Science.gov

Sample records for monetary system converging

  1. Converging effects of cocaine addiction and sex on neural responses to monetary rewards.

    PubMed

    Konova, Anna B; Moeller, Scott J; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Froböse, Monja I; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-02-28

    There is some evidence that cocaine addiction manifests as more severe in women than men. Here, we examined whether these sex-specific differences in the clinical setting parallel differential neurobehavioral sensitivity to rewards in the laboratory setting. Twenty-eight (14 females/14 males) cocaine-dependent and 25 (11 females/14 males) healthy individuals completed a monetary reward task during fMRI. Results showed that the effects of cocaine dependence and sex overlapped in regions traditionally considered part of the mesocorticolimbic brain circuits including the hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as those outside of this circuit (e.g., the middle temporal gyrus). The nature of this 'overlap' was such that both illness and female sex were associated with lower activations in these regions in response to money. Diagnosis-by-sex interactions instead emerged in the frontal cortex, such that cocaine-dependent females exhibited lower precentral gyrus and greater inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activations relative to cocaine-dependent males and healthy females. Within these regions modulated both by diagnosis and sex, lower activation in the hippocampus and PCC, and higher IFG activations, correlated with increased subjective craving during the task. Results suggest sex-specific differences in addiction extend to monetary rewards and may contribute to core symptoms linked to relapse. PMID:26809268

  2. Reforming the International Monetary System: From Roosevelt to Reagan. Headline Series No. 281.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hormats, Robert D.

    This book examines the changed, and changing, international monetary system. It describes how the system has evolved under nine Presidents, from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Ronald Reagan. It also discusses the broader evolution of the world economy during this period, including the trade and investment issues to which international monetary policy is…

  3. Governance Challenges of Technological Systems Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The convergence of several technological systems (especially nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and robotics) has now been adopted as a strategic goal by several countries, most notably the United States and those of the European Union. The anticipated benefits and related fears of competitive disadvantage have brought together…

  4. Convergent strand array liquid pumping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A surface-tension liquid pumping system is provided by one or more arrays of converging solid monofilament fibers or metal wires (strands) spaced apart at an input end to gather liquid, and gathered close together at the opposite end where menisci forms between wetted strands to force liquid in the direction of convergence of the strands. The liquid pumping system is independent of gravity. It is illustrated as being used in a heat pump having a heating box to vaporize the liquid and a condensing chamber. Condensed liquid is returned by the pumping system to the heating box where it is again vaporized. A vapor tube carries the vapor to the condensing chamber. In that way, a closed system pumps heat from the heating box to the evaporating chamber and from there radiated to the atmosphere.

  5. The Convergence Coefficient across Political Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Formal work on the electoral model often suggests that parties or candidates should locate themselves at the electoral mean. Recent research has found no evidence of such convergence. In order to explain nonconvergence, the stochastic electoral model is extended by including estimates of electoral valence. We introduce the notion of a convergence coefficient, c. It has been shown that high values of c imply that there is a significant centrifugal tendency acting on parties. We used electoral surveys to construct a stochastic valence model of the the elections in various countries. We find that the convergence coefficient varies across elections in a country, across countries with similar regimes, and across political regimes. In some countries, the centripetal tendency leads parties to converge to the electoral mean. In others the centrifugal tendency dominates and some parties locate far from the electoral mean. In particular, for countries with proportional electoral systems, namely, Israel, Turkey, and Poland, the centrifugal tendency is very high. In the majoritarian polities of the United States and Great Britain, the centrifugal tendency is very low. In anocracies, the autocrat imposes limitations on how far from the origin the opposition parties can move. PMID:24385886

  6. Convergence Creates Opportunities Across Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Brent I.; Felkey, Bill G.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial design students at Auburn do a creativity exercise where they are asked to combine a common household appliance with an animal. Have you seen a snake light? In health technology, we have a similar opportunity. In the connection between jewelry and vital sign monitoring technology or household security and health status monitoring, we are witnessing active convergence that will benefit patients, providers, and health systems. PMID:24958948

  7. Convergence creates opportunities across health care system.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brent I; Felkey, Bill G

    2014-04-01

    Industrial design students at Auburn do a creativity exercise where they are asked to combine a common household appliance with an animal. Have you seen a snake light? In health technology, we have a similar opportunity. In the connection between jewelry and vital sign monitoring technology or household security and health status monitoring, we are witnessing active convergence that will benefit patients, providers, and health systems.

  8. Convergence creates opportunities across health care system.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brent I; Felkey, Bill G

    2014-04-01

    Industrial design students at Auburn do a creativity exercise where they are asked to combine a common household appliance with an animal. Have you seen a snake light? In health technology, we have a similar opportunity. In the connection between jewelry and vital sign monitoring technology or household security and health status monitoring, we are witnessing active convergence that will benefit patients, providers, and health systems. PMID:24958948

  9. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  10. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  11. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  12. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  13. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-08-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  14. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  15. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence

    Guest Editors: Thomas E. Darcie, University of Victoria Robert Doverspike, AT&T Martin Zirngibl, Lucent Technologies

    Coordinating Associate Editor: Steven K. Korotky, Lucent Technologies

    The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly

  16. Spherically-Convergent, Advanced-Fuel Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A.; Schauer, M. M.; Umstadter, K. R.

    1998-11-01

    Combining nonneutral electron confinement with spherical ion convergence leads to a cm sized reactor volume with high power density.(R. A. Nebel and D. C. Barnes, Fusion Technol.), to appear (1998); D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel, Phys. of Plasmas 5, 2498 (1998). This concept is being investigated experimentally,(D. C. Barnes, T. B. Mitchell, and M. M. Schauer, Phys. Plasmas) 4, 1745 (1997). and results will be reported. We argue that D-D operation of such a system offers all the advantages of aneutronic fusion cycles. In particular, no breeding or large tritium inventory is required, and material problems seem tractable based on previous LWR experience. In addition the extremely small unit size leads to a massively modular system which is easily maintained and repaired, suggesting a very high availability. It may also be possible to operate such a system with low or aneutronic fuels. Preliminary work in this direction will be presented.

  17. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2004-12-01

    Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These

  18. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and

  19. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and

  20. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence

    Guest Editors: Thomas E. Darcie, University of Victoria Robert Doverspike, AT&T Martin Zirngibl, Lucent Technologies

    Coordinating Associate Editor: Steven K. Korotky, Lucent Technologies

    The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly

  1. How does money memorize social interactions? Understanding time-homogeneity in monetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter; Schmitt, Matthias; Schacker, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how money shapes and memorizes our social interactions is central to modern life. There are many schools of thought on as to how monetary systems contribute to crises or boom/bust cycles and how monetary policy can try to avert them. We find that statistical physics gives a refreshing perspective. We analyze how credit mechanisms introduce non-locality and time-heterogeneity to the monetary memory. Motivated by an analogy to particle physics, locality and time-homogeneity can be imposed to monetary systems. As a result, a full reserve banking system is complemented with a bi-currency system of non-bank assets (``money'') and bank assets (``antimoney''). Payment can either be made by passing on money or by receiving antimoney. As a result, a free floating exchange rate between non-bank assets and bank assets is established. Interestingly, this monetary memory allows for credit creation by the simultaneous transfer of money and antimoney at a negotiated exchange rate. We analyze this novel mechanism of liquidity transfer in a model of random social interactions, yielding analytical results for all relevant distributions and the price of liquidity under the conditions of a fully transparent credit market.

  2. Convergence of Hamiltonian systems to billiards.

    PubMed

    Collas, Peter; Klein, David; Schwebler, Hans-Peter

    1998-06-01

    We examine in detail a physically natural and general scheme for gradually deforming a Hamiltonian to its corresponding billiard, as a certain parameter k varies from one to infinity. We apply this limiting process to a class of Hamiltonians with homogeneous potential-energy functions and further investigate the extent to which the limiting billiards inherit properties from the corresponding sequences of Hamiltonians. The results are mixed. Using theorems of Yoshida for the case of two degrees of freedom, we prove a general theorem establishing the "inheritability" of stability properties of certain orbits. This result follows naturally from the convergence of the traces of appropriate monodromy matrices to the billiard analog. However, in spite of the close analogy between the concepts of integrability for Hamiltonian systems and billiards, integrability properties of Hamiltonians in a sequence are not necessarily inherited by the limiting billiard, as we show by example. In addition to rigorous results, we include numerical examples of certain interesting cases, along with computer simulations. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779750

  3. Money, the Banking System and Monetary Policy in Canada: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Douglas C. A.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's monetary system and policy. Material is organized and presented in terms of specific topic readings and illustrative activities. The topics covered in six sections are money, the…

  4. Γ-convergence of Variational Integrators for Constrained Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Bernd; Leyendecker, Sigrid; Ortiz, Michael

    2009-04-01

    For a physical system described by a motion in an energy landscape under holonomic constraints, we study the Γ-convergence of variational integrators to the corresponding continuum action functional and the convergence properties of solutions of the discrete Euler-Lagrange equations to stationary points of the continuum problem. This extends the results in Müller and Ortiz (J. Nonlinear Sci. 14:279-296, 2004) to constrained systems. The convergence result is illustrated with examples of mass point systems and flexible multibody dynamics.

  5. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  6. Energy Systems Integration: A Convergence of Ideas

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Garrett, B.; MacMillan, S.; Rice, B.; Komomua, C.; O'Malley, M.; Zimmerle, D.

    2012-07-01

    Energy systems integration (ESI) enables the effective analysis, design, and control of these interactions and interdependencies along technical, economic, regulatory, and social dimensions. By focusing on the optimization of energy from all systems, across all pathways, and at all scales, we can better understand and make use of the co-benefits that result to increase reliability and performance, reduce cost, and minimize environmental impacts. This white paper discusses systems integration and the research in new control architectures that are optimized at smaller scales but can be aggregated to optimize energy systems at any scale and would allow replicable energy solutions across boundaries of existing and new energy pathways.

  7. Convergent evolution of neural systems in ctenophores.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-02-15

    Neurons are defined as polarized secretory cells specializing in directional propagation of electrical signals leading to the release of extracellular messengers - features that enable them to transmit information, primarily chemical in nature, beyond their immediate neighbors without affecting all intervening cells en route. Multiple origins of neurons and synapses from different classes of ancestral secretory cells might have occurred more than once during ~600 million years of animal evolution with independent events of nervous system centralization from a common bilaterian/cnidarian ancestor without the bona fide central nervous system. Ctenophores, or comb jellies, represent an example of extensive parallel evolution in neural systems. First, recent genome analyses place ctenophores as a sister group to other animals. Second, ctenophores have a smaller complement of pan-animal genes controlling canonical neurogenic, synaptic, muscle and immune systems, and developmental pathways than most other metazoans. However, comb jellies are carnivorous marine animals with a complex neuromuscular organization and sophisticated patterns of behavior. To sustain these functions, they have evolved a number of unique molecular innovations supporting the hypothesis of massive homoplasies in the organization of integrative and locomotory systems. Third, many bilaterian/cnidarian neuron-specific genes and 'classical' neurotransmitter pathways are either absent or, if present, not expressed in ctenophore neurons (e.g. the bilaterian/cnidarian neurotransmitter, γ-amino butyric acid or GABA, is localized in muscles and presumed bilaterian neuron-specific RNA-binding protein Elav is found in non-neuronal cells). Finally, metabolomic and pharmacological data failed to detect either the presence or any physiological action of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, octopamine, acetylcholine or histamine - consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems evolved

  8. Convergent evolution of neural systems in ctenophores.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-02-15

    Neurons are defined as polarized secretory cells specializing in directional propagation of electrical signals leading to the release of extracellular messengers - features that enable them to transmit information, primarily chemical in nature, beyond their immediate neighbors without affecting all intervening cells en route. Multiple origins of neurons and synapses from different classes of ancestral secretory cells might have occurred more than once during ~600 million years of animal evolution with independent events of nervous system centralization from a common bilaterian/cnidarian ancestor without the bona fide central nervous system. Ctenophores, or comb jellies, represent an example of extensive parallel evolution in neural systems. First, recent genome analyses place ctenophores as a sister group to other animals. Second, ctenophores have a smaller complement of pan-animal genes controlling canonical neurogenic, synaptic, muscle and immune systems, and developmental pathways than most other metazoans. However, comb jellies are carnivorous marine animals with a complex neuromuscular organization and sophisticated patterns of behavior. To sustain these functions, they have evolved a number of unique molecular innovations supporting the hypothesis of massive homoplasies in the organization of integrative and locomotory systems. Third, many bilaterian/cnidarian neuron-specific genes and 'classical' neurotransmitter pathways are either absent or, if present, not expressed in ctenophore neurons (e.g. the bilaterian/cnidarian neurotransmitter, γ-amino butyric acid or GABA, is localized in muscles and presumed bilaterian neuron-specific RNA-binding protein Elav is found in non-neuronal cells). Finally, metabolomic and pharmacological data failed to detect either the presence or any physiological action of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, octopamine, acetylcholine or histamine - consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems evolved

  9. Convergent evolution of neural systems in ctenophores

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Leonid L.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons are defined as polarized secretory cells specializing in directional propagation of electrical signals leading to the release of extracellular messengers – features that enable them to transmit information, primarily chemical in nature, beyond their immediate neighbors without affecting all intervening cells en route. Multiple origins of neurons and synapses from different classes of ancestral secretory cells might have occurred more than once during ~600 million years of animal evolution with independent events of nervous system centralization from a common bilaterian/cnidarian ancestor without the bona fide central nervous system. Ctenophores, or comb jellies, represent an example of extensive parallel evolution in neural systems. First, recent genome analyses place ctenophores as a sister group to other animals. Second, ctenophores have a smaller complement of pan-animal genes controlling canonical neurogenic, synaptic, muscle and immune systems, and developmental pathways than most other metazoans. However, comb jellies are carnivorous marine animals with a complex neuromuscular organization and sophisticated patterns of behavior. To sustain these functions, they have evolved a number of unique molecular innovations supporting the hypothesis of massive homoplasies in the organization of integrative and locomotory systems. Third, many bilaterian/cnidarian neuron-specific genes and ‘classical’ neurotransmitter pathways are either absent or, if present, not expressed in ctenophore neurons (e.g. the bilaterian/cnidarian neurotransmitter, γ-amino butyric acid or GABA, is localized in muscles and presumed bilaterian neuron-specific RNA-binding protein Elav is found in non-neuronal cells). Finally, metabolomic and pharmacological data failed to detect either the presence or any physiological action of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, octopamine, acetylcholine or histamine – consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems

  10. Systems Harmonization and Convergence - the GIGAS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, P. G.; Biancalana, A.; Coene, Y.; Uslander, T.

    2009-04-01

    0.1 Background The GIGAS1 Support Action promotes the coherent and interoperable development of the GMES, INSPIRE and GEOSS initiatives through their concerted adoption of standards, protocols, and open architectures. 0.2 Preparing for Coordinated Data Access The GMES Coordinated Data Access System is under design and implementation2. This objective has motivated the definition of the interoperability standards between the contributing missions. The following elements have been addressed with associated papers submitted to OGC: The EO Product Metadata has been based on the OGC Geographic Markup Language, addressing sensor characteristics for optical, radar and atmospheric products. Collection and service discovery: an ISO extension package for CSW ebRim has been proposed. Catalogue Service (CSW): an Earth Observation extension package of the CSW ebRim has been proposed. Feasibility Analysis and Order: an Order interface control document and an Earth Observation profile of the Sensor Planning Service have been proposed. Online Data Access: an Earth Observation profile of the Web Map Services (WMS) for visualization and evaluation purposes has been proposed. Identity (user) management: the objective in the long term is to allow for a single sign-on to the Coordinated Data Access system by users registered in the various Earth Observation ground segments by providing a federated identity across participating ground segments, exploiting OASIS standards. 0.3 The GIGAS proposed harmonization approach The approach proposed by GIGAS is based on three elements: Technology watch Comparative analysis Shaping of initiatives and standards This paper concentrates on the methodology for technology watch and comparative analysis. The complexity of the GIGAS scenario involving huge systems (i.e. GEOSS, INSPIRE, GMES etc.) entails the interaction with different heterogeneous partners, each with a specific competence, expertise and know-how. 0.3.1 Technology watch The methodology

  11. Convergence Time towards Periodic Orbits in Discrete Dynamical Systems

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  12. Convergence time towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice.

  13. Convergence time towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  14. Representational System Predicate Use and Convergence in Counseling: Gloria Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Mary Ann; Johnson, Marilyn

    1984-01-01

    Analayzed transcripts of Three Approaches to Psychotherapy (Shostrom, 1966) for counselor and client representational system predicate use. Although different patterns of predicate use emerged, only limited support for Neurolinguistic Programming theory was found. The findings of different patterns of predicate use were related to convergence and…

  15. Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Learning Transfer System Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Bookter, Annette I.; Yamkovenko, V. Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) was developed to identify a select set of factors with the potential to substantially enhance or inhibit transfer of learning to the work environment. It has undergone a variety of validation studies, including construct, criterion, and crosscultural studies. However, the convergent and divergent…

  16. Configuration complexity assessment of convergent supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrak, Vladimir; Marton, David

    2014-07-01

    System designers usually generate alternative configurations of supply chains (SCs) by varying especially fixed assets to satisfy a desired production scope and rate. Such alternatives often vary in associated costs and other facets including degrees of complexity. Hence, a measure of configuration complexity can be a tool for comparison and decision-making. This paper presents three approaches to assessment of configuration complexity and their applications to designing convergent SC systems. Presented approaches are conceptually distinct ways of measuring structural complexity parameters based on different preconditions and circumstances of assembly systems which are typical representatives of convergent SCs. There are applied two similar approaches based on different preconditions that are related to demand shares. Third approach does not consider any special condition relating to character of final product demand. Subsequently, we propose a framework for modeling of assembly SC models, which are dividing to classes.

  17. Evolution of the Mariana Convergent Plate Margin System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Patricia

    1996-02-01

    The Mariana convergent plate margin system of the western Pacific provides opportunities for studying the tectonic and geochemical processes of intraoceanic plate subduction without the added complexities of continental geology. The system's relative geologic simplicity and the well-exposed sections of lithosphere in each of its tectonic provinces permit in situ examination of processes critical to understanding subduction tectonics. Its general history provides analogs to ancient convergent margin terranes exposed on land and helps to explain the chemical mass balance in convergent plate margins. The Mariana convergent margin's long history of sequential formation of volcanic arcs and extensional back arc basins has created a series of volcanic arcs at the eastern edge of the Philippine Sea plate. The trenchward edge of the overriding plate has a relatively sparse sediment cover. Rocks outcropping on the trench's inner slope are typical of the early formed suprasubduction zone's lithosphere and have been subjected to various processes related to its tectonic history. Pervasive forearc faulting has exposed crust and upper mantle lithosphere. Many large serpentinized peridotite seamounts are within 100 km of the trench axis. From these we can learn the history of regional metamorphism and observe and sample active venting of slab fluids. Ocean drilling recovered suprasubduction zone lava sequences erupted since the Eocene that suggest that the forearc region remains volcanologically dynamic. Seismic studies and seafloor mapping show evidence of deformation throughout forearc evolution. Large portions of uplifted southern forearc are exposed at the larger islands. Active volcanoes at the base of the eastern boundary fault of the Mariana Trough vary in size and composition along strike and record regional differences in source composition. Their locations along strike of the arc are controlled in part by cross-arc structures that also facilitate formation of submarine

  18. Introduction to 'Homology and convergence in nervous system evolution'.

    PubMed

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hirth, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The origin of brains and central nervous systems (CNSs) is thought to have occurred before the Palaeozoic era 540 Ma. Yet in the absence of tangible evidence, there has been continued debate whether today's brains and nervous systems derive from one ancestral origin or whether similarities among them are due to convergent evolution. With the advent of molecular developmental genetics and genomics, it has become clear that homology is a concept that applies not only to morphologies, but also to genes, developmental processes, as well as to behaviours. Comparative studies in phyla ranging from annelids and arthropods to mammals are providing evidence that corresponding developmental genetic mechanisms act not only in dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior axis specification but also in segmentation, neurogenesis, axogenesis and eye/photoreceptor cell formation that appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom. These data are supported by recent studies which identified Mid-Cambrian fossils with preserved soft body parts that present segmental arrangements in brains typical of modern arthropods, and similarly organized brain centres and circuits across phyla that may reflect genealogical correspondence and control similar behavioural manifestations. Moreover, congruence between genetic and geological fossil records support the notion that by the 'Cambrian explosion' arthropods and chordates shared similarities in brain and nervous system organization. However, these similarities are strikingly absent in several sister- and outgroups of arthropods and chordates which raises several questions, foremost among them: what kind of natural laws and mechanisms underlie the convergent evolution of such similarities? And, vice versa: what are the selection pressures and genetic mechanisms underlying the possible loss or reduction of brains and CNSs in multiple lineages during the course of evolution? These questions were addressed at a Royal Society meeting to discuss

  19. Introduction to 'Homology and convergence in nervous system evolution'.

    PubMed

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hirth, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The origin of brains and central nervous systems (CNSs) is thought to have occurred before the Palaeozoic era 540 Ma. Yet in the absence of tangible evidence, there has been continued debate whether today's brains and nervous systems derive from one ancestral origin or whether similarities among them are due to convergent evolution. With the advent of molecular developmental genetics and genomics, it has become clear that homology is a concept that applies not only to morphologies, but also to genes, developmental processes, as well as to behaviours. Comparative studies in phyla ranging from annelids and arthropods to mammals are providing evidence that corresponding developmental genetic mechanisms act not only in dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior axis specification but also in segmentation, neurogenesis, axogenesis and eye/photoreceptor cell formation that appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom. These data are supported by recent studies which identified Mid-Cambrian fossils with preserved soft body parts that present segmental arrangements in brains typical of modern arthropods, and similarly organized brain centres and circuits across phyla that may reflect genealogical correspondence and control similar behavioural manifestations. Moreover, congruence between genetic and geological fossil records support the notion that by the 'Cambrian explosion' arthropods and chordates shared similarities in brain and nervous system organization. However, these similarities are strikingly absent in several sister- and outgroups of arthropods and chordates which raises several questions, foremost among them: what kind of natural laws and mechanisms underlie the convergent evolution of such similarities? And, vice versa: what are the selection pressures and genetic mechanisms underlying the possible loss or reduction of brains and CNSs in multiple lineages during the course of evolution? These questions were addressed at a Royal Society meeting to discuss

  20. Beyond assemblies: system convergence and multi-materiality.

    PubMed

    Wiscombe, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The architectural construction industry has become increasingly more specialized over the past 50 years, creating a culture of layer thinking over part-to-whole thinking. Building systems and technologies are often cobbled together in conflicting and uncorrelated ways, even when referred to as 'integrated', such as by way of building information modeling. True integration of building systems requires rethinking how systems and architectural morphologies can push and pull on one another, creating not only innovation in technology but in aesthetics. The revolution in composite materials, with unprecedented plasticity and performance features, opens up a huge range of possibilities for achieving this kind of convergence. Composites by nature fuse envelope and structure, but through various types of inflections, they can also be made to conduct air and fluids through cavities and de-laminations, as well as integrate lighting and energy systems. Assembly as we know it moves away from mineral materials and hardware and toward polymers and 'healing'. Further, when projected into the near-future realm of multi-materiality and 3D manufacturing, possibilities for embedding systems and creating gradients of rigidity and opacity open up, pointing to an entirely new realm of architectural thinking.

  1. Homology and Convergence in Vertebrate and Invertebrate Nervous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeman, David

    Each year the meeting of the American Neuroscience Society attracts over 20,000 members, reflecting the explosion of interest in this field that has occurred over the past few decades. Researchers from many disciplines are focusing their skills on the investigation of every aspect of nervous systems, and neuroscience now encompasses the entire range of endeavour from the study of the single molecules that make up neural membranes to the non-invasive observation of neural function in animals behaving in their natural environments. Advances over the past three decades in our understanding of nervous systems are impressive and come from a multifaceted approach to the study of both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. An almost unexpected by-product of the parallel investigation of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems that is explored in this article is the emergent view of an intricate web of evolutionary homology and convergence exhibited in the structure and function of the nervous systems of these two large, paraphyletic groups of animals.

  2. Homology and convergence in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Sandeman, D

    1999-08-01

    Each year the meeting of the American Neuroscience Society attracts over 20,000 members, reflecting the explosion of interest in this field that has occurred over the past few decades. Researchers from many disciplines are focusing their skills on the investigation of every aspect of nervous systems, and neuroscience now encompasses the entire range of endeavour from the study of the single molecules that make up neural membranes to the non-invasive observation of neural function in animals behaving in their natural environments. Advances over the past three decades in our understanding of nervous systems are impressive and come from a multifaceted approach to the study of both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. An almost unexpected by-product of the parallel investigation of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems that is explored in this article is the emergent view of an intricate web of evolutionary homology and convergence exhibited in the structure and function of the nervous systems of these two large, paraphyletic groups of animals.

  3. On local convergence analysis of inexact Newton method for singular systems of equations under majorant condition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangqin

    2014-01-01

    We present a local convergence analysis of inexact Newton method for solving singular systems of equations. Under the hypothesis that the derivative of the function associated with the singular systems satisfies a majorant condition, we obtain that the method is well defined and converges. Our analysis provides a clear relationship between the majorant function and the function associated with the singular systems. It also allows us to obtain an estimate of convergence ball for inexact Newton method and some important special cases.

  4. Lithospheric Convergence Preceded Extension in the Pannonian-Carpathian System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, Gregory; Stuart, Graham; Dando, Ben; Hetenyi, Gyorgy; Lorinczi, Piroska; Hegedus, Endre; Brueckl, Ewald

    2010-05-01

    The continuing collision of the Adriatic block with European continental lithosphere has its clearest expression now in the Alpine collision zone. Recent tomographic images of the upper mantle beneath the eastern Alps and western Pannonian Basin support the interpretation that in the Early Miocene the collision zone extended further east: a steeply dipping seismically fast structure stretches downward beneath the Eastern Alps reaching to the base of the transition zone, consistent with the long history of convergence in this region. This high velocity structure also extends eastward beneath the extensional Pannonian Basin. The high velocity anomaly beneath the Basin is strongly developed in transition zone depths (410 to 660 km) but the anomaly weakens upward. High velocities beneath the center of the extensional basin are unexpected because there is substantive evidence that the onset of extension in the Pannonian domain at around 17 Ma produced rapid extension of the lithosphere and replacement of the lower part of the lithosphere by hot asthenosphere. These deeper structures, however, must be explained by the long history of convergence that preceded the extension of the basin. Further evidence of a history of sustained convergence in the present Pannonian region is found in the depression of the 660 km seismic discontinuity beneath the Alps (Lombardi et al., EPSL, 2009) and also beneath the Pannonian Basin (Hetenyi et al., GRL, 2009). The 660 km discontinuity in both places is depressed by as much as 40 km, whereas the 410 km discontinuity is at approximately nominal depths. Evidently in both regions relatively dense material derived from the mid-Miocene collision sits stagnant on top of the 660 km discontinuity, where further descent is obstructed by the negative Clapeyron slope of the spinel-to-perovskite phase transition and/or the high viscosity of the lower mantle. The rapid extension of the Intra-Carpathian Basins in the Mid-Miocene (between about 17 and

  5. A convergent series expansion for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harabetian, E.

    1985-01-01

    The discontinuities piecewise analytic initial value problem for a wide class of conservation laws is considered which includes the full three-dimensional Euler equations. The initial interaction at an arbitrary curved surface is resolved in time by a convergent series. Among other features the solution exhibits shock, contact, and expansion waves as well as sound waves propagating on characteristic surfaces. The expansion waves correspond to he one-dimensional rarefactions but have a more complicated structure. The sound waves are generated in place of zero strength shocks, and they are caused by mismatches in derivatives.

  6. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associatedmore » with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.« less

  7. Convergent Bacterial Microbiotas in the Fungal Agricultural Systems of Insects

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes. PMID:25406380

  8. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.

  9. Optimization of convergent collimators for pixelated SPECT systems

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, Ricardo M.; Matela, Nuno; Conceicao, Raquel C.; Almeida, Pedro

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The optimization of the collimator design is essential to obtain the best possible sensitivity in single photon emission computed tomography imaging. The aim of this work is to present a methodology for maximizing the sensitivity of convergent collimators, specifically designed to match the pitch of pixelated detectors, for a fixed spatial resolution value and to present some initial results using this approach. Methods: Given the matched constraint, the optimal collimator design cannot be simply found by allowing the highest level of septal penetration and spatial resolution consistent with the imposed restrictions, as it is done for the optimization of conventional collimators. Therefore, an algorithm that interactively calculates the collimator dimensions, with the maximum sensitivity, which respect the imposed restrictions was developed and used to optimize cone and fan beam collimators with tapered square-shaped holes for low (60-300 keV) and high energy radiation (300-511 keV). The optimal collimator dimensions were locally calculated based on the premise that each hole and septa of the convergent collimator should locally resemble an appropriate optimal matched parallel collimator. Results: The optimal collimator dimensions, calculated for subcentimeter resolutions (3 and 7.5 mm), common pixel sizes (1.6, 2.1, and 2.5 mm), and acceptable septal penetration at 140 keV, were approximately constant throughout the collimator, despite their different hole incidence angles. By using these input parameters and a less strict septal penetration value of 5%, the optimal collimator dimensions and the corresponding mass per detector area were calculated for 511 keV. It is shown that a low value of focal distance leads to improvements in the average sensitivity at a fixed source-collimator distance and resolution. The optimal cone beam performance outperformed that of other optimal collimation geometries (fan and parallel beam) in imaging objects close to the

  10. Convergence and attractors of augmented Lagrangian formulations in the dynamic analysis of multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, D. A.; Kurdila, A. J.; Menon, R. G.

    1993-04-01

    The augmented Lagrangian formulation used in the dynamic analysis of multibody systems under holonomic constraints is presently found to exhibit fixed-step convergence, so that the approximate accelerations and Lagrange multipliers at a fixed time interval approach the exact accelerations and multipliers as the number of iterations becomes large. Also noted are a fixed time-interval rate of convergence inequality for the Lagrange multipliers, and corroborating empirical evidence for these analytical developments.

  11. Further results on iterative learning control with convergence conditions for linear time-variant discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Ho, John K. L.

    2011-06-01

    This article is concerned with some further results on iterative learning control (ILC) algorithms with convergence conditions for linear time-variant discrete systems. By converting two-Dimensional (2-D) ILC process of the linear time-variant discrete systems into 1-D linear time-invariant discrete systems, this article presents convergent ILC algorithms with necessary and sufficient conditions for two classes of linear time-variant discrete systems. Main results in (Li, X.-D., Ho, J.K.L., and Chow, T.W.S. (2005), 'Iterative Learning Control for Linear Time-variant Discrete Systems Based on 2-D System Theory', IEE Proceedings, Control Theory and Applications, 152, 13-18 and Huang, S.N., Tan, K.K., and Lee, T.H. (2002), 'Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Convergence of Iterative Learning Algorithm', Automatica 38, 1257-1260) are extended and generalised.

  12. Personal Construct Theory and Systemic Therapies: Parallel or Convergent Trends?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feixas, Guillem

    1990-01-01

    Explores similarities between Kelly's Personal Construct Theory (PCT) and systemic therapies. Asserts that (1) PCT and systemic therapies share common epistemological stance, constructivism; (2) personal construct systems possess properties of open systems; and (3) PCT and systemic therapies hold similar positions on relevant theoretical and…

  13. Agriculture, health, and wealth convergence: bridging traditional food systems and modern agribusiness solutions.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas.

  14. Agriculture, health, and wealth convergence: bridging traditional food systems and modern agribusiness solutions.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas. PMID:25514864

  15. How Financial Innovation Has Made Textbook Monetary Theory Obsolete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbody, John

    1988-01-01

    Argues that much of the monetary theory in economics textbooks has not changed in accordance with the facts of monetary history. Contends that by neglecting institutional changes in the monetary system in the 50 years since the publication of Keynes' General Theory, many textbooks are now in danger of seriously misleading their readers. (GEA)

  16. Confluence and convergence: team effectiveness in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems require nursing leadership to rethink organizational work and the viability and effectiveness of teams. Much of emergent thinking about complexity and systems and organizations alter the understanding of the nature and function of teamwork and the configuration and leadership of team effort. Reflecting on basic concepts of complexity and their application to team formation, dynamics, and outcomes lays an important foundation for effectively guiding the strategic activity of systems through the focused tactical action of teams. Basic principles of complexity, their impact on teams, and the fundamental elements of team effectiveness are explored. PMID:25474670

  17. Confluence and convergence: team effectiveness in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems require nursing leadership to rethink organizational work and the viability and effectiveness of teams. Much of emergent thinking about complexity and systems and organizations alter the understanding of the nature and function of teamwork and the configuration and leadership of team effort. Reflecting on basic concepts of complexity and their application to team formation, dynamics, and outcomes lays an important foundation for effectively guiding the strategic activity of systems through the focused tactical action of teams. Basic principles of complexity, their impact on teams, and the fundamental elements of team effectiveness are explored.

  18. Convergence of spectral methods for hyperbolic initial-boundary value systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Lustman, L.; Tadmor, E.

    1986-01-01

    A convergence proof for spectral approximations is presented for hyperbolic systems with initial and boundary conditions. The Chebyshev collocation is treated in detail, but the final result is readily applicable to other spectral methods, such as Legendre collocation or tau-methods.

  19. Human Systems Engineering: A Learning Model Designed To Converge Education, Business, and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.

    The Human Systems Engineering (HSE) Model was created to facilitate collaboration among education, business, and industry. It emphasized the role of leaders who converge with others to accomplish their goals while paying attention to the key elements that create successful partnerships. The partnership of XXsys Technologies, Inc., University of…

  20. Convergent and Discriminant Validation of Three Classroom Observation Systems: A Proposed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borich, Gary D.; Malitz, David

    Evaluated is the validity of the behavioral categories held in common among three classroom observation systems. The validity model employed was that reported by Campbell and Fiske (1959) which requires that both convergent and discriminant validity be demonstrated. These procedures were applied to data obtained from the videotapes of 62 teacher…

  1. Converging Higher Education Systems in a Global Setting: The Example of France and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkington, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We present a comparative survey between the French and Indian higher education systems. In spite of their respective idiosyncratic features, we show that the two countries have both evolved comprehensively toward a knowledge-based society, in order to ensure the prosperity of their citizens. Secondly, we single out a threefold convergence between…

  2. Artificial insemination of pigs reared under smallholder production system in northeastern India: success rate, genetic improvement, and monetary benefit.

    PubMed

    Kadirvel, Govindasamy; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Das, Anubrata; Bujarbaruah, Kamal Malla; Venkatasubramanian, Venkatasamy; Ngachan, Shishom Vanao

    2013-02-01

    The study investigated the success rate, genetic improvement, and monetary benefit of artificial insemination (AI) technology in smallholder backyard pig production system. The pig production system was studied, and performance of nondescript and crossbred pigs under the traditional system was evaluated. Litter size and growth rate of crossbred pig was significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to the nondescript pigs. Non-availability of superior germplasm to produce crossbred pigs and high mating cost were the major constraints observed in the study in addition to indiscriminate mating and non-availability of breeding boar. For genetic improvement of nondescript local pigs and to produce crossbred pigs, AI delivery mechanism was developed in participatory mode including farmers, village leaders, and key persons in 36 villages. The information system was designed in such a way that AI was carried out at the doorstep of the farmer upon request. A total of 167 estrus sow/gilts were artificially inseminated, and a farrowing rate of 78.44 % was obtained with a mean litter size of 7.86 ± 0.65 following AI, which did not differ significantly from natural service. However, the growth rate of crossbred piglets obtained through AI was significantly higher than the growth rate of piglets born out of natural service. The tribal farmers were benefited by AI in several ways: (1) timely availability of superior germplasm to produce crossbred piglets; (2) saved the mating cost of INR 1,000-1,200 and transport of cost (INR 300-400) of female to the boar premises and (3) controlled mating to prevent inbreeding. The present study clearly demonstrates the feasibility and potential benefit of AI technique to smallholder backyard pig production system in tribal rural areas. In addition to genetic improvement of nondescript local pigs, this technology can help in overcoming breeding constraints in smallholder backyard pig production for increasing productivity.

  3. The ECU as the "Mark" of Unity: Europe between Monetary Integration and Monetary Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemer, Jeremiah

    1993-01-01

    Reviews progress toward economic integration and monetary union within the European Economic Community. Maintains that Germany has the greatest influence on the system because of its strong currency and monetary policies. Concludes that a "two-speed" course toward economic union may be the only practical path. (CFR)

  4. An analysis on local convergence of inexact newton-gauss method for solving singular systems of equations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangqin

    2014-01-01

    We study the local convergence properties of inexact Newton-Gauss method for singular systems of equations. Unified estimates of radius of convergence balls for one kind of singular systems of equations with constant rank derivatives are obtained. Application to the Smale point estimate theory is provided and some important known results are extended and/or improved.

  5. Convergent method of and apparatus for distributed control of robotic systems using fuzzy logic

    DOEpatents

    Feddema, John T.; Driessen, Brian J.; Kwok, Kwan S.

    2002-01-01

    A decentralized fuzzy logic control system for one vehicle or for multiple robotic vehicles provides a way to control each vehicle to converge on a goal without collisions between vehicles or collisions with other obstacles, in the presence of noisy input measurements and a limited amount of compute-power and memory on board each robotic vehicle. The fuzzy controller demonstrates improved robustness to noise relative to an exact controller.

  6. Rigorous approximation of stationary measures and convergence to equilibrium for iterated function systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatolo, Stefano; Monge, Maurizio; Nisoli, Isaia

    2016-07-01

    We study the problem of the rigorous computation of the stationary measure and of the rate of convergence to equilibrium of an iterated function system described by a stochastic mixture of two or more dynamical systems that are either all uniformly expanding on the interval, either all contracting. In the expanding case, the associated transfer operators satisfy a Lasota–Yorke inequality, we show how to compute a rigorous approximations of the stationary measure in the L 1 norm and an estimate for the rate of convergence. The rigorous computation requires a computer-aided proof of the contraction of the transfer operators for the maps, and we show that this property propagates to the transfer operators of the IFS. In the contracting case we perform a rigorous approximation of the stationary measure in the Wasserstein–Kantorovich distance and rate of convergence, using the same functional analytic approach. We show that a finite computation can produce a realistic computation of all contraction rates for the whole parameter space. We conclude with a description of the implementation and numerical experiments. All the authors were partially supported by ICTP and by EU Marie-Curie IRSES Brazilian–European partnership in Dynamical Systems (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES 318999 BREUDS), SG thanks The Leverhulme Trust for support through Network Grant IN-2014-021.

  7. Rigorous approximation of stationary measures and convergence to equilibrium for iterated function systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatolo, Stefano; Monge, Maurizio; Nisoli, Isaia

    2016-07-01

    We study the problem of the rigorous computation of the stationary measure and of the rate of convergence to equilibrium of an iterated function system described by a stochastic mixture of two or more dynamical systems that are either all uniformly expanding on the interval, either all contracting. In the expanding case, the associated transfer operators satisfy a Lasota-Yorke inequality, we show how to compute a rigorous approximations of the stationary measure in the L 1 norm and an estimate for the rate of convergence. The rigorous computation requires a computer-aided proof of the contraction of the transfer operators for the maps, and we show that this property propagates to the transfer operators of the IFS. In the contracting case we perform a rigorous approximation of the stationary measure in the Wasserstein-Kantorovich distance and rate of convergence, using the same functional analytic approach. We show that a finite computation can produce a realistic computation of all contraction rates for the whole parameter space. We conclude with a description of the implementation and numerical experiments. All the authors were partially supported by ICTP and by EU Marie-Curie IRSES Brazilian-European partnership in Dynamical Systems (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES 318999 BREUDS), SG thanks The Leverhulme Trust for support through Network Grant IN-2014-021.

  8. Convergence Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Convergence Insufficiency En Español Read in Chinese What is convergence insufficiency? Convergence insufficiency is the ...

  9. Can systems biology help to separate evolutionary analogies (convergent homoplasies) from homologies?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Malcolm S; Notar, Julia C

    2015-01-01

    Convergent evolutionary analogies (homoplasies) of many kinds occur in diverse phylogenetic clades/lineages on both the animal and plant branches of the Tree of Life. Living organisms whose last common ancestors lived millions to hundreds of millions of years ago have later converged morphologically, behaviorally or at other levels of functionality (from molecular genetics through biochemistry, physiology and other organismic processes) as a result of long term strong natural selection that has constrained and channeled evolutionary processes. This happens most often when organisms belonging to different clades occupy ecological niches, habitats or environments sharing major characteristics that select for a relatively narrow range of organismic properties. Systems biology, broadly defined, provides theoretical and methodological approaches that are beginning to make it possible to answer a perennial evolutionary biological question relating to convergent homoplasies: Are at least some of the apparent analogies actually unrecognized homologies? This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of important aspects of this topic area. It also provides a resource describing many homoplasies that may be fruitful subjects for systems biological research.

  10. Monotonically convergent optimal control theory of quantum systems under a nonlinear interaction with the control field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapert, M.; Tehini, R.; Turinici, G.; Sugny, D.

    2008-08-01

    We consider the optimal control of quantum systems interacting nonlinearly with an electromagnetic field. We propose monotonically convergent algorithms to solve the optimal equations. The monotonic behavior of the algorithm is ensured by a nonstandard choice of the cost, which is not quadratic in the field. These algorithms can be constructed for pure- and mixed-state quantum systems. The efficiency of the method is shown numerically for molecular orientation with a nonlinearity of order 3 in the field. Discretizing the amplitude and the phase of the Fourier transform of the optimal field, we show that the optimal solution can be well approximated by pulses that could be implemented experimentally.

  11. On Technology Convergence and Platforms: Requirements Challenges from New Technologies and System Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarke, Matthias

    In this chapter, we investigate some opportunities and challenges for requirements engineering resulting from major changes in the technical context in which ICT systems operate, in particular from the continuous trend towards information and communication technology convergence. We illustrate these challenges with two major examples, one concerning requirements monitoring as a self-governance mechanism in Internet-based social networks, the other concerning the role of requirements modeling as a mediator between different cultures in embedded systems engineering for the automotive industry. Starting from a brief re-iteration of Thomas Friedman’s argument on standards evolution, we finally discuss platform strategies as an important emerging challenge for organizational RE.

  12. H∞ approach to monotonically convergent ILC for uncertain time-varying delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Deyuan; Jia, Yingmin; Du, Junping

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with iterative learning control (ILC) design for uncertain time-delay systems. Monotonic convergence of the resulting ILC process is studied, and a sufficient condition within an H∞-based framework is developed. It is shown that under this framework, delay-dependent conditions can be obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), together with formulas for gain matrices design. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the robust H∞-based approach to ILC designed via LMIs.

  13. On the basis set convergence of electron-electron entanglement measures: helium-like systems.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    A systematic investigation of three different electron-electron entanglement measures, namely the von Neumann, the linear and the occupation number entropy at full configuration interaction level has been performed for the four helium-like systems hydride, helium, Li(+) and Be(2+) using a large number of different basis sets. The convergence behavior of the resulting energies and entropies revealed that the latter do in general not show the expected strictly monotonic increase upon increase of the one-electron basis. Overall, the three different entanglement measures show good agreement among each other, the largest deviations being observed for small basis sets. The data clearly demonstrates that it is important to consider the nature of the chemical system when investigating entanglement phenomena in the framework of Gaussian type basis sets: while in case of hydride the use of augmentation functions is crucial, the application of core functions greatly improves the accuracy in case of cationic systems such as Li(+) and Be(2+). In addition, numerical derivatives of the entanglement measures with respect to the nucleic charge have been determined, which proved to be a very sensitive probe of the convergence leading to qualitatively wrong results (i.e., the wrong sign) if too small basis sets are used.

  14. Parameter estimation in nonlinear distributed systems - Approximation theory and convergence results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Reich, Simeon; Rosen, I. G.

    1988-01-01

    An abstract approximation framework and convergence theory is described for Galerkin approximations applied to inverse problems involving nonlinear distributed parameter systems. Parameter estimation problems are considered and formulated as the minimization of a least-squares-like performance index over a compact admissible parameter set subject to state constraints given by an inhomogeneous nonlinear distributed system. The theory applies to systems whose dynamics can be described by either time-independent or nonstationary strongly maximal monotonic operators defined on a reflexive Banach space which is densely and continuously embedded in a Hilbert space. It is demonstrated that if readily verifiable conditions on the system's dependence on the unknown parameters are satisfied, and the usual Galerkin approximation assumption holds, then solutions to the approximating problems exist and approximate a solution to the original infinite-dimensional identification problem.

  15. Independently Evolved Virulence Effectors Converge onto Hubs in a Plant Immune System Network

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Dreze, Matija; Epple, Petra; Steinbrenner, Jens; Moore, Jonathan; Tasan, Murat; Galli, Mary; Hao, Tong; Nishimura, Marc T.; Pevzner, Samuel J.; Donovan, Susan E.; Ghamsari, Lila; Santhanam, Balaji; Romero, Viviana; Poulin, Matthew M.; Gebreab, Fana; Gutierrez, Bryan J.; Tam, Stanley; Monachello, Dario; Boxem, Mike; Harbort, Christopher J.; McDonald, Nathan; Gai, Lantian; Chen, Huaming; He, Yijian; Vandenhaute, Jean; Roth, Frederick P.; Hill, David E.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Vidal, Marc; Beynon, Jim; Braun, Pascal; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2011-01-01

    Plants generate effective responses to infection by recognizing both conserved and variable pathogen-encoded molecules. Pathogens deploy virulence effector proteins into host cells, where they interact physically with host proteins to modulate defense. We generated a plant-pathogen immune system protein interaction network using effectors from two pathogens spanning the eukaryote-eubacteria divergence, three classes of Arabidopsis immune system proteins and ~8,000 other Arabidopsis proteins. We noted convergence of effectors onto highly interconnected host proteins, and indirect, rather than direct, connections between effectors and plant immune receptors. We demonstrated plant immune system functions for 15 of 17 tested host proteins that interact with effectors from both pathogens. Thus, pathogens from different kingdoms deploy independently evolved virulence proteins that interact with a limited set of highly connected cellular hubs to facilitate their diverse life cycle strategies. PMID:21798943

  16. International Monetary Fund sacrifices higher growth, employment, spending, and public investment in health systems in order to keep inflation unnecessarily low.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Rick

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund's response to evidence on the impact of its programs on public health fails to address the fundamental criticisms about its policies. The IMF's demand for borrowers to achieve extremely low inflation targets is founded on very little empirical evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. The low-inflation policies privilege international creditors over domestic debtors and short-term priorities over long-term development goals, and contain high social costs, referred to by economists as a "sacrifice ratio." For example, governments' raising of interest rates to bring down inflation undermines the ability of domestic firms to expand production and employment and thus "sacrifices" higher economic growth and higher tax revenues and unnecessarily constrains domestic health spending. During financial crisis, most countries seek to lower interest rates to stimulate the economy, the opposite of the IMF's general advice. Perversely, compliance with IMF policies has become a prerequisite for receiving donor aid. Critiques of the IMF express significant concerns that IMF fiscal and monetary policies are unduly restrictive. Health advocates must weigh in on such matters and pressure their finance ministries, particularly in the G7, to take steps at the level of the IMF Executive Board to revisit and modify its policy framework on deficits and inflation. Such reforms are crucial to enable countries to generate more domestic resources while the global health community searches for ways to support strengthening health system capacity. PMID:20440977

  17. International Monetary Fund sacrifices higher growth, employment, spending, and public investment in health systems in order to keep inflation unnecessarily low.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Rick

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund's response to evidence on the impact of its programs on public health fails to address the fundamental criticisms about its policies. The IMF's demand for borrowers to achieve extremely low inflation targets is founded on very little empirical evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. The low-inflation policies privilege international creditors over domestic debtors and short-term priorities over long-term development goals, and contain high social costs, referred to by economists as a "sacrifice ratio." For example, governments' raising of interest rates to bring down inflation undermines the ability of domestic firms to expand production and employment and thus "sacrifices" higher economic growth and higher tax revenues and unnecessarily constrains domestic health spending. During financial crisis, most countries seek to lower interest rates to stimulate the economy, the opposite of the IMF's general advice. Perversely, compliance with IMF policies has become a prerequisite for receiving donor aid. Critiques of the IMF express significant concerns that IMF fiscal and monetary policies are unduly restrictive. Health advocates must weigh in on such matters and pressure their finance ministries, particularly in the G7, to take steps at the level of the IMF Executive Board to revisit and modify its policy framework on deficits and inflation. Such reforms are crucial to enable countries to generate more domestic resources while the global health community searches for ways to support strengthening health system capacity.

  18. Introduction to ‘Homology and convergence in nervous system evolution’

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The origin of brains and central nervous systems (CNSs) is thought to have occurred before the Palaeozoic era 540 Ma. Yet in the absence of tangible evidence, there has been continued debate whether today's brains and nervous systems derive from one ancestral origin or whether similarities among them are due to convergent evolution. With the advent of molecular developmental genetics and genomics, it has become clear that homology is a concept that applies not only to morphologies, but also to genes, developmental processes, as well as to behaviours. Comparative studies in phyla ranging from annelids and arthropods to mammals are providing evidence that corresponding developmental genetic mechanisms act not only in dorso–ventral and anterior–posterior axis specification but also in segmentation, neurogenesis, axogenesis and eye/photoreceptor cell formation that appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom. These data are supported by recent studies which identified Mid-Cambrian fossils with preserved soft body parts that present segmental arrangements in brains typical of modern arthropods, and similarly organized brain centres and circuits across phyla that may reflect genealogical correspondence and control similar behavioural manifestations. Moreover, congruence between genetic and geological fossil records support the notion that by the ‘Cambrian explosion’ arthropods and chordates shared similarities in brain and nervous system organization. However, these similarities are strikingly absent in several sister- and outgroups of arthropods and chordates which raises several questions, foremost among them: what kind of natural laws and mechanisms underlie the convergent evolution of such similarities? And, vice versa: what are the selection pressures and genetic mechanisms underlying the possible loss or reduction of brains and CNSs in multiple lineages during the course of evolution? These questions were addressed at a Royal Society meeting to

  19. Shell Defect Behavior in a Shock-Accelerated, Convergent Plasma System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fincke, J. R.; Lanier, N. E.; Batha, S. H.; Holmes, R. L.; Magelssen, G. R.; Dunne, A. M.; Horsfield, C.; Parker, K. W.; Rothman, S. D.

    2003-10-01

    Beryllium capsules, formed from bonded hemispherical shells, have been proposed as an ICF ignition target. Density discontinuities (defects) at the bonding surface initiate two and three-dimensional perturbation of incident shock waves and the ensuing convergent flow field. Recent experiments on defect-initiated mixing in a convergent plasma system have been conducted at the OMEGA laser facility. The cylindrical targets consist of a thick epoxy ablator overlaying a 16 micron thick marker layer shell that contains machined defects, surrounding a low-density CH foam core. Defects consisting of an axial groove extending the length of the marker and an azimuthal band have been examined. Early results show that both defects led to significant penetration of marker material into the foam core. Initial comparisons between experiment and pre-shot numerical simulations show that the hydrodynamics are qualitatively captured. This research was performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under the auspices of the US DoE, Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  20. Algorithms in nature: the convergence of systems biology and computational thinking.

    PubMed

    Navlakha, Saket; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2011-11-08

    Computer science and biology have enjoyed a long and fruitful relationship for decades. Biologists rely on computational methods to analyze and integrate large data sets, while several computational methods were inspired by the high-level design principles of biological systems. Recently, these two directions have been converging. In this review, we argue that thinking computationally about biological processes may lead to more accurate models, which in turn can be used to improve the design of algorithms. We discuss the similar mechanisms and requirements shared by computational and biological processes and then present several recent studies that apply this joint analysis strategy to problems related to coordination, network analysis, and tracking and vision. We also discuss additional biological processes that can be studied in a similar manner and link them to potential computational problems. With the rapid accumulation of data detailing the inner workings of biological systems, we expect this direction of coupling biological and computational studies to greatly expand in the future.

  1. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Converging Molecular Mechanisms that Link Different POPs to Common Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Patricia; Perlina, Ally; Mumtaz, Moiz; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of epidemiological studies have identified statistical associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metabolic diseases, but testable hypotheses regarding underlying molecular mechanisms to explain these linkages have not been published. Objectives: We assessed the underlying mechanisms of POPs that have been associated with metabolic diseases; three well-known POPs [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] were studied. We used advanced database search tools to delineate testable hypotheses and to guide laboratory-based research studies into underlying mechanisms by which this POP mixture could produce or exacerbate metabolic diseases. Methods: For our searches, we used proprietary systems biology software (MetaCore™/MetaDrug™) to conduct advanced search queries for the underlying interactions database, followed by directional network construction to identify common mechanisms for these POPs within two or fewer interaction steps downstream of their primary targets. These common downstream pathways belong to various cytokine and chemokine families with experimentally well-documented causal associations with type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: Our systems biology approach allowed identification of converging pathways leading to activation of common downstream targets. To our knowledge, this is the first study to propose an integrated global set of step-by-step molecular mechanisms for a combination of three common POPs using a systems biology approach, which may link POP exposure to diseases. Experimental evaluation of the proposed pathways may lead to development of predictive biomarkers of the effects of POPs, which could translate into disease prevention and effective clinical treatment strategies. Citation: Ruiz P, Perlina A, Mumtaz M, Fowler BA. 2016. A systems biology approach reveals converging molecular mechanisms that

  2. Quantitative recurrence statistics and convergence to an extreme value distribution for non-uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, M. P.; Rabassa, P.; Sterk, A. E.

    2016-08-01

    For non-uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems we consider the time series of maxima along typical orbits. Using ideas based upon quantitative recurrence time statistics we prove convergence of the maxima (under suitable normalization) to an extreme value distribution, and obtain estimates on the rate of convergence. We show that our results are applicable to a range of examples, and include new results for Lorenz maps, certain partially hyperbolic systems, and non-uniformly expanding systems with sub-exponential decay of correlations. For applications where analytic results are not readily available we show how to estimate the rate of convergence to an extreme value distribution based upon numerical information of the quantitative recurrence statistics. We envisage that such information will lead to more efficient statistical parameter estimation schemes based upon the block-maxima method.

  3. Seismotectonics of the Eastern Himalayan System and Indo-Burman Convergence Zone Using Seismic Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Mitra, S.; Suresh, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Eastern Himalayan System (east of 88°E) is distinct from the rest of the India-Eurasia continental collision, due to a wider zone of distributed deformation, oblique convergence across two orthogonal plate boundaries and near absence of foreland basin sedimentary strata. To understand the seismotectonics of this region we study the spatial distribution and source mechanism of earthquakes originating within Eastern Himalaya, northeast India and Indo-Burman Convergence Zone (IBCZ). We compute focal mechanism of 32 moderate-to-large earthquakes (mb >=5.4) by modeling teleseismic P- and SH-waveforms, from GDSN stations, using least-squares inversion algorithm; and 7 small-to-moderate earthquakes (3.5<= mb <5.4) by modeling local P- and S-waveforms, from the NorthEast India Telemetered Network, using non-linear grid search algorithm. We also include source mechanisms from previous studies, either computed by waveform inversion or by first motion polarity from analog data. Depth distribution of modeled earthquakes reveal that the seismogenic layer beneath northeast India is ~45km thick. From source mechanisms we observe that moderate earthquakes in northeast India are spatially clustered in five zones with distinct mechanisms: (a) thrust earthquakes within the Eastern Himalayan wedge, on north dipping low angle faults; (b) thrust earthquakes along the northern edge of Shillong Plateau, on high angle south dipping fault; (c) dextral strike-slip earthquakes along Kopili fault zone, between Shillong Plateau and Mikir Hills, extending southeast beneath Naga Fold belts; (d) dextral strike-slip earthquakes within Bengal Basin, immediately south of Shillong Plateau; and (e) deep focus (>50 km) thrust earthquakes within IBCZ. Combining with GPS geodetic observations, it is evident that the N20E convergence between India and Tibet is accommodated as elastic strain both within eastern Himalaya and regions surrounding the Shillong Plateau. We hypothesize that the strike

  4. Direct-Drive, High-Convergence-Ratio Implosion Studies on the OMEGA Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, F. J.

    1999-11-01

    The effects of beam smoothing, pulse shaping, and target dimensions on the compressed core and shell performance of directly driven plastic capsules are studied on the 30-kJ, 60-beam OMEGA laser system. Experiments are performed on surrogate-cryogenic capsules where the main fuel layer is a polymer shell (either CH or CD + CH) and the hot spot is provided by the fill gas (D_2, DHe^3, DT, or H_2). The spatial evolution of the fuel and shell regions is recorded using both broadband and monochromatic time-resolved x-ray imaging techniques. Similar targets with inner Ti-doped layers provide additional spectral diagnostics of the shell and a source of monochromatic emission. Core conditions are diagnosed with measurements of the emergent x-ray, neutron, and particle spectra. For 1-ns-square drive pulses the calculated convergence ratios are in excess of 30, and the primary neutron yields are >= 20% of clean 1-D with shell areal densities >100 mg/cm^2. Shaped pulse implosions have higher convergence ratios. Compressed-target conditions measured include those of fuel and shell areal density, fuel ion temperature, shell electron temperature, and primary (DD) and secondary (DT) neutron yield. The effect of pulse shaping and the beneficial effects of beam smoothing on the final core conditions are seen in these measurements. Mixing, resulting from laser-irradiation nonuniformities and target imperfections that seed the Rayleigh--Taylor instability, are observed in the x-ray and neutron spectra and are seen to depend on both the level of beam smoothing and the pulse shape. Comparison of these results with 1- and 2-D hydrocode simulations (including models of fuel-shell mixing) is ongoing. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  5. Higher Order Factor Convergence and Divergence of Two Distinct Personality Systems: Cattell's HSPQ and Jackson's PRF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesselroade, John B.; Bates, Paul B.

    1975-01-01

    Seeks empirical evidence of convergence of concepts measured by two personality inventories--Cattell's High School Personality Questionnaire and Jackson's Personality Research Form. Implication of the levels of factor convergence obtained in relation to theory building and prediction are discussed. (RC)

  6. Educational System Development and Convergence: A Literature Review and Propositional Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkeles, Alex; Sirowy, Larry

    Structural convergence theory seeks to determine whether as nations industrialize they move toward common ways of organizing, arranging, and defining the institutional subsystems in their social structures. A related concern is whether the characteristics of these institutional subsystems themselves promote or retard convergence. National…

  7. Influence of the Convergence and Stepover Angles in the Structural Style of Strike-Slip Systems: Analogue Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, D.; Pinto, L.

    2008-12-01

    The presented results of analogue models analyze the influence of the relation between the convergence angle and the stepover angle on strike-slip systems. The experiments include 2 stepovers arrays to generate both transpressional and transtensional zones. These experiments were prepared using 5 cm thick sandpack (sand diameter <500 μm, internal friction angle 30°, density 1,400 kg/m3) to simulate brittle deformation; the base of the model was formed by thin zinc base plates, one of them mobile, cut in such a way so as to produce restraining and releasing strike-slip stepovers; the rate convergence was constant. We carried out 3 series of experiments in which the convergence angles (0°-60°) and stepover angles (30°-60°) were varied systematically. Preliminary results indicate that by increasing the angle between the stepover and the convergence vector: a) the restraining area generated a positive flower structure that is progressively wider; b) progressively more reverse faults which absorb more shortening were generated. Locally, strike-slip faults in the positive flowers were accommodated by the geometry of the stepover base. Areas most complex involved the development of normal faults, which subsequently were inverted. In conclusion, the relation between the convergence and stepover angles is a main factor that determines the structural style of flowers structures on strike-slip systems. This work was done through the ACT-18 PBCT project.

  8. Algorithms in nature: the convergence of systems biology and computational thinking

    PubMed Central

    Navlakha, Saket; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2011-01-01

    Computer science and biology have enjoyed a long and fruitful relationship for decades. Biologists rely on computational methods to analyze and integrate large data sets, while several computational methods were inspired by the high-level design principles of biological systems. Recently, these two directions have been converging. In this review, we argue that thinking computationally about biological processes may lead to more accurate models, which in turn can be used to improve the design of algorithms. We discuss the similar mechanisms and requirements shared by computational and biological processes and then present several recent studies that apply this joint analysis strategy to problems related to coordination, network analysis, and tracking and vision. We also discuss additional biological processes that can be studied in a similar manner and link them to potential computational problems. With the rapid accumulation of data detailing the inner workings of biological systems, we expect this direction of coupling biological and computational studies to greatly expand in the future. PMID:22068329

  9. Candidate future atmospheric sounder for the converged U.S. meteorological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Paul G.; Miller, Christopher R.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; O'Callaghan, Fred; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Karnik, Avinash R.

    1995-09-01

    The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) is being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program with a scheduled launch on the first post meridian (PM) platform in the year 2000. AIRS is designed to provide both new and more accurate data about the atmosphere, land, and oceans for applications to climate studies and weather prediction. Among the important parameters to be derived from AIRS observations are atmospheric temperature profiles with an average accuracy of 1K in 1 kilometer (km) layers in the troposphere and surface temperatures with an average accuracy of 0.5 K. The AIRS measurement technique is based on very sensitive passive IR remote sensing using a precisely calibrated, high spectral resolution grating spectrometer operating in the 3.7 micrometers to 15.4 micrometers region. The instrument concept utilizes a passively cooled multiaperture echelle array spectrometer approach in combination with advanced state of the art focal plane and cryogenic refrigerator technology to achieve unparalleled performance capability in a practical long life configuration. AIRS is a key component of NASA's Global Change Research Program and is expected to play an important role in fulfilling the needs of the converged National Polar- Orbiting Operating Environment Satellite System (NPOESS) now under study. This paper provides a brief overview of the mission followed by a description of the instrument design and current development status.

  10. Systems genetics identifies a convergent gene network for cognition and neurodevelopmental disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael R; Shkura, Kirill; Langley, Sarah R; Delahaye-Duriez, Andree; Srivastava, Prashant; Hill, W David; Rackham, Owen J L; Davies, Gail; Harris, Sarah E; Moreno-Moral, Aida; Rotival, Maxime; Speed, Doug; Petrovski, Slavé; Katz, Anaïs; Hayward, Caroline; Porteous, David J; Smith, Blair H; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J; Starr, John M; Liewald, David C; Visconti, Alessia; Falchi, Mario; Bottolo, Leonardo; Rossetti, Tiziana; Danis, Bénédicte; Mazzuferi, Manuela; Foerch, Patrik; Grote, Alexander; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Becker, Albert J; Kaminski, Rafal M; Deary, Ian J; Petretto, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Genetic determinants of cognition are poorly characterized, and their relationship to genes that confer risk for neurodevelopmental disease is unclear. Here we performed a systems-level analysis of genome-wide gene expression data to infer gene-regulatory networks conserved across species and brain regions. Two of these networks, M1 and M3, showed replicable enrichment for common genetic variants underlying healthy human cognitive abilities, including memory. Using exome sequence data from 6,871 trios, we found that M3 genes were also enriched for mutations ascertained from patients with neurodevelopmental disease generally, and intellectual disability and epileptic encephalopathy in particular. M3 consists of 150 genes whose expression is tightly developmentally regulated, but which are collectively poorly annotated for known functional pathways. These results illustrate how systems-level analyses can reveal previously unappreciated relationships between neurodevelopmental disease-associated genes in the developed human brain, and provide empirical support for a convergent gene-regulatory network influencing cognition and neurodevelopmental disease. PMID:26691832

  11. Convergence analysis and numerical study of a fixed-point iterative method for solving systems of nonlinear equations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; Ma, Changfeng

    2014-01-01

    We present a fixed-point iterative method for solving systems of nonlinear equations. The convergence theorem of the proposed method is proved under suitable conditions. In addition, some numerical results are also reported in the paper, which confirm the good theoretical properties of our approach.

  12. Semi-discrete approximations to nonlinear systems of conservation laws; consistency and L(infinity)-stability imply convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    1988-01-01

    A convergence theory for semi-discrete approximations to nonlinear systems of conservation laws is developed. It is shown, by a series of scalar counter-examples, that consistency with the conservation law alone does not guarantee convergence. Instead, a notion of consistency which takes into account both the conservation law and its augmenting entropy condition is introduced. In this context it is concluded that consistency and L(infinity)-stability guarantee for a relevant class of admissible entropy functions, that their entropy production rate belongs to a compact subset of H(loc)sup -1 (x,t). One can now use compensated compactness arguments in order to turn this conclusion into a convergence proof. The current state of the art for these arguments includes the scalar and a wide class of 2 x 2 systems of conservation laws. The general framework of the vanishing viscosity method is studied as an effective way to meet the consistency and L(infinity)-stability requirements. How this method is utilized to enforce consistency and stability for scalar conservation laws is shown. In this context we prove, under the appropriate assumptions, the convergence of finite difference approximations (e.g., the high resolution TVD and UNO methods), finite element approximations (e.g., the Streamline-Diffusion methods) and spectral and pseudospectral approximations (e.g., the Spectral Viscosity methods).

  13. Novel, spherically-convergent ion systems for neutron source and fusion energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A.; Ribe, F. L.; Schauer, M. M.; Schranck, L. S.; Umstadter, K. R.

    1999-06-01

    Combining spherical convergence with electrostatic or electro-magnetostatic confinement of a nonneutral plasma offers the possibility of high fusion gain in a centimeter-sized system. The physics principles, scaling laws, and experimental embodiments of this approach are presented. Steps to development of this approach from its present proof-of-principle experiments to a useful fusion power reactor are outlined. This development path is much less expensive and simpler, compared to that for conventional magnetic confinement and leads to different and useful products at each stage. Reactor projections show both high mass power density and low to moderate wall loading. This approach is being tested experimentally in PFX-I (Penning Fusion eXperiment-Ions), which is based on the following recent advances: 1) Demonstration, in PFX (our former experiment), that it is possible to combine nonneutral electron plasma confinement with nonthermal, spherical focussing; 2) Theoretical development of the POPS (Periodically Oscillating Plasma Sphere) concept, which allows spherical compression of thermal-equilibrium ions; 3) The concept of a massively-modular approach to fusion power, and associated elimination of the critical problem of extremely high first wall loading. PFX-I is described. PFX-I is being designed as a small (<1.5 cm) spherical system into which moderate-energy electrons (up to 100 kV) are injected. These electrons are magnetically insulated from passing to the sphere and their space charge field is then used to spherically focus ions. Results of initial operation with electrons only are presented. Deuterium operation can produce significant neutron output with unprecedented efficiency (fusion gain Q).

  14. Global positioning system technology (GPS) for psychological research: a test of convergent and nomological validity.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Pedro S A; Figueredo, Aurelio J; Jacobs, W Jake

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the convergent and nomological validity of a GPS-based measure of daily activity, operationalized as Number of Places Visited (NPV). Relations among the GPS-based measure and two self-report measures of NPV, as well as relations among NPV and two factors made up of self-reported individual differences were examined. The first factor was composed of variables related to an Active Lifestyle (AL) (e.g., positive affect, extraversion…) and the second factor was composed of variables related to a Sedentary Lifestyle (SL) (e.g., depression, neuroticism…). NPV was measured over 4 days. This timeframe was made up of two week and two weekend days. A bi-variate analysis established one level of convergent validity and a Split-Plot GLM examined convergent validity, nomological validity, and alternative hypotheses related to constraints on activity throughout the week simultaneously. The first analysis revealed significant correlations among NPV measures- weekday, weekend, and the entire 4-day time period, supporting the convergent validity of the Diary-, Google Maps-, and GPS-NPV measures. Results from the second analysis, indicating non-significant mean differences in NPV regardless of method, also support this conclusion. We also found that AL is a statistically significant predictor of NPV no matter how NPV was measured. We did not find a statically significant relation among NPV and SL. These results permit us to infer that the GPS-based NPV measure has convergent and nomological validity.

  15. Fuzzy optimal swarm of autonomous aircrafts for target determination and convergence control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Zach D.

    The thesis project proposes analytical and theoretical algorithms for a networked swarm of autonomous vehicles, such as those used in planet exploration, and to be used in target location determination and convergence, an algorithm of this type could be used in an Autonomous Stratospheric Aircraft (ASA), thus having the possibility of being used for the exploration of a planet as well as many other applications. Upon locating an unknown location of a specified target, the algorithm would then swarm and eventually converge upon the location. There are two similar, but fundamentally different algorithms proposed in this project. These algorithms are capable of locating and converging upon multiple targeted locations simultaneously. This project is inspired by the current thought of NASA in the search of life on Mars, which is "Follow the Water" [18], where the targeted location would be the targeted source of water. These algorithms make use of combining a modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm with fuzzy variables for increased intelligence.

  16. Chemodiversity in Selaginella: a reference system for parallel and convergent metabolic evolution in terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Noel, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Early plants began colonizing the terrestrial earth approximately 450 million years ago. Their success on land has been partially attributed to the evolution of specialized metabolic systems from core metabolic pathways, the former yielding structurally and functionally diverse chemicals to cope with a myriad of biotic and abiotic ecological pressures. Over the past two decades, functional genomics, primarily focused on flowering plants, has begun cataloging the biosynthetic players underpinning assorted classes of plant specialized metabolites. However, the molecular mechanisms enriching specialized metabolic pathways during land plant evolution remain largely unexplored. Selaginella is an extant lycopodiophyte genus representative of an ancient lineage of tracheophytes. Notably, the lycopodiophytes diverged from euphyllophytes over 400 million years ago. The recent completion of the whole-genome sequence of an extant lycopodiophyte, S. moellendorffii, provides new genomic and biochemical resources for studying metabolic evolution in vascular plants. 400 million years of independent evolution of lycopodiophytes and euphyllophytes resulted in numerous metabolic traits confined to each lineage. Surprisingly, a cadre of specialized metabolites, generally accepted to be restricted to seed plants, have been identified in Selaginella. Initial work suggested that Selaginella lacks obvious catalytic homologs known to be involved in the biosynthesis of well-studied specialized metabolites in seed plants. Therefore, these initial functional analyses suggest that the same chemical phenotypes arose independently more commonly than anticipated from our conventional understanding of the evolution of metabolism. Notably, the emergence of analogous and homologous catalytic machineries through convergent and parallel evolution, respectively, seems to have occurred repeatedly in different plant lineages. PMID:23717312

  17. The Use of Domain Decomposition in Accelerating the Convergence of Quasihyperbolic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Bernard; Sislian, Jean P.

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes an alternate form of the active-domain method [K. Nakahashi and E. Saitoh, AIAA J.35, 1280 (1997)] that is applicable to streamwise separated flows. Named the "marching window," the algorithm consists of performing pseudo-time iterations on a minimal width subdomain composed of a sequence of cross-stream planes of nodes. The upstream boundary of the subdomain is positioned such that all nodes upstream exhibit a residual smaller than the user-specified convergence threshold. The advancement of the downstream boundary follows the advancement of the upstream boundary, except in zones of significant streamwise ellipticity, where a streamwise ellipticity sensor ensures its continuous progress. Compared to the standard pseudo-time-marching approach, the marching window decreases the work required for convergence by up to 24 times for flows with little streamwise ellipticity and by up to eight times for flows with large streamwise separated regions. Storage is reduced by up to six times by not allocating memory to the nodes not included in the computational subdomain. The marching window satisfies the same convergence criterion as the standard pseudo-time-stepping methods, hence resulting in the same converged solution within the tolerance of the user-specified convergence threshold. The algorithm is not restricted to a discretization stencil and pseudo-time-stepping scheme in particular and is used here with the Yee-Roe scheme and block-implicit approximate factorization solving the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) equations closed by the Wilcox kω turbulence model. The eigenstructure of the FANS equations is also presented.

  18. Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy apparatus with a convergent optical system for point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Toda, Mitsuaki; Arima, Yusuke; Takiguchi, Hiromi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2014-12-15

    Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) is a promising methodology for point-of-care (POC) testing. The SPFS devices that have been reported are equipped with an angle rotating stage to adjust the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angle. In a clinical setting, however, the SPR angle determination is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this study, we employed an SPFS instrument with a convergent optical system that allows the omission of this procedure. We demonstrated that this instrumentation allowed the sensitive determination of low concentrations of α-fetoprotein in serum and reduced the variation effect caused by the protein concentrations in samples. The SPFS with a convergent optical system is suitable for POC testing.

  19. Linear functional observers with guaranteed ɛ-convergence for discrete time-delay systems with input/output disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M. C.; Trinh, H.; Nam, P. T.

    2016-10-01

    The problem of designing linear functional observers for discrete time-delay systems with unknown-but-bounded disturbances in both the plant and the output is considered for the first time in this paper. A novel approach to design a minimum-order observer is proposed to guarantee that the observer error is ε-convergent, which means that the estimate converges robustly within an ε-bound of the true state. Conditions for the existence of this observer are first derived. Then, by utilising an extended Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the free-weighting matrix technique, a sufficient condition for ε-convergence of the observer error system is given. This condition is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities with two parameters needed to be tuned, so that it can be efficiently solved by incorporating a two-dimensional search method into convex optimisation algorithms to obtain the smallest possible value for ε. Three numerical examples, including the well-known single-link flexible joint robotic system, are given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our results.

  20. Geomorphological analysis of the drainage system on the active convergent system in Azerbaijan, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveh Firouz, Amaneh; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    profiles are related to active fault systems.

  1. Geomorphological analysis of the drainage system on the active convergent system in Azerbaijan, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveh Firouz, Amaneh; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    are related to active fault systems.

  2. Cesaro-One Summability and Uniform Convergence of Solutions of a Sturm-Liouville System

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, R.S.; Tucker, D.H.

    1999-01-26

    Galerkin methods are used in separable Hilbert spaces to construct and compute L{sup 2} [0,{pi}] solutions to large classes of differential equations. In this note a Galerkin method is used to construct series solutions of a nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville problem defined on [0,{pi}]. The series constructed are shown to converge to a specified du Bois-Reymond function f in L{sup 2} [0,{pi}]. It is then shown that the series solutions can be made to converge uniformly to the specified du Bois-Reymond function when averaged by the Ces{'a}ro-one summability method. Therefore, in the Ces{'a}ro-one sense, every continuous function f on [0,{pi}] is the uniform limit of solutions of nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville problems.

  3. Leveraging Anderson Acceleration for improved convergence of iterative solutions to transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Willert, Jeffrey; Taitano, William T.; Knoll, Dana

    2014-09-15

    In this note we demonstrate that using Anderson Acceleration (AA) in place of a standard Picard iteration can not only increase the convergence rate but also make the iteration more robust for two transport applications. We also compare the convergence acceleration provided by AA to that provided by moment-based acceleration methods. Additionally, we demonstrate that those two acceleration methods can be used together in a nested fashion. We begin by describing the AA algorithm. At this point, we will describe two application problems, one from neutronics and one from plasma physics, on which we will apply AA. We provide computational results which highlight the benefits of using AA, namely that we can compute solutions using fewer function evaluations, larger time-steps, and achieve a more robust iteration.

  4. Molecular Evidence for Convergence and Parallelism in Evolution of Complex Brains of Cephalopod Molluscs: Insights from Visual Systems.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M A; Ogura, A; Ikeo, K; Shigeno, S; Moritaki, T; Winters, G C; Kohn, A B; Moroz, L L

    2015-12-01

    Coleoid cephalopods show remarkable evolutionary convergence with vertebrates in their neural organization, including (1) eyes and visual system with optic lobes, (2) specialized parts of the brain controlling learning and memory, such as vertical lobes, and (3) unique vasculature supporting such complexity of the central nervous system. We performed deep sequencing of eye transcriptomes of pygmy squids (Idiosepius paradoxus) and chambered nautiluses (Nautilus pompilius) to decipher the molecular basis of convergent evolution in cephalopods. RNA-seq was complemented by in situ hybridization to localize the expression of selected genes. We found three types of genomic innovations in the evolution of complex brains: (1) recruitment of novel genes into morphogenetic pathways, (2) recombination of various coding and regulatory regions of different genes, often called "evolutionary tinkering" or "co-option", and (3) duplication and divergence of genes. Massive recruitment of novel genes occurred in the evolution of the "camera" eye from nautilus' "pinhole" eye. We also showed that the type-2 co-option of transcription factors played important roles in the evolution of the lens and visual neurons. In summary, the cephalopod convergent morphological evolution of the camera eyes was driven by a mosaic of all types of gene recruitments. In addition, our analysis revealed unexpected variations of squids' opsins, retinochromes, and arrestins, providing more detailed information, valuable for further research on intra-ocular and extra-ocular photoreception of the cephalopods.

  5. Convergence of Lax-Friedrichs and Godunov schemes for a nonstrictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws arising in oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djoufedie, George Noel; Felaco, Elisabetta; Rubino, Bruno; Sampalmieri, Rosella

    2016-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the compactness framework and the convergence theorem for the Lax-Friedrichs and Godunov schemes applied to a {2 × 2} system of non-strictly hyperbolic nonlinear conservation laws that arises from mathematical models for oil recovery. The presence of a degeneracy in the hyperbolicity of the system requires a careful analysis of the entropy functions, whose regularity is necessary to obtain the result. For this purpose, it is necessary to combine the classical techniques referring to a singular Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation with the compensated compactness method.

  6. Syntheses of Siderophore–Drug Conjugates Using a Convergent Thiol–Maleimide System

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Three siderophore–drug conjugates (sideromycins) were synthesized by preparation of a maleimide linked derivative of the siderophore desferrioxamine B and reacting the corresponding Ga3+-complex with freshly prepared thiol-containing antibiotics: loracarbef, ciprofloxacin, and nadifloxacin. The conjugates and their synthetic precursors were tested against a broad panel of bacteria and were found to display Gram-positive selective, growth inhibitory activity (μM), indicating that this approach is suitable for the convergent syntheses and screening of novel sideromycins. PMID:23264853

  7. The Residue of Lithospheric Convergence in the Alpine-Pannonian-Carpathian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, G. A.; Stuart, G. W.; Hetenyi, G.; Lorinczi, P.; Dando, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The continuing collision of the Adriatic block with European continental lithosphere has its clearest expression now in the Alpine collision zone. In the Early Miocene the collision zone extended further east and included probably all of the regions within the Carpathian Mountain Range. In the Mid-Miocene between about 17 and 12 Ma, however, the Pannonian lithosphere extended rapidly and subsequently subsided, while convergence persisted in the Alps and the Carpathian arc. The change from convergence to extension in the Pannonian domain is associated with either rapid subduction roll-back or gravitational instability in which the lower part of the lithosphere was removed and replaced by hot asthenosphere. Throughout this time however, convergence has continued in the Alpine orogeny further west. It is surprising therefore to see similarities in the mantle transition zone beneath these two neighbouring regions whose lithospheres have, in the last 17 Myr at least, evolved in such different modes. New seismic images from beneath the Pannonian Basin (Hetenyi et al., GRL, in press) and from beneath the Alps (Lombardi et al., EPSL, 2009) show that both regions have a depressed 660 km discontinuity beneath a relatively normal-depth 410 km discontinuity. An important factor in both regions evidently is that relatively dense material derived from the mid-Miocene collision sits stagnant on top of the 660 km discontinuity, where further descent is obstructed by the negative Clapeyron slope of the spinel-to-perovskite phase transition and the high viscosity of the lower mantle. While the depression of the 660 km discontinuity beneath the Alps is directly associated with ongoing convergence, that beneath the Pannonian appears to be decoupled from the upper mantle circulation that accompanied the Miocene Pannonian extension. If the cold material at the base of the Pannonian upper mantle is the residue of lithospheric subduction, delamination, or gravitational instability, the

  8. Mainstreaming nutrition metrics in household surveys--toward a multidisciplinary convergence of data systems.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L; Ricketts, Katie D

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2008 food price crisis, food and nutrition security are back on the global development agenda, with particular emphasis on agricultural pathways toward improved nutrition. Parallel efforts are being promoted to improve the data and metrics for monitoring progress toward positive nutritional outcomes, especially for women and children. Despite the increased investment in tracking nutritional outcomes, these efforts are often made in silos, which create challenges for integrating nutritional data with other sectoral data, such as those related to agriculture. This paper proposes a minimum set of nutrition indicators to be included in nationally representative agricultural (and multitopic) household surveys. Building multisectoral convergence across existing surveys will allow us to better identify priority interventions and to monitor progress toward improved nutrition targets. PMID:25407161

  9. Monotonically convergent optimal control theory of quantum systems with spectral constraints on the control field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapert, M.; Tehini, R.; Turinici, G.; Sugny, D.

    2009-06-01

    We propose a monotonically convergent algorithm which can enforce spectral constraints on the control field (and extends to arbitrary filters). The procedure differs from standard algorithms in that at each iteration, the control field is taken as a linear combination of the control field (computed by the standard algorithm) and the filtered field. The parameter of the linear combination is chosen to respect the monotonic behavior of the algorithm and to be as close to the filtered field as possible. We test the efficiency of this method on molecular alignment. Using bandpass filters, we show how to select particular rotational transitions to reach high alignment efficiency. We also consider spectral constraints corresponding to experimental conditions using pulse-shaping techniques. We determine an optimal solution that could be implemented experimentally with this technique.

  10. Mainstreaming nutrition metrics in household surveys--toward a multidisciplinary convergence of data systems.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L; Ricketts, Katie D

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2008 food price crisis, food and nutrition security are back on the global development agenda, with particular emphasis on agricultural pathways toward improved nutrition. Parallel efforts are being promoted to improve the data and metrics for monitoring progress toward positive nutritional outcomes, especially for women and children. Despite the increased investment in tracking nutritional outcomes, these efforts are often made in silos, which create challenges for integrating nutritional data with other sectoral data, such as those related to agriculture. This paper proposes a minimum set of nutrition indicators to be included in nationally representative agricultural (and multitopic) household surveys. Building multisectoral convergence across existing surveys will allow us to better identify priority interventions and to monitor progress toward improved nutrition targets.

  11. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575AC93 Civil Monetary Penalties AGENCY...) proposes to implement two civil monetary penalty provisions. First, RHS proposes to amend its regulations to create a new section, for imposing civil monetary penalties under the authority of 42 U.S.C....

  12. Along-strike variations of the partitioning of convergence across the Haiyuan fault system detected by InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daout, S.; Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Doin, M.-P.; Barbot, S.; Tapponnier, P.; Peltzer, G.; Socquet, A.; Sun, J.

    2016-04-01

    Oblique convergence across Tibet leads to slip partitioning with the coexistence of strike-slip, normal and thrust motion on major fault systems. A key point is to understand and model how faults interact and accumulate strain at depth. Here, we extract ground deformation across the Haiyuan Fault restraining bend, at the northeastern boundary of the Tibetan plateau, from Envisat radar data spanning the 2001-2011 period. We show that the complexity of the surface displacement field can be explained by the partitioning of a uniform deep-seated convergence. Mountains and sand dunes in the study area make the radar data processing challenging and require the latest developments in processing procedures for Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry. The processing strategy is based on a small baseline approach. Before unwrapping, we correct for atmospheric phase delays from global atmospheric models and digital elevation model errors. A series of filtering steps is applied to improve the signal-to-noise ratio across high ranges of the Tibetan plateau and the phase unwrapping capability across the fault, required for reliable estimate of fault movement. We then jointly invert our InSAR time-series together with published GPS displacements to test a proposed long-term slip-partitioning model between the Haiyuan and Gulang left-lateral Faults and the Qilian Shan thrusts. We explore the geometry of the fault system at depth and associated slip rates using a Bayesian approach and test the consistency of present-day geodetic surface displacements with a long-term tectonic model. We determine a uniform convergence rate of 10 [8.6-11.5] mm yr-1 with an N89 [81-97]°E across the whole fault system, with a variable partitioning west and east of a major extensional fault-jog (the Tianzhu pull-apart basin). Our 2-D model of two profiles perpendicular to the fault system gives a quantitative understanding of how crustal deformation is accommodated by the various branches of this

  13. "Financial Bubbles" and Monetary Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikhonov, Yuriy A.; Pudovkina, Olga E.; Permjakova, Juliana V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this research is caused by the need of strengthening a role of monetary regulators to prevent financial bubbles in the financial markets. The aim of the article is the analysis of a problem of crisis phenomena in the markets of financial assets owing to an inadequate growth of their cost, owing to subjective reasons. The leading…

  14. A Monetary Policy Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengwiler, Yvan

    2004-01-01

    The author presents a computer game that puts the player in the role of a central bank governor. The game is a stochastic simulation of a standard reduced form macro model, and the user interacts with this simulation by manipulating the interest rate. The problem the player faces is in many ways quite realistic--just as a real monetary authority,…

  15. Monetary Policy after August 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes conceptually how to think about the dramatic changes in monetary policy since the sub-prime crisis of August 2007. He also discusses how to incorporate these changes and related economic concepts in the teaching of an undergraduate class in macroeconomics. A distinction is made between conventional and…

  16. Extrapolating surface structures to depth in transpressional systems: the role of rheology and convergence angle deduced from analogue experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Shang Yu; Neubauer, Franz; Cloetingh, Sierd; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The internal structure of major strike-slip faults is still poorly understood, particularly how the deep structure could be inferred from its surface expression (Molnar and Dayem, 2011 and references therein). Previous analogue experiments suggest that the convergence angle is the most influential factor (Leever et al., 2011). Further analogue modeling may allow a better understanding how to extrapolate surface structures to the subsurface geometry of strike-slip faults. Various scenarios of analogue experiments were designed to represent strike-slip faults in nature from different geological settings. As such key parameters, which are investigated in this study include: (a) the angle of convergence, (b) the thickness of brittle layer, (c) the influence of a rheological weak layer within the crust, and (d) influence of a thick and rheologically weak layer at the base of the crust. The latter aimed to simulate the effect of a hot metamorphic core complex or an alignment of uprising plutons bordered by a transtensional/transpressional strike-slip fault. The experiments are aimed to explain first order structures along major transcurrent strike-slip faults such as the Altyn, Kunlun, San Andrea and Greendale (Darfield earthquake 2010) faults. The preliminary results show that convergence angle significantly influences the overall geometry of the transpressive system with greater convergence angles resulting in wider fault zones and higher elevation. Different positions, densities and viscosities of weak rheological layers have not only different surface expressions but also affect the fault geometry in the subsurface. For instance, rheological weak material in the bottom layer results in stretching when experiment reaches a certain displacement and a buildup of a less segmented, wide positive flower structure. At the surface, a wide fault valley in the middle of the fault zone is the reflection of stretching along the velocity discontinuity at depth. In models with a

  17. Global diversity patterns and cross-taxa convergence in freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Tisseuil, Clement; Cornu, Jean-François; Beauchard, Olivier; Brosse, Sebastien; Darwall, William; Holland, Robert; Hugueny, Bernard; Tedesco, Pablo A; Oberdorff, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    Whereas global patterns and predictors of species diversity are well known for numerous terrestrial taxa, our understanding of freshwater diversity patterns and their predictors is much more limited. Here, we examine spatial concordance in global diversity patterns for five freshwater taxa (i.e. aquatic mammals, aquatic birds, fishes, crayfish and aquatic amphibians) and investigate the environmental factors driving these patterns at the river drainage basin grain. We find that species richness and endemism patterns are significantly correlated among taxa. We also show that cross-taxon congruence patterns are often induced by common responses of taxa to their contemporary and historical environments (i.e. convergent patterns). Apart from some taxa distinctiveness (i.e. fishes), the 'climate/productivity' hypothesis is found to explain the greatest variance in species richness and endemism patterns, followed by factors related to the 'history/dispersion' and 'area/environmental heterogeneity' hypotheses. As aquatic amphibians display the highest levels of congruency with other taxa, this taxon appears to be a good 'surrogate' candidate for developing global freshwater conservation planning at the river drainage basin grain. PMID:23173605

  18. Optimal control of unknown affine nonlinear discrete-time systems using offline-trained neural networks with proof of convergence.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Travis; Thumati, Balaje T; Jagannathan, S

    2009-01-01

    The optimal control of linear systems accompanied by quadratic cost functions can be achieved by solving the well-known Riccati equation. However, the optimal control of nonlinear discrete-time systems is a much more challenging task that often requires solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. In the recent literature, discrete-time approximate dynamic programming (ADP) techniques have been widely used to determine the optimal or near optimal control policies for affine nonlinear discrete-time systems. However, an inherent assumption of ADP requires the value of the controlled system one step ahead and at least partial knowledge of the system dynamics to be known. In this work, the need of the partial knowledge of the nonlinear system dynamics is relaxed in the development of a novel approach to ADP using a two part process: online system identification and offline optimal control training. First, in the system identification process, a neural network (NN) is tuned online using novel tuning laws to learn the complete plant dynamics so that a local asymptotic stability of the identification error can be shown. Then, using only the learned NN system model, offline ADP is attempted resulting in a novel optimal control law. The proposed scheme does not require explicit knowledge of the system dynamics as only the learned NN model is needed. The proof of convergence is demonstrated. Simulation results verify theoretical conjecture. PMID:19596551

  19. Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Convergence is a pervasive evolutionary process, affecting many aspects of phenotype and even genotype. Relatively little is known about convergence in developmental processes, however, nor about the degree to which convergence in development underlies convergence in anatomy. A switch in the ecology of sea urchins from feeding to nonfeeding larvae illustrates how convergence in development can be associated with convergence in anatomy. Comparisons to more distantly related taxa, however, suggest that this association may be limited to relatively close phylogenetic comparisons. Similarities in gene expression during development provide another window into the association between convergence in developmental processes and convergence in anatomy. Several well-studied transcription factors exhibit likely cases of convergent gene expression in distantly related animal phyla. Convergence in regulatory gene expression domains is probably more common than generally acknowledged, and can arise for several different reasons. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Modelling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Dobešová, Anna; Klepáč, Václav; Kolman, Pavel; Bednářová, Petra

    2015-03-10

    The aim of this paper is to compare different approaches to modeling of volatility in monetary transmission mechanism. For this purpose we built time-varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) model with stochastic volatility and VAR-DCC-GARCH model with conditional variance. The data from three European countries are included in the analysis: the Czech Republic, Germany and Slovakia. Results show that VAR-DCC-GARCH system captures higher volatility of observed variables but main trends and detected breaks are generally identical in both approaches.

  1. Upper bounds for convergence rates of vector extrapolation methods on linear systems with initial iterations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Shapira, Yair

    1992-01-01

    The application of the minimal polynomial extrapolation (MPE) and the reduced rank extrapolation (RRE) to a vector sequence obtained by the linear iterative technique x(sub j) + 1 = Ax(sub j) = b,j = 1,2,..., is considered. Both methods produce a two dimensional array of approximations s(sub n,k) to the solution of the system (I - A)x = b. Here, s(sub n,k) is obtained from the vectors x(sub j), n is less than or equal to j is less than or equal to n + k + 1. It was observed in an earlier publication by the first author that the sequence s(sub n,k), k = 1,2,..., for n greater than 0, but fixed, possesses better convergence properties than the sequence s(sub 0,k), k = 1,2,.... A detailed theoretical explanation for this phenomenon is provided in the present work. This explanation is heavily based on approximations by incomplete polynomials. It is demonstrated by numerical examples when the matrix A is sparse that cycling with s(sub n,k) for n greater than 0, but fixed, produces better convergence rates and costs less computationally than cycling with s(sub 0,k). It is also illustrated numerically with a convection-diffusion problem that the former may produce excellent results where the latter may fail completely. As has been shown in an earlier publication, the results produced by s(sub 0,k) are identical to the corresponding results obtained by applying the Arnoldi method or generalized minimal residual scheme (GMRES) to the system (I - A)x = b.

  2. Understanding the Need for Business Intelligence Systems: Technological Acceptance, Use, and Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre, Ashley R.

    2012-01-01

    DeLone and McLean first introduced a review of information systems success (ISS) literature and proposed the information success model in 1992. The contribution of technology use and acceptance and its influence toward ISS is an area of information systems research that has received significant attention from both researchers and practitioners.…

  3. Thermodynamic and kinematic characteristics of low-level convergent zones observed by the mobile integrated profiling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karan, Haldun

    Thermodynamic and kinematic characteristics of convergent boundary zones (CBZs) over various geographic regions in a broad range of environmental conditions are investigated through analysis of the Mobile Integrated Profiling System (MIPS), Doppler radar, atmospheric sounding, and surface data. The MIPS sensors provide very fine temporal kinematic and thermodynamic profiles of the atmospheric boundary layer ( ABL) and CBZ properties, including enhanced 915 MHz backscatter within the CBZ, an increase in integrated water vapor within the updrafts of the CBZ, variations in file convective boundary layer depth, and increases in ceilometer backscatter that are typically coincident with the arrival of cooler, moister air when the CBZs are associated with gust fronts, retrograding drylines, and shallow cold fronts. An analysis of over 50 gust frontal passages reveals that morphological structures and dynamical properties of gust fronts resemble laboratory simulated density currents and numerical simulations of outflow boundaries. Characteristics of a retrograding dryline and a shallow cold front sampled during IHOP 2002 project suggest a close resemblance to density currents. Gust frontal updrafts appear to be greatly affected by the adjacent boundary layer stability and interaction between the ambient shear and gust frontal circulation. Gust frontal updrafts were stronger and more vertically oriented when gust fronts were moving against the ambient flow. Interaction between gust fronts and horizontal convective rolls are investigated through radar derived wind field, Z reflectivity factors, and MIPS data sets. Convective initiation occurs more efficiently at intersection points between horizontal convective rolls and gust fronts when the HCR axes intersect the gust front at a large angle. In contrast, convection initiation was absent when HCRs were parallel to an approaching gust front which systematically encountered roll updrafts and downdrafts. A collision of two

  4. Dynamics of Convergent Migration and Mean Motion Resonances in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchum, Jacob A.

    Recent observations of solar systems orbiting other stars show that exoplanets display an enormous range of physical properties and that planetary systems display a diverse set of architectures, which motivate further studies in planetary dynamics. Part of the richness of this dynamical problem arises from the intrinsic complexity of N-body systems, even in the absence of additional forces. The realm of physical behavior experienced by such systems is enormous, and includes mean motion resonances (MMR), secular interactions, and sensitive dependence on the initial conditions (chaos). Additional complications arise from other forces that are often present: During the early stages of evolution, circumstellar disks provide torques that influence orbital elements, and turbulent fluctuations act on young planets. Over longer time scales, solar systems are affected by tidal forces from both stars and planets, and by general relativistic corrections that lead to orbital precession. This thesis addresses a subset of these dynamical problems, including the capture rates of planets into MMR, collision probabilities for migrating rocky planets interacting with Jovian planets, and the exploration of the ``nodding'' phenomenon (where systems move in and out of MMR). This latter effect can have important implications for interpreting transit timing variations (TTV), a method to detect smaller planets due to their interaction with larger transiting bodies.

  5. 48 CFR 3045.508-3 - Quantitative and monetary control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... item of Government property reported under (HSAR) 48 CFR 3045.508-2(b) and (c). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantitative and monetary... Management of Government Property in the Possession of Contractors 3045.508-3 Quantitative and...

  6. Morphology, seismic characteristics and development of the sediment dispersal system along the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Su, Chih-Chieh; Yu, Ho-Shing; Chang, Jih-Hsin

    2015-12-01

    The sediment dispersal system along the convergent margin between Taiwan and Luzon links the terrestrial and shallow marine sediments from the source areas nearby Taiwan orogen to the ultimate sink in the northern Manila Trench. Using seismic reflection profiles and bathymetry mapping we determine three distinct morpho-tectonic features of the Penghu Submarine Canyon, deep-sea Penghu Channel and oceanic Manila Trench which are linearly interconnected to form a longitudinal sediment route. Seismic profiles show characteristic features of truncated strata along canyon walls and cut-and-fills in canyon bottom. Deformed and uplifted bathymetric ridges and troughs and volcanic intrusions with unstratified and chaotic seismic facies are associated with the Penghu Channel. The seismic facies of the trench wedge are characterized by sub-horizontal and conformable layers of sediment stacking upwards to the trench floor. The sediment wedge adjacent to the inner lower slope is deformed to blind folds and thrust faults as precursors of the accretionary prism. The most prominent seismic characteristics is wide-spread undulating reflectors on the seafloor along the west edge of the sediment dispersal system and the toe of the South China Sea Basin floor, suggesting a large sediment wave field with a turbidity currents origin. The location, orientation and geometry of this sediment routing system are mainly controlled by underlying tectonics in progressive changes from arc-continental collision in transition to subduction. The deep-sea Penghu Channel is formed by compression in transitional zone of the North Luzon Ridge region, neither subduction nor channel erosion. The sediments in northern Manila Trench are mainly transported by turbidity currents via the upslope deep-sea Penghu Channel and Penghu Canyon and trench axis is filled up to a flat-floor trench wedge without sediment ponding. A four-stage development of sediment dispersal system in Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin

  7. On the evolutionary origins of revenge and forgiveness: a converging systems hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Richard J; Meleady, Rose

    2013-02-01

    McCullough et al. argue that humans possess evolved computational systems for implementing retaliatory behavior that both deters aggression and promotes subsequent reconciliation. However, they do not apply this analysis to the sphere of intergroup relations. We believe their model can be usefully extended to this domain and discuss why this would be possible, pertinent, and productive.

  8. Multiple forebrain systems converge on motor neurons innervating the thyroarytenoid muscle

    PubMed Central

    Van Daele, Douglas J.; Cassell, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the central connections of motor neurons innervating the thyroarytenoid laryngeal muscle that is active in swallowing, respiration and vocalization. In both intact and sympathectomized rats, the pseudorabies virus (PRV) was inoculated into the muscle. After initial infection of laryngomotor neurons in the ipsilateral loose division of the nucleus ambiguous (NA) by 3 days post-inoculation., PRV spread to the ipsilateral compact portion of the NA, the central and intermediate divisions of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the Botzinger complex, and the parvocellular reticular formation by 4 days. Infection was subsequently expanded to include the ipsilateral granular and dysgranular parietal insular cortex, the ipsilateral medial division of the central nucleus of the amygdala, the lateral, paraventricular, ventrolateral and medial preoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus (generally bilaterally), the lateral periaqueductal gray, the A7 and oral and caudal pontine nuclei. At the latest time points sampled post-inoculation (5 days), infected neurons were identified in the ipsilateral agranular insular cortex, the caudal parietal insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the contralateral motor cortex. In the amygdala, infection had spread to the lateral central nucleus and the parvocellular portion of the basolateral nucleus. Hypothalamic infection was largely characterized by an increase in the number of infected cells in earlier infected regions though the posterior, dorsomedial, tuberomammillary and mammillary nuclei contained infected cells. Comparison with previous connectional data suggest PRV followed three interconnected systems originating in the forebrain; a bilateral system including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray and ventral respiratory group; an ipsilateral system involving the parietal insular cortex, central nucleus of the amygdala and parvicellular reticular formation, and a minor

  9. The Nervous System and Metabolic Dysregulation: Emerging Evidence Converges on Ketogenic Diet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A link between metabolism and brain function is clear. Since ancient times, epileptic seizures were noted as treatable with fasting, and historical observations of the therapeutic benefits of fasting on epilepsy were confirmed nearly 100 years ago. Shortly thereafter a high fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) debuted as a therapy to reduce seizures. This strict regimen could mimic the metabolic effects of fasting while allowing adequate caloric intake for ongoing energy demands. Today, KD therapy, which forces predominantly ketone-based rather than glucose-based metabolism, is now well-established as highly successful in reducing seizures. Cellular metabolic dysfunction in the nervous system has been recognized as existing side-by-side with nervous system disorders – although often with much less obvious cause-and-effect as the relationship between fasting and seizures. Rekindled interest in metabolic and dietary therapies for brain disorders complements new insight into their mechanisms and broader implications. Here we describe the emerging relationship between a KD and adenosine as a way to reset brain metabolism and neuronal activity and disrupt a cycle of dysfunction. We also provide an overview of the effects of a KD on cognition and recent data on the effects of a KD on pain, and explore the relative time course quantified among hallmark metabolic changes, altered neuron function and altered animal behavior assessed after diet administration. We predict continued applications of metabolic therapies in treating dysfunction including and beyond the nervous system. PMID:22470316

  10. Response of acoustic imaging systems using convergent leaky waves to cylindrical flaws.

    PubMed

    Gunalp, N; Atalar, A

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical study of imaging systems utilizing focused leaky surface acoustic waves (SAWs), and their response to certain kind of defects is presented. In particular, circular cylindrical inhomogeneities with axes perpendicular to the surface are considered. The scattering of the SAW from this cylinder is formulated with some approximations. The surface wave incident on the inhomogeneity is initially found as an angular spectrum of plane waves. However, to apply the boundary conditions at the cylindrical surface, the incident field has to be transformed into a superposition of cylindrical waves. Similarly, the scattered field, which is found in the form of outgoing cylindrical SAWs, is converted back to a plane wave spectrum. A formula is obtained for the transducer output voltage in terms of the position and the radius of the cylinder, and it is suitable for computer evaluation. By considering various locations for the cylinder, the sensitivity of the system around the focal point is studied. By comparing the output voltages for cylinders of different radii, the sensitivity of the system to the size of the inhomogeneity is examined. The numerical results are in agreement with the experimental observations.

  11. The Convergence of Systems and Reductionist Approaches in Complex Trait Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Evan G.; Auwerx, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Research into the genetic and environmental factors behind complex trait variation has traditionally been segregated into distinct scientific camps. The reductionist approach aims to decrypt phenotypic variability bit-by-bit, founded on the underlying hypothesis that genome-to-phenome relations are largely constructed from the additive effects of their molecular players. In contrast, the systems approach aims to examine large-scale interactions of many components simultaneously, on the premise that interactions in gene networks can be both linear and nonlinear. Both approaches are complementary, and they are becoming increasingly intertwined due to developments in gene editing tools, omics technologies, and population resources. Together, these strategies are beginning to drive the next era in complex trait research: paving the way to improve agriculture and towards more personalized medicine. PMID:26140590

  12. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Fonseca, Nuno A; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  13. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  14. Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.

  15. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  16. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  17. Monetary Concepts of Male and Female Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah L.; Fulton, Arlene M.

    This study examined the abilities of kindergarten children on the four tasks of McCarty's (1967) Monetary Concepts Task Test. The sample was composed of 96 kindergarten children in a rural Oklahoma community. Nearly equal numbers of boys and girls participated in the study. Monetary tasks measured were the ability to (1) identify coins as money,…

  18. Monetary effects on fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chen; Zhang, Aiyi; Chen, Qishan

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has found that the loss of money as a negative secondary reinforcer was as effective as a primary reinforcer during fear conditioning. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of monetary gain as a positive secondary reinforcer in fear conditioning. Participants were assigned to a high-reward group or low-reward group. Three kinds of squares prompting non-compensation shock, compensation shock, and no shock were presented. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) and self-ratings were recorded. The results revealed that (a) both SCRs and self-ratings in the compensation shock condition were lower than in the non-compensation shock condition, suggesting that money might block the learning stage of fear conditioning; and (b) a higher ratio of fear reduction was present in self-rating when compared to SCRs, suggesting that people might overstate the utility of money, subjectively. Monetary effects, the effects of different amounts of money, and the differences between subjective and physiological levels are discussed.

  19. When and how to use monetary incentives.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2005-01-01

    Will money motivate your staff to perform better? While some practice managers prefer not to use bonus incentive programs, others use them fequently and report excellent results. This article explores the benefits and pitfalls of using monetary incentives with your staff. It explores the effectiveness of bonuses compared with raises. It also considers the four qualities of effective incentive bonus programs and gives examples of both percentage bonus programs and flat-dollar bonus programs. In particular, this article includes how-to advice for structuring a new patient incentive bonus program along with the potential problems of such programs as reported by two doctors who tried them. Finally, the article explores the benefits of using merchandise rewards rather than cash and includes innovative ideas for maximizing bonuses by implementing a "cookie jar" system and dividing annual bonuses into two installments.

  20. Envisioning engineering education and practice in the coming intelligence convergence era — a complex adaptive systems approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the recent attempts for improving and transforming engineering education are reviewed. The attempts aim at providing the entry level engineers with the skills needed to address the challenges of future large-scale complex systems and projects. Some of the frontier sectors and future challenges for engineers are outlined. The major characteristics of the coming intelligence convergence era (the post-information age) are identified. These include the prevalence of smart devices and environments, the widespread applications of anticipatory computing and predictive / prescriptive analytics, as well as a symbiotic relationship between humans and machines. Devices and machines will be able to learn from, and with, humans in a natural collaborative way. The recent game changers in learnscapes (learning paradigms, technologies, platforms, spaces, and environments) that can significantly impact engineering education in the coming era are identified. Among these are open educational resources, knowledge-rich classrooms, immersive interactive 3D learning, augmented reality, reverse instruction / flipped classroom, gamification, robots in the classroom, and adaptive personalized learning. Significant transformative changes in, and mass customization of, learning are envisioned to emerge from the synergistic combination of the game changers and other technologies. The realization of the aforementioned vision requires the development of a new multidisciplinary framework of emergent engineering for relating innovation, complexity and cybernetics, within the future learning environments. The framework can be used to treat engineering education as a complex adaptive system, with dynamically interacting and communicating components (instructors, individual, small, and large groups of learners). The emergent behavior resulting from the interactions can produce progressively better, and continuously improving, learning environment. As a first step towards the realization of

  1. Convergence Is Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyeart, Mike; Staman, E. Michael; Valdes, Jose J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of convergence has evolved significantly during recent years. Today, "convergence" refers to the integration of the communications and computing resources and services that seamlessly traverse multiple infrastructures and deliver content to multiple platforms or appliances. Convergence is real. Those in higher education, and especially…

  2. Impact of monetary policy changes on the Chinese monetary and stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Yong; Xiong, Jie; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    The impact of monetary policy changes on the monetary market and stock market in China is investigated in this study. The changes of two major monetary policies, the interest rate and required reserve ratio, are analyzed in a study period covering seven years on the interbank monetary market and Shanghai stock market. We find that the monetary market is related to the macro economy trend and we also find that the monetary change surprises both of lowering and raising bring significant impacts to the two markets and the two markets respond to the changes differently. The results suggest that the impact of fluctuations is much larger for raising policy changes than lowering changes in the monetary market on policy announcing and effective dates. This is consistent with the “sign effect”, i.e. bad news brings a greater impact than good news. By studying the event window of each policy change, we also find that the “sign effect” still exists before and after each change in the monetary market. A relatively larger fluctuation is observed before the event date, which indicates that the monetary market might have a certain ability to predict a potential monetary change, while it is kept secret by the central bank before official announcement. In the stock market, we investigate how the returns and spreads of the Shanghai stock market index respond to the monetary changes. Evidences suggest the stock market is influenced but in a different way than the monetary market. The climbing of returns after the event dates for the lowering policy agrees with the theory that lowering changes can provide a monetary supply to boost the market and drive the stock returns higher but with a delay of 2 to 3 trading days on average. While in the bear market, the lowering policy brings larger volatility to the market on average than the raising ones. These empirical findings are useful for policymakers to understand how monetary policy changes impact the monetary and stock markets

  3. Monetary reward suppresses anterior insula activity during social pain.

    PubMed

    Cristofori, Irene; Harquel, Sylvain; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François; Sirigu, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Social pain after exclusion by others activates brain regions also involved in physical pain. Here we evaluated whether monetary reward could compensate for the negative feeling of social pain in the brain. To address this question we used the unique technique of intracranial electroencephalography in subjects with drug resistant epilepsy. Specifically, we recorded theta activity from intracranial electrodes implanted in the insular cortex while subjects experienced conditions of social inclusion and exclusion associated with monetary gain and loss. Our study confirmed that theta rhythm in the insular cortex is the neural signature of social exclusion. We found that while monetary gain suppresses the effect of social pain in the anterior insula, there is no such effect in the posterior insula. These results imply that the anterior insula can use secondary reward signals to compensate for the negative feeling of social pain. Hence, here we propose that the anterior insula plays a pivotal role in integrating contingencies to update social pain feelings. Finally, the possibility to modulate the theta rhythm through the reward system might open new avenues of research for treating pathologies related to social exclusion. PMID:25964499

  4. Monetary reward suppresses anterior insula activity during social pain.

    PubMed

    Cristofori, Irene; Harquel, Sylvain; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François; Sirigu, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Social pain after exclusion by others activates brain regions also involved in physical pain. Here we evaluated whether monetary reward could compensate for the negative feeling of social pain in the brain. To address this question we used the unique technique of intracranial electroencephalography in subjects with drug resistant epilepsy. Specifically, we recorded theta activity from intracranial electrodes implanted in the insular cortex while subjects experienced conditions of social inclusion and exclusion associated with monetary gain and loss. Our study confirmed that theta rhythm in the insular cortex is the neural signature of social exclusion. We found that while monetary gain suppresses the effect of social pain in the anterior insula, there is no such effect in the posterior insula. These results imply that the anterior insula can use secondary reward signals to compensate for the negative feeling of social pain. Hence, here we propose that the anterior insula plays a pivotal role in integrating contingencies to update social pain feelings. Finally, the possibility to modulate the theta rhythm through the reward system might open new avenues of research for treating pathologies related to social exclusion.

  5. Monetary Shocks in Models with Inattentive Producers

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Fernando E.; Lippi, Francesco; Paciello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    We study models where prices respond slowly to shocks because firms are rationally inattentive. Producers must pay a cost to observe the determinants of the current profit maximizing price, and hence observe them infrequently. To generate large real effects of monetary shocks in such a model the time between observations must be long and/or highly volatile. Previous work on rational inattentiveness has allowed for observation intervals that are either constant-but-long (e.g. Caballero, 1989 or Reis, 2006) or volatile-but-short (e.g. Reis's, 2006 example where observation costs are negligible), but not both. In these models, the real effects of monetary policy are small for realistic values of the duration between observations. We show that non-negligible observation costs produce both of these effects: intervals between observations are infrequent and volatile. This generates large real effects of monetary policy for realistic values of the average time between observations. PMID:27516627

  6. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., as applicable, for each civil monetary penalty assessed or enforced by DHS by the cost-of-living... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. Link...

  7. 7 CFR 3.91 - Adjusted civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusted civil monetary penalties. 3.91 Section 3.91 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Adjusted Civil Monetary Penalties § 3.91 Adjusted civil monetary penalties. (a) In general. (1) The Secretary will adjust the civil...

  8. 32 CFR 269.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 269... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Department shall, not later than 180 days after the enactment of...

  9. 32 CFR 269.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 269... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Department shall, not later than 180 days after the enactment of...

  10. 49 CFR 1022.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 1022... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 1022.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Board shall, immediately, and at...

  11. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...

  12. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...

  13. 32 CFR 269.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 269... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Department shall, not later than 180 days after the enactment of...

  14. 49 CFR 1022.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 1022... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 1022.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Board shall, immediately, and at...

  15. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...

  16. 32 CFR 269.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 269... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Department shall, not later than 180 days after the enactment of...

  17. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...

  18. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...

  19. 32 CFR 269.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 269... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Department shall, not later than 180 days after the enactment of...

  20. Commentary: Theoretical and Methodological Dimensions of Convergence and Divergence of Adolescent and Parent Reports about Youth Development and Family Structure and Function-A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Richard M; Konowitz, Lily S

    2016-10-01

    Using ideas associated with relational developmental systems metatheory, we discuss the links among the operation triad model of adolescent report-parent report convergence, divergence, or compensation and the research reported in this special issue. These contributions highlight the important implications for adolescent adjustment of youth and parent reports about adolescent development and family structure and function. Relational developmental systems metatheory raises both theoretical and methodological issues for research framed by the operation triad model. These issues emphasize the specificity (non-ergodicity) of mutually influential relationships between a youth and his/her parent, that is, the specificity of the adolescent-parent relationship. Relational developmental systems -based ideas may enable the operation triad model to be a means through which the study of adolescent self-reports and parent reports will have a more central place in the construction of key features of the dynamics of adolescent-parent relationships. PMID:27510621

  1. Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Sigman, Mariano; Rattazzi, Alexia; Lavin, Claudio; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Marino, Julian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-07-28

    Recent theories of decision making propose a shared value-related brain mechanism for encoding monetary and social rewards. We tested this model in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and control children. We monitored participants' brain dynamics using high density-electroencephalography while they played a monetary and social reward tasks. Control children exhibited a feedback Error-Related Negativity (fERN) modulation and Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) source activation during both tasks. Remarkably, although cooperation resulted in greater losses for the participants, the betrayal options generated greater fERN responses. ADHD subjects exhibited an absence of fERN modulation and reduced ACC activation during both tasks. ASD subjects exhibited normal fERN modulation during monetary choices and inverted fERN/ACC responses in social options than did controls. These results suggest that in neurotypicals, monetary losses and observed disloyal social decisions induced similar activity in the brain value system. In ADHD children, difficulties in reward processing affected early brain signatures of monetary and social decisions. Conversely, ASD children showed intact neural markers of value-related monetary mechanisms, but no brain modulation by prosociality in the social task. These results offer insight into the typical and atypical developments of neural correlates of monetary and social reward processing.

  2. Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Sigman, Mariano; Rattazzi, Alexia; Lavin, Claudio; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Marino, Julian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of decision making propose a shared value-related brain mechanism for encoding monetary and social rewards. We tested this model in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and control children. We monitored participants’ brain dynamics using high density-electroencephalography while they played a monetary and social reward tasks. Control children exhibited a feedback Error-Related Negativity (fERN) modulation and Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) source activation during both tasks. Remarkably, although cooperation resulted in greater losses for the participants, the betrayal options generated greater fERN responses. ADHD subjects exhibited an absence of fERN modulation and reduced ACC activation during both tasks. ASD subjects exhibited normal fERN modulation during monetary choices and inverted fERN/ACC responses in social options than did controls. These results suggest that in neurotypicals, monetary losses and observed disloyal social decisions induced similar activity in the brain value system. In ADHD children, difficulties in reward processing affected early brain signatures of monetary and social decisions. Conversely, ASD children showed intact neural markers of value-related monetary mechanisms, but no brain modulation by prosociality in the social task. These results offer insight into the typical and atypical developments of neural correlates of monetary and social reward processing. PMID:27464551

  3. Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Sigman, Mariano; Rattazzi, Alexia; Lavin, Claudio; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Marino, Julian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of decision making propose a shared value-related brain mechanism for encoding monetary and social rewards. We tested this model in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and control children. We monitored participants' brain dynamics using high density-electroencephalography while they played a monetary and social reward tasks. Control children exhibited a feedback Error-Related Negativity (fERN) modulation and Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) source activation during both tasks. Remarkably, although cooperation resulted in greater losses for the participants, the betrayal options generated greater fERN responses. ADHD subjects exhibited an absence of fERN modulation and reduced ACC activation during both tasks. ASD subjects exhibited normal fERN modulation during monetary choices and inverted fERN/ACC responses in social options than did controls. These results suggest that in neurotypicals, monetary losses and observed disloyal social decisions induced similar activity in the brain value system. In ADHD children, difficulties in reward processing affected early brain signatures of monetary and social decisions. Conversely, ASD children showed intact neural markers of value-related monetary mechanisms, but no brain modulation by prosociality in the social task. These results offer insight into the typical and atypical developments of neural correlates of monetary and social reward processing. PMID:27464551

  4. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (p<0.05) in commercial feeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (p<0.05) when animal and fish were integrated together.

  5. 31 CFR 596.307 - Monetary instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monetary instruments. 596.307 Section 596.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 596.307 - Monetary instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monetary instruments. 596.307 Section 596.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 596.307 - Monetary instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monetary instruments. 596.307 Section 596.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 596.307 - Monetary instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monetary instruments. 596.307 Section 596.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 596.307 - Monetary instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monetary instruments. 596.307 Section 596.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  10. 38 CFR 3.21 - Monetary rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monetary rates. 3.21 Section 3.21 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... (title 38, Code of Federal Regulations). The maximum annual rates of improved pension payable under...

  11. Chaotic dynamics in optimal monetary policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, O.; Mendes, V. M.; Mendes, D. A.; Sousa Ramos, J.

    2007-05-01

    There is by now a large consensus in modern monetary policy. This consensus has been built upon a dynamic general equilibrium model of optimal monetary policy as developed by, e.g., Goodfriend and King [ NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1997 edited by B. Bernanke and J. Rotemberg (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997), pp. 231 282], Clarida et al. [J. Econ. Lit. 37, 1661 (1999)], Svensson [J. Mon. Econ. 43, 607 (1999)] and Woodford [ Interest and Prices: Foundations of a Theory of Monetary Policy (Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 2003)]. In this paper we extend the standard optimal monetary policy model by introducing nonlinearity into the Phillips curve. Under the specific form of nonlinearity proposed in our paper (which allows for convexity and concavity and secures closed form solutions), we show that the introduction of a nonlinear Phillips curve into the structure of the standard model in a discrete time and deterministic framework produces radical changes to the major conclusions regarding stability and the efficiency of monetary policy. We emphasize the following main results: (i) instead of a unique fixed point we end up with multiple equilibria; (ii) instead of saddle-path stability, for different sets of parameter values we may have saddle stability, totally unstable equilibria and chaotic attractors; (iii) for certain degrees of convexity and/or concavity of the Phillips curve, where endogenous fluctuations arise, one is able to encounter various results that seem intuitively correct. Firstly, when the Central Bank pays attention essentially to inflation targeting, the inflation rate has a lower mean and is less volatile; secondly, when the degree of price stickiness is high, the inflation rate displays a larger mean and higher volatility (but this is sensitive to the values given to the parameters of the model); and thirdly, the higher the target value of the output gap chosen by the Central Bank, the higher is the inflation rate and its

  12. [Lymphocytic primary angiitis of the central nervous system with fan-shaped linear enhancement converging to the lateral ventricles: a case report].

    PubMed

    Okunomiya, Taro; Kageyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Kanta; Kambe, Daisuke; Shinde, Akiyo; Suenaga, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of lymphocytic primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) with a characteristic gadolinium-enhancement pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 48-year-old, right-handed man presented with a 3-month history of tremor and progressing dementia. Neurologic examination revealed cognitive decline with anterograde amnesia and postural tremor of the fingers. Except for the positive result of serum antinuclear antibody, intense investigations for infectious, rheumatic and neoplastic diseases were negative. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid showed mild pleocytosis (14 cells/μl). Brain MRI revealed diffuse hyperintense areas in the deep cerebral white matter on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images demonstrated fan-shaped multiple linear enhancements converging to the body of the lateral ventricles. Brain biopsy showed intense infiltration of small lymphocytes without atypia or granuloma mainly within the vessel walls and perivascular spaces. The diagnosis of lymphocytic PACNS was made. Administration of corticosteroid markedly improved the tremor and cognitive dysfunction. MRI after the treatment showed resolution of the abnormal fan-shaped linear enhancement. He returned to his previous occupation. PACNS should be included in the differential diagnosis for fan-shaped linear enhancement converging to the lateral ventricles on MRI in patients with unexplained progressing dementia.

  13. Funny money: the attentional role of monetary feedback detached from expected value.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-10-01

    Stimuli associated with monetary reward can become powerful cues that effectively capture visual attention. We examined whether such value-driven attentional capture can be induced with monetary feedback in the absence of an expected cash payout. To this end, we implemented images of U.S. dollar bills as reward feedback. Participants knew in advance that they would not receive any money based on their performance. Our reward stimuli-$5 and $20 bill images-were thus dissociated from any practical utility. Strikingly, we observed a reliable attentional capture effect for the mere images of bills. Moreover, this finding generalized to Monopoly money. In two control experiments, we found no evidence in favor of nominal or symbolic monetary value. Hence, we claim that bill images are special monetary representations, such that there are strong associations between the defining visual features of bills and reward, probably due to a lifelong learning history. Together, we show that the motivation to earn cash plays a minor role when it comes to monetary rewards, while bill-defining visual features seem to be sufficient. These findings have the potential to influence human factor applications, such as gamification, and can be extended to novel value systems, such as the electronic cash Bitcoin being developed for use in mobile banking. Finally, our procedure represents a proof of concept on how images of money can be used to conserve expenditures in the experimental context. PMID:27245703

  14. Funny money: the attentional role of monetary feedback detached from expected value.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-10-01

    Stimuli associated with monetary reward can become powerful cues that effectively capture visual attention. We examined whether such value-driven attentional capture can be induced with monetary feedback in the absence of an expected cash payout. To this end, we implemented images of U.S. dollar bills as reward feedback. Participants knew in advance that they would not receive any money based on their performance. Our reward stimuli-$5 and $20 bill images-were thus dissociated from any practical utility. Strikingly, we observed a reliable attentional capture effect for the mere images of bills. Moreover, this finding generalized to Monopoly money. In two control experiments, we found no evidence in favor of nominal or symbolic monetary value. Hence, we claim that bill images are special monetary representations, such that there are strong associations between the defining visual features of bills and reward, probably due to a lifelong learning history. Together, we show that the motivation to earn cash plays a minor role when it comes to monetary rewards, while bill-defining visual features seem to be sufficient. These findings have the potential to influence human factor applications, such as gamification, and can be extended to novel value systems, such as the electronic cash Bitcoin being developed for use in mobile banking. Finally, our procedure represents a proof of concept on how images of money can be used to conserve expenditures in the experimental context.

  15. Use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives to increase response rates among African Americans in the Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Dykema, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Kniss, Chad; Kvale, Katherine; González, Kim; Cautley, Eleanor

    2012-05-01

    From 2009 to 2010, an experiment was conducted to increase response rates among African American mothers in the Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). Sample members were randomly assigned to groups that received a prepaid, cash incentive of $5 (n = 219); a coupon for diapers valued at $6 (n = 210); or no incentive (n = 209). Incentives were included with the questionnaire, which was mailed to respondents. We examined the effects of the incentives on several outcomes, including response rates, cost effectiveness, survey response distributions, and item nonresponse. Response rates were significantly higher for the cash group than for the coupon (42.5 vs. 32.4%, P < .05) or no incentive group (42.5 vs. 30.1%, P < .01); the coupon and no incentive groups performed similarly. While absolute costs were the highest for the cash group, the cost per completed survey was the lowest. The incentives had limited effects on response distributions for specific survey questions. Although respondents completing the survey by mail in the cash and coupon groups exhibited a trend toward being less likely to have missing data, the effect was not significant. Compared to a coupon or no incentive, a small cash incentive significantly improved response rates and was cost effective among African American respondents in Wisconsin PRAMS. Incentives had only limited effects, however, on survey response distributions, and no significant effects on item nonresponse. PMID:21509432

  16. Investigations of different kilovoltage x-ray energy for three-dimensional converging stereotactic radiotherapy system: Monte Carlo simulations with CT data

    SciTech Connect

    Deloar, Hossain M.; Kunieda, Etsuo; Kawase, Takatsugu; Tsunoo, Takanori; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Ozaki, Masahiro; Saito, Kimiaki; Takagi, Shunji; Sato, Osamu; Fujisaki, Tatsuya; Myojoyama, Atsushi; Sorell, Graham

    2006-12-15

    We are investigating three-dimensional converging stereotactic radiotherapy (3DCSRT) with suitable medium-energy x rays as treatment for small lung tumors with better dose homogeneity at the target. A computed tomography (CT) system dedicated for non-coplanar converging radiotherapy was simulated with BEAMnrc (EGS4) Monte-Carlo code for x-ray energy of 147.5, 200, 300, and 500 kilovoltage (kVp). The system was validated by comparing calculated and measured percentage of depth dose in a water phantom for the energy of 120 and 147.5 kVp. A thorax phantom and CT data from lung tumors (<20 cm{sup 3}) were used to compare dose homogeneities of kVp energies with MV energies of 4, 6, and 10 MV. Three non-coplanar arcs (0 deg. and {+-}25 deg. ) around the center of the target were employed. The Monte Carlo dose data format was converted to the XiO RTP format to compare dose homogeneity, differential, and integral dose volume histograms of kVp and MV energies. In terms of dose homogeneity and DVHs, dose distributions at the target of all kVp energies with the thorax phantom were better than MV energies, with mean dose absorption at the ribs (human data) of 100%, 85%, 50%, 30% for 147.5, 200, 300, and 500 kVp, respectively. Considering dose distributions and reduction of the enhanced dose absorption at the ribs, a minimum of 500 kVp is suitable for the lung kVp 3DCSRT system.

  17. Proactive Motor Control Reduces Monetary Risk Taking in Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Less supervision by the executive system after disruption of the right prefrontal cortex leads to increased risk taking in gambling because superficially attractive—but risky—choices are not suppressed. Similarly, people might gamble more in multitask situations than in single-task situations because concurrent executive processes usually interfere with each other. In the study reported here, we used a novel monetary decision-making paradigm to investigate whether multitasking could reduce rather than increase risk taking in gambling. We found that performing a task that induced cautious motor responding reduced gambling in a multitask situation (Experiment 1). We then found that a short period of inhibitory training lessened risk taking in gambling at least 2 hr later (Experiments 2 and 3). Our findings indicate that proactive motor control strongly affects monetary risk taking in gambling. The link between control systems at different cognitive levels might be exploited to develop new methods for rehabilitation of addiction and impulse-control disorders. PMID:22692336

  18. Monetary Expansion and the Banking Lending Channel

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Tito Belchior Silva; Fazio, Dimas Mateus; Cavalcanti, André Luiz Cordeiro; Cunha, George Henrrique de Moura

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the bank lending channel, which considers how monetary authority actions affect the variation of loans. We focus on the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) totalizing 1254 banks from five countries in the period 2000–2012 (totalizing 13 years). The empirical results show that the effect of money supply growth on the growth of loans is non-linear and inverted U-shaped. In this context, our results show empirical evidence expansionary monetary policies do not increase the propensity of economic agents to systematically take greater risks on the market. After a certain level of money stock, increases in the money supply do not lead to increased negotiated credit. PMID:27716816

  19. The Convergence of Intelligences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Joachim

    Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.

  20. Stable isotopes and volatile organic compounds along seven ground-water flow paths in divergent and convergent flow systems, southern California, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth; Land, Michael; Danskin, Wesley R.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is a major source of drinking water in southern California. In an effort to understand factors influencing the susceptibility of ground water tapped by public supply wells, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken studies in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. The vertical and lateral distribution of stable isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were examined along seven ground-water flow paths in three urban ground-water basins in southern California: Central Basin in Los Angeles County, Main Basin in Orange County, and Bunker Hill Basin in San Bernardino County. Forty-seven monitoring wells and 100 public supply wells were sampled. The results of this study suggest that the direction of flow and perhaps the degree of confinement in an aquifer system are important controls on the distribution of VOCs. Ground-water flow in the Central and Main Basins in the southern California coastal plain is characterized as radially divergent, with ground-water flow directions moving outward from focused areas of recharge in the unconfined part of the aquifer system toward dispersed areas of discharge in the more confined part. In these basins, there is a volume of water containing VOCs that extends out into a volume of water containing no VOCs. This pattern suggests that radially divergent flow systems disperse VOCs in distal areas. The overall pattern also suggests that ground water in the pressure area is generally insulated from compounds introduced at land surface. These two factors?dispersion of VOCs due to divergence of flow and insulation from land-surface inputs?suggest that the susceptibility of public supply wells to surface contamination decreases with distance in radially divergent, well confined ground-water flow system. In the inland Bunker Hill Basin, ground-water flow is characterized as radially convergent; ground-water flow directions move inward from dispersed recharge areas in

  1. Extensional deformation structures within a convergent orogen: The Val di Lima low-angle normal fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenzi, Luca; Molli, Giancarlo; Storti, Fabrizio; Muchez, Philippe; Swennen, Rudy; Torelli, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    A low-angle extensional fault system affecting the non metamorphic rocks of the carbonate dominated Tuscan succession is exposed in the Lima valley (Northern Apennines, Italy). This fault system affects the right-side-up limb of a kilometric-scale recumbent isoclinal anticline and is, in turn, affected by superimposed folding and late-tectonic high-angle extensional faulting. The architecture of the low-angle fault system has been investigated through detailed structural mapping and damage zone characterization. Pressure-depth conditions and paleofluid evolution of the fault system have been studied through microstructural, mineralogical, petrographic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses. Our results show that the low-angle fault system was active during exhumation of the Tuscan succession at about 180°C and 5 km depth, with the involvement of low-salinity fluids. Within this temperature - depth framework, the fault zone architecture shows important differences related to the different lithologies involved in the fault system and to the role played by the fluids during deformation. In places, footwall overpressuring influenced active deformation mechanisms and favored shear strain localization. Our observations indicate that extensional structures affected the central sector of the Northern Apennines thrust wedge during the orogenic contractional history, modifying the fluid circulation through the upper crust and influencing its mechanical behavior.

  2. The Convergence Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…

  3. Convergence of Arnoldi method

    SciTech Connect

    Nevanlinna, O.

    1994-12-31

    This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).

  4. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  5. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  6. Modulation of host immune defenses by Aeromonas and Yersinia species: convergence on toxins secreted by various secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    Like other pathogenic bacteria, Yersinia and Aeromonas species have been continuously co-evolving with their respective hosts. Although the former is a bonafide human pathogen, the latter has gained notararity as an emerging disease-causing agent. In response to immune cell challenges, bacterial pathogens have developed diverse mechanism(s) enabling their survival, and, at times, dominance over various host immune defense systems. The bacterial type three secretion system (T3SS) is evolutionarily derived from flagellar subunits and serves as a vehicle by which microbes can directly inject/translocate anti-host factors/effector proteins into targeted host immune cells. A large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens possess a T3SS empowering them to disrupt host cell signaling, actin cytoskeleton re-arrangements, and even to induce host-cell apoptotic and pyroptotic pathways. All pathogenic yersiniae and most Aeromonas species possess a T3SS, but they also possess T2- and T6-secreted toxins/effector proteins. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which the T3SS effectors Yersinia outer membrane protein J (YopJ) and an Aeromonas hydrophila AexU protein, isolated from the diarrheal isolate SSU, mollify host immune system defenses. Additionally, the mechanisms that are associated with host cell apoptosis/pyroptosis by Aeromonas T2SS secreted Act, a cytotoxic enterotoxin, and Hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp), an A. hydrophila T6SS effector, will also be discussed. PMID:24199174

  7. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Wager, Tor D.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:25628593

  8. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Raison, Charles L; Hale, Matthew W; Williams, Lawrence E; Wager, Tor D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  9. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Raison, Charles L; Hale, Matthew W; Williams, Lawrence E; Wager, Tor D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:25628593

  10. Acceleration of convergence of vector sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, A.; Ford, W. F.; Smith, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    A general approach to the construction of convergence acceleration methods for vector sequence is proposed. Using this approach, one can generate some known methods, such as the minimal polynomial extrapolation, the reduced rank extrapolation, and the topological epsilon algorithm, and also some new ones. Some of the new methods are easier to implement than the known methods and are observed to have similar numerical properties. The convergence analysis of these new methods is carried out, and it is shown that they are especially suitable for accelerating the convergence of vector sequences that are obtained when one solves linear systems of equations iteratively. A stability analysis is also given, and numerical examples are provided. The convergence and stability properties of the topological epsilon algorithm are likewise given.

  11. Converging shocks for DSD modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matignon, Christophe

    2013-06-01

    Modelling of pyrotechnic systems requires both, a good understanding and precise prediction capabilities of the dynamics of detonation. When using insensitive high explosives IHE (such as TATB-based explosives) the interaction of the detonation front with the confinement can lead to very different detonation velocities. One of the most popular engineering tools used to model this behaviour is the Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD). In the DSD assumption, the detonation front propagates at a normal shock velocity (Dn) which depends only on its local curvature (κ). For divergent detonations, the DSD limit is very well established both experimentally and theoretically and one can easily propose a model (which obeys the 1D quasi-steady weakly curved detonation theory) to reproduce this behavior. We propose to extend the DSD theory to slightly convergent detonation fronts and to validate it against experimental data. Two series of experiments were carried out. The first series was designed to collect precise information regarding converging detonation. Usually, in such configurations, the detonation is non steady, making precise and simultaneous measurements of velocity and curvature difficult to achieve. The originality of the proposed setup is to drive a self similar convergent detonation at constant speed in an IHE rod by an external explosive tube of greater detonation velocity (allowing an accurate recording of both velocity and curvature). A wide range EOS/reaction rate model (inspired from previous works of Wescott et al.) was then calibrated to reproduce both the strong shock initiation and the newly extended (Dn- κ) law. This model can be used to perform either direct numerical simulation (DNS) on fine resolved mesh grid, or its reduced PZR model (DSD based) on a much coarser grid. This model was then successfully validated against the second series of experiments involving a detonation propagating around an obstacle and exhibiting a non steady converging front

  12. Convergence Estimates for Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arian, Eyal

    1997-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of coupling between systems of equations is introduced. This analysis is then applied to problems in multidisciplinary analysis, sensitivity, and optimization. For the sensitivity and optimization problems both multidisciplinary and single discipline feasibility schemes are considered. In all these cases a "convergence factor" is estimated in terms of the Jacobians and Hessians of the system, thus it can also be approximated by existing disciplinary analysis and optimization codes. The convergence factor is identified with the measure for the "coupling" between the disciplines in the system. Applications to algorithm development are discussed. Demonstration of the convergence estimates and numerical results are given for a system composed of two non-linear algebraic equations, and for a system composed of two PDEs modeling aeroelasticity.

  13. Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin in the perspective of source to sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, K.; Yu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on seafloor in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23°N to 20°N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea (SCS) north of 21°N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and is mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the SCS and Kaoping slopes. The Penghu Canyon is located along the tilting basin axis where is the physiographic boundary separating the SCS and Kaoping slopes. Progressive subsidence of the basin floor from this nearby uplifted Taiwan orogen results in the linear basin axis deepening and tilting towards the open SCS, serving as a longitudinal sediment conduit. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision basin in term of source to sink is that terrestrial and shallow marine sediments derived from nearby Taiwan orogen, Chinese margin and the Taiwan Strait are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and the major marine transport route along the basin axis. The multi-sourced sediments in the collision basin are then delivered down-dip via the Penghu Canyon to the deep-sea Penghu Channel and ultimately to the final destination of the Manila Trench, representing a regional longitudinal sediment dispersal route along the convergent margin between Taiwan and Luzon. A comparison with other examples is a

  14. High diversity and morphological convergence among melanised fungi from rock formations in the Central Mountain System of Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, C; Platas, G; Bills, G F

    2008-12-01

    Melanised fungi were isolated from rock surfaces in the Central Mountain System of Spain. Two hundred sixty six isolates were recovered from four geologically and topographically distinct sites. Microsatellite-primed PCR techniques were used to group isolates into genotypes assumed to represent species. One hundred and sixty three genotypes were characterised from the four sites. Only five genotypes were common to two or more sites. Morphological and molecular data were used to characterise and identify representative strains, but morphology rarely provided a definitive identification due to the scarce differentiation of the fungal structures or the apparent novelty of the isolates. Vegetative states of fungi prevailed in culture and in many cases could not be reliably distinguished without sequence data. Morphological characters that were widespread among the isolates included scarce micronematous conidial states, endoconidia, mycelia with dark olive-green or black hyphae, and mycelia with torulose, isodiametric or moniliform hyphae whose cells develop one or more transverse and/or oblique septa. In many of the strains, mature hyphae disarticulated, suggesting asexual reproduction by a thallic micronematous conidiogenesis or by simple fragmentation. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) and 5.8S rDNA gene were employed to investigate the phylogenetic affinities of the isolates. According to ITS sequence alignments, the majority of the isolates could be grouped among four main orders of Pezizomycotina: Pleosporales, Dothideales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Ubiquitous known soil and epiphytic fungi species were generally absent from the rock surfaces. In part, the mycota of the rock surfaces shared similar elements with melanised fungi from plant surfaces and fungi described from rock formations in Europe and Antarctica. The possibility that some of the fungi were lichen mycobionts or lichen parasites could not be ruled out.

  15. High diversity and morphological convergence among melanised fungi from rock formations in the Central Mountain System of Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, C; Platas, G; Bills, G F

    2008-12-01

    Melanised fungi were isolated from rock surfaces in the Central Mountain System of Spain. Two hundred sixty six isolates were recovered from four geologically and topographically distinct sites. Microsatellite-primed PCR techniques were used to group isolates into genotypes assumed to represent species. One hundred and sixty three genotypes were characterised from the four sites. Only five genotypes were common to two or more sites. Morphological and molecular data were used to characterise and identify representative strains, but morphology rarely provided a definitive identification due to the scarce differentiation of the fungal structures or the apparent novelty of the isolates. Vegetative states of fungi prevailed in culture and in many cases could not be reliably distinguished without sequence data. Morphological characters that were widespread among the isolates included scarce micronematous conidial states, endoconidia, mycelia with dark olive-green or black hyphae, and mycelia with torulose, isodiametric or moniliform hyphae whose cells develop one or more transverse and/or oblique septa. In many of the strains, mature hyphae disarticulated, suggesting asexual reproduction by a thallic micronematous conidiogenesis or by simple fragmentation. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) and 5.8S rDNA gene were employed to investigate the phylogenetic affinities of the isolates. According to ITS sequence alignments, the majority of the isolates could be grouped among four main orders of Pezizomycotina: Pleosporales, Dothideales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Ubiquitous known soil and epiphytic fungi species were generally absent from the rock surfaces. In part, the mycota of the rock surfaces shared similar elements with melanised fungi from plant surfaces and fungi described from rock formations in Europe and Antarctica. The possibility that some of the fungi were lichen mycobionts or lichen parasites could not be ruled out. PMID:20396580

  16. Convergent Lines of Descent: Symptoms, Patterns, Constellations, and the Emergent Interface of Systems Biology and Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century, a network composed of politicians, regulators, bioscientists, clinical researchers, and Chinese medicine specialists has emerged that seeks to bridge an imagined gulf between the modern West and ancient China in order to create a new type of personalized medicine. The central building block of this bridge is the Chinese medical concept of zheng 證/証, variously translated into English as syndrome, pattern, or type. My paper places side by side two different genealogies of how zheng assumed this central role. The first genealogy examines the process by means of which zheng came to be considered as something shared by both ancient China and cutting-edge biological science and, by extension, how it manages to hold together the entire institutional, political, and economic framework into which this bridge is embedded and which it co-creates. The second genealogy shows zheng to be central to a much older series of redefinitions of Chinese medicine and Chinese medical practice that extend from the eleventh century to the present. Read together, these two genealogies—neither of which should be seen as exhaustive—raise three important issues that are further discussed in the conclusion of the paper. First, I explore how the concept of zheng has come to tie a medical tradition derided by its adversaries for being a pseudoscience to one of the most cutting-edge fields of bioscience research. I ask what is at stake in this synthesis, for whom, and why, and how it transforms Chinese medicine and/or systems biology along the way. Second, I am interested in finding out how and why the very same concept can be at the heart of two apparently agonistic visions of Chinese medicine’s future as it is popularly imagined in China today. Finally, I insist that the medical humanities need to become actively involved in the construction of emergent articulations such as the ones I am exploring. Merely writing a history of the

  17. Examining marginal sequence similarities between bacterial type III secretion system components and Trypanosoma cruzi surface proteins: horizontal gene transfer or convergent evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Danielle C. F.; Silva, Richard C.; Ferreira, Renata C.; Briones, Marcelo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    The cell invasion mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi has similarities with some intracellular bacterial taxa especially regarding calcium mobilization. This mechanism is not observed in other trypanosomatids, suggesting that the molecules involved in this type of cell invasion were a product of (1) acquisition by horizontal gene transfer (HGT); (2) secondary loss in the other trypanosomatid lineages of the mechanism inherited since the bifurcation Bacteria-Neomura (1.9 billion to 900 million years ago); or (3) de novo evolution from non-homologous proteins via convergent evolution. Similar to T. cruzi, several bacterial genera require increased host cell cytosolic calcium for intracellular invasion. Among intracellular bacteria, the mechanism of host cell invasion of genus Salmonella is the most similar to T. cruzi. The invasion of Salmonella occurs by contact with the host's cell surface and is mediated by the type III secretion system (T3SS) that promotes the contact-dependent translocation of effector proteins directly into host's cell cytoplasm. Here we provide evidence of distant sequence similarities and structurally conserved domains between T. cruzi and Salmonella spp T3SS proteins. Exhaustive database searches were directed to a wide range of intracellular bacteria and trypanosomatids, exploring sequence patterns for comparison of structural similarities and Bayesian phylogenies. Based on our data we hypothesize that T. cruzi acquired genes for calcium mobilization mediated invasion by ancient HGT from ancestral Salmonella lineages. PMID:23967008

  18. Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…

  19. 22 CFR 123.23 - Monetary value of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monetary value of shipments. 123.23 Section 123.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.23 Monetary value of shipments. Port Directors of U.S. Customs...

  20. 22 CFR 123.23 - Monetary value of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monetary value of shipments. 123.23 Section 123.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.23 Monetary value of shipments. Port Directors of U.S. Customs...

  1. 22 CFR 123.23 - Monetary value of shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monetary value of shipments. 123.23 Section 123.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.23 Monetary value of shipments. Port Directors of U.S. Customs...

  2. 49 CFR 1018.5 - Monetary limitation on Board authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Monetary limitation on Board authority. 1018.5... Coverage § 1018.5 Monetary limitation on Board authority. The Board's authority to compromise a claim or to... collection action; and (b) Do not exceed $100,000, exclusive of interest, penalties, and administrative...

  3. 49 CFR 1018.5 - Monetary limitation on Board authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monetary limitation on Board authority. 1018.5... Coverage § 1018.5 Monetary limitation on Board authority. The Board's authority to compromise a claim or to... collection action; and (b) Do not exceed $100,000, exclusive of interest, penalties, and administrative...

  4. 8 CFR 1280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... each civil monetary penalty assessed or enforced by the Service by the cost-of-living adjustment as... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.53 Civil...

  5. 49 CFR 1018.5 - Monetary limitation on Board authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monetary limitation on Board authority. 1018.5... Coverage § 1018.5 Monetary limitation on Board authority. The Board's authority to compromise a claim or to... collection action; and (b) Do not exceed $100,000, exclusive of interest, penalties, and administrative...

  6. A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

  7. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  8. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  9. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  10. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  11. 16 CFR 0.5 - Laws authorizing monetary claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 0.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.5 Laws authorizing monetary claims. The Commission is authorized to entertain monetary claims against it under three statutes. The Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680) provides that...

  12. 78 FR 44419 - Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Final Rules on Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustments, 74 FR 31345 (July 1, 2009), amended by... Final Rules on Inflation Adjustments for Civil Monetary Penalties, 70 FR 34633 (June 15, 2005) (``2005... new section 111.24(a)(2)(ii) civil penalty of $65,000. \\8\\ See 2009 Adjustment, 74 FR at 31347. \\9\\...

  13. 10 CFR 15.7 - Monetary limitation on NRC's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monetary limitation on NRC's authority. 15.7 Section 15.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Application and Coverage § 15.7 Monetary limitation on NRC's authority. The NRC's authority to compromise a claim, or to terminate or...

  14. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  15. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  16. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  17. 77 FR 64431 - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1022 Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Rule AGENCY... issuing a final rule to adjust the Board's civil monetary penalties for inflation on a periodic basis pursuant to the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt...

  18. 78 FR 14179 - Adjustments to Civil Monetary Penalty Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Monetary Penalty Amounts, Release No. 33-8530 (Feb. 4, 2005) [70 FR 7606 (Feb. 14, 2005)]. The DCIA... Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule implements the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation... a rule adjusting for inflation the maximum amount of civil monetary penalties under the...

  19. 8 CFR 280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.53 Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  20. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion.

    PubMed

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-04-01

    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional--in particular, fear-related--processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context.

  1. Monetary reward speeds up voluntary saccades

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lewis L.; Chen, Y. Mark; Zhou, Wu; Mustain, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have shown that reward contingency is critical for sensorimotor learning, and reward expectation speeds up saccades in animals. Whether monetary reward speeds up saccades in human remains unknown. Here we addressed this issue by employing a conditional saccade task, in which human subjects performed a series of non-reflexive, visually-guided horizontal saccades. The subjects were (or were not) financially compensated for making a saccade in response to a centrally-displayed visual congruent (or incongruent) stimulus. Reward modulation of saccadic velocities was quantified independently of the amplitude-velocity coupling. We found that reward expectation significantly sped up voluntary saccades up to 30°/s, and the reward modulation was consistent across tests. These findings suggest that monetary reward speeds up saccades in human in a fashion analogous to how juice reward sped up saccades in monkeys. We further noticed that the idiosyncratic nasal-temporal velocity asymmetry was highly consistent regardless of test order, and its magnitude was not correlated with the magnitude of reward modulation. This suggests that reward modulation and the intrinsic velocity asymmetry may be governed by separate mechanisms that regulate saccade generation. PMID:24994970

  2. Optimal monetary policy and oil price shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormilitsina, Anna

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters. In the first chapter, I investigate the role of systematic U.S. monetary policy in the presence of oil price shocks. The second chapter is devoted to studying different approaches to modeling energy demand. In an influential paper, Bernanke, Gertler, and Watson (1997) and (2004) argue that systematic monetary policy exacerbated the recessions the U.S. economy experienced in the aftermath of post World War II oil price shocks. In the first chapter of this dissertation, I critically evaluate this claim in the context of an estimated medium-scale model of the U.S. business cycle. Specifically, I solve for the Ramsey optimal monetary policy in the medium-scale dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model (henceforth DSGE) of Schmitt-Grohe and Uribe (2005). To model the demand for oil, I use the approach of Finn (2000). According to this approach, the utilization of capital services requires oil usage. In the related literature on the macroeconomic effects of oil price shocks, it is common to calibrate structural parameters of the model. In contrast to this literature, I estimate the parameters of my DSGE model. The estimation strategy involves matching the impulse responses from the theoretical model to responses predicted by an empirical model. For estimation, I use the alternative to the classical Laplace type estimator proposed by Chernozhukov and Hong (2003). To obtain the empirical impulse responses, I identify an oil price shock in a structural VAR (SVAR) model of the U.S. business cycle. The SVAR model predicts that, in response to an oil price increase, GDP, investment, hours, capital utilization, and the real wage fall, while the nominal interest rate and inflation rise. These findings are economically intuitive and in line with the existing empirical evidence. Comparing the actual and the Ramsey optimal monetary policy response to an oil price shock, I find that the optimal policy allows for more inflation, a

  3. Developmental exposure to terbutaline and chlorpyrifos: pharmacotherapy of preterm labor and an environmental neurotoxicant converge on serotonergic systems in neonatal rat brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, Justin E.; Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A. . E-mail: t.slotkin@duke.edu

    2005-03-01

    Developmental exposure to unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless produce similar neurobehavioral outcomes. We examined the effects of developmental exposure to terbutaline, a tocolytic {beta}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used organophosphate pesticide, on serotonin (5HT) systems. Treatments were chosen to parallel periods typical of human developmental exposures, terbutaline (10 mg/kg) on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF (5 mg/kg) on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45, comparing each agent alone as well as sequential administration of both. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited similar alterations in factors that are critical to the function of the 5HT synapse: 5HT{sub 1A} receptors, 5HT{sub 2} receptors, and the presynaptic 5HT transporter (5HTT). Either agent elicited global increases in 5HT receptors and the 5HTT in brain regions possessing 5HT cell bodies (midbrain, brainstem) as well as in the hippocampus, which contains 5HT projections. For both terbutaline and CPF, males were affected more than females, although there were some regional disparities in the sex selectivity between the two agents. Both altered 5HT receptor-mediated cell signaling, suppressing stimulatory effects on adenylyl cyclase and enhancing inhibitory effects. When animals were exposed sequentially to both agents, the outcomes were no more than additive and, for many effects, less than additive, suggesting convergence of the two agents on a common set of developmental mechanisms. Our results indicate that 5HT systems represent a target for otherwise unrelated neuroteratogens.

  4. Convergence of controllers designed using state space methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    The convergence of finite dimensional controllers for infinite dimensional systems designed using approximations is examined. Stable coprime factorization theory is used to show that under the standard assumptions of uniform stabilizability/detectability, the controllers stabilize the original system for large enough model order. The controllers converge uniformly to an infinite dimensional controller, as does the closed loop response.

  5. Convergence of gut microbiomes in myrmecophagous mammals.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Song, Se Jin; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob

    2014-03-01

    Mammals have diversified into many dietary niches. Specialized myrmecophagous (ant- and termite-eating) placental mammals represent a textbook example of evolutionary convergence driven by extreme diet specialization. Armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins and aardwolves thus provide a model system for understanding the potential role of gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to myrmecophagy. Here, we expand upon previous mammalian gut microbiome studies by using high-throughput barcoded Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition of gut microbiota in 15 species representing all placental myrmecophagous lineages and their close relatives from zoo- and field-collected samples. We confirm that both diet and phylogeny drive the evolution of mammalian gut microbiota, with cases of convergence in global composition, but also examples of phylogenetic inertia. Our results reveal specialized placental myrmecophages as a spectacular case of large-scale convergence in gut microbiome composition. Indeed, neighbour-net networks and beta-diversity plots based on UniFrac distances show significant clustering of myrmecophagous species (anteaters, aardvarks and aardwolves), even though they belong to phylogenetically distant lineages representing different orders. The aardwolf, which diverged from carnivorous hyenas only in the last 10 million years, experienced a convergent shift in the composition of its gut microbiome to become more similar to other myrmecophages. These results confirm diet adaptation to be a major driving factor of convergence in gut microbiome composition over evolutionary timescales. This study sets the scene for future metagenomic studies aiming at evaluating potential convergence in functional gene content in the microbiomes of specialized mammalian myrmecophages. PMID:24118574

  6. Convergence of gut microbiomes in myrmecophagous mammals.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Song, Se Jin; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob

    2014-03-01

    Mammals have diversified into many dietary niches. Specialized myrmecophagous (ant- and termite-eating) placental mammals represent a textbook example of evolutionary convergence driven by extreme diet specialization. Armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins and aardwolves thus provide a model system for understanding the potential role of gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to myrmecophagy. Here, we expand upon previous mammalian gut microbiome studies by using high-throughput barcoded Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition of gut microbiota in 15 species representing all placental myrmecophagous lineages and their close relatives from zoo- and field-collected samples. We confirm that both diet and phylogeny drive the evolution of mammalian gut microbiota, with cases of convergence in global composition, but also examples of phylogenetic inertia. Our results reveal specialized placental myrmecophages as a spectacular case of large-scale convergence in gut microbiome composition. Indeed, neighbour-net networks and beta-diversity plots based on UniFrac distances show significant clustering of myrmecophagous species (anteaters, aardvarks and aardwolves), even though they belong to phylogenetically distant lineages representing different orders. The aardwolf, which diverged from carnivorous hyenas only in the last 10 million years, experienced a convergent shift in the composition of its gut microbiome to become more similar to other myrmecophages. These results confirm diet adaptation to be a major driving factor of convergence in gut microbiome composition over evolutionary timescales. This study sets the scene for future metagenomic studies aiming at evaluating potential convergence in functional gene content in the microbiomes of specialized mammalian myrmecophages.

  7. India: population: shocking results; monetary incentives.

    PubMed

    Addressing a conference of Parliament members on population and development in New Delhi, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was reported to have informed the gathering that results of India's latest census "shocked us." The census counted a total national population of 683 million. It was 11 million more than officially anticipated. In her speech, Mrs. Gandhi was also reported to have reiterated that her government is totally committed to "voluntary family planning" and "firmly against compulsion." J.R.D. Tata, chairman of the Family Planning Foundation of India, proposed that the government raise monetary incentives for citizens voluntarily opting for vasectomy and tubectomy. He suggested that the present Rs. 200 for vasectomy and tubectomy be upped to Rs. 5000. He made the proposal in a call to the government to increase its outlay for the family planning program. PMID:12337557

  8. Convergent perturbation theory for lattice models with fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonov, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The standard perturbation theory in QFT and lattice models leads to the asymptotic expansions. However, an appropriate regularization of the path or lattice integrals allows one to construct convergent series with an infinite radius of the convergence. In the earlier studies, this approach was applied to the purely bosonic systems. Here, using bosonization, we develop the convergent perturbation theory for a toy lattice model with interacting fermionic and bosonic fields.

  9. Homology, convergence and parallelism.

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Homology is a relation of correspondence between parts of parts of larger wholes. It is used when tracking objects of interest through space and time and in the context of explanatory historical narratives. Homologues can be traced through a genealogical nexus back to a common ancestral precursor. Homology being a transitive relation, homologues remain homologous however much they may come to differ. Analogy is a relationship of correspondence between parts of members of classes having no relationship of common ancestry. Although homology is often treated as an alternative to convergence, the latter is not a kind of correspondence: rather, it is one of a class of processes that also includes divergence and parallelism. These often give rise to misleading appearances (homoplasies). Parallelism can be particularly hard to detect, especially when not accompanied by divergences in some parts of the body. PMID:26598721

  10. 46 CFR 506.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties... MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.4 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a... penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment. Any increase determined...

  11. 46 CFR 506.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties... MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.4 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a... penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment. Any increase determined...

  12. 46 CFR 506.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties... MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.4 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a... penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment. Any increase determined...

  13. 46 CFR 506.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties... MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.4 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a... penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment. Any increase determined...

  14. 46 CFR 506.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties... MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.4 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a... penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment. Any increase determined...

  15. 32 CFR 269.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.4 Cost of living... increasing the maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the...

  16. 32 CFR 269.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.4 Cost of living... increasing the maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the...

  17. 32 CFR 269.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.4 Cost of living... increasing the maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the...

  18. 32 CFR 269.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 269.4 Cost of living... increasing the maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the...

  19. 5 CFR 890.1060 - Purpose and scope of civil monetary penalties and assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope of civil monetary... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Civil Monetary Penalties and Financial Assessments § 890.1060 Purpose and scope of civil monetary penalties and assessments. (a) Civil monetary penalty. A...

  20. Convergence studies in meshfree peridynamic simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seleson, Pablo; Littlewood, David J.

    2016-04-15

    Meshfree methods are commonly applied to discretize peridynamic models, particularly in numerical simulations of engineering problems. Such methods discretize peridynamic bodies using a set of nodes with characteristic volume, leading to particle-based descriptions of systems. In this article, we perform convergence studies of static peridynamic problems. We show that commonly used meshfree methods in peridynamics suffer from accuracy and convergence issues, due to a rough approximation of the contribution to the internal force density of nodes near the boundary of the neighborhood of a given node. We propose two methods to improve meshfree peridynamic simulations. The first method uses accuratemore » computations of volumes of intersections between neighbor cells and the neighborhood of a given node, referred to as partial volumes. The second method employs smooth influence functions with a finite support within peridynamic kernels. Numerical results demonstrate great improvements in accuracy and convergence of peridynamic numerical solutions, when using the proposed methods.« less

  1. Fractal aspects and convergence of Newton`s method

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, M.

    1996-12-31

    Newton`s Method is a widely established iterative algorithm for solving non-linear systems. Its appeal lies in its great simplicity, easy generalization to multiple dimensions and a quadratic local convergence rate. Despite these features, little is known about its global behavior. In this paper, we will explain a seemingly random global convergence pattern using fractal concepts and show that the behavior of the residual is entirely explicable. We will also establish quantitative results for the convergence rates. Knowing the mechanism of fractal generation, we present a stabilization to the orthodox Newton method that remedies the fractal behavior and improves convergence.

  2. Generalized monotonically convergent algorithms for solving quantum optimal control problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Yukiyoshi; Turinici, Gabriel; Rabitz, Herschel

    2004-03-01

    A wide range of cost functionals that describe the criteria for designing optimal pulses can be reduced to two basic functionals by the introduction of product spaces. We extend previous monotonically convergent algorithms to solve the generalized pulse design equations derived from those basic functionals. The new algorithms are proved to exhibit monotonic convergence. Numerical tests are implemented in four-level model systems employing stationary and/or nonstationary targets in the absence and/or presence of relaxation. Trajectory plots that conveniently present the global nature of the convergence behavior show that slow convergence may often be attributed to "trapping" and that relaxation processes may remove such unfavorable behavior.

  3. Generalized monotonically convergent algorithms for solving quantum optimal control problems.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Yukiyoshi; Turinici, Gabriel; Rabitz, Herschel

    2004-03-22

    A wide range of cost functionals that describe the criteria for designing optimal pulses can be reduced to two basic functionals by the introduction of product spaces. We extend previous monotonically convergent algorithms to solve the generalized pulse design equations derived from those basic functionals. The new algorithms are proved to exhibit monotonic convergence. Numerical tests are implemented in four-level model systems employing stationary and/or nonstationary targets in the absence and/or presence of relaxation. Trajectory plots that conveniently present the global nature of the convergence behavior show that slow convergence may often be attributed to "trapping" and that relaxation processes may remove such unfavorable behavior. PMID:15267426

  4. Analyzing convergence and synchronicity of business and growth cycles in the euro area using cross recurrence plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, P. M.

    2008-10-01

    Convergence and synchronisation of business and growth cycles are important issues in the efficient formulation of euro area monetary policy by the European Central Bank (ECB). Although several studies in the economics literature address the issue of synchronicity of growth within the euro area, this is the first study to address this issue using cross recurrence analysis. The main findings are that member state growth rates have largely converged since the introduction of the euro, but there is a wide degree of different synchronisation behaviours which appear to be non-linear in nature. These differences could cause problems in future implementation of a single (ECB-determined)monetary policy in the euro area.

  5. Series that Converge Absolutely but Don't Converge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Robert; Schramm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    If a series of real numbers converges absolutely, then it converges. The usual proof requires completeness in the form of the Cauchy criterion. Failing completeness, the result is false. We provide examples of rational series that illustrate this point. The Cantor set appears in connection with one of the examples.

  6. Convergent flow stove

    SciTech Connect

    Engblom, D.W.

    1986-02-25

    An apparatus for burning combustible solid organic material such as wood is described in a environment in which combustion is directed downwardly. The apparatus consists of: A. A fuel chamber having a closed upper portion and a major dimension in the vertical direction such that the fuel chamber is generally upright, B. A combustion zone in the lower portion of the fuel chamber defined by a convergent outflow passage at the bottom of the fuel chamber and a pair of walls on opposite sides of the lower portion, the walls being sloped inwardly toward one another at the outflow passage, and the outflow passage comprising a gap between the walls, C. A Hearth element forming each the sloping wall, the hearth element including I. At least one row of spaced slots extending into the interior of the hearth element and a lateral air inlet channel connected to the slots of each row and a source of combustion air, and II. A flue outlet communicating with the outflow passage, the flue outlet including spaced, parallel tubes in the hearth element, with the tubes being juxtaposed the slots and extending perpendicular to the air inlet channels, D. Means connected to the flue outlet to permit exhaustion of flue gases from the apparatus, and E. means for loading fuel into the fuel chamber.

  7. Unpleasant odors increase aversion to monetary losses.

    PubMed

    Stancak, Andrej; Xie, Yuxin; Fallon, Nicholas; Bulsing, Patricia; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Pantelous, Athanasios A

    2015-04-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of equal nominal values. Unpleasant odors not only influence affective state but have also been shown to activate brain regions similar to those mediating loss aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized a stronger loss aversion in a monetary gamble task if gambles were associated with an unpleasant as opposed to pleasant odor. In thirty human subjects, unpleasant (methylmercaptan), pleasant (jasmine), and neutral (clean air) odors were presented for 4 s. At the same time, uncertain gambles offering an equal chance of gain or loss of a variable amount of money, or a prospect of an assured win were displayed. One hundred different gambles were presented three times, each time paired with a different odor. Loss aversion, risk aversion, and logit sensitivity were evaluated using non-linear fitting of individual gamble decisions. Loss aversion was larger when prospects were displayed in the presence of methylmercaptan compared to jasmine or clean air. Moreover, individual differences in changes in loss aversion to the unpleasant as compared to pleasant odor correlated with odor pleasantness but not with odor intensity. Skin conductance responses to losses during the outcome period were larger when gambles were associated with methylmercaptan compared to jasmine. Increased loss aversion while perceiving an unpleasant odor suggests a dynamic adjustment of loss aversion toward greater sensitivity to losses. Given that odors are biological signals of hazards, such adjustment of loss aversion may have adaptive value in situations entailing threat or danger. PMID:25711689

  8. The Convergence of European Business Cycles 1980--2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, P.

    2005-09-01

    The degree of convergence of the business cycles of the economies of the European Union is a key policy issue. In particular, a substantial degree of convergence is needed if the European Central Bank is to be capable of setting a monetary policy which is appropriate to the stage of the cycle of the Euro zone economies. I consider the annual rates of real GDP growth on a quarterly basis in the main economies of the EU (France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands) over the period 1980Q1--2004Q4. An important empirical question is the degree to which the correlations between these growth rates contain true information rather than noise. The technique of random matrix theory is able to answer this question, and has been applied successfully in the physics journals to financial markets data. I find that the correlations between the growth rates of most of the core EU economies contain substantial amounts of true information, and exhibit considerable stability over time. Even in the late 1970s and early 1980s, these economies moved together closely over the course of the business cycle. There was a slight loosening at the time of German re-unification, but the economies have moved back into close synchronisation. The same result holds when Spain is added to the group of core EU countries. However, the problems of the German economy which arose from the early 1990s onwards has led to Germany becoming increasingly less synchronised with the rest of the core EU. Further, the results obtained with a data set of the converged EU core plus the UK show no real convergence between the UK and this group of economies.

  9. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  10. Why does continental convergence stop

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, A.

    1985-01-01

    Convergence between India and Asia slowed at 45 Ma when they collided, but continues today. This requires that substantial proportions of the Indian and/or Asian lithospheric mantle are still being subducted. The resulting slab-pull is probably comparable with that from complete lithospheric slabs and may promote continued continental convergence even after collision. Since descending lithospheric slabs are present at all collision zones at the time of collision such continued convergence may be general after continental collisions. It may cease only when there is a major (global) plate reorganization which results in new forces on the convergent continents that may counteract the slab-pull. These inferences may be tested on the late Paleozoic collision between Gondwanaland and Laurasia. This is generally considered to have been complete by mid-Permian time (250 Ma). However, this may be only the time of docking of Gondwanaland with North America, not that of the cessation of convergence. Paleomagnetic polar-wander paths for the Gondwanide continents exhibit consistently greater latitudinal shifts from 250 Ma to 200 Ma than those of Laurasia when corrected for post-Triassic drift, suggesting that convergence continued through late Permian well into the Triassic. It may have been accommodated by crustal thickening under what is now the US Coastal Plain, or by strike-slip faulting. Convergence may have ceased only when Pangea began to fragment again, in which case the cause for its cessation may be related to the cause of continental fragmentation.

  11. Convergence insufficiency and vision therapy.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Mary Lou

    2014-06-01

    There is no standard meaning of the term "vision therapy", and for this reason it is often a controversial topic between some members of the ophthalmic and optometric community. Most pediatric ophthalmologists avoid using the term because it is nonspecific. Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a binocular visual problem that causes problems and symptoms with near fixation. There is consensus among eye care professionals that convergence therapy is effective in treating CI. Convergence therapy is not effective in treating learning disabilities, but can sometimes relieve symptoms that might be a barrier to reading.

  12. Heterogeneous Responses of Chinese Cities' Housing Prices to Monetary Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Yan-Ting; Zhu, Xiao-Wu

    2011-10-01

    This works examine the responses of housing prices to the monetary policies in various Chinese cities. Thirty-five large and medium sized Chinese cities are classified into six clusters applying the minimum variance clustering method according to the calculated correlation coefficients between the housing price indices of every two cities. Time difference correlation analysis is then employed to quantify the relations between the housing price indices of the six clusters and the monetary policies. It is suggested that the housing prices of various cities evolved at different paces and their responses to the monetary policies are heterogeneous, and local economic features are more important than geographic distances in determining the housing price trends.

  13. Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.

  14. Long-range dependence in interest rates and monetary policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    This Letter studies the dynamics of Brazilian interest rates for short-term maturities. The Letter employs developed techniques in the econophysics literature and tests for long-range dependence in the term structure of these interest rates for the last decade. Empirical results suggest that the degree of long-range dependence has changed over time due to changes in monetary policy, specially in the short-end of the term structure of interest rates. Therefore, we show that it is possible to identify monetary arrangements using these techniques from econophysics.

  15. Adaptive control: Stability, convergence, and robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Shankar; Bodson, Marc

    1989-01-01

    The deterministic theory of adaptive control (AC) is presented in an introduction for graduate students and practicing engineers. Chapters are devoted to basic AC approaches, notation and fundamental theorems, the identification problem, model-reference AC, parameter convergence using averaging techniques, and AC robustness. Consideration is given to the use of prior information, the global stability of indirect AC schemes, multivariable AC, linearizing AC for a class of nonlinear systems, AC of linearizable minimum-phase systems, and MIMO systems decouplable by static state feedback.

  16. Heterotic quantum and classical computing on convergence spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, D. R.; Jakel, D. W.; Irwin, R. J.; Blair, H. A.

    2015-05-01

    Category-theoretic characterizations of heterotic models of computation, introduced by Stepney et al., combine computational models such as classical/quantum, digital/analog, synchronous/asynchronous, etc. to obtain increased computational power. A highly informative classical/quantum heterotic model of computation is represented by Abramsky's simple sequential imperative quantum programming language which extends the classical simple imperative programming language to encompass quantum computation. The mathematical (denotational) semantics of this classical language serves as a basic foundation upon which formal verification methods can be developed. We present a more comprehensive heterotic classical/quantum model of computation based on heterotic dynamical systems on convergence spaces. Convergence spaces subsume topological spaces but admit finer structure from which, in prior work, we obtained differential calculi in the cartesian closed category of convergence spaces allowing us to define heterotic dynamical systems, given by coupled systems of first order differential equations whose variables are functions from the reals to convergence spaces.

  17. Convergence, Degeneracy, and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the neural representation and control of language in normal bilingual speakers provides insights into the factors that constrain the acquisition of another language, insights into the nature of language expertise, and an understanding of the brain as an adaptive system. We illustrate both functional and structural brain changes…

  18. Vikings converge on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The scientific goals of the Viking mission are described. The science investigations to be carried out are explained and a timetable of planetary operations is outlined. Descriptions of the Viking orbiter and lander systems are presented including explanations of the Viking experimental instrument subsystems.

  19. 14 CFR 13.305 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Inflation Adjustment § 13.305 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a) Except for the... and maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment... penalties greater than $200,000. (b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the term...

  20. 14 CFR 13.305 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Inflation Adjustment § 13.305 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a) Except for the... and maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment... penalties greater than $200,000. (b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the term...

  1. 14 CFR 13.305 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Inflation Adjustment § 13.305 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a) Except for the... and maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment... penalties greater than $200,000. (b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the term...

  2. 14 CFR 13.305 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Inflation Adjustment § 13.305 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a) Except for the... and maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment... penalties greater than $200,000. (b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the term...

  3. 14 CFR 13.305 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Inflation Adjustment § 13.305 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a) Except for the... and maximum civil monetary penalty for each civil monetary penalty by the cost-of-living adjustment... penalties greater than $200,000. (b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the term...

  4. 49 CFR 1022.4 - Cost-of-living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments of civil monetary... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 1022.4 Cost-of-living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a) Pursuant... determined by multiplying the Cost-of-Living Adjustment by the existing maximum civil monetary...

  5. 49 CFR 1022.4 - Cost-of-living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments of civil monetary... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 1022.4 Cost-of-living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a) Pursuant... determined by multiplying the Cost-of-Living Adjustment by the existing maximum civil monetary...

  6. It's Not Your Mother and Father's Monetary Policy Anymore: The Federal Reserve and Financial Crisis Relief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Andrew T.; Wood, William C.

    2011-01-01

    The recent financial crisis brought about dramatic changes in the way that the Federal Reserve, the nation's central bank, conducts monetary policy. One challenge for high school educators going forward will be to strike a balance between the teaching of traditional monetary policy and the teaching of the monetary policy used during these…

  7. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts... monetary penalty amounts. This section makes inflation adjustments in the dollar amounts of civil monetary...)(2)—$110; (k) Section 333(a) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42 U.S.C. 6303(a)—$110;...

  8. 77 FR 47070 - Withdrawal of the Commission Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...'n, Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases, 68 FR 45,820 (Aug. 4, 2003.... Trade Comm'n, Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases, 68 FR 45,820 (Aug. 4... Withdrawal of the Commission Policy Statement on Monetary Equitable Remedies in Competition Cases...

  9. 25 CFR 162.424 - Must a business lease specify who receives monetary compensation payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Must a business lease specify who receives monetary... LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Business Leases Monetary Compensation Requirements § 162.424 Must a business lease specify who receives monetary compensation payments? (a) A business lease must...

  10. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Table IV to Subpart E U.S. Code citation Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustments Civil monetary penalty description...

  11. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Table IV to Subpart E U.S. Code citation Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustments Civil monetary penalty description...

  12. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Table IV to Subpart E U.S. Code citation Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustments Civil monetary penalty description...

  13. Convergent Creativity: From Arthur Cropley (1935-) Onwards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ai-Girl

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Cropley's view on convergent thinking is reviewed, with reflections on the relations of divergent and convergent processes and the roles of knowledge and convergent creativity. While divergence is about considering and generating multiplicity, possibility, difference, originality, and so on; convergence is about relating, associating,…

  14. IS THERE CONVERGENCE ACROSS COUNTRIES? A SPATIAL APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Heather; Guillen, Mauro F.; Hendi, Arun S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze convergence across countries over the last half century as a result of globalizing forces. Drawing on theories of modernization, dependency, the world-system, political trade blocs, and the world-society, we consider economic, demographic, knowledge, financial, and political dimensions of convergence. Using a new methodology, we calculate the minimum volume ellipsoid encompassing different groupings of countries, finding that during the 1960–2009 period, countries have not evolved significantly closer or similar to one another, although groups of countries based on their core-periphery status or membership in trade blocs exhibit increasing internal convergence and divergence between one another. PMID:25580035

  15. Convergence, degeneracy and control

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Crinion, J.; Price, Cathy J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the neural representation and control of language in normal bilingual speakers provides insights into the factors that constrain the acquisition of another language, insights into the nature of language expertise and an understanding of the brain as an adaptive system. We illustrate both functional and structural brain changes associated with acquiring other languages and discuss the value of neuroimaging data in identifying individual differences and different phenotypes. Understanding normal variety is vital too if we are to understand the consequences of brain-damage in bilingual and polyglot speakers. PMID:18273402

  16. Convergence, degeneracy and control.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Crinion, J; Price, Cathy J

    2006-07-01

    Understanding the neural representation and control of language in normal bilingual speakers provides insights into the factors that constrain the acquisition of another language, insights into the nature of language expertise and an understanding of the brain as an adaptive system. We illustrate both functional and structural brain changes associated with acquiring other languages and discuss the value of neuroimaging data in identifying individual differences and different phenotypes. Understanding normal variety is vital too if we are to understand the consequences of brain-damage in bilingual and polyglot speakers. PMID:18273402

  17. Monetary Policy at Work: Lessons from the FOMC Transcripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Roger W.

    1996-01-01

    Utilizes Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) transcripts to reveal how the Federal Reserve shapes monetary policy. Analysis of the documents shows the Committee examining a wide variety of indicators and approaches in an attempt to determine the appropriate time for a policy change. Inflationary pressures were a preeminent concern. (MJP)

  18. The BMW Model: A New Framework for Teaching Monetary Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Although the IS/LM-AS/AD model is still the central tool of macroeconomic teaching in most macroeconomic textbooks, it has been criticized by several economists. Colander (1995) demonstrated that the framework is logically inconsistent, Romer (2000) showed that it is unable to deal with a monetary policy that uses the interest rate as its…

  19. The Disparate Labor Market Impacts of Monetary Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Seth B.; Rodgers, William M., III

    2004-01-01

    Employing two widely used approaches to identify the effects of monetary policy, this paper explores the differential impact of policy on the labor market outcomes of teenagers, minorities, out-of-school youth, and less-skilled individuals. Evidence from recursive vector autoregressions and autoregressive distributed lag models that use…

  20. The Monetary Rewards of Migration Within the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard F., II

    This study focuses on the economic benefits derived by the migrant from migration. The report presents a methodology for computing monetary benefits, an estimate of these benefits, and implications of the findings for public policy. Included are a discussion of domestic migration and public policy, an economic theory of migration, an explanation…

  1. Exploring a Monetary Union among Nations through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goma, Ophelia D.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a classroom project that employs various techniques of active learning including role-playing, collaborative group work and writing. The project explores the recent creation of the European Monetary Union (EMU) with special emphasis on the introduction of the euro. The project assumes that the Americas have begun preliminary…

  2. 75 FR 17555 - Department of Agriculture Civil Monetary Penalties Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... (62 FR 40924). USDA published its second round of inflation adjustments in the Federal Register on May 24, 2005, and those adjustments became effective on June 23, 2005 (70 FR 29573). All USDA CMP... civil monetary penalties required by the Act'' (62 FR 40924; July 31, 1997). USDA continues to...

  3. Intelligence moderates neural responses to monetary reward and punishment

    PubMed Central

    DeYoung, Colin G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    The relations between intelligence (IQ) and neural responses to monetary gains and losses were investigated in a simple decision task. In 94 healthy adults, typical responses of striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal after monetary reward and punishment were weaker for subjects with higher IQ. IQ-moderated differential responses to gains and losses were also found for regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior frontal cortex. These regions have previously been identified with the subjective utility of monetary outcomes. Analysis of subjects' behavior revealed a correlation between IQ and the extent to which choices were related to experienced decision outcomes in preceding trials. Specifically, higher IQ predicted behavior to be more strongly correlated with an extended period of previously experienced decision outcomes, whereas lower IQ predicted behavior to be correlated exclusively to the most recent decision outcomes. We link these behavioral and imaging findings to a theoretical model capable of describing a role for intelligence during the evaluation of rewards generated by unknown probabilistic processes. Our results demonstrate neural differences in how people of different intelligence respond to experienced monetary rewards and punishments. Our theoretical discussion offers a functional description for how these individual differences may be linked to choice behavior. Together, our results and model support the hypothesis that observed correlations between intelligence and preferences may be rooted in the way decision outcomes are experienced ex post, rather than deriving exclusively from how choices are evaluated ex ante. PMID:24523519

  4. The Valuation of Non-Monetary Consumption in Household Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Many social indicators are based on household consumption information. The valuation of non-monetary operations is crucial for the analysis of consumption surveys in developing countries because of the importance of own-consumption and transfers in kind. What are the price statistics used in the valuation of consumption indicators? How is the…

  5. 78 FR 5760 - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 326 RIN 0710-AA66 Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation... Engineers (Corps) is proposing to amend its regulations to adjust its Class I civil penalties under the... civil penalties to account for inflation is required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation...

  6. Intelligence moderates neural responses to monetary reward and punishment.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Daniel R; DeYoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    The relations between intelligence (IQ) and neural responses to monetary gains and losses were investigated in a simple decision task. In 94 healthy adults, typical responses of striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal after monetary reward and punishment were weaker for subjects with higher IQ. IQ-moderated differential responses to gains and losses were also found for regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior frontal cortex. These regions have previously been identified with the subjective utility of monetary outcomes. Analysis of subjects' behavior revealed a correlation between IQ and the extent to which choices were related to experienced decision outcomes in preceding trials. Specifically, higher IQ predicted behavior to be more strongly correlated with an extended period of previously experienced decision outcomes, whereas lower IQ predicted behavior to be correlated exclusively to the most recent decision outcomes. We link these behavioral and imaging findings to a theoretical model capable of describing a role for intelligence during the evaluation of rewards generated by unknown probabilistic processes. Our results demonstrate neural differences in how people of different intelligence respond to experienced monetary rewards and punishments. Our theoretical discussion offers a functional description for how these individual differences may be linked to choice behavior. Together, our results and model support the hypothesis that observed correlations between intelligence and preferences may be rooted in the way decision outcomes are experienced ex post, rather than deriving exclusively from how choices are evaluated ex ante. PMID:24523519

  7. Intelligence moderates neural responses to monetary reward and punishment.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Daniel R; DeYoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    The relations between intelligence (IQ) and neural responses to monetary gains and losses were investigated in a simple decision task. In 94 healthy adults, typical responses of striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal after monetary reward and punishment were weaker for subjects with higher IQ. IQ-moderated differential responses to gains and losses were also found for regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior frontal cortex. These regions have previously been identified with the subjective utility of monetary outcomes. Analysis of subjects' behavior revealed a correlation between IQ and the extent to which choices were related to experienced decision outcomes in preceding trials. Specifically, higher IQ predicted behavior to be more strongly correlated with an extended period of previously experienced decision outcomes, whereas lower IQ predicted behavior to be correlated exclusively to the most recent decision outcomes. We link these behavioral and imaging findings to a theoretical model capable of describing a role for intelligence during the evaluation of rewards generated by unknown probabilistic processes. Our results demonstrate neural differences in how people of different intelligence respond to experienced monetary rewards and punishments. Our theoretical discussion offers a functional description for how these individual differences may be linked to choice behavior. Together, our results and model support the hypothesis that observed correlations between intelligence and preferences may be rooted in the way decision outcomes are experienced ex post, rather than deriving exclusively from how choices are evaluated ex ante.

  8. 26 CFR 1.6038A-4 - Monetary penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monetary penalty. 1.6038A-4 Section 1.6038A-4... maintaining records under section 6038A if the taxpayer has a reasonable belief that it is not owned by a 25... know that it is owned by a 25-percent foreign shareholder. For example, a reporting corporation...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6038A-4 - Monetary penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monetary penalty. 1.6038A-4 Section 1.6038A-4... maintaining records under section 6038A if the taxpayer has a reasonable belief that it is not owned by a 25... know that it is owned by a 25-percent foreign shareholder. For example, a reporting corporation...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6038A-4 - Monetary penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monetary penalty. 1.6038A-4 Section 1.6038A-4... maintaining records under section 6038A if the taxpayer has a reasonable belief that it is not owned by a 25... know that it is owned by a 25-percent foreign shareholder. For example, a reporting corporation...

  11. 8 CFR 1280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-410, 104 Stat. 890, as amended by the...

  12. 8 CFR 1280.53 - Civil monetary penalties inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil monetary penalties inflation... penalties inflation adjustment. (a) In general. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-410, 104 Stat. 890, as amended by the...

  13. Crenulative Turbulence in a Converging Nonhomogeneous Material

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    Crenulative turbulence is a nonlinear extension of the Bell-Plesset instability, usually observed in a converging system in which there is a nonhomogeneous response of stress to strain and/or strain rate. In general, crenelation occurs in any circumstance in which the mean flow streamlines converge the material more strongly than the compressibility can accommodate. Elements of the material slip past each other, resulting in local fluctuations in velocity from that of the mean flow, producing a type of turbulence that is more kinematic than inertial. For a homogeneous material, crenelation occurs at the atomic or molecular scale. With nonhomogeneous stress response at larger scales, the crenulative process can also occur at those larger scales. The results are manifested by a decrease in the rate of dissipation to heat, and by the configurationally-irreversible mixing of nonhomogeneities across any mean-flow-transported interface. We obtain a mathematical description of the crenulative process by means of Reynolds decomposition of the appropriate variables, and the derivation of transport equations for the second-order moments that arise in the mean-flow momentum and energy equations. The theory is illustrated by application to the spherical convergence of an incompressible fluid with nonhomogeneous distribution of kinematic viscosity.

  14. Scaling up global social health protection: prerequisite reforms to the International Monetary Fund.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    People living in low-income countries require protection from the economic and social impacts of global economic competition, yet, historically, the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) fiscal austerity programs have weakened the potential for redistribution both within poor countries and between rich and poor countries. The current development paradigm's focus on "sustainability" is an obstacle to developing systems of global social protection and an impediment to future progress. Reforming IMF policy conditionality and democratizing the IMF's decision-making processes will be necessary for offsetting growing inequalities in health financing among poor nations. PMID:19927417

  15. The benefits of convergence.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gee-Kung; Cheng, Lin

    2016-03-01

    A multi-tier radio access network (RAN) combining the strength of fibre-optic and radio access technologies employing adaptive microwave photonics interfaces and radio-over-fibre (RoF) techniques is envisioned for future heterogeneous wireless communications. All-band radio spectrum from 0.1 to 100 GHz will be used to deliver wireless services with high capacity, high link speed and low latency. The multi-tier RAN will improve the cell-edge performance in an integrated heterogeneous environment enabled by fibre-wireless integration and networking for mobile fronthaul/backhaul, resource sharing and all-layer centralization of multiple standards with different frequency bands and modulation formats. In essence, this is a 'no-more-cells' architecture in which carrier aggregation among multiple frequency bands can be easily achieved with seamless handover between cells. In this way, current and future mobile network standards such as 4G and 5G can coexist with optimized and continuous cell coverage using multi-tier RoF regardless of the underlying network topology or protocol. In terms of users' experience, the future-proof approach achieves the goals of system capacity, link speed, latency and continuous heterogeneous cell coverage while overcoming the bandwidth crunch in next-generation communication networks. PMID:26809570

  16. Convergence of a Catalan Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.

  17. Strong convergence and convergence rates of approximating solutions for algebraic Riccati equations in Hilbert spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, Kazufumi

    1987-01-01

    The linear quadratic optimal control problem on infinite time interval for linear time-invariant systems defined on Hilbert spaces is considered. The optimal control is given by a feedback form in terms of solution pi to the associated algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). A Ritz type approximation is used to obtain a sequence pi sup N of finite dimensional approximations of the solution to ARE. A sufficient condition that shows pi sup N converges strongly to pi is obtained. Under this condition, a formula is derived which can be used to obtain a rate of convergence of pi sup N to pi. The results of the Galerkin approximation is demonstrated and applied for parabolic systems and the averaging approximation for hereditary differential systems.

  18. International Convergence on Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arctur, D. K.; Cox, S.; Jackson, I.; Nativi, S.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is growing international consensus on addressing the challenges to cyber(e)-infrastructure for the geosciences. These challenges include: Creating common standards and protocols; Engaging the vast number of distributed data resources; Establishing practices for recognition of and respect for intellectual property; Developing simple data and resource discovery and access systems; Building mechanisms to encourage development of web service tools and workflows for data analysis; Brokering the diverse disciplinary service buses; Creating sustainable business models for maintenance and evolution of information resources; Integrating the data management life-cycle into the practice of science. Efforts around the world are converging towards de facto creation of an integrated global digital data network for the geosciences based on common standards and protocols for data discovery and access, and a shared vision of distributed, web-based, open source interoperable data access and integration. Commonalities include use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO specifications and standardized data interchange mechanisms. For multidisciplinarity, mediation, adaptation, and profiling services have been successfully introduced to leverage the geosciences standards which are commonly used by the different geoscience communities -introducing a brokering approach which extends the basic SOA archetype. Principal challenges are less technical than cultural, social, and organizational. Before we can make data interoperable, we must make people interoperable. These challenges are being met by increased coordination of development activities (technical, organizational, social) among leaders and practitioners in national and international efforts across the geosciences to foster commonalities across disparate networks. In doing so, we will 1) leverage and share resources, and developments, 2) facilitate and enhance emerging technical and structural advances, 3) promote

  19. Physician integration revisited-An exploratory study of monetary and professional incentives in three countries.

    PubMed

    Janus, Katharina; Brown, Lawrence D

    2014-10-01

    Discussions - and definitions - of "integration" in health services and systems are abundant, but little is known about the inducements that organizational leaders use to win the support of physicians within integrated systems. This paper, drawing on a qualitative exploratory survey of sources within 151 integrated care organizations in three nations (the U.S., England, and Germany), explores the mix of monetary and professional inducements these organizations employ to attract and retain physicians. The organizations we sampled do not rely exclusively, and seldom preponderantly, on selective monetary incentives, but rather employ a composite portfolio of the two types. These inducements appear with remarkable consistency at the "micro" level of organizations in our three nations, notwithstanding the marked differences in their "macro" health systemic contexts. Since public policy sets the framework for the design of inducements and individual organizations are in charge of their implementation, our findings call for closer attention to the big motivational picture, and especially to the importance of professional considerations within it, if healthcare organizations hope to deploy effectively the whole spectrum of available incentives for physician-organization integration in the future.

  20. Physician integration revisited-An exploratory study of monetary and professional incentives in three countries.

    PubMed

    Janus, Katharina; Brown, Lawrence D

    2014-10-01

    Discussions - and definitions - of "integration" in health services and systems are abundant, but little is known about the inducements that organizational leaders use to win the support of physicians within integrated systems. This paper, drawing on a qualitative exploratory survey of sources within 151 integrated care organizations in three nations (the U.S., England, and Germany), explores the mix of monetary and professional inducements these organizations employ to attract and retain physicians. The organizations we sampled do not rely exclusively, and seldom preponderantly, on selective monetary incentives, but rather employ a composite portfolio of the two types. These inducements appear with remarkable consistency at the "micro" level of organizations in our three nations, notwithstanding the marked differences in their "macro" health systemic contexts. Since public policy sets the framework for the design of inducements and individual organizations are in charge of their implementation, our findings call for closer attention to the big motivational picture, and especially to the importance of professional considerations within it, if healthcare organizations hope to deploy effectively the whole spectrum of available incentives for physician-organization integration in the future. PMID:25190050

  1. Single European currency and Monetary Union. Macroeconomic implications for pharmaceutical spending.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, P

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the potential implications of introducing a single currency among the Member States of the European Union for national pharmaceutical prices and spending. In doing so, it provides a brief account of the direct effects of introducing a single currency on pharmaceutical business. These are static in nature and include the elimination of exchange rate volatility and transaction costs, increased price transparency and limited potential for parallel trade. It subsequently analyses the potential medium and long term macroeconomic policy choices facing the Member States and their impact on pharmaceutical spending following the introduction of a single currency. These include policy directions in order to meet the Maastricht convergence criteria in the run-up to forming an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the implications of EMU on national macroeconomic policy thereafter. This article argues that the necessity for tight fiscal policies across the EU and, in particular, in those Member States facing high budget deficits and overall debt levels, will continue to exert considerable downward pressure on pharmaceutical spending. PMID:10175989

  2. Concept Convergence in Empirical Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontañón, Santiago; Plaza, Enric

    How to achieve shared meaning is a significant issue when more than one intelligent agent is involved in the same domain. We define the task of concept convergence, by which intelligent agents can achieve a shared, agreed-upon meaning of a concept (restricted to empirical domains). For this purpose we present a framework that, integrating computational argumentation and inductive concept learning, allows a pair of agents to (1) learn a concept in an empirical domain, (2) argue about the concept's meaning, and (3) reach a shared agreed-upon concept definition. We apply this framework to marine sponges, a biological domain where the actual definitions of concepts such as orders, families and species are currently open to discussion. An experimental evaluation on marine sponges shows that concept convergence is achieved, within a reasonable number of interchanged arguments, and reaching short and accurate definitions (with respect to precision and recall).

  3. Rainfall Morphology in Semi-Tropical Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Ferrier, Brad S.; Ray, Peter S.

    2000-01-01

    present in Florida. A likely consequence of the variability in 850-500 moisture is a stronger statistical correlation to rainfall, which observational studies have noted. The study indicates that vertical moisture flux forcing at convergence zones is critical in determining rainfall in the initial stage of development but plays a decreasing role in rainfall evolution as the system matures. The mid-tropospheric moisture (e.g. environment) plays an increasing role in rainfall evolution as the system matures. This suggests the need to improve measurements of magnitude/depth of convergence and mid-tropospheric moisture distribution. It also highlights the need for better parameterization of entrainment and vertical moisture distribution in larger-scale models.

  4. Allowing for heterogeneity in monetary subjective well-being valuations.

    PubMed

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil

    2011-03-01

    Recent research on 'happiness' regression equations has shown how monetary values can be put on the well-being effects of many life events (like health problems, marriage or the death of a spouse). Potentially, such work has practical implications for policy-makers and the courts. However, this article argues that we need to be careful in such work to use the appropriate statistical method. It goes beyond previous research and allows for heterogeneity in the subjective well-being scales. Using less restrictive models than the current literature, the article argues that standard linear or ordered response models seem consistently to overstate valuations. With data from the UK, it provides new monetary estimates of the well-being consequences of a number of health problems, social capital indicators, marital status changes and social relationships.

  5. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive.

  6. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive. PMID:26549151

  7. Convergence and Rate Analysis of Neural Networks for Sparse Approximation

    PubMed Central

    Balavoine, Aurèle; Romberg, Justin; Rozell, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Locally Competitive Algotihm (LCA), which is a Hopfield-style neural network that efficiently solves sparse approximation problems (e.g., approximating a vector from a dictionary using just a few nonzero coefficients). This class of problems plays a significant role in both theories of neural coding and applications in signal processing. However, the LCA lacks analysis of its convergence properties, and previous results on neural networks for nonsmooth optimization do not apply to the specifics of the LCA architecture. We show that the LCA has desirable convergence properties, such as stability and global convergence to the optimum of the objective function when it is unique. Under some mild conditions, the support of the solution is also proven to be reached in finite time. Furthermore, some restrictions on the problem specifics allow us to characterize the convergence rate of the system by showing that the LCA converges exponentially fast with an analytically bounded convergence rate. We support our analysis with several illustrative simulations. PMID:24199030

  8. Convergence and rate analysis of neural networks for sparse approximation.

    PubMed

    Balavoine, Aurèle; Romberg, Justin; Rozell, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    We present an analysis of the Locally Competitive Algorithm (LCA), which is a Hopfield-style neural network that efficiently solves sparse approximation problems (e.g., approximating a vector from a dictionary using just a few nonzero coefficients). This class of problems plays a significant role in both theories of neural coding and applications in signal processing. However, the LCA lacks analysis of its convergence properties, and previous results on neural networks for nonsmooth optimization do not apply to the specifics of the LCA architecture. We show that the LCA has desirable convergence properties, such as stability and global convergence to the optimum of the objective function when it is unique. Under some mild conditions, the support of the solution is also proven to be reached in finite time. Furthermore, some restrictions on the problem specifics allow us to characterize the convergence rate of the system by showing that the LCA converges exponentially fast with an analytically bounded convergence rate. We support our analysis with several illustrative simulations.

  9. Numerical Optimization of converging diverging miniature cavitating nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, Kanchan; Bhingole, B.; Raut, J.; Pandit, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    The work focuses on the numerical optimization of converging diverging cavitating nozzles through nozzle dimensions and wall shape. The objective is to develop design rules for the geometry of cavitating nozzles for desired end-use. Two main aspects of nozzle design which affects the cavitation have been studied i.e. end dimensions of the geometry (i.e. angle and/or curvature of the inlet, outlet and the throat and the lengths of the converging and diverging sections) and wall curvatures(concave or convex). Angle of convergence at the inlet was found to control the cavity growth whereas angle of divergence of the exit controls the collapse of cavity. CFD simulations were carried out for the straight line converging and diverging sections by varying converging and diverging angles to study its effect on the collapse pressure generated by the cavity. Optimized geometry configurations were obtained on the basis of maximum Cavitational Efficacy Ratio (CER)i.e. cavity collapse pressure generated for a given permanent pressure drop across the system. With increasing capabilities in machining and fabrication, it is possible to exploit the effect of wall curvature to create nozzles with further increase in the CER. Effect of wall curvature has been studied for the straight, concave and convex shapes. Curvature has been varied and effect of concave and convex wall curvatures vis-à-vis straight walls studied for fixed converging and diverging angles.It is concluded that concave converging-diverging nozzles with converging angle of 20° and diverging angle of 5° with the radius of curvature 0.03 m and 0.1530 m respectively gives maximum CER. Preliminary experiments using optimized geometry are indicating similar trends and are currently being carried out. Refinements of the CFD technique using two phase flow simulations are planned.

  10. "Nanoselves": NBIC and the Culture of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesan, Priya

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this essay is NBIC convergence (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science convergence). NBIC convergence is a recurring trope that is dominated by the paradigm of integration of the sciences. It is largely influenced by the considerations of social and economic impact, and it assumes positivism in…

  11. The Monetary Burden of Cystic Echinococcosis in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Budke, Christine M.; Rostami, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally distributed parasitic infection of humans and livestock. The disease is of significant medical and economic importance in many developing countries, including Iran. However, the socioeconomic impact of the disease, in most endemic countries, is not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the monetary burden of CE in Iran. Epidemiological data, including prevalence and incidence of CE in humans and animals, were obtained from regional hospitals, the scientific literature, and official government reports. Economic data relating to human and animal disease, including cost of treatment, productivity losses, and livestock production losses were obtained from official national and international datasets. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to represent uncertainty in input parameters. Mean number of surgical CE cases per year for 2000–2009 was estimated at 1,295. The number of asymptomatic individuals living in the country was estimated at 635,232 (95% Credible Interval, CI 149,466–1,120,998). The overall annual cost of CE in Iran was estimated at US$232.3 million (95% CI US$103.1–397.8 million), including both direct and indirect costs. The cost associated with human CE was estimated at US$93.39 million (95% CI US$6.1–222.7 million) and the annual cost associated with CE in livestock was estimated at US$132 million (95% CI US$61.8–246.5 million). The cost per surgical human case was estimated at US$1,539. CE has a considerable economic impact on Iran, with the cost of the disease approximated at 0.03% of the country's gross domestic product. Establishment of a CE surveillance system and implementation of a control program are necessary to reduce the economic burden of CE on the country. Cost-benefit analysis of different control programs is recommended, incorporating present knowledge of the economic losses due to CE in Iran. PMID:23209857

  12. Modulation of spatial attention by goals, statistical learning, and monetary reward.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Sha, Li Z; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    This study documented the relative strength of task goals, visual statistical learning, and monetary reward in guiding spatial attention. Using a difficult T-among-L search task, we cued spatial attention to one visual quadrant by (i) instructing people to prioritize it (goal-driven attention), (ii) placing the target frequently there (location probability learning), or (iii) associating that quadrant with greater monetary gain (reward-based attention). Results showed that successful goal-driven attention exerted the strongest influence on search RT. Incidental location probability learning yielded a smaller though still robust effect. Incidental reward learning produced negligible guidance for spatial attention. The 95 % confidence intervals of the three effects were largely nonoverlapping. To understand these results, we simulated the role of location repetition priming in probability cuing and reward learning. Repetition priming underestimated the strength of location probability cuing, suggesting that probability cuing involved long-term statistical learning of how to shift attention. Repetition priming provided a reasonable account for the negligible effect of reward on spatial attention. We propose a multiple-systems view of spatial attention that includes task goals, search habit, and priming as primary drivers of top-down attention.

  13. Modulation of spatial attention by goals, statistical learning, and monetary reward

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Li Z.; Remington, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    This study documented the relative strength of task goals, visual statistical learning, and monetary reward in guiding spatial attention. Using a difficult T-among-L search task, we cued spatial attention to one visual quadrant by (i) instructing people to prioritize it (goal-driven attention), (ii) placing the target frequently there (location probability learning), or (iii) associating that quadrant with greater monetary gain (reward-based attention). Results showed that successful goal-driven attention exerted the strongest influence on search RT. Incidental location probability learning yielded a smaller though still robust effect. Incidental reward learning produced negligible guidance for spatial attention. The 95 % confidence intervals of the three effects were largely nonoverlapping. To understand these results, we simulated the role of location repetition priming in probability cuing and reward learning. Repetition priming underestimated the strength of location probability cuing, suggesting that probability cuing involved long-term statistical learning of how to shift attention. Repetition priming provided a reasonable account for the negligible effect of reward on spatial attention. We propose a multiple-systems view of spatial attention that includes task goals, search habit, and priming as primary drivers of top-down attention. PMID:26105657

  14. The convergence of health care financing structures: empirical evidence from OECD-countries.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Andrea M; Theurl, Engelbert

    2012-02-01

    The convergence/divergence of health care systems between countries is an interesting facet of the health care system research from a macroeconomic perspective. In this paper, we concentrate on an important dimension of every health care system, namely the convergence/divergence of health care financing (HCF). Based on data from 22 OECD countries in the time period 1970-2005, we use the public financing ratio (public financing in % of total HCF) and per capita public HCF as indicators for convergence. By applying different concepts of convergence, we find that HCF is converging. This conclusion also holds when we look at smaller subgroups of countries and shorter time periods. However, we find evidence that countries do not move towards a common mean and that the rate of convergence is decreasing over time.

  15. Anterior cingulate activity to monetary loss and basal ganglia activity to monetary gain uniquely contribute to the feedback negativity

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Dan; Weinberg, Anna; Bernat, Edward M.; Proudfit, Greg H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The feedback negativity (FN) is an event-related potential that differentiates unfavorable versus favorable outcomes. Although thought to reflect error-related activity within the anterior cingulate cortex, recent work indicates the FN may also reflect reward-related activity that has been linked to the basal ganglia. To date, it remains unclear how to reconcile these conflicting perspectives. Methods We decomposed the FN by applying time-frequency analysis to isolate activity unique to monetary losses and gains. The FN was recorded from 84 individuals during a laboratory gambling task. Results Two signals contributed to the FN elicited by unpredictable outcomes: theta activity (4-7 Hz) was increased following monetary loss, and delta activity (< 3 Hz) was increased following monetary gain. Predictable outcomes elicited delta but not theta activity. Source analysis revealed distinct generators, with loss-related theta localized to the anterior cingulate cortex and gain-related delta to a possible source in the striatum. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress reactivity were specifically associated with blunted gain-related delta. Conclusions The FN may be a composite of loss- and gain-related neural activity, reflecting distinct facets of reward processing. Significance Gain-related delta activity may provide unique information about reward dysfunction in major depression and other internalizing psychopathology. PMID:25454338

  16. Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S T; Price, S A; Hoey, A S; Wainwright, P C

    2016-05-01

    Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. PMID:26809907

  17. Weak {}^* convergence of operator means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Alexandr V.

    2011-12-01

    For a linear operator U with \\Vert U^n\\Vert \\le \\operatorname{const} on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T_\\alpha corresponding to the adjoint operator U^* of U in the {W^*O}-topology of the space \\operatorname{End} X^*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in \\operatorname{End} X^*, which is the kernel of the operator semigroup G=\\overline{\\operatorname{co}}\\,\\Gamma_0, where \\Gamma_0=\\{U_n^*, n \\ge 0\\}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T_\\alpha weakly {}^* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C(\\Omega) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation \\varphi of a metrizable compactum \\Omega we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and \\Gamma=\\overline{\\Gamma}_0, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade (\\varphi,\\Omega). In particular, if \\operatorname{card}L=1, then a) for any \\omega \\in\\Omega the closure of the trajectory \\{\\varphi^n\\omega, n \\ge 0\\} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction (\\varphi,m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the {W^*O}-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T_n \\in \\operatorname{End} X^* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E(\\varphi,\\Omega) contains elements obtained from the `basis' family of transformations \\{\\varphi^n, n \\ge 0\\} of the compact set \\Omega by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.

  18. Convergent instability in the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ponyatov, A.A.

    1994-04-01

    A linear theory of the convergent instability (CI) of ionospheric plasma associated with the nonuniform nature of its regular motion is examined. The conditions under which CI appears in the E- and F-layers for vertical ion motion caused by various physical factors are analyzed. The possibility of small-scale strongly geomagnetic-field-aligned nonuniformities of electron concentration (l{sub min} {approximately} 10-30 m) is demonstrated. The altitude dependence of collision frequency is shown to play a large role in CI.

  19. The Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects (MEDS) and the Dyskinesia Identification System: Condensed User Scale (DISCUS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Medication side-effects such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) are known to occur in individuals with a history of psychotropic drug use. This study aimed to contribute to the development of measures for assessing TD by examining the validity of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-effects" (MEDS) with the "Dyskinesia Identification System:…

  20. Preferred latitudes of the intertropical convergence zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane E.; Somerville, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    The latitude preference of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is examined on the basis of observations, theory, and a modeling analysis. Observations show that convection is enhanced at latitudes of about 4 deg to 10 deg relative to the equator, even in regions where the sea surface temperature (SST) is maximum on the equator. Both linear shallow-water theory and a moist primitive equation model suggest a new explanation for the off-equatorial latitude preference of the ITCZ that requires neither the existence of zonally propagating disturbances nor an off-equatorial maximum in SST. The shallow-water theory indicates that a finite-width, zonally oriented, midtropospheric heat source (i.e., an ITCZ) produces the greatest local low-level convergence when placed a finite distance away from the equator. This result suggests that an ITCZ is most likely to be supported via low-level convergence of moist energy when located at these "preferred" latitudes away from the equator. For a plausible range of heating widths and damping parameters, the theoretically predicted latitude is approximately equal to the observed position (s) of the ITCZ (s). Analysis with an axially symmetric, moist, primitive equation model indicates that when the latent heating field is allowed to be determined internally, a positive feedback develops between the midtropospheric latent heating and the low-level convergence, with the effect of enhancing the organization of convection at latitudes of about 4 deg to 12 deg. Numerical experiments show that (1) two peaks in convective precipitation develop straddling the equator when the SST maximum is located on the equator; (2) steady ITCZ-like structures form only when the SST maximum is located away from the equator; and (3) peaks in convection can develop away from the maximum in SST, with a particular preference for latitudes of about 4 deg to 12 deg, even in the ('cold') hemisphere without the SST maximum. The relationship between this

  1. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  2. Emerging interdisciplinary fields in the coming intelligence/convergence era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    Dramatic advances are in the horizon resulting from rapid pace of development of several technologies, including, computing, communication, mobile, robotic, and interactive technologies. These advances, along with the trend towards convergence of traditional engineering disciplines with physical, life and other science disciplines will result in the development of new interdisciplinary fields, as well as in new paradigms for engineering practice in the coming intelligence/convergence era (post-information age). The interdisciplinary fields include Cyber Engineering, Living Systems Engineering, Biomechatronics/Robotics Engineering, Knowledge Engineering, Emergent/Complexity Engineering, and Multiscale Systems engineering. The paper identifies some of the characteristics of the intelligence/convergence era, gives broad definition of convergence, describes some of the emerging interdisciplinary fields, and lists some of the academic and other organizations working in these disciplines. The need is described for establishing a Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Ecosystem for facilitating interdisciplinary collaborations, and accelerating development of skilled workforce in the new fields. The major components of the ecosystem are listed. The new interdisciplinary fields will yield critical advances in engineering practice, and help in addressing future challenges in broad array of sectors, from manufacturing to energy, transportation, climate, and healthcare. They will also enable building large future complex adaptive systems-of-systems, such as intelligent multimodal transportation systems, optimized multi-energy systems, intelligent disaster prevention systems, and smart cities.

  3. Convergence of Health Level Seven Version 2 Messages to Semantic Web Technologies for Software-Intensive Systems in Telemedicine Trauma Care

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Timothy Wayne; Cavalini, Luciana Tricai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To present the technical background and the development of a procedure that enriches the semantics of Health Level Seven version 2 (HL7v2) messages for software-intensive systems in telemedicine trauma care. Methods This study followed a multilevel model-driven approach for the development of semantically interoperable health information systems. The Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) ABCDE protocol was adopted as the use case. A prototype application embedded the semantics into an HL7v2 message as an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) file, which was validated against an XML schema that defines constraints on a common reference model. This message was exchanged with a second prototype application, developed on the Mirth middleware, which was also used to parse and validate both the original and the hybrid messages. Results Both versions of the data instance (one pure XML, one embedded in the HL7v2 message) were equally validated and the RDF-based semantics recovered by the receiving side of the prototype from the shared XML schema. Conclusions This study demonstrated the semantic enrichment of HL7v2 messages for intensive-software telemedicine systems for trauma care, by validating components of extracts generated in various computing environments. The adoption of the method proposed in this study ensures the compliance of the HL7v2 standard in Semantic Web technologies. PMID:26893947

  4. Globally convergent computation of chemical equilibrium composition.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sunil; Aiyer, R C; Sharma, K C

    2008-05-01

    We report the Newton-Raphson based globally convergent computational method for determination of chemical equilibrium composition. In the computation of chemical equilibrium composition, an appearance of nonpositive value of number of moles of any component leads to discrepancy. The process of conditional backtracking and adaptive set of refining factors for Newton-Raphson steps are employed to resolve the problem. The mathematical formulation proposed by Heuze et al. (J Chem Phys 1985, 83, 4734) has been solved using proposed computational method, instead of empirical iterative formulation, as proposed by them. Results for the same numerical example, used by Heuze et al. (J Chem Phys 1985, 83, 4734) and White et al. (J Chem Phys 1958, 28, 751) are presented in addition to decomposition of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine for fixed temperature and pressure. It is observed that the proposed method is efficient and globally convergent. An even noteworthy finding is that the set of refining factors can be chosen from the range 0.1 to eta, where eta may be greater than one depending on how smoothly system of nonlinear equations is dependant on corresponding variable. Related analysis and results are discussed.

  5. Ocular Convergence Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bolding, Mark S.; Lahti, Adrienne C.; Gawne, Timothy J.; Hopkins, Kristine B.; Gurler, Demet; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) than the “normal” adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with SZ exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) is an effective instrument for identifying CI in this population. Twenty participants with SZ and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed the study. The prevalence of CI (15%) in the SZ group was slightly higher than reported norms, but the difference was not significant. The SZ group had significantly higher scores on the CISS than the HC group, but the CISS scores did not correlate with clinical measures of CI in individuals with SZ. The only exception was that SZ patients had a significantly reduced fusional reserve as determined by Sheard’s criteria. Further study is needed to determine why individuals with SZ reported symptoms associated with CI even though clinical measures did not support this diagnosis. PMID:23087652

  6. The convergence of European business cycles 1978-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Paul; Mounfield, Craig

    2002-05-01

    The degree of convergence of the business cycles of the economies of the European Union (EU) is a key policy issue. In particular, a substantial degree of convergence is needed if the European Central Bank is to be capable of setting a monetary policy which is appropriate to the stage of the cycle of the Euro zone economies. We consider the annual rates of real GDP growth on a quarterly basis in the large core economies of the EU (France, Germany and Italy, plus The Netherlands) over the period 1978Q1-2000Q3. An important empirical question is the degree to which the correlations between these growth rates contain true information rather than noise. The technique of random matrix theory is able to answer this question, and has been recently applied successfully in the physics journals to financial markets data. We find that the correlations between the growth rates of the core EU economies contain substantial amounts of true information, and exhibit considerable stability over time. Even in the late 1970s and early 1980s, these economies moved together closely over the course of the business cycle. There was a slight loosening at the time of German re-unification, but the economies are now, if anything, even more closely correlated. As a benchmark for comparison, we add a series to the EU core data set which by construction is uncorrelated with these business cycles. We then analyse the EU core plus Spain, a country which has attached great importance to greater integration with Europe. In the early part of the period examined, the results are very similar to those obtained with the data set of the EU core plus the random series. However, there is a clear trend in the results, which provide strong evidence to support the view that the Spanish economy has now become closely converged with the core EU economies in terms of its movements over the business cycle. In contrast, the results obtained with a data set of the EU core plus the UK show no such trend. In the

  7. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation... monetary penalty amounts. This section makes inflation adjustments in the dollar amounts of civil...

  8. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation... monetary penalty amounts. This section makes inflation adjustments in the dollar amounts of civil...

  9. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation... monetary penalty amounts. This section makes inflation adjustments in the dollar amounts of civil...

  10. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation... monetary penalty amounts. This section makes inflation adjustments in the dollar amounts of civil...

  11. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team.

  12. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team. PMID:24290796

  13. Sediment dispersal system in the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone along a convergent margin: A comparison with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on sea floors in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal system which stretches from 23°N to 20°N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-sea Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China Sea north of 21°N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision marine basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and are mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the South China Sea and Kaoping Slopes, and a southward tilting basin axis located along the Penghu Canyon. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage system in this collision marine basin. The canyon drainage system is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision marine basin in term of source to sink is that sediments derived from nearby orogen and continental margins are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and major marine transport route along the basin axis. The comparison of the Taiwan-South China Sea collision zone with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon Sea reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal systems consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport system comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-sea channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision marine basin.

  14. Cue-dose Training with Monetary Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Rigsby, Michael O; Rosen, Marc I; Beauvais, John E; Cramer, Joyce A; Rainey, Petrie M; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Dieckhaus, Kevin D; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility and efficacy of two interventions for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy regimens in HIV-infected subjects compared with a control intervention. DESIGN Randomized, controlled, pilot study. SETTING Department of Veterans Affairs HIV clinic and community-based HIV clinical trials site. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-five HIV-infected subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy regimens. Subjects were predominantly male (89%) and African American (69%), and had histories of heroin or cocaine use (80%). INTERVENTIONS Four weekly sessions of either nondirective inquiries about adherence (control group, C), cue-dose training, which consisted of the use of personalized cues for remembering particular dose times, and feedback about medication taking using Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) pill bottle caps, which record time of bottle opening (CD group), or cue-dose training combined with cash reinforcement for correctly timed bottle opening (CD+CR). MEASUREMENTS Opening of the pill bottle within 2 hours before or after a predetermined time was measured by MEMS. RESULTS Adherence to the medication as documented by MEMS was significantly enhanced during the 4-week training period in the CD+CR group, but not in the CD group, compared with the control group. Improvement was also seen in adherence to antiretroviral drugs that were not the object of training and reinforcement. Eight weeks after training and reinforcement were discontinued, adherence in the cash-reinforced group returned to near-baseline levels. CONCLUSIONS Cue-dose training with cash reinforcement led to transient improvement in adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a population including mostly African Americans and subjects with histories of drug abuse. However, we were not able to detect any sustained improvement beyond the active training period, and questions concerning the timing and duration of such an intervention require further study. Randomized, controlled

  15. Addressing the social determinants of health through health system strengthening and inter-sectoral convergence: the case of the Indian National Rural Health Mission

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit Mohan; Chakraborty, Gautam; Yadav, Sajjan Singh; Bhatia, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 21st century, India was plagued by significant rural–urban, inter-state and inter-district inequities in health. For example, in 2004, the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 24 points higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. To address these inequities, to strengthen the rural health system (a major determinant of health in itself) and to facilitate action on other determinants of health, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005. Methods Under the NRHM, Rs. 666 billion (US$12.1 billion) was invested in rural areas from April 2005 to March 2012. There was also a substantially higher allocation for 18 high-focus states and 264 high-focus districts, identified on the basis of poor health and demographic indicators. Other determinants of health, especially nutrition and decentralized action, were addressed through mechanisms like State/District Health Missions, Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees, and Village Health and Nutrition Days. Results Consequently, in bigger high-focus states, rural IMR fell by 15.6 points between 2004 and 2011, as compared to 9 points in urban areas. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in high-focus states declined by 17.9% between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009 compared to 14.6% in other states. Conclusion The article, on the basis of the above approaches employed under NRHM, proposes the NRHM model to ‘reduce health inequities and initiate action on SDH’. PMID:23458089

  16. Social and monetary reward processing in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social motivation theory suggests that deficits in social reward processing underlie social impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the extent to which abnormalities in reward processing generalize to other classes of stimuli remains unresolved. The aim of the current study was to examine if reward processing abnormalities in ASD are specific to social stimuli or can be generalized to other classes of reward. Additionally, we sought to examine the results in the light of behavioral impairments in ASD. Methods Participants performed adapted versions of the social and monetary incentive delay tasks. Data from 21 unmedicated right-handed male participants with ASD and 21 age- and IQ-matched controls were analyzed using a factorial design to examine the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during the anticipation and receipt of both reward types. Results Behaviorally, the ASD group showed less of a reduction in reaction time (RT) for rewarded compared to unrewarded trials than the control group. In terms of the fMRI results, there were no significant group differences in reward circuitry during reward anticipation. During the receipt of rewards, there was a significant interaction between group and reward type in the left dorsal striatum (DS). The ASD group showed reduced activity in the DS compared to controls for social rewards but not monetary rewards and decreased activation for social rewards compared to monetary rewards. Controls showed no significant difference between the two reward types. Increased activation in the DS during social reward processing was associated with faster response times for rewarded trials, compared to unrewarded trials, in both groups. This is in line with behavioral results indicating that the ASD group showed less of a reduction in RT for rewarded compared to unrewarded trials. Additionally, de-activation to social rewards was associated with increased repetitive behavior in ASD. Conclusions In line

  17. Estimating monetary damages from flooding under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobus, C. W.; Lawson, M.; Smith, J. B.; Jones, R.; Morlando, S.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events will very likely become both more frequent and more extreme under a changing climate. It follows that monetary damages from flooding are also likely to increase; yet translating forecast changes in precipitation to changes in flood damages becomes increasingly difficult as the spatial scale of analysis increases. Our goal was to develop a method for estimating changes in monetary damages from flooding under a changing climate at the national scale. To do this, we compiled precipitation and flood damage data from the 99 ASRs in the continental U.S. (a spatial scale intermediate between 4-digit and 2-digit HUCs), and used statistical modeling to quantify relationships between these variables at the scale of the 18 water resource regions (WRRs) in the U.S. Data on flood damages were obtained from the National climatic Data Center (NCDC) storms database, for the years 1993-2008. Each entry in the database includes the date on which the flood occurred; the county in which it occurred; and the crop damage, property damage, and total damage in dollars associated with the flood event. All dollar values were updated to 2007 dollars using annual Consumer Price Index (CPI) values. Counties were matched to corresponding ASRs, from which all available precipitation station data were downloaded for the same period. A logistic regression model was then used to model the probability of a flood exceeding a specified magnitude of monetary damages, by WRR. Independent variables in the model included the median precipitation across the ASR on that day, the standard deviation of precipitation in the ASR on that day, the total 1-day, 3-day, and 5-day precipitation in the ASR (measured as the sum of precipitation at all stations on the previous days), the season, and the interaction of season with median, standard deviation, and total 1-, 3-, and 5-day precipitation. Separate models were estimated for each WRR under baseline conditions, and flood damages

  18. Professional convergence in forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  19. Mosaic Convergence of Rodent Dentitions

    PubMed Central

    Lazzari, Vincent; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Michaux, Jacques; Viriot, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. Conclusion/Significance The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible pathways. Because convergent

  20. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Zisholtz, E.; Hilton, H.

    2010-01-01

    The I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium is a major educational and teaching resource for South Carolina State University, K-12 schools, other universities and the community of Orangeburg and well beyond. The concept of creating a museum with a planetarium on the campus of SC State was ahead of its time. Today scholars are writing about the unity of creative disciplines. Through its integration of the arts, humanities and sciences, the Stanback, the only art museum with a planetarium at any of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one of the few in the nation, stands in the forefront of modern thinking. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science, opening at the I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium in February 2010, will feature the works of Mildred Thompson (1936-2003), a prominent African American artist who worked in the media of painting, drawing, print making, sculpture, and photography. Thompson’s artwork shows the strong influences of her interest in physics, astronomy, and metaphysics as well as music and spiritualism. “My work in the visual arts is, and has always been, a continuous search for understanding. It is an expression of purpose and reflects a personal interpretation of the Universe.” Cosmic Convergence will explore the meeting of Art and Science through Mildred Thompson's work and the scientific basis of that work. The paintings and sculptures of the exhibit will be combined with astronomical images showing both the reality and interpretation of the surrounding Universe. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.

  1. Estimator reduction and convergence of adaptive BEM.

    PubMed

    Aurada, Markus; Ferraz-Leite, Samuel; Praetorius, Dirk

    2012-06-01

    A posteriori error estimation and related adaptive mesh-refining algorithms have themselves proven to be powerful tools in nowadays scientific computing. Contrary to adaptive finite element methods, convergence of adaptive boundary element schemes is, however, widely open. We propose a relaxed notion of convergence of adaptive boundary element schemes. Instead of asking for convergence of the error to zero, we only aim to prove estimator convergence in the sense that the adaptive algorithm drives the underlying error estimator to zero. We observe that certain error estimators satisfy an estimator reduction property which is sufficient for estimator convergence. The elementary analysis is only based on Dörfler marking and inverse estimates, but not on reliability and efficiency of the error estimator at hand. In particular, our approach gives a first mathematical justification for the proposed steering of anisotropic mesh-refinements, which is mandatory for optimal convergence behavior in 3D boundary element computations.

  2. Estimator reduction and convergence of adaptive BEM

    PubMed Central

    Aurada, Markus; Ferraz-Leite, Samuel; Praetorius, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    A posteriori error estimation and related adaptive mesh-refining algorithms have themselves proven to be powerful tools in nowadays scientific computing. Contrary to adaptive finite element methods, convergence of adaptive boundary element schemes is, however, widely open. We propose a relaxed notion of convergence of adaptive boundary element schemes. Instead of asking for convergence of the error to zero, we only aim to prove estimator convergence in the sense that the adaptive algorithm drives the underlying error estimator to zero. We observe that certain error estimators satisfy an estimator reduction property which is sufficient for estimator convergence. The elementary analysis is only based on Dörfler marking and inverse estimates, but not on reliability and efficiency of the error estimator at hand. In particular, our approach gives a first mathematical justification for the proposed steering of anisotropic mesh-refinements, which is mandatory for optimal convergence behavior in 3D boundary element computations. PMID:23482248

  3. Convergence of sensory inputs upon projection neurons of somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Zarzecki, P; Wiggin, D M

    1982-01-01

    Cortico-cortical neurons and pyramidal tract neurons of the cat were tested for convergent inputs from forelimb afferents. Neurons were recorded in cortical areas 1, 2, and 3a. Consideration was given to both suprathreshold and subthreshold inputs evoked by electrical stimulation of forelimb nerves. Individual cortico-cortical neurons and also pyramidal tract neurons were characterized by convergence of multiple somatosensory inputs from different regions of skin, from several muscle groups, and between group I deep afferents and low threshold cutaneous afferents. Certain patterns of afferent input varied with cytoarchitectonic area. There was, however, no difference between area 3a and areas 1-2 in the incidence of cross-modality convergence in the form of input from cutaneous and also deep nerves. Many of the inputs were subthreshold. Arguments are presented that these inputs, though subthreshold, must be considered for a role in cortical information processing. The convergent nature of the sensory inputs is discussed in relation to the proposed specificities of cortical columns. The patterns of afferent inputs reaching cortico-cortical neurons seem to be appropriate for them to have a role in the formation of sensory fields of motor cortex neurons. PT neurons of somatosensory cortex have possible roles as modifiers of ascending sensory systems, however, the convergent input which these PT neurons receive argues against a simple relationship between the modality of peripheral stimuli influencing them and the modality of the ascending tract neurons under their descending control. PMID:7140889

  4. Globally convergent techniques in nonlinear Newton-Krylov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Peter N.; Saad, Youcef

    1989-01-01

    Some convergence theory is presented for nonlinear Krylov subspace methods. The basic idea of these methods is to use variants of Newton's iteration in conjunction with a Krylov subspace method for solving the Jacobian linear systems. These methods are variants of inexact Newton methods where the approximate Newton direction is taken from a subspace of small dimensions. The main focus is to analyze these methods when they are combined with global strategies such as linesearch techniques and model trust region algorithms. Most of the convergence results are formulated for projection onto general subspaces rather than just Krylov subspaces.

  5. Assessing the validity of discourse analysis: transdisciplinary convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

    2014-12-01

    Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.

  6. Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Caspi, A; Herbener, E S

    1993-01-01

    This study provides a direct test of whether the observed similarity of spouses is due to initial assortment rather than to convergence of phenotypes. With data from three well-known longitudinal studies, phenotypic convergence is examined using both variable- and person-centered analyses. The longitudinal evidence does not support the hypothesis that couples increasingly resemble each other with time. Spouse correlations most likely reflect initial assortment at marriage and not the convergence of phenotypes.

  7. Adaptive sliding mode control - convergence and gain boundedness revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Khayati, Karim

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the main adaptive sliding mode controller (ASMC) designs for nonlinear systems with finite uncertainties of unknown bounds. Different statements of convergence referring to uniformly ultimate boundedness (UUB), asymptotic convergence (AC) and finite-time convergence (FTC) for ASMC shown in recent papers are analysed. Weaknesses and incomplete proofs apropos FTC are pointed out. Thereafter, a new approach is proposed to successfully demonstrate FTC of the so-called sliding variable. We identify a compensating phase and a reaching phase during the ASMC process. A new explicit form for estimating the upper-bound reaching time is provided for any bounded perturbation. An amended form of the real ASMC is recalled showing improved accuracy and chattering reduction. Finally, numerical and experimental applications are performed to convey the discussed results.

  8. Unstable resonators with excited converging wave

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, N. ); Weber, H. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports the properties of unstable resonators with an additional mirror inside or outside the resonator investigated, both experimentally and theoretically. The additional mirror excites the converging wave, and by this, output coupling is decreased without affecting beam quality. Experiments were performed with a pulsed Nd:YAG system. The theoretical model was based on the coupled Kirchhoff integrals and solved numerically. Agreement between theory and experiments indicates that this kind of resonator provides high focusability and maximum extraction efficiency simultaneously, even with low-gain media. This enables one to apply unstable resonators to solid-state lasers with low small-signal gain, like alexandrite or CW-pumped Nd:YAG.

  9. Cylindrically converging blast waves in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1981-07-01

    Cylindrically converging shock waves are produced by utilizing the detonation of cylindrical explosive shells. The production and the propagation of shock waves are observed by framing and streak camera photographs, and the trajectory of shock propagations is determined by using an electrical ionization probing system. The effect of the quantity of explosives on the stability, or the axial symmetry, of shock fronts and on the strength of shocks produced is investigated. It has been shown that, for practical purposes, the approximation of shock trajectories by Guderley's formulas would be sufficiently acceptable in an unexpectedly wide region near the implosion center, and that the axial symmetry of the shock front is improved by increasing the quantity of explosives, and thus, strong shocks are produced by merely increasing the quantity of explosives. The reflected diverging shock seems to be very stable. Piezoelectric elements have also been used to detect reflected diverging waves.

  10. Aspired Convergence, Cherished Diversity: Dealing with the Contradictions of Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the inherent tension in the Bologna process between the aim of convergence and the will to maintain the diversity of national higher education (HE) systems, as well as the decentralised and autonomous nature of national policy formulation on Bologna reforms. Starting from an analytical discussion of the concepts of…

  11. 49 CFR 526.5 - Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earning offsetting monetary credits in future... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.5 Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years. Each plan submitted under section 502(l) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost...

  12. 49 CFR 526.5 - Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earning offsetting monetary credits in future... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.5 Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years. Each plan submitted under section 502(l) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost...

  13. 49 CFR 526.5 - Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earning offsetting monetary credits in future... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.5 Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years. Each plan submitted under section 502(l) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 360 - Non-Monetary Transaction File Structure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Monetary Transaction File Structure A... OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. A Appendix A to Part 360—Non-Monetary Transaction File Structure This is the structure of the data file the FDIC will provide to...

  15. Using Non-Monetary Deprivation Indicators to Analyze Poverty and Social Exclusion: Lessons from Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Brian; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Non-monetary indicators of deprivation are now widely used in studying poverty in Europe. While measuring financial resources remains central, having reliable information about material deprivation adds to the ability to capture poverty and social exclusion. Non-monetary indicators can help improve the identification of those experiencing poverty…

  16. Children's Use of Meta-Cognition in Solving Everyday Problems: Children's Monetary Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Koh, Noi Keng; Cai, Xin Le; Quek, Choon Lang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how children use meta-cognition in their everyday problem-solving, particularly making monetary decisions. A particular focus was to identify components of meta-cognition, such as regulation of cognition and knowledge of cognition observed in children's monetary decision-making process, the roles of…

  17. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of...

  19. 25 CFR 162.552 - When are monetary compensation payments due under a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When are monetary compensation payments due under a WSR lease? 162.552 Section 162.552 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Monetary Compensation...

  20. 25 CFR 162.553 - Must a WSR lease specify who receives monetary compensation payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Must a WSR lease specify who receives monetary compensation payments? 162.553 Section 162.553 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Monetary...

  1. 25 CFR 162.552 - When are monetary compensation payments due under a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When are monetary compensation payments due under a WSR lease? 162.552 Section 162.552 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Monetary Compensation...

  2. 25 CFR 162.553 - Must a WSR lease specify who receives monetary compensation payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Must a WSR lease specify who receives monetary compensation payments? 162.553 Section 162.553 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Monetary...

  3. 17 CFR Table II to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table II to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  4. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  5. 17 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. code citation...

  6. 17 CFR Table II to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table II to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  7. 17 CFR 143.8 - Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inflation-adjusted civil... JURISDICTION General Provisions § 143.8 Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties. (a) Unless otherwise amended by an act of Congress, the inflation-adjusted maximum civil monetary penalty for each violation...

  8. 17 CFR 143.8 - Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inflation-adjusted civil... JURISDICTION General Provisions § 143.8 Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties. (a) Unless otherwise amended by an act of Congress, the inflation-adjusted maximum civil monetary penalty for each violation...

  9. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  10. 17 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. code citation...

  11. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  12. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  13. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES..., Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S....

  14. 17 CFR Table II to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table II to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  15. 17 CFR Table V to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments V Table V to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table V to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  16. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  17. 17 CFR Table II to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table II to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  18. 17 CFR Table V to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments V Table V to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table V to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  19. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  20. 17 CFR 143.8 - Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inflation-adjusted civil... JURISDICTION General Provisions § 143.8 Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties. (a) Unless otherwise amended by an act of Congress, the inflation-adjusted maximum civil monetary penalty for each violation...

  1. 17 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. code citation...

  2. 17 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. code citation...

  3. 17 CFR 143.8 - Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inflation-adjusted civil... COMMISSION'S JURISDICTION General Provisions § 143.8 Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties. (a) Unless otherwise amended by an act of Congress, the inflation-adjusted maximum civil monetary penalty for...

  4. 17 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. code citation...

  5. 17 CFR 143.8 - Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inflation-adjusted civil... JURISDICTION General Provisions § 143.8 Inflation-adjusted civil monetary penalties. (a) Unless otherwise amended by an act of Congress, the inflation-adjusted maximum civil monetary penalty for each violation...

  6. 17 CFR Table II to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table II to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  7. A monetary incentive increases postal survey response rates for pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Paul, C.; Walsh, R.; Tzelepis, F.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Achieving acceptable response rates from health care providers via postal questionnaires is an ongoing challenge. The use of monetary incentives is one of the most effective strategies for increasing response rates. However, the effect and cost of such an incentive on retail pharmacists' response rates has not been well studied. Methods: A sample of 700 pharmacies was selected at random from the electronic Yellow Pages in NSW Australia and mailed a brief survey regarding pharmacotherapies and advice for smoking cessation. Half of the sample was randomly allocated to receive an offer of an US$14 gift voucher. Results: The response rates were 65.9% for the voucher group and 53.5% for the no-voucher group. The odds of response from the voucher group was 1.68 (95%CI = 1.23, 2.30) times greater than for the no-voucher group. The cost per additional respondent was US$67.95. The incentive also reduced follow up costs by 10%. Conclusions: A moderately sized monetary incentive is able to achieve a significant increase in response rates for retail pharmacists, thereby reducing potential bias in the sample. PMID:16286502

  8. Anticipation of monetary and social reward differently activates mesolimbic brain structures in men and women.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Krach, Sören; Kohls, Gregor; Rademacher, Lena; Irmak, Arda; Konrad, Kerstin; Kircher, Tilo; Gründer, Gerhard

    2009-06-01

    Motivation for goal-directed behaviour largely depends on the expected value of the anticipated reward. The aim of the present study was to examine how different levels of reward value are coded in the brain for two common forms of human reward: money and social approval. To account for gender differences 16 male and 16 female participants performed an incentive delay task expecting to win either money or positive social feedback. fMRI recording during the anticipation phase revealed proportional activation of neural structures constituting the human reward system for increasing levels of reward, independent of incentive type. However, in men activation in the prospect of monetary rewards encompassed a wide network of mesolimbic brain regions compared to only limited activation for social rewards. In contrast, in women, anticipation of either incentive type activated identical brain regions. Our findings represent an important step towards a better understanding of motivated behaviour by taking into account individual differences in reward valuation. PMID:19174537

  9. Composite transform-convergent plate boundaries: description and discussion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Coleman, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The leading edge of the overriding plate at an obliquely convergent boundary is commonly sliced by a system of strike-slip faults. This fault system is often structurally complex, and may show correspondingly uneven strain effects, with great vertical and translational shifts of the component blocks of the fault system. The stress pattern and strain effects vary along the length of the system and change through time. These margins are considered to be composite transform-convergent (CTC) plate boundaries. Examples are given of structures formed along three CTC boundaries: the Aleutian Ridge, the Solomon Islands, and the Philippines. The dynamism of the fault system along a CTC boundary can enhance vertical tectonism and basin formation. This concept provides a framework for the evaluation of petroleum resources related to basin formation, and mineral exploration related to igneous activity associated with transtensional processes. ?? 1992.

  10. 38 CFR 3.1612 - Monetary allowance in lieu of a Government-furnished headstone or marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monetary allowance in... Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1612 Monetary allowance in... of a monetary allowance in lieu of furnishing a headstone or marker at Government expense under...

  11. 38 CFR 3.1612 - Monetary allowance in lieu of a Government-furnished headstone or marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monetary allowance in... Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1612 Monetary allowance in... of a monetary allowance in lieu of furnishing a headstone or marker at Government expense under...

  12. 38 CFR 3.1612 - Monetary allowance in lieu of a Government-furnished headstone or marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monetary allowance in... Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1612 Monetary allowance in... of a monetary allowance in lieu of furnishing a headstone or marker at Government expense under...

  13. 38 CFR 3.1612 - Monetary allowance in lieu of a Government-furnished headstone or marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monetary allowance in... Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1612 Monetary allowance in... of a monetary allowance in lieu of furnishing a headstone or marker at Government expense under...

  14. Convergences and Hybridization of Educational Policies around "Post-Bureaucratic" Models of Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroy, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose is to document convergences and divergences in the mode of institutional regulation of the education systems in five European countries (Belgium, England, France, Hungary and Portugal). On the national level, partially convergent policies create, to varying degrees and with different temporal rhythms, variants of a post-bureaucratic…

  15. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Qingchuan

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  16. Converging finite-strength shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, R. A.; Holm, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The converging shock problem was first solved by Guderley and later by Landau and Stanyukovich for infinitely strong shocks in an ideal gas with spherical and cylindrical symmetry. This problem is solved herein for finite-strength shocks and a non-ideal-gas equation of state with an adiabatic bulk modulus of the type Bs= {- v∂ p}/{∂ v| s} = ( p +B) f( v) , where B is a constant with the dimensions of pressure, and f(v) is an arbitrary function of the specific volume. Self-similar profiles of the particle velocity and thermodynamic variables are studied explicitly for two cases with constant specific heat at constant volume; the Tait-Kirkwood-Murnaghan equation, f(v) = constant, and the Walsh equation, f(v) = v/A, where A = constant. The first case reduces to the ideal gas when B = 0. In both cases the flow behind the shock front exhibits an unbalanced buoyant force instability at a critical Mach number which depends upon equation-of-state parameters.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Antigenic Convergence

    PubMed Central

    Campo, David S.; Dimitrova, Zoya; Yokosawa, Jonny; Hoang, Duc; Perez, Nestor O.; Ramachandran, Sumathi; Khudyakov, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine development against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is hindered by poor understanding of factors defining cross-immunoreactivity among heterogeneous epitopes. Using synthetic peptides and mouse immunization as a model, we conducted a quantitative analysis of cross-immunoreactivity among variants of the HCV hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). Analysis of 26,883 immunological reactions among pairs of peptides showed that the distribution of cross-immunoreactivity among HVR1 variants was skewed, with antibodies against a few variants reacting with all tested peptides. The HVR1 cross-immunoreactivity was accurately modeled based on amino acid sequence alone. The tested peptides were mapped in the HVR1 sequence space, which was visualized as a network of 11,319 sequences. The HVR1 variants with a greater network centrality showed a broader cross-immunoreactivity. The entire sequence space is explored by each HCV genotype and subtype. These findings indicate that HVR1 antigenic diversity is extensively convergent and effectively limited, suggesting significant implications for vaccine development. PMID:22355779

  18. Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths.

    PubMed

    Abley, Katie; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Marée, Athanasius Fm; Coen, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The development of outgrowths from plant shoots depends on formation of epidermal sites of cell polarity convergence with high intracellular auxin at their centre. A parsimonious model for generation of convergence sites is that cell polarity for the auxin transporter PIN1 orients up auxin gradients, as this spontaneously generates convergent alignments. Here we test predictions of this and other models for the patterns of auxin biosynthesis and import. Live imaging of outgrowths from kanadi1 kanadi2 Arabidopsis mutant leaves shows that they arise by formation of PIN1 convergence sites within a proximodistal polarity field. PIN1 polarities are oriented away from regions of high auxin biosynthesis enzyme expression, and towards regions of high auxin importer expression. Both expression patterns are required for normal outgrowth emergence, and may form part of a common module underlying shoot outgrowths. These findings are more consistent with models that spontaneously generate tandem rather than convergent alignments.

  19. Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths.

    PubMed

    Abley, Katie; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Marée, Athanasius Fm; Coen, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The development of outgrowths from plant shoots depends on formation of epidermal sites of cell polarity convergence with high intracellular auxin at their centre. A parsimonious model for generation of convergence sites is that cell polarity for the auxin transporter PIN1 orients up auxin gradients, as this spontaneously generates convergent alignments. Here we test predictions of this and other models for the patterns of auxin biosynthesis and import. Live imaging of outgrowths from kanadi1 kanadi2 Arabidopsis mutant leaves shows that they arise by formation of PIN1 convergence sites within a proximodistal polarity field. PIN1 polarities are oriented away from regions of high auxin biosynthesis enzyme expression, and towards regions of high auxin importer expression. Both expression patterns are required for normal outgrowth emergence, and may form part of a common module underlying shoot outgrowths. These findings are more consistent with models that spontaneously generate tandem rather than convergent alignments. PMID:27478985

  20. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural–urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:22826252

  1. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-07-31

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural-urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

  2. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-07-31

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural-urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:22826252

  3. Value Creation Through Integrated Networks and Convergence

    SciTech Connect

    De Martini, Paul; Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2015-04-01

    Customer adoption of distributed energy resources and public policies are driving changes in the uses of the distribution system. A system originally designed and built for one-way energy flows from central generating facilities to end-use customers is now experiencing injections of energy from customers anywhere on the grid and frequent reversals in the direction of energy flow. In response, regulators and utilities are re-thinking the design and operations of the grid to create more open and transactive electric networks. This evolution has the opportunity to unlock significant value for customers and utilities. Alternatively, failure to seize this potential may instead lead to an erosion of value if customers seek to defect and disconnect from the system. This paper will discuss how current grid modernization investments may be leveraged to create open networks that increase value through the interaction of intelligent devices on the grid and prosumerization of customers. Moreover, even greater value can be realized through the synergistic effects of convergence of multiple networks. This paper will highlight examples of the emerging nexus of non-electric networks with electricity.

  4. Impact of the monetary crisis on statistical properties of the Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur stock exchange indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mart, T.; Aminoto, T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the tools developed for statistical physics, we simultaneously analyze statistical properties of the Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange indices. In spite of the small number of the data used in the analysis, the result still shows the universal behavior of complex systems previously found in the leading stock indices. We also analyze their properties before and after the crash caused by the monetary crisis. To locate the time position when the crash started we use the Omori law. We found that after the crash both stocks do not show a same statistical behavior. The impact of currency controls is observed in the distribution of the index returns.

  5. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  6. Coparenting and Nonresident Fathers’ Monetary Contributions to Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Julia S.

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of children in the United States living apart from their biological father has increased, while public assistance for single mothers has diminished. This has resulted in a need to better understand and promote nonresident fathers’ economic support of their children. In the present study the author used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,752) to examine how coparenting—the degree to which parents are mutually supportive and cooperative in raising their child—is related to nonresident fathers’ monetary contributions. Results from pooled regression and fixed effects models indicate that coparenting is positively associated with fathers’ likelihood of paying formal and informal child support and the amount of these payments. Findings from cross-lagged structural equation models suggest that the association between coparenting and fathers’ payments is reciprocal but that coparenting has a stronger effect on fathers’ payments than fathers’ payments do on coparenting. PMID:26052163

  7. Parabolic discounting of monetary rewards by physical effort.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Tobler, Philippe N; Kaiser, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    When humans and other animals make decisions in their natural environments prospective rewards have to be weighed against costs. It is well established that increasing costs lead to devaluation or discounting of reward. While our knowledge about discount functions for time and probability costs is quite advanced, little is known about how physical effort discounts reward. In the present study we compared three different models in a binary choice task in which human participants had to squeeze a handgrip to earn monetary rewards: a linear, a hyperbolic, and a parabolic model. On the group as well as the individual level, the concave parabolic model explained most variance of the choice data, thus contrasting with the typical hyperbolic discounting of reward value by delay. Research on effort discounting is not only important to basic science but also holds the potential to quantify aberrant motivational states in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Three essays on monetary policy responses to oil price shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Michael

    This dissertation contains three chapters which explore the question of how monetary policy should respond to changes in the price of oil. Each chapter explores the question from the perspective of a different economic environment. The first chapter examines welfare maximizing optimal monetary policy in a closed economy New Keynesian model that is extended to include household and firm demand for oil products, sticky wages, and capital accumulation. When households and firms demand oil products a natural difference arises between the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the core CPI, and the GDP deflator. I show that when nominal wages are flexible then the optimal policy places a heavy emphasis on stabilizing the inflation rate of the core CPI. If aggregate nominal wages are sticky then the central bank should focus on stabilizing some combination of core inflation and nominal wage inflation. Under no case examined is it optimal to stabilize either GDP deflator or CPI inflation. The second chapter examines monetary policy responses to oil price shocks in a small open economy with traded and non-traded goods. Oil and labor are used to produce the traded and non-traded goods and prices are sticky in the non-traded sector. I show analytically that the ratio of the oil and labor cost shares in the traded and non-traded sectors is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of many macroeconomic variables after a rise in the price of oil. A policy of fixed exchange rates can produce higher or lower inflation in the non-traded sector depending upon the ratio. Likewise, a policy that stabilizes the inflation rate of prices in the non-traded sector can cause the nominal exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate. For the proper calibration, a policy that stabilizes core inflation produces results very close to the one that stabilizes non-traded inflation. Analytical results show that the fixed exchange rate always produces a unique solution. The policy of stabilizing non

  9. Convergence study in extended Kalman filter-based training of recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yong

    2011-04-01

    Recurrent neural network (RNN) has emerged as a promising tool in modeling nonlinear dynamical systems, but the training convergence is still of concern. This paper aims to develop an effective extended Kalman filter-based RNN training approach with a controllable training convergence. The training convergence problem during extended Kalman filter-based RNN training has been proposed and studied by adapting two artificial training noise parameters: the covariance of measurement noise (R) and the covariance of process noise (Q) of Kalman filter. The R and Q adaption laws have been developed using the Lyapunov method and the maximum likelihood method, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed adaption laws has been tested using a nonlinear dynamical benchmark system and further applied in cutting tool wear modeling. The results show that the R adaption law can effectively avoid the divergence problem and ensure the training convergence, whereas the Q adaption law helps improve the training convergence speed.

  10. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. PMID:25581089

  11. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves.

  12. Real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sihua; Pan, Yu; Wang, You; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Qu, Zhe; Rao, Hengyi

    2016-01-01

    Both real and hypothetical monetary rewards are widely used as reinforcers in risk taking and decision making studies. However, whether real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking and decision making in the same manner remains controversial. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) with a balloon analogue risk task (BART) paradigm to examine the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking in the brain. Behavioral data showed reduced risk taking after negative feedback (money loss) during the BART with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, suggesting increased loss aversion with real monetary rewards. The ERP data demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to money loss during risk taking with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, which may reflect greater prediction error or regret emotion after real monetary losses. These findings demonstrate differential effects of real versus hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking behavior and brain activity, suggesting a caution when drawing conclusions about real choices from hypothetical studies of intended behavior, especially when large rewards are used. The results have implications for future utility of real and hypothetical monetary rewards in studies of risk taking and decision making. PMID:27383241

  13. Real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking in the brain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sihua; Pan, Yu; Wang, You; Spaeth, Andrea M; Qu, Zhe; Rao, Hengyi

    2016-01-01

    Both real and hypothetical monetary rewards are widely used as reinforcers in risk taking and decision making studies. However, whether real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking and decision making in the same manner remains controversial. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) with a balloon analogue risk task (BART) paradigm to examine the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking in the brain. Behavioral data showed reduced risk taking after negative feedback (money loss) during the BART with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, suggesting increased loss aversion with real monetary rewards. The ERP data demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to money loss during risk taking with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, which may reflect greater prediction error or regret emotion after real monetary losses. These findings demonstrate differential effects of real versus hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking behavior and brain activity, suggesting a caution when drawing conclusions about real choices from hypothetical studies of intended behavior, especially when large rewards are used. The results have implications for future utility of real and hypothetical monetary rewards in studies of risk taking and decision making. PMID:27383241

  14. Marshall Convergent Coating Development Team: An Aerospace Success Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Carl N.

    2000-01-01

    The external thermal insulation systems for the Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters and the Air Force Titan IV payload fairings were in jeopardy due to EPA regulatory problems, endangering the flight status of both vehicles. The Marshall Convergent Coating (MCC-1) Development Team was formed in February 1994 to develop and implement an EPA-compliant external thermal insulation system for both systems. MCC-1 made use of a process known as Convergent Spray Technology (CST), a solventless, sprayable process that eliminated the environmentally hazardous chemicals involved with the old methods. Implemented in record time, the new insulation was so successful that it was selected for two additional flight vehicles, Boeing's Sea Launch and Delta TV. The activity also led to commercial spin-off pilot projects. The team continues today to share data between the various production sites, resolve production issues, expand the material's use, and consider potential improvements for the future.

  15. Free-Tropospheric Moisture Convergence and Tropical Convective Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is known that quiescent periods with only shallow cumuli prevalent are frequently observed even in the deep Tropics, which is considered from the climatological perspectives as an area harboring vigorous deep convection. It is argued in this work that the free-tropospheric (FT) moisture convergence is a crucial factor for separating the stable maintenance of isolated shallow cumuli in the quiescent periods from the self-sustaining growth of organized convective systems in the dynamic periods over tropical oceans. The analysis is based on a variety of satellite measurements including Aqua AIRS T and q soundings and QuikSCAT surface wind, composited with reference to the time before or after the occurrence of precipitating clouds detected by TRMM PR. The FT moisture convergence and updraft moisture flux at cloud base are then derived from this dataset under large-scale moisture budget constraint (see Figure). Free-tropospheric precipitation efficiency (FTPE), or the ratio of precipitation to updraft moisture flux at cloud base, is introduced as a measure of convective intensity (rather than the population) over the large-scale domain. The following hypothesis is discussed in light of the analysis results. Isolated shallow cumuli would stay shallow when large-scale FT moisture is diverging (although moisture is weakly converging when integrated over the whole troposphere) since an increase in cumulus population would be counteracted by an additional moisture divergence in the FT. When large-scale FT convergence is positive, in contrast, developing clouds would induce a more moisture input and allow an unstable growth to a highly organized convective system. Zero FT moisture convergence may serve as the neutrality separating the negative feedback acting in the quiescent regime from the positive feedback instrumental for the dynamic regime.

  16. On the Local Convergence of Pattern Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Elizabeth D.; Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We examine the local convergence properties of pattern search methods, complementing the previously established global convergence properties for this class of algorithms. We show that the step-length control parameter which appears in the definition of pattern search algorithms provides a reliable asymptotic measure of first-order stationarity. This gives an analytical justification for a traditional stopping criterion for pattern search methods. Using this measure of first-order stationarity, we analyze the behavior of pattern search in the neighborhood of an isolated local minimizer. We show that a recognizable subsequence converges r-linearly to the minimizer.

  17. Monetary policy games and international migration of labor in interdependent economies.

    PubMed

    Agiomirgianakis, G M

    1998-01-01

    "In this paper we incorporate the possibility of international migration into a monetary policy game played by governments in unionized interdependent economies. We show that contrary to usual presumptions, established by earlier studies that ignore the possibility of international migration, inter-government cooperation in the monetary field may well turn out to be advantageous. This has important implications for the European economies, since it suggests that measures taken towards encouraging international migration within EU [the European Union] will not only harmonize the European labor markets but will also make monetary policy cooperation within Europe, as required by the Maastrict Treaty, more advantageous." PMID:12294515

  18. Monetary policy games and international migration of labor in interdependent economies.

    PubMed

    Agiomirgianakis, G M

    1998-01-01

    "In this paper we incorporate the possibility of international migration into a monetary policy game played by governments in unionized interdependent economies. We show that contrary to usual presumptions, established by earlier studies that ignore the possibility of international migration, inter-government cooperation in the monetary field may well turn out to be advantageous. This has important implications for the European economies, since it suggests that measures taken towards encouraging international migration within EU [the European Union] will not only harmonize the European labor markets but will also make monetary policy cooperation within Europe, as required by the Maastrict Treaty, more advantageous."

  19. Civil monetary penalties--weapon against fraud or instrument of health policy?

    PubMed

    Barton, H M

    1989-06-01

    Most physicians are aware of the highly publicized aspects of government health care regulation, including attempts at mandatory physician assignment and recoupment of services deemed medically unnecessary. There is less awareness of the potential pitfalls of civil monetary penalties, as many physicians believe they are primarily applicable to false claim allegations. However, the use of civil monetary penalties is increasing as Congress creates new bases of liability. This development leads to the question: Are civil monetary penalties a weapon against fraud or an instrument of federal policy?

  20. Topics in global convergence of density estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devroye, L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of estimating a density f on R sup d from a sample Xz(1),...,X(n) of independent identically distributed random vectors is critically examined, and some recent results in the field are reviewed. The following statements are qualified: (1) For any sequence of density estimates f(n), any arbitrary slow rate of convergence to 0 is possible for E(integral/f(n)-fl); (2) In theoretical comparisons of density estimates, integral/f(n)-f/ should be used and not integral/f(n)-f/sup p, p 1; and (3) For most reasonable nonparametric density estimates, either there is convergence of integral/f(n)-f/ (and then the convergence is in the strongest possible sense for all f), or there is no convergence (even in the weakest possible sense for a single f). There is no intermediate situation.

  1. Speeding Convergence In Simulations Of Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, J.; Cheung, S.; Cheer, A.; Hafez, M.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes study aimed at accelerating rates of convergence of iterative schemes for numerical integration of equations of hypersonic flow of viscous and inviscid fluids. Richardson-type overrelaxation method applied.

  2. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference. PMID:27585543

  3. Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)

  4. Low-Convergence Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutz, Stephen; Vesey, Roger; Sinars, Daniel; Sefkow, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations indicate that pulsed-power driven liner-implosions could produce substantial fusion yields if the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel is first magnetized and preheated [S.A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. As with all inertial fusion, the implosions could be degraded by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Since highly convergent implosions are more susceptible to this instability, we have explored the necessary conditions to obtain significant fusion yield with low-convergence liner-implosions. Such low-convergence implosions can be obtained if the fuel is sufficiently preheated and magnetized. We present analytic and numerical studies of laser plasma heating, which indicate that low convergence implosions should be possible with sufficient laser energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contra.

  5. New convergence estimates for multigrid algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.

    1987-10-01

    In this paper, new convergence estimates are proved for both symmetric and nonsymmetric multigrid algorithms applied to symmetric positive definite problems. Our theory relates the convergence of multigrid algorithms to a ''regularity and approximation'' parameter ..cap alpha.. epsilon (0, 1) and the number of relaxations m. We show that for the symmetric and nonsymmetric ..nu.. cycles, the multigrid iteration converges for any positive m at a rate which deteriorates no worse than 1-cj/sup -(1-//sup ..cap alpha..//sup )///sup ..cap alpha../, where j is the number of grid levels. We then define a generalized ..nu.. cycle algorithm which involves exponentially increasing (for example, doubling) the number of smoothings on successively coarser grids. We show that the resulting symmetric and nonsymmetric multigrid iterations converge for any ..cap alpha.. with rates that are independent of the mesh size. The theory is presented in an abstract setting which can be applied to finite element multigrid and finite difference multigrid methods.

  6. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference. PMID:27585543

  7. On Convergent Probability of a Random Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Y.-F.; Ching, W.-K.

    2006-01-01

    This note introduces an interesting random walk on a straight path with cards of random numbers. The method of recurrent relations is used to obtain the convergent probability of the random walk with different initial positions.

  8. Efficient Controls for Finitely Convergent Sequential Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Herman, Gabor T.

    2010-01-01

    Finding a feasible point that satisfies a set of constraints is a common task in scientific computing: examples are the linear feasibility problem and the convex feasibility problem. Finitely convergent sequential algorithms can be used for solving such problems; an example of such an algorithm is ART3, which is defined in such a way that its control is cyclic in the sense that during its execution it repeatedly cycles through the given constraints. Previously we found a variant of ART3 whose control is no longer cyclic, but which is still finitely convergent and in practice it usually converges faster than ART3 does. In this paper we propose a general methodology for automatic transformation of finitely convergent sequential algorithms in such a way that (i) finite convergence is retained and (ii) the speed of convergence is improved. The first of these two properties is proven by mathematical theorems, the second is illustrated by applying the algorithms to a practical problem. PMID:20953327

  9. Improved Convergence for Two-Component Activity Expansions

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, H E; Rogers, F J; Sonnad, V

    2007-03-06

    It is well known that an activity expansion of the grand canonical partition function works well for attractive interactions, but works poorly for repulsive interactions, such as occur between atoms and molecules. The virial expansion of the canonical partition function shows just the opposite behavior. This poses a problem for applications that involve both types of interactions, such as occur in the outer layers of low-mass stars. We show that it is possible to obtain expansions for repulsive systems that convert the poorly performing Mayer activity expansion into a series of rational polynomials that converge uniformly to the virial expansion. In the current work we limit our discussion to the second virial approximation. In contrast to the Mayer activity expansion the activity expansion presented herein converges for both attractive and repulsive systems.

  10. Assessment of self-consistent field convergence in spin-dependent relativistic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Masahiko; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    This Letter assesses the self-consistent field (SCF) convergence behavior in the generalized Hartree-Fock (GHF) method. Four acceleration algorithms were implemented for efficient SCF convergence in the GHF method: the damping algorithm, the conventional direct inversion in the iterative subspace (DIIS), the energy-DIIS (EDIIS), and a combination of DIIS and EDIIS. Four different systems with varying complexity were used to investigate the SCF convergence using these algorithms, ranging from atomic systems to metal complexes. The numerical assessments demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of DIIS and EDIIS for GHF calculations in comparison with the other discussed algorithms.

  11. The Impact of Social Pressure and Monetary Incentive on Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Ličen, Mina; Hartmann, Frank; Repovš, Grega; Slapničar, Sergeja

    2016-01-01

    We compare the effects of two prominent organizational control mechanisms-social pressure and monetary incentive-on cognitive control. Cognitive control underlies the human ability to regulate thoughts and actions in the pursuit of behavioral goals. Previous studies show that monetary incentives can contribute to goal-oriented behavior by activating proactive control. There is, however, much less evidence of how social pressure affects cognitive control and task performance. In a within-subject experimental design, we tested 47 subjects performing the AX-CPT task to compare the activation of cognitive control modes under social pressure and monetary incentive beyond mere instructions to perform better. Our results indicate that instructing participants to improve their performance on its own leads to a significant shift from a reactive to a proactive control mode and that both social pressure and monetary incentive further enhance performance. PMID:26903901

  12. Monetary Incentives in Speeded Perceptual Decision: Effects of Penalizing Errors Versus Slow Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dambacher, Michael; Hübner, Ronald; Schlösser, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The influence of monetary incentives on performance has been widely investigated among various disciplines. While the results reveal positive incentive effects only under specific conditions, the exact nature, and the contribution of mediating factors are largely unexplored. The present study examined influences of payoff schemes as one of these factors. In particular, we manipulated penalties for errors and slow responses in a speeded categorization task. The data show improved performance for monetary over symbolic incentives when (a) penalties are higher for slow responses than for errors, and (b) neither slow responses nor errors are punished. Conversely, payoff schemes with stronger punishment for errors than for slow responses resulted in worse performance under monetary incentives. The findings suggest that an emphasis of speed is favorable for positive influences of monetary incentives, whereas an emphasis of accuracy under time pressure has the opposite effect. PMID:21980316

  13. The Impact of Social Pressure and Monetary Incentive on Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Ličen, Mina; Hartmann, Frank; Repovš, Grega; Slapničar, Sergeja

    2016-01-01

    We compare the effects of two prominent organizational control mechanisms—social pressure and monetary incentive—on cognitive control. Cognitive control underlies the human ability to regulate thoughts and actions in the pursuit of behavioral goals. Previous studies show that monetary incentives can contribute to goal-oriented behavior by activating proactive control. There is, however, much less evidence of how social pressure affects cognitive control and task performance. In a within-subject experimental design, we tested 47 subjects performing the AX-CPT task to compare the activation of cognitive control modes under social pressure and monetary incentive beyond mere instructions to perform better. Our results indicate that instructing participants to improve their performance on its own leads to a significant shift from a reactive to a proactive control mode and that both social pressure and monetary incentive further enhance performance. PMID:26903901

  14. 49 CFR 526.5 - Earning offsetting monetary credits in future model years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... UNDER THE AUTOMOBILE FUEL EFFICIENCY ACT OF 1980 § 526.5 Earning offsetting monetary credits in future... the petitioner's fleet affected by each product action (e.g., all K-cars with 6-cylinder engines)...

  15. Integrated provenance analysis of a convergent retroarc foreland system: U-Pb ages, heavy minerals, Nd isotopes, and sandstone compositions of the Middle Magdalena Valley basin, northern Andes, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Junsheng; Horton, Brian K.; Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Mange, Maria; Garzione, Carmala N.; Basu, Asish; Moreno, Christopher J.; Caballero, Victor; Parra, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Sediment provenance analysis remains a powerful method for testing hypotheses on the temporal and spatial evolution of uplifted source regions, but issues such as recycling, nonunique sources, and pre- and post-depositional modifications may complicate interpretation of results from individual provenance techniques. Convergent retroarc systems commonly contain sediment sources that are sufficiently diverse (continental magmatic arc, fold-thrust belt, and stable craton) to enable explicit provenance assessments. In this paper, we combine detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy mineral identification, Nd isotopic analyses, conventional sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements to reconstruct the clastic provenance history of a long-lived sedimentary basin now exposed in an intermontane zone of the northern Andean hinterland of Colombia. The Middle Magdalena Valley basin, situated between the Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera, contains a 5-10 km-thick succession of Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary fill. The integrated techniques show a pronounced change in provenance during the Paleocene transition from the lower to upper Lisama Formation. We interpret this as a shift from an eastern cratonic source to a western Andean source composed of magmatic-arc rocks uplifted during initial shortening of the Central Cordillera. The appearance of detrital chloritoid and a shift to more negative ɛ Nd(t=0) values in middle Eocene strata of the middle La Paz Formation are attributed to shortening-related exhumation of a continental basement block (La Cira-Infantas paleohigh), now buried, along the axis of the Magdalena Valley. The diverse provenance proxies also show distinct changes during middle to late Eocene deposition of the Esmeraldas Formation that likely reflect initial rock uplift and exhumation of the fold-thrust belt defining the Eastern Cordillera. Upsection, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblages for Oligocene and younger clastic

  16. A statistical method for verifying mesh convergence in Monte Carlo simulations with application to fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Joseph E.; Strack, O. E.

    2011-03-22

    A novel method is presented for assessing the convergence of a sequence of statistical distributions generated by direct Monte Carlo sampling. The primary application is to assess the mesh or grid convergence, and possibly divergence, of stochastic outputs from non-linear continuum systems. Example systems include those from fluid or solid mechanics, particularly those with instabilities and sensitive dependence on initial conditions or system parameters. The convergence assessment is based on demonstrating empirically that a sequence of cumulative distribution functions converges in the Linfty norm. The effect of finite sample sizes is quantified using confidence levels from the Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistic. The statistical method is independent of the underlying distributions. The statistical method is demonstrated using two examples: (1) the logistic map in the chaotic regime, and (2) a fragmenting ductile ring modeled with an explicit-dynamics finite element code. In the fragmenting ring example the convergence of the distribution describing neck spacing is investigated. The initial yield strength is treated as a random field. Two different random fields are considered, one with spatial correlation and the other without. Both cases converged, albeit to different distributions. The case with spatial correlation exhibited a significantly higher convergence rate compared with the one without spatial correlation.

  17. Superlinearly converging dimer method for transition state search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kästner, Johannes; Sherwood, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Algorithmic improvements of the dimer method [G. Henkelman and H. Jónsson, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7010 (1999)] are described in this paper. Using the limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) optimizer for the dimer translation greatly improves the convergence compared to the previously used conjugate gradient algorithm. It also saves one energy and gradient calculation per dimer iteration. Extrapolation of the gradient during repeated dimer rotations reduces the computational cost to one gradient calculation per dimer rotation. The L-BFGS algorithm also improves convergence of the rotation. Thus, three to four energy and gradient evaluations are needed per iteration at the beginning of a transition state search, while only two are required close to convergence. Moreover, we apply the dimer method in internal coordinates to reduce coupling between the degrees of freedom. Weighting the coordinates can be used to apply chemical knowledge about the system and restrict the transition state search to only part of the system while minimizing the remainder. These improvements led to an efficient method for the location of transition states without the need to calculate the Hessian. Thus, it is especially useful in large systems with expensive gradient evaluations.

  18. Convergent evolution in mechanical design of lamnid sharks and tunas.

    PubMed

    Donley, Jeanine M; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Konstantinidis, Peter; Gemballa, Sven; Shadwick, Robert E

    2004-05-01

    The evolution of 'thunniform' body shapes in several different groups of vertebrates, including whales, ichthyosaurs and several species of large pelagic fishes supports the view that physical and hydromechanical demands provided important selection pressures to optimize body design for locomotion during vertebrate evolution. Recognition of morphological similarities between lamnid sharks (the most well known being the great white and the mako) and tunas has led to a general expectation that they also have converged in their functional design; however, no quantitative data exist on the mechanical performance of the locomotor system in lamnid sharks. Here we examine the swimming kinematics, in vivo muscle dynamics and functional morphology of the force-transmission system in a lamnid shark, and show that the evolutionary convergence in body shape and mechanical design between the distantly related lamnids and tunas is much more than skin deep; it extends to the depths of the myotendinous architecture and the mechanical basis for propulsive movements. We demonstrate that not only have lamnids and tunas converged to a much greater extent than previously known, but they have also developed morphological and functional adaptations in their locomotor systems that are unlike virtually all other fishes.

  19. The role of monetary incentives in feedback processing: why we should pay our participants.

    PubMed

    Van den Berg, Ivo; Shaul, Lilach; Van der Veen, Frederik M; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2012-04-18

    Performance monitoring has been associated with two event-related potentials. The feedback-related negativity reflects a reinforcement-learning signal leading to remedial action, whereas the P3 reflects the motivational significance of feedback outcomes. Till date, research has focused on how these components are influenced by different outcomes within a range of the same, usually monetary, feedback type. This study examined how different feedback types (monetary vs. nonmonetary) influence these two components. Participants performed a time-estimation task under a monetary and a nonmonetary condition. Larger feedback-related negativities, better overall performance, and smaller behavioral adjustments were found under the monetary condition. Larger P3 amplitudes were present under the monetary condition and in response to positive outcomes. Condition order influenced only the P3. Addition of financial incentives increased the P3 amplitude, whereas removal of financial incentives did not alter the P3 amplitude. The results suggest that individuals were more reluctant to commit errors under the monetary condition as evidenced by more pronounced reinforcement-learning signals and better overall performance. Positive outcomes under this condition were most salient as indicated by larger P3s. PMID:22395657

  20. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening. PMID:20440979

  1. Child health and the international monetary fund: the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed

    Curtis, E

    1998-11-14

    In 1979, when the Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (FSLN), a popular revolutionary front, deposed Nicaragua's ruling Somoza family, the Nicaraguan population's health status ranked with that of Bolivia and Honduras as the worst in Latin America. The Sandinista government committed itself to improving health services and health status such that in 1982, the World Health Organization commended the major advances in health care made in the government's first few years. That progress, however, has not been maintained as Sandinista health, nutrition, literacy, and agrarian programs have been abandoned by the government under pressure from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the US government to privatize and cut public spending. The progress made over the past decade is now being undone by an imposed structural adjustment policy and the burden of international debt. The IMF has disregarded social equity as a criterion for its programs. Under current conditions, the health and well-being of the Nicaraguan people will continue to deteriorate. Until the Nicaraguan debt situation is resolved, there is no hope for sustainable growth and development. PMID:9843123

  2. The value of exercising control over monetary gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Leotti, Lauren A; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-02-01

    Using functional MRI, we examined how the affective experience of choice, the means by which individuals exercise control, is modulated by the valence of potential outcomes (gains, losses). When trials involved potential gains, participants reported liking cues predicting a choice opportunity better than cues predicting no choice opportunity--an effect that corresponded with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) increases in ventral striatum (VS) activity. Surprisingly, no differences were observed between choice and no-choice cues when participants anticipated potential losses. Individual differences in subjective choice preference in the loss condition, however, corresponded to choice-related BOLD activity in VS. We conducted a second experiment to examine whether monetary losses were perceived differently in the context of simultaneous gains. When losses occurred in the absence of gains, participants showed an increased affective experience of choice--they reported greater liking of choice than no-choice trials, and VS activity was greater for choice than for no-choice cues. Collectively, the findings suggest that the affective experience of choice involves reward-processing circuitry when people anticipate appetitive and aversive outcomes, but the choice experience may be sensitive to context and individual differences. PMID:24390827

  3. Gene acquisition convergence between entomopoxviruses and baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Thézé, Julien; Takatsuka, Jun; Nakai, Madoka; Arif, Basil; Herniou, Elisabeth A

    2015-04-01

    Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae) and the baculoviruses (BVs). EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host's immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.

  4. Strong convergence for reduced free products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisier, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    Using an inequality due to Ricard and Xu, we give a different proof of Paul Skoufranis’s recent result showing that the strong convergence of possibly non-commutative random variables X(k) → X is stable under reduced free product with a fixed non-commutative random variable Y. In fact we obtain a more general fact: assuming that the families X(k) = {X i(k)} and Y(k) = {Y j(k)} are ∗-free as well as their limits (in moments) X = {Xi} and Y = {Yj}, the strong convergences X(k) → X and Y(k) → Y imply that of {X(k),Y(k)} to {X,Y }. Phrased in more striking language: the reduced free product is “continuous” with respect to strong convergence. The analogue for weak convergence (i.e. convergence of all moments) is obvious. Our approach extends to the amalgamated free product, left open by Skoufranis.

  5. Numerical Convergence In Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qirong; Hernquist, Lars; Li, Yuexing

    2015-02-01

    We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and Nnb → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and Nnb is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding Nnb fixed. We demonstrate that if Nnb is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if Nnb is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for Nnb by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find Nnb vpropN 0.5. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N 1 + δ), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.

  6. Grid Convergence for Turbulent Flows(Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Schwoppe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    A detailed grid convergence study has been conducted to establish accurate reference solutions corresponding to the one-equation linear eddy-viscosity Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for two dimensional turbulent flows around the NACA 0012 airfoil and a flat plate. The study involved three widely used codes, CFL3D (NASA), FUN3D (NASA), and TAU (DLR), and families of uniformly refined structured grids that differ in the grid density patterns. Solutions computed by different codes on different grid families appear to converge to the same continuous limit, but exhibit different convergence characteristics. The grid resolution in the vicinity of geometric singularities, such as a sharp trailing edge, is found to be the major factor affecting accuracy and convergence of discrete solutions, more prominent than differences in discretization schemes and/or grid elements. The results reported for these relatively simple turbulent flows demonstrate that CFL3D, FUN3D, and TAU solutions are very accurate on the finest grids used in the study, but even those grids are not sufficient to conclusively establish an asymptotic convergence order.

  7. Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths

    PubMed Central

    Abley, Katie; Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Marée, Athanasius FM; Coen, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The development of outgrowths from plant shoots depends on formation of epidermal sites of cell polarity convergence with high intracellular auxin at their centre. A parsimonious model for generation of convergence sites is that cell polarity for the auxin transporter PIN1 orients up auxin gradients, as this spontaneously generates convergent alignments. Here we test predictions of this and other models for the patterns of auxin biosynthesis and import. Live imaging of outgrowths from kanadi1 kanadi2 Arabidopsis mutant leaves shows that they arise by formation of PIN1 convergence sites within a proximodistal polarity field. PIN1 polarities are oriented away from regions of high auxin biosynthesis enzyme expression, and towards regions of high auxin importer expression. Both expression patterns are required for normal outgrowth emergence, and may form part of a common module underlying shoot outgrowths. These findings are more consistent with models that spontaneously generate tandem rather than convergent alignments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18165.001 PMID:27478985

  8. Preconditioning methods for improved convergence rates in iterative reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Clinthorne, N.H.; Chiao, Pingchun; Rogers, W.L. . Div. of Nuclear Medicine); Pan, T.S. . Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Stamos, J.A. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Because of the characteristics of the tomographic inversion problem, iterative reconstruction techniques often suffer from poor convergence rates--especially at high spatial frequencies. By using preconditioning methods, the convergence properties of most iterative methods can be greatly enhanced without changing their ultimate solution. To increase reconstruction speed, the authors have applied spatially-invariant preconditioning filters that can be designed using the tomographic system response and implemented using 2-D frequency-domain filtering techniques. In a sample application, the authors performed reconstructions from noiseless, simulated projection data, using preconditioned and conventional steepest-descent algorithms. The preconditioned methods demonstrated residuals that were up to a factor of 30 lower than the unassisted algorithms at the same iteration. Applications of these methods to regularized reconstructions from projection data containing Poisson noise showed similar, although not as dramatic, behavior.

  9. The asymptotic convergence factor for a polygon under a perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.

    1994-12-31

    Let Ax = b be a large system of linear equations, where A {element_of} C{sup NxN}, nonsingular and b {element_of} C{sup N}. A few iterative methods for solving have recently been presented in the case where A is nonsymmetric. Many of their algorithms consist of two phases: Phase I: estimate the extreme eigenvalues of A; Phase II: construct and apply an iterative method based on the estimates. For convenience, it is rewritten as an equivalent fixed-point form, x = Tx + c. Let {Omega} be a compact set excluding 1 in the complex plane, and let its complement in the extended complex plane be simply connected. The asymptotic convergence factor (ACF) for {Omega}, denoted by {kappa}({Omega}), measures the rate of convergence for the asymptotically optimal semiiterative methods for solving, where {sigma}(T) {contained_in} {Omega}.

  10. Analysis and optimisation of the convergence behaviour of the single channel digital tanlock loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kharji Al-Ali, Omar; Anani, Nader; Al-Araji, Saleh; Al-Qutayri, Mahmoud

    2013-09-01

    The mathematical analysis of the convergence behaviour of the first-order single channel digital tanlock loop (SC-DTL) is presented. This article also describes a novel technique that allows controlling the convergence speed of the loop, i.e. the time taken by the phase-error to reach its steady-state value, by using a specialised controller unit. The controller is used to adjust the convergence speed so as to selectively optimise a given performance parameter of the loop. For instance, the controller may be used to speed up the convergence in order to increase the lock range and improve the acquisition speed. However, since increasing the lock range can degrade the noise immunity of the system, in a noisy environment the controller can slow down the convergence speed until locking is achieved. Once the system is in lock, the convergence speed can be increased to improve the acquisition speed. The performance of the SC-DTL system was assessed against similar arctan-based loops and the results demonstrate the success of the controller in optimising the performance of the SC-DTL loop. The results of the system testing using MATLAB/Simulink simulation are presented. A prototype of the proposed system was implemented using a field programmable gate array module and the practical results are in good agreement with those obtained by simulation.

  11. Mnemonic convergence in the human hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Alexander R.; Bosch, Sander E.; Ekman, Matthias; Grabovetsky, Alejandro Vicente; Doeller, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to form associations between a multitude of events is the hallmark of episodic memory. Computational models have espoused the importance of the hippocampus as convergence zone, binding different aspects of an episode into a coherent representation, by integrating information from multiple brain regions. However, evidence for this long-held hypothesis is limited, since previous work has largely focused on representational and network properties of the hippocampus in isolation. Here we identify the hippocampus as mnemonic convergence zone, using a combination of multivariate pattern and graph-theoretical network analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from humans performing an associative memory task. We observe overlap of conjunctive coding and hub-like network attributes in the hippocampus. These results provide evidence for mnemonic convergence in the hippocampus, underlying the integration of distributed information into episodic memory representations. PMID:27325442

  12. Monetary alloys in Iron Age Armorica (Finistère, France): The singular case of the Osismi tribe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M. F.; Abollivier, Ph.

    2016-06-01

    The analysis by PIXE and PAA of 64 coins struck in Iron Age Armorica by the Osismi tribe revealed the use of a different system from the usual Celtic Gaul tri-metallic system. The gold-based alloy (Au-Ag-Cu) firstly issued is debased over time to become a silver-based alloy (Ag-Cu-Sn). Based on the analytical data, two chronological phases were defined and dates of issuing could be ascribed to the coin-types. The presence of Sn and Sb in the alloys and the low contents of Pb were used in the attribution of 9 specimens of unknown origin to the Osismi monetary system. Considerations on the mints supplies could also be provided.

  13. Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs.

    PubMed

    Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of

  14. Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs.

    PubMed

    Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of

  15. Large field cutoffs make perturbative series converge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurice, Yannick

    For λφ4 problems, convergent perturbative series can be obtained by cutting off the large field configurations. The modified series converge to values exponentially close to the exact ones. For λ larger than some critical value, the method outperforms Padé approximants and Borel summations. We discuss some aspects of the semi-classical methods used to calculate the modified Feynman rules and estimate the error associated with the procedure. We provide a simple numerical example where the procedure works despite the fact that the Borel sum has singularities on the positive real axis.

  16. Large field cutoffs make perturbative series converge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurice, Yannick

    2002-03-01

    For λφ 4 problems, convergent perturbative series can be obtained by cutting off the large field configurations. The modified series converge to values exponentially close to the exact ones. For λ larger than some critical value, the method outperforms Padé approximants and Borel summations. We discuss some aspects of the semi-classical methods used to calculate the modified Feynman rules and estimate the error associated with the procedure. We provide a simple numerical example where the procedure works despite the fact that the Borel sum has singularities on the positive real axis.

  17. On Iλ -statistical convergence of weight g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savas, Ekrem

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, following a very recent and new approach of [M. Balcerzak, P. Das, M. Filipczak, and J. Swaczyna, Acta Math. Hungar. 147, 97-115 (2015)], we further generalize the recently introduced summability method of [E. Savas, and P. Das, Appl. Math. Lett. 24, 826-830 (2011)] and introduce the new notion namely, Iλ -statistical convergence of weight g, where g : ℕ → [0, ∞) is a function satisfying g(n) → ∞ and g(n) ↛ 0 as n → ∞. We mainly investigate certain properties of this convergence.

  18. Convergence Zone over the Patagonian Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The bright waters off the east coast of Argentina mark the convergence of the Malvinas and Brazil Currents. The interaction of the two currents brings nutrients from the dark ocean depths to the sunlit surface, resulting in dense blooms of phytoplankton, especially in the spring and early summer. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) imaged the area on November 29, 2001. For more information, read Convergence Zones: Where the Action Is Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. Monetary Diet Cost, Diet Quality, and Parental Socioeconomic Status in Spanish Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d) and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d). Results Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d). Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, p<0.019). High Mediterranean diet adherence (KIDMED score 8–12) was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d) more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0–3). Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear p<0.001; nonlinear p = 0.010). Conclusion Higher monetary daily diet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality. PMID:27622518

  20. Delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards with decoys.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Benjamin P; Faulkner, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The current research attempted to decrease individuals' rates of delay discounting by introducing decoys that are similar but inferior to delayed rewards. Two experiments in the current study compared patterns of delay discounting generated by repeated choices between two hypothetical monetary rewards in the absence or presence of a decoy. Binary questionnaires (i.e., decoy absent) included questions with two options: a smaller-sooner (SS) reward and a larger-later (LL) reward. Trinary questionnaires (i.e., decoy present) included questions with three options: an SS reward, an LL reward, and a decoy. If an option is at least as rewarding on every dimension of value as an alternative and the option is more rewarding than an alternative on at least one dimension, then the option is considered to dominate the alternative (Wedell, 1991). The first experiment assessed the influence of decoys dominated by LL rewards (LL(-) decoys), which were constructed to be similar (on the dimension of amount) but inferior (on the dimension of delay) to LL rewards. The second experiment examined the effects of counterbalancing the order of binary and trinary questionnaires. In the first experiment, participants discounted to a lesser degree when LL(-) decoys were present as compared to when they were absent. In the second experiment, participants only discounted to a lesser degree on trinary questionnaires with LL(-) decoys when they had not previously completed binary questionnaires. Patterns of discounting generated by binary questionnaires were similar to those generated by trinary questionnaires when decoys are present; however, the degree to which individuals discounted delayed rewards was affected by the number of and type of options that were available. The current results join previous evidence suggesting that rates of delay discounting are sensitive to a variety of contextual influences. PMID:26521171

  1. Delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards with decoys.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Benjamin P; Faulkner, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The current research attempted to decrease individuals' rates of delay discounting by introducing decoys that are similar but inferior to delayed rewards. Two experiments in the current study compared patterns of delay discounting generated by repeated choices between two hypothetical monetary rewards in the absence or presence of a decoy. Binary questionnaires (i.e., decoy absent) included questions with two options: a smaller-sooner (SS) reward and a larger-later (LL) reward. Trinary questionnaires (i.e., decoy present) included questions with three options: an SS reward, an LL reward, and a decoy. If an option is at least as rewarding on every dimension of value as an alternative and the option is more rewarding than an alternative on at least one dimension, then the option is considered to dominate the alternative (Wedell, 1991). The first experiment assessed the influence of decoys dominated by LL rewards (LL(-) decoys), which were constructed to be similar (on the dimension of amount) but inferior (on the dimension of delay) to LL rewards. The second experiment examined the effects of counterbalancing the order of binary and trinary questionnaires. In the first experiment, participants discounted to a lesser degree when LL(-) decoys were present as compared to when they were absent. In the second experiment, participants only discounted to a lesser degree on trinary questionnaires with LL(-) decoys when they had not previously completed binary questionnaires. Patterns of discounting generated by binary questionnaires were similar to those generated by trinary questionnaires when decoys are present; however, the degree to which individuals discounted delayed rewards was affected by the number of and type of options that were available. The current results join previous evidence suggesting that rates of delay discounting are sensitive to a variety of contextual influences.

  2. Monetary cost for time spent in everyday physical activities.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Anne S; Vlaev, Ivo

    2014-05-01

    We measured utility curves for the hypothetical monetary costs as a function of time engaged in three everyday physical activities: walking, standing, and sitting. We found that activities requiring more physical exertion resulted in steeper discount curves, i.e., perceived cost as a function of time. We also examined the effects of gain vs. loss framing (whether the activity brought additional rewards or prevented losses) as well as the effects of the individual factors of gender, income, and BMI. Steeper discount curves were associated with higher income (annual household ≥ median of $45,000) and gain framing (which indicates loss aversion). There were interactions between gender and frame, and also income and frame: Females and higher income participants showed loss aversion whereas males and lower income participants were not affected by framing. Males showed less discounting in gain frames relative to females, whereas females showed less discounting in loss frames relative to males. In gain frames, higher income participants discounted more but in loss frames there was no effect of income. We also found individual tendencies for discounting across activities: if an individual exhibited steeper discounting for one activity, they were also more likely to exhibit steeper discounting for the other activities. These results have implications for designers of interventions to encourage non-exercise physical activities, suggesting that loss-framed incentives are more effective for women and those with middle class (or greater) incomes. Furthermore loss framed incentives have more uniform impact across income brackets because people discount loss frames similarly regardless of income whereas those with middle-class incomes are not as motivated by gain frames. Our results also demonstrate a general method for examining the costs of effort associated with everyday activities. PMID:24632051

  3. Anticipation of Monetary Reward Can Attenuate the Vigilance Decrement

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Mallory; Liu, Guanyu; Mitko, Alex; Morris, Rachael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Motivation and reward can have differential effects on separate aspects of sustained attention. We previously demonstrated that continuous reward/punishment throughout a sustained attention task improves overall performance, but not vigilance decrements. One interpretation of these findings is that vigilance decrements are due to resource depletion, which is not overcome by increasing overall motivation. However, an alternative explanation is that as one performs a continuously rewarded task there are less potential gains/losses as the task progresses, which could decrease motivation over time, producing a vigilance decrement. This would predict that keeping future gains/losses consistent throughout the task would reduce the vigilance decrement. In the current study, we examined this possibility by comparing two versions (continuous-small loss vs. anticipate-large loss) of a 10-minute gradual onset continuous performance task (gradCPT), a challenging go/no-go sustained attention task. Participants began each task with the potential to keep $18. In the continuous-small-loss version, small monetary losses were accrued continuously throughout the task for each error. However, in the anticipate-large-loss version, participants lost all $18 if they erroneously responded to one target that always appeared toward the end of the vigil. Typical vigilance decrements were observed in the continuous-small-loss condition. In the anticipate-large-loss condition, vigilance decrements were reduced, particularly when the anticipate-large loss condition was completed second. This suggests that the looming possibility of a large loss can attenuate the vigilance decrement and that this attenuation may occur most consistently after sufficient task experience. We discuss these results in the context of current theories of sustained attention. PMID:27472785

  4. Monetary cost for time spent in everyday physical activities.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Anne S; Vlaev, Ivo

    2014-05-01

    We measured utility curves for the hypothetical monetary costs as a function of time engaged in three everyday physical activities: walking, standing, and sitting. We found that activities requiring more physical exertion resulted in steeper discount curves, i.e., perceived cost as a function of time. We also examined the effects of gain vs. loss framing (whether the activity brought additional rewards or prevented losses) as well as the effects of the individual factors of gender, income, and BMI. Steeper discount curves were associated with higher income (annual household ≥ median of $45,000) and gain framing (which indicates loss aversion). There were interactions between gender and frame, and also income and frame: Females and higher income participants showed loss aversion whereas males and lower income participants were not affected by framing. Males showed less discounting in gain frames relative to females, whereas females showed less discounting in loss frames relative to males. In gain frames, higher income participants discounted more but in loss frames there was no effect of income. We also found individual tendencies for discounting across activities: if an individual exhibited steeper discounting for one activity, they were also more likely to exhibit steeper discounting for the other activities. These results have implications for designers of interventions to encourage non-exercise physical activities, suggesting that loss-framed incentives are more effective for women and those with middle class (or greater) incomes. Furthermore loss framed incentives have more uniform impact across income brackets because people discount loss frames similarly regardless of income whereas those with middle-class incomes are not as motivated by gain frames. Our results also demonstrate a general method for examining the costs of effort associated with everyday activities.

  5. Anticipation of Monetary Reward Can Attenuate the Vigilance Decrement.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Michael; Grosso, Mallory; Liu, Guanyu; Mitko, Alex; Morris, Rachael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Motivation and reward can have differential effects on separate aspects of sustained attention. We previously demonstrated that continuous reward/punishment throughout a sustained attention task improves overall performance, but not vigilance decrements. One interpretation of these findings is that vigilance decrements are due to resource depletion, which is not overcome by increasing overall motivation. However, an alternative explanation is that as one performs a continuously rewarded task there are less potential gains/losses as the task progresses, which could decrease motivation over time, producing a vigilance decrement. This would predict that keeping future gains/losses consistent throughout the task would reduce the vigilance decrement. In the current study, we examined this possibility by comparing two versions (continuous-small loss vs. anticipate-large loss) of a 10-minute gradual onset continuous performance task (gradCPT), a challenging go/no-go sustained attention task. Participants began each task with the potential to keep $18. In the continuous-small-loss version, small monetary losses were accrued continuously throughout the task for each error. However, in the anticipate-large-loss version, participants lost all $18 if they erroneously responded to one target that always appeared toward the end of the vigil. Typical vigilance decrements were observed in the continuous-small-loss condition. In the anticipate-large-loss condition, vigilance decrements were reduced, particularly when the anticipate-large loss condition was completed second. This suggests that the looming possibility of a large loss can attenuate the vigilance decrement and that this attenuation may occur most consistently after sufficient task experience. We discuss these results in the context of current theories of sustained attention. PMID:27472785

  6. Schematic memory components converge within angular gyrus during retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Isabella C; van Buuren, Mariët; Kroes, Marijn CW; Gutteling, Tjerk P; van der Linden, Marieke; Morris, Richard G; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    Mental schemas form associative knowledge structures that can promote the encoding and consolidation of new and related information. Schemas are facilitated by a distributed system that stores components separately, presumably in the form of inter-connected neocortical representations. During retrieval, these components need to be recombined into one representation, but where exactly such recombination takes place is unclear. Thus, we asked where different schema components are neuronally represented and converge during retrieval. Subjects acquired and retrieved two well-controlled, rule-based schema structures during fMRI on consecutive days. Schema retrieval was associated with midline, medial-temporal, and parietal processing. We identified the multi-voxel representations of different schema components, which converged within the angular gyrus during retrieval. Critically, convergence only happened after 24-hour-consolidation and during a transfer test where schema material was applied to novel but related trials. Therefore, the angular gyrus appears to recombine consolidated schema components into one memory representation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09668.001 PMID:26575291

  7. Schematic memory components converge within angular gyrus during retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Isabella C; van Buuren, Mariët; Kroes, Marijn C W; Gutteling, Tjerk P; van der Linden, Marieke; Morris, Richard G; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    Mental schemas form associative knowledge structures that can promote the encoding and consolidation of new and related information. Schemas are facilitated by a distributed system that stores components separately, presumably in the form of inter-connected neocortical representations. During retrieval, these components need to be recombined into one representation, but where exactly such recombination takes place is unclear. Thus, we asked where different schema components are neuronally represented and converge during retrieval. Subjects acquired and retrieved two well-controlled, rule-based schema structures during fMRI on consecutive days. Schema retrieval was associated with midline, medial-temporal, and parietal processing. We identified the multi-voxel representations of different schema components, which converged within the angular gyrus during retrieval. Critically, convergence only happened after 24-hour-consolidation and during a transfer test where schema material was applied to novel but related trials. Therefore, the angular gyrus appears to recombine consolidated schema components into one memory representation. PMID:26575291

  8. Convergence between central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhadze, Giorgi; Floyd, Mike; Cowgill, Eric; Chen, Horng-Yue; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Caucasus region is the relatively young part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and represent northernmost edge of intracontinental collision of Arabia-Eurasia plates. Greater and Lesser Caucasus are major tectonic units and separated by west Rioni basin, Dzirula Massif and east Kura (Mtkvari) basin, with fold-thrust belt. During last decades, Instrumentally recorded earthquakes revealed, that Greater and Lesser Caucasus margins are active, where north dipping thrust earthquakes Racha(6,9Mw, 1991 year), Barisako(6.4Mw, 1992 year) and flank of Lesser Caucasus Gori(6.2Mw, 1920 year) and south dipping thrust Baghdati(5.3Mw, 2011 year) produced. Geodetic and Geologic observation Shows that major present-day crustal deformation are between lesser and greater Caucasus, where convergence rate increase from WNW to ESE (~2 to ~12 mm/yr). Deformation in the east part of Kura basin is accommodated to the north, foothill of the greater Caucasus, where north dipping thrust system presence, which is coherent with seismic activity. However in the west(42E - 44.5E) convergence not well constrained and slip distribution between Lesser and Greater Caucasus is ambiguous. In this study we present combined previously published and new geodetic observation for present-day surface motions and constrain convergence and position of locked fault in the central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus.

  9. The toxicogenomic multiverse: convergent recruitment of proteins into animal venoms.

    PubMed

    Fry, Bryan G; Roelants, Kim; Champagne, Donald E; Scheib, Holger; Tyndall, Joel D A; King, Glenn F; Nevalainen, Timo J; Norman, Janette A; Lewis, Richard J; Norton, Raymond S; Renjifo, Camila; de la Vega, Ricardo C Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Throughout evolution, numerous proteins have been convergently recruited into the venoms of various animals, including centipedes, cephalopods, cone snails, fish, insects (several independent venom systems), platypus, scorpions, shrews, spiders, toxicoferan reptiles (lizards and snakes), and sea anemones. The protein scaffolds utilized convergently have included AVIT/colipase/prokineticin, CAP, chitinase, cystatin, defensins, hyaluronidase, Kunitz, lectin, lipocalin, natriuretic peptide, peptidase S1, phospholipase A(2), sphingomyelinase D, and SPRY. Many of these same venom protein types have also been convergently recruited for use in the hematophagous gland secretions of invertebrates (e.g., fleas, leeches, kissing bugs, mosquitoes, and ticks) and vertebrates (e.g., vampire bats). Here, we discuss a number of overarching structural, functional, and evolutionary generalities of the protein families from which these toxins have been frequently recruited and propose a revised and expanded working definition for venom. Given the large number of striking similarities between the protein compositions of conventional venoms and hematophagous secretions, we argue that the latter should also fall under the same definition. PMID:19640225

  10. Basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Franck, Odile Mussard, Bastien; Luppi, Eleonora Toulouse, Julien

    2015-02-21

    Range-separated density-functional theory (DFT) is an alternative approach to Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The strategy of range-separated density-functional theory consists in separating the Coulomb electron-electron interaction into long-range and short-range components and treating the long-range part by an explicit many-body wave-function method and the short-range part by a density-functional approximation. Among the advantages of using many-body methods for the long-range part of the electron-electron interaction is that they are much less sensitive to the one-electron atomic basis compared to the case of the standard Coulomb interaction. Here, we provide a detailed study of the basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory. We study the convergence of the partial-wave expansion of the long-range wave function near the electron-electron coalescence. We show that the rate of convergence is exponential with respect to the maximal angular momentum L for the long-range wave function, whereas it is polynomial for the case of the Coulomb interaction. We also study the convergence of the long-range second-order Møller-Plesset correlation energy of four systems (He, Ne, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O) with cardinal number X of the Dunning basis sets cc − p(C)V XZ and find that the error in the correlation energy is best fitted by an exponential in X. This leads us to propose a three-point complete-basis-set extrapolation scheme for range-separated density-functional theory based on an exponential formula.

  11. Convergent Cenozoic CO2 history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, D. L.; Beerling, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The quality and quantity of Cenozoic CO2 records have increased significantly in the last decade. Gains in quality have come primarily from a fuller accounting of confounding factors; examples include soil respiration rates in the pedogenic carbonate method, alkalinity and seawater δ11B in the boron method, and cell size in the alkenone phytoplankton method. Previously, variability across Cenozoic CO2 estimates in a given time period sometimes exceeded an order of magnitude, but through these improvements variability has been reduced to a factor of two or less. Further improvements in the record can probably be facilitated by more robust quantification of statistical error, generation of CO2 estimates at single locations from multiple methods, and cross-calibration with Pleistocene ice-core CO2 records (Beerling & Royer, 2011, Nature Geoscience 4: 418-420). An improved Cenozoic CO2 record offers opportunities for better understanding Earth system processes. We provide one example related to climate sensitivity. We find a significant relationship between CO2 radiative forcing and global temperature during the Cenozoic, even after accounting for forcings related to solar evolution and paleogeographic changes. Although the calculations are based on simple assumptions and should be taken as provisional, the mean Cenozoic climate sensitivity (3 °C or higher per CO2 doubling) is similar to or higher than calculations for the present-day (~3 °C per CO2 doubling).

  12. Monotonically convergent algorithms for solving quantum optimal control problems described by an integrodifferential equation of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Yukiyoshi; Teranishi, Yoshiaki; Saalfrank, Peter; Turinici, Gabriel; Rabitz, Herschel

    2007-03-01

    A family of monotonically convergent algorithms is presented for solving a wide class of quantum optimal control problems satisfying an inhomogeneous integrodifferential equation of motion. The convergence behavior is examined using a four-level model system under the influence of non-Markovian relaxation. The results show that high quality solutions can be obtained over a wide range of parameters that characterize the algorithms, independent of the presence or absence of relaxation.

  13. Dissociation between musical and monetary reward responses in specific musical anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Mas-Herrero, Ernest; Zatorre, Robert J; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Marco-Pallarés, Josep

    2014-03-17

    Music has been present in all human cultures since prehistory [1, 2], although it is not associated with any apparent biological advantages (such as food, sex, etc.) or utility value (such as money). Nevertheless, music is ranked among the highest sources of pleasure [3], and its important role in our society and culture has led to the assumption that the ability of music to induce pleasure is universal. However, this assumption has never been empirically tested. In the present report, we identified a group of healthy individuals without depression or generalized anhedonia who showed reduced behavioral pleasure ratings and no autonomic responses to pleasurable music, despite having normal musical perception capacities. These persons showed preserved behavioral and physiological responses to monetary reward, indicating that the low sensitivity to music was not due to a global hypofunction of the reward network. These results point to the existence of specific musical anhedonia and suggest that there may be individual differences in access to the reward system. PMID:24613311

  14. The International Monetary Fund's effects on global health: before and after the 2008 financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, the G20 countries committed US $750 billion to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which has assumed a central role in global economic management. The IMF provides loans to financially ailing countries, but with strict conditions, typically involving a mix of privatization, liberalization, and fiscal austerity programs. These loan conditions have been extremely controversial. In principle, they are designed to help countries balance their books. In practice, they often translate into reductions in social spending, including spending on public health and health care delivery. As more countries are being exposed to IMF policies, there is a need to establish what we know and do not know about the IMF's effects on global health. This article introduces a series in which contributors review the evidence on the relationship between the IMF and public health and discuss potential ways to improve the Fund's effects on health. While more evidence is needed for some regions, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that IMF programs have been significantly associated with weakened health care systems, reduced effectiveness of health-focused development aid, and impeded efforts to control tobacco, infectious diseases, and child and maternal mortality. Reforms are urgently needed to prevent the current wave of IMF programs from further undermining public health in financially ailing countries and limiting progress toward the health Millennium Development Goals. PMID:19927414

  15. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yulong; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people’s appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals’ perception of others’ as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflicted noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner gave money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bore the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner). Results showed that the individuals’ preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing noise) affected their relationship (exchange versus communal) with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and

  16. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yulong; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people's appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals' perception of others' as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflicted noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner gave money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bore the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner). Results showed that the individuals' preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing noise) affected their relationship (exchange versus communal) with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and showed no

  17. World health inequality: convergence, divergence, and development.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rob

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies characterize the last half of the twentieth century as an era of cross-national health convergence, with some attributing welfare gains in the developing world to economic growth. In this study, I examine the extent to which welfare outcomes have actually converged and the extent to which economic development is responsible for the observed trends. Drawing from estimates covering 195 nations during the 1955-2005 period, I find that life expectancy averages converged during this time, but that infant mortality rates continuously diverged. I develop a narrative that implicates economic development in these contrasting trends, suggesting that health outcomes follow a "welfare Kuznets curve." Among poor countries, economic development improves life expectancy more than it reduces infant mortality, whereas the situation is reversed among wealthier nations. In this way, development has contributed to both convergence in life expectancy and divergence in infant mortality. Drawing from 674 observations across 163 countries during the 1980-2005 period, I find that the positive effect of GDP PC on life expectancy attenuates at higher levels of development, while the negative effect of GDP PC on infant mortality grows stronger.

  18. Another Perspective: A Response to "Toward Convergence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This response by Thomas A. Regelski was solicited to complement the lead article in this issue, "Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture" by Evan S. Tobias. The author notes that many interesting and vital questions and alternatives that are often studiously ignored, overlooked, or taken for…

  19. Phonological Convergence in a Contracting Language Variety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Barbara E.; Gerfen, Chip

    2004-01-01

    Most work investigating the role of convergence in situations of language attrition has focused on the morpho-syntactic restructuring of the dying language variety. A central concern of such research has been untangling the factors driving the restructuring with an eye towards establishing whether the changes observed are best viewed as externally…

  20. Convergence as a Mechanism of Language Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Ad

    2004-01-01

    This issue of "Bilingualism: Language and Cognition" is about convergence, a type of language change that is contact-induced and results in greater similarity between two languages that are in contact with each other. In Backus (forthcoming), I have attempted an overview of contact-induced language change, focusing on causal factors, on mechanisms…

  1. Converging Oceaniac Internal Waves, Somalia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The arculate fronts of these apparently converging internal waves off the northeast coast of Somalia (11.5N, 51.5E) probably were produced by interaction with two parallel submarine canyons off the Horn of Africa. Internal waves are packets of tidally generated waves traveling within the ocean at varying depths and are not detectable by any surface disturbance.

  2. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  3. Convergent formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuanjun; Liu, Hui; Hong, Meiling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Jia, Feifei; Sun, Li; Pan, Zhenliang; Chang, Junbiao

    2012-01-01

    A facile convergent synthesis of the tricyclic core 2 of roseophilin is described, which represents the shortest route so far for the formal synthesis of roseophilin. The key step was a tandem pyrrole acylation-Nazarov cyclization reaction to form the cyclopenta[b]pyrrole moiety 4. PMID:22098172

  4. Collaborative Instructional Strategies to Enhance Knowledge Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Darryl C.

    2015-01-01

    To promote knowledge convergence through collaborative learning activities in groups, this qualitative case study involved a layered approach for the design and delivery of a highly collaborative learning environment incorporating various instructional technologies grounded in learning theory. In a graduate-level instructional technology course,…

  5. Convergence behavior of a new DSMC algorithm.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Torczynski, John Robert; Bird, Graeme A.

    2008-10-01

    The convergence rate of a new direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, termed 'sophisticated DSMC', is investigated for one-dimensional Fourier flow. An argon-like hard-sphere gas at 273.15K and 266.644Pa is confined between two parallel, fully accommodating walls 1mm apart that have unequal temperatures. The simulations are performed using a one-dimensional implementation of the sophisticated DSMC algorithm. In harmony with previous work, the primary convergence metric studied is the ratio of the DSMC-calculated thermal conductivity to its corresponding infinite-approximation Chapman-Enskog theoretical value. As discretization errors are reduced, the sophisticated DSMC algorithm is shown to approach the theoretical values to high precision. The convergence behavior of sophisticated DSMC is compared to that of original DSMC. The convergence of the new algorithm in a three-dimensional implementation is also characterized. Implementations using transient adaptive sub-cells and virtual sub-cells are compared. The new algorithm is shown to significantly reduce the computational resources required for a DSMC simulation to achieve a particular level of accuracy, thus improving the efficiency of the method by a factor of 2.

  6. Professionalization in Universities and European Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivas, Amparo Jimenez; Hevia, David Menendez Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    The constant assessment of the quality of higher education within the framework of European convergence is a challenge for all those universities that wish their degrees and diplomas to reflect a unified Europe. As is the case in any assessment, change and review process, the quest to improve quality implies measuring achievement of the objectives…

  7. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Yee, Debbie M; Krug, Marie K; Allen, Ariel Z; Braver, Todd S

    2015-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms.

  8. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Debbie M.; Krug, Marie K.; Allen, Ariel Z.; Braver, Todd S.

    2016-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms. PMID:26834668

  9. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Yee, Debbie M; Krug, Marie K; Allen, Ariel Z; Braver, Todd S

    2015-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms. PMID:26834668

  10. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved. PMID:12179461

  11. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  12. Auto-converging stereo cameras for 3D robotic tele-operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Aycock, Todd; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed a Stereovision Upgrade Kit for TALON robot to provide enhanced depth perception to the operator. This kit previously required the TALON Operator Control Unit to be equipped with the optional touchscreen interface to allow for operator control of the camera convergence angle adjustment. This adjustment allowed for optimal camera convergence independent of the distance from the camera to the object being viewed. Polaris has recently improved the performance of the stereo camera by implementing an Automatic Convergence algorithm in a field programmable gate array in the camera assembly. This algorithm uses scene content to automatically adjust the camera convergence angle, freeing the operator to focus on the task rather than adjustment of the vision system. The autoconvergence capability has been demonstrated on both visible zoom cameras and longwave infrared microbolometer stereo pairs.

  13. Hundreds of Genes Experienced Convergent Shifts in Selective Pressure in Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chikina, Maria; Robinson, Joseph D; Clark, Nathan L

    2016-09-01

    Mammal species have made the transition to the marine environment several times, and their lineages represent one of the classical examples of convergent evolution in morphological and physiological traits. Nevertheless, the genetic mechanisms of their phenotypic transition are poorly understood, and investigations into convergence at the molecular level have been inconclusive. While past studies have searched for convergent changes at specific amino acid sites, we propose an alternative strategy to identify those genes that experienced convergent changes in their selective pressures, visible as changes in evolutionary rate specifically in the marine lineages. We present evidence of widespread convergence at the gene level by identifying parallel shifts in evolutionary rate during three independent episodes of mammalian adaptation to the marine environment. Hundreds of genes accelerated their evolutionary rates in all three marine mammal lineages during their transition to aquatic life. These marine-accelerated genes are highly enriched for pathways that control recognized functional adaptations in marine mammals, including muscle physiology, lipid-metabolism, sensory systems, and skin and connective tissue. The accelerations resulted from both adaptive evolution as seen in skin and lung genes, and loss of function as in gustatory and olfactory genes. In regard to sensory systems, this finding provides further evidence that reduced senses of taste and smell are ubiquitous in marine mammals. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of identifying genes underlying convergent organism-level characteristics on a genome-wide scale and without prior knowledge of adaptations, and provides a powerful approach for investigating the physiological functions of mammalian genes.

  14. Impact of Monetary Incentives on Cognitive Performance and Error Monitoring following Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Shulan; Li, Tzu-Hsien; Tsai, Ling-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether monetary incentives attenuate the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in a flanker task that requires higher-level cognitive-control processes, including error monitoring. Design: Twenty-four healthy adults aged 18 to 23 years were randomly divided into 2 subject groups: one received and the other did not receive monetary incentives for performance accuracy. Both subject groups performed a flanker task and underwent electroencephalographic recordings for event-related brain potentials after normal sleep and after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in a within-subject, counterbalanced, repeated-measures study design. Results: Monetary incentives significantly enhanced the response accuracy and reaction time variability under both normal sleep and sleep-deprived conditions, and they reduced the effects of sleep deprivation on the subjective effort level, the amplitude of the error-related negativity (an error-related event-related potential component), and the latency of the P300 (an event-related potential variable related to attention processes). However, monetary incentives could not attenuate the effects of sleep deprivation on any measures of behavior performance, such as the response accuracy, reaction time variability, or posterror accuracy adjustments; nor could they reduce the effects of sleep deprivation on the amplitude of the Pe, another error-related event-related potential component. Conclusions: This study shows that motivation incentives selectively reduce the effects of total sleep deprivation on some brain activities, but they cannot attenuate the effects of sleep deprivation on performance decrements in tasks that require high-level cognitive-control processes. Thus, monetary incentives and sleep deprivation may act through both common and different mechanisms to affect cognitive performance. Citation: Hsieh S; Li TH; Tsai LL. Impact of monetary incentives on cognitive performance and

  15. Convergent polishing: a simple, rapid, full aperture polishing process of high quality optical flats & spheres.

    PubMed

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745

  16. Fiscal and Monetary Policy via the Internet and Where Did the Too Many Dollars Come From? Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripp, Ken

    This document contains two lesson plans. The first, "Fiscal and Monetary Policy via the Internet," seeks to expose high school students to Internet technology while introducing them to fiscal and monetary policy. Information gathering skills, economic understanding, policy application, and economic content retention should all be enhanced by this…

  17. Evaluation of a Third Year Distance Education Course: Monetary Economics. Working Papers in Distance Education, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, J. D.; Imrie, B. W.

    An evaluation of Monetary Economics, a course offered to distance education students of the University of Queensland in 1979 and 1980, was conducted in 1981. Monetary Economics is an innovative course designed and prepared using principles of educational technology specifically for distance education, and for the planning of effective interaction…

  18. 25 CFR 162.549 - How much monetary compensation must be paid under a WSR lease of tribal land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How much monetary compensation must be paid under a WSR lease of tribal land? 162.549 Section 162.549 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Monetary...

  19. 25 CFR 162.555 - May a WSR lease provide for non-monetary or varying types of compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a WSR lease provide for non-monetary or varying types of compensation? 162.555 Section 162.555 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Monetary...

  20. 25 CFR 162.554 - What form of monetary compensation payment is acceptable under a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What form of monetary compensation payment is acceptable under a WSR lease? 162.554 Section 162.554 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Monetary...