto de huesos de olivas es altamente bioseguro hasta al menos concentraciones de 100 mg/l.

  8. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer L.; Perng, Wei; Belfort, Mandy Brown; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Switkowski, Karen; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Short stature or short legs is associated with cardiometabolic disease. Few studies have addressed this issue in children, incorporated repeated measures, or studied modern cohorts. Methods We examined if change in total height, leg length and trunk length between two time points from early (median: 3.2 years) to mid-childhood (median: 7.7 years), with and without adjustment for concurrent change in adiposity (subscapular plus triceps skinfold thickness), was associated with mid-childhood cardiometabolic risk in 315 boys and 295 girls from Project Viva. The main outcome was a cardiometabolic risk score based on sex-specific internal z-scores for systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Results Mean (SD) total height was 97.9 (4.5) cm in boys and 97.1 (4.7) cm in girls in early childhood and 129.1 (7.2) cm in boys and 128.3 (7.9) cm in girls in mid-childhood. Trunk length constituted about half of total height. In linear regression models adjusted for parental anthropometry and socio-demographics, faster growth in total height, leg length and particularly trunk length, were associated with higher cardiometabolic risk in mid-childhood. Per 1 cm annual increase in trunk length, the cardiometabolic risk score was 0.23 z-score (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.39) higher among boys and 0.47 z-score (95% CI 0.33, 0.60) higher among girls. Estimates were attenuated after adjusting for adiposity (boys: 0.03 z-score, 95% CI -0.11, 0.18; girls: 0.32 z-score, 95% CI 0.19, 0.45). Conclusion Rapid linear growth, particularly in trunk length, was associated with higher cardiometabolic risk in childhood, which was explained by relationships of linear growth with adiposity in boys, but only partly in girls. PMID:27658308

  9. Interaction between Silver Nanoparticles and Spinach Leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Riser, E.; He, S.; Zhang, W.

    2013-12-01

    Interactions of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plant surfaces are critical to assessing the bioavailability of ENPs to edible plants and to further evaluating impacts of ENPs on ecological health and food safety. Silver nanoparticles (i.e., nanoAg) could enter the agroecosystems either as an active ingredient in pesticides or from other industrial and consumer applications. Thus, in the events of pesticide application, rainfall, and irrigation, vegetable leaves could become in contact and then interact with nanoAg. The present study was to assess whether the interaction of nanoAg with spinach leaves can be described by classical sorption models and to what extent it depends on and varies with dispersion methods, environmental temperature, and ion release. We investigated the stability and ion release of nanoAg dispersed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 1%) and humic acid (HA, 10 mg C/L) solutions, as well as sorption and desorption of nanoAg on and from the fresh spinach leaf. Results showed SDS-nanoAg released about 2%-8% more Ag ion than HA-nanoAg. The sorption of Ag ion, described by the Freundlich model in the initial concentration range of 0.6-50 mg/L, was 2-4 times higher than that of nanoAg. The sorption of nanoAg on spinach leaf can be fitted by the Langmuir model, and the maximum sorption amount of HA-nanoAg and SDS-nanoAg was 0.21 and 0.41 mg/g, respectively. The higher sorption of SDS-nanoAg relative to that of HA-nanoAg could be partially resulted from the higher release of Ag ion from the former. The maximum desorption amount of HA-nanoAg and SDS-nanoAg in 1% SDS solution was 0.08 and 0.10 mg/g, respectively. NanoAg attachment on and its penetration to the spinach leaf was visualized by the Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). It is equally important that the less sorption of nanoAg under low environmental temperature could be partially due to the closure of stomata, as verified by SEM-EDS. CytoViva

  10. Earthquake Safety Tips in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, M. O.; Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Marques, G.; Gonçalves, M.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    strait collaboration with the Parents Association. It was partially funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program. The seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz provides the necessary scientific advice.

  11. Recent Deglaciation of Darwin Mountains (Tierra de Fuego) after Little Ice Age: monitoring by photogrammetry, lichenometry, dendrochronology and field studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Sancho, L.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Green, A.; Vivas, M.; Pintado, A.

    2012-04-01

    behaviour detected at the Pia glacial terminus results from a combination of climatic factors and elements derived from the dynamics of the glacial flow. García-Sancho, L. Palacios, D., Green, T.G.A., Vivas, M., Pintado, A. (2011): Extreme lichen growth rates detected in recent deglaciated areas in Tierra del Fuego. Polar Biology, 34 (6): 813-822. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-010-0935-4. Research funded by POL20060840 & CGL2009-7343 projects, Government of Spain.

  12. Adhesive bond strengths to enamel and dentin using recommended and extended treatment times.

    PubMed

    Kimmes, Nicole S; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different enamel and dentin conditioning times on the shear bond strength of a resin composite using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were determined following treatment of flat ground human enamel and dentin surfaces (4000 grit) with 11 adhesive systems: 1) AdheSE One Viva Pen-(ASE), 2) Adper Prompt L-Pop-(PLP), 3) Adper Single Bond Plus-(SBP), 4) Clearfil SE Bond-(CSE), 5) Clearfil S3 Bond-(CS3), 6) OptiBond All-In-One-(OBA), 7) OptiBond Solo Plus-(OBS), 8) Peak SE-(PSE), 9) Xeno IV-(X4), 10) Xeno V-(X5) and 11) XP Bond-(XPB) using recommended treatment times and an extended treatment time of 60 seconds (n = 10/group). Composite (Z100) to enamel and dentin bond strengths (24 hours) were determined using Ultradent fixtures and debonded with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's LSD post hoc test. The highest shear bond strengths (MPa) to enamel were achieved by the three etch-and-rinse systems at both the recommended treatment time (SBP-40.5 +/- 6.1; XPB-38.7 +/- 3.7; OBS- 35.2 +/- 6.2) and the extended treatment time (SBP-44.5 +/- 8.1; XPB-40.9 +/- 5.7; OBS-35.0 +/- 4.5). Extending the enamel treatment time did not produce a significant change (p > 0.05) in bond strength for the 11 adhesive systems tested. OBS generated the highest (46.2 +/- 7.9) bond strengths to dentin at the recommended treatment time. At the extended treatment time X4 (42.2 +/- 11.7), PSE (42.1 +/- 9.7) and OBS (41.4 +/- 8.0) produced the highest bond strengths to dentin. The bond strength change between recommend and extended treatment times was significant (p < 0.05) for PSE, but the other 10 systems did not exhibit any significant change.

  13. 15 Years of Ocean Education and Outreach Activities by the College of Exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, P.; Bishop, K.

    2012-04-01

    Since 1997 the College of Exploration has created ocean related interactive and engaging online and onsite education and outreach programs that have reached over 15,000 particpants in over 30 countries. Partners and funders have included in the USA the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Geographic, and many others. In the UK the Natural Environment Research Council and the National Oceanography Center, and in Europe Portugal's Ciencia Viva. The first online and onsite program was in partnership with the now Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences. With funding from NSF the project took the online Bermuda Atlanic Time Series (BATS) dataset and made it more accessible to teachers and students in a custom spreadsheet with easier to use macros and graphs. Online training and workshops helped teachers learn more about using BATS in the classroom. The next project in 1998 in partnership with the University of Southern California Sea Grant was an online workshop on El Nino. This was one of the first teacher professional development projecs offered online. Scientists with expertise in El Nino were able to meet and discuss with teachers. Over the past 15 years there have numerous programs, workshops and activities on topics such as Autosub Under Ice, Ocean Exploration then,now and the future, Ocean Observing Systems, Harmful Algal Blooms, Coral Reefs, and much more. These will be summarized. Every activity has been evaluated and assessed. The cumulative results of these evaluations will be presented along with the results of a recent survey of all participants over the past 15 years. Since 2002 the College of Exploration has played a key role in the development and promotion of the Ocean Literacy campaign, an effort to bring innovative approaches to promoting the ocean in K-12 education as well integrating the ocean into national standards and curriculum and promoting the ocean to the general public. A

  14. EDITORIAL: Special issue in honour of J E Allen's 75th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, R. N.

    2003-11-01

    challenging competitor when we were working on similar lines, and his research students provided me with the stimulation that comes from such interaction, be it informal or more formally in the course of D Phil vivas. Thus I have felt that there was a debt to be repaid by encouraging his students and other co-workers to contribute to this issue. More importantly, we honour someone whose contributions we know will stand the test of time.

  15. New insights into the transition pathway from nonspecific to specific complex of DNA with Escherichia coli integration host factor.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Paula; Kuznetsov, Serguei V; Ansari, Anjum

    2008-05-15

    To elucidate the nature of the transition-state ensemble along the reaction pathway from a nonspecific protein-DNA complex to the specific complex, we have carried out measurements of DNA bending/unbending dynamics on a cognate DNA substrate in complex with integration host factor (IHF), an architectural protein from E. coli that bends its cognate site by approximately 180 degrees . We use a laser temperature jump to perturb the IHF-DNA complex and monitor the relaxation kinetics with time-resolved FRET measurements on DNA substrates end-labeled with a FRET pair. Previously, we showed that spontaneous bending/kinking of DNA, from thermal disruption of base-pairing/-stacking interactions, may be the rate-limiting step in the formation of the specific complex (Kuznetsov, S. V.; Sugimura, S.; Vivas, P.; Crothers, D. M.; Ansari, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006, 103, 18515). Here, we probe the effect of varying [KCl], which affects the stability of the complex, on this rate-limiting step. We find that below approximately 250 mM KCl, the observed relaxation kinetics are from the unimolecular bending/unbending of DNA, and the relaxation rate kr is independent of [KCl]. Above approximately 300 mM KCl, dissociation of the IHF-DNA complex becomes significant, and the observed relaxation process includes contributions from the association/dissociation step, with kr decreasing with increasing [KCl]. The DNA bending step occurs with a positive activation enthalpy, despite the large negative enthalpy change reported for the specific IHF-DNA complex (Holbrook, J. A.; Tsodikov, O. V.; Saecker, R. M.; Record, M. T., Jr. J. Mol. Biol. 2001, 310, 379). Our conclusion from these studies is that in the uphill climb to the transition state, the DNA is kinked, but with no release of ions, as indicated by the salt-independent behavior of k(r) at low [KCl]. Any release of ions in the unimolecular process, together with conformational changes in the protein-DNA complex that facilitate

  16. The International Polar Year in Portugal: A New National Polar Programme and a Major Education and Outreach project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes-Victor, L.; Vieira, G.; Xavier, J.; Canario, A.

    2008-12-01

    Before the International Polar Year, in Portugal polar research was conducted by a very small group of scientists integrated in foreign projects or research institutions. Portugal was not member of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the European Polar Board (EPB), neither a subscriber of the Antarctic Treaty. In 2004 Portuguese Polar researchers considered the IPY as an opportunity to change this situation and organized the national Committee for the IPY. The objectives were ambitious: to answer the aforementioned issues in defining and proposing a National Polar Programme. In late 2008, close to the end of the IPY, the objectives were attained, except the Antarctic Treaty signature that is, however, in an advanced stage, having been approved by consensus at the National Parliament in early 2007. Portugal joined SCAR in July 2006, the EPB in 2007 and a set of 5 Antarctic research projects forming the roots of the National Polar Programme (ProPolar) have been approved by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT-MCTES). Scientifically, the IPY can already be considered a major success in Portugal with an improvement in polar scientific research, in the number of scientists performing field work in the Antarctic, organizing polar science meetings and producing an expected increase in the number of polar science peer- reviewed papers. The Portuguese IPY scientific activities were accompanied by a major education and outreach project funded by the Agencia Ciência Viva (MCTES): LATITUDE60! Education for the Planet in the IPY. This project lead by the universities of Algarve, Lisbon and by the Portuguese Association of Geography Teachers is heavily interdisciplinary, programmed for all ages, from kindergarten to adults, and hoped to bring together scientists and society. LATITUDE60! was a major success and focussed on showing the importance of the polar regions for Earth's environment, emphasising on the implications of polar change for

  17. Landscape as a predictor of wetland condition: an evaluation of the Landscape Development Index (LDI) with a large reference wetland dataset from Ohio.

    PubMed

    Mack, John J

    2006-09-01

    Recent approaches to wetland assessment have advocated a multilevel approach which incorporates assessments based on landscape (remote sensing) data, on-site but "rapid" methods, and intensive methods where quantitative data is collected. Brown and Vivas (2004) recently pro- posed an assessment method that uses remote sensing information (Landscape Development Index or LDI) and propose that it may also be usable as a quantified human disturbance gradient. The LDI was evaluated using a large reference wetland data set from Ohio using land use percentages within a 1 km radius circle of the wetlands. The LDI had interpretable and significant relationships with another human disturbance gradient (the Ohio Rapid Assessment Method for Wetlands or ORAM) and with most metrics and scores from the Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity (VIBI) developed for use in the State of Ohio. Metrics from emergent wetlands had the most significant correlations with the LDI (10 of 10 metrics), followed by forested wetlands (8 of 10 metrics) and shrub wetlands (4 of 10). Poor correlation for VIBI scores and metrics of shrub wetlands was due to differences in attainable LDI scores based on ecoregion and natural buffers shielding the wetland from otherwise intensive land uses. The ORAM and VIBI were developed for use in wetlands in Ohio completely independent of the LDI. It is an important test of the LDI concept that so many interpretable and significant relationships occurred between the VIBI scores, VIBI metric values, and the ORAM scores. For the purposes of VIBI development, the LDI is an independent, quantified disturbance gradient that has provided an additional test of the VIBI. Given its theoretical underpinnings and the fact that it uses quantified land use percentages, the LDI has many advantages over more qualitative human disturbance gradients. Using land use percentages from increasingly smaller distances from the wetland edge (100-200 m) may improve the resolution of the LDI

  18. Bringing soil science to society after catastrophic events such as big forest fires. Some examples of field approaches in Spanish Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Moltó, Jorge; Chrenkovà, Katerina; Torres, Pilar; Lozano, Elena; Jimenez-Pinilla, Patricia; Jara-Navarro, Ana B.

    2015-04-01

    participation of people on the days when we started field research with installation of plots and soil samplings, field trips with volunteers of some NGO's, etc., are some of examples of what we will show in this presentation of how to bring soil science to society. Acknowledgements: to the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R), FUEGORED, Spanish Soil Science Society, Alcoi and Javea councils, Botánica Mediterrànea, ACIF Alcoi, ACIF Marina Alta, Xàbia Viva, Montgó Viu, and Sierra de Mariola and Montgó Natural Parks for their collaboration.

  19. Novel therapeutic mechanisms determine the effectiveness of lipid-core nanocapsules on melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, Carine C; Fiel, Luana A; Bexiga, Celina G; Asbahr, Ana Carolina C; Uchiyama, Mayara K; Cogliati, Bruno; Araki, Koiti; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Farsky, Sandra P

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a severe metastatic skin cancer with poor prognosis and no effective treatment. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches using nanotechnology have been proposed to improve therapeutic effectiveness. Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs), prepared with poly(ε-caprolactone), capric/caprylic triglyceride, and sorbitan monostearate and stabilized by polysorbate 80, are efficient as drug delivery systems. Here, we investigated the effects of acetyleugenol-loaded LNC (AcE-LNC) on human SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells and its therapeutic efficacies on melanoma induced by B16F10 in C57B6 mice. LNC and AcE-LNC had z-average diameters and zeta potential close to 210 nm and -10.0 mV, respectively. CytoViva® microscopy images showed that LNC and AcE-LNC penetrated into SK-Mel-28 cells, and remained in the cytoplasm. AcE-LNC in vitro treatment (18–90×109 particles/mL; 1 hour) induced late apoptosis and necrosis; LNC and AcE-LNC (3–18×109 particles/mL; 48 hours) treatments reduced cell proliferation and delayed the cell cycle. Elevated levels of nitric oxide were found in supernatant of LNC and AcE-LNC, which were not dependent on nitric oxide synthase expressions. Daily intraperitoneal or oral treatment (days 3–10 after tumor injection) with LNC or AcE-LNC (1×1012 particles/day), but not with AcE (50 mg/kg/day, same dose as AcE-LNC), reduced the volume of the tumor; nevertheless, intraperitoneal treatment caused toxicity. Oral LNC treatment was more efficient than AcE-LNC treatment. Moreover, oral treatment with nonencapsulated capric/caprylic triglyceride did not inhibit tumor development, implying that nanocapsule supramolecular structure is important to the therapeutic effects. Together, data herein presented highlight the relevance of the supramolecular structure of LNCs to toxicity on SK-Mel-28 cells and to the therapeutic efficacy on melanoma development in mice, conferring novel therapeutic mechanisms to LNC further than a drug delivery system. PMID:27099491

  20. Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Childhood Metabolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Mora, Ana M.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited.Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. Methods: We studied 665 mother–child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999–2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex.Methods: We studied 665 mother–child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999–2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. Results: Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., –10.1% (95% CI: –17.3, –2

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Adiposity in Early and Mid-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana María; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Webster, Thomas F.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Sagiv, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined whether prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is associated with childhood adiposity.Background: Few studies have examined whether prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is associated with childhood adiposity. Objective: We examined associations of prenatal exposure to PFASs with adiposity in early and mid-childhood.Objective: We examined associations of prenatal exposure to PFASs with adiposity in early and mid-childhood. Methods: We measured plasma PFAS concentrations in 1,645 pregnant women (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts (USA), between 1999 and 2002. We assessed overall and central adiposity in 1,006 children in early childhood (median, 3.2 years) and 876 in mid-childhood (median, 7.7 years) using anthropometric and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. We fitted multivariable linear regression models to estimate exposure-outcome associations and evaluated effect modification by child sex.Methods: We measured plasma PFAS concentrations in 1,645 pregnant women (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts (USA), between 1999 and 2002. We assessed overall and central adiposity in 1,006 children in early childhood (median, 3.2 years) and 876 in mid-childhood (median, 7.7 years) using anthropometric and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. We fitted multivariable linear regression models to estimate exposure-outcome associations and evaluated effect modification by child sex. Results: Median (25–75th percentiles) prenatal plasma perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) concentrations in children assessed in early childhood were 5.6 (4.1–7.7), 24.8 (18.4–33.9), 2.4 (1.6–3.8), and 0.6 (0.5–0.9) ng/mL, respectively. Among girls, each interquartile

  2. Turkish Publications in Science Citation Index and Citation Index-Expanded Indexed Journals in the Field of Anaesthesiology: A Bibliographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Özbilgin, Şule; Hancı, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to assess Turkish publications in Science Citation Index (SCI) and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) indexed journals in the field of ‘anaesthesiology’. Methods Journals related to ‘anaesthesiology’ in the Science Citation Index-Expanded database of ‘Thomson Reuter Web of Science’ were searched. The search engine of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (WoS) was used in the advanced mode by typing ‘IS=ISSN number’ to identify publications in the journal. By typing ‘IS=ISSN number AND CU=Turkey’, Turkish papers on anaesthesiology were found. If Turkish and non-Turkish authors had collaborated, the article was included in the search when the corresponding author had provided a Turkey-based address. The catalogue information and statistics were used to determine Turkish publications as the percentage of total publications and the annual mean number of Turkish publications. In WoS, ‘SU=anesthesiology’ was used to determine the number, country, year and topic distributions of publications from 1975 to date and within the last 10 years. The citation numbers and h-indices were determined based on the country for publications within the last 10 years. Results From 1975 to the early 2000s Turkey was 20th in the list of countries with highest number of publications on anaesthesiology, however in the last 10 years Turkey moved up to 18th place. Its mean citation number has been 4.64, and it remains the 2nd lowest country pertaining to citations among the 22 countries with the most number of publications. According to the percentage of publications in the field of anaesthesiology, the journals with highest rate of Turkish publications were Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia, European Journal of Anaesthesiology and Journal of Anesthesia. Conclusion In the field of anaesthesiology, the highest number of articles from Turkey was published in Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia, European Journal of

  3. Quality of Life on Arterial Hypertension: Validity of Known Groups of MINICHAL.

    PubMed

    Soutello, Ana Lúcia Soares; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Martinix, Gabriela Giordano; Nadruz Jr, Wilson; Gallani, Maria-Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2015-02-27

    para eventos cardiovasculares. Dentre os instrumentos criados para avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, destaca-se o Mini-Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida en la Hipertensión Arterial (MINICHAL), recentemente adaptado para a cultura brasileira. Objetivo: Estimar a validade de grupos conhecidos da versão brasileira do MINICHAL em relação à classificação de risco para eventos cardiovasculares, sintomas, intensidade da dispneia e lesões de órgãos-alvo. Métodos: Foram investigados 200 hipertensos em seguimento ambulatorial, cujos dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e de qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde foram obtidos por meio de consulta ao prontuário e da aplicação da versão brasileira do MINICHAL. O teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparar qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em relação aos sintomas e às lesões de órgãos-alvo. Teste de Kruskal-Wallis e ANOVA com transformação nos ranks foram empregados para comparar qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em relação à classificação de risco para eventos cardiovasculares e intensidade da dispneia, respectivamente. Resultados: O MINICHAL discriminou qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em relação aos sintomas e dano renal (lesões de órgãos-alvo), porém não discriminou qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em relação à classificação de risco para eventos cardiovasculares. Conclusão: A versão brasileira do MINICHAL é um instrumento capaz de discriminar diferenças na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em relação aos sintomas de dispneia, precordialgia, palpitação, lipotímia, cefaleia e presença de dano renal.

  4. Review of ingot niobium as a material for superconducting radiofrequency accelerating cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneisel, P.; Ciovati, G.; Dhakal, P.; Saito, K.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Myneni, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    As a result of collaboration between Jefferson Lab and niobium manufacturer Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração (CBMM), ingot niobium was explored as a possible material for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity fabrication. The first single cell cavity from large-grain high purity niobium was fabricated and successfully tested at Jefferson Lab in 2004. This work triggered research activities in other SRF laboratories around the world. Large-grain (LG) niobium became not only an interesting alternative material for cavity builders, but also material scientists and surface scientists were eager to participate in the development of this technology. Many single cell cavities made from material of different suppliers have been tested successfully and several multi-cell cavities have shown performances comparable to the best cavities made from standard fine-grain niobium. Several 9-cell cavities fabricated by Research Instruments and tested at DESY exceeded the best performing fine grain cavities with a record accelerating gradient of Eacc=45.6 MV/m. The quality factor of those cavities was also higher than that of fine-grain (FG) cavities processed with the same methods. Such performance levels push the state-of-the art of SRF technology and are of great interest for future accelerators. This contribution reviews the development of ingot niobium technology and highlights some of the differences compared to standard FG material and opportunities for further developments.

  5. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  6. Citations of Brazilian physical therapy journals in national publications

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renan K. C.; Yamaki, Vitor N.; Botelho, Nara M.; Teixeira, Renato C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. Objective This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. Method All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. Results A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. Conclusion On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years. PMID:24675917

  7. Review of ingot niobium as a material for superconducting radiofrequency accelerating cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Kneisel, P.; Ciovati, G.; Dhakal, P.; ...

    2014-12-01

    As a result of collaboration between Jefferson Lab and niobium manufacturer Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração (CBMM), ingot niobium was explored as a possible material for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity fabrication. The first single cell cavity from large-grain high purity niobium was fabricated and successfully tested at Jefferson Lab in 2004. This work triggered research activities in other SRF laboratories around the world. The large-grain (LG) niobium became not only an interesting alternative material for cavity builders, but also material scientists and surface scientists were eager to participate in the development of this technology. Many single cell cavities mademore » from material of different suppliers have been tested successfully and several multi-cell cavities have shown performances comparable to the best cavities made from standard fine-grain niobium. Several 9-cell cavities fabricated by Research Instruments and tested at DESY exceeded the best performing fine grain cavities with a record accelerating gradient of Eacc=45.6 MV/m. The quality factor of those cavities was also higher than that of fine-grain (FG) cavities processed with the same methods. Such performance levels push the state-of-the art of SRF technology and are of great interest for future accelerators. This contribution reviews the development of ingot niobium technology and highlights some of the differences compared to standard FG material and opportunities for further developments.« less

  8. Review of ingot niobium as a material for superconducting radiofrequency accelerating cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, P.; Ciovati, G.; Dhakal, P.; Saito, K.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Myneni, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    As a result of collaboration between Jefferson Lab and niobium manufacturer Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração (CBMM), ingot niobium was explored as a possible material for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity fabrication. The first single cell cavity from large-grain high purity niobium was fabricated and successfully tested at Jefferson Lab in 2004. This work triggered research activities in other SRF laboratories around the world. The large-grain (LG) niobium became not only an interesting alternative material for cavity builders, but also material scientists and surface scientists were eager to participate in the development of this technology. Many single cell cavities made from material of different suppliers have been tested successfully and several multi-cell cavities have shown performances comparable to the best cavities made from standard fine-grain niobium. Several 9-cell cavities fabricated by Research Instruments and tested at DESY exceeded the best performing fine grain cavities with a record accelerating gradient of Eacc=45.6 MV/m. The quality factor of those cavities was also higher than that of fine-grain (FG) cavities processed with the same methods. Such performance levels push the state-of-the art of SRF technology and are of great interest for future accelerators. This contribution reviews the development of ingot niobium technology and highlights some of the differences compared to standard FG material and opportunities for further developments.

  9. [Safe use of biological therapies for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritides].

    PubMed

    Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Cruz, Bóris Afonso; Brenol, Claiton Viegas; Pollak, Daniel Feldman; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Pereira, Ivânio Alves; Carvalho, Jozélio Freire de; Bertolo, Manoel Barros; Pinheiro, Marcelo de Medeiros; Freitas, Max Victor Carioca; Silva, Nilzio Antônio da; Louzada-Júnior, Paulo; Sampaio-Barros, Percival Degrava; Giorgi, Rina Dalva Neubarth; Lima, Rodrigo Aires Corrêa; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of autoimmune rheumatic diseases has gradually improved over the last half century, which has been expanded with the contribution of biological therapies or immunobiopharmaceuticals. However, we must be alert to the possibilities of undesirable effects from the use of this class of medications. The Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia/SBR) produced a document based on a comprehensive literature review on the safety aspects of this class of drugs, specifically with regard to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritides. The themes selected by the participating experts, on which considerations have been established as the safe use of biological drugs, were: occurrence of infections (bacterial, viral, tuberculosis), infusion reactions, hematological, neurological, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular reactions, neoplastic events (solid tumors and hematologic neoplasms), immunogenicity, other occurrences and vaccine response. For didactic reasons, we opted by elaborating a summary of safety assessment in accordance with the previous themes, by drug class/mechanism of action (tumor necrosis factor antagonists, T-cell co-stimulation blockers, B-cell depletors and interleukin-6 receptor blockers). Separately, general considerations on safety in the use of biologicals in pregnancy and lactation were proposed. This review seeks to provide a broad and balanced update of that clinical and experimental experience pooled over the last two decades of use of immunobiological drugs for RA and spondyloarthritides treatment.

  10. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  11. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas: a loyal friend and a strong supporter of tropical medicine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2016-01-01

    Our colleagues at the Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical have been informed of the demise of Professor Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (1937-2014). However, considering that the tribute we paid to him in 2015 - at the 20th anniversary of the Seminário Laveran & Deane sobre Malária - is equally true today, it is worth sharing it with the readers of the RSBMT, in recognition of his many virtues. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (MD in 1963 and DSc in 1969) was Honorary Professor of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine at the Faculté de Médecine de Grenoble (France), Honorary President of the Académie Nationale de Médecine, member of the Académie Nationale de Pharmacie and Officier dans l'Ordre de La Légion d'Honneur. In addition to his important contributions to tropical medicine and parasitology, working in France during his long and productive career (50 years and 300 publications), Ambroise-Thomas became an admirer and supporter of Brazilian activities related to research, teaching and information in Tropical Medicine.

  12. Delirium in intensive care unit patients under noninvasive ventilation: a multinational survey

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Lilian Maria Sobreira; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Barreto, Bruna Brandão; Zantieff, Ricardo; Tobar, Eduardo; Esquinas, Antonio; Quarantini, Lucas de Castro; Gusmao-Flores, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a multinational survey of intensive care unit professionals to determine the practices on delirium assessment and management, in addition to their perceptions and attitudes toward the evaluation and impact of delirium in patients requiring noninvasive ventilation. Methods An electronic questionnaire was created to evaluate the profiles of the respondents and their related intensive care units, the systematic delirium assessment and management and the respondents' perceptions and attitudes regarding delirium in patients requiring noninvasive ventilation. The questionnaire was distributed to the cooperative network for research of the Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB-Net) mailing list and to researchers in different centers in Latin America and Europe. Results Four hundred thirty-six questionnaires were available for analysis; the majority of the questionnaires were from Brazil (61.9%), followed by Turkey (8.7%) and Italy (4.8%). Approximately 61% of the respondents reported no delirium assessment in the intensive care unit, and 31% evaluated delirium in patients under noninvasive ventilation. The Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit was the most reported validated diagnostic tool (66.9%). Concerning the indication of noninvasive ventilation in patients already presenting with delirium, 16.3% of respondents never allow the use of noninvasive ventilation in this clinical context. Conclusion This survey provides data that strongly reemphasizes poor efforts toward delirium assessment and management in the intensive care unit setting, especially regarding patients requiring noninvasive ventilation. PMID:26761474

  13. Repeatability and heritability of response to superovulation in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Tonhati, H; Lôbo, R B; Oliveira, H N

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative effects of genetic and phenotypic factors on the efficacy and efficiency of superovulation for Holstein-Friesian cows reared in Brazil. A database, established by the Associacao Brasileira de Criadores de Bovinos da Raca Holandesa, consisting of a total of 5387 superovulations of 2941 cows distributed over 473 herds and sired by 690 bulls was used for the analysis. The records were analyzed by MTDFREML (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood), using a repeatability animal model. The fixed effects included in the model were contemporaneous group (veterinarian, herd, year and season of the superovulation); number of semen doses; cow age; and superovulation order. The estimated repeatability of the number of the transferable embryos was low (0.13), and the estimated heritability was 0.03. These results indicate that environmental factors play a critical role in the response of a cow to a superovulation treatment. There is little evidence that future responses to superovulation by individual females can be predicted by previous treatment(s) or that superovulation response is an heritable trait.

  14. Neutral Einstein metrics in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Peter R.

    1991-11-01

    In Matsushita [J. Math. Phys. 22, 979-982 (1981), ibid. 24, 36-40 (1983)], for curvature endomorphisms for the pseudo-Euclidean space R2,2, an analog of the Petrov classification as a basis for applications to neutral Einstein metrics on compact, orientable, four-dimensional manifolds is provided. This paper points out flaws in Matsushita's classification and, moreover, that an error in Chern's [``Pseudo-Riemannian geometry and the Gauss-Bonnet formula,'' Acad. Brasileira Ciencias 35, 17-26 (1963) and Shiing-Shen Chern: Selected Papers (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1978)] Gauss-Bonnet formula for pseudo-Riemannian geometry was incorporated in Matsushita's subsequent analysis. A self-contained account of the subject of the title is presented to correct these errors, including a discussion of the validity of an appropriate analog of the Thorpe-Hitchin inequality of the Riemannian case. When the inequality obtains in the neutral case, the Euler characteristic is nonpositive, in contradistinction to Matsushita's deductions.

  15. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. METHODS: I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008–2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. RESULTS: This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized. PMID:20835560

  16. Brazilian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; França, Alfeu T; Grumach, Anete S; Motta, Abílio A; Fernandes, Fátima R; Campos, Regis A; Valle, Solange O; Rosário, Nelson A; Sole, Dirceu

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by edema attacks with multiple organ involvement. It is caused by a quantitative or functional deficiency of the C1 inhibitor, which is a member of the serine protease inhibitor family. Hereditary angioedema is unknown to many health professionals and is therefore an underdiagnosed disease. The causes of death from hereditary angioedema include laryngeal edema with asphyxia. The estimated mortality rate in patients in whom the disease goes undetected and who are therefore incorrectly treated is 25-40%. In addition to edema of the glottis, hereditary angioedema often results in edema of the gastrointestinal tract, which can be incapacitating. Patients with hereditary angioedema may undergo unnecessary surgical interventions because the digestive tract can be the primary or only organ system involved, thus mimicking acute surgical abdomen. It is estimated that patients with hereditary angioedema experience some degree of disability 20-100 days per year. The Experts in Clinical Immunology and Allergy of the "Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunopatologia -ASBAI" developed these guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and management of hereditary angioedema.

  17. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  18. [The ABEn and the professional memory preserving: the Brazilian Nursing Memory Centre implantation].

    PubMed

    Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco

    2013-09-01

    This is a historical-social study, which aimed to analyze and argue the on the importance of the Brazilian Nursing Memory Centre for preservation and publicity of the professional memory. As data sources it was used the documentary Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem: 1926-1976, and the Project of Implantation and the Technical Report of the Memory Centre's Documentary and Phonic Collection, both filed in the referred Centre. The data, collected in June 2013, were subjected to external and intern criticism, aiming to its validation. The analysis occurred concurrently with data collection and was made based on knowledge about the topic, supported by Bourdieu's concept of habitus. It was observed that, since 1926, the directions of the Brazilian Nursing Association contributed for the Memory Centre implantation, by means of the importance attributed to the preservation of the memory. It was concluded that the memory enshrined in the collection constitutes material and symbolic goods for the Brazilian nursing to be transmitted through the historiography derived from it.

  19. Brain death and tissue and organ transplantation: the understanding of medical students

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Flávio Pola; Gomes, Bruno Henrique Pinto; Pimenta, Lucas Lopes; Etzel, Arnaldo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the level of knowledge of medical students about transplantation and brain death. Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire answered by medical students from the first through the sixth year that was based on information from the Associação Brasileira de Transplante de Órgãos e Tecidos, the Registro Brasileiro de Transplantes and the resolution that defines the criteria for brain death. Results Of the 677 medical students asked, 310 (45.8%) agreed to answer the questionnaire. In total, 22 (7.0%) subjects were excluded. Of the students who participated, 41.3% reported having already attended a class on organ transplantation and 33% on brain death; 9.7% felt able to diagnose brain death (p<0.01); only 66.8% indicated the kidney as the most transplanted solid organ in Brazil. Conclusion The level of knowledge of medical students at this institution regarding brain death and transplantation is limited, which may be the result of an inadequate approach during medical school. PMID:24553508

  20. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  1. [Skin cancer: use of preventive measures and demographic profile of a risk group in the city of Botucatu].

    PubMed

    Popim, Regina Célia; Corrente, José Eduardo; Marino, Jaqueline Aparecida Geromel; de Souza, Carolina Arantes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish the demographic profile of an at-risk group for skin cancer and to assess the preventive measures taken by the studied individuals and by the employer. The methods chosen was a quantitative study with a sample of 33 mail carriers from the Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos in Botucatu, Brazil. Information regarding the demographic profile, how long the individual had been working for the company, hours of sun exposure, history of sunburns, family cancer history and skin cancer prevention strategies used by the company was collected by means of a questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Fisher's Exact Test at a 5% probability. The predominant age groups were 26-30 and 31-35 years corresponding to 42,42%. The predominant skin color was white (93,94%) and 81,82% of the studied individuals were working in the company for over five years. 63,63% of the interviewees use sunscreen habitually; those who do not explain this with a lack of habit (in 75% of the cases). As refers to supply of protective equipment by the company, 100% of the subjects answered positively. These findings allow characterizing the studied population as a skin cancer risk group. Prophylactic measures in form of educational actions for awareness building should be adopted and stimulated.

  2. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, R; Pieniz, S; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O

    2011-01-01

    Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol) were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29°09'53.92″S and 51°31'39.40″W) and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30°29'43.48″S and 53'32'37.87W). Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L(-1) in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus) displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h). GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration.

  3. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Silva, J. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Broisler, P. O.; Rela, P. R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-07-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 °C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 °C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 °C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  4. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    45 ng Nm-3 for MWI. The emission factors of PCNs were derived, and the average values were 6 μg tonne-1 for CP, 42 μg tonne-1 for IOS, 2980 μg tonne-1 for AF, 1354 μg tonne-1 for MSWI, and 937 μg tonne-1 for MWI, which could be helpful for estimating the annual emission amounts of PCNs from the investigated sources. However, since the investigated plant numbers for each process are limited, there might be large uncertainties when developing the PCN emission inventory. From the obtained data in the preliminary investigation, it could be seen that these investigated sources are worthy of further concerns for PCN emission. Further investigation on PCN release from thermal related process is still in process. References Kannan, K., Imagawa, T., Blankenship, A.L., et al., 1998. Isomer-specific analysis and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in soil, sediment, and biota collected near the site of a former chlor-alkali plant. Environ Sci Technol 32, 2507-2514. Lerche, D., van de Plassche, E., Schwegler, A., et al., 2002. Selecting chemical substances for the UN-ECE POP protocol. Chemosphere 47, 617-630. Olivero-Verbel, J., Vivas-Reyes, R., Pacheco-Londono, et al., 2004. Discriminant analysis for activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by polychlorinated naphthalenes. J Mol Struc-Theochem 678, 157-161.

  5. Debris flow cartography using differential GNSS and Theodolite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaradze, Giorgi; Guinau, Marta; Calvet, Jaume; Furdada, Gloria; Victoriano, Ane; Génova, Mar; Suriñach, Emma

    2016-04-01

    , limits the visibility of the satellites and thus, can result in meter-level errors while estimating the positions. We have conducted 2 measurements using various differential GNSS systems in March and in September of 2015. During these measurements we used Leica Viva GS14 receiver as a rover station, which was equipped with a GSM card to establish an internet connection in order to receive differential corrections from continuous GNSS networks. During the first campaign we have used the RTK positioning method using the SmartNet network (http://es.smartnet-eu.com) operated by Leica. This system had the advantage of transmitting differential corrections for GPS and GLONASS systems. During the second campaign, we have had an access to the ICGC (http://www.icc.cat) CatNet permanent GPS network, which only provides GPS satellite corrections. Here we present the analysis of the obtained precisions from these two RTK systems. Additionally, we have analyzed the geodetic data in a post-processing mode using the Leica Geo Office 8.4 software with IGS estimated final orbits. For this procedure, in addition to using the data from nearby CatNet CGPS stations, we have also used data from the base station(s) specifically setup near the study area during the campaign period. The work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation project CHARMA: CHAracterization and ContRol of MAss Movements. A Challenge for Geohazard Mitigation (CGL2013-40828-R) and RISKNAT group (2014GR/1243).

  6. River restoration and biocoenoses improvement in two streams renaturated using bioengeneering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, B.; Forasacco, E.; Dobner, R.; Cotta Ramusino, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Bioengineering is a constructive discipline having its own technical, ecological and environmental friendly scopes, by using living materials. The aim of this study is to assess the river restoration efficiency of Bioengineering. The basic goals of many management-concepts are the integrity of the river habitat, self-regulation and self-regeneration, the preservation of intact resources, to recreate the uniqueness, diversity and beauty of natural river landscape. From an ecological point of view the richness, diversity and age composition of the populations developing after restoration as a result of habitat improvement reveal the degree to which comprehensive concepts were applied (Jungwirth et al., 1995). The following results summarised an investigation on streams Boesio and Rancina in Valcuvia, (Varese, Northern Italy). These streams are characterised by human impacts like water pollution, river engineering and river bioengineering (palificata doppia viva). The samples of macrobenthic fauna were collected between August 2000 and July 2001 in 4 stations for each stream, where the 3rd station of Boesio and Rancina streams is characterised by bioengeneering measure, using a Surber sampler (0.125 m2, mesh size 0.45 mm). The zoobenthic communities of these pre-alpine streams are characterised by low richness and diversity and few families and genera were predominant. In Rancina stream, Ephemeroptera (genus Baetis), Trichoptera (families Hydropsychidae, Limnephilidae and Rhyacophilidae) and Diptera (families Chironomidae and Simuliidae) are present throughout the year with significant densities. The faunal composition of Boesio stream is similar. It differs, only, from stream Rancina to costant presence of Plecoptera with genus Leuctra. To evaluate the restoration of environmental quality two indices were applied: Indice Biotico Esteso (I.B.E.- Ghetti, 1995); Indice di Funzionalità Fluviale (I.F.F.- Siligardi, 2000). The E.B.I. scores of Boesio stream indicate

  7. Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, João

    2004-04-01

    A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

  8. Hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit: a Brazilian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando Suparregui; Rezende, Ederlon Alves de Carvalho; Mendes, Ciro Leite; Silva Jr., João Manoel; Sanches, Joel Lyra

    2014-01-01

    Objective In Brazil, there are no data on the preferences of intensivists regarding hemodynamic monitoring methods. The present study aimed to identify the methods used by national intensivists, the hemodynamic variables they consider important, the regional differences, the reasons for choosing a particular method, and the use of protocols and continued training. Methods National intensivists were invited to answer an electronic questionnaire during three intensive care events and later, through the Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira portal, between March and October 2009. Demographic data and aspects related to the respondent preferences regarding hemodynamic monitoring were researched. Results In total, 211 professionals answered the questionnaire. Private hospitals showed higher availability of resources for hemodynamic monitoring than did public institutions. The pulmonary artery catheter was considered the most trusted by 56.9% of the respondents, followed by echocardiograms, at 22.3%. Cardiac output was considered the most important variable. Other variables also considered relevant were mixed/central venous oxygen saturation, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume. Echocardiography was the most used method (64.5%), followed by pulmonary artery catheter (49.3%). Only half of respondents used treatment protocols, and 25% worked in continuing education programs in hemodynamic monitoring. Conclusion Hemodynamic monitoring has a greater availability in intensive care units of private institutions in Brazil. Echocardiography was the most used monitoring method, but the pulmonary artery catheter remains the most reliable. The implementation of treatment protocols and continuing education programs in hemodynamic monitoring in Brazil is still insufficient. PMID:25607264

  9. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2016-07-01

    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.

  10. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population’s diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption – crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population) to avoid these foods. PMID:26270019

  11. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  12. Are we following the guidelines on non-muscle invasive bladder cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Moro, Juliano Cesar; Ribeiro, Luis Fernando Bastos; Voris, Brunno Raphael Iamashita; Sadi, Marcos Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the clinical practice of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treatment in Brazil in relation to international guidelines: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia (SBU), European Association of Urology (EAU) and American Urological Association (AUA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study using questionnaires about urological practice on treatment of NMIBC during the 32nd Brazilian Congress of Urology. A total of 650 question forms were answered. Results There were 73% of complete answers (total of 476 question forms). In total, 246 urologists (51.68%) lived in the southeast region and 310 (65.13%) treat 1 to 3 cases of NMIBC per month. Low risk cancer: Only 35 urologists (7.5%) apply the single intravesical dose of immediate chemotherapy with Mitomicin C recommended by the above guidelines. Adjuvant therapy with BCG 2 to 4 weeks after TUR is used by 167 participants (35.1%) and 271 urologists (56.9%) use only TUR. High risk tumors: 397 urologists (83.4%) use adjuvant therapy, 375 (78.8%) use BCG 2 to 4 weeks after TUR, of which 306 (64.3%) referred the use for at least one year. Intravesical chemotherapy with Mitomicin C (a controversial recommendation) was used by 22 urologists (4.6%). BCG dose raised a lot of discrepancies. Induction doses of 40, 80 and 120mg were referred by 105 (22%), 193 (40.4%) and 54 (11.3%) respectively. Maintenance doses of 40, 80 and 120mg were referred by 190 (48.7%), 144 (37.0%) and 32 (8.2%) urologists, respectively. Schemes of administration were also varied and the one cited by SWOG protocol was the most used: 142 (29.8%). Conclusion SBU, EAU and AUA guidelines are partially respected by Brazilian urologists, particularly in low risk tumors. In high risk tumors, concordance rates are comparable to international data. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the reasons of such disagreement. PMID:27136464

  13. Magnetic Paleofield of Avanhandava H4 Chondrite's Matrix and Chondrules - Implications on Magnetic Fields in Early Solar System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, T.; Pesonen, L. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Avanhandava (H4) fall occurred in 1952 in Brazil. A total of 9.33 kg had been preserved after the meteorite brake up during the impact [1]. The meteorite contains large (0.1 - 2.0 mm) chon-drules that have clearly delineated boundaries with matrix. This characteristic allows us to pick up oriented individual chondrules and study their magnetic properties. The chondrules of the Avanhandava meteorite show a low and randomly oriented NRM (10-2 - 10-1 mAm2/kg). In contrast the matrix is strongly (100 - 101 mAm2/kg) and uniformly magnet-ized [2]. Various methods for paleofield determination have been applied on matrix and individual chondrules in order to determine possi-ble magnetizing processes and paleofields in early solar systems.. The laboratory experiments reveal approximate paleofields for matrix similar to present geomagnetic field. The paleofield de-termined for chondrules is approximately one order of magnitude lower comparing to values obtained for matrix. That suggests that chondrules are not magnetically contaminated by geomagnetic or artificial fields and they acquired their NRM prior their aggregation to Avanhandava parent body (random NRM directions). The matrix shows remarkable traces of terres-trial weathering and is uniformly magnetized. The paleofield re-sult for matrix indicates possible remagnetization caused by ter-restrial weathering. The terrestrial weathering of ordinary chon-drites is observed even on falls stored in museums and can sig-nificantly influence meteorite magnetic records [3, 4]. References: [1] Paar W. et al. 1976. Revista Brasileira de Geo-ciencias 6: 201-210. [2] Kohout T. and Pesonen L. J. 2005. 68th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting: 5202. [3] Kohout T. et al. 2004. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 29: 885-897. [4] Lee M. R. and Bland P. A. 2004. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68: 893-916.

  14. Use of GIS for Earthquakes in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.; Assumpcao, M.; Barbosa, J. R.; Roig, H. L.; Pascual, M. F.; Vasconcelos, A. E.; Ferreira, J. M.; Ribotta, L. C.; do Nascimento, A. F.; Pavao, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    We present geoprocessing techniques to monitor and analyse earthquakes in Brazil. We constructed a georeferenced database called SIGSIBRA using PostgreSQL + PostGIS softwares, and fed by information from the SISBRA earthquake catalog, IBGE geographical data and CPRM geological data. The SISBRA catalog was built from the book "Sismicidade Brasileira" (Berrocal et al, 1984), updated with the Brazilian seismic bulletins from the Brazilian Geophysical Journal up to 1995, and especially with the data from seismographic monitoring activities of the University of Brasília-SIS/UnB, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte-UFRN, the University of Sao Paulo-USP and the Institute for Technological Research (IPT). Earthquakes occur in Brazil with moderate to low magnitudes. Besides natural earthquakes, seismic activity triggered by water dams must also be monitored. With the growing number and size of Brazilian dams (because of the many rivers, favorable topography and "clean" energy) concern with reservoir triggered seismicity is expected to increase. Approval for the construction of a hydropower plant requires seismic hazard assesmment prepared by an interdisciplinary team, with a large contribution of geoprocessing specialists. Therefore, it is important to study the characteristics of this seismicity, so that these professionals can avoid or mitigate potential environmental and social harm to communities on the margins of large dams. Thus the SIGSIBRA system can generate spatial analysis of its events, such as intensity estimation of "Kernel" points distribution; spatial statistics; spatial autocorrelation (Morans I) and correlations with geological structures, making it possible to characterize important aspects of the Brazilian seismicity. Finally, we show the statistical analysis of the database through the program ZMAP and estimate the intraplate seismogenic zones in Brazil.

  15. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  16. Calculating impact factor: how bibliographical classification of journal items affects the impact factor of large and small journals.

    PubMed

    Golubic, Rajna; Rudes, Mihael; Kovacic, Natasa; Marusic, Matko; Marusic, Ana

    2008-03-01

    As bibliographical classification of published journal items affects the denominator in this equation, we investigated how the numerator and denominator of the impact factor (IF) equation were generated for representative journals in two categories of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). We performed a full text search of the 1st-ranked journal in 2004 JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal" (New England Journal of Medicine, NEJM, IF = 38.570) and 61st-ranked journal (Croatian Medical Journal, CMJ, IF = 0.690), 1st-ranked journal in category "Multidisciplinary Sciences" (Nature, IF = 32.182) and journal with a relative rank of CMJ (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, AABC, IF = 0.435). Large journals published more items categorized by Web of Science (WoS) as non-research items (editorial material, letters, news, book reviews, bibliographical items, or corrections): 63% out of total 5,193 items in Nature and 81% out of 3,540 items in NEJM, compared with 31% out of 283 items in CMJ and only 2 (2%) out of 126 items in AABC. Some items classified by WoS as non-original contained original research data (9.5% in Nature, 7.2% in NEJM, 13.7% in CMJ and none in AABC). These items received a significant number of citations: 6.9% of total citations in Nature, 14.7% in NEJM and 18.5% in CMJ. IF decreased for all journals when only items presenting original research and citations to them were used for IF calculation. Regardless of the journal's size or discipline, publication of non-original research and its classification by the bibliographical database have an effect on both numerator and denominator of the IF equation.

  17. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption

    PubMed Central

    Andreazza, R.; Pieniz, S.; Okeke, B.C.; Camargo, F.A.O

    2011-01-01

    Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol) were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29°09′53.92″S and 51°31′39.40″W) and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30°29′43.48″S and 53′32′37.87W). Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L−1 in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus) displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h). GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration. PMID:24031606

  18. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVIČ, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  19. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos

  20. Chronology of the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieloff, M.

    2008-09-01

    ] Haisch K.E. et al. Astrophys. J. 553, L153 (2001) [14] Briceno, C., Vivas, A. et al. Science 291, 93 (2001) [15] Trieloff M., Kunz J. et al., Science 288, 1036 (2000) [16] Trieloff M., Kunz J. et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 200, 297 (2002)

  1. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 2. Calibration of a groundwater-flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Plummer, L. Niel; McAda, Douglas P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    úsqueda a viva fuerza del error mínimo entre los datos observados y los simulados. Los valores de recarga calibrados fueron significativamente más bajos que los estimados en los modelos anteriores. Los resultados de una simulación transitoria de 30,000 años sugieren que la recarga durante la última glacial máxima (LGM) fue diez veces el ritmo moderno, pero que la recarga que ocurrió inmediatamente después de la LGM fue más baja que el ritmo moderno.

  2. Seasonal aspects of reproductive physiology in captive male maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815).

    PubMed

    Teodoro, L O; Melo-Junior, A A; Spercoski, K M; Morais, R N; Souza, F F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonality of andrological characteristics and hormonal profile of captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1811). Three adult males were evaluated from the Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração Scientific Breeding Center in Araxá, MG, Brazil, over 13 months. Semen was collected 2-3 times weekly and analysed. Scrotal circumference, biometrics and testicular volume were measured. Stool samples were collected 2-3 times weekly to analyse corticosteroid and testosterone metabolite concentrations. A success rate of 100% was achieved in the collection attempts during the breeding season (BS) and 77.8% during the non-breeding season (NBS). The interval to achieve penile erection was 1-5 min in the BS and 6-10 in the NBS (p < 0.001). Of the ejaculates collected, 80.0% contained sperm during BS, while 28.6% did during the NBS. The ejaculate had only one fraction, was odourless, predominantly translucent (72.4%), with a watery appearance, pH 6.7 and osmolarity of 352.8 mOsmol. Seasonal influences were seen in ejaculate volume (1.3 ml vs 0.4 ml), number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (73.9 × 10(6) vs 6.1 × 10(6) ) and percentage of live sperm (82.0% vs 66.1%) between the BS and NBS (p < 0.05), respectively. A high percentage of major sperm defects were observed in both seasons (50.1% in BS; 65.7% in NBS). Testicular volume was larger (p < 0.05; right testicles 13.1 cm(3) in BS vs 4.0 cm(3) in NBS, while left testicles 12.9 cm(3) in BS vs 5.3 cm(3) in NBS) and testicular consistency increased in the BS. No difference was seen in the basal faecal metabolite concentrations of testosterone; however, the corticosteroid concentrations were higher in the BS. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that the collection of semen is feasible in captive maned wolves without compromising libido, seminal characteristics and reproductive behaviour and that sperm production is influenced by seasonality; however, it

  3. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos

  4. FluxTransgenics: a flexible LIMS-based tool for management of plant transformation experimental data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The production and commercial release of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are currently the focus of important discussions. In order to guarantee the quality and reliability of their trials, companies and institutions working on this subject must adopt new approaches on management, organization and recording of laboratory conditions where field studies are performed. Computational systems for management and storage of laboratory data known as Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) are essential tools to achieve this. Results In this work, we have used the SIGLa system – a workflow based LIMS as a framework to develop the FluxTransgenics system for a GMOs laboratory of Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Maize and Sorghum (Sete Lagoas, MG - Brazil). A workflow representing all stages of the transgenic maize plants generation has been developed and uploaded in FluxTransgenics. This workflow models the activities involved in maize and sorghum transformation using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens method. By uploading this workflow in the SIGLa system we have created Fluxtransgenics, a complete LIMS for managing plant transformation data. Conclusions FluxTransgenics presents a solution for the management of the data produced by a laboratory of genetically modified plants that is efficient and supports different kinds of information. Its adoption will contribute to guarantee the quality of activities and products in the process of transgenic production and enforce the use of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). The adoption of the transformation protocol associated to the use of FluxTransgenics has made it possible to increase productivity by at least 300%, increasing the efficiency of the experiments from between 0.5 and 1 percent to about 3%. This has been achieved by an increase in the number of experiments performed and a more accurate choice of parameters, all of which have been made possible because it became easier to

  5. PNAUM: integrated approach to Pharmaceutical Services, Science, Technology and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Nascimento, José Miguel do; Soeiro, Orlando Mário; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Motta, Márcia Luz da; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Campos de

    2016-12-01

    ública, resultados de ações governamentais voltadas ao desenvolvimento do complexo econômico-industrial da saúde, visando a melhoria das condições de saúde da população brasileira.

  6. Analysis of Brazilian data for seismic hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet, S.; Assumpção, M.

    2013-05-01

    Seismic hazard analysis in Brazil is going to be re-assessed in the framework of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) project. Since the last worldwide Global Seismic Hazard Analysis Project (GSHAP) there has been no specific study in this field in Brazil. Brazil is a stable continental region and is characterized by a low seismic activity. In this particular type of regions, seismic hazard assessment is a very hard task due to the limited amount of data available regarding the seismic sources, earthquake catalogue, or ground-motion amplitudes, and the uncertainties associated are very large. This study focuses on recorded data in South-East Brazil where broadband stations are installed, belonging to two networks: the network managed by the seismology group at the IAG-USP in São Paulo which exists since about 20 years, and the network managed by the Observatorio Nacional in Rio de Janeiro which has just been set up. The two networks are now integrated into the national network RSB (Rede Sismográfica Brasileira) which will also include stations from the rest of Brazil currently in installation by the Universities of Brasilia and Natal. There are a couple of events with magnitude greater than 3 recorded at these very sensitive stations, usually at rather large distances. At first sight these data may appear meaningless in the context of seismic hazard but they can help to improve different parts involved in the process. The analysis of the S-wave Fourier spectra can help to better resolve source, path and site effects in Brazil. For instance moment magnitudes can be computed from the flat part of the Fourier spectra. These magnitudes are of utmost importance in order to build an homogeneous catalogue in terms of moment magnitude. At the moment only body wave magnitude (or some equivalent scale) are determined routinely for the events in Brazil. Attenuation and site effect, especially the high-frequency attenuation known as the kappa effect will also help to

  7. Path of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years: an ongoing challenge.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri

    2016-12-22

    ças infecciosas responsáveis, no passado, por elevadas taxas de morbimortalidade, como também a reemergência de males já controlados e o surgimento de doenças até então desconhecidas, com forte impacto na população brasileira, desenhando uma trajetória pouco previsível e muito desafiadora.

  8. Projeto educação em ciências com observatórios virtuais: a participação da Escola Moppe no período 2000-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuensche, C. A.; Gavioli, E.; Oliveira, A. L. P. R. S.; da Silva, C.; Cardoso, H. P.; Estácio, S.

    2003-08-01

    O projeto Educação em Ciências com Observatórios Virtuais foi concebido pelo Instituto Astronômico e Geofísico da USP, agregando diversas instituições de ensino e pesquisa no país para desenvolver competências diversas na educação fundamental, média e superior utilizando a astronomia como ferramenta multidisciplinar. Este trabalho descreve a participação da MOPPE, escola-piloto do INPE no projeto, no período de 2000-2003. Serão apresentadas 1) a criação de um clube de ciências (1999 a 2001) cujo tema foi a colonização de Marte e 2) a ementa de astronomia trabalhada com as 7a. e 8a. séries do ensino fundamental. A proposta do projeto Colonizando Marte foi estudar diversos aspectos de uma missão interplanetária e construir experiementos que permitissem quantificar esses aspectos. Os resultados obtidos incluiram apresentações nas SBPC Jovem em 2000 e 2001. Discutiremos também as ementas de astronomia trabalhadas desde 2001 e o envolvimento dos alunos com atividades ligadas a astronomia, fora da aula de ciências. A inclusão de astronomia no currículo das últimas séries motivou a participação de mais alunos culminando com a conquista de duas medalhas para alunos da 7a. série na Olimpiada Brasileira de Astronomia em 2002. Houve também um aumento no número de participantes na OBA 2003 e nos projetos de astronomia mais elaborados nas Feira de Ciências de 2001 e 2002. Destacamos em 2003 a inclusão da MOPPE no projeto TIE - Telescopes in Education - da NASA, que utiliza o telescópio do Observatório de Mount Wilson (EUA) para observações remotas em projetos pedagógicos para o ensino de astronomia.

  9. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-06-27

    Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. RESUMO A modificação do ambiente por ações antrópicas, o crescimento urbano desordenado, o processo de globalização do intercâmbio internacional e as mudanças climáticas são alguns fatores que vêm facilitando a emergência e disseminação de doenças infecciosas humanas transmitidas por vetores. Este comentário aborda a recente entrada de três arbovírus no Brasil, Chikungunya (CHIKV), West Nile (WNV) e Zika (ZIKV), com enfoque nos desafios para a Saúde Pública do País. Transmitidos por mosquitos vetores amplamente distribuídos no território nacional e associados ao homem, a população brasileira encontra-se exposta à infecção por esses três arbovírus. Na ausência de vacina eficaz e tratamento específico, são importantes a manutenção e integração de uma vigilância entomológica e epidemiológica contínua, a fim de direcionarmos métodos de controle e prevenção contra essas arboviroses no País.

  10. Memória fonológica em crianças bilíngues bimodais e crianças com implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Cruz, Carina Rebello; Pizzio, Aline Lemos

    2014-01-01

    RESUMO Este estudo comparou o desempenho de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes (filhas de pais surdos) e crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear (filhas de pais surdos e de pais ouvintes), com diferentes contextos de acesso à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), em tarefas que envolvem memória fonologica. Os testes utilizados foram: Teste de Pseudopalavras (Santos e Bueno, 2003) e Teste de Pseudosinais (desenvolvido pelos pesquisadores responsáveis pelo Projeto ‘Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimoda’). Além disso, foram incluídos dois grupos de controle, formados por crianças surdas (usuarias de Libras), e adultos bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. Na análise dos resultados, em relação ao desempenho entre os dois grupos testados foi constatado que o grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes apresentou desempenho superior, nos dois testes. No entanto, ao ser analisado o desempenho da criança surda usuaria de implante coclear, filha de pais surdos, que possui acesso irrestrito à Libras e comparado com o das crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear, que possuem acesso restrito à Libras, foi constatado que o seu desempenho foi semelhante ao do grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. As crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear com acesso restrito à Libras e, portanto, com acesso maior ao Português apresentaram escores mais baixos nas tarefas, principalmente do teste em Português. Os resultados sugerem que as crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear em processo de aquisição da línguagem podem se beneficiar com o acesso irrestrito à Libras, atingindo inclusive desempenho semelhante a de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. PMID:25110473

  11. PREFACE: International Conference on Solid Films and Surfaces (ICSFS 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achete, C. A.; Almeida, C. M.; Cremona, M.; Rocca, M.; Stavale, F.

    2015-03-01

    Brasileira de Ciências, CNPq, CAPES, Inmetro, FEI Company and Carl-Zeiss Company. We are grateful for the commercial exhibition of several leading instrument companies that provided great financial support. We thank Altmann, Bruker, CAMECA, Edwards, Horiba, M&M Vácuo, Oxford Instruments, Renishaw, RHK Technology, and SPECS.

  12. The link between industry and social interests in health in Brazil's National Health Innovation System: the experience of the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO).

    PubMed

    Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Fermam, Marcelo Kropf Santos; Rodrigues, Marcus Paulo da Silva; Mosegui, Gabriela Bittencourt Gonzalez

    2016-11-03

    This article has two parts. The first discusses the relationship between industry and health interests based on three different but non-mutually exclusive "logics": (a) independent; (b) divergent; and (c) convergent. The second part describes the experience at the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO) with a technology management model. The accumulated expertise in orthopedics at INTO can favor Brazil's domestic medical equipment industry without jeopardizing the country's social health needs. This means directing the production of feasible technologies adapted to the national reality, with a focus on safety and quality, without burdening the public coffers and by overcoming the country's dependency on imported products. The proposal is to promote socioeconomic development through a virtuous circle by attracting reserves and fomenting national competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets while improving social conditions and access to health. Resumo: Este artigo está dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, discute-se como se relacionam os interesses produtivos e a saúde a partir de três "lógicas" ou perspectivas diferentes que não são mutuamente excludentes: (a) independente; (b) divergente e (c) convergente. Na segunda, descreve-se a experiência do Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO) na montagem de um modelo de gestão de tecnologia. O conhecimento internalizado em ortopedia do INTO pode favorecer a indústria nacional de equipamentos médicos sem abandonar as necessidades sociais brasileiras de saúde. Isto é, direcionar a produção de tecnologias viáveis e adaptadas à realidade nacional, com foco em segurança e qualidade, sem onerar os cofres públicos e abandonando a dependência de produtos importados. A proposta é a de promover um desenvolvimento socioeconômico que construa um ciclo virtuoso, por atrair divisas e fomentar a competitividade nacional em mercados internos e externos, melhorando as

  13. Uma análise do fenômeno “alternância de línguas” na fala de bilíngues intermodais (Libras e Português)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2013-01-01

    Um interessante fenômeno lingüístico presente nas interações das pessoas bilíngues é a alternância de línguas. Neste trabalho, estamos investigando a alternância entre a língua portuguesa oral e a língua de sinais brasileira – Libras, numa mesma cadeia enunciativa, com o objetivo de identificar e analisar o uso dessa alternância na fala de uma criança e de um adulto (ambos ouvintes, filhos de pais surdos), interagindo em uma situação de bilinguismo intermodal, com interlocutores surdos e ouvintes. A alternância de línguas, nesse caso, ocorre quando se para de falar em português e se alterna para sinalizar. O presente trabalho se caracteriza como um estudo inicial, com análise qualitativa de dados. Fazem parte do nosso corpus nove sessões de interações em Libras e em português oral, gravadas em vídeo, que fazem parte do Projeto Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimodal da UFSC. Os dados revelam que as características da alternância de línguas pelo adulto e pela criança parecem ter semelhanças e diferenças. O sujeito adulto parece ter feito um uso da alternância mais preocupado com o curso da interação. A criança, por sua vez, não parece tê-la usado com propósitos pragmáticos específicos. Quanto à extensão das alternâncias, pode-se perceber que tanto a criança quanto o adulto utilizaram enunciados maiores do que uma única palavra isolada. O papel dos interlocutores parece ter sido decisivo nas interações aqui investigadas – especialmente nas do adulto, já que a criança ainda está em processo de tomada de consciência do papel do interlocutor na interação. PMID:24379831

  14. FFT analysis on NDVI annual cycle and climatic regionality in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrón Juárez, Robinson I.; Liu, William T.

    2001-11-01

    By considering that the climate of Northeast Brazil (NEB) has distinct wet and dry seasons, the mixed radix fast Fourier transform (mrFFT) algorithm, developed at the National Aerospace Centre of the Netherlands, was applied to a monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series from July 1981 to June 1993, to generate phase, amplitude and mean NDVI data using a 1-year frequency in order to improve the analysis of its spatial variation.The NDVI mean values varied from >0.7, which occurred in northwest and southeast regions, to <0.3 in the northeast and 0.4 in the southwest regions of the NEB. The 90° phase month at its maximum amplitude occurred in August and was observed in both southeastern and northwestern coasts, located at 10.5°S-37.5°W and 4°S-46°W, respectively. It changed rapidly from August, June to May, moved inland and changed gradually from May through to April and from March to February, then moved towards the centre Dry Polygon area. Then it changed gradually from February to January and ended up in December, and moved further southwards. The annual cycle amplitude varied from <0.075 in northwest and southeast regions to >0.25 in the northeast region. By using spatial variations of phase, amplitude and mean NDVI values, 15 climate types were delineated for the NEB.The spatial distribution of climate types in the NEB delineated by the NDVI FFT analysis agreed mostly with the climatic types presented by Hargreaves (Precipitation dependability and potentials for agricultural production in Northeast Brazil. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária-EMBRAPA, Brazil, 1974), except regions with higher spatial variability and limited surface meteorological data. Among the three components: phase, amplitude and mean NDVI, the phase image, informing the initiation and duration of rainy season, was the most important component for climate-type delineation. Nevertheless, while the extreme values of amplitude, inferring a high wet

  15. From health plan companies to international insurance companies: changes in the accumulation regime and repercussions on the healthcare system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Ligia; Scheffer, Mario; Tavares, Leandro Reis; Braga, Iale Falleiros

    2016-11-03

    The concentration and internationalization of health plan companies in Brazil gave them a clearly financial face. Based on the need to understand the health care industry's capital accumulation patterns, the current study examines health plan companies' expansion strategies through the classification of their supply and demand characteristics by recent historical periods and an analysis of recent shareholding trends in one of the leading corporations in the Brazilian health care industry. The 1960s to 2000s witnessed changes in the scale of demands for health plans and adherence by companies to long-term accumulation strategies. Beginning in the early 21st century, changes in the shareholding structures of the largest Brazilian company, consistent with the financialization of its accumulation regime, resulted in the rapid multiplication of its capital. Deepening segmentation of the health care system in a context marked by the downturn in the national economy challenges the preservation of public subsidies for private health plans. Resumo: A concentração e internacionalização de empresas de planos de saúde no Brasil conferiram-lhes feição financeira. Considerando a necessidade de compreender os padrões de acumulação desse setor, o trabalho examina estratégias de expansão das empresas de planos de saúde por meio da periodização de atributos da oferta e demanda e exame da trajetória patrimonial recente de um dos grandes grupos do setor. Entre os anos 1960 e 2000, ocorreram alterações na escala das demandas por planos de saúde e adesão das empresas a estratégias de acumulação de longo prazo. A partir do século XXI, as alterações nas estruturas societárias da maior empresa brasileira, compatíveis com o regime de acumulação financeirizada, resultaram na multiplicação de seu capital em um curto intervalo de tempo. O aprofundamento da segmentação do sistema de saúde, em um contexto marcado pela desaceleração da economia, questiona a

  16. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  17. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    úde (SUS). Investiga as relações entre saúde, inovação e desenvolvimento, buscando mostrar e atualizar os determinantes políticos, econômicos e sociais da experiência brasileira recente relacionada ao Complexo Econômico-Industrial da Saúde (CEIS). Mostra como a agenda da inovação e da produção nacional em saúde ganhou centralidade no projeto de construção do SUS. O artigo procura, assim, articular questões inerentes à agenda do desenvolvimento, da produção e da inovação com a política social em saúde, tal como observado nos últimos anos e, valendo-se de sua análise, aponta desafios políticos e conceituais para a efetivação do SUS, em especial no que se refere ao fortalecimento de sua base tecnológica e produtiva. Como desdobramento, desenvolve um enfoque analítico e factual que relaciona a consolidação do CEIS no Brasil tanto como um vetor dinâmico do desenvolvimento industrial, gerando investimento, renda, emprego e inovações, quanto como elemento decisivo para a redução da vulnerabilidade e da dependência estrutural em saúde. Procura mostrar que seu fortalecimento e direcionamento para as necessidades sociais é parte essencial da construção de um Estado de Bem-Estar Social no Brasi.

  18. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF A PROGRAMME PROMOTING ADEQUATE AND HEALTHY EATING ON ADOLESCENT HEALTH MARKERS: AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Brito Beck da Silva, Karine; Leovigildo Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Couto, Ricardo David; Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las repercusiones de un protocolo de promoción de una alimentación adecuada y saludable en los parámetros de salud de adolescentes. Métodos: se trata de un estudio de intervención, controlado, con una duración de nueve meses, en el cual participaron estudiantes, con una edad entre 10 y 17 años, matriculados en dos escuelas (intervención/ control) situadas en un barrio pobre del municipio de Salvador (Bahia), Brasil. Fueron previstas para la escuela bajo intervención acciones de promoción de una alimentación adecuada y saludable, con base en el Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Guía Alimentaria para la Población Brasileña). Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de tales acciones, todos los alumnos fueron sometidos a los exámenes bioquímicos, de maduración y antropométricos al principio y al final de los nueve meses. Además, contestaron a un cuestionario sobre consumo alimentario, actividad física y comportamiento sedentario. También se consiguió información sobre las condiciones socioeconómicas de la familia. La opción fue el análisis de Ecuaciones de Estimaciones Generalizadas (GEE) para evaluar las asociaciones de interés. Resultados: se verificó que los estudiantes bajo intervención presentaron una disminución de 7,64 mg/dL en la media del colesterol total (p = 0,009), de 7,77 mg/dL en la media del LDLc (p = 0,003), un incremento del 18% en el consumo de legumbres (OR = 1,18; 95%IC 1,03-1,37) y del 17% en el consumo de verduras (OR = 1,17; 95%IC 1,01-1,35), comparados con aquellos que no fueron sometidos a la intervención. No hubo diferencias en los parámetros antropométricos estudiados. Conclusión: los resultados apuntaron un efecto positivo de las acciones de promoción de la alimentación adecuada y saludable en la reducción del colesterol total, LDL-c, en el aumento del consumo de vegetales y legumbres, evidenciando una vez más que el modelo de intervención fue capaz de prever y/o tratar

  19. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    to important impacts that add considerably to the vulnerability of tropical forest ecosystems in the study region. REFERENCES Cardoso, M. F. ; Nobre, C. A. ; Sampaio, G. ; Hirota, M. ; Valeriano, D. ; Câmara, G. Long-term potential for tropical-forest degradation due to deforestation and fires in the Brazilian Amazon. Biologia (Bratislava), v. 64, p. 433-437, 2009. Malhi Y, et al. (2008) Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science 319:169-172. Oyama, M.D. and C.A. Nobre (2004), A simple potencial vegetation model for coupling with the Simple Biosphere Model (SIB). Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia, v. 19, n. 2, p. 203-216, 2004. Salazar, L. F., C. A. Nobre, and M. D. Oyama (2007), Climate change consequences on the biome distribution in tropical South America, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L09708, doi:10.1029/2007GL029695 Sampaio, G., C. A. Nobre, M. H. Costa, P. Satyamurty, B. S. Soares-Filho and, M. Cardoso (2007), Regional climate change over eastern Amazonia caused by pasture and soybean cropland expansion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L17709, doi:10.1029/2007GL030612.

  20. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  1. Simplificando a luneta com lente de óculos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canalle, J. B. G.; de Souza, A. C. F.

    2003-08-01

    A principal ferramenta de trabalho do astrônomo é o telescópio. O manuseio do mesmo é sempre motivo de enorme curiosidade por parte de alunos do ensino fundamental ou médio e até mesmo dos respectivos professores. Visando propiciar o acesso de alunos e professores ou interessados em geral a uma luneta de fácil construção, com materiais alternativos, de fácil localização no comércio, de baixo custo, resistente ao manuseio de alunos, simplificamos a montagem de uma luneta construída com lente de óculos, de 1 ou 2 graus positivos, e monóculo de fotografia, publicado por este autor no CCEF, vol.11(3), 212, 1994. Esta luneta, a qual permite ver as crateras lunares, apresentava como maior dificuldade de construção o tripé e o local de formação da imagem. Substituímos o tripé de madeira por uma simples garrafa PET de 2 litros cheia d'água. No lugar da ocular usamos a lente do monóculo de fotografia (ou visor de fotografia) encaixado dentro de uma bucha de redução curta, de 40 x 32 mm, e esta não mais dentro de uma luva (conexão hidráulica) de 40 mm de diâmetro, mas sim encostada no próprio tubo de PVC móvel (o qual permite o ajuste do foco) de 40 mm de diâmetro e presa a este por outro tubo de 40 mm de diâmetro e 10 cm de comprimento, serrado ao longo do seu comprimento. Com isto podemos ajustar a posição deste tubo de 10 cm também para que uma das suas extremidades coincida com o local de formação da imagem. Desta forma o observador saberá o local exato da formação da imagem, o que não era evidente na montagem anterior e causava uma dificuldade inicial até se descobrir a posição exata em que se deveria colocar o olho. Deste maneira, a montagem inicial que já era simples ficou ainda mais simples, mais barata e mais confortável para o uso. Um exemplar da mesma será exposto durante a XXIX Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira para inspeção e uso dos participantes.

  2. Fire as a natural and human factor shaping the Mediterranean Ecosystems. The Montgó forest fire and the teaching for the Geograns (older than 55) students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    to the recently fire affected land in the Montgó Mountain in Eastern Spain. Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R), FUEGORED, Spanish Soil Science Society, Alcoi andJavea councils, Botánica Mediterrànea, ACIF Alcoi, ACIF Marina Alta, Xàbia Viva, Montgó Viu, and Sierra de Mariola and Montgó Natural Parks for their collaboration in our teaching. The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Archibald, S., Staver, A. C., Levin, S. A. 2012. Evolution of human-driven fire regimes in Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(3), 847-852. Bento-Gonçalves, A., Vieira, A., Úbeda, X., Martin, D. 2012. Fire and soils: key concepts and recent advances. Geoderma, 191, 3-13. Berna, F., Goldberg, P., Horwitz, L. K., Brink, J., Holt, S., Bamford, M., & Chazan, M. (2012). Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(20), E1215-E1220. Bodí, M.B., Muñoz-Santa, I., Armero, C., Doerr, S.H., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdá, A. 2013. Spatial and temporal variations of water repellency and probability of its occurrence in calcareous Mediterranean rangeland soils affected by fires Catena. 108:14-25. 10.1016/j.catena.2012.04.002. Carreiras, M., Ferreira, A.J.D., Valente, S., Fleskens, L., Gonzales-Pelayo, Ó., Rubio, J.L., Stoof, C.R., Coelho, C.O.A., Ferreira, C.S.S., Ritsema, C.J. 2014. Comparative analysis of policies to deal with the wildfire risk. Land Degradation & Development, 25, 92-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2274 Cerdà, A., Civera, C. (2012) Teaching Physical Geography to students older than 55. The GEOGRANS Project within the NAUGRAN program at the University of

  3. Joint Interpretation of Bathymetric and Gravity Anomaly Maps Using Cross and Dot-Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilinski, Pavel; Fontes, Sergio Luiz

    2010-05-01

    be interpreted as sources and effect. This technique also helps to evaluate the shape and dispersion of the gravitational effect from a bathymetrical source. 0.6 References Dehlinger P., Marine Gravity, Elsevier, 1978. Gallardo, L. A., and M. A. Meju., Joint 2D cross-gradient imaging of magnetotelluric and seismic travel-time data for structural and lithological classification, Geophys. J. Int., 169, 1261-1272. (2007) Gallardo, L.A., M. A. Meju (2004), Joint two-dimensional dc resistivity and seismic traveltime inversion with cross-gradients constraints, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B03311, doi:10.1029/2003JB002716 Jacoby, W., and Smilde P. L., Gravity Interpretation, Springer, 2009. McKenzie D. & Bowin C. 1976. The relationship between bathymetry and gravity in Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 81: 1903-1915. Roy. K. K., Potential Theory in Applied Geophysics, Springer, 2008. Smith, W. H. F., and D. T. Sandwell, Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings, Science, v. 277, p. 1957-1962, 26 Sept., 1997. Sandwell, D. T., and W. H. F. Smith, Global marine gravity from retracked Geosat and ERS-1 altimetry: Ridge Segmentation versus spreading rate, J. Geophys. Res., 114, B01411, doi:10.1029/2008JB006008, 2009. Zembruscki, S.G. 1979. Geomorfologia da Margem Continental Sul Brasileira e das Bacias Oceânicas Adjacentes. In: Geomorfologia da margem continental brasileira e das áreas oceânicas adjacentes. Série Projeto REMAC, N° 7.

  4. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    el trabajo con Astronomía(s) en la clase. Se observó que los participantes todavía no habían presentado estos temas en sus clases y tampoco habían participado en cursos de formación que abordaran estos temas. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão acerca da utilização da História da Ciência no currículo da educação formal, por meio da discussão relativa ao emprego de elementos culturais de grupos étnicos em ações voltadas à educação em Astronomia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de um curso de extensão e a análise aqui empreendida refere-se a um encontro que abordou sequências didáticas relativas àquele tema, com fundamento na lei 11.645/2008 e a obrigatoriedade de abordagem da temática "História e Cultura Afro-Brasileira e Indígena" no currículo oficial. A ação de extensão ocorreu junto a professores que ensinam Ciências da Natureza, no interior do estado de São Paulo, discutindo-se temas relativos ao uso de História da Ciência e o relacionamento com cosmogonias oriundas dos povos Iorubá e Tupi, evidenciando como podem enriquecer o trabalho com a(s) Astronomia(s) em sala de aula. Observou-se que os participantes ainda não haviam apresentado estes temas em suas aulas e, igualmente, não participaram de cursos de formação que contemplassem a referida temática.

  5. Severe maternal morbidity: a case-control study in Maranhao, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity are among the top public health priorities in Brazil, being quite high, especially among the most disadvantage women. A case control study was developed to identify risk factors for severe maternal morbidity in Sao Luis, one of the poorest Brazilian State Capitals. Methods The case–control study was carried out between 01/03/2009 and 28/02/2010 in two public high-risk maternities facilities and in two intensive care units (ICUs) for referral of obstetric cases. All cases hospitalized due to complications during gestation period, childbirth or up to 42 days of puerperium and who fulfilled any of Mantel's and/or Waterstone's criteria were identified. Two controls per case were randomly selected among patients of the same clinics discharged for other reasons. Data were obtained through a structured interview as well as from medical charts and prenatal cards and included sociodemographic variables, clinical and obstetric histories, behavioral factors and exposure to stress factors during pregnancy, pre-natal assistance and obstetric complication and childbirth care. Results In the final model of the unconditional logistic regression analysis, being older than 35 years (OR=3.11; 95% CI:1.53-6.31), previous hypertension (OR=2.52; 95% CI:1.09-5.80), history of abortion (OR=1.61; 95% CI:0.97-2.68), 4–5 pre-natal consultations (OR=1.78; 95% CI:1.05-3.01) and 1–3 pre-natal consultations (OR=1.89; 95% CI:1.03-3.49) were independently associated with severe maternal morbidity. Conclusions The results corroborate the importance of reproductive healthcare, of identifying a high-risk pregnancy and of a qualified and complete prenatal care to prevent severe morbid events. Resumo Introdução A mortalidade e morbidade maternas estão entre os tópicos prioritários da Saúde Pública brasileira, especialmente na população de menor nível socioeconômico. Um estudo caso-controle foi desenvolvido para identificar os fatores de risco

  6. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  7. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BRAZILIAN NETWORK FOR STUDIES IN REPRODUCTIVE AND PERINATAL HEALTH: THE POWER OF COLLABORATION IN POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMS.

    PubMed

    Cecatti, José G; Silveira, Carla; Souza, Renato T; Fernandes, Karayna G; Surita, Fernanda G

    2015-01-01

    , contribuem para a disseminação do conhecimento e estruturação da pesquisa em saúde. Diversas vantagens são atribuídas ao trabalho em rede como: a inclusão de maior número de participantes nos estudos; gerar evidências mais fortes e com maior representatividade da população (generalização secundária e validade externa); maior facilidade das publicações oriundas dos estudos serem aceitas em periódicos de impacto e abrangência; maior probabilidade de obtenção de verbas para financiamento; maior facilidade na coleta de dados sobre condições raras; inclusão de participantes de diferentes grupos étnicos e culturas, entre outras. No Brasil a Rede Brasileira de Estudos em Saúde Reprodutiva e Perinatal foi criada em 2008 com o objetivo inicial de desenvolver rede nacional de cooperação científica para vigilância da morbidade materna grave. Desde sua formação, cinco estudos foram desenvolvidos, alguns já encerrados e outros em fase de finalização, com outros dois em fase final de implantação. Os resultados das atividades desta Rede têm sido bastante produtivos e impactaram positivamente não apenas no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tocoginecologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, seu centro coordenador, mas também o de outros centros participantes, uma vez que expressivo número de artigos científicos foi publicado, mestrados e doutorados foram defendidos e pós-doutorados finalizados, de alunos de diversas áreas da saúde, de diferentes regiões e de várias instituições de todo o país, com alto impacto social dada a relevância dos temas estudados para o país.

  8. Teaching astronomy mediated by information and communication technologies: a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. H. L.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    como, visita a planetários e a observatórios. Os estudantes ficaram muito sensibilizados pela possibilidade de percepção do céu em tempo real e à luz do dia dentro da sala de aula no contexto escolar. Os resultados deste levantamento preliminar indicam que os níveis de ensino fundamental e médio não foram capazes de internalizar conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, a despeito das orientações específicas contidas nos documentos oficiais da educação básica brasileira (Brasil, 1997 e 2000). Os estudantes pesquisados apresentaram conhecimentos e concepções rudimentares sobre o tema astronomia básica, indicando a ausência de abordagem do tema astronomia, tampouco de observação direta do céu em trabalhos de campo escolares na educação básica. Finalmente, esta abordagem didática suscitou nos estudantes grande interesse para futuros trabalhos de observação de campo. D.P. Ausubel; J.D. Novak; H. Hanesian. Psicología Educativa: un punto de vista cognoscitivo. México: Trillas, 1983. BRASIL. Secretaria de Educação Básica. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais: Ensino Fundamental (PCN), 1997, e Ensino Médio (PCNEM), 2000. Brasília. MEC/SEB.

  9. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    pelos alunos nas Olimpíadas promovidas na escola e pela OBA (Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia) possibilitaram a verificação de uma crescente aprendizagem e estímulo ao conhecimento de temas científicos, que foi comprovado diante da apropriação dos conceitos de Astronomia adquiridos e apresentados em resultados como avaliações, ou ainda, diante dos relatos obtidos dos mesmos, suas famílias e professores.

  10. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a