Science.gov

Sample records for mongrel dogs treated

  1. Induction of specific unresponsiveness to heart allografts in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Modry, D.L.; Hoppe, R.T.; Pennock, J.L.; Bieber, C.P.; Holm, B.I.; Jamieson, S.W.; Stinson, E.B.; Schroder, J.; Suomalainen, H.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-02-01

    The survival of heterotopic heart allografts was determined in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. TLI alone (total dose, 1800 rad) minimally prolonged graft survival as compared with untreated controls. However, marked synergy was observed when TLI was combined with a 10-day post-transplant course of rabbit anti-dog thymocyte globulin (ATG). Approximately 40% of recipients given TLI and ATG showed specific unresponsiveness, as judged by the lack of rejection on serial biopsies for more than 1 year and the prompt rejection of third party hearts. The addition of post-transplant azathioprine (90 to 180 days) to the TLI and ATG regimen increased the mortality of recipients and reduced the fraction of dogs showing specific unresponsiveness. Infusion of donor bone marrow cells at the time of heart transplantation failed to induced specific unresponsiveness in recipients given TLI alone or TLI in combination with post-transplant methotrexate, cyclosporine A, or ATG. The results indicate that the combination of TLI and a brief course of ATG without marrow transplantation was the most effective regimen for the induction of specific unresponsiveness in mongrel dogs.

  2. A New Biologic Prosthesis for Vascular Substitute in Mongrel Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Marquez-Zacarias, Luis A.; Rey, Alejandro R.; Heine, M. Christina; Manrique, Jose J.

    1985-01-01

    New glutaraldehyde-treated vascular prosthesis tubes of bovine pericardium were placed in the abdominal aortas of 29 mongrel dogs and observed for 30 to 540 days. Clinical evaluation was performed during follow-up, and histologic and arteriographic studies were done at the end of the study. Patency was shown by arteriography in 27 of 29 tubes (93.1%). Neoendothelialization was found in all grafts, and there was a mixed effect, characterized by both rejection and foreign body reaction in the prostheses from 180 days onward. Both the handling and consistency of the grafts were excellent for implantation. Graft procoagulation and animal anticoagulation were not necessary. Images PMID:15227017

  3. Organ transplantation in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    SciTech Connect

    Koretz, S.H.; Gottlieb, M.S.; Strober, S.; Pennock, J.; Bieber, C.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Reitz, B.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-03-01

    Although we were able to establish bone marrow chimerism in mongrel dogs using TLI at a cumulative dose of 1800 rad, it was more difficult to establish prolonged organ allograft survival in this system. We review here our experience with allogeneic heart transplantation in dogs using TLI combined with limited courses of pharmacologic immunosuppression, an approach that appears to hold considerable promise for clinical organ transplantation.

  4. Thyroid hormone antibodies and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in mongrel dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Rajatanavin, R.; Fang, S.L.; Pino, S.; Laurberg, P.; Braverman, L.E.; Smith, M.; Bullock, L.P.

    1989-05-01

    Abnormally elevated serum T3 concentrations measured by RIA were observed in 19 clinically euthyroid or hypothyroid mongrel dogs. The serum T4 concentrations in these sera were low, normal, or high. Measurement of the intensity of thyroid hormone binding to serum proteins was determined by equilibrium dialysis. A marked decrease in the percent free T3 was observed in these abnormal sera. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pH 7.4, of normal dog serum enriched with tracer /sup 125/I-labeled thyroid hormones demonstrated binding of (/sup 125/I)T4 to transthyretin, thyroid hormone-binding globulin, and albumin and of (/sup 125/I)T3 primarily to thyroid hormone-binding globulin. In all abnormal sera, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated strikingly higher binding of T3 to immunoglobulin (Ig). Eleven of 16 abnormal sera had minimal to moderate binding of T4 to Ig. The percent free T4 was lower only in dogs whose sera demonstrated markedly increased binding of T4 to Ig. All abnormal sera tested had positive antithyroglobulin antibodies, consistent with the diagnosis of autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. As in humans, antibodies to thyroid hormones in dogs are more common in the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and should be considered when elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations are observed in the absence of clinical thyrotoxicosis. When an antibody to only one thyroid hormone is present, a marked discrepancy in the serum concentrations of T3 and T4 will be observed.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of disodium-fosfomycin in mongrel dogs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, O L; Ocampo, C L; Aguilera, J R; Luna, J; Sumano, L H

    2008-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic variables of fosfomycin were determined after administration of buffered disodium-fosfomycin intravenously (IV), intramuscularly (IM), subcutaneously (SC) and orally (PO), in mongrel dogs, at 40 and 80 mg/kgday for three days. Renal integrity was also assessed by measuring key serum variables. Day 1, day 2 and day 3 plasma concentration vs. time profiles were undistinguishable, but there appears to be a lineal increase in serum concentrations vs. time with the dose. A non-accumulative kinetic behavior was observed after three days with both doses and most pharmacokinetic variables remain unaltered. Considering a MIC range from 1 mirog/mL to 16 microg/mL of fosfomycin in serum for sensitive bacteria, and a negligible plasma protein binding of fosfomycin (<0.5%), useful plasma concentrations can only be achieved after the SC injection of 80 mg/kg every 12h, having a C(max)=18.96+/-0.3 microg/mL; a T(1/2beta)=2.09+/-0.06 microg/mL and a bioavailability of 84-85%. No alterations were observed in serum variables of kidney-related biochemical values.

  6. Metabolic effects of intraoperative amino acid infusion in mongrel dogs.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lin; Ge, Shengjin; Wang, Hongshan; Gao, Xiaodong; Jin, Jianjun; Xue, Zhanggang

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative amino acid infusion can attenuate the decrease in core temperature, but the metabolic effects are uncertain. Thirty-six healthy mongrel dogs undergoing ileectomy under general anesthesia were infused intraoperatively with normal saline or 18 compound amino acids at 6, 12, and 24 kJ·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹ (NS, 6-, 12-, and 24-kJ groups) and studied until 24 h after the operation. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, free fatty acids, and triglyceride concentrations were determined at 7 defined time points. Muscle aminograms, urinary urea, and 3-methylhistidine excretions were measured before and after the operation. Blood glucose and plasma insulin increased amino acid dose dependently during the operation and in the early period after the operation. Free fatty acids were significantly lower in the 12- and 24-kJ groups compared with the NS group at the end of the operation. The negative nitrogen balance was alleviated dose dependently in the amino acid groups on operation day. The urinary 3-methylhistidine decreased significantly during the first 24 h after the operation in the 24-kJ group, while it increased in the other groups with the largest increase in the NS group. Basic, branched-chain, and aromatic amino acids in the vastus lateralis muscle increased dose dependently at the end of the operation in the amino acid groups. Intraoperative amino acid infusion has the dose-dependent effects of increasing blood glucose, inhibiting fat mobilization and muscle protein breakdown.

  7. Gross Anatomical Study of the Nerve Supply of Genitourinary Structures in Female Mongrel Hound Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, S. M.; Ruggieri, M. R.; Arias Serrato, S. A.; Massicotte, V. S.; Barbe, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1–S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1–S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions. PMID:24730986

  8. Gross anatomical study of the nerve supply of genitourinary structures in female mongrel hound dogs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Amaya, S M; Ruggieri, M R; Arias Serrato, S A; Massicotte, V S; Barbe, M F

    2015-04-01

    Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1-S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1-S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions.

  9. Effect of sleep and sighing on upper airway resistance in mongrel dogs.

    PubMed

    Issa, F G; Porostocky, S; Feroah, T

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the effect of sleep and sighing on supratracheal resistance in unrestrained mongrel dogs breathing through the nose by comparing within-breath changes in upper airway pressure-flow relationship in control, sigh, and five postsigh breaths recorded during wakefulness and during non-rapid-eye-movement and rapid-eye-movement sleep. A sigh breath was characterized by a high tidal volume and was typically followed by an apnea of a variable duration. Sleep had little or no effect on supratracheal resistance, measured at peak flow rates, during quiet breathing (awake 7.3 +/- 0.4, non-rapid eye movement 8.3 +/- 0.4, and rapid eye movement 6.8 +/- 0.4 cmH2O.l-1.s). The resistance was identical in the early part of inspiration in control and sigh breaths but increased during the augmented phase of sigh breaths. Resistance at peak inspiratory flow was higher in sigh breaths than in control breaths in all sleep states. The flow-pressure profile of postsigh breaths was identical to that of control breaths in all sleep states. We conclude that upper airway resistance is essentially unaffected by sleep state in the mongrel dog and that sighing increases upper airway resistance regardless of sleep state.

  10. Hepatic and Whole-Body Insulin Metabolism during Proestrus and Estrus in Mongrel Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Erin NZ; Winnick, Jason J; Edgerton, Dale S; Scott, Melanie F; Smith, Marta S; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phillip E; Cherrington, Alan D; Moore, Mary Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance occurs during various stages of the estrus cycle in dogs. To quantify the effects of proestrus–estrus (PE) and determine whether PE affects liver insulin sensitivity, 11 female mongrel dogs were implanted with sampling and intraportal infusion catheters. Five of the dogs (PE group) entered proestrus after surgery; those remaining in anestrus were controls. The dogs were fasted overnight, [3-3H]glucose and somatostatin were infused through peripheral veins, and glucagon was infused intraportally. Insulin was infused intraportally, with the rate adjusted to maintain arterial plasma glucose at basal levels (PE, 294 ± 25 µU/kg/min; control, 223 ± 21 µU/kg/min). Subsequently the insulin infusion rate was increased by 0.2 mU/kg/min for 120 min (P1) and then to 1.5 mU/kg/min for the last 120 min (P2); glucose was infused peripherally as needed to maintain euglycemia. Insulin concentrations did not differ between groups at any time; they increased 3 µU/mL over baseline during P1 and to 3 times baseline during P2. The glucose infusion rate in PE dogs during P2 was 63% of that in control dogs. Net hepatic glucose output and the endogenous glucose production rate declined 40% to 50% from baseline in both groups during P1; during P2, both groups exhibited a low rate of net hepatic glucose uptake with full suppression of endogenous glucose production. The glucose disappearance rate during P1 and P2 was 35% greater in control than PE dogs. Therefore, PE in canines is associated with loss of nonhepatic (primarily muscle) but not hepatic insulin sensitivity. PMID:27298249

  11. Comparative haematological study of single and mixed infections of mongrel dogs with Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Ezeokonkwo, Romanus C; Ezeh, I O; Onunkwo, J I; Obi, P O; Onyenwe, I W; Agu, W E

    2010-10-11

    The haematological effects of single and mixed infections of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei brucei were compared in experimentally infected mongrel dogs. Twenty mongrel dogs of both sexes aged between 3 and 6 months, and weighing between 2.5 and 5.9 kg were used for the study. The dogs were kept in clean metal cages in a fly-proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad libitum. The twenty dogs were divided into four groups of five dogs each. Group I dogs were uninfected control, group II dogs were infected with T. congolense, group III dogs were infected with T. brucei brucei and group IV dogs were infected with both T. congolense and T. brucei brucei. Parasitaemia occurred in the infected dogs in groups II, III, and IV; 10-13 days post-infection (PI) with the mean pre-patent period (PPP) of 12, 10, and 11 days respectively. Mixed infection persisted throughout the duration of the experiment. T. brucei predominated T. congolense in the mixed infection constituting about 70% of the trypanosomes. The significant (P<0.05) decrease in the mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) caused by the infection did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between the infected groups. Also the significant (P<0.05) reduction in the total white blood cell count (TWBC) caused by the infection did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between the infected groups. The decline in the total WBC count was due primarily to significant (P<0.05) reduction in the lymphocyte counts of the infected dogs. It was thus concluded that single or mixed infection of mongrel dogs with T. congolense and T. brucei brucei resulted in anaemia and leucopenia which did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the infected groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs of Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Deepti; Hoque, Mozammel; Saxena, Abhishek Chandra; Gugjoo, Mudasir Bashir; Bist, Deepika; Chaudhary, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To establish reference values of vertebral heart score (VHS) in Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever, and Mongrel dogs; to assess applicability of VHS in these three dog breeds; to determine if breed, recumbency side, gender, body weight, and thoracic depth (TD) to thoracic width (TW) ratio has an influence on the VHS measurement in these dog breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 60, client owned, clinically healthy Indian Spitz (n=20, mean age = 4.25±2.15 years, body weight = 11.87±2.7 kg), Labrador retriever (n=20, mean age = 4.75±1.91 years, body weight = 27.31±5.43 kg), and Mongrel dogs (n=20, mean age = 4.25±1.52 years, body weight = 16.25±3.99 kg), having no radiological and clinical signs of cardiovascular or pulmonary disease were included in the study. All dogs were restrained manually and left lateral (LL) and right lateral (RL) radiographic views were obtained. The size of heart in lateral radiographs was calculated using VHS method. Besides, the TD, TW and TD: TW were calculated to determine the type of thoracic conformation in the dog breeds. In addition to this, the effect of breed, side of recumbency, gender, body weight, and TD to TW ratio on the calculation of VHS was determined. Results: VHS was calculated in all the animals of the breeds. VHS in Spitz and Labrador retriever was significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively) >9.7±0.5 v. RL and LL VHS in Mongrel dog was significantly (p<0.037) >9.7±0.5 v. Significant (p<0.05) differences in the VHS were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs, being higher for Labrador retriever followed by Spitz and Mongrel dogs. VHS in RL recumbency was significantly (p<0.001) greater than VHS in LL recumbency in all three breeds. LL and RL VHS correlated significantly with each other in Spitz (r=0.58; p=0.02), Labrador retriever (r=0.87; p<0.0001), and Mongrel dogs (r=0.93; p<0.0001). Significant (p<0.05) differences in the TD and TW were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever

  13. Comparative serum biochemical changes in mongrel dogs following single and mixed infections of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Ezeokonkwo, R C; Ezeh, I O; Onunkwo, J I; Onyenwe, I W; Iheagwam, C N; Agu, W E

    2012-11-23

    The serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (AP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the serum levels of conjugated bilirubin (CB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were studied following single and mixed infections of mongrel dogs with Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Twenty mongrel dogs of both sexes aged between 3 and 6 months, and weighing between 2.5 and 5.9 kg were used for the study. The dogs were kept in clean metal cages in a fly-proof house and were fed and given water ad libitum. The twenty dogs were divided into four groups of five dogs each. Group I dogs were uninfected control, group II were infected with T. congolense, group III were infected with T. brucei brucei and group IV were infected with both T. congolense and T. brucei brucei. Each dog in the infected groups II and III was inoculated intraperitonealy (i/p) with 1.0 ml of PBS diluted blood containing 1.0×10(6) trypanosomes whereas each infected dog in group IV (mixed infection) was inoculated with 0.5 ml of the PBS diluted blood containing 0.5×10(6)T. congolense and 0.5 ml of the PBS diluted blood containing 0.5×10(6)T. brucei brucei i/p. Parasites were detectable in the blood of the infected dogs in groups II, III, and IV 10-13 days post infection (PI) with the mean pre-patent period (PP) of 12, 10, and 11 days respectively. Trypanosome infection caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in the serum activities of AP, ALT, AST and the serum levels of creatinine, CB, and BUN. The significant increases in the serum levels of CB, BUN, and creatinine and serum activities of AP and AST became noticeable from day seven PI in all the infected groups whereas that of ALT became noticeable from day 14 PI and increased continuously until the experiment was terminated. These increases however did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between the infected groups in most cases. It was thus concluded that single or mixed infection of mongrel dogs

  14. Para-clinico-pathological observations of insidious incidence of canine hepatozoonosis from a mongrel dog: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjit; Deshmukh, S; Singh, Rajsukhbir; Bansal, B K; Randhawa, C S; Singla, L D

    2012-04-01

    A rare case of canine hepatozoonosis in a mongrel dog with para-clinico-pathological observations has been reported. The study included detailed haemato-biochemical changes at two stages, i.e. before treatment and after treatment with adopted therapy. Before therapy, blood picture revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia and neutrophilic leucocytosis with variable counts of platelets. Thirty-seven percent of neutrophils were found infected with gametocytes of Hepatozoon canis. Following treatment, further decrease in haemoglobin value with a relative increase in lymphocyte count was seen. Biochemically, increase in alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels along with hyperproteinemia was seen. The 14 days chemotherapy did not bring a respite for the dog and the level of parasitaemia was 33% after the treatment. The alkaline phosphatase and creatinine level further rose up following therapy with sulphadiazine and clindamycin. Continual study is required to explain the best possible therapeutic combination to deal H. canis.

  15. Effect of Surgical and Immunological Castration on Haematological Variables, Reproductive Hormones and Ejaculate Characteristics in Mongrel Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ajadi, Temitope A; Gazal, Oladele S

    2016-08-30

    Welfare concerns are growing regarding surgical castration (SC) in pets, necessitating the need for non-surgical alternatives. Administration of vaccines against gonadotropins releasing hormone (GnRH) have been reported as alternative to SC. This study determined the effect of surgical and immunological castrations (IC) on complete blood counts, plasma testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and ejaculate characteristics in mongrel dogs. Ten intact male dogs were randomly divided into two groups (A & B). Dogs in group A were surgically castrated, while dogs in group B were immunologically castrated with single subcutaneous injection of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®). Blood and semen were collected before SC or IC and fortnightly until sixteen weeks. Blood was analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), absolute neutrophil (NEUT) and lymphocyte counts (LYMP), T and LH. Sperm volume (SV), concentration (C), motility (SM), live-dead ratio (LDR) and percentage of abnormal spermatozoa were determined for the semen. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation and compared using analysis of variance. The PCV and HB of dogs surgically castrated increased progressively up to16th week after castration but only up to10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Both PCV and HB decreased progressively after 10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Similarly, the WBC of dogs surgically castrated steadily increased from 2 weeks up to week 16, while it increased from 6 weeks up to 16 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. However, PCV, Hb, WBC, NEUT and LYMP did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between SC and IC. In both groups, the SV, SC, SM, LDR and percentage of abnormal spermatozoa did not differ significantly. It was therefore concluded that there is no significant haematological or endocrinological changes between surgical and immunological castration and that immunological castration may

  16. High-fat feeding and Staphylococcus intermedius infection impair beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in mongrel dogs.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Evgeni; Georgiev, Ivan Penchev; Dzhelebov, Petko; Kanelov, Ivan; Andonova, Maria; Mircheva Georgieva, Teodora; Dimitrova, Silviya

    2010-03-01

    As obesity is a state of low-grade inflammation, we aimed to investigate the combined effect of high-fat diet and bacterial infection on beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in dogs. We used 20 healthy, male, mongrel dogs randomly divided into four groups: control group-healthy, non-obese dogs; infected group-non-obese dogs with experimentally induced infection (Staphylococcus intermedius); obese group-obese dogs (after 90 day high-fat diet) and obese-infected group-obese dogs with experimentally induced infection (Staphylococcus intermedius). To evaluate insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed. Plasma insulin increased in all group after glucose infusion. The lowest values were found in obese-infected group. Blood glucose also increased on 3 min after glucose infusion and then gradually decreased. In obese-infected group glucose concentration on 30 min was still significantly higher than initial levels, while in other groups glucose concentration returned to the initial values. The lowest rate of glucose elimination was found in infected group. In dogs of obese group and obese-infected group AUC(ins 0-60 min) was lower compared to controls. AUC(glucose 0-60 min) values were lowest in infected group, while in obese-infected group values were the highest. Levels of I/G in dogs of obese-infected group were significantly lower compared to controls and infected group. In conclusion, these results reveal that infection in obese dogs leads to impaired glucose tolerance, which is result of impairment in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.

  17. The Influence of DL-A Compatibility on the Survival of Hepatic Allografts in Unmodified Mongrel Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, John H. C.; Rapaport, Felix T.; Ferrebee, Joseph W.; Cannon, Frances D.; Adams, Peter X.; Localio, S. Arthur

    1974-01-01

    Heterotopic hepatic transplantation was performed in 26 pairs of littermate and non-littermate mongrel dogs selected by serological criteria of DL-A compatibility. No immunosuppression was given. In non-littermates, 11 recipients of DL-A incompatible allografts survived 10-22 days (mean 13.4 days). Mean serum bilirubin rose by the 6th day. Three recipients of DL-A compatible allografts survived 13, 41, and 60 days, (mean 38 days). Mean serum bilirubin rose by the 8th day. In littermates, 5 recipients of DL-A incompatible allografts survived 7-12 days (mean 10.2 days) and mean serum bilirubin rose by the 6th day. Four recipients of DL-A compatible allografts from phenotypically DL-A non-identical donors survived 58, 82, 90 and 128 days (mean 89.5 days). Mean serum bilirubin rose by the 29th day. In contrast, 3 recipients of DL-A phenotypically identical allografts survived 171, 536 and over 636 days respectively, with normal mean serum bilirubin levels. The results confirm the role of the DL-A system in hepatic transplantation in mongrel dogs, and suggest that this dog population may constitute a suitable experimental model parallelling the current situation with regard to HL-A compatibility testing in outbred human subjects. The relatively long survival of DL-A compatible heterotopic hepatic allografts, compared with similar transplants of skin, kidney and heart, also suggests a need for studies of possible alteration in parameters of humoral and cellular reactivity in these recipients. PMID:4599072

  18. On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Ruść, Anna; Kamiński, Stanisław; Ruiz Fadel, Fernanda; Mills, Daniel S; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Kłys, Grzegorz; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-12-07

    Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our results suggest that modern European breeds originated locally from European FBDs. East Asian and Arctic breeds show closest affinity to East Asian FBDs, and they both represent the earliest branching lineages in the phylogeny of extant Eurasian dogs. Our biogeographic reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a gradual westward expansion of East Asian indigenous dogs to the Middle East and Europe through Central and West Asia, providing evidence for a major expansion that shaped the patterns of genetic differentiation in modern dogs. This expansion was probably secondary and could have led to the replacement of earlier resident populations in Western Eurasia. This could explain why earlier studies based on modern DNA suggest East Asia as the region of dog origin, while ancient DNA and archaeological data point to Western Eurasia.

  19. On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E.; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Ruść, Anna; Kamiński, Stanisław; Ruiz Fadel, Fernanda; Mills, Daniel S.; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammed, Osama B.; Kłys, Grzegorz; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M.; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our results suggest that modern European breeds originated locally from European FBDs. East Asian and Arctic breeds show closest affinity to East Asian FBDs, and they both represent the earliest branching lineages in the phylogeny of extant Eurasian dogs. Our biogeographic reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a gradual westward expansion of East Asian indigenous dogs to the Middle East and Europe through Central and West Asia, providing evidence for a major expansion that shaped the patterns of genetic differentiation in modern dogs. This expansion was probably secondary and could have led to the replacement of earlier resident populations in Western Eurasia. This could explain why earlier studies based on modern DNA suggest East Asia as the region of dog origin, while ancient DNA and archaeological data point to Western Eurasia. PMID:26631564

  20. Engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow without graft-versus-host disease in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, M.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Grumet, F.C.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-06-01

    We achieved long-term engraftment of unmatched bone marrow (BM) in dogs without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) which could be applied clinically. Twelve normal adult mongrel dogs were given TLI in 18 fractions of 100 rad each (total dose, 1800 rad) over 4 weeks to mantle and abdominal fields in continuity. Nine of the 12 were transfused with one or two random donor whole blood transfusions during the irradiation regimen to determine the risk of sensitization after the onset of immunosuppression. A mean (+- SD) of 0.71 +- 0.54 x 10/sup 9/ BM cells/kg of recipient body weight from unrelated sex-mismatched donors was infused within 24 h of the 18th irradiation fraction. Engraftment was assessed by demonstration of donor-type sex chromosomes in spontaneous metaphase spreads of recipient marrow aspirates, and by the appearance of donor-type red blood cells antigens (DEA) in the recipients' blood. Three untransfused and nine transfused recipients were shown to be stable mixed BM chimeras during a followup period of 2 to 11 months after transplantation. Blood transfusion during TLI did not result in graft rejection. We observed no clinical signs of acute or chronic GVHD. TLI has minimal toxicity when compared with conditioning regimens currently used in BM transplantation for aplastic anemia. Potential advantages of the TLI regimen include the opportunity to use unmatched marrow donors and protection from GVHD.

  1. [The hemodynamic effect of thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade in the anesthetized adult mongrel dogs].

    PubMed

    Yamagami, H

    1994-03-01

    Hemodynamic alterations with the thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade were elucidated in the anesthetized open-chest dogs, under controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen and receiving fentanyl, pentobarbital and pancuronium administration, and the effect of blockade was assessed by increase in skin-surface temperature at the specific regions of the upper extremity. All dogs with thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade revealed the increased skin temperature in blocked extremities and decreased skin temperature in the contralateral side with simultaneous compensatory vasoconstriction ("Borrowing-Lending phenomenon"). Four groups were classified according to the side and range of blockade: A-group (right Th7.8 ganglion, N = 17), B-group (left-Th7.8 ganglion, N = 8), C-group (right Th2.3 ganglion, N = 13) and D-group (left-Th2.3 ganglion, N = 10). The hemodynamic variables after the middle thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade showed no remarkable changes but heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output decreased significantly with the upper right-side thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade, and the inhibited circulatory state lasted twenty minutes after blockade. No significant skin temperature changes were observed after blockade among four groups. The results suggest that the patient after upper thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade should be cared with these circulatory changes in mind.

  2. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Disease Treating Cushing's Disease Your 9-year old dog has been drinking a lot more lately and ...

  3. Olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma treated with orthovoltage radiotherapy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Kobayashi, Y; Yamada, K

    2007-07-01

    A 13-year-old neutered female mongrel dog presented with a 1-year history of stertorous respiration. On computed tomography examination, a mass was demonstrated in the nasal cavity. Open biopsy of the mass was performed and a diagnosis of olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma was made on histological examination. The dog was treated with orthovoltage x-ray radiation (total dose; 53 Gy given in 14 fractions over an 8 week period). Computed tomography after the twelfth irradiation revealed that tumour size had decreased. Although clinical signs were absent in the 4 months after irradiation, re-growth of the tumour was detected by radiographic evaluation and histological examination. The dog was again treated with orthovoltage x-ray radiation (total dose; 30 Gy given in three fractions over a 4-week period), however, tumour regrowth was again detected 3 months later. Clinical treatment of this tumour type has not been previously reported.

  4. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  5. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients.

  6. Intranasal melanoma treated with radiation therapy in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Davies, Owen; Spencer, Sarah; Necova, Slavomira; Holmes, Emma; Taylor, Angela; Blackwood, Laura; Lara-Garcia, Ana

    2017-10-06

    Three dogs were investigated for chronic unilateral nasal discharge. In all cases CT imaging showed an intranasal mass causing turbinate lysis and no evidence of metastasis. Cytology in cases 1 (a 14-year-old neutered male crossbreed dog) and 2 (a five-year-old neutered male German Shepherd dog) demonstrated a pleomorphic cell population with variable intracellular pigment suspicious of melanocytic neoplasia. Histopathology with immunohistochemistry (Melan-A and vimentin, plus PNL-2 in one case) confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in all dogs. All dogs were treated with megavoltage radiotherapy using linear accelerators. Cases 1 and 3 (a 9-year-old neutered female beagle dog) received a hypofractionated (4 × 8 Gy) protocol and case 2 received a definitive (12 × 4 Gy) protocol. Complete remission was demonstrated on repeat CT scan 5 months after diagnosis in case 1 and 7 months in case 2. Stable disease was documented on CT at four months for case 3, however, clinical signs in this dog remained controlled for 10 months in total. Case 1 died of unrelated causes 5 months after diagnosis, case 2 was euthanased due to the development of seizures 13 months after diagnosis, and case 3 was lost to follow-up 12 months after diagnosis. Melanoma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis for primary nasal neoplasia in the dog and radiation therapy can be used as effective local therapy.

  7. Determination of six illegal antibiotics in chicken jerky dog treats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert; Mirabile, Jennifer; Hafler, Kristen

    2014-04-30

    In 2007 chicken jerky dog treats were implicated in causing illnesses and death in dogs in several countries. Affected dogs were diagnosed with acquired Fanconi syndrome, which is characterized by kidney malfunction. Known causes of this condition include a chemical assault by various contaminants including certain drugs. For this reason investigations into possible causes of the illnesses included antibiotics that may be used in animal husbandry. Targeted analyte screens of individual imported chicken jerky dog treats using LC-MS/MS detected six illegal antibiotics in imported products of several brands. Trimethoprim, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, sulfaclozine, and sulfamethoxazole are not allowed in chicken at any level and were found as high as 2800 ng/g (ppb). Sulfaquinoxaline was found in chicken jerky treats as high as 800 ng/g, which is well above the U.S. FDA tolerance of 100 ng/g. Although there is no evidence these contaminants were responsible for the dog illnesses, their misuse could contribute to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

  8. Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions in Dogs Treated with Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Tina; Mueller, Ralf S.; Dobenecker, Britta; Fischer, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders in dogs and life-long treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED) is frequently required. Adverse events of AED targeting the skin are only rarely reported in veterinary medicine and the true incidence and spectrum of cutaneous reactions in epileptic dogs remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that cutaneous reactions commonly occur in epileptic dogs and are related to AED treatment. A retrospective case review of 185 dogs treated for epilepsy identified 20.0% with simultaneous appearance of dermatologic signs. In a subsequent prospective case investigation (n = 137), we identified newly appearing or distinct worsening of skin lesions following initiation of AED therapy in 10.9% of dogs treated for epilepsy (95% CI 6.8–17.7%). Cutaneous lesions were classified as probably drug-induced in 40.0% of these cases. Patch testing and intradermal testing were further investigated as potential diagnostic methods to confirm AED hypersensitivity. They were of high specificity but sensitivity and positive predictive value appeared inappropriate to recommend their routine use in clinical practice. PMID:27148543

  9. Efficacy of nitazoxanide to treat natural Giardia infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moron-Soto, Mario; Gutierrez, Lilia; Sumano, Héctor; Tapia, Graciela; Alcala-Canto, Yazmin

    2017-01-31

    Giardia parasites cause gastrointestinal disease in humans, dogs, and many other animals worldwide. The treatment of dogs for giardiasis requires further investigation to ascertain levels of drug efficacy and the possibility of adverse side effects. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) has shown good clinical anti-Giardia activity in humans, yet it has not been evaluated for the treatment of giardiasis in dogs. Thirty-five dogs, naturally infected with Giardia were divided into five groups (n = 7): dogs in group NTZ1, NTZ2, and NTZ3 were treated with a single oral dose of 37.5 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg, and 150 mg/kg, respectively, of NTZ on days 0 and 14. The fourth group was treated with a commercially available regimen that includes a combination of pyrantel, praziquantel, and febantel (FEB) administered orally for three consecutive days. Additionally, an untreated control group was established. Giardia cysts from the stool of each dog were quantified on days -3, 0, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 18, 25, and 28. Biochemical parameters were evaluated in all dogs, before the first treatment and after concluding the experiment. Shedding of Giardia cysts was reduced in all treated groups when compared to untreated controls (P < 0.01). However, NTZ2, NTZ3, and FEB had a lower risk during the study. Furthermore, NTZ was also effective against another protozoan, Cryptosporidium spp. at doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, in contrast to the combination of febantel + pyrantel + praziquantel. Biochemical parameters of treated animals, namely, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase enzymes, remained within physiological ranges. Based on these results, the implementation of NTZ as a treatment for giardiasis in dogs is proposed. The administration of a single dose is an important advantage of NTZ because it reduces workload, particularly in animals placed in shelters and kennels, where handling of large numbers of animals is required, and personnel is frequently scarce.

  10. Coenzyme Q10 and Cognition in atorvastatin treated dogs

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah B.; Cenini, Giovanna; Barone, Eugenio; Dowling, Amy L.S.; Mancuso, Cesare; Butterfield, D. Allan; Murphy, M. Paul; Head, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Statins have been suggested to protect against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, however, we reported that aged dogs that underwent chronic statin treatment exhibited cognitive deficits compared with age matched controls. In human studies, blood levels of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) decrease with statin use. CoQ10 is important for proper mitochondrial function and is a powerful antioxidant, two important factors for cognitive health in aging. Thus, the current study tested the hypothesis that CoQ10 levels in the serum and/or parietal cortex are decreased in statin treated dogs and are associated with poorer cognition. Six aged beagles (>8 years) were administered 80 mg/day of atorvastatin for 14.5 months and compared with placebo-treated animals. As predicted, serum CoQ10 was significantly lower in statin-treated dogs. Parietal cortex CoQ10 was not different between the two groups. However, poorer cognition was correlated with lower parietal cortex CoQ10. This study in dogs suggests that serum CoQ10 is reduced with atorvastatin treatment. CoQ10 levels in brain may linked to impaired cognition in response to atorvastatin, in agreement with previous reports that statins may have a negative impact on cognition in the elderly. PMID:21763754

  11. Mandibular necrosis in beagle dogs treated with bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Burr, DB; Allen, MR

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To test the effect of bisphosphonate (BP) treatment for up to 3 years on bone necrosis and osteocyte death in the mandible using a canine model. Materials and Methods Dogs were treated with clinical doses of oral alendronate (ALN, 0.2 mg/kg/day or 1.0 mg/kg/day) for 1 or 3 years. In a separate study, dogs were treated with intravenous zoledronate (ZOL) at 0.06 mg/kg/day for 6 months. En bloc staining was used to identify necrotic areas in the mandible; viable osteocytes were identified using lacatate dehydrogenase. Results None of the treatments were associated with exposed bone, but 17–25% of dogs treated for one year and 25–33% of dogs treated for three years with ALN showed pockets of dead bone. Necrotic areas had no viable osteocytes and were void of patent canaliculi. No control animals demonstrated necrotic bone. ZOL treatment for 6 months was associated with osteocyte death greater than that seen in animals treated with ALN or saline. It is not clear whether osteocyte death occurs because of direct toxic effects of BPs, or because suppressed remodeling fails to renew areas that naturally undergo cell death. However, necrotic areas are associated with bone other than the mandible, e.g., the rib, which normally undergo high rates of remodeling. Conclusions Reduced remodeling rate using BPs may contribute to the pathogenesis for bone matrix necrosis. The development of an animal model that mimics important aspects of BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaw is important to understanding the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis. PMID:19627524

  12. Features of Brain MRI in Dogs with Treated and Untreated Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I

    PubMed Central

    Vite, Charles H; Nestrasil, Igor; Mlikotic, Anton; Jens, Jackie K; Snella, Elizabeth M; Gross, William; Shapiro, Elsa G; Kovac, Victor; Provenzale, James M; Chen, Steven; Le, Steven Q; Kan, Shih-hsin; Banakar, Shida; Wang, Raymond Y; Haskins, Mark E; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Dickson, Patricia I

    2013-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) dog model has been important in the development of therapies for human patients. We treated dogs with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by various approaches. Dogs assessed included untreated MPS I dogs, heterozygous carrier dogs, and MPS I dogs treated with intravenous ERT as adults (beginning at age 13 to 16 mo), intrathecal and intravenous ERT as adults (beginning at age 13 to 16 mo), or intrathecal ERT as juveniles (beginning at age 4 mo). We then characterized the neuroimaging findings of 32 of these dogs (age, 12 to 30 mo). Whole and midsagittal volumes of the corpus callosum, measured from brain MRI, were significantly smaller in affected dogs compared with unaffected heterozygotes. Corpus callosum volumes in dogs that were treated with intrathecal ERT from 4 mo until 21 mo of age were indistinguishable from those of age-matched carrier controls. Dogs with MPS I showed cerebral ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy as early as 12 mo of age. Ventricular enlargement was greater in untreated MPS I dogs than in age-matched dogs treated with intrathecal ERT as juveniles or adults. However, treated dogs still showed some ventricular enlargement or cortical atrophy (or both). Understanding the progression of neuroimaging findings in dogs with MPS I and their response to brain-directed therapy may improve preclinical studies for new human-directed therapies. In particular, corpus callosum volumes may be useful quantitative neuroimaging markers for MPS-related brain disease and its response to therapy. PMID:23582423

  13. Hematologic improvement in dogs with parvovirus infection treated with recombinant canine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Duffy, A; Dow, S; Ogilvie, G; Rao, S; Hackett, T

    2010-08-01

    Previously, dogs with canine parvovirus-induced neutropenia have not responded to treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). However, recombinant canine G-CSF (rcG-CSF) has not been previously evaluated for treatment of parvovirus-induced neutropenia in dogs. We assessed the effectiveness of rcG-CSF in dogs with parvovirus-induced neutropenia with a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized clinical trial. Endpoints of our study were time to recovery of WBC and neutrophil counts, and duration of hospitalization. 28 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia were treated with rcG-CSF and outcomes were compared to those of 34 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia not treated with rcG-CSF. We found that mean WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 28 dogs treated with rcG-CSF compared to disease-matched dogs not treated with rcG-CSF. In addition, the mean duration of hospitalization was reduced (P = 0.01) in rcG-CSF treated dogs compared to untreated dogs. However, survival times were decreased in dogs treated with rcG-CSF compared to untreated dogs. These results suggest that treatment with rcG-CSF was effective in stimulating neutrophil recovery and shortening the duration of hospitalization in dogs with parvovirus infection, but indicate the need for additional studies to evaluate overall safety of the treatment.

  14. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on bone healing around implants placed in bone defects treated with Bio-Oss: a pilot study in the dog tibia.

    PubMed

    You, Tae-Min; Choi, Byung-Ho; Li, Jingxu; Jung, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Jung; Lee, Seoung-Ho; Jeong, Seung-Mi

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used as an adjunct to Bio-Oss for the repair of bone defects adjacent to titanium dental implants. In 6 mongrel dogs, 12 screw-shaped titanium dental implants were inserted into the osteotomy sites in the dogs' tibias. Before implantation, a standardized gap (2.0 mm) was created between the implant surface and the surrounding bony walls. The gaps were filled with either Bio-Oss cancellous granules alone or Bio-Oss cancellous granules mixed with PRP. After 4 months, the Bio-Oss-treated defects revealed a significantly higher percentage of bone-implant contact than the defects treated with Bio-Oss and PRP (60.1% vs. 30.8%; P < .05). The results indicate that when PRP is used as an adjunct to Bio-Oss in the repair of bone defects adjacent to titanium dental implants, PRP may decrease periimplant bone healing.

  15. Modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty. Experimental study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This prospective experimental study evaluated the surgical procedure and results of modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty in dogs. Methods Ten skeletally mature healthy mongrel dogs with weights varying between 19 and 27 kg were used. Cemented modular femoral stems and uncemented porous-coated acetabular cups were employed. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed before surgery and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 360 days post-operation. Results Excellent weight bearing was noticed in the operated limb in seven dogs. Dislocation followed by loosening of the prosthesis was noticed in two dogs, which were therefore properly treated with a femoral head osteotomy. Femoral fracture occurred in one dog, which was promptly treated with full implant removal and femoral osteosynthesis. Conclusions The canine modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty provided excellent functionality of the operated limb. PMID:21736758

  16. Frequency of vomiting during the postoperative period in hydromorphone-treated dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Stern, Leah C; Palmisano, Matthew P

    2012-08-01

    To determine the frequency of postoperative vomiting in dogs undergoing routine orthopedic surgery that were treated with hydromorphone and whether that frequency would vary on the basis of administration route. Noncontrolled clinical trial. Animals-58 client-owned dogs with cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. Before surgery, all dogs received hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM or IV) and 41 dogs also received acepromazine. Anesthesia was induced with diazepam and propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Dogs subsequently underwent surgical stabilization of the stifle joint. After surgery, dogs were randomly assigned to receive hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg) via one of the following routes: IM, IV quickly (for 1 to 2 seconds), or IV slowly (for approx 1 minute). Dogs were monitored for vomiting. A median of 4 doses of hydromorphone/dog was administered after surgery. One dog was observed to regurgitate once prior to postoperative IM administration of hydromorphone; no dogs vomited at any point during the study period, regardless of the method of hydromorphone administration. The method of hydromorphone administration had no apparent effect on the likelihood of dogs vomiting. Because no dogs vomited, a particular administration method cannot be recommended. However, findings suggested that hydromorphone can be administered to dogs following orthopedic surgery without a clinically important risk of vomiting or regurgitation.

  17. Spinal Arachnoid Diverticula: Outcome in 96 Medically or Surgically Treated Dogs.

    PubMed

    Mauler, D A; De Decker, S; De Risio, L; Volk, H A; Dennis, R; Gielen, I; Van der Vekens, E; Goethals, K; Van Ham, L

    2017-05-01

    Little is reported about the role of medical management in the treatment of spinal arachnoid diverticula (SAD) in dogs. To describe the outcome of 96 dogs treated medically or surgically for SAD. Ninety-six dogs with SAD. Retrospective case series. Medical records were searched for spinal arachnoid diverticula and all dogs with information on treatment were included. Outcome was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Fifty dogs were managed medically and 46 dogs were treated surgically. Dogs that underwent surgery were significantly younger than dogs that received medical management. No other variables, related to clinical presentation, were significantly different between both groups of dogs. The median follow-up time was 16 months (1-90 months) in the medically treated and 23 months (1-94 months) in the surgically treated group. Of the 38 dogs treated surgically with available long-term follow-up, 82% (n = 31) improved, 3% (n = 1) remained stable and 16% (n = 6) deteriorated after surgery. Of the 37 dogs treated medically with available long-term follow-up, 30% (n = 11) improved, 30% (n = 11) remained stable, and 40% (n = 15) deteriorated. Surgical treatment was more often associated with clinical improvement compared to medical management (P = .0002). The results of this study suggest that surgical treatment might be superior to medical treatment in the management of SAD in dogs. Further studies with standardized patient care are warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. S100β Levels in CSF of Nonambulatory Dogs with Intervertebral Disk Disease Treated with Electroacupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Murata Hayashi, Ayne; Fonseca Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandão Campos; Cortopassi, Silvia Renata Gaido; Marvulle, Valdecir; Ruivo Maximino, Jessica; Chadi, Gerson; Matera, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate S100β levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of nonambulatory dogs with intervertebral disk disease treated with electroacupuncture: 10 dogs with thoracolumbar disk extrusion graded 3 to 5 (EA group) and 7 dogs without neurologic dysfunction (control group). All dogs regained ambulation. S100β was detected by Western blot analysis where EA group dogs were evaluated at two time points (M1 = before EA and M2 = when the dogs return ambulation) and at one time point from control group. In EA group dogs M1-S100β levels were significantly higher than in control group. EA group dogs were divided into subgroups A (n = 7—early motor recovery; 6.7 ± 7.8 days) and B (n = 3—late motor recovery; 76 ± 17.0 days). M1-S100β levels were similar between subgroups A and B. However, M2-S100β levels were significantly higher in subgroup B than in subgroup A. An elevated S100β levels were observed in dogs with late motor recovery. S100β may be associated with neuroplasticity following spinal cord injuries with intervertebral disk extrusion. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects and control group with affected dogs are necessary to investigate the relationship between neurotrophic factors and electroacupuncture stimulation. PMID:26464906

  19. Outcome of 45 dogs with laryngeal paralysis treated by unilateral arytenoid lateralization or bilateral ventriculocordectomy.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Katherine L; Howe, Lisa; Jessen, Carl; Goodrich, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess risk factors and complications affecting postoperative outcome of dogs with laryngeal paralysis treated by either unilateral arytenoid lateralization (UAL) or bilateral ventriculocordectomy (VCC). Medical records of all dogs having either UAL or VCC between 2000 and 2011 were analyzed. Twenty-five dogs had VCC and 20 dogs had UAL. The overall postoperative complications rates for VCC and UAL were similar (52% and 60%, respectively; P = .0887). Dogs that had UAL were more likely to have acute postoperative respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia (P = .0526). Dogs with VCC were more likely to have chronic postoperative respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia (P = .0079). Revision surgery was required in 6 dogs (24%) following VCC and 2 dogs (10%) following UAL. Sex, breed, presenting complaint, type of service provided, and concurrent diseases were not significantly associated with higher risk of either death or decreased survival time postoperatively with either procedure. Overall postoperative complication rates, required revision surgeries, and episodes of aspiration pneumonia were similar in dogs undergoing UAL and VCC surgeries. Dogs that had VCC appeared to have an increased risk of lifelong complications postoperatively compared with UAL; therefore, VCC may not be the optimal choice for treatment of laryngeal paralysis.

  20. Clinical signs and outcome of dogs treated medically for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis: 98 cases (2004-2012).

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Wawrzenski, Lauren A; Volk, Holger A

    2014-08-15

    To compare clinical signs of dogs treated medically or surgically for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) and assess outcome after medical treatment. Retrospective case series. Client-owned dogs treated medically (n = 49) or surgically (49) for DLSS. Medical records from 2004 to 2012 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they had clinical signs, clinical examination findings, and MRI abnormalities consistent with DLSS. Several variables were compared between surgically and medically treated dogs: age, sex, duration of clinical signs, presence or absence of neurologic deficits, urinary and fecal incontinence, concurrent medical conditions, and medical treatment before referral. Medical treatment after obtaining a final diagnosis of DLSS consisted of restricted exercise in combination with anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. Surgical treatment consisted of dorsal lumbosacral laminectomy. Outcome for medically treated dogs was obtained via a standardized questionnaire. Neurologic deficits were observed significantly more often in surgically treated dogs. Surgically treated dogs had unsuccessful medical treatment before referral significantly more often than did medically treated dogs. Thirty-one of 49 (63.3%) medically treated dogs were available for follow-up evaluation. Of these 31 dogs, 17 (55%) were managed successfully, 10 (32.3%) were managed unsuccessfully and underwent surgical treatment, 3 (9.7%) were euthanized because of progression of clinical signs, and 1 (3.2%) was alive but had an increase in severity of clinical signs after medical management. Clinical signs differed in dogs treated medically or surgically for DLSS. Medical treatment for dogs with DLSS was associated with a fair prognosis.

  1. "Who's been a good dog?" - Owner perceptions and motivations for treat giving.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Ward, L; Pink, C; Craigon, J; Millar, K M

    2016-09-15

    Complex relationships commonly exist between owners and their companion animals, particularly around feeding behaviour with an owner's affection or love for their animal most pronounced through the provision of food. It is notable that the pet food market is experiencing strong year-on-year growth in sales of dog and cat treats. Recognising the impact of treat giving in pet nutrition, the objective of the study was to investigate owner attitudes and motivations towards feeding treats (shop bought and other) to their dogs. A researcher-mediated questionnaire consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was used to interview dog owners (n=280) at two locations: an out-of-town retail park and a country park in the East Midlands. Owners almost unanimously viewed the word 'treat' within a nutritional context, as opposed to a new toy or other pleasure. The majority (96%) of owners interviewed reported feeding treats to their dog, with 69% feeding shop-bought treats on a daily basis. A wide range of treats was reportedly given by owners and the majority of owners interviewed fed multiple treat types. No association was found between owner age and frequency of shop-bought treats fed (P=0.659) nor between owner age and frequency of food given to the dog from the owner's plate (P=0.083). A wide range of foods which would not be considered balanced for the animal's nutritional requirements was viewed as a treat by some dog owners. A range of positive and negative views around the feeding of treats were expressed by dog owners, with some citing beneficial effects while others were clearly aware of the association between treat feeding and potential weight gain/obesity. Owner views included themes around positive reinforcement and responsibility but also reflected relational aspects of the human-animal bond. The results of the study show that treat giving is commonplace in feeding regimes and that treats are embedded in the feeding behaviour of many dog owners

  2. Use of lufenuron for treating fungal infections of dogs and cats: 297 cases (1997-1999).

    PubMed

    Ben-Ziony, Y; Arzi, B

    2000-11-15

    To evaluate use of lufenuron for treating cutaneous fungal infections in dogs and cats. Retrospective study. 156 dogs and 201 cats with dermatophytosis or superficial dermatomycoses. Medical records were reviewed for dogs and cats that had been treated for dermatophytosis or other fungal infections by administration of lufenuron and 18 dogs and 42 cats that were not treated and served as a control group. Dogs were treated once by oral administration of lufenuron tablets at doses ranging from 54.2 to 68.3 mg/kg (24.6 to 31.0 mg/lb) of body weight. Samples of skin, scrapings, and hair were obtained daily from 14 dogs with dermatophytosis; mean durations from time of treatment to time of negative fungal culture results and resolution of gross lesions were 14.5 and 20.75 days, respectively. In all treated dogs, gross lesions resolved within approximately 21 days. Cats were treated once by oral administration of lufenuron suspension in doses ranging from 51.2 to 266 mg/kg (23.3 to 120.9 mg/lb). Samples were obtained daily from 23 cats; mean durations from time of treatment to time of negative fungal culture results and resolution of gross lesions were 8.3 and 12 days, respectively. Time to resolution of lesions in most untreated control animals was approximately 90 days. Adverse effects of treatment were not detected. Results of this study suggest that lufenuron provides an effective, convenient, and rapid method for treating fungal infections in dogs and cats.

  3. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... and to prevent infectious diseases. Tips for preventing dog-associated diseases Before choosing a dog Certain types ...

  4. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dogs treated with cephalexin monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Fungwithaya, Punpichaya; Chanchaithong, Pattrarat; Phumthanakorn, Nathita; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs treated with oral cephalexin monohydrate. Ten dogs with superficial pyoderma were monitored longitudinally for carriage of MRSP for up to 1 year after treatment; the strains were typed and antibiograms were determined. Methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) was recovered prior to treatment in all dogs and could be isolated after 12 months in 1 dog. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was detected within 1 week of treatment in all dogs, and 3 clones represented by ST45, ST112, and ST181 were consistently present for up to 12 months after treatment. All MRSP isolates were resistant to at least 7 common antimicrobials. Oral cephalexin monohydrate treatment selected for strains of multi-resistant MRSP, which were still present after 1 year.

  5. Chagas disease control: deltamethrin-treated collars reduce Triatoma infestans feeding success on dogs.

    PubMed

    Reithinger, Richard; Ceballos, Leonardo; Stariolo, Raúl; Davies, Clive R; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2005-07-01

    Dogs are domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Using an experimental set-up mimicking rural mud-and-thatch houses, we evaluated the effect of deltamethrin-treated dog collars on the feeding success and survival of Triatoma infestans, the main T. cruzi vector in Latin America. Seven collared and three uncollared control dogs were exposed to colonized T. infestans at day 0 (i.e. before attachment of collars), at 15 days, and then monthly for 3 months post collar attachment. Following overnight exposure to uncollared dogs, 96% (1473/1538) of bugs fed, of which 51% (746/1473) fully engorged. Feeding rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs for up to 1 month post collar attachment with the lowest rates of 91% (551/604) observed at day 30 (P<0.05). Amongst those bugs that fed, engorgement rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs throughout the trial, during which average rates were 31% (543/1768) (P<0.001). No collar effect on individual bug survival was observed. Although observed effects on feeding and engorgement were limited, the strong association between blood-feeding, blood meal size and T. cruzi transmission suggests that deltamethrin-treated dog collars could help to control canine (and possibly human) T. cruzi infection.

  6. Variation of proteinuria in dogs with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pierantozzi, Marco; Roura, Xavier; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Poggi, Marco; Zatelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed using 53 client owned dogs with leishmaniasis to determine whether the degree of proteinuria, evaluated by the urine protein/creatinine ratio (UP/C), changes following treatment with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol. Medical records of dogs with leishmaniasis in clinical stage C (according to the Canine Leishmaniasis Working Group staging system) and either proteinuric or borderline proteinuric (according to the International Renal Interest Society [IRIS] staging system) were reviewed. All dogs were treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol for 4-8 wk. After treatment, UP/C, total protein, and total globulin significantly decreased and albumin and the albumin/globulin ratio (A/G) increased. After treatment, 7 of the 53 dogs (13.4%) became nonproteinuric following either a proteinuric or borderline proteinuric stage. Moreover, 12 of the 53 proteinuric dogs (22.6%) changed their stage to borderline proteinuric. The antileishmaniasis treatment with meglumine antimoniate in combination with allopurinol in dogs significantly reduced the degree of proteinuria in a short period of time. The results of the current study may be useful to the veterinary practitioner in the clinical management of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease.

  7. Cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine in dogs treated chronically with the amine.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H

    1982-01-01

    Methamphetamine is one of a group of sympathomimetic amines that lower blood pressure upon chronic administration to hypertensive dogs. To determine whether tolerance to the cardiovascular effects of these drugs could play a role in their antihypertensive action, acute blood pressure responses to oral d-methamphetamine were determined in trained conscious renal hypertensive dogs at weekly intervals during treatment with the drug for 2 months. Responses were also obtained in similarly treated normotensive dogs and in normotensive and hypertensive animals receiving l-methamphetamine. Pressor responses to d-methamphetamine in hypertensive dogs remained unchanged throughout treatment, while in all other cases they diminished gradually. Only the dextro isomer reduced blood pressure chronically in the hypertensive group. It was concluded that tolerance is not involved in the antihypertensive effect of methamphetamine and that, considering the stereo specificity of this effect, residual lowering of blood pressure might involve formation of a false mediator metabolite of the amine.

  8. Serological association between Leishmania infantum and sand fly fever Sicilian (but not Toscana) virus in sheltered dogs from southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Alwassouf, Sulaf; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Ayhan, Nazli; Pereira, André; Charrel, Remi N; Campino, Lenea

    2017-03-13

    Phlebotomine sand fly-borne diseases such as leishmanioses and phleboviruses are emerging threats to animal and public health. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis in Portugal. Antibodies to Toscana virus (TOSV) and sand fly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) were also reported in dogs from the south of the country. The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible association between exposure to L. infantum, TOSV and SFSV in sheltered dogs from the south of Portugal. Seventy-six (13.1%) out of 581 dogs were seropositive for L. infantum, 327 (56.3%) for SFSV and 36 (6.2%) for TOSV. Six dogs were co-exposed with L. infantum and TOSV, 51 with L. infantum and SFSV and 25 with TOSV and SFSV. One dog had antibodies to the three pathogens. Leishmania infantum seroprevalence was significantly higher in pure breed dogs than in mongrels and in dogs with clinical signs while SFSV positivity was significantly higher in males, in pure and cross-breed dogs than in mongrels and in those not treated with insecticides. Seroprevalence for both viruses was significantly higher in dogs over than 7 years-old than in those aged 1-7. A significant association was observed between the presence of antibodies to L. infantum and SFSV. The presence of antibodies to several phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in dogs, reinforces the need to implement efficient prophylactic measures to prevent infection among vertebrate hosts including humans. The results also indicate that dogs are good sentinels for assessing human exposure to TOSV and SFSV. Further studies must be performed to elucidate the role of dogs in the dynamics of transmission and if they can play a role as amplifying or reservoir hosts in the natural cycle of these viruses. Public and animal health impacts of these phleboviruses in Portugal should be addressed via serological and virological studies on both phlebotomine sand flies and vertebrate hosts, especially on humans.

  9. Oral chromium picolinate and control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

    PubMed

    Schachter, S; Nelson, R W; Kirk, C A

    2001-01-01

    Chromium is an essential dietary trace mineral involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium is required for cellular uptake of glucose, and chromium deficiency causes insulin resistance. Chromium supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity and has been used as adjunct treatment of diabetes mellitus in humans. In this study, 13 dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus were treated with insulin for 3 months, then with insulin and chromium picolinate for 3 months. Dogs weighing <15 kg (33 lb: n = 9) were administered 200 microg of chromium picolinate PO once daily for I month, then 200 microg of chromium picolinate twice daily for 2 months. Dogs weighing >15 kg (n = 4) received 200 microg of chromium picolinate once daily for 2 weeks, then 200 microg twice daily for 2 weeks, then 400 microg twice daily for 2 months. Type of insulin, frequency of insulin administration, and diet were kept constant, and insulin dosage was adjusted, as needed, to maintain optimal control of glycemia. Mean body weight, daily insulin dosage, daily caloric intake, 10-hour mean blood glucose concentration, blood glycated hemoglobin concentration, and serum fructosamine concentration were not markedly different when dogs were treated with insulin and chromium picolinate, compared with insulin alone. Adverse effects were not identified with chromium picolinate administration. Results of this study suggest that, at a dosage range of 20-60 microg/kg/d, chromium picolinate caused no beneficial or harmful effects in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.

  10. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Nenadović, Katarina; Vučinić, Marijana; Radenković-Damnjanović, Brana; Janković, Ljiljana; Teodorović, Radislava; Voslarova, Eva; Becskei, Zsolt

    2017-08-01

    One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml) was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000) 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and sedation. In both groups, the lowest values of serum cortisol

  11. Post-radiotherapy hypothyroidism in dogs treated for thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Amores-Fuster, I; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L

    2017-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common adverse event after head and neck radiotherapy in human medicine, but uncommonly reported in canine patients. Records of 21 dogs with histologically or cytologically confirmed thyroid carcinoma receiving definitive or hypofractionated radiotherapy were reviewed. Nine cases received 48 Gy in 12 fractions, 10 received 36 Gy in 4 fractions and 2 received 32 Gy in 4 fractions. Seventeen cases had radiotherapy in a post-operative setting. Ten cases developed hypothyroidism (47.6%) after radiotherapy. The development of hypothyroidism was not associated with the radiotherapy protocol used. Median time to diagnosis of hypothyroidism was 6 months (range, 1-13 months). Hypothyroidism is a common side effect following radiotherapy for thyroid carcinomas. Monitoring of thyroid function following radiotherapy is recommended. No specific risk factors have been identified.

  12. Rectal temperature changes and oxygen toxicity in dogs treated in a monoplace chamber.

    PubMed

    Shmalberg, Justin; Davies, Wendy; Lopez, Stacy; Shmalberg, Danielle; Zilberschtein, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen treatments are increasingly administered to pet dogs, using veterinary-specific monoplace chambers. The basic physiologic responses, chamber performance and oxygen toxicity rates have not yet been evaluated in dogs in a clinical setting. As a result, a series of consecutive 45-minute, 2-atmospheres absolute (atm abs) hyperbaric treatments with 100% oxygen were evaluated in a veterinary rehabilitation center (n = 285). 65 dogs with a mean body weight of 21 ± 15 kg (1.4-71 kg) were treated with an average of four sessions each. The mean rectal temperature of canine patients decreased 0.07 degrees C (0.1 degrees F) during treatments (p = 0.04). Intra-chamber temperature and humidity both increased: +1.0 degrees C (1.7 degrees F, p < 0.0001) and +5.7% (p < 0.0001), respectively. The mean maximal oxygen concentration measured before depressurization of the veterinary-specific commercial chamber was 98.0 ± 0.9%. No strong correlations (r > 0.75) were identified between body weights, body condition scores, maximal oxygen concentrations, starting or ending rectal temperature, chamber humidity and chamber temperature. Oxygen toxicity was not observed during the observational period. Patients were most commonly treated for intervertebral disc disease (n = 16 dogs) and extensive traumatic wounds (n = 10 dogs), which represented a large number of the total study sessions (19% and 16%, respectively).

  13. Owner experiences in treating dogs and cats diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Aptekmann, Karina P; Armstrong, Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Rand, Jacquie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report owner experiences and satisfaction in treating a pet with diabetes mellitus using a descriptive report from an Internet-based survey. Descriptive analysis of results was performed, χ(2) tests were used to detect differences in responses between dog and cat owners, and correlations were assessed using the nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. A total of 834 owners participated in the survey. More diabetic dogs (97%) than cats (82%) were treated with insulin injections. Insulin was administered twice daily in 87% of dogs and 73% of cats. Porcine lente and neutral protamine Hagedorn were the most commonly administered insulins in dogs. In cats, glargine and protamine zinc insulin were the most commonly used insulins. Most pets were not fed a prescribed diabetes diet. More cat (66%) than dog (50%) owners were satisfied with the diabetic control achieved. Cat owners were more likely to use home blood glucose monitoring. Treatment was considered expensive by the majority of owners. Few published reports follow diabetic pets after diagnosis or report owner satisfaction. The results of this study provide useful information that may help veterinarians better educate owners and set expectations regarding diabetes treatment and quality of life for diabetic pets.

  14. Exogenous thyrotoxicosis in dogs attributable to consumption of all-meat commercial dog food or treats containing excessive thyroid hormone: 14 cases (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Broome, Michael R; Peterson, Mark E; Kemppainen, Robert J; Parker, Valerie J; Richter, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    To describe findings in dogs with exogenous thyrotoxicosis attributable to consumption of commercially available dog foods or treats containing high concentrations of thyroid hormone. Retrospective and prospective case series. 14 dogs. Medical records were retrospectively searched to identify dogs with exogenous thyrotoxicosis attributable to dietary intake. One case was found, and subsequent cases were identified prospectively. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations were evaluated before and after feeding meat-based products suspected to contain excessive thyroid hormone was discontinued. Scintigraphy was performed to evaluate thyroid tissue in 13 of 14 dogs before and 1 of 13 dogs after discontinuation of suspect foods or treats. Seven samples of 5 commercially available products fed to 6 affected dogs were analyzed for thyroxine concentration; results were subjectively compared with findings for 10 other commercial foods and 6 beef muscle or liver samples. Total serum thyroxine concentrations were high (median, 8.8 μg/dL; range, 4.65 to 17.4 μg/dL) in all dogs at initial evaluation; scintigraphy revealed subjectively decreased thyroid gland radionuclide in 13 of 13 dogs examined. At ≥ 4 weeks after feeding of suspect food or treats was discontinued, total thyroxine concentrations were within the reference range for all dogs and signs associated with thyrotoxicosis, if present, had resolved. Analysis of tested food or treat samples revealed a median thyroxine concentration for suspect products of 1.52 μg of thyroxine/g, whereas that of unrelated commercial foods was 0.38 μg of thyroxine/g. Results indicated that thyrotoxicosis can occur secondary to consumption of meat-based products presumably contaminated by thyroid tissue, and can be reversed by identification and elimination of suspect products from the diet.

  15. Preferences of veterinarians for drugs to treat heart disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D; Church, D B

    1995-11-01

    Responses (473) were collated from a questionnaire sent to 5054 veterinarians in Australia enquiring about drug preferences for treating cardiac disease in dogs and cats. When treating a small breed dog with endocardiosis and mild left congestive heart failure, 74% of 472 respondents used a diuretic, 67% a theophylline derivative, 27% a vasodilator and 20% a positive inotrope. Frusemide was the preferred diuretic and digoxin the preferred inotrope, but vasodilator use varied. Low sodium diets were "often recommended" by 71% of respondents. Propranolol was preferred to diltiazem for treating feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Digoxin was clearly preferred for treating supraventricular dysrhythmias, while lignocaine and digoxin were preferred equally for ventricular dysrhythmias. Respondents appeared more willing than US veterinarians to use theophylline derivatives and prasozin, and less inclined to employ nitrates, hydralazine, inotropes other than digoxin, and low sodium diets.

  16. Relapses in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate or isometamidium chloride.

    PubMed

    Kaggwa, E; Munyua, W K; Mugera, G M

    1988-03-01

    Twenty dogs of mixed local East African breeds were used. Five of the dogs were uninfected controls and 15 were infected with T. brucei (ILRAD 273). Five of the infected dogs were untreated controls, five were treated with a high curative dose of diminazene aceturate, (7 mg kg-1 body weight (wt.), and five were given a subcurative dose of isometamidium chloride (1 mg kg-1 body wt.). The drugs, given at 8 days post infection (d.p.i..), led to apparent recovery. The antibody titres, however, remained high in both groups and at 42-49 d.p.i. there was at least one relapse in each treatment group. Parasite populations from relapsed animals were more resistant to the drugs than the original infecting populations. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget

    2013-12-01

    Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions.

  18. Long term follow-up of dogs diagnosed with leishmaniosis (clinical stage II) and treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Torres, Marta; Bardagí, Mar; Roura, Xavier; Zanna, Giordana; Ravera, Iván; Ferrer, Lluís

    2011-06-01

    Twenty-three dogs with a diagnosis of leishmaniosis (clinical stage II) were treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol and were followed up for 2-9 years. The treatment showed efficacy and the clinical condition of the dogs improved markedly in the first 3 months of treatment. Anti-Leishmania antibody titres declined slowly although most dogs remained seropositive 1 year after beginning treatment. Inter-individual variability in the evolution of the titres was very high. The dogs presented with three types of complications during the follow-up period. (1) Three dogs experienced relapses characterized by clinical signs, high anti-Leishmania titres and high parasitaemia. (2) Eight dogs presented immune-mediated lesions, such as uveitis, arthritis and cutaneous vasculitis; in all of these cases, the dogs had high titres of anti-Leishmania antibodies at diagnosis and during follow-up. (3) Three dogs presented xanthine urolithiasis most likely due to the allopurinol treatment. In one case the xanthine uroliths led to hydronephrosis and nephrectomy. The study demonstrated a long survival for dogs with leishmaniosis treated with the combination of meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol. Clinicians should pay special attention to the appearance of immune-mediated lesions, especially in dogs with sustained high antibody titres, and to urolithiasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Systemic neosporosis in a dog treated for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Magaña, Angie; Sánchez, Félix; Villa, Karina; Rivera, Liliana; Morales, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    A 4-year-old male Toy Poodle was presented to the Small Animal Veterinary Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Autonomous University of Mexico (FMVZ, UNAM) because of depression, lethargy, and hemorrhages involving several areas of the skin and around the eyes. Hematology data and a bone marrow analysis suggested hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. The dog was treated with prednisone, and after one month the hematology variables improved. However, the dog's clinical condition inexplicably worsened and it was euthanized. On necropsy, there were no relevant findings. However, in histology, multifocal lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic meningoencephalitis and necrosis, and a protozoan cyst in the cerebellum were identified. In addition, moderate multifocal lymphoplasmacytic and necrotizing pancreatitis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and diffuse lymphoplasmacytic enteritis were observed. Immunohistochemistry of the cerebellum, liver, pancreas, and intestine with a specific antibody against Neospora caninum confirmed the diagnosis of systemic neosporosis. The systemic neosporosis in this dog was most likely caused by reactivation of latent parasites due to prednisone administration during the one month of treatment. It should be kept in mind that in dogs being treated with immunosuppressants for immune-mediated conditions, opportunistic parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and N caninum, can be reactivated from a latent state, as it probably happened in the present case.

  20. Multiple liver abscesses in a dog secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus treated by percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization.

    PubMed

    Lemetayer, Julie D; Snead, Elizabeth C; Starrak, Greg S; Wagner, Brent A

    2016-06-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd × husky cross dog was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses and severe cholangitis secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. The dog was successfully treated with 2 percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization procedures, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and praziquantel.

  1. Multiple liver abscesses in a dog secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus treated by percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization

    PubMed Central

    Lemetayer, Julie D.; Snead, Elizabeth C.; Starrak, Greg S.; Wagner, Brent A.

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd × husky cross dog was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses and severe cholangitis secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. The dog was successfully treated with 2 percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization procedures, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and praziquantel. PMID:27247459

  2. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nenadović, Katarina; Vučinić, Marijana; Radenković-Damnjanović, Brana; Janković, Ljiljana; Teodorović, Radislava; Voslarova, Eva; Becskei, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of “Catch-Neuter-Release.” This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml) was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000) 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and sedation

  3. Composition of gastric mucinous secretion from Heidenhain pouches of dogs treated with aspirin.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, K; Pachkowski, T; Secord, D C

    1979-01-01

    Principal glycoproteins and amino acids of secretions from Heidenhain pouches were studied in control and aspirin-treated dogs in the resting state of fasting and during stimulation with pentagastrin. All samples showed the presence of galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine, glucose, fucose, mannose, uronic acid and sulfate. Galactose and glucosamine were found in equimolar amounts, and the galactose/galactosamine ratio was 2/1. Pentagastrin induced the reduction in concentration of major carbohydrate components and amino acids of gastric mucus. The concentrations of major carbohydrate components and of amino acids of gastric secretions were lower in aspirin-treated animals than in controls.

  4. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated orally with fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™).

    PubMed

    Taenzler, Janina; Liebenberg, Julian; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-06-04

    The preventive effect of fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™) against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by PCR and IFAT, were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n = 8) were treated once orally with a fluralaner chewable tablet according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n = 8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, dogs were infested with 50 (±4) B. canis infected D. reticulatus ticks with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h post-infestation. Prior to each infestation, the D. reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour B. canis by PCR analysis. On day 90, ticks were counted and removed from all dogs. Efficacy against ticks was calculated for each assessment time point. After treatment, all dogs were physically examined in conjunction with blood collection for PCR every 7 days, blood samples for IFAT were collected every 14 days and the dog's rectal body temperature was measured thrice weekly. From dogs displaying symptoms of babesiosis or were PCR positive, a blood smear was taken, and, if positive, dogs were rescue treated and replaced with a replacement dog. The preventive effect was evaluated by comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group. All control dogs became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR and IFAT. None of the 8 treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as IFAT and PCR were negative throughout the study until day 112. Fluralaner chewable tablet was 100 % effective against ticks on days 4, 30, 58, and 90 and an efficacy of 99.6 % and 99.2 % was achieved on day 72 and day 86 after treatment, respectively. Over the 12-week study duration, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. A single oral administration of fluralaner chewable tablets effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected

  5. Characterization of Salmonella Associated with Pig Ear Dog Treats in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Clifford; Cunningham, Jane; Ahmed, Rafiq; Woodward, David; Fonseca, Kevin; Isaacs, Sandy; Ellis, Andrea; Anand, Chandar; Ziebell, Kim; Muckle, Anne; Sockett, Paul; Rodgers, Frank

    2001-01-01

    In the summer of 1999, the incidence of Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis infections in Alberta rose dramatically. Subsequent laboratory and epidemiological investigations established that an outbreak of human disease caused by this organism was occurring across Canada and was associated with pet treats for dogs produced from processed pig ears. Laboratory investigations using phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) established that isolates of Salmonella serotype Infantis from pig ear pet treats and humans exposed to pig ear pet treats comprised a well-defined subset of all isolates analyzed. Of the 53 subtypes of Salmonella serotype Infantis obtained around the time of the outbreak as defined by PFGE and phage typing, only 6 subtypes were associated with both human infection and isolation from pig ears. Together with information from epidemiological studies, these investigations established pig ear pet treats as the cause of the Salmonella serotype Infantis outbreak. The results are consistent with a model in which contaminated pig ear pet treats constitute a long-term, continuing vehicle for infection of the human population rather than causing temporally delimited point-source outbreaks. During the course of this outbreak, several other Salmonella serotypes were also isolated from pet treats, suggesting these products may be an important source of enteric infection in both humans and dogs. Though isolates of Salmonella serotypes other than Salmonella serotype Infantis from pet treats were also subjected to PFGE and phage typing, no link with human disease could be definitively established, and the contribution of pig ear pet treats to human disease remains unclear. Elimination of bacterial contamination from pet treats is required to reduce the risk of infection from these products. PMID:11682515

  6. Gastrocnemius tendon strain in a dog treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis.

    PubMed

    Case, J Brad; Palmer, Ross; Valdes-Martinez, Alex; Egger, Erick L; Haussler, Kevin K

    2013-05-01

    To report clinical findings and outcome in a dog with gastrocnemius tendon strain treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells and a custom orthosis. Clinical report. A 4-year-old spayed female Border Collie. Bone-marrow derived, autologous mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the tendon core lesion. A custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis was fit to the tarsus. Serial orthopedic examinations and ultrasonography as well as long-term force-plate gait analysis were utilized for follow up. Lameness subjectively resolved and peak vertical force increased from 43% to 92% of the contralateral pelvic limb. Serial ultrasonographic examinations revealed improved but incomplete restoration of normal linear fiber pattern of the gastrocnemius tendon. Findings suggest that autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation with custom, progressive, dynamic orthosis may be a viable, minimally invasive technique for treatment of calcaneal tendon injuries in dogs. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Thoracoscopic foreign body removal and right middle lung lobectomy to treat pyothorax in a dog.

    PubMed

    Peláez, M Jiménez; Jolliffe, C

    2012-04-01

    A three-year-old, 30-kg, spayed female German wirehaired pointer was presented for coughing, pyrexia and lethargy. Thoracic radiographs showed mild right-sided pleural effusion, moderate pneumothorax and a pulmonary lesion in the right middle or caudal lung lobe. A diagnosis of pyothorax was established by fine needle aspiration of the pleural effusion. Thoracoscopic exploration was performed using one-lung ventilation. A vegetal foreign body (grass awn) and an abscess were observed in the distal part of the right middle lung lobe. The foreign body was removed and a right middle lung lobectomy was performed, both thoracoscopically. No complications were noted. The dog was discharged 48 hours after surgery, and no recurrence of the clinical signs was observed during the follow-up time period (three years and three months). Thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive alternative to thoracotomy to explore and successfully treat some non-chronic pyothoraces in dogs, including lesions affecting the right middle lung lobe.

  8. Fipronil washoff to municipal wastewater from dogs treated with spot-on products.

    PubMed

    Teerlink, Jennifer; Hernandez, Jorge; Budd, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Fipronil and fipronil degradates have been reported in treated wastewater effluent at concentrations that exceed USEPA Aquatic Life Benchmarks, posing a potential risk to the surface waters to which they discharge. Fipronil is a common insecticide found in spot-on flea and tick treatment products that have the potential for down-the-drain transport and direct washoff into surface water. Volunteers currently treating their dogs with a fipronil-containing spot-on product were recruited. Dogs were washed either 2, 7, or 28days after product application, and rinsate from 34 discrete bathing events were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for fipronil and fipronil degradates (collectively known as fiproles). Total fipronil application dosage ranged from 67.1-410.0mg per dog following manufacturers' recommendation based on dog body weight. Total mass of fiproles measured in rinsate ranged from 3.6-230.6mg per dog (0.2 ̶ 86.0% of mass applied). Average percentage of fiproles detected in rinsate generally decreased with increasing time from initial application: 21±22, 16±13, and 4±5% respectively for 2, 7, and 28days post application. Fipronil was the dominant fiprole, >63% of total fiproles for all samples and >92% of total fiproles in 2 and 7day samples. Results confirm a direct pathway of pesticides to municipal wastewater through the use of spot-on products on dogs and subsequent bathing by either professional groomers or by pet owners in the home. Comparisons of mass loading calculated using California sales data and recent wastewater monitoring results suggest fipronil-containing spot-on products are a potentially important source of fipronil to wastewater treatment systems in California. This study highlights the potential for other active ingredients (i.e., bifenthrin, permethrin, etofenprox, imidacloprid) contained in spot-on and other pet products (i.e., shampoos, sprays) to enter wastewater catchments through bathing activities, posing a potential risk to the aquatic

  9. Acquired Fanconi syndrome in a dog exposed to jerky treats in Japan

    PubMed Central

    IGASE, Masaya; BABA, Kenji; SHIMOKAWA MIYAMA, Takako; NOGUCHI, Shunsuke; MIZUNO, Takuya; OKUDA, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier presented with a 1-month history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting and weight loss. The dog was fed beef and chicken jerky treats daily in addition to a commercial diet. Laboratory tests revealed azotemia, hypokalemia, hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis and glucosuria with normoglycemia. Urine amino acid analysis showed significant amino acid loss into the urine. Thus, Fanconi syndrome was diagnosed, and based on the case history and extensive diagnostic testing, excessive consumption of jerky treats was strongly suspected as the cause. Glucosuria resolved 7 days after the withdrawal of jerky treats and fluid therapy. Aminoaciduria was substantially, but not completely, improved 3 months after diagnosis. Mild azotemia remained, suggesting chronic renal disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Fanconi syndrome following the consumption of jerky treats in Japan. PMID:26062568

  10. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-02-18

    A group of 8 dogs was treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®)) 28 days prior to infestation with adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, infected with Babesia canis. The ability of the collar to prevent transmission of B. canis in the treated group was compared to an untreated control group. All 8 dogs in the untreated control group became infected with B. canis parasites, which were detected in blood smears as early as day 6 post tick-application. All control dogs developed clinical signs of babesiosis and were rescue-treated with imidocarb dipropionate. These dogs also developed specific B. canis antibodies as identified by serology (IFA test) and were confirmed PCR/RLB positive. None of the 8 dogs treated with the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar became infected with B. canis, which was confirmed by the absence of specific B. canis antibodies and babesial DNA as confirmed by PCR/RLB. The collar caused 96.02% of the ticks to die within 48h post challenge and this increased to 100% within 4 days. Although a high percentage of 44% of the Dermacentor ticks were infected with B. canis, they were unable to transmit the infection to the treated group. Hence, the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar effectively prevented transmission of B. canis 1 month after application onto the dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary and inflammatory markers in dogs with heartworm infection treated using the slow kill method.

    PubMed

    Yoon, W-K; Kim, Y-W; Suh, S-I; Hyun, C

    2017-09-15

    This study evaluated the changes in the levels of cardiac, hemostatic, and inflammatory biomarkers in 12 dogs with different severities of heartworm infection treated using the slow kill protocol, consisting of 6-10μg/kg of ivermectin and 10mg/kg of doxycycline combination. The serum levels of cardiac troponin-I, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 were measured on the day of diagnosis (D0), after termination of doxycycline administration (D30), after termination of the slow kill treatment (D180), and 10 months after the initiation of therapy (D300). Heartworm antigenemia was cleared in 4/4 class I dogs, 3/4 class II dogs, and 1/4 class III dogs at the end of the therapy (D180), and in 4/4 class I, 4/4 class II, and 1/4 class III dogs at the end of the study (D300). The serum levels of the markers in class I dogs on the day of diagnosis (D0) were within the reference range, while the levels in class II and III dogs were above the reference range. Further, the serum levels of the markers in all dogs decreased significantly at the end of the study (D300), although some markers in class III dogs remained at pathological levels. This study revealed that the slow kill method should be used only as an alternative therapeutic protocol for dogs with low worm burden (class I and II). As the slow kill method alone may not effectively reduce all pathological changes in dogs with heavy worm burden and severe clinical signs (class III), adjuvant therapies including steroids and anti-thromboembolics should be used to minimize the risk of complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved survival associated with postoperative wound infection in dogs treated with limb-salvage surgery for osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Lascelles, B Duncan X; Dernell, William S; Correa, Maria T; Lafferty, Mary; Devitt, Chad M; Kuntz, Charles A; Straw, Rodney C; Withrow, Stephen J

    2005-12-01

    Limb-salvage surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy are performed as a treatment of appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs. Approximately 50% of dogs that undergo limb-salvage surgery develop postoperative surgical wound infections. Postoperative surgical infections may affect survival in cancer patients. The purposes of this study were to examine the effect of surgical wound infection on survival, local recurrence, and metastasis in relation to other prognostic factors for dogs with spontaneous osteosarcoma treated with limb-salvage surgery. Forty-seven client-owned dogs with osteosarcoma of the distal radius were treated with limb-salvage surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy--either carboplatin or carboplatin and doxorubicin. Hazard ratios were estimated by using the Cox proportional hazard model, and survival functions were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit life-table method. Of the 47 dogs in this study, 32 (68%) developed a postoperative wound infection. Infection, dog weight, and extent of the primary tumor (percentage of length) significantly affected survival, and infection and percentage of length significantly affected time to metastasis. None of the variables considered in this study affected local recurrence. Dogs that were diagnosed with an infection were less likely to die (hazard ratio, .446), and dogs with greater body weight and greater percentage length involvement were more likely to die (hazard ratios of 3.37 and 3.66, respectively). In dogs with osteosarcoma treated with limb-salvage surgery, infection has a positive influence on survival, as does a smaller initial length of radius involved and lower body weight.

  13. OUTCOME OF DOGS WITH INTRANASAL LYMPHOMA TREATED WITH VARIOUS RADIATION AND CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS: 24 CASES.

    PubMed

    George, Rebecca; Smith, Annette; Schleis, Stephanie; Brawner, William; Almond, Gregory; Kent, Michael; Wypij, Jackie; Borrego, Juan; Moore, Antony; Keyerleber, Michele; Kraiza, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Tumors of the nasal cavity comprise approximately 1% of all neoplasms in dogs. Canine intranasal lymphoma is rare and reports evaluating the outcome of treatment are lacking. The goal of this observational, descriptive, multi-institutional study was to evaluate the overall median survival times (MSTs) in a group of dogs with intranasal lymphoma that were treated with irradiation and/or chemotherapy. Dogs meeting these inclusion criteria were retrospectively recruited from medical archives at multiple institutions. Eighteen cases of intermediate to high grade intranasal lymphoma and six cases of low-grade intranasal lymphoma were identified. The date of diagnosis, method of diagnosis, treatment received (radiation and/or chemotherapy protocols), and date of death were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed on the intermediate to high grade group to calculate overall MST. Log-rank tests were performed to compare effects of treatment with radiation therapy ± chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed separately on the low-grade group. The overall MST was 375 days for the intermediate to high grade group. Cases treated with radiation ± chemotherapy had an MST of 455 days (n = 12) and those treated with chemotherapy alone (n = 6) had an MST of 157 days in the intermediate to high grade group. The MST was 823 days for the low-grade group. Results support the use of radiation therapy for treatment of canine intranasal lymphoma, however a randomized, controlled, clinical trial would be needed for more definitive recommendations. The role of adjunctive chemotherapy also may require further investigation. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  14. Elevated leukocyte phosphodiesterase as a basis for depressed cyclic adenosine monophosphate responses in the Basenji greyhound dog model of asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.C.; Hanifin, J.M.; Holden, C.A.; Thompson, W.J.; Hirshman, C.A.

    1985-08-01

    The BG dog manifests various characteristics of human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity to low concentrations of methacholine. Studies have suggested that airway hyperreactivity in asthma is related to inadequate intracellular cAMP responses. The authors studied cAMP characteristics in MNL from 19 BG and 14 mongrel dogs. beta-Adrenergic receptors were assessed by /sup 125/I CYP in the presence and absence of propranolol. The responses of cAMP to ISO were measured by radioimmunoassay. Adenylate cyclase activity was determined in homogenized MNL preparations by cAMP generation. PDE activity was quantitated by radioenzyme assay. Mongrel dog leukocyte ISO-stimulated cAMP levels doubled, whereas there were negligible increases in MNL from BG dogs. Basal PDE levels were higher in BG dogs than in mongrel dogs. The PDE inhibitor Ro 20-1724 restored ISO-stimulated cAMP responses in MNL of BG dogs. Adenylate cyclase activity was not lower in MNL homogenates from BG dogs than in mongrel dogs. Cells from both BG and mongrel dogs demonstrated similar receptor numbers and affinities of saturable, specific beta-adrenergic binding over a 10 pM to 400 pM range. The results suggest that depressed cAMP responses in BG dogs are due to high PDE activity rather than to a defect in the beta-adrenergic receptor adenylate cyclase system.

  15. Serum concentrations of cortisol and cortisone in healthy dogs and dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism treated with trilostane.

    PubMed

    Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Boretti, F S; Wenger, M; Maser-Gluth, C; Reusch, C E

    2008-10-18

    The serum concentrations of cortisol and cortisone were measured in 19 healthy dogs and in 13 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) before and one hour after an injection of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the dogs with pdh, the cortisol and cortisone concentrations were measured before and after one to two weeks and three to seven weeks of treatment with trilostane. The dogs with PDH had significantly higher baseline and poststimulation concentrations of cortisol and cortisone, and higher baseline cortisol:cortisone ratios than the healthy dogs. During the treatment with trilostane, the poststimulation cortisol, the baseline and poststimulation cortisone concentrations, and the baseline and poststimulation cortisol:cortisone ratios decreased significantly. The decrease in poststimulation cortisone was significantly smaller than the decrease in cortisol.

  16. Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance.

  17. Clinical use of an herbal-derived compound (Huperzine A) to treat putative complex partial seizures in a dog.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barbara M; Dodman, Nicholas H; Faissler, Dominik; Ogata, Niwako

    2009-08-01

    A Bernese mountain dog was diagnosed with complex partial seizures that were supported by electroencephalographic findings. Clinical signs of the problem included "star gazing," fly snapping, licking, vacuous chewing, and ongoing anxiety. Treatment with Huperzine A, a compound isolated from Chinese club moss with NMDA receptor blocking activity, anticholinesterase activity, and anticonvulsant properties, produced useful suppression of the abnormal behavior for more than months. A relapse occurred when the dog was treated with tramadol for joint pain and the improvement that had been made was not recaptured with Huperzine A. At this stage, phenobarbital therapy was instituted and the dog improved greatly. The role of Huperzine A in controlling seizures is discussed.

  18. Survival of 4 dogs with persistent atrial standstill treated by pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Justin D; Kraus, Marc S; Fallaw, Tiffany L; Calvert, Clay A

    2016-03-01

    Pacemakers were implanted in 4 client-owned female dogs which had persistent atrial standstill. Three dogs were alive after 14 to 39 months and 1 dog was euthanized after 10.5 years. This report demonstrates that some dogs with persistent atrial standstill can survive for extended time periods.

  19. Cortisol Concentrations in Well-Regulated Dogs with Hyperadrenocorticism Treated with Trilostane.

    PubMed

    Midence, J N; Drobatz, K J; Hess, R S

    2015-01-01

    There are no clear treatment guidelines for dogs with clinically well-regulated hyperadrenocorticism in which serum cortisol concentrations before and after an ACTH stimulation test performed 3-6 hours after trilostane administration are < 2.0 μg/dL. To determine if serum cortisol concentrations measured before (Pre1) and after (Post1) ACTH stimulation at 3-6 hours after trilostane administration are significantly lower than cortisol concentrations measured before (Pre2) and after (Post2) ACTH stimulation 9-12 hours after trilostane administration, in a specific population of dogs with clinically well-regulated hyperadrenocorticism and Pre1 and Post1 <2 μg/dL. Thirteen client-owned dogs with clinically well-regulated hyperadrenocorticism and Pre1 and Post1 serum cortisol concentrations <2.0 μg/dL 3-6 hours after trilostane administration. Prospective study. Dogs had a second ACTH stimulation test performed 9-12 hours after trilostane administration, on the same day of the first ACTH stimulation test. Cortisol concentrations before and after ACTH stimulation were compared using a paired t-test. Cortisol concentrations before (1.4 ± 0.3 μg/dL) and after the first stimulation (1.5 ± 0.3 μg/dL, mean ± SD) were significantly lower than cortisol concentration before the second stimulation (3.3 ± 1.6 μg/dL, P = .0012 each). Cortisol concentration before the first stimulation was also significantly lower than cortisol concentration after the second stimulation (5.3 ± 2.4 μg/dL, P = .0001). In dogs with clinically well-regulated, trilostane-treated, hyperadrenocorticism, and cortisol concentrations <2 μg/dL before and after the first stimulation, a second ACTH stimulation test performed 9-12 hours after treatment can result in higher cortisol concentrations that could support continued trilostane treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary

  20. Histological evaluation of electrosurgery and formocresol pulpotomy techniques in primary teeth in dogs.

    PubMed

    El-Meligy, O; Abdalla, M; El-Baraway, S; El-Tekya, M; Dean, J A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pulpal and periapical tissue reactions to electrosurgery versus formocresol pulpotomy techniques in the primary teeth of dogs. The study was conducted on 33 primary teeth of three mongrel dogs between the ages of one to three months. Each dog had three teeth treated by Formocresol Pulpotomy with Mechanical Coronal Pulp Removal (FC), three teeth treated by Electrosurgery Pulpotomy with Mechanical Coronal Pulp Removal (ES/MCPR), three teeth treated by Electrosurgery Pulpotomy with Electrosurgical Coronal Pulp Removal (ES/ECPR), and two teeth serving as untreated Controls. Dogs one, two and three were sacrificed performing the pulpotomies at two, four and six weeks, respectively. The pulp, periapical tissue and after surrounding bone were submitted to histological examination and the histological reaction was recorded. The results were fourteen out of 18 unfavorable and zero out of three favorable histological reactions occurred in the FC treated teeth. Six out of 18 unfavorable and one out of three favorable histological reactions occurred in the ES/MCPR treated teeth. Nine out of 18 unfavorable and two out of three favorable histological reactions occurred in the ES/ECPR treated teeth. One out of 18 unfavorable and zero out of three favorable histological reactions occurred in the untreated Control teeth. The conclusion of this study is that of the three experimental groups, the teeth treated by Electrosurgery Pulpotomy with either Mechanical or Electrosurgical Coronal Pulp Removal exhibited less histopathological reaction than the teeth treated by Formocresol Pulpotomy.

  1. Long-term follow-up of dogs with leishmaniosis treated with meglumine antimoniate plus allopurinol versus miltefosine plus allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Manna, Laura; Corso, Raffaele; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Muzj, Paolo; Gravino, Angelo Elio

    2015-05-28

    Visceral leishmaniosis is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. It is found mainly in areas where both the parasite and its vector are endemic and is one of the most challenging infectious diseases in the world to control. HIV infected patients are vulnerable to Leishmania infections, and the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum parasites are domestic dogs. Here, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of treatment with meglumine antimoniate plus allopurinol (G1) compared to miltefosine plus allopurinol (G2) in dogs naturally infected L. infantum. Eighteen dogs with leishmaniosis were divided into the following two groups: G1 (n = 9) was treated subcutaneously with meglumine antimoniate (100 mg/kg/day/30 days) plus allopurinol (10 mg/kg/per day/30 days), while G2 (n = 9) was treated orally with miltefosine (2 mg/Kg/day/30 days) plus allopurinol (10 mg/kg/day/30 days). Thereafter, the same dose of allopurinol was administered to both groups for 6 years. Leishmania DNA in lymph node aspirates from the G1 and G2 dogs was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR at baseline and every 3 months for 24 months, and then at 28, 36, 48, 60 and 72 months. At each assessment, the dogs were examined for signs of disease, and their clinical scores were recorded. Both combination therapies produced significant clinical improvements in the dogs, with a significant reduction in the parasitic load in the lymph nodes of the dogs from both groups after 3 months of treatment. Clinical relapses were observed in four dogs from G2 (miltefosine/allopurinol), and just one dog from G1 (meglumine antimoniate/allopurinol). All dogs that relapsed had increased clinical scores, and increased anti-Leishmania antibody titers and parasitic loads in their lymph nodes. Long-term, the clinical and laboratory findings of the G1 dogs were more stable than those of the G2 dogs, thus indicating that meglumine antimoniate had

  2. Half-body radiotherapy. Evaluation of the technique in normal dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, E.J.; Fitzpatrick, P.J.; Norris, A.M.; Mosseri, A.; Rider, W.D.; Binnington, A.G.; Baur, A.; Valli, V.E.

    1989-04-01

    Eight healthy mongrel dogs were treated with half-body irradiation (HBI) in a pilot study to evaluate the technique and radiotolerance of different organs. Cranial and caudal half-body fields were established using the 13th thoracic vertebra as the dividing point. Under general anesthesia, either 7 or 8 Gray (Gy) were delivered to one half of the body using opposing radiation portals. The other half of the body was similarly treated 28 days later. The dogs were monitored for 12 months. Significant radiation effects included transient bone marrow suppression and radiation sickness. There were no serious or life-threatening problems, but the 8 Gy group consistently showed more severe clinical signs and histologic changes than the 7 Gy group. Total body irradiation in two fractions of 7 or 8 Gy given 1 month apart appears to be a safe treatment that can be developed for therapy in veterinary oncology.

  3. The frequency of urinary tract infection and subclinical bacteriuria in dogs with allergic dermatitis treated with oclacitinib: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew C; Schissler, Jennifer R; Rosychuk, Rod A W; Moore, A Russell

    2017-10-01

    Oclacitinib is a selective Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of canine allergic pruritus and atopic dermatitis in dogs. Glucocorticoids and ciclosporin increase urinary tract infection (UTI) frequency in dogs with inflammatory skin disease. Prospective study to evaluate the frequency of UTI and subclinical bacteriuria in dogs with allergic dermatitis receiving oclacitinib. Client-owned dogs ≥2 years of age with a history of allergic dermatitis without apparent history of urinary tract disease or predisposition to UTI were included. Prior to enrolment, urinalysis and quantitative urine culture were performed after a washout period of at least 14 days from systemic antimicrobial drugs and 28 days for ciclosporin and systemic glucocorticoids. Dogs received oclacitinib at labelled dosing for an intended period of 180-230 days with a follow-up urinalysis and urine culture performed regardless of urinary tract signs. Systemic antimicrobial and immune-modulating drugs were not administered during the study. None of the 55 dogs in this study developed UTI while receiving oclacitinib based on follow-up urinalysis and urine culture performed during a range of 58-280 days (mean 195 days). Two dogs developed self-limiting abnormal urinary tract signs without urine culture or urinalysis findings consistent with UTI. These findings indicate that bacteriuria is not an expected adverse effect in dogs treated with oclacitinib without a prior history of UTI or predisposing condition during this treatment period. Therefore, routine urine culture is not indicated for such dogs in the absence of abnormal urinalysis or clinical signs of urinary tract disease. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Acupoint Injection of Autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction and Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Treat Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Camila; Silveira, Maiele Dornelles; Selbach, Isabel; da Silva, Ariel Silveira; Braga, Luisa Maria Gomes de Macedo; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance Beyer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue show great therapeutic potential in veterinary medicine, but some points such as the use of fresh or cultured cells and route of administration need better knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, n = 4) or allogeneic cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, n = 5) injected into acupuncture points in dogs with hip dysplasia and weak response to drug therapy. Canine ASCs have proliferation and differentiation potential similar to ASCs from other species. After the first week of treatment, clinical evaluation showed marked improvement compared with baseline results in all patients treated with autologous SVF and three of the dogs treated with allogeneic ASCs. On days 15 and 30, all dogs showed improvement in range of motion, lameness at trot, and pain on manipulation of the joints, except for one ASC-treated patient. Positive results were more clearly seen in the SVF-treated group. These results show that autologous SVF or allogeneic ASCs can be safely used in acupoint injection for treating hip dysplasia in dogs and represent an important therapeutic alternative for this type of pathology. Further studies are necessary to assess a possible advantage of SVF cells in treating joint diseases. PMID:25180040

  5. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended.

  6. Traditional Mediterranean plants: characterization and use of an essential oils mixture to treat Malassezia otitis externa in atopic dogs.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Baronti, Ilenia; Najar, Basma; Pisseri, Francesca; Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Papini, Roberto; Perrucci, Stefania; Mancianti, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    Several plants extracts from Mediterranean countries are traditionally employed in skin troubles both in humans and in animals. Malassezia pachydermatis is a lipophylic yeast responsible for otitis externa and dermatitis in dogs and for cutaneous and systemic disease in humans. Five mixtures of essential oils obtained from Mediterranean plants (Citrus paradisi, Salvia sclarea, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Citrus limon, Anthemis nobilis, Lavandula hybrida and Thymus vulgaris) provided with antifungal and/or anti-inflammatory action assayed in vitro, were tested in vivo versus M. pachydermatis to treat once daily for 2 weeks 25 atopic dogs with Malassezia otitis externa. Mixture composed by C. limon 1%, S. sclarea 0,5%, R. officinalis 1%, A. nobilis 0,5% yielded excellent results in all treated dogs. Despite of clinical resolution after all treatments the number of blastospores did not decrease. This study confirms recent findings suggesting a multifactorial alternative approach for the management of canine Malassezia otitis.

  7. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective.

  8. Compromised Osseous Healing of Dental Extraction Sites in Zoledronic Acid-Treated Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kubek, Daniel J.; Burr, David B.; Ruggiero, Salvatore L.; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The goal of this study was to document how treatment with a bisphosphonate affects the bone tissue following dental extraction. METHODS Skeletally mature female beagle dogs were either untreated controls (CON) or treated with intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL). Following the extraction of the 4th premolars, healing was allowed for 4 or 8 weeks. Properties of the extraction site were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dynamic histomorphometry. RESULTS The initial infilling of the extraction socket with bone was not affected by ZOL but subsequent removal of this bone was significantly suppressed compared to CON. After 8-weeks of healing, the alveolar cortical bone adjacent to the extraction socket had a remodeling rate of ~50%/year in CON animals while ZOL-treated animals had a rate of < 1%/year. One ZOL-treated animal developed exposed bone post-extraction which eventually led to the formation of a sequestrum. Assessment of the sequestrum with micro-CT and histology showed that it had features consistent with those reported in humans with osteonecrosis of the jaw. CONCLUSIONS These results, showing significantly compromised post-extraction osseous healing as well as presence of exposed bone and development of a sequestrum in one ZOL animal, provide a building block toward understanding the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:20458574

  9. Spontaneous activity in the trachea of dogs treated with indomethacin: an experimental model for aspirin-related asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Y.; Tajima, K.

    1981-01-01

    1 Electrical and mechanical properties of smooth muscle cells or of neuro-effector transmission in the smooth muscle layer of the dog trachea, were studied after treatment with indomethacin, by means of the double sucrose gap, microelectrode or tension recording methods. 2 After several subcutaneous injections of indomethacin (1.0 mg/kg daily), 6 out of 12 dogs were coughing and wheezing. 3 Smooth muscle tissues dissected from the trachea of the coughing dog showed spontaneous electrical and mechanical activities at the frequency of 8-15 per min. These spontaneous electrical and mechanical activities were completely suppressed by treatment with atropine (10(-6) M), isoprenaline (5 X 10(-7) M) or prostaglandin E2 (10(-9) M) but not by tetrodotoxin (1.5 X 10(-6) M). 4 Direct muscle stimulation induced oscillatory potential changes followed by tension development in the trachea of the indomethacin-treated dog. 5 In the indomethacin-treated dog, mean membrane potential of the tracheal smooth muscle cells was -52.4 mV, and in the control trachea, the potential was -59.0 mV. 6 In the trachea from control dogs, the amplitude of test e.j.ps after conditioning e.j.ps was always smaller than the conditioning e.j.p., at any time interval between the two stimuli. In the trachea from indomethacin-treated dogs, facilitation phenomena were observed. 7 In the trachea from the indomethacin-treated dog, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) or PGE2 (10(-10)-10(-9) M) markedly suppressed the amplitude of the e.j.p. but did not affect the facilitation phenomenon. 8 These results indicate that endogenous prostaglandins play important physiological roles in the feed-back inhibitory mechanisms for acetylcholine release from the nerve terminals during the resting and active states. 9 The results are also discussed in relation to the genesis of aspirin-induced asthma in man. PMID:7237002

  10. Successful Management of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia after Kidney Transplantation in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    PARK, Kyung-Mee; NAM, Hyun-Suk; WOO, Heung-Myong

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 8-year-old male mongrel dog that had undergone renal transplantation was presented 25 days later with an acute cough, anorexia and exercise intolerance. During the investigation, neutrophilic leukocytosis was noted, and thoracic radiographs revealed caudal lung lobe infiltration. While being treated with two broad-spectrum antibiotics, clinical signs worsened. Pneumonia due to infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa, sensitive only to imipenem and amikacin, was confirmed by bacteria isolation. After treatment with imipenem-cilastatin without reducing the immunosuppressant dose, clinical signs completely resolved. During the 2-year follow-up period, no recurrence was observed. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of pneumonia caused by MDR P. aeruginosa in a renal recipient dog and successful management of this disease. PMID:23842146

  11. Determination of Critical Size Defects in the Mandibles and Calvaria of Mongrel Dogs and Cynomolgus Monkeys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    artificially-created nonunions, encourage fibrogenesis while discouraging osteogenesis through distraction , movement, and foreign bodies. CSD-created nonunions...sustained among research investigators in choosing an appro- priate animal model for maxillofacial bone research. In an attempt’todescribe a protocol for the...development of maxillofacial nonunions8, experiments were revieWed which used cal- varial and mandibular defects as models. The creation of

  12. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P < 0.01) but gnathosoma and podosoma did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects.

  13. Imaging and Clinical Outcomes in 20 Dogs Treated with Thin Film Banding for Extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nathan C; Nelson, Laura L

    2016-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of thin film band attenuation of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (CEPSS) in dogs using clinical, biochemical, and imaging-related outcome measures. Prospective case series. Dogs with CEPSS (n=20). Client-owned dogs with CEPSS were enrolled and thin film banding of the shunting vessel was performed. Before and at least 6 months after surgery, serum bile acids and computed tomography (CT) angiography were performed and owners completed a health questionnaire regarding the dog's clinical signs. Postoperative CT images were assessed for the effectiveness of band closure, change in portal vein/aorta ratio, change in liver volume/weight ratio, and whether the band was placed in the appropriate location. Preoperative and postoperative health questionnaire data and serum bile acids were compared. The band resulted in complete closure of the vessel around which it was placed in 13 dogs. In the remaining 7 dogs, the vessel lumen was narrowed but not completely closed. In 8 dogs the band location was suboptimal, allowing systemic drainage of visceral blood or secondary shunting branches to persist. Liver volume/body weight ratios and portal vein/aorta diameter ratios increased in most dogs. Serum bile acids decreased in all but 1 dog and owners reported improved health in 19 dogs. Thin film banding resulted in complete occlusion of many, but not all vessels around which it was placed. Even in dogs with inappropriate band location or with incomplete closure, clinical improvement can be expected based on our results. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Use of ponazuril paste to treat coccidiosis in shelter-housed cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Litster, A L; Nichols, J; Hall, K; Camp, J; Mohamed, A S

    2014-05-28

    Cystoisospora (synonym Isospora) spp. infections are common in dogs and cats worldwide, especially in crowded or unsanitary environments. Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a widely used oral treatment, but protocols that will produce oocyst excretion below the detection limit in shelter-housed animals have not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of ponazuril paste at each of three dosages (dosage 1, 50mg/kg q24 h for 3 days, dogs n=14, cats n=16; dosage 2, 50mg/kg as a single dose, dogs n=13, cats n=25; or dosage 3, 20mg/kg as a single dose, dogs n=16, cats n=23) in shelter-housed dogs (n=43) and cats (n=64) with confirmed coccidiosis. Fecal oocyst counts and identification and fecal consistency scoring was performed pre-treatment (Day 1) and again at Day 3-4 and Day 8. There were higher proportions of animals with oocyst excretion below the detection limit at both Day 3-4 and Day 8 in the dosage 1 group (dogs 92.9%, cats 87.5%) than in the other two groups (dosage 2, dogs 76.9%, cats 80.0%; dosage 3, dogs 68.8%, cats 47.8%). Animals with high fecal oocyst counts at Day 1 were significantly more likely to be infected at Day 3-4 (dogs, P<0.001; cats, P=0.013). Fecal consistency score at Day 3-4 was not significantly related to infection status (dogs, P=0.898; cats, P=0.136). Further studies are warranted to investigate a ponazuril protocol that can safely reduce fecal oocyst burdens in infected dogs and cats to levels below the detection limit. Environmental decontamination is also important to reduce the likelihood of re-infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Demography of black-tailed prairie dog populations reoccupying sites treated with rodenticide

    Treesearch

    R. P. Cincotta; Daniel W. Uresk; R. M. Hansen

    1987-01-01

    A rodenticide, zinc phosphide, was applied to remove black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from 6 haofa prairie dog colony in southwestern South Dakota. Another adjacent 6 ha was left untreated. The removal experiment was repeated two consecutive years. Contingency table analysis showed that the resultant population was not homogeneous;...

  16. Primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma in a dog treated with surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Pagano, Candace J; Boudreaux, Bonnie B

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year-old castrated male mixed breed dog was presented for a squamous cell carcinoma of the left frontal sinus. A partial craniectomy was performed and polytetrafluoroethylene mesh was placed over the craniectomy site. The dog recovered well with a good cosmetic outcome. Histopathology confirmed primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) to treat a chronic skin wound in a dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Raduan; Plapler, Hélio; Bitar, Renata A.

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an emerging and promising therapeutic modality for treatment of a wide variety of malignant and nononcologic tumors, as well as in the treatment of infected skin ulcers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the PDT to treat a chronic skin wound that had been already subjected to several clinical and surgical type treatments in a dog. The animal with an infected chronic skin wound with 8 cm diameter in the left leg received an injection of an aqueous solution of 1% methylene blue (MB) with 2% lidocaine into the lesion. After MB injection the wound was irradiated using a LED (LED-VET MMOptics(r)) with a wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, of 150 mW of power, light dose of 50 J/cm2. After 3 and 6 weeks PDT was repeated and the wound was re-evaluated. Complete healing was achieved 10 weeks after the first procedure.

  18. Tracking of Specific Integrant Clones in Dogs Treated with Foamy Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ohmine, Ken; Li, Yi; Bauer, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vector integration can lead to proto-oncogene activation and malignancies during hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. We previously used foamy virus vectors to deliver the CD18 gene under the control of an internal murine stem cell virus promoter and successfully treated dogs with canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Here we have tracked the copy numbers of 11 specific proviruses found in these animals for 36–42 months after transplantation, including examples within or near proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and genes unrelated to cancer. We found no evidence for clonal expansion of any of the clones, including those with proviruses in the MECOM gene (MDS1-EVI1 complex). These results suggest that although foamy virus vectors may integrate near proto-oncogenes, this does not necessarily lead to clonal expansion and malignancies. Additionally, we show that copy number estimates of these specific proviruses based on linker-mediated PCR results are different from those obtained by quantitative PCR, but can provide a qualitative assessment of provirus levels. PMID:20738155

  19. [Dog bite-related injuries treated in a pediatric surgery department:analysis of 654 cases in 10 years].

    PubMed

    Méndez Gallart, R; Gómez Tellado, M; Somoza Argibay, I; Liras Muñoz, J; Pais Piñeiro, E; Vela Nieto, D

    2002-05-01

    Dog bites to children have increasingly come to the forefront of public attention in recent years, especially attacks by certain breeds classified as aggressive. Dog bites account for approximately 1 % of all emergency pediatric department visits and 75 % of these bites occur in children. Although these lesions are rarely serious, 20-45 % of children under the age of 15 years have been bitten. To analyze the reality of this problem in our population in order to determine the ideal prehospital preventive measures that would reduce the incidence of dog bites. A retrospective study of children with dog bites who received emergency treatment in the Hospital Infantil Teresa Herrera of the Complejo Hospitalario Juan Canalejo in La Coruña, Spain, between 1991 and 2000 was undertaken. A register of patients was created that included data on age and sex of the children, the race of the dog, the relationship between the child and the animal, characteristics of the injuries, circumstances of the attack, probable sequelae, need for hospital admission and complications during treatment. Nonparametric data were analyzed using Pearson's 2 test. The Ox ratio was estimated with a 95 % confidence interval (0.05). In the 10-year period between January 1991 and December 2000, 654 patients under the age of 14 years were treated for dog bite-related injuries. The mean age was 5.09 years. A greater number of boys had been bitten than girls (2.75/1). In 79 % of the cases the dogs were known (family, friends, neighbors). Thirty-eight percent of the attacks were made by German Shepherds and 35 % by crossed breeds. Sixty-five percent of the bites were located on the head, face and neck, especially in patients aged less than 4 years. Five percent of the lesions were severe. Thirteen patients were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and 98 patients required hospitalization due to the characteristics of the injuries. The mean hospital stay was 6 days. Infectious complications

  20. Leishmania-specific lymphoproliferative responses and IgG1/IgG2 immunodetection patterns by Western blot in asymptomatic, symptomatic and treated dogs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, F J; Gómez-Muñoz, Ma T; Méndez, S; Alunda, J M

    2003-04-01

    Peripheral cell responses against Leishmania infantum and serology by IFAT and WB were determined in 87 untreated dogs from an endemic area (Madrid, Spain) and in 15 treated dogs (antimonials, allopurinol). All untreated symptomatic dogs (nine) did not show any lymphoproliferative response, whereas 21 out of 78 untreated asymptomatic dogs had a positive cellular response. Serum IgG(2) from dogs with clinical signs of patent leishmaniosis reacted with a variety of peptides (26, 29, 34-35.4, 42, 45, 50-57 and 67 kDa), but IgG(1) response was mainly directed against a 67-kDa peptide. Successfully treated dogs displayed a low immunoreactivity of both IgG(1) and IgG(2), particularly against 67 kDa, thus indicating the potential prognostic value of this region. Positive cellular response of dogs treated with good clinical progress was only observed up to 5-12 months post treatment. Untreated asymptomatic dogs with positive cell response showed a clear recognition by IgG(2) of approximately 67 and 45 kDa antigens, whereas IgG(1) did not recognise any antigen.

  1. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-05-10

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF.

  2. The effect of oculo-acupuncture on recovery from ethylene glycol-induced acute renal injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhu; Song, Kun-Ho; You, Myung-Jo; Son, Dong-Soo; Cho, Sung-Whan; Kim, Duck-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    The potential recovery effect by oculo-acupuncture (OA) on ethylene glycol-induced acute renal injury in dogs was investigated. Acute renal damage was induced by ingestion of ethylene glycol in six mongrel dogs. The dogs were assigned to control (three dogs) and experimental (three dogs) groups. The control group did not receive any treatment, while the experimental group was treated with oculo-acupuncture at kidney/urinary bladder region plus zhong jiao region of the eyes after the induction of renal damage. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) were measured in both control and experimental groups. The blood RBC and Hb were also examined. The serum BUN and creatinine activities in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group, the serum Na and Cl had the irregular change in both groups, and the blood Hb in the control and experimental group showed decreasing tendency. Significant differences were observed on the 3rd and 7th day in BUN, 7th day in creatinine, 2nd day in Na and Cl, and 7th day in Hb when compared to the control group. Whereas, serum K concentration and RBC in the experimental group did not change significantly. The recovery findings of the renal injury were also observed in the experimental group histopathologically. In conclusion, OA therapy (kidney/urinary bladder region plus zhong jiao region) was effective for recovery of the renal injury induced by ethylene glycol in dogs.

  3. Effect of a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor on arterial graft patency and platelet deposition in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, M.D.; Huntsman, W.T.; Miett, T.O.; Cronenwett, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This study examined the effect of selective thromboxane synthase inhibition and nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibition on vascular graft patency and indium 111-labeled platelet deposition in 35 mongrel dogs undergoing carotid artery replacement with 4 mm X 4 cm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (one side) and Dacron (opposite side) end-to-end grafts. Aspirin-dipyridamole therapy improved one-week graft patency, from 46% in untreated dogs to 93% in treated dogs. Thromboxane synthase inhibition (U-63557A) improved graft patency in these dogs to 81%. Both drug treatments reduced platelet deposition on Dacron and PTFE grafts by 48% to 68% compared with control dogs. Dacron grafts accumulated significantly more platelets than PTFE grafts but had comparable patency rates. Low-dose aspirin therapy had no significant effect on either graft patency or platelet deposition. All treatment groups showed a 60% to 76% reduction in serum thromboxane B2, but only thromboxane synthase inhibitor treatment increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha by 100%. Selective thromboxane synthase inhibition improved small-caliber prosthetic graft patency to the same extent as did conventional cyclooxygenase inhibition in this preliminary study.

  4. Bleomycin/interleukin-12 electrochemogene therapy for treating naturally occurring spontaneous neoplasms in dogs.

    PubMed

    Reed, S D; Fulmer, A; Buckholz, J; Zhang, B; Cutrera, J; Shiomitsu, K; Li, S

    2010-07-01

    On the basis of superior outcomes from electrochemogene therapy (ECGT) compared with electrochemotherapy in mice, we determined the efficacy of ECGT applied to spontaneous canine neoplasms. Intralesional bleomycin and feline interleukin-12 DNA (fIL-12 DNA) injection combined with translesional electroporation resulted in complete cure of two recurrent World Health Organization stage T(2b)N(0)M(0) oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and one T(2)N(0)M(0) acanthomatous ameloblastoma. Three remaining dogs, which had no other treatment options, had partial responses to ECGT; one had mandibular T(3b)N(2b)M(1) melanoma with pulmonary and lymph node metastases; one had cubital T(3)N(0)M(1) histiocytic sarcoma with spleen metastases; and one had soft palate T(3)N(0)M(0) fibrosarcoma. The melanoma dog had decrease in size of the primary tumor before recrudescence and euthanasia. The histiocytic sarcoma dog had resolution of the primary tumor, but was euthanized because of metastases 4 months after the only treatment. The dog with T(3)N(0)M(0) fibrosarcoma had tumor regression with recrudescence. Treatment was associated with minimal side effects and was easy to perform. It was associated with repair of bone lysis in cured dogs, it improved quality of life of dogs with partial responses and extended overall survival time. ECGT seems to be a safe and resulted in complete responses in SCC and acanthomatous ameloblastoma.

  5. Bleomycin/interleukin-12 electrochemogenetherapy for treating naturally occurring spontaneous neoplasms in dogs.

    PubMed

    Reed, S D; Fulmer, A; Buckholz, J; Zhang, B; Cutrera, J; Shiomitsu, K; Li, S

    2010-08-01

    On the basis of superior outcomes from electrochemogenetherapy (ECGT) compared with electrochemotherapy in mice, we determined the efficacy of ECGT applied to spontaneous canine neoplasms. Intralesional bleomycin (BLM) and feline interleukin-12 DNA injection combined with translesional electroporation resulted in complete cure of two recurrent World Health Organization stage T(2b)N(0)M(0) oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and one T(2)N(0)M(0) acanthomatous ameloblastoma. Three remaining dogs, which had no other treatment options, had partial responses to ECGT; one had mandibular T(3b)N(2b)M(1) melanoma with pulmonary and lymph node metastases; one had cubital T(3)N(0)M(1) histiocytic sarcoma with spleen metastases; and one had soft palate T(3)N(0)M(0) fibrosarcoma. The melanoma dog had decrease in the size of the primary tumor before recrudescence and euthanasia. The histiocytic sarcoma dog had resolution of the primary tumor, but was euthanized because of metastases 4 months after the only treatment. The dog with T(3)N(0)M(0) fibrosarcoma had tumor regression with recrudescence. Treatment was associated with minimal side effects and was easy to perform, was associated with repair of bone lysis in cured dogs, improved quality of life for dogs with partial responses and extended overall survival time. ECGT seems to be a safe and resulted in complete responses in SCC and acanthomatous ameloblastoma.

  6. Effects of probiotic bacteria in dogs with food responsive diarrhoea treated with an elimination diet.

    PubMed

    Sauter, S N; Benyacoub, J; Allenspach, K; Gaschen, F; Ontsouka, E; Reuteler, G; Cavadini, C; Knorr, R; Blum, J W

    2006-08-01

    We evaluated whether a probiotic supplementation in dogs with food responsive diarrhoea (FRD) has beneficial effects on intestinal cytokine patterns and on microbiota. Twenty-one client-owned dogs with FRD were presented for clinically needed duodeno- and colonoscopy and were enrolled in a prospective placebo (PL)-controlled probiotic trial. Intestinal tissue samples and faeces were collected during endoscopy. Intestinal mRNA abundance of interleukin (IL)-5, -10, -12p40 and -13, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta1 and interferon (IFN)-gamma were analysed and numbers of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae and supplemented probiotic bacteria were determined in faeces. The Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index, a scoring system comprising general attitude, appetite, faecal consistency, defecation frequency, and vomitus, decreased in all dogs (p < 0.0001). Duodenal IL-10 mRNA levels decreased (p = 0.1) and colonic IFN-gamma mRNA levels increased (p = 0.08) after probiotic treatment. Numbers of Enterobacteriaceae decreased in FRD dogs receiving probiotic cocktail (FRD(PC)) and FRD dogs fed PL (FRD(PL)) during treatment (p < 0.05), numbers of Lactobacillus spp. increased in FRD(PC after) when compared with FRD(PC before) (p < 0.1). One strain of PC was detected in five of eight FRD(PC) dogs after probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, all dogs clinically improved after treatment, but cytokine patterns were not associated with the clinical features irrespective of the dietary supplementation.

  7. Prevalence of salmonella infection in dogs in maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis.

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Dogs in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

  9. Efficacy and safety of cefovecin in treating bacterial folliculitis, abscesses, or infected wounds in dogs.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert; Cherni, Judy; Chesebrough, Robert; Cleaver, Dawn; Lindeman, Cindy J; Papp, Georg; Skogerboe, Terry L; Weigel, Daniel J; Boucher, Joseph F; Stegemann, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of administration of cefovecin, compared with cefadroxil, for treatment of naturally occurring secondary superficial pyoderma, abscesses, and infected wounds in dogs. Multicenter, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial. 235 client-owned dogs. Dogs with clinical signs of skin infection confirmed via bacteriologic culture were randomly allocated to receive a single SC injection of cefovecin (8 mg/kg [3.6 mg/lb]) followed by placebo administered PO twice daily for 14 days or cefadroxil (22 mg/kg [10 mg/lb]) administered PO twice daily for 14 days following a placebo injection. Two 14-day treatment courses were permitted. Treatment success was defined as reduction of clinical signs to mild or absent at the final assessment. Clinical efficacy achieved with cefovecin in dogs was equivalent to that observed with cefadroxil. At the final assessment, 14 days following the completion of treatment (on day 28 or 42), 92.4% (109/118) of the cefovecin group and 92.3% (108/117) of the cefadroxil group were treatment successes. There were no serious adverse events or deaths related to treatment. A single cefovecin injection (8 mg/kg) administered SC, which could be repeated once after 14 days, was safe and effective against naturally occurring skin infections in dogs and as effective as cefadroxil administered PO twice daily for 14 or 28 days.

  10. Hemostatic profile and thromboembolic risk in healthy dogs treated with prednisone: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Romão, Felipe Gazza; Campos, Elza Fernanda; Mattoso, Claudio Roberto Scabelo; Takahira, Regina Kiomi

    2013-12-31

    Thrombosis has been associated to some diseases like hyperadrenocorticism (HAC). Several drugs can alter the balance, such as the corticosteroid prednisone, used mainly for its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. It is known that hypercortisolism can stimulate thrombi formation by increasing coagulation factors and decreasing fibrinolysis. However it is not known how prednisone administration affects hemostasis in dogs and if it is dose dependent. The aim of this study, therefore, was to demonstrate the effects of prednisone administration on dogs' hemostatic profile. Significant decrease of antithrombin levels was observed in both groups (anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive doses) after 15 days of treatment. An increase of platelet aggregation was observed in dogs receiving immunosuppressive doses of prednisone (Group II). From the results obtained in our study, it is not possible to infer that hypercortisolism can increase the thromboembolic risk, despite the decreased anticoagulant factors (antithrombin levels).

  11. Chemotherapy effectiveness and mortality prediction in surgically treated osteosarcoma dogs: A validation study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A F; Nielen, M; Withrow, S J; Selmic, L E; Burton, J H; Klungel, O H; Groenwold, R H H; Kirpensteijn, J

    2016-03-01

    Canine osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer, and an important cause of mortality and morbidity, in large purebred dogs. Previously we constructed two multivariable models to predict a dog's 5-month or 1-year mortality risk after surgical treatment for osteosarcoma. According to the 5-month model, dogs with a relatively low risk of 5-month mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy treatment. In the present study, we externally validated these results using an independent cohort study of 794 dogs. External performance of our prediction models showed some disagreement between observed and predicted risk, mean difference: -0.11 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]-0.29; 0.08) for 5-month risk and 0.25 (95%CI 0.10; 0.40) for 1-year mortality risk. After updating the intercept, agreement improved: -0.0004 (95%CI-0.16; 0.16) and -0.002 (95%CI-0.15; 0.15). The chemotherapy by predicted mortality risk interaction (P-value=0.01) showed that the chemotherapy compared to no chemotherapy effectiveness was modified by 5-month mortality risk: dogs with a relatively lower risk of mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy. Chemotherapy effectiveness on 1-year mortality was not significantly modified by predicted risk (P-value=0.28). In conclusion, this external validation study confirmed that our multivariable risk prediction models can predict a patient's mortality risk and that dogs with a relatively lower risk of 5-month mortality seem to benefit most from chemotherapy.

  12. Intra-articular therapy to treat septic arthritis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hewes, Christina A; Macintire, Douglass K

    2011-01-01

    A 6 yr old female spayed Labrador retriever was examined for severe pain and a nonweight-bearing right forelimb lameness due to swelling and wounds with direct communication into the elbow joint. The medical management of β hemolytic Streptococcus septic arthritis with needle lavage of the joint, systemic and local antibiotic therapy, and analgesic therapy is described. This case provides information on the need to address septic arthritis in the dog as an emergency situation and the treatment with intra-articular medication. Earlier medical management for septic joints could be considered in dogs to help decrease the long-term complications that can result from septic arthritis.

  13. Prospective evaluation of serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity and troponin I concentrations in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs treated with meglumine antimonate.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Chatzis, Manolis K; Kasabalis, Dimitris; Petanides, Theodoros; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2014-07-14

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an important zoonotic disease. One of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of CanL is meglumine antimonate. Drugs of this class have been associated with pancreatitis and cardiotoxicity in humans infected with Leishmania spp. The aim of this study was to measure serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (Spec cPL) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in dogs with leishmaniosis during treatment with meglumine antimonate, and to compare them with those of dogs with leishmaniosis not treated with this drug. A total of 30 non-uremic dogs with leishmaniosis, living in Greece, were prospectively enrolled into the study. Of the 30 dogs, 20 (Group A) were treated with a combination of meglumine antimonate (100mg/kg, SC, q24 h) and allopurinol (10mg/kg, PO, q12h) for 28 days, while 10 dogs (Group B) were treated with allopurinol alone (10mg/kg, PO, q12h) for 28 days. Blood samples were collected at timepoint 0 (before treatment) and at 14 and 28 days after the initiation of treatment. None of the dogs treated with meglumine antiomonate had a Spec cPL concentration suggestive of pancreatitis (≥ 400 μg/L) or clinical signs suggestive of pancreatitis at any of the timepoints. Similarly, none of the dogs treated with meglumine antiomonate had a serum cTnI concentration above the upper limit of the reference range (>0.5 ng/mL) or clinical evidence of cardiotoxicity at any of the 3 timepoints. In the present study, meglumine antimonate treatment in dogs with leishmaniosis did not result in clinical or laboratory evidence of either pancreatitis or cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving in-kennel presentation of shelter dogs through response-dependent and response-independent treat delivery.

    PubMed

    Protopopova, Alexandra; Wynne, Clive D L

    2015-09-01

    In a sequence of studies, we evaluated 2 behavioral interventions designed to decrease undesirable in-kennel behaviors of shelter dogs. In Experiment 1, we compared the efficacy of a simple pairing of person with food (response-independent treat delivery) to an increasing interval differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) procedure and a control condition. Both procedures decreased the median percentage of undesirable behavior from baseline (88.13%, interquartile range [IQR] = 52.78% and 66.43%, IQR = 89.06% respectively), and the control condition increased behavior by 15.13% (IQR = 32.08%), H(2) = 6.49, p = .039. In Experiment 2, we assessed the efficacy of a response-independent procedure on the whole shelter population. We found a 68% decrease from baseline in the number of dogs that behaved undesirably (U = -4.16, p < .001). Our results suggest that a response-independent procedure is equivalent in efficacy to a DRO procedure to decrease undesirable in-kennel behavior of shelter dogs.

  15. Primary pulmonary osteosarcoma treated by thoracoscopy-assisted lung resection in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Dhumeaux, Marc P.; Haudiquet, Philippe. R.

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old female, intact boxer presented with acute respiratory distress due to a mass in the left cranial thorax. The tumor, which originated in the left lung and was shown by histology to be an osteosarcoma, was removed by lateral thoracotomy. The dog died from unrelated disease 7 mo later and no tumor was evident at necropsy. PMID:19794873

  16. Intrapericardial cystic hematoma in a dog treated by thoracoscopic subtotal pericardectomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Ya; Fransson, Boel A; Nylund, Adam M

    2017-04-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of a 1-week history of respiratory distress and abdominal distension. Thoracic radiography and echocardiography at that time revealed an enlarged cardiac silhouette and pericardial effusion; abdominal radiography and ultrasonography revealed ascites. CLINICAL FINDINGS At the initial referral examination 5 weeks later, the dog weighed 37.5 kg (82.5 lb) and appeared clinically normal. The only abnormality detected was a grade I/VI systolic murmur on the left side of the thorax. Echocardiography revealed a large fat- and fluid-filled cystic structure located next to the right ventricle with scant pericardial effusion. Computed tomography revealed a bilobed peripherally contrast-enhancing structure within the right ventral aspect of the pericardium; the right ventricle appeared compressed by the cyst. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial treatment consisted of pericardiocentesis and abdominocentesis to alleviate clinical signs. Thoracoscopic subtotal pericardectomy was performed 6 weeks after the initial treatment. The cyst was completely excised, and multiple adhesions between the visceral and parietal pericardium were transected, without surgical or anesthetic complications. Histologic examination of the cyst revealed chronic inflammation with histiocytic infiltration, suggesting possible foreign body reaction or chronic inflammation and hemorrhage. These findings supported a diagnosis of cystic hematoma of the pericardium. The dog remained clinically normal for at least 16 months after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE This report represents a rare case of intrapericardial cystic hematoma in a dog. Minimally invasive surgery was performed without complications, suggesting that thoracoscopic subtotal pericardectomy is a feasible treatment option for affected dogs.

  17. Doxycycline levels and anti-Wolbachia antibodies in sera from dogs experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis and treated with a combination of ivermectin/doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Menozzi, A; Bertini, S; Turin, L; Serventi, P; Kramer, L; Bazzocchi, C

    2015-04-30

    Sera from Dirofilaria immitis-experimentally infected dogs treated with a combination of ivermectin/doxycycline were analysed for doxycycline levels by HPLC and anti-Wolbachia Surface Protein (rWSP) antibodies by ELISA and compared with sera from dogs treated with doxycycline alone. Results show that doxycycline levels were not statistically different between the two groups. Circulating anti-WSP antibody titres were markedly lower in both treatment groups when compared to control D. immitis infected dogs, indicating that doxycycline is able to reduce Wolbachia and prevent the immune response against the bacteria. The combination treatment protocol has been shown to be highly adulticidal and further studies are needed to better understand the interaction between doxycycline and ivermectin in D. immitis infected dogs.

  18. Prevention of transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs treated with a combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT®).

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Ollagnier, Catherine; Beugnet, Frederic; Luus, Herman G; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-31

    The ability of CERTIFECT(®) (a combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of eight dogs. One group was treated with CERTIFECT while the other group remained untreated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and again on day 28 post-treatment by releasing ticks into the kennels of the dogs to simulate the natural way of infestation. Animals were examined in situ for ticks on Days 9, 16 and 23 and any ticks present were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of CERTIFECT against R. sanguineus was 100%, since no ticks were found on the treated dogs at any time. Clinical examinations (including monitoring body temperature and blood collections for PCR analysis and serology) were performed at intervals throughout the study until Day 56. Five out of 8 untreated control dogs (62.5%) became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by detection of specific E. canis antibodies and the presence of E. canis DNA in blood samples by PCR. These dogs displayed fever and thrombocytopenia and were rescue-treated with doxycline. None of the 8 dogs treated with CERTIFECT became infected with E. canis, in comparison to the 5/8 control dogs, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of any ehrlichial DNA in blood samples by PCR. CERTIFECT prevented transmission of E. canis and effectively provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiose for at least 4 weeks post treatment.

  19. Serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs detected by polyacrylamide-gel disk electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Yoshito; Kimura, Sayaka; Goto, Ken; Nakamura, Daichi; Wakita, Atsushi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka

    2011-10-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is frequently measured in toxicity studies. Itoh et al. (2002) reported that a commercially available polyacrylamide-gel (PAG) disk electrophoresis kit used in humans (AlkPhor System, Jokoh Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for identifying serum ALP isoenzymes was useful for veterinary clinicopathological diagnosis in mongrel dogs. In the present study, based on the report of Itoh et al. (2002), we tried to expand the application range of this kit to laboratory beagle dogs which are commonly used in toxicity studies. In order to identify the origin of each ALP isoenzyme, tissue ALP extracts from the liver, bone and small intestine and serum samples were treated with neuraminidase, anti-small intestinal ALP antibody, ALP inhibitor levamisole and/or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The main serum ALP isoenzymes in 5-month-old intact beagle dogs were bone-derived (bone and atypical ALP: corresponding to human variant bone ALP) and they tended to decrease with age. However, liver-derived ALP isoenzyme greatly increased in the serum of cholestasis model dogs. The cholestasis model dogs also had a large molecular ALP detected in the resolving gel. This ALP could be originated from intestinal ALP or corticosteroid-induced ALP (CALP), because the activity remained even after levamisole inhibition. CALP was observed in intact laboratory beagle dogs with individual differences. These results suggest that the present method is a useful tool for detecting serum ALP isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs and concomitant levamisole inhibition with another gel is applicable for the evaluation of organ toxicity.

  20. Postoperative computed tomography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging findings in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis treated by dorsal laminectomy.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Martin; Ley, Charles J; Hansson, Kerstin; Sjöström, Lennart

    2017-03-20

    To describe postoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) treated by dorsal laminectomy and partial discectomy. Prospective clinical case study of dogs diagnosed with and treated for DLSS. Surgical and clinical findings were described. Computed tomography and low field MRI findings pre- and postoperatively were described and graded. Clinical, CT and MRI examinations were performed four to 18 months after surgery. Eleven of 13 dogs were clinically improved and two dogs had unchanged clinical status postoperatively despite imaging signs of neural compression. Vacuum phenomenon, spondylosis, sclerosis of the seventh lumbar (L7) and first sacral (S1) vertebrae endplates and lumbosacral intervertebral joint osteoarthritis became more frequent in postoperative CT images. Postoperative MRI showed mild disc extrusions in five cases, and in all cases contrast enhancing non-discal tissue was present. All cases showed contrast enhancement of the L7 spinal nerves both pre- and postoperatively and seven had contrast enhancement of the lumbosacral intervertebral joints and paraspinal tissue postoperatively. Articular process fractures or fissures were noted in four dogs. The study indicates that imaging signs of neural compression are common after DLSS surgery, even in dogs that have clinical improvement. Contrast enhancement of spinal nerves and soft tissues around the region of disc herniation is common both pre- and postoperatively and thus are unreliable criteria for identifying complications of the DLSS surgery.

  1. The matrix components of the epiphyseal growth plate and articular cartilages from dogs treated with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, a copper antagonist.

    PubMed

    Read, R; Sutherland, J; Ghosh, P

    1986-12-01

    As part of a project to study the effect of copper deficiency (CD) on bone development in young dogs, the composition and metabolism of proteoglycans (PGs) and extractability of collagens in the epiphyseal growth plate cartilage (EGPC) and articular cartilages (AC) were investigated. Copper deficiency was induced by feeding ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) a copper antagonist. The collagen of cartilages from TTM-treated animals was significantly more soluble in 0.5 saline than control tissues. While no distinction between TTM-treated and control cartilages was evident in terms of PG content or extractability under associative (0.5 M-GuHCl) or dissociative (4.0 M-GuHCl) conditions, the sedimentation behaviour of the PG aggregates following CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation suggested less polydispersity of PGs in preparations from the TTM-treated animals. Moreover, analysis of the PG monomers from EGPC of TTM animals showed galactosamine/glucosamine ratios higher than control preparations, suggesting a reduced keratan sulphate content in these preparations. Organ culture of EGPC showed a significant reduction in the incorporation of 35S into PGs and of 3H-thymidine into DNA in the tissues of TTM-treated animals relative to controls. From these findings we deduce that the catabolism of PGs and the extent of collagen cross-linking in EGPC of TTM-treated animals may be reduced relative to age-matched control tissues.

  2. Combined preputial advancement and phallopexy as a revision technique for treating paraphimosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wasik, S M; Wallace, A M

    2014-11-01

    A 7-year-old neutered male Jack Russell terrier-cross was presented for signs of recurrent paraphimosis, despite previous surgical enlargement of the preputial ostium. Revision surgery was performed using a combination of preputial advancement and phallopexy, which resulted in complete and permanent coverage of the glans penis by the prepuce, and at 1 year postoperatively, no recurrence of paraphimosis had been observed. The combined techniques allow preservation of the normal penile anatomy, are relatively simple to perform and provide a cosmetic result. We recommend this combination for the treatment of paraphimosis in the dog, particularly when other techniques have failed.

  3. Canine Pancreas-Specific Lipase and C-reactive Protein in Dogs Treated With Anticonvulsants (Phenobarbital and Potassium Bromide).

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Viviana; Teles, Mariana; Meléndez-Lazo, Antonio; Rodón, Jaume; Pastor, Josep

    2015-06-01

    Animals treated with anticonvulsant drugs may have increased canine pancreas-specific lipase (cPLI) values. Inflammatory conditions and specifically acute pancreatitis are of major concern in these animals. Elevation in C-reactive protein is being associated with inflammatory status in dogs and it has been correlated with the clinical severity of pancreatitis. In the present study, we investigated if there is a correlation between the cPLI increase, changes in C-reactive protein and hepatic enzymes, as well as the incidence of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) in dogs with anticonvulsant treatment (phenobarbital, or potassium bromide or both). Increased values of pancreas-specific lipase were found in 6.8% of the animals in treatment with anticonvulsants, and this increase is correlated with the increase in triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase but not with C-reactive protein levels, which suggests a possible induction or release phenomenon rather than a clear severe AP. C-reactive protein levels did not affect cPLI values on the population studied. Only 2 animals had clinical and analytical data suggestive of AP, indicating a low prevalence (0.6%). In conclusion, cPLI may be increased in a low percentage of animals with anticonvulsants treatment and its increase may not be associated with severe AP. It may be induced by the anticonvulsants drugs; however, further studies are advised to rule out other possible causes that increased cPLI.

  4. A resin-modified glass ionomer cement barrier for treating degree II furcation defects: a pilot study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Letícia Algarves; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho; Soares, Ilson José; Oppermann, Rui Vicente

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in an animal model the healing of degree II furcation defects treated with: an experimental barrier of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (GIC), a polylactic acid barrier (GUI), and flap surgery (CTR). In 3 beagles, 18 class II furcation defects were surgically produced in mandibular and maxillary premolars and exposed to plaque accumulation for 21 days. Following a full flap, notches were made at the base to the bone defect. GIC barriers were prepared immediately before use from a commercial product and fit to place with the same product. The GIC barriers were removed after 30 days and the dogs euthanized after 120 days. Histologic sections were analyzed in a computer-assisted microscope. Epithelium, new cementum with inserting fibers, and connective tissue lining the root surface in-between notches were measured and medians of percentage values calculated. In the GIC, epithelium constituted 3.5% (median values) of the notch-to-notch root area; new cementum was 83.6% and connective tissue 12.9%. These values were 0%, 73.6%, and 26.4% for the GUI group and 35.6%, 43.2%, and 0% for the CTR group. Bone fill median values were 54.3% for GIC, 20.6% for GUI, and 24.6% for CTR. GIC and GUI prevented epithelial migration and promoted the formation of new periodontal tissues in experimentally induced class II furcation defects in dogs.

  5. The role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in treating formocresol induced oral ulcers in dogs.

    PubMed

    El-Menoufy, H; Aly, L A A; Aziz, M T A; Atta, H M; Roshdy, N K; Rashed, L A; Sabry, D

    2010-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a subpopulation of adult somatic stem cells, are an attractive stem cell source in regenerative medicine because of their multipotentiality. In this study, the effects of MSCs transplantation on oral ulcer healing were examined. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirates of dogs by dish adherence and expanded in culture. Oral ulcers were induced by topical application of formocresol in the oral cavity of dogs. Either autologous MSCs or vehicle (saline) was injected around the ulcer. The healing process of the ulcer was monitored clinically and histopathologically. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected in MSCs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of VEGF and collagen genes was detected in biopsies from all ulcers. Mesenchymal stem cells expressed mRNA for VEGF MSCs transplantation significantly accelerated oral ulcer healing compared with controls. There was increased expression of both collagen and VEGF genes in MSCs-treated ulcers compared with controls. Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation may help accelerate oral ulcer healing, possibly through the induction of angiogenesis by VEGF together with increased intracellular matrix formation as detected by increased collagen gene expression.

  6. Comparative efficacy assessment of pentamidine isethionate and diminazene aceturate in the chemotherapy of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Akpa, P O; Ezeokonkwo, R C; Eze, C A; Anene, B M

    2008-02-14

    The chemotherapeutic efficacy of diminazene aceturate (Berenil)--a standard veterinary trypanocide and pentamidine isethionate (PMI)--a human trypanocide was compared in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Also, the activities of the drugs on some serum liver enzymes were evaluated before and after treatment to ascertain the relative safety of the drugs. Fifteen local dogs (mongrels) were used for the study. Three of the dogs were uninfected controls, and twelve were infected with a stock of T. brucei brucei. Three of the infected dogs were untreated controls, three were given diminazene aceturate (DA) at 7 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly (i/m), another three received pentamidine isethionate (PMI) at 4 mg/kg i/m on days 14, 17, 19, 27, 29, and 31 post infection (PI) and the remaining three dogs were also given same dose of PMI on days 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26 PI. Both trypanocides effectively cleared the parasites from the blood of the infected treated dogs. However, the infection subsequently relapsed at day 42 PI in one of the dogs in the DA treated group which later died at day 70 PI. Relapse infection was not recorded with the PMI treated groups although two dogs died in the PMI treated group II (treatment at days 14, 17, 19, 27, 29, and 31 PI) without showing relapsed parasitaemia. The packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count, and haemoglobin (Hb) level which decreased significantly following infection, were reversed by the trypanocidal treatment. The reversal in the red cell values was faster in the PMI treated groups than in the DA treated group. The serum alkaline phosphate (SAP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels increased following infection and drug administration. The increase in the enzyme levels was greater in the DA treated groups than PMI treated groups. It was thus concluded that PMI given at 4 mg/kg i/m at days 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26 PI constituted a safe

  7. Intratesticular injection of a zinc-based solution as a contraceptive for dogs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Erika C S; Moura, Maria Raquel; Silva, Valdemiro A; Peixoto, Christina A; Saraiva, Karina L A; de Sá, Marcelo Jorge Cavalcanti; Douglas, Robert H; de Pinho Marques, Antônio

    2007-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate, by light and transmission electron microscopy, the efficacy of a single intratesticular injection of a novel zinc-based solution, as a contraceptive for male dogs. Fifteen mongrel dogs were assigned to three groups (five dogs/group). Group 1, the control group, which consisted of animals ranging from 8 mo to 4 yr, was injected with saline solution. Group 2, which consisted of animals ranging from 8 mo to 1 yr old and Group 3, animals ranging from 2 to 4 yr old, were injected with a zinc-based solution (0.2-1.0mL; volume based on testicular width). There were no histopathological changes detected in testes from control dogs. Histological examination of treated groups revealed degeneration, vacuolation, fewer germ cells, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and a lack of elongated spermatids in atrophic seminiferous tubules. Leydig cells had varying degrees of lipid degeneration and necrosis. The majority of seminiferous tubules in all zinc-treated dogs were lined only by Sertoli cells, which were vacuolated. Ultrastructure of testis of treated groups had degenerate Sertoli and Leydig cells, characterized by numerous mitochondria with the lack of a matrix and agglomeration of lysosomal bodies. The cytoplasm of elongated spermatids was characterized by tubules of hyperplastic and hypertrophic smooth endoplasmic reticulum and numerous Golgi apparati. Round spermatids in Golgi phase had lysis of acrosomal vesicles. The degree of histological changes suggested irreversibility. In conclusion, intratesticular injection of a zinc-based solution effectively impaired spermatogenesis.

  8. Clinico-anesthetic changes following administration of propofol alone and in combination of meperidine and pentazocine lactate in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Anandmay, A. K.; Dass, L. L.; Sharma, A. K.; Gupta, M. K.; Singh, K. K.; Roy, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to find out the effect of propofol and its combination with meperidine and pentazocine lactate on certain clinico-anesthetic profiles in dogs. Materials and Methods: 15 apparently healthy mongrel dogs of either sex of about 1 year of age were randomly divided into three groups of five dogs each. The animals of Group I were administered propofol intravenously alone “to effect,” whereas meperidine at 2 mg/kgb.wt. and pentazocine lactate at 2 mg/kg b.wt. were injected intramuscularly 15 min before propofol “to effect” in Groups II and III, respectively. Atropine sulfate at 0.04 mg/kgb.wt. was injected intramuscularly 20 min before each treatment. Rectal temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and anesthetic indices were recorded before and at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min of induction. Results: As compared to Group I, the animals of Groups II and III exhibited a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the level of rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate. Duration of recumbency, time of standing, time of recovery as well as the duration of analgesia were longer in pentazocine lactate (Group III) followed by meperidine (Group II) as compared to propofol alone (Group I). Meperidine treated dogs showed defecation and muscle twitching during anesthesia. Conclusion: Meperidine and pentazocine are suitable opioids used in combination with propofol for achieving surgical anesthesia and helpful in reduction of propofol dose. PMID:27956765

  9. Gene therapy rescues photoreceptor blindness in dogs and paves the way for treating human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Beltran, William A; Cideciyan, Artur V; Lewin, Alfred S; Iwabe, Simone; Khanna, Hemant; Sumaroka, Alexander; Chiodo, Vince A; Fajardo, Diego S; Román, Alejandro J; Deng, Wen-Tao; Swider, Malgorzata; Alemán, Tomas S; Boye, Sanford L; Genini, Sem; Swaroop, Anand; Hauswirth, William W; Jacobson, Samuel G; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2012-02-07

    Hereditary retinal blindness is caused by mutations in genes expressed in photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium. Gene therapy in mouse and dog models of a primary retinal pigment epithelium disease has already been translated to human clinical trials with encouraging results. Treatment for common primary photoreceptor blindness, however, has not yet moved from proof of concept to the clinic. We evaluated gene augmentation therapy in two blinding canine photoreceptor diseases that model the common X-linked form of retinitis pigmentosa caused by mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene, which encodes a photoreceptor ciliary protein, and provide evidence that the therapy is effective. After subretinal injections of adeno-associated virus-2/5-vectored human RPGR with human IRBP or GRK1 promoters, in vivo imaging showed preserved photoreceptor nuclei and inner/outer segments that were limited to treated areas. Both rod and cone photoreceptor function were greater in treated (three of four) than in control eyes. Histopathology indicated normal photoreceptor structure and reversal of opsin mislocalization in treated areas expressing human RPGR protein in rods and cones. Postreceptoral remodeling was also corrected: there was reversal of bipolar cell dendrite retraction evident with bipolar cell markers and preservation of outer plexiform layer thickness. Efficacy of gene therapy in these large animal models of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa provides a path for translation to human treatment.

  10. The phylogenetic position and diversity of the enigmatic mongrel frog Nothophryne Poynton, 1963 (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B; Conradie, Werner; Siu-Ting, Karen; Tolley, Krystal A; Channing, Alan; Cunningham, Michael; Farooq, Harith M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2016-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the African mongrel frog genus Nothophryne are poorly understood. We provide the first molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of, and diversity within, this monotypic genus from across its range-the Afromontane regions of Malawi and Mozambique. Our analysis using a two-tiered phylogenetic approach allowed us to place the genus in Pyxicephalidae. Within the family, Nothophryne grouped with Tomopterna, a hypothesis judged significantly better than alternative hypotheses proposed based on morphology. Our analyses of populations across the range of Nothophryne suggest the presence of several cryptic species, at least one species per mountain. Formal recognition of these species is pending but there is a major conservation concern for these narrowly distributed populations in an area impacted by major habitat change. The phylogenetic tree of pyxicephalids is used to examine evolution of life history, ancestral habitat, and biogeography of this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fresh vein allograft survival in dogs after cyclosporine treatment.

    PubMed

    Mingoli, A; Edwards, J D; Feldhaus, R J; Hunter, W J; Naspetti, R; Cavallari, N; Sapienza, P; Kretchmar, D H; Cavallaro, A

    1996-04-01

    Synthetic grafts are widely used for peripheral arterial reconstructions when autologous veins are not available, but their results have not been satisfactory. Venous allograft may be used as an alternative to synthetic prostheses. The aim of the study was to explore the immunosuppressive efficacy of Cyclosporine A (CyA) as a means of preventing venous allograft failures and rejection. We utilized 56 mongrel dogs. Immunological incompatibility was checked with the skin graft method. Donor inferior vena cava was transplanted into the infrarenal abdominal aorta of recipient animals. One group (group 1, 10 dogs) served as a control and three groups received CyA treatment regimens. Group 2 (10 dogs) received postoperative oral CyA treatment for 30 days. Group 3 (12 dogs) received a vein graft pretreated with a CyA solution without postoperative immunosuppressive therapy. Group 4 (9 dogs) received a vein graft pretreated with a CyA solution and postoperative CyA treatment for 30 days. Allografts were examined at 30 days for patency, aneurysmal dilatation, gross structural changes, inflammatory response, and lymphocytic infiltration. Sex chromatine assessment determined the origin (donor or recipient) of the endothelial cells. The allografts from groups 1 and 3 showed significant aneurysmal dilatation and perivenous inflammation when compared to dogs treated with oral CyA therapy (P < 0.0002). Moreover allografts treated with CyA therapy had a better-developed venous neointima (P < 0.009) with less fibrin (P < 0.02) and thinner medial (P < 0.0009) with less fibrin (P < 0.02), and thinner medial (P < 0.0009) and adventitial layers (P < 0.02). No significant differences were observed in neointimal thickness among the four groups. Lymphocytic infiltration was greater in the group of animals who did not receive oral CyA therapy (P < 0.0004). Barr bodies status showed significant differences between oral CyA treated groups and nontreated groups (P < 0.0003). Oral CyA therapy

  12. A case of non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia treated by combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil in a dog.

    PubMed

    Yuki, M

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old female Shih Tzu dog was referred with diarrhea. Hematological examination indicated severe non-regenerative anemia. Bone marrow aspiration smears and core biopsy specimens revealed normal bone marrow. Based on those results, non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia was diagnosed. The dog was initially treated using prednisolone and cyclosporine. However, this treatment regimen did not prove effective. Nevertheless, the patient achieved a good hematological response after the administration of a combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil. Such a combination therapy may prove effective against non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia.

  13. Effect of a collagen membrane enriched with fibronectin on guided tissue regeneration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kurtis, Bülent; Balos, Köksal; Oygür, Tülin

    2002-01-01

    The present study was planned to assess the capacity of a resorbable collagen membrane enriched with fibronectin to prevent the apical migration of epithelium and to facilitate new attachment and new bone. Experimental osseous dehiscence defects were produced on the bilateral labial aspect of mandibular 2nd, 3rd and 4th premolar teeth in six mongrel dogs. Guided tissue regeneration therapy using collagen membranes, which were rehydrated with fibronectin solution, was performed on one quadrant (group A). In the contralateral quadrant, the same collagen membranes, but rehydrated only with saline (group B), were placed over the bony defects. The third premolar teeth, which were treated by open-flap debridement, served as control (group C). Flaps were positioned slightly coronally and sutured; sutures were removed 10 days later. The dogs were killed 30 days after reconstructive therapy. Tissue blocks containing the experimental and control teeth were excised, demineralized in EDTA, and embedded in paraffin. Histological and histometric evaluation revealed that all groups demonstrated similar effects on preventing the down-growth of epithelium and formation of new cementum and new bone. Collagen membranes were tolerated well within the tissues, and membrane remnants were identified at 30 days. In summary, this study indicated that in this dog model similar healing results could be achieved with a bovine type I collagen membrane with or without fibronectin solution and open-flap debridement.

  14. Primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma in three dogs treated with piroxicam combined with carboplatin or toceranib.

    PubMed

    de Vos, J; Ramos Vega, S; Noorman, E; de Vos, P

    2012-09-01

    In human medicine, primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma (pFS-SCC) is not frequently reported. In veterinary medicine, frontal sinus SCC is exclusively described as an extension of nasal cavity SCC. To our knowledge, this is the first publication concerning canine pFS-SCC, diagnosed using histology or cytology and medical imaging, in three dogs. The tumours extended into the orbit or brain cavity, without nasal involvement. Treatment was initiated with piroxicam-carboplatin. Prolongation of carboplatin delivery with a low dose intensity was performed on dogs with a favourable initial response. Dog 1 achieved a complete remission (CR), but was euthanized 344 days after start of therapy. Dog 2, still alive 3 years after start of therapy and in CR, received 14 carboplatin deliveries. In dog 3, after changing the treatment protocol into piroxicam-toceranib, a significant tumour reduction occurred, but the dog was euthanized after 195 days because of a relapse.

  15. Influence of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normal, electrolytes depleted and aldosterone treated dogs.

    PubMed

    Bak, M; Szczepańska-Sadowska, E; Krzymień, J; Kozłowski, S; Czyzyk, A

    1987-10-01

    Effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium were compared in conscious dogs 1) maintained in water and electrolytes balance (Series 1, 10 dogs), 2) depleted of electrolytes by repeated i.v. loading with 20% mannitol (Series 2, 10 dogs), and 3) aldosterone treated (0.8 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 i.v., Series 3, 10 dogs). In each Series intravenous infusion of insulin at a rate of 0.05 U.kg-1.h-1 elicited transient increase in plasma sodium concentration and prolonged hypokalemia. Repeated loading with mannitol in Series 2 elicited significant elevation of plasma sodium, ADH and aldosterone concentrations, as well as decrease in extracellular fluid volume. Infusion of insulin in this Series elicited smaller decrease in plasma potassium concentration and longer lasting hypernatremia than in dogs in water-electrolytes balance. Aldosterone infusion in Series 3 did not change hypokalemic effect of insulin but attenuated hypernatremia. Infusion of insulin in Series 1 elicited increase of sodium excretion and decrease in potassium excretion. These effects were absent in Series 2 and 3. The results indicate that depletion of electrolytes and blood aldosterone elevation modify the effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium.

  16. Development of an ELISA to detect circulating anti-asparaginase antibodies in dogs with lymphoid neoplasia treated with Escherichia coli l-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Kidd, J A; Ross, P; Buntzman, A S; Hess, P R

    2015-06-01

    Resistance to Escherichia coli l-asparaginase in canine lymphoma occurs frequently with repeated administration, a phenomenon often attributed, without substantiation, to the induction of neutralizing antibodies. To test the hypothesis that treated dogs develop antibodies against the drug, we created an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure plasma anti-asparaginase immunoglobulin G responses. Using samples from dogs that had received multiple doses, specific reactivity against l-asparaginase was demonstrated, while naïve patients' samples were negative. The optimized ELISA appeared sensitive, with endpoint titers >1 600 000 in positive control dogs. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 3.6 and 14.5%. The assay was supported by the observation that ELISA-positive plasma could immunoprecipitate asparaginase activity. When clinical patients were evaluated, 3/10 dogs developed titers after a single injection; with repeated administration, 4/7 dogs were positive. l-asparaginase antibodies showed reduced binding to the PEGylated drug formulation. The ELISA should prove useful in investigating the potential correlation of antibody responses with resistance.

  17. A canine-specific probiotic product in treating acute or intermittent diarrhea in dogs: A double-blind placebo-controlled efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Junnila, Jouni; Männikkö, Sofia; Hämeenoja, Pirkko; Valtonen, Elisa; Salminen, Seppo; Beasley, Shea

    2016-12-25

    A double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study on 60 dogs recruited from a pool of canine patients visiting a veterinary practice and diagnosed with acute diarrhea was conducted. The dogs received in randomized manner either a sour-milk product containing three canine-derived Lactobacillus sp. probiotics in combination of Lactobacillus fermentum VET 9A, L. rhamnosus VET 16A, and L. plantarum VET 14A (2×10(9)cfu/ml), or placebo. Stool consistency, general well-being, and the numbers of specific pathogens in stool samples were analyzed. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with the study sour-milk product had a normalizing effect on canine stool consistency. The treatment also enhanced the well-being of the pet by maintaining appetite and may reduce vomiting. In addition, the concentrations of Clostridium perfringens and Enterococcus faecium, which typically increase during diarrhea episodes in dogs, were decreased in probiotic group feces when compared with the placebo group. Taken together, the sour-milk with the specific probiotic combination had a normalizing effect on acute diarrhea in dogs which was associated with decreased numbers of potential pathogens in the feces of probiotic-treated dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pooled sample strategy in conjunction with high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based background subtraction to identify toxicological markers in dogs treated with ibipinabant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Patrone, Laura; Kozlosky, John; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Cosma, Greg; Horvath, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Metabolomics with chromatography-mass spectrometry is often challenging and relies on statistical tools to discern changes in a metabolome. A pooled sample strategy was proposed, consisting of (1) identification of potential marker candidates by detecting changes of metabolites in a few pooled samples between treated and control groups and (2) validation of markers of statistically significant changes with a large set of individual samples. This strategy was enabled by applying a thorough background subtraction approach based on high-resolution mass spectrometry. In a proof-of-principle study, plasma samples were generated and pooled in a 6-week investigational study to identify potential toxicological markers for an observed muscle toxicity associated with the treatment of ibipinabant in dogs. With pooled control samples as backgrounds, potential marker candidates were revealed in the background-subtracted profiles of the pooled ibipinabant-treated samples. After further cleaning with the use of mass defect filtering to exclude drug metabolites and the comparison of profiles between pooled treated samples to eliminate inconsistent peaks, the major biomarker candidates in the profiles were identified to be 19 acylcarnitines. A total of 3 of the 19 acylcarnitines were measured on the set of individual samples to allow for statistical analysis. The results confirmed the significance of acylcarnitine elevations in ibipinabant-treated dogs and indicated that the acylcarnitines could be early markers for the dog-specific toxicity. The advantages of the pooled sample strategy and its potential limitations for metabolomics are discussed.

  19. Athletic heart syndrome in dogs competing in a long-distance sled race.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D; Hinchcliff, K W; Olson, J; Hamlin, R L

    1994-01-01

    The cardiac effects of endurance training were evaluated by cardiac auscultation and electrocardiographic examination of 48 heavily trained sled dogs (3,000-5,000 km of training), 18 lightly trained sled dogs (300-800 km of training), 19 untrained sled dogs, and 14 mongrel dogs. A grade I-II/VI early- to midsystolic cardiac murmur was auscultated with increasing frequency as training level increased. The QRS duration (66.1 +/- 7.4 ms) and QT interval (236 +/- 20 ms) were significantly (P < 0.05) longer in heavily trained sled dogs than in mongrel dogs (QRS, 60.6 +/- 4.6; QT, 219 +/- 11 ms). A long QT interval (> 250 ms) was observed in 8 (16.7%) heavily trained dogs but not in the other groups. A significant rightward shift in the mean electrical axis of ventricular depolarization in the frontal plane was observed in heavily trained sled dogs. The auscultatory and electrocardiographic findings in heavily trained sled dogs were remarkably similar to those reported in elite human endurance athletes, suggesting that endurance-trained sled dogs provide a naturally occurring model for the athletic heart syndrome.

  20. Brain and Optic System Pathology in Hypocholesterolemic Dogs Treated with a Competitive Inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Berry, P. H.; MacDonald, J. S.; Alberts, A. W.; Molon-Noblot, S.; Chen, J. S.; Lo, C.-Y. L.; Greenspan, M. D.; Allen, H.; Durand-Cavagna, G.; Jensen, R.; Bailly, Y.; Delort, P.; Duprat, P.

    1988-01-01

    The cholesterol lowering compound lovastatin, a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (EC 1.1.1.34 HMG CoA reductase), was given in nine separate experiments to normocholesterolemic dogs at rates up to 180 times the maximum therapeutic dose in man (1 mg/kg/day). Mean serum total cholesterol concentrations were reduced as much as 88% below normal. Clinical evidence of neurotoxicity occurred in up to 37% of animals given 180 mg/kg/day lovastatin for 11 or more days, especially in one laboratory where the dosing regime resulted in higher concentrations of plasma drug levels. Dogs receiving 60 mg/kg/day or less never exhibited neurologic signs. The central nervous system (CNS) of affected dogs exhibited endothelial degeneration and hemorrhagic encephalopathy. Focal extravasation of horseradish peroxidase occurred frequently (6/8) in the retrolaminar optic nerve of asymptomatic or clinically affected dogs given 180 mg/kg/day lovastatin, with endothelial degeneration and discrete optic nerve degenerative lesions interpreted as ischemic. The association between the degree of hypocholesterolemia and occurrence of clinical signs was not exact. Total brain cholesterol was similar in treated and control dogs. Hypocholesterolemic dogs had proportionally lowered serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, but oral supplementation of this vitamin did not prevent the neurologic syndrome. Endothelial degeneration in the CNS and optic nerve may have reflected in vitro morphologic effects of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors due to extreme inhibition of nonsterol isoprene synthesis. Retinogeniculate axonal (Wallerianlike) degeneration occurred in ≥12% of dogs given 60 mg/kg/day or more lovastatin, with central chromatolysis of occasional retinal ganglion cells. These neuroaxonal changes may have been secondary to vascular effects, but superimposed direct neurotoxic action at the high dosage levels of lovastatin could not be excluded. There was no

  1. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for treatment and control of induced infestations of brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, James S; Baggott, Derek; Everett, William R; Fourie, Josephus J; Cramer, Luiz G; Yoon, Stephen S; Collidor, Nadia; Mallouk, Yasmina; Lee, Lorne; Blair, Jeffrey; Prullage, Joseph B

    2011-07-15

    Four laboratory studies were conducted to demonstrate that a single topical dose of a novel spot-on combination containing fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) is efficacious against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. In each study, 6-8 male and 6-8 female purpose-bred, laboratory mongrels, terrier cross or Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two study groups (treated and untreated), based on pre-treatment parasite counts. Starting on the day before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with 50 ticks. Ticks were thumb counted at various time points after treatment and weekly infestations starting as early as 6h and continued at 12, 18 and 24h depending on the study. Ticks were removed and counted at 48 h after treatment and weekly infestations. CERTIFECT provided rapid and excellent control of pre-existing and newly acquired infestations of R. sanguineus with efficacy as high as 93% within the first 12h after a single topical treatment. Excellent control (>96%) of R. sanguineus as early as 18 h, following post treatment infestations was maintained for at least 35 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence of injuries caused by dogs and cats treated in emergency departments in a major Italian city.

    PubMed

    Ostanello, F; Gherardi, A; Caprioli, A; La Placa, L; Passini, A; Prosperi, S

    2005-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence and characteristics of injuries caused by dogs and cats in the population of a major Italian city. The clinical records of all patients attending the emergency department (ED) were obtained from the two main hospitals of the city, covering an estimated population of over half a million. A case was defined as a patient admitted for bite or scratch injuries caused by dogs, cats, or other mammals between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2002. For each case, the information collected included age and sex of the patient, the anatomical site of the injury, and the species of the animal involved. The average yearly incidence of dog and cat bite/scratches was 58.4 and 17.9 cases per 100 000 residents, respectively. Admissions peaked during the summer months. Dogs accounted for 76.9% and cats for 19.7% of cases. Dog injuries were significantly more common in males and younger individuals. Children younger than 9 years had a significantly higher risk of being bitten on the head, face, or neck. Conversely, injuries from cats were significantly more common in females and older people. Surveillance of injuries caused by dogs and cats could provide useful information for planning and evaluating public health interventions. Collection of data from hospital EDs may be an appropriate, simple, and quick tool for monitoring the phenomenon and evaluating the associated risk factors.

  3. Early stellate cell activation and veno-occlusive-disease (VOD)-like hepatotoxicity in dogs treated with AR-H047108, an imidazopyridine proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Berg, Anna-Lena; Böttcher, Gerhard; Andersson, Kjell; Carlsson, Enar; Lindström, Anna-Karin; Huby, Russell; Håkansson, Helen; Skånberg-Wilhelmsson, Inger; Hellmold, Heike

    2008-07-01

    Dogs treated with AR-H047108, an imidazopyridine potassium competitive acid blocker (P-CAB), developed clinical signs of hepatic dysfunction as well as morphologically manifest hepatotoxicity in repeat-dose toxicity studies. An investigative one-month study was performed, with interim euthanasia after one and two weeks. A detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of the liver lesions was conducted, including markers for fibrosis, Kupffer cell activation, apoptosis, and endothelial injury. In addition, hepatic retinoid and procollagen 1alpha2 mRNA levels in livers of dogs treated with AR-H047108 were analyzed. The results showed an early inflammatory process in central veins and centrilobular areas, present after one week of treatment. This inflammatory reaction was paralleled by activation of stellate/Ito cells to myofibroblasts and was associated with sinusoidal and centrivenular fibrosis. The early activation of stellate cells coincided with a significant decrease in retinyl ester levels, and a significant increase in procollagen 1alpha2 mRNA levels, in the liver. At later time points (three and six months), there was marked sinusoidal fibrosis in centrilobular areas, as well as occlusion of central veins resulting from a combination of fibrosis and increased thickness of smooth muscle bundles in the vessel wall. The pattern of lesions suggests a veno-occlusive-disease (VOD)-like scenario, possibly linked to the imidazopyridine chemical structure of the compound facilitated by specific morphological features of the dog liver.

  4. Evaluation of changes in cartilage viability in detergent-treated tracheal grafts for immunosuppressant-free allotransplantation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tao; Huang, Yiwei; Qiao, Yulei; Zhang, Yongxing; Liu, Yu

    2017-09-06

    The first tissue-engineered clinical tracheal transplant prepared using the detergent-enzymatic method resulted in graft stenosis, possibly from detergent-enzymatic method-induced graft non-viability. We reported on the transplantation of de-epithelialized tracheal allografts while maintaining cartilage viability in dogs. No lethal stenosis occurred in allografts. Herein, on the basis of previous experimentation, we assessed cartilage viability in detergent-treated cartilages. Six canine tracheal grafts were treated with detergent [1% t-octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100)] before transplantation. The histoarchitecture was evaluated, and the viable chondrocytes ratio was calculated. Glycosaminoglycan was detected using safranin-O staining. Collagen II was tested using immunohistochemistry. The epithelium was completely removed in 5 grafts. Compared with fresh tracheas, the viable chondrocyte ratio was significantly reduced in the de-epithelialized grafts (100 vs 54.70 ± 8.56%; P  < 0.001). Image analysis revealed that the mean optical density of glycosaminoglycan (0.363 ± 0.027 vs 0.307 ± 0.012; P  = 0.007) and collagen II (0.115 ± 0.013 vs 0.092 ± 0.011; P  = 0.028) was decreased. The observation period ranged from 91 to 792 days. No stenosis occurred in 5 allografts; moderate stenosis developed in 1 allograft during the 4th week after surgery. The chondrocyte nuclei almost completely disappeared. Both glycosaminoglycan (0.307 ± 0.012 vs 0.164 ± 0.104; P  = 0.044) and collagen II (0.092 ± 0.011 vs 0.068 ± 0.022; P  = 0.022) were significantly degraded. This study demonstrated successful tracheal transplantation; about 50% of the viable chondrocytes were retained in the cartilage that could prevent development of a lethal stenosis in tracheal grafts.

  5. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  6. [Histopathological studies of periodontal tissue reactions to perforations in the furcation of dogs' teeth treated with cyanoacrylate cement (FH Cement)].

    PubMed

    Morinaga, K; Furusawa, M; Kitamura, M; Sato, H; Watanabe, H; Yokoya, S; Nakagawa, K; Asai, Y

    1989-06-01

    In the previous study (Shikwa Gakuho, 85: 413-451, 1985.), Morinaga reported on the histopathology of furcation perforations treated with ethyl cyanoacrylate and showed that, because of its properties, this material cannot be expected to effect a permanent blockade. It did not, however, irritate the wound. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a new cyanoacrylate cement (FH Cement) when applied to furcation perforations. Subjects were 25 mandibular and maxilla premolars and molars obtained from 3 adult dogs. The method used in the study was as follows. After administration of pentobarbital-sodium general anesthesia, the pulp chamber was opened by means of a high-speed air turbine fitted with a diamond point. According to usual procedures, the pulp was removed, and the main root canal was filled. Next the floor of the pulp chamber was deliberately perforated by means of a 1mm round bur that had been previously sterilized in advance pouring a physiological sodium chloride solution at the same time. The perforated areas were then washed with a same solution, wiped, and dried with aseptic cotton pellets. They were then stuffed with cyanoacrylate cement. The cavity was lined with gutta-percha temporary stopping, and the remainder of the cavity was filled with silver amalgam. At periods of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the operation, the animals were sacrificed by means of electricity under general anesthesia. The jaw bones were removed, fixed, decalcified, and embedded in celloidin. Longitudinal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results 1. Periodontal tissues around perforated sites were healed by means of scar tissue, though suppuration occurred in a few cases. 2. Hard tissue was appended to the teeth in a small number of cases. 3. Repair of the alveolar bone was observed in the damaged site in about half of all cases. From the result mentioned above, cyanoacrylate cement (FH Cement) was seemed to did not close the site perforation for

  7. Anti-tumor immune response correlates with neurological symptoms in a dog with spontaneous astrocytoma treated by gene and vaccine therapy.

    PubMed

    Pluhar, G Elizabeth; Grogan, Patrick T; Seiler, Charlie; Goulart, Michelle; Santacruz, Karen S; Carlson, Cathy; Chen, Wei; Olin, Mike R; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G; Haines, Stephen J; Ohlfest, John R

    2010-04-26

    Gene therapy and vaccination have been tested in malignant glioma patients with modest, albeit encouraging results. The combination of these therapies has demonstrated synergistic efficacy in murine models but has not been reported in large animals. Gemistocytic astrocytoma (GemA) is a low-grade glioma that typically progresses to lethal malignancy despite conventional therapies. Until now there has been no useful animal model of GemA. Here we report the treatment of a dog with spontaneous GemA using the combination of surgery, intracavitary adenoviral interferon gamma (IFNgamma) gene transfer, and vaccination with glioma cell lysates mixed with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Surgical tumor debulking and delivery of Ad-IFNgamma into the resection cavity were performed. Autologous tumor cells grew slowly in culture, necessitating vaccination with allogeneic tumor lysate in four of the five vaccinations. Transient left-sided blindness and hemiparesis occurred following the fourth and fifth vaccinations. These neurological symptoms correlated with a peak in the levels of tumor-reactive IgG and CD8(+) T cells measured in the blood. All symptoms resolved and this dog remains tumor-free over 450 days following surgery. This case report preliminarily demonstrates the feasibility of treating dogs with spontaneous glioma using immune-based therapy and warrants further study using this therapeutic approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum and urine Blastomyces antigen concentrations as markers of clinical remission in dogs treated for systemic blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Foy, D S; Trepanier, L A; Kirsch, E J; Wheat, L J

    2014-01-01

    Serum and urine Blastomyces antigen concentrations can be used to diagnose blastomycosis in dogs. Blastomyces antigen concentrations correlate with clinical remission in dogs during antifungal treatment, and detect disease relapse after treatment discontinuation. 21 dogs with newly diagnosed blastomycosis monitored until clinical remission (Treatment Phase), and 27 dogs monitored over 1 year from the time of antifungal discontinuation or until clinical relapse (After Treatment Phase). Prospective study. Dogs were monitored monthly during treatment and every 3 months after treatment discontinuation, with a complete history, physical exam, chest radiographs, and ocular exam. Urine and serum Blastomyces antigen concentrations were measured at each visit using a quantitative enzyme immunoassay. At enrollment in the Treatment Phase, Blastomyces antigen was positive in all 21 urine samples (100% sensitivity; 95% CI 85-100%), and in 18 of 20 serum samples (90% sensitivity; 95% CI 70-97%). At 2-4 months of treatment, urine antigen was more sensitive for clinically detectable disease (82%; CI 60-94%) than serum antigen (18%; CI 6-41%). The sensitivity of the urine test for clinical relapse was 71% (CI 36-92%), with close to 100% specificity (CI 84-100%) during after treatment surveillance in this population. Urine Blastomyces antigen testing has high sensitivity for active disease at the time of diagnosis and during treatment, and moderate sensitivity but high specificity for clinical relapse. Urine testing should be useful at the time of diagnosis, when treatment discontinuation is being considered, and anytime there is poor clinical response or suspicion of relapse. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. [Prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection in household dogs].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Muraoka, Noboru; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2003-06-01

    A total of 1,505 household dogs were investigated for the prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection by fecal examination in relation to their fecal conditions, rearing environments, origins, age, sex and breed. Strongyloides spp. infection was demonstrated in 29 of 1,505 (1.93%) dogs. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected in 28 dogs, and Strongyloides planiceps was detected in one dog. The rate of Strongyloides spp. infection was higher in dogs reared indoors, originated from pet shops/breeding kennels and aged 1-6 months. The infected rate was higher in dogs excreting soft feces. No significant sex-related difference was observed in Strongyloides spp. infection. The rate was high in Pomeranians and low in mongrels. The detection of S. stercolaris in dogs reared indoors will involve a serious problem in public health, because the parasite has zoonoitic potential. It suggests that a positive sanitary instruction against a dog's owner and a worker in pet shops/breeding kennels seems necessary for prevention of transmission from dogs to humans. Furthermore, the reliable treatment for dogs infected with S. stercoralis seems to be important.

  10. Gene flow between wolf and shepherd dog populations in Georgia (Caucasus).

    PubMed

    Kopaliani, Natia; Shakarashvili, Maia; Gurielidze, Zurab; Qurkhuli, Tamar; Tarkhnishvili, David

    2014-01-01

    We studied the distribution of the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes at 8 loci in 102 gray wolves, 57 livestock guarding dogs, and 9 mongrel dogs from Georgia (Caucasus). Most of the studied dogs had mitochondrial haplotypes clustered with presumably East Asian dog lineages, and most of the studied wolves had the haplotypes clustered with European wolves, but 20% of wolves and 37% of dogs shared the same mitochondrial haplotypes. Bayesian inference with STRUCTURE software suggested that more than 13% of the studied wolves had detectable dog ancestry and more than 10% of the dogs had detectable wolf ancestry. About 2-3% of the sampled wolves and dogs were identified, with a high probability, as first-generation hybrids. These results were supported by the relatedness analysis, which showed that 10% of wolves and 20% of dogs had closest relatives from an opposite group. The results of the study suggest that wolf-dog hybridization is a common event in the areas where large livestock guarding dogs are held in a traditional way, and that gene flow between dogs and gray wolves was an important force influencing gene pool of dogs for millennia since early domestication events. This process may have been terminated 1) in areas outside the natural range of gray wolves and 2) since very recent time, when humans started to more tightly control contacts of purebred dogs.

  11. Pituitary apoplexy-like disease in 4 dogs.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giovanna; Rossetti, Enrica; Caldin, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy in humans is a clinical syndrome resulting from sudden infarction, hemorrhage, or both in a normal or an adenomatous pituitary gland. Describe a clinical syndrome in dogs similar to pituitary apoplexy in humans. Four dogs exhibiting a sudden onset of neurologic signs. A retrospective study was used, including clinical examination, computed tomography (CT), postmortem examination, and histopathology of the brain. Pituitary tissue from 3 of the dogs was subjected to immunocytochemistry. Four dogs (2 Mongrels, 1 Bordeaux Dog, and 1 Cocker Spaniel; median age, 11 years; median body weight, 20.5 kg) presented with acute neurologic signs including depression (n = 3), behavioral changes (n = 1), vision loss (n = 1), seizures (n = 1), and collapse (n = 1). CT disclosed suprasellar infarction, hemorrhage, or both associated with a pituitary macroadenoma in 3 dogs and a frank hemorrhage in a nonadenomatous pituitary gland in 1 dog. CT findings were correlated with postmortem findings, and pituitary apoplexy was confirmed by histopathology and immunocytochemistry of the pituitary tissue. This study provides histopathologic evidence of pituitary apoplexy in dogs. The results are relevant for future diagnosis and treatment of pituitary disease in dogs.

  12. Encephalitozoon cuniculi causes focal anterior cataract and uveitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nell, B; Csokai, J; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Maaß, G

    2015-01-01

    Three mongrel dogs, aged 10 months (case 1), 14 months (case 2) and 7.5 years (case 3), were presented because of ophthalmologic disorders of 4 months, 6 months and 7 years duration, respectively. All three dogs were offspring of stray dogs from Hungary and Serbia and had positive serum antibody titres against Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi. The two young dogs showed unilateral, the older dog bilateral chronic anterior uveitis with posterior synechia and focal anterior cortical cataract. The fundi that could be evaluated developed focal tapetal hyporeflective lesions in the course of the disease. Dogs 1 and 2 underwent removal of the lens via phacoemulsification. PCR of the lens material was positive for E. cuniculi strains IV and II, respectively. In dog 2 findings suggestive of microsporidia were detected underneath the anterior lens capsule by immunohistochemical staining. In all cases medical treatment consisted of systemic fenbendazole, prednisolone, and topical anti-inflammatory drugs, and additional brinzolamid/timolol for dog 3. For the time being all cases (follow up 23 months, 6 months and 3 months, respectively) are still on topical anti-inflammatory therapy. It is concluded that E. cuniculi infections can cause cataract and chorioretinal lesions in dogs.

  13. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  14. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  15. Enzyme Activity in the Serum and Common Duct Bile of Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-12-01

    Total biliary fistulas were surgically51Sc23:0 8;07) created in 5 dogs. ..nd ailssof glutaralc 8. Pellegrini, R. R eCh on the transaminase c oxalacetic...and surgery obstruct.ve jaundice (1, 2) suggested that ihe biliary system might serve as an excretory Female mongrel (logs were subjected to pathway...promptly after release of ligatonn (4) also septic conditions at least daily. fitted with this hypothesis. It is now apparent, however, that biliary

  16. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Yanpiset, K; Trope, M

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of topical treatment with doxycycline and/or the application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown on the occurrence of revascularization in reimplanted dog teeth. Ninety-six teeth in 4 young mongrel dogs were used. Eighty one teeth were atraumatically extracted and divided into four groups. Group 1, 17 teeth were kept dry for 5 min and then replanted. Group 2, 21 teeth were soaked with a freshly prepared solution of doxycycline (1 mg/20 mL saline) for 5 min before replantation. Group 3, 23 teeth were soaked with the doxycycline solution for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were coated with 2 layers of light cured unfilled resin. Group 4, 20 teeth were kept dry for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were treated as with the teeth in Group 3. Three months after surgery, radiographic evaluation revealed that 27 teeth had continued root development and 32 teeth showed arrested root development with periradicular pathosis. The remaining 17 teeth, which had arrested root development but no signs of periradicular pathosis, were all histologically evaluated for final assessment. The occurrence of revascularization according to treatment group was 29.4%, 60%, 60%, 36.8% in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis in SAS indicated there was no significant association between vitality and dog (P = 0.7564). Soaking for 5 min in doxycycline significantly increased the revascularization rate (P = 0.024) while the addition of resin to the crown did not result in an increased incidence of pulp revascularization (P = 0.823).

  17. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation.

  18. Regulation of retinal function but nonrescue of vision in RPE65-deficient dogs treated with doxycycline-regulatable AAV vectors.

    PubMed

    Lhériteau, Elsa; Libeau, Lyse; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Weber, Michel; Le Meur, Guylène; Provost, Nathalie; Guihal, Caroline; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2010-06-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene transfer of the doxycycline (Dox)-regulatable system allows for the regulation of erythropoietin (EPO) expression in the retina of nonhuman primates after intravenous or oral administration of Dox. In addition, it was shown that administrating different amounts of Dox resulted in a dose-response dynamic of transgene expression. Adeno-associated viral gene therapy has raised hope for the treatment of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis, caused by mutations in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific gene RPE65. The preliminary results of three clinical trials suggest some improvement in visual function. However, further improvements might be necessary to optimize vision recovery and this means developing vectors able to generate transgene expression at physiological levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Dox-regulatable system to regulate retinal function in RPE65(-/-) Briard dogs. rAAV vectors expressing RPE65 under the control of either the TetOff and TetOn Dox-regulated promoters or the cytomegalovirus (CMV) constitutive promoter were generated and administered subretinally to seven RPE65-deficient dogs. We demonstrate that the induction and deinduction of retinal function, as assessed by electroretinography (ERG), can be achieved using a Dox-regulatable system, but do not lead to any recovery of vision.

  19. Survival and echocardiographic data in dogs with congestive heart failure caused by mitral valve disease and treated by multiple drugs: a retrospective study of 21 cases.

    PubMed

    de Madron, Eric; King, Jonathan N; Strehlau, Günther; White, Regina Valle

    2011-11-01

    This retrospective study reports the survival time [onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) to death from any cause] of 21 dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) and CHF treated with a combination of furosemide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, benazepril, or enalapril), pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine. Baseline echocardiographic data: end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices (ESVI and EDVI), left atrium to aorta ratio (LA/Ao), and regurgitant fraction (RF) are reported. Median survival time (MST) was 430 d. Initial dosage of furosemide (P = 0.0081) and LA/Ao (P = 0.042) were negatively associated with survival. Baseline echocardiographic indices (mean ± standard deviation) were 40.24 ± 16.76 for ESVI, 161.48 ± 44.49 mL/m(2) for EDVI, 2.11 ± 0.75 for LA/Ao, and 64.71 ± 16.85% for RF. Combining furosemide, ACEI, pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine may result in long survival times in dogs with MR and CHF. Severity of MR at onset of CHF is at least moderate.

  20. Histidine, an essential amino acid for adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Cianciaruso, B; Jones, M R; Kopple, J D

    1981-06-01

    Twenty-seven adult female mongrel dogs were studied to evaluate whether histidine is an essential amino acid. Dogs were tube-fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous amino acid diets which provided either no histidine or 67 mg histidine/kg body weight/day. The histidine-free diet was fed to 10 dogs for 5.6 +/- 3.6 (SD) days and to six dogs for 59.2 +/- 6.0 days. In the short-term studies, there were no differences between the responses of the dogs fed the histidine-free and histidine-replete diets. In the long-term studies, dogs fed the histidine-free diet developed a significant decrease in plasma and muscle histidine, muscle carnosine, body weight, hematocrit and serum albumin. The dogs fed the histidine-free diet tried to avoid the feedings, and after several weeks, they often manifested reduced activity and listlessness. One dog died on the 72nd day. None of these manifestations occurred in the dogs fed the histidine-replete diet in the long-term studies. Plasma zinc and copper were not different in the two groups of dogs. However, at the end of the long-term studies, the dogs fed the histidine-free diet had significantly lower final whole blood zinc and copper concentrations as compared to the histidine-replete dogs. These findings indicate that histidine is an essential amino acid in adult female dogs. The syndrome associated with histidine-deficiency tends to develop slowly over many days to several weeks.

  1. Monocytes, endoplasmic reticulum stress and metabolomics in dogs with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome treated by continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yun-Peng; Sui, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Ai-Sha; Ye, Lei; Gu, Feng-Juan; Chen, Ji-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We tried to investigate the mechanism of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) treatment in monocytes function, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways, metabolomics and histopathological changes of MODS dogs, and aimed to enhance the understanding of pathogenesis and provide novel avenues to potential therapies. Methods 12 male Beagle dogs were used to develop the stable models of MODS by using hemorrhagic shock plus resuscitation and endotoxemia, and assigned randomly to CVVHDF group (n=6) and MODS group (n=6). The dogs in CVVHDF group were given the typical CVVHDF treatment for 24h after the completion of endotoxin intravenous infusion, while those in MODS group were offered the i.v heparin instead only. Serum sample were collected at five time points, i.e. before anesthesia, 0h, 6h, 12h and 24h after the endotoxin injection (T1˜T5, respectively), and meanwhile, the changes of mRNA, protein and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis rates in JNK, CHOP and Caspase-12 were observed before and after interfered by RNA interference technology. Results The levels of DLA-DR, IL-1β and IL-4 were higher than those in MODS group after the CVVHDF treatment, and the early and late apoptosis rates showed downward trend compared with MODS group. In vitro and prior to RNA interference (RNAi), the levels of mRNA and protein expression and HUVECs apoptosis rates of JNK, CHOP and Caspase-12 in CVVHDF group were significantly lower compared to T1 and MODS group respectively. However, the levels of mRNA and protein expression and HUVECs apoptosis rates were significantly lower than those before interfered by RNAi in both two groups. The serum levels of LPCs, ornithine, proline, methionine, etc. were down-regulated while carnitines, FFAs, PC, etc. were increased significantly in MODS (T4), and the serum levels of methionine, proline, arginine and lysine were increased while carnitine, LPCs, PCs, SMs and orthophosporic acid were

  2. A quantitative evaluation of the extent of fluralaner uptake by ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis) in fluralaner (Bravecto) treated vs. untreated dogs using the parameters tick weight and coxal index.

    PubMed

    Williams, Heike; Demeler, Janina; Taenzler, Janina; Roepke, Rainer K A; Zschiesche, Eva; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-06-30

    Fluralaner is a new antiparasitic drug that was recently introduced as Bravecto chewable tablets for the treatment of tick and flea infestations in dogs. Most marketed tick products exert their effect via topical application and contact exposure to the parasite. In contrast, Bravecto delivers its acaricidal activity through systemic exposure. Tick exposure to fluralaner occurs after attachment to orally treated dogs, which induces a tick-killing effect within 12 h. The fast onset of killing lasts over the entire treatment interval (12 weeks) and suggests that only marginal uptake by ticks is required to induce efficacy. Three laboratory studies were conducted to quantify the extent of uptake by comparison of ticks' weight and coxal index obtained from Bravecto-treated and negative-control dogs. Three studies were conducted using experimental tick infestation with either Ixodes ricinus or Ixodes scapularis after oral administration of fluralaner to dogs. All studies included a treated (Bravecto chewable tablets, MSD Animal Health) and a negative control group. Each study had a similar design for assessing vitality and weighing of ticks collected from dogs of both groups. Additionally, in one study the coxal index (I. ricinus) was calculated as a ratio of tick's ventral coxal gap and dorsal width of scutum. Tick weight data and coxal indices from Bravecto-treated and negative-control groups were compared via statistical analysis. Ticks collected from Bravecto-treated dogs weighed significantly less (p ≤ 0.0108) than ticks collected from negative-control dogs, and their coxal index was also significantly lower (p < 0.0001). The difference in tick weights was demonstrated irrespective of the tick species investigated (I. ricinus, I. scapularis). At some assessments the mean tick weights of Bravecto-treated dogs were significantly lower than those of unfed pre-infestation (baseline) ticks. The demonstrated tick-killing efficacy was in the range of 94.6 - 100

  3. Absence of exposed bone following dental extraction in beagle dogs treated with 9 months of high-dose zoledronic acid combined with dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Allen, Matthew R; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel; Ruggiero, Salvatore L

    2013-06-01

    Factors contributing to osteonecrosis of the jaw with anti-remodeling drug treatment are unclear. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested the combination of bisphosphonates and dexamethasone results in osteonecrosis of the jaw more often than either agent alone. The goal of this study was to assess the combination of these 2 drugs in a large animal model previously shown to be susceptible to exposed bone in the oral cavity when treated with bisphosphonates. Skeletally mature beagle dogs were untreated controls or treated with zoledronic acid (ZOL), dexamethasone (DEX), or ZOL plus DEX. ZOL and DEX were given at doses based on those used in humans. All animals underwent single molar extraction at 7 and 8 months after the start of the study. Extraction sites were obtained at month 9 for assessment of osseous healing using micro-computed tomography and histology. No animals were observed to have exposed bone after dental extraction, yet 1 animal treated with ZOL and 1 treated with ZOL plus DEX had severely disrupted extraction sites as viewed by computed tomography and histology. These 2 animals had an intense periosteal reaction that was less obvious but still present in all ZOL-treated animals and absent from untreated animals. There was no significant difference in bone volume within the socket among groups at 4 or 8 weeks after healing, yet the ratio of surface to volume was significantly higher in animals treated with ZOL plus DEX at 8 weeks compared with control animals. These findings suggest a more complex pathophysiology to osteonecrosis of the jaw than is implied by previous epidemiologic studies and those in rodents and raise questions about the potential role of DEX in its etiology. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Esophageal and duodenal approach for testing duodenogastric reflux in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hollinger, A; Vollenweider, A; Casanova, M; Buchmann, P

    1982-01-01

    A modified Komarov-Marks esophagostomy is described. It was the aim of our experiments to show that this procedure does not harm the vagal innervation of the stomach. The vagal function was assessed by testing (1) basal secretion, (2) 2-deoxy-D-glucose-stimulated secretion, (3) pentagastrin-stimulated secretion, and (4) serum gastrin levels in five mongrel dogs. Each test was performed at least three times in each dog before and after the esophagostomy procedure, respectively. The secretion rates were not affected by surgery. It is concluded that cervical esophagostomy in dogs does not affect vagal stimulation of gastric acid secretion. For the application of tracer substances into the duodenum, two types of conduits are described: (1) a short jejunal segment and (2) a jejunal segment with an invagination valve. The pros and cons of these procedures are discussed.

  5. Two-Item Sentence Comprehension by a Dog (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Daniela; Ades, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Syntax use by non-human animals remains a controversial issue. We present here evidence that a dog may respond to verbal requests composed of two independent terms, one referring to an object and the other to an action to be performed relative to the object. A female mongrel dog, Sofia, was initially trained to respond to action (point and fetch) and object (ball, key, stick, bottle and bear) terms which were then presented as simultaneous, combinatorial requests (e.g. ball fetch, stick point). Sofia successfully responded to object-action requests presented as single sentences, and was able to flexibly generalize her performance across different contexts. These results provide empirical evidence that dogs are able to extract the information contained in complex messages and to integrate it in directed performance, an ability which is shared with other linguistically trained animals and may represent a forerunner of syntactic functioning. PMID:22312419

  6. Absence of exposed bone following dental extraction in beagle dogs treated with nine-months of high dose zoledronic acid combined with dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Matthew R.; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel; Ruggiero, Salvatore L.

    2012-01-01

    The factors contributing to osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) with anti-remodeling drug treatment are unclear. Both epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested the combination of bisphosphonates and dexamethasone results in ONJ more often than either agent alone. The goal of this study was to assess the combination of these two drugs in a large animal model previously shown to be susceptible to exposed bone in the oral cavity when treated with bisphosphonates. Skeletally mature beagle dogs were either untreated controls, or treated with zoledronic acid (ZOL), dexamethasone (DEX), or ZOL + DEX. Both zoledronic acid and dexamethasone were given at doses based on those used in humans. All animals underwent single molar extraction at both 7 and 8 months following the start of the study. Extraction sites were obtained at month 9 for assessment of osseous healing using micro-computed tomography and histology. No animals were observed to have exposed bone following dental extraction yet one animal treated with ZOL and one with ZOL+DEX had severely disrupted extraction sites as viewed by CT and histology. These two animals had intense periosteal reaction that was less obvious but still present on all ZOL-treated animals and absent from untreated animals. There was no significant difference in bone volume within the socket among groups at either 4 or 8 weeks post-healing yet the surface/volume ratio was significantly higher in animals treated with ZOL+DEX at 8 weeks compared to control animals. These findings suggest a more complex pathophysiology to ONJ than is implied by previous epidemiological studies as well as those in rodents and raise questions about the potential role of dexamethasone in its etiology. PMID:23375897

  7. Providencia stuartii infection in a dog with severe skin ulceration and cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Papadogiannakis, E; Perimeni, D; Velonakis, E; Kontos, V; Vatopoulos, A

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present a case of severe skin ulceration and cellulitis in a seven year old mongrel dog following cystitis. The Providencia stuartii strain was the only isolate from skin lesions. This bacterium is a Gram-negative rod belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. To the best of our knowledge, even though there are some reports in the literature concerning animal infections with Providencia species, there have been no cases of cellulitis in which this pathogen is involved. The Providencia stuartii strain was highly sensitive to amikacin, and the dog responded quickly to this antibiotic.

  8. Can human allergy drug fexofenadine, an antagonist of histamine (H1) receptor, be used to treat dog and cat? Homology modeling, docking and molecular dynamic Simulation of three H1 receptors in complex with fexofenadine.

    PubMed

    Sader, Safaa; Cai, Jun; Muller, Anna C G; Wu, Chun

    2017-08-01

    Fexofenadine, a potent antagonist to human histamine 1 (H1) receptor, is a non-sedative third generation antihistamine that is widely used to treat various human allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Encouragingly, it's been successfully used to treat canine atopic dermatitis, this supports the notion that it might have a great potential for treating other canine allergic conditions and other mammal pets such as dog. Regrettably, while there is a myriad of studies conducted on the interactions of antihistamines with human H1 receptor, the similar studies on non-human pet H1 are considerably scarce. The published studies using the first and second generation antihistamines drugs have shown that the antihistamine response is varied and unpredictable. Thus, to probe its efficacy on pet, the homology models of dog and cat H1 receptors were built based on the crystal structure of human H1 receptor bound to antagonist doxepin (PDB 3RZE) and fexofenadine was subsequently docked to human, dog and cat H1 receptors. The docked complexes are then subjected to 1000ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with explicit membrane. Our calculated MM/GBSA binding energies indicated that fexofenadine binds comparably to the three receptors; and our MD data also showed the binding poses, structural and dynamic features among three receptors are very similar. Therefore, our data supported the application of fexofenadine to the H1 related allergic conditions of dog and cat. Nonetheless, subtle systemic differences among human, dog and cat H1 receptors were also identified. Clearly, there is still a space to develop a more selective, potent and safe antihistamine alternatives such as Fexofenadine for dog or cat based on these differences. Our computation approach might provide a fast and economic way to predict if human antihistamine drugs can also be safely and efficaciously administered to animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. [Partial replacement of the trachea with jejunal autograft in the dog].

    PubMed

    Szántó, Z; Ferencz, A; Kovács, F; Horváth, O P; Röth, E; Molnár, F T

    2001-10-01

    Extensive lesions of the cervical trachea can occur as a result of malformation, inflammation, tumor disease or trauma. If a short segment of the trachea is resected primary anastomosis may be possible. The problem of how to treat lesions longer than 50% of total tracheal length is still unresolved. The aim of our study was to clarify the possible use and limitations of small bowel interposition for tracheal replacement in veterinary model. We resected 6 cm of the cervical trachea of 5 adult mongrel dogs. Autolog jejunum free flap was used for replacement. The wall of the implant was supported with 5 polytetrafluoroethylene rings placed on the outer surface of the bowel perpendicular to its axis. We performed the surgery in two stages. Intraoperative tracheostomy was necessary in every case. The tracheal tube extended through the whole length of the implant. The survivals, the viability of the graft and complications were examined. The length of survival ranged between 18 h and 72 h. In one case obstruction of the tracheal tube occurred, in 3 cases the micro vessel anastomosis of the graft thrombosed, in one case both complications developed. In our experience use of the small bowel flap was complicated with fatal technical difficulties. The micro vessel anastomosis proved to be highly risky. Further investigations are needed to improve the results with this method.

  10. Healing of periodontal defects treated with enamel matrix proteins and root surface conditioning--an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sakallioğlu, Umur; Açikgöz, Gökhan; Ayas, Bülent; Kirtiloğlu, Tuğrul; Sakallioğlu, Eser

    2004-05-01

    Application of enamel matrix proteins has been introduced as an alternative method for periodontal regenerative therapy. It is claimed that this approach provides periodontal regeneration by a biological approach, i.e. creating a matrix on the root surfaces that promotes cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone regeneration, thus mimicking the events occurring during tooth development. Although there have been numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating periodontal regeneration, acellular cementum formation and clinical outcomes via enamel matrix proteins usage, their effects on the healing pattern of soft and hard periodontal tissues are not well-established and compared with root conditioning alone. In the present study, the effects of Emdogain (Biora, Malmö, Sweden), an enamel matrix derivative mainly composed of enamel matrix proteins (test), on periodontal wound healing were evaluated and compared with root surface conditioning (performed with 36% orthophosphoric acid) alone (control) histopathologically and histomorphometrically by means of the soft and hard tissue profile of periodontium. An experimental periodontitis model performed at premolar teeth of four dogs were used in the study and the healing pattern of periodontal tissues was evaluated at days 7, 14, 21, 28 (one dog at each day), respectively. At day 7, soft tissue attachment evaluated by means of connective tissue and/or epithelial attachment to the root surfaces revealed higher connective tissue attachment rate in the test group and the amount of new connective tissue proliferation in the test group was significantly greater than the control group (p<0.01). New bone formation by osteoconduction initiated at day 14 in the test and control group. At day 21, the orientation of supra-alveolar and PDL fibers established, and new cementum formation observed in both groups. At day 28, although regenerated cementum was cellular in all of the roots in the control samples, an

  11. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Outcome of pyometra in female dogs and predictors of peritonitis and prolonged postoperative hospitalization in surgically treated cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most common diseases in intact bitches is pyometra– a potentially life-threatening disease associated with a variety of clinical and laboratory findings. The aims of the present study were to describe complications of the disease and to investigate clinically useful indicators associated with peritonitis and/or prolonged postoperative hospitalization. Results A retrospective study was performed using records from 356 bitches diagnosed with pyometra during the years 2006–2007 at the University Animal Hospital, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Of the 356 bitches, 315 were surgically treated by ovariohysterectomy, 9 were medically treated and 32 were euthanized without treatment. In the surgically treated bitches, univariable associations between clinical and laboratory data, risk for prolonged hospitalization (≥ 3 days) and/or signs of peritonitis, were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. Logistic regression models were used to assess multivariable associations. The most common complication observed in surgically treated bitches was peritonitis (40 bitches), followed by urinary tract infection (19 bitches), wound infection (8 bitches), uveitis (6 bitches), and cardiac arrhythmia (5 bitches). Leucopenia and fever/hypothermia were associated with increased risk for peritonitis (18-fold and three-fold, respectively). Moderate to severe depression of the general condition, pale mucous membranes and leucopenia were associated with increased risk (seven-fold, three-fold, and over three-point-five-fold, respectively) for prolonged postoperative hospitalization. Conclusions Several clinically useful indicators were identified. Leucopenia was the most important marker, associated with 18-fold increased risk for peritonitis and an over three-point-five increased risk for prolonged hospitalization. Fever/hypothermia, depression and pale mucous membranes were associated with increased risk for peritonitis and

  13. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Cadieu, Jennifer; Kiupel, Matti; Lim, Ailam; Bolin, Steve R; Mansell, Joanne

    2012-05-01

    Cutaneous toxoplasmosis has been previously reported in human beings, rarely reported in cats, and reported in 1 dog with systemic toxoplasmosis. The present report describes 2 cases of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in 2 dogs treated with immunosuppressive therapy. One of the dogs developed generalized cutaneous pustules and pruritus, and the other dog only had a single subcutaneous nodule. Microscopically, skin biopsies showed moderate to severe pyogranulomatous and necrotizing dermatitis and panniculitis, with multifocal vasculitis and vascular thrombosis. Single or aggregates of protozoal tachyzoites were mostly intracytoplasmic and occasionally extracellular. The etiology was confirmed in both cases by immunohistochemistry and by polymerase chain reaction assays, which were followed by nucleic acid sequencing. Both patients were treated with clindamycin. The dog with generalized lesions developed pulmonary and neurological signs and was euthanized. The dog with a single nodule recovered completely with no remission of cutaneous lesions.

  14. [Hydraulic conductivity of visceral pleura in dogs].

    PubMed

    Ashino, Y; Tanita, T; Ono, S; Funada, J; Koike, K; Fujimura, S

    1993-07-01

    We measured the hydraulic conductivity of the visceral pleura in seven mongrel dogs in situ. The left chest was opened at the seventh intercostal space. A hemispherical capsule, filled with physiological saline, was attached to the visceral pleura of the left lower lobe by the negative pressure in the plate, using a vacuum pump. Transpleural fluid flow (V) was measured at different intracapsular pressures (delta P). The hydraulic conductivity was calculated from the relation between fluid flow and intracapsular pressure, i.e., the slope of the linear regression line. The hydraulic conductivity was 1.49 +/- 0.68 (mean +/- SD) nL.min-1 x cmH2O-2. Our values were smaller than those of former reports obtained in vivo. It is suggested that the dynamics mechanisms of plural effusion may be clarified by studies using our method.

  15. Cerebellar pressor response in the dog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dormer, K. J.; Stone, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A fastigial pressor response has been elicited in the anesthetized mongrel dog. Stimulation within the rostral portions of this nucleus results in mean arterial pressure rises up to 150 mmHg above control. A proportional tachycardia is simultaneously evoked which may rapidly attain heart rates of 190 beats/min above control levels. Peak tachycardias immediately subside and often the heart rate declines below control values during stimulation while arterial pressure remains elevated. When either the carotid sinuses were isolated by ligation or a bilateral vagotomy was performed, the fastigial tachycardia was sustained. The response could still be attained when submaximal doses of alpha-chloralose anesthesia or high levels of barbiturates (30-40 mg/kg) were given. Both portions of the response result from widespread sympathetic activation; however, buffering of the response through the baroreceptor reflexes is only demonstrated in the cardiac segment of the response.

  16. Cerebellar pressor response in the dog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dormer, K. J.; Stone, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A fastigial pressor response has been elicited in the anesthetized mongrel dog. Stimulation within the rostral portions of this nucleus results in mean arterial pressure rises up to 150 mmHg above control. A proportional tachycardia is simultaneously evoked which may rapidly attain heart rates of 190 beats/min above control levels. Peak tachycardias immediately subside and often the heart rate declines below control values during stimulation while arterial pressure remains elevated. When either the carotid sinuses were isolated by ligation or a bilateral vagotomy was performed, the fastigial tachycardia was sustained. The response could still be attained when submaximal doses of alpha-chloralose anesthesia or high levels of barbiturates (30-40 mg/kg) were given. Both portions of the response result from widespread sympathetic activation; however, buffering of the response through the baroreceptor reflexes is only demonstrated in the cardiac segment of the response.

  17. Mammary gland tumors in male dogs.

    PubMed

    Saba, Corey F; Rogers, Kenita S; Newman, Shelley J; Mauldin, Glenna E; Vail, David M

    2007-01-01

    Reports of mammary-gland tumors in male dogs are lacking. To describe the clinical characteristics of mammary-gland tumors in male dogs. Eight male dogs diagnosed with mammary-gland tumors. Retrospective study. Medical databases from 3 institutions were searched. Medical records were abstracted, and owners and referring veterinarians contacted for follow-up information. Tissues were reviewed for histologic type, and immunohistochemical staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) was performed. Eight dogs with histologically confirmed mammary-gland tumors were included in this retrospective study. Median age at diagnosis was 11.5 years. Four dogs were sexually intact; 4 were neutered. All were purebred. Mammary-gland tumors were incidental findings in 7 of 8 dogs. All dogs were treated with only surgical excision. All but 1 dog had benign epithelial tumors. The dog with the malignant tumor was the only dog to develop possible local recurrence but de novo tumor development cannot be excluded. No dog had evidence of metastatic disease at diagnosis. Based on institutional population data, it was determined that female dogs are 62 times more likely to develop mammary-gland tumors than male dogs (P < .001). Estrogen-receptor expression was strong in the majority of tumors; progesterone-receptor expression, although present in all tumors, was less intense. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This study suggests that mammary-gland tumors in male dogs are rare, usually benign, and surgery alone can provide long-term control in most dogs.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of the ventricular system in the brains of adult and juvenile beagle dogs treated with posaconazole IV Solution.

    PubMed

    Hines, C D G; Song, X; Kuruvilla, S; Farris, G; Markgraf, C G

    2015-01-01

    Noxafil® (posaconazole; POS) is a potent, selective triazole antifungal approved for use in adults as an oral suspension, oral tablet and intravenous (IV) Solution. In support of pediatric administration of POS IV Solution to childrendogs was conducted, which showed enlarged lateral ventricles in the brain at the conclusion of a 6 week dosing period. To evaluate the impact of this finding on older age dogs, which would support administration to children>two years of age, two studies were undertaken using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor brain ventricle size longitudinally during three months administration of POS IV in adult and juvenile dogs. Necropsy was performed on all animals at the end of the studies. From the baseline MRI images, great variability in ventricle size was noted in both the adult and juvenile dogs; these images were used to distribute differently sized ventricles between treatment and vehicle groups as to not skew group means during the course of the study. POS IV Solution had no effect on ventricle volume at any timepoint during dosing in either the adult or the juvenile dogs. Further, no gross or histomorphologic differences between groups were observed in either study. Compared to juvenile dogs, MRI analysis showed that adult dogs had larger ventricles, lower variability in all ventricle volumes, and a greater rate of increase in total ventricle volume. Information on growth and development of brains is one of the few areas in which more detailed information is available about humans than about the standard laboratory animals used to model disease and predict toxicities. The use of MRI helped elucidate large natural variabilities in the dog brain, which could have altered the interpretation of this de-risking study, and provided a valuable noninvasive means to monitor the brain ventricles longitudinally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact evaluation of two different general anesthesia protocols (TIVA with propofol vs isoflurane) on the total number of interventions to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery receiving an intrathecal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    SAROTTI, Diego; RABOZZI, Roberto; FRANCI, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to compare the total number of anesthetic interventions (TNAI) performed by the anesthetist to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs receiving intrathecal and general anesthesia (GA), maintained using propofol-based TIVA (group P) or isoflurane (group I). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) before (T0) and 12 min after intrathecal anesthesia (T1) and intraoperative vasoactive consumption were also compared. The TNAI to deepen the anesthetic plane or to treat hemodynamic depression in the pre-surgical and intra-surgical period was calculated in forty-two client-owned dogs randomly assigned to group P or I. Ten dogs for each group complied with the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. In pre-surgical period, the TNAI was higher in Group I [2 (0–5)] than Group P [0 (0–2)] (P=0.022), and ephedrine consumption was also higher in Group I [75 (0–200) µg/kg)] than Group P [(0 (0–50)] (P=0.016). MAP (mmHg) in Group P was 79 (66–95) at T0 and 65 (59–86) at T1 and 67.5 (50–73) and 57 (53–66) in Group I, respectively. At T0 and T1, MAP was higher in Group P (P=0.005 and P=0.006, respectively). No differences were found between the two groups in the intrasurgical period (P>0.05). This study shows that the GA protocol can have a relevant impact on the TNAI performed by the anesthetist in the pre-surgical period of anesthesia, to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs receving intrathecal anesthesia. PMID:27334295

  20. Impact evaluation of two different general anesthesia protocols (TIVA with propofol vs isoflurane) on the total number of interventions to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery receiving an intrathecal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sarotti, Diego; Rabozzi, Roberto; Franci, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to compare the total number of anesthetic interventions (TNAI) performed by the anesthetist to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs receiving intrathecal and general anesthesia (GA), maintained using propofol-based TIVA (group P) or isoflurane (group I). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) before (T0) and 12 min after intrathecal anesthesia (T1) and intraoperative vasoactive consumption were also compared. The TNAI to deepen the anesthetic plane or to treat hemodynamic depression in the pre-surgical and intra-surgical period was calculated in forty-two client-owned dogs randomly assigned to group P or I. Ten dogs for each group complied with the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. In pre-surgical period, the TNAI was higher in Group I [2 (0-5)] than Group P [0 (0-2)] (P=0.022), and ephedrine consumption was also higher in Group I [75 (0-200) µg/kg)] than Group P [(0 (0-50)] (P=0.016). MAP (mmHg) in Group P was 79 (66-95) at T0 and 65 (59-86) at T1 and 67.5 (50-73) and 57 (53-66) in Group I, respectively. At T0 and T1, MAP was higher in Group P (P=0.005 and P=0.006, respectively). No differences were found between the two groups in the intrasurgical period (P>0.05). This study shows that the GA protocol can have a relevant impact on the TNAI performed by the anesthetist in the pre-surgical period of anesthesia, to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs receving intrathecal anesthesia.

  1. Recurrence rates and clinical outcome for dogs with grade II mast cell tumours with a low AgNOR count and Ki67 index treated with surgery alone.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Kiupel, M; Farrelly, J; Cohen, R; Olmsted, G; Kirpensteijn, J; Brocks, B; Post, G

    2017-03-01

    Grade II mast cell tumours (MCT) are tumours with variable biologic behaviour. Multiple factors have been associated with outcome, including proliferation markers. The purpose of this study was to determine if extent of surgical excision affects recurrence rate in dogs with grade II MCT with low proliferation activity, determined by Ki67 and argyrophilic nucleolar organising regions (AgNOR). Eighty-six dogs with cutaneous MCT were evaluated. All dogs had surgical excision of their MCT with a low Ki67 index and combined AgNORxKi67 (Ag67) values. Twenty-three (27%) dogs developed local or distant recurrence during the median follow-up time. Of these dogs, six (7%) had local recurrence, one had complete and five had incomplete histologic margins. This difference in recurrence rates between dogs with complete and incomplete histologic margins was not significant. On the basis of this study, ancillary therapy may not be necessary for patients with incompletely excised grade II MCT with low proliferation activity.

  2. Prolongation of survival of dogs with oral malignant melanoma treated by en bloc surgical resection and adjuvant CSPG4-antigen electrovaccination.

    PubMed

    Piras, L A; Riccardo, F; Iussich, S; Maniscalco, L; Gattino, F; Martano, M; Morello, E; Lorda Mayayo, S; Rolih, V; Garavaglia, F; De Maria, R; Lardone, E; Collivignarelli, F; Mignacca, D; Giacobino, D; Ferrone, S; Cavallo, F; Buracco, P

    2017-09-01

    Reported post-surgery 1-year survival rate for oral canine malignant melanoma (cMM) is around 30%; novel treatments are needed as the role of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear. This prospective study regards adjuvant electrovaccination with human chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-4 (hCSPG4)-encoded plasmid in 23 dogs with resected II/III-staged CSPG4-positive oral cMM compared with 19 dogs with resected only II/III-staged CSPG4-positive oral cMM. Vaccination resulted in 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month survival rate of 95.6, 73.9, 47.8 and 30.4%, respectively [median survival time (MST) 684 days, range 78-1694, 8 of 23 dogs alive] and 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month disease-free interval (DFI) rate of 82.6, 47.8, 26.1 and 17.4%, respectively (DFI 477 days, range 50-1694). Non-vaccinated dogs showed 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month survival rate of 63.2, 26.3, 15.8 and 5.3%, respectively (MST 200 days, range 75-1507, 1 of 19 dogs alive) and 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month DFI rate of 52.6, 26.3, 10.5 and 5.3%, respectively (DFI 180 days, range 38-1250). Overall survival and DFI of vaccinated dogs was longer in those <20 kg. In vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs local recurrence rate was 34.8 and 42%, respectively while lung metastatic rate was 39 and 79%, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Treatment of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David

    2005-05-15

    An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment.

  4. [Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis in the dog].

    PubMed

    Weingart, C; Eule, C; Welle, M; Kohn, B

    2011-04-01

    Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis is a rare immune-mediated skin disease in young dogs. History, signalment, diagnostics, treatment, and outcome in 10 dogs are described. The age ranged from 8 - 36 weeks. The lymph nodes were enlarged in all dogs, especially the mandibular and prescapular lymph nodes. Systemic signs including fever were present in 8 dogs. Seven dogs suffered from blepharitis and painful edema of the muzzle with hemorrhagic discharge, pustules and papules. Cytology of pustules and lymph node aspirates revealed a pyogranulomatous inflammation. In 7 cases the diagnosis of juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis was confirmed by histology. Nine dogs were treated with prednisolone (0.5 - 1.25 mg/kg BID), H2-receptor antagonists and analgetics; all dogs were treated with antibiotics. Four dogs were treated with eye ointment containing antibiotics and glucocorticoids. The prednisolone dosage was tapered over 3 - 8 weeks. One dog had a relapse.

  5. [Dog bite accidents in a children hospital at Lima, Peru. Retrospective study from 1995 - 2009].

    PubMed

    Morales, Carmen; Falcón, Néstor; Hernández, Henry; Férnandez, Carla

    2011-12-01

    From 1995 to 2009, 206 cases of dog bites were recorded among hospitalized patients at the Children National Health of, Lima-Peru. The median of age was 4 years, and for hospitalization time was 3 days. Most patients were males (61.7 %). The bites occurred in the house of a third person (39.3 %), on the street (33.5 %), or in the victim's house (27.2 %). A 66.5 % of the bites were provoked and 88.8 % were from animals known to the victim. The dog breed was recognized in 34 % (52.9 % were mongrel dogs). Multiple lesions were identified in 79.1 %, and the most frequently bitten areas were head and neck (79.1 %). Complications were reported in 20.4 % and aesthetic sequelae in 94.7 %.

  6. The seminiferous epithelium cycle and its duration in different breeds of dog (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jaqueline M; Avelar, Gleide F; França, Luiz R

    2009-01-01

    Testis structure and function in dogs are relatively poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to carry out a comparative investigation of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and its duration in different breeds of dog. Fifty-six sexually mature dogs (mongrel, n = 12; pinscher, n = 12; beagle, n = 5; American pit bull, n = 9; poodle, n = 12; and Labrador retriever, n = 6) were analysed. Intratesticular injections of tritiated thymidine were given to determine the duration of spermatogenesis. Orchiectomy was performed at different time periods following injection (1 h, 2 and 4 weeks). Testis fragments were embedded in plastic and routinely prepared for histological and autoradiographic evaluations. Eight stages were characterized based on the acrosome system. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were found for the frequencies of the different stages characterized (except Stages V, VI and VIII), particularly for the mongrel. Stage IV (when spermiation occurs) was the most frequent in all six breeds (∼25%), whereas Stages II and VIII were the least frequent (< 8%). Each spermatogenic cycle and the total duration of spermatogenesis lasted 13.73 ± 0.03 and 61.9 ± 0.14 days, respectively, for the mongrel, poodle, pinscher, beagle, and Labrador retriever. These values were ∼10% lower (P < 0.03) for the American pit bull (12.55 ± 0.26 and 56.5 ± 1.17 days, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to perform a careful investigation of stage frequencies and seminiferous epithelium cycle duration in this very important domestic species. PMID:19627387

  7. Use of streptokinase in four dogs with thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, C C; Burney, D P; Macintire, D K; Finn-Bodner, S

    1996-08-15

    Four dogs with thrombosis were referred for diagnostic testing and were subsequently treated by the use of streptokinase. The range of duration of clinical signs associated with thrombosis was 6 to 120 days. Causes of thrombosis were heart disease (1 dog), protein-losing nephropathy and hyperadrenocorticism (1), hyperadrenocorticism (1), and idiopathic (1). Possible factors that predisposed dogs to hypercoagulability included hypertension (2 dogs) and diabetes mellitus (1). All dogs were treated for underlying disease by use of supportive care. The first dog was treated with a loading dose of 250,000 U of streptokinase, i.v., with a subsequent maintenance dosage of 100,000 U/h, i.v., and also was treated with anticoagulant. The subsequent 3 dogs were treated with a loading dose of 90,000 U of streptokinase, i.v., and maintenance dosage of 45,000 U/ h, i.v., at various intervals. These dogs also were treated with anticoagulant. Three dogs had minor hemorrhage as an adverse effect to streptokinase infusion, but they did not require treatment for the hemorrhage. Complete resolution of the thrombus was observed in 3 dogs, and partial resolution of the thrombus was observed in the other dog. In all dogs, partial or complete resolution of clinical signs associated with thrombosis was seen. Streptokinase may be an effective treatment for dogs with thrombosis.

  8. Resolution of generalized dermatophytosis without treatment in dogs.

    PubMed

    Medleau, L; Chalmers, S A

    1992-12-15

    Natural resolution of generalized dermatophytosis reportedly is common in large-animal species. In dogs with generalized dermatophytosis, antifungal treatment usually is prescribed, because the prevalence of natural resolution of dermatophytosis in dogs is not known. Five dogs, 6 to 18 months old, were diagnosed as having generalized dermatophytosis. Each dog was treated with an inert substance given orally with food, once daily. Signs of disease resolved in 3 of the dogs after 4 to 8 weeks of treatment with the inert substance. Two dogs did not improve, so treatment with ketoconazole was initiated. Resolution was achieved in these 2 dogs after 6 weeks of treatment with ketoconazole.

  9. Porencephaly and hydranencephaly in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Davies, E S S; Volk, H A; Behr, S; Summers, B; de Lahunta, A; Syme, H; Jull, P; Garosi, L

    2012-02-01

    A retrospective study was performed to identify dogs with cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavitatory lesions on MRI. Six dogs were included and the lesions were classified. In the three dogs in the present study with hydranencephaly, unilateral but complete loss of the temporal and parietal lobes was noted and had almost complete loss of the occipital and frontal lobes of a cerebral hemisphere. In the three dogs with porencephaly, there was unilateral incomplete loss of the parietal lobe and one dog had additional partial loss of the temporal and frontal lobes. Two of the dogs with porencephaly had seizures; the third showed no associated clinical signs. The dogs with hydranencephaly had mentation changes and circled compulsively. The two porencephalic dogs with seizures were treated with phenobarbitone. One of the dogs with hydranencephaly showed increased frequency and duration of circling; one dog's clinical signs did not progress and the third dog was euthanased due to increasing aggression. The dog with increased circling had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and the circling frequency reduced.

  10. Constant-flow ventilation of apneic dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnert, B.E.; Oberdoerster, G.; Slutsky, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    The adequacy of constant airway gas flow sustenance of arterial blood gas tensions was investigated in anesthetized-paralyzed mongrel dogs. Gas delivery was achieved via a main-stem bronchi cannulation system constructed of two polyethylene tubes bifurcating at the carina, which rested on the posterior surface of the trachea outside of an endotracheal tube positioned in the upper third of the trachea. Equal flows (total flow = Vin) of humidified air were delivered through each limb of the cannulation system at constant flow rates with Vin ranging from 8 to 28 l/min. Intratracheal pressures at these flows characteristically ranged from 0.1 to 1 cmH/sub 2/O. Arterial O/sub 2/ tension varied directly (Pa/sub O/sub 2// = 0.72 Vin + 74.6), and arterial CO/sub 2/ tension varied inversely (Pa/sub CO/sub 2// = -0.73 Vin + 51.2) with Vin during ambient gas, constant-flow ventilation (DFV). During prolonged CFV (>2h), no evidence of CO/sub 2/ accumulation or deterioration of Pa/sub O/sub 2// was observed. This study demonstrates that in apneic dogs normal blood gases can be achieved and maintained over prolonged periods with constant airway flow at low intratracheal pressures.

  11. Hepatic extracellular matrix alterations in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Ferdinan Almeida; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Ribeiro, Raul Rio; Alves, Cíntia Fontes; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; da Silva Calabrese, Kátia; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study alterations in the extracellular matrix of liver in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi that are correlated with clinical aspects and with histological, parasitological and immunological findings. The study was carried out on 30 dogs, 10 uninfected (control group) and 20 infected. The infected animals were further divided into two groups: an asymptomatic group of 10 dogs without clinical signs of the disease; and a symptomatic group of 10 dogs with classical clinical signs. All thirty animals were mongrel dogs of undefined age, obtained from the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, metropolitan area. During necropsy, liver fragments were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for histological examination. Paraffined sections of the tissues were stained with haematoxylin–eosin, Gomori’s ammoniacal silver stain for reticular fibres and strepto-avidin peroxidase for immunohistochemical detection of Leishmania amastigotes. Frozen tissue sections were stained by immunofluorescence for fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN). Liver collagen deposition was significantly greater in the infected than the control animals and differed significantly between the symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. There was a positive correlation between the parasite load and liver collagen deposition. The increased collagen deposition in infected animal livers may be associated with the parasite burden. Adhesive FN and LN fibres were significantly more highly expressed in the livers of symptomatic than of asymptomatic dogs. Our results demonstrate that canine visceral leishmaniasis causes fibrogenesis in liver, associated with the parasite load and degenerative processes. PMID:19765108

  12. A dog at the keyboard: using arbitrary signs to communicate requests.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alexandre Pongrácz; Ades, César

    2008-04-01

    As a consequence of domestication, dogs have a special readiness for communication with humans. We here investigate whether a dog might be able to acquire and consistently produce a set of arbitrary signs in her communication with humans, as was demonstrated in "linguistic" individuals of several species. A female mongrel dog was submitted to a training schedule in which, after basic command training and after acquiring the verbal labels of rewarding objects or activities, she learned to ask for such objects or activities by selecting lexigrams and pressing keys on a keyboard. Systematic records taken during spontaneous interaction with one of the experimenters showed that lexigrams were used in an appropriate, intentional way, in accordance with the immediate motivational context. The dog only utilized the keyboard in the experimenter's presence and gazed to him more frequently after key pressing than before, an indication that lexigram use did have communicative content. Results suggest that dogs may be able to learn a conventional system of signs associated to specific objects and activities, functionally analogous to spontaneous soliciting behaviors and point to the potential fruitfulness of the keyboard/lexigram procedure for studying dog communication and cognition. This is the first report to systematically analyze the learning of arbitrary sign production in dogs.

  13. Left ventricle contractile function in trained dogs with cardial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Riedhammer, H H; Rafflenbeul, W; Weihe, W H; Krayenbühl, H P

    1976-01-01

    Eight mongrel dogs exercised for 8 weeks by treadmill running at 20 per cent incline 20 to 25 minutes twice daily, 4-5 days/week. Another eight dogs which were kept in the cages for a similar period served as controls. The exercise program was effective in inducing myocardial hypertrophy since the ratio left ventricular weight/body weight was significantly (P less than 0.001) higher in the trained dogs (5.04 g/kg) than in the sedentary animals (3.83 g/kg). In morphine-chloralose anesthesia the dogs were studied by left heart catherization and cineangiography at spontaneous heart rate (run I), at paced heart rate (run II), at paced heart rate following cardiac autonomic nervous blockade by bilateral vagotomy and the administration of propranolol (run III) and during acute pressure loading with methoxzmine at constant heart rate (run IV). Intergroup comparison yielded no significant difference in any hemodynamic or volumetric parameter throughout the entire study. However, with intragroup comparisons between run III and run IV a less significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (from 5 to 15 mm Hg; P less than 0.05) was observed in the trained animals than in the control dogs (from 6 to 25 mm Hg; P less than 0.001). Left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased significantly only in the control dogs during acute pressure loading. Mean aortic pressure and left ventricular peak dP/dt increased to a similar extent in both groups. Since in the trained dogs the left ventricle encroaches less on the Frank-Starling mechanism than in normal animals for overcoming an acute pressure burden it is concluded that the development of hypertrophy concomitant with chronic exercise represents an adaptive mechanism with evidence of beneficial consequences for the intrinsic contractile function of the myocardium.

  14. Accelerated recovery of sensorimotor function in a dog submitted to quasi-total transection of the cervical spinal cord and treated with PEG

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Hwang, In-Kyu; Kim, Hana; Jang, Se-Woong; Kim, Hong Seog; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background: A case report on observing the recovery of sensory-motor function after cervical spinal cord transection. Case Description: Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on a male beagle weighing 3.5 kg. After applying polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the severed part, reconstruction of cervical spinal cord was confirmed by the restoration of sensorimotor function. Tetraplegia was observed immediately after operation, however, the dog showed stable respiration and survival without any complication. The dog showed fast recovery after 1 week, and recovered approximately 90% of normal sensorimotor function 3 weeks after the operation, although urinary disorder was still present. All recovery stages were recorded by video camera twice a week for behavioral analysis. Conclusion: While current belief holds that functional recovery is impossible after a section greater than 50% at C5-6 in the canine model, this case study shows the possibility of cervical spinal cord reconstruction after near-total transection. Furthermore, this case study also confirms that PEG can truly expedite the recovery of sensorimotor function after cervical spinal cord sections in dogs. PMID:27656327

  15. The effect of posterior spinal fixation with acrylic cement on the vertebral growth plate and intervertebral disc in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moon, M S; Ok, I Y; Ha, K Y

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to clarify the serial histological changes in the growing spine of dogs following posterior fixation with acrylic cement. Twenty-four male mongrel dogs aged 8 weeks were used for the study. The lumbar spine from L.3 to L.5 was fixed posteriorly with acrylic cement. Three dogs were then sacrificed every four weeks up to 32 weeks, and the histological changes of the vertebral disc, growth plate and vertebral bodies were observed by light microscopy. Thinning of the growth plate and distortion of the cartilage columns has been demonstrated, but premature fusion of the growth plate did not result and vertebral body growth continued. Anterior wedging of the intervertebral disc was seen with some thinning of the bony trabeculae of the vertebral body. Degeneration of the nucleus pulposus resulted, with replacement by fibrous tissue. The normal horizontal arrangement of the fibres of the annulus fibrosus altered to a vertical configuration by 32 weeks.

  16. Statistical comparison of dog and cat guard hairs using numerical morphology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime; Matsuda, Hideaki; Kubota, Satoshi; Kawano, Koichi

    2006-05-10

    Numerical features obtained from the guard hairs of dogs and cats (total 300 hairs per dog or cat) were statistically compared, in an attempt to discriminate between them. Using hairs from each of five mongrel dogs and cats, eight measurements (length (Len), maximum width (MaxWid), cross sectional maximum diameter, cross sectional minimum diameter, cuticular thickness of the cross section and three scale counts per 100 microm length (observed at three positions: distal third (disSC), middle (midSC) and the proximal third (proSC) portions) and five indexes (hair width index (HWI), medulla index (MI), hair index, cuticle index and the difference in scale counts between the distal and proximal parts (defSC)) were examined. The range for each numerical feature overlapped each other extensively, and none of the features permitted a discrimination between dog and cat hairs, based on the values obtained. However, 12 numerical features, except for the midSC, showed a statistically significant difference between dog and cat hairs, as evidenced by a t-test. For the purpose of comprehensively comparing numerical features and statistically discriminating between dog and cat hairs, a discriminant analysis between the two were carried out using a multiple regression analysis. Four types of discriminant functions produced by combining over five numerical features were examined. Dog and cat hairs could clearly be discriminated using any of the discriminant functions. Species discrimination using the discriminant function permitted the species of a dog or cat to be determined, based on the overall morphologies of various numerical features. When experimentally collected test samples were investigated using the discriminant function using Combination-2, consisting of eight numerical features (Len, MaxWid, MI, HWI, disSC, midSC, proSC and defSC), all 10 cat hairs were correctly determined to be cat hair and 22 of 23 dog hairs were correctly identified. This discriminant function

  17. Kinetic compartmental analysis of carnitine metabolism in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Engel, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantitate the dynamic parameters of carnitine metabolism in the dog. Six mongrel dogs were given intravenous injections of L-(methyl-3H)carnitine and the specific radioactivity of carnitine was followed in plasma and urine for 19-28 days. The data were analyzed by kinetic compartmental analysis. A three-compartment, open-system model ((a) extracellular fluid, (b) cardiac and skeletal muscle, (c) other tissues, particularly liver and kidney) was adopted and kinetic parameters (carnitine flux, pool sizes, kinetic constants) were derived. In four of six dogs the size of the muscle carnitine pool obtained by kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 5%) with estimates based on measurement of carnitine concentrations in different muscles. In three of six dogs carnitine excretion rates derived from kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 9%) with experimentally measured values, but in three dogs the rates by kinetic compartmental analysis were significantly higher than the corresponding rates measured directly. Appropriate chromatographic analyses revealed no radioactive metabolites in muscle or urine of any of the dogs. Turnover times for carnitine were (mean +/- SEM): 0.44 +/- 0.05 h for extracellular fluid, 232 +/- 22 h for muscle, and 7.9 +/- 1.1 h for other tissues. The estimated flux of carnitine in muscle was 210 pmol/min/g of tissue. Whole-body turnover time for carnitine was 62.9 +/- 5.6 days (mean +/- SEM). Estimated carnitine biosynthesis ranged from 2.9 to 28 mumol/kg body wt/day. Results of this study indicate that kinetic compartmental analysis may be applicable to study of human carnitine metabolism.

  18. Phase I clinical trial and pharmacodynamic evaluation of combination hydroxychloroquine and doxorubicin treatment in pet dogs treated for spontaneously occurring lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Rebecca A; Wittenburg, Luke A; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Gustafson, Daniel L; Thorburn, Andrew; Thamm, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process that may act as a mechanism of survival in a variety of cancers. While pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is currently being explored in human clinical trials, it has never been evaluated in canine cancers. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most prevalent tumor types in dogs and has similar pathogenesis and response to treatment as human NHL. Clinical trials in canine patients are conducted in the same way as in human patients, thus, to determine a maximum dose of HCQ that can be combined with a standard chemotherapy, a Phase I, single arm, dose escalation trial was conducted in dogs with spontaneous NHL presenting as patients to an academic, tertiary-care veterinary teaching hospital. HCQ was administered daily by mouth throughout the trial, beginning 72 h prior to doxorubicin (DOX), which was given intravenously on a 21-d cycle. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and biopsies were collected before and 3 d after HCQ treatment and assessed for autophagy inhibition and HCQ concentration. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the trial. HCQ alone was well tolerated with only mild lethargy and gastrointestinal-related adverse events. The overall response rate (ORR) for dogs with lymphoma was 93.3%, with median progression-free interval (PFI) of 5 mo. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a 100-fold increase in HCQ in tumors compared with plasma. There was a trend that supported therapy-induced increase in LC3-II (the cleaved and lipidated form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3/LC3, which serves as a maker for autophagosomes) and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) after treatment. The superior ORR and comparable PFI to single-agent DOX provide strong support for further evaluation via randomized, placebo-controlled trials in canine and human NHL.

  19. Disseminated histoplasmosis in dogs: 12 cases (1981-1986).

    PubMed

    Clinkenbeard, K D; Cowell, R L; Tyler, R D

    1988-12-01

    Diarrhea, intestinal blood loss, anemia, and lethargy were predominant clinical findings in 12 dogs with disseminated histoplasmosis. Young dogs were affected most commonly, with 6 dogs being 1 to 3 years old. A diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was established on the basis of histologic or cytologic detection of Histoplasma organisms in intestinal or rectal mucosa in 7 dogs, in circulating leukocytes in 5 dogs, in bone marrow in 3 dogs, and in multiple tissues at necropsy in 1 dog (4 dogs had Histoplasma organisms detected in greater than 1 site). Anemia was detected in 10 dogs (PCV less than 20% in 3 dogs), and the anemia was inadequately regenerative or nonregenerative in 7. Hypoalbuminemia was detected in 9 dogs, and serum albumin concentrations were low (less than 1.0 g/dl) in 4 of the 9 dogs. Of 5 dogs treated with ketoconazole, 2 were in remission for greater than or equal to 1 year. Corticosteroid therapy may have exacerbated the disease in 4 dogs. Histoplasma infection of multiple organs was detected in 5 necropsied dogs.

  20. Thrombocytosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Degen, M.A.; Feldman, B.F.; Turrel, J.M.; Goding, B.; Kitchell, B.; Mandell, C.P. )

    1989-05-15

    A dog with a myeloproliferative disorder and thrombocytosis had clinical signs that were consistent with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The dog was treated with aspirin, radioactive phosphorus, and melphalan. Eighteen months after referral, the disorder progressed to chronic granulocytic leukemia, and treatment was switched to hydroxyurea. Fourteen months later, the dog was euthanatized because of uncontrollable atrial fibrillation.

  1. Surgical management of short bowel syndrome by construction of an isoperistaltic intestinal valve: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Papaziogas, T; Tassiopoulos, A; Papaziogas, B; Koutsias, S; Alexandrakis, A; Sakellaridis, D; Galanis, N

    1999-08-01

    To develop of an isoperistaltic invaginated valve for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. Randomised experimental study University Hospital, Greece 8 mongrel dogs 90% resection of the small bowel, followed by construction of an invaginated valve one month later. weight loss, fat excretion in the faeces, radiographic and histological examination of the valve, pressure curve along the valve. Weight loss and steatorrhoea were reversed over a period of 2-3 months without evidence of intestinal obstruction in any of the animals. The construction of an isoperistaltic invaginated valve could be a solution to the management of the short gut syndrome.

  2. [Dynamics of local cerebral blood flow after thermodestruction of the thalamus in the dog].

    PubMed

    Kaasik, A A; Asser, T K

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of changes in local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) after stereotaxic thermodestruction of the right thalamus was studied by the method of hydrogen clearance. The experiments were conducted on 22 mongrel dogs. On the 10-12th day after implantation of platinum electrodes the initial values of LCBF were determined symmetrically in the thalami and frontal cortex of dogs who were awake. The animals were anesthetized, the initial values of LCBF were again determined, and destruction of the right thalamus was performed. Reactive hyperemia developed close to the focus of thermodestruction and persisted 90 minutes. In the remaining sites the reactive hyperemia was less manifest and was seen 10-15 minutes.

  3. Effect of centrally administered glucagon on blood lipids in anesthetised dogs.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, G C; Mishra, R; Jaiswal, G; Bapat, V

    1986-01-01

    Previously we have proposed the existence of the central glucagon sensitive receptors in dogs. The present study was undertaken to explore the role of centrally administered glucagon on lipids in view of the proposed theory that the hypothalamic lipomobilizing centres are sensitive to glucose or substances that affect glucose metabolism. Glucagon (0.01 microgram) administered through the intracerebroventricular (ICV) route in anesthetised mongrel dogs, caused hypolipidemia (P greater than 0.001), hypocholesterolemia (P greater than 0.001), decreased blood free fatty acid (P greater than 0.001) and triglycerides (P greater than 0.001) levels; but increased blood high density lipoprotein (P greater than 0.01) level at 30 min. These effects on the central administration of glucagon, were not observed in pancreatectomised animals and spinal cord transectomised animals. Therefore, we conclude that the lipolysis on the central administration of glucagon, is caused by the endogenous glucagon secreted from the pancreas through the sympathetic fibers.

  4. Treatment of T cell lymphoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Antony S

    2016-09-17

    Overall, canine lymphoma remains one of the most chemotherapy-responsive cancers in the dog. In addition to the stage and the substage of disease, T cell phenotype is the most consistently important prognostic factor. T cell lymphoma (TCL) in dogs is a heterogeneous disease; dogs with a separate entity of indolent TCL can have a considerably better prognosis than dogs with other forms of lymphoma, and indolent TCL may not always require immediate treatment. In contrast, high-grade TCL is an aggressive disease, and when treated with CHOP-based protocols, dogs with this high-grade TCL have a complete remission rate as low as 40 per cent, relapse earlier and have shorter survival time than dogs with a comparable stage, high-grade B cell lymphoma. This review describes the different disease entities that comprise canine TCL, discusses prognosis for each and treatment options that appear to give the best outcomes.

  5. [Vascular graft of aponeurosis with peritoneum in dogs].

    PubMed

    García-Graz, Nestor Jaime; Galindo-Ibarra, José Luis; García-Soto, Gabriel; Mejía-Arreguín, Hugo; Trejo-Suárez, José; Ramírez-Salas, Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    Vascular autografts are commonly used to repair damage to blood vessels; however, they can be used only with small-caliber vessels. Although synthetic vascular grafts are good options, there may be a high likelihood of thrombus formation. An experimental animal model was used in order to evaluate feasibility and viability of a vascular autograft. Under inhalatory anesthesia, seven mongrel dogs were operated on. A 4-cm vascular autograft was created with the posterior rectus aponeurosis with subjacent peritoneum, leaving the second one as the internal sheath. A 2-cm-long portion of the abdominal aorta was removed and the vascular autograft was inserted by end-end surgical anastomosis. Animals were observed for 7 weeks, evaluating clinical data of vascular insufficiency (intensity of pulse, temperature and trophic changes of the legs). At the end of the experiment, aortography under fluoroscopic visualization was performed. Dogs were sacrificed and autograft removed in order to evaluate permeability. All dogs survived until the end of the procedure. Vascular autograft was easy to create. During surgery, no evidence of bleeding of the anastomosis or the graft suture was noted. At the end of the procedure, no clinical signs of vascular insufficiency were noted; radiographic evaluation of the autograft showed no dye leakage at any level. Autografts were removed and no signs of thrombus formation were noticed. Feasibility of the vascular autograft was demonstrated with good permeability and no thrombogenicity.

  6. Thyrotoxicosis in a dog induced by the consumption of feces from a levothyroxine-supplemented housemate

    PubMed Central

    Shadwick, Steven R.; Ridgway, Marcella D.; Kubier, Amy

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old golden retriever dog was evaluated for polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and elevated serum thyroxine. Targeted questioning revealed that the dog was coprophagic and routinely ingested the feces of a dog that was treated with twice-daily levothyroxine. Clinical signs resolved and serum thyroxine decreased to normal levels in the affected dog with prevention of coprophagy. PMID:24155422

  7. Thyrotoxicosis in a dog induced by the consumption of feces from a levothyroxine-supplemented housemate.

    PubMed

    Shadwick, Steven R; Ridgway, Marcella D; Kubier, Amy

    2013-10-01

    A 9-year-old golden retriever dog was evaluated for polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and elevated serum thyroxine. Targeted questioning revealed that the dog was coprophagic and routinely ingested the feces of a dog that was treated with twice-daily levothyroxine. Clinical signs resolved and serum thyroxine decreased to normal levels in the affected dog with prevention of coprophagy.

  8. Long-term outcome of myotonia associated with hyperadrenocorticism in 2 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Yuki, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Two dogs were diagnosed with myotonia associated with hyperadrenocorticism and treated with trilostane. One dog showed temporary improvement, but the other dog showed no improvement. The dogs survived 2383 and 1902 days, respectively. Findings suggest that myotonia persists despite treatment, but this condition is not associated with a poor prognosis for survival. PMID:26347041

  9. Oral doxycycline, niacinamide and prednisolone used to treat bilateral nodular granulomatous conjunctivitis of the third eyelid in an Australian Kelpie dog.

    PubMed

    Hurn, Simon; Mc Cowan, Christina; Turner, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A 5-year-old, female neutered, Australian Kelpie presented with a 2-month history of dramatic bilateral erythematous thickening of the third eyelids. Ophthalmic examination demonstrated raised, pink to red, irregular thickening of the entire palpebral surface of both third eyelids. There were no other ocular abnormalities. A surgical biopsy was taken from each third eyelid. Histopathologic examination revealed sheets of macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and occasional fibroblasts and neutrophils infiltrating the third eyelid stroma. A diagnosis of chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis was made. Grossly and histopathologically this case closely resembles previously described cases of nodular granulomatous conjunctivitis involving the third eyelids of Collie dogs. This report describes an unusual case of nodular granulomatous conjunctivitis isolated to the third eyelids in an Australian Kelpie. Resolution of the condition was achieved with a combination of oral doxycycline, niacinamide and prednisolone.

  10. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  11. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Aldair J W; Figueiredo, Maria M; Silva, Fabiana L; Martins, Trycia; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2011-12-13

    The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance).

  12. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  13. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  14. Effects of ovariohysterectomy on oxidative stress markers in female dogs.

    PubMed

    Szczubial, M; Kankofer, M; Bochniarz, M; Dąbrowski, R

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies reported an increase of oxidative stress increases in both women and female laboratory animals after ovariectomy. However, there is little information about the evaluation of antioxidative/oxidative status in ovariectomized dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in oxidative stress markers after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in female dogs. The study included eighteen healthy mongrel female dogs. Blood samples were collected immediately before surgery and 14 and 30 days after surgery. Following parameters of oxidative stress intensity were determined: the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical cations of N,N, diethylpara-phenylene diamine (RC-DEPPD), sulfhydryl groups (SH groups), bityrosine and formylkynurenine. The activity of GSH-Px increased markedly, although not significantly, 14 days after OHE and then significantly decreased at 30 days after OHE. A significant increase in plasma TBARS, bityrosine and formylkynurenine concentrations and a decrease in SH group content were concurrently noted at 30 days after surgery. Acquired results suggested that a loss of control over ROS production occurred in female dogs after OHE, which could lead to oxidative stress in the late post-operative period. In conclusion, our findings indicated that OHE is related with the risk of oxidative stress in the late period after operations. Given that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, this may suggest an increased risk of disorders in ovariectomized female dogs; however, further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Circannual variations in baseline blood values of dogs.

    PubMed

    Sothern, R B; Farber, M S; Gruber, S A

    1993-10-01

    Forty-two hematological and biochemical variables routinely measured in dogs as part of a preoperative protocol have been analyzed for circannual changes by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and single cosinor procedures. Data were available from up to 489 adult mongrel dogs of both sexes studied on weekdays over a 5-year span (January 5, 1987 to December 18, 1991). Dogs were housed in individual cages at 24 +/- 1 degrees C with dog chow and tap water available ad libitum and lights on between 06:00 and 18:00 h. A single blood sample/dog was collected by jugular venipuncture between 08:00 and 09:00 h and sent to a commercial laboratory for hematological and biochemical determinations. Data were assigned to date and time of sampling and analyzed for the effect of time of year by ANOVA (across 12 months and 4 seasons), and by the least-squares fit of a precise 1-year cosine. ANOVA and single cosinor described a significant circannual time effect and rhythm for the following: total leukocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration, red cell distribution width, mean platelet volume, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), BUN/creatinine ratio, amylase, glucose, chloride, uric acid, direct bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ALT ratio. A significant effect of season by ANOVA only was found for: Ca, Na, phosphorus, total bilirubin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and neutrophils. No significant time effect could be found at p < or = 0.05 by either statistical method for: K, Mg, Fe, cholesterol, triglycerides, ASP, red blood cells, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, or platelets. Acrophases occurred for the most part in either the winter or summer.

  16. Thoracic vein ablation terminates chronic atrial fibrillation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Park, Angela M; Chou, Chung-Chuan; Drury, Paul C; Okuyama, Yuji; Peter, Anish; Hamabe, Akira; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Kass, Robert M; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; Fishbein, Michael C; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2004-06-01

    The thoracic vein hypothesis of chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) posits that rapid, repetitive activations from muscle sleeves within thoracic veins underlie the mechanism of sustained AF. If this is so, thoracic vein ablation should terminate sustained AF and prevent its reinduction. Six female mongrel dogs underwent chronic pulmonary vein (PV) pacing at 20 Hz to induce sustained (>48 h) AF. Bipolar electrodes were used to record from the atria and thoracic veins, including the vein of Marshall, four PVs, and the superior vena cava. Radio frequency (RF) application was applied around the PVs and superior vena cava and along the vein of Marshall until electrical activity was eliminated. Computerized mapping (1,792 electrodes, 1 mm resolution) was also performed. Sustained AF was induced in 30.6 +/- 6.5 days, and ablation was done 17.3 +/- 8.5 days afterward. Before ablation, the PVs had shorter activation cycle lengths than the atria, and rapid, repetitive activations were observed in the PVs. All dogs converted to sinus rhythm during (n = 4 dogs) or within 90 min of completion of RF ablation. Rapid atrial pacing afterward induced only nonsustained (<60 s) AF in all dogs. Average AF cycle lengths after reinduction were significantly (P = 0.01) longer (183 +/- 31.5 ms) than baseline (106 +/- 16.2 ms). There were no activation cycle length gradients after RF application. We conclude that thoracic vein ablation converts canine sustained AF into sinus rhythm and prevents the reinduction of sustained AF. These findings suggest that thoracic veins are important in the maintenance of AF in dogs.

  17. [Impacts on repeated common cold for the adults with different constitutions treated by acupoint application in the dog days and the three nine-day periods after the winter solstice].

    PubMed

    Lou, Bi-Dan; Yang, Li-Bai; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jin-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Ping; Li, Wu; Yang, Shu-Quan; Huang, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Xing-Ping; Cao, Yue; Pan, Jiang

    2012-11-01

    To observe the impacts on repeated common cold for the adults with different constitutions treated by acupoint application in the dog days (the three periods of the hottest days) and the three nine-day periods after the winter solstice (the three periods of the coldest days). One hundred and fifty-two cases of repeated common cold were divided into four zones according to the body constitution. Each zone was sub-divided into a group of the dog days + the three nine-day periods of the coldest days (group A), and a simple group of the dog periods (group B). In both groups, Dazhui (GV 14), Feishu (BL 13), Tiantu (CV 22), Danzhong (CV 17), Zhongfu (LU 1) and Shenshu (BL 23) were selected. In group A, the acupoint application was given on the 1st or 2nd day of the first, second and third periods of the hottest days in 2010, as well as the 1st or 2nd day of the first, second and third periods of the coldest days in 2010 separately. In group B, the acupoint application was only given on the 1st or 2nd day of the first, second and third periods of the hottest days in 2010. The follow-up visit was conducted before the acupoint application in the three periods of the coldest days in 2010 and before the acupoint application in the three periods of the hottest days in 2011. Additionally, the frequency of disease attack and the symptom score in sickness were taken as the observation indices for the efficacy assessment in both groups. (1) In both groups, the attack frequency was reduced obviously in half a year after the three periods of the hottest days for the patients of qi deficiency constitution, yang deficiency constitution and qi stagnation constitution and the clinical symptom score were reduced apparently (all P<0.01), which were superior to those for the patients of phlegm damp constitution (P<0.01, P<0.05). For the patients of phlegm damp constitution, only the clinical symptom score was reduced (P<0.01). (2) In group A, the improvements were received in the attack

  18. Low positive end-expiratory pressure does not exacerbate nebulized-acid lung injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Andrew A; Welsh, David A; deBoisblanc, Bennett P; Lipscomb, Gary; Johnson, Royce W; Lord, Kevin C; Levitzky, Michael G

    2005-03-01

    It is not clear if low end-expiratory pressures contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury in large animals. We sought to determine whether ventilation with a low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) worsens preexisting permeability lung injury in dogs. Lung injury was initiated in 20 mongrel dogs by ventilating with nebulized 3N hydrochloric acid until a lower inflection point (LIP) appeared on the respiratory system pressure-volume loop. One group of 10 dogs was then ventilated for 4 hours with PEEP set below the LIP (low PEEP), whereas the remaining group of dogs was ventilated for the same time period with similar tidal volumes but with PEEP set above the LIP (high PEEP). We found histologic evidence of reduced alveolar volumes in the low-PEEP animals. However, there were no differences in neutrophil infiltration, lung lobe weights, pulmonary capillary hemorrhage or congestion, or arterial endothelin-1 concentration between the 2 protocol groups. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate that ventilation with PEEP set below the LIP exacerbates hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in dogs.

  19. Dog Bite Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  20. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication.

  1. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  2. The fecal microbiome of dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Isaiah, Anitha; Parambeth, Joseph Cyrus; Steiner, Jörg M; Lidbury, Jonathan A; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2017-02-20

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in dogs is a syndrome of inadequate synthesis and secretion of pancreatic enzymes. Small intestinal bacterial dysbiosis occurs in dogs with EPI, and is reversed with pancreatic enzyme therapy. However, there are no studies evaluating the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. Three day pooled fecal samples were collected from healthy dogs (n = 18), untreated (n = 7) dogs with EPI, and dogs with EPI treated with enzyme replacement therapy (n = 19). Extracted DNA from fecal samples was used for Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups and functional genes between the healthy dogs and dogs with EPI. There was a significant difference in fecal microbial communities when healthy dogs were compared to treated and untreated dogs with EPI (unweighted UniFrac distance, ANOSIM P = 0.001, and 0.001 respectively). Alpha diversity was significantly decreased in untreated and treated EPI dogs when compared to the healthy dogs with respect to Chao1, Observed OTU, and Shannon diversity (P = 0.008, 0.003, and 0.002 respectively). The families Bifidobacteriaceae (P = 0.005), Enterococcaceae (P = 0.018), and Lactobacillaceae (P = 0.001) were significantly increased in the untreated and treated dogs with EPI when compared to healthy dogs. In contrast, Lachnospiraceae (P < 0.001), and Ruminococcaceae (P < 0.01) were significantly decreased in dogs with EPI. Dogs with EPI (before treatment) had significant increases in functional genes associated with secretion system, fatty acid metabolism, and phosphotransferase system. In contrast, healthy dogs had a significant increase in genes related

  3. Zonisamide monotherapy for idiopathic epilepsy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chung, J Y; Hwang, C Y; Chae, J S; Ahn, J O; Kim, T H; Seo, K W; Lee, S Y; Youn, H Y

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of zonisamide as a monotherapy in dogs with idiopathic epileptic seizure. The experiment was conducted on 10 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy that were treated at the Seoul National University Hospital for Animals. A diagnosis was conducted based on physical and neurologic examination, complete blood count and chemical analysis, magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analyses. Idiopathic epilepsy was diagnosed when all of these examinations were normal. Oral zonisamide was administrated to 10 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy at 5-15 mg/kg per os every 12 h to achieve a concentration of zonisamide in serum of 10-40 μg/mL. The frequency of seizures before and after the administration of zonisamide therapy was recorded and the concentrations of zonisamide in serum were measured. Six (60%) of the dogs were favourable responders to treatment, showing a ≥50% reduction in monthly frequency of seizures. Of the remaining four, two dogs did not show a reduction and the other two showed an increase in frequency of seizures. The mean dosage of zonisamide for favourable responders was 7.92 (SD 3.79) mg/kg, which was administered orally twice a day. Only one dog, which was one of the unfavourable responders in the whole study, experienced mild side effects. Among the dogs treated with oral zonisamide, 60% responded favourably. The effect of zonisamide as an anticonvulsant drug was demonstrated in this study. Based on these results, zonisamide monotherapy is effective in some dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

  4. Azathioprine therapy for acquired myasthenia gravis in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Dewey, C W; Coates, J R; Ducoté, J M; Meeks, J C; Fradkin, J M

    1999-01-01

    Five dogs with acquired myasthenia gravis (MG), verified via positive serum acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antibody concentrations, were treated with a drug protocol including azathioprine (AZA). Four of the five dogs were concurrently treated with pyridostigmine. Azathioprine was used as the sole immunosuppressive agent in four dogs. One dog was temporarily treated with a combination of an immunosuppressive dose of prednisone and AZA, then maintained on AZA as the sole immunosuppressive drug. Three patients experienced complete remission of clinical signs within three months of therapy. In the four dogs for which follow-up serum ACh receptor antibody concentrations were available, initial versus final concentrations decreased substantially (81%), coincident with clinical improvement. One dog died suddenly due to a suspected myasthenic crisis before attaining the target dose of AZA. Two of the four surviving dogs were euthanized approximately one and seven years after diagnosis. One of these two dogs was euthanized because of a rib osteosarcoma, and the other dog was euthanized because of paraparesis of undetermined cause. The remaining two dogs were alive and doing well at the time of final follow-up evaluation, approximately six months and one year after diagnosis. The use of AZA as a therapeutic agent for acquired canine MG has not been investigated. The cases presented in this report suggest a potentially important role for AZA in the treatment of acquired MG in dogs.

  5. Tissue culture isolation of lyssa viruses from apparently healthy unvaccinated dogs in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tekki, I S; Odaibo, G N; Okewole, P A; Olaleye, D O

    2014-12-01

    There have been previous reports of inapparent infection and intermittent secretion of rabies virus in the saliva of apparently healthy dogs in some African countries, including Nigeria. The study was therefore aimed at examining the carrier status of rabies in apparently healthy Nigerian dogs in the settlement areas studied. Ninety-two swabs samples from oral mucosae of domestic dogs (mongrels) without vaccination history were assayed for lyssaviruses by tissue culture isolation test in Vero cells. Rabies or rabies-related viruses were recovered from eighteen, representing 19.6% of the samples. The study showed that lyssaviruses were present in 4 out of the 6 settlements of the study areas. Among the areas where the viruses were present, the rate of isolation ranged from 11.1% to 66.7%. Female dogs had a little higher infection rate (12.0%) than their male counterparts (7.6%). Among age groups, the highest rate of infection (66.7%) was detected in dogs aged one to 3 years while the rate of 3.7% was found in dogs aged less than one year. The results of this study agree with the carrier state of rabies in domestic dogs, the common reservoir hosts of its etiologic agents in Nigeria and the rest of Africa andAsia; this is a serious threat to humans in these settlements. Although the load of infective virus in saliva is lower than that in brain, saliva collection for rabies diagnosis is simple, safer, faster and cheaper. Thus we suggest that saliva samples could be used as an alternative to brain specimens for rabies virus antigen testing in dogs, especially, when it is not practicable to obtain brain specimen.

  6. Dog obesity: owner attitudes and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bland, I M; Guthrie-Jones, A; Taylor, R D; Hill, J

    2009-12-01

    Animal (dog) factors that contribute to obesity are classified into three broad categories: genetic pre-disposition, reproductive management and dietary/exercise (human) management. This paper examined the latter-dietary/exercise (human) management. A quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses from dog owners and veterinarians was used to determine the routine care and obesity management strategies for dogs. A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed to dog owners in Victoria, Australia. Owners were asked to score the body condition of their animal by comparison with photographic images of animals with condition score ranging from 2 to 5. The management routines of 219 dog owners were received, including data on 302 dogs. There were 168 households with normal weight animals (BCS 2 and 3) and 51 with obese animals (BCS 4 and 5). The mean number of people per household (normally involved with caring for the animal(s)) with normal weight dogs was significantly lower than that of households with dogs categorised as overweight or obese (Kruskal-Wallis, Chi; chi(2)=6.28; 2.2 (s=0.79) vs. 2.5 (s=1.66); d.f.=2, P<0.05). Dog owners identified a preference for main meal feeding of 'twice a day' (60%), followed by 'once daily' (33%), 'greater than or equal to three times daily' (2%), and 'always feed available' (5%). There was a significant difference (Chi; chi(2)=6.30; d.f.=1; P<0.05) in the frequency of main meal feeding between households. Normal weight animals had food divided into two portions, whereas obese animals or animals from mixed households were more often fed their meal in either one or three-plus portions. Almost all owners fed treats (99%) in the daily feed. Households with normal weight dogs gave treats significantly less frequently than households with obese or mixed weight dogs (Chi; chi(2)=31.81; d.f.=6; P<0.001). The frequency of exercise differed between households (Chi; chi(2)=9.9; d.f.=1; P<0.01), with normal weight dogs being exercised daily

  7. Surgical management of dorsal scapular luxation in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen C; Tinga, Selena; Porter, Erin G; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-01-16

    Scapular luxation is an uncommon cause of forelimb lameness in dogs and cats. Traumatic rupture of the serratus ventralis muscle allows the scapula to displace dorsally during weight-bearing. Specific documentation regarding clinical presentation and surgical techniques is limited, with no medium- to long-term results of surgical intervention in dogs described. Presented here are three cases of scapular luxation in dogs, treated with a modified surgical technique. Clinical outcome was considered good to excellent, with resolution of lameness and abnormal scapular motion in all three dogs. Medium- and long-term outcomes were assessed in two of the dogs, with an excellent outcome in both cases.

  8. Use of partial prostatectomy for treatment of prostatic abscesses and cysts in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, C A; Mahaffey, M B; Barsanti, J A; Quandt, J E; Oliver, J E; Crowell, W A; Downs, M O; Stampley, A R; Allen, S W

    1997-10-01

    To determine whether dogs had prostatic disease, urinary incontinence, or urinary tract infection 1 year after partial prostatectomy to treat prostatic abscesses and cysts. Prospective study. 20 male dogs with prostatic abscesses or cysts. Fifteen dogs had evidence of urinary tract infection. Only 8 dogs urinated normally; the remainder dribbled, had obstructions, or required medical treatment. Partial prostatectomy was performed on each dog. Sexually intact dogs (n = 12) also were castrated. None of the dogs had return of prostatic cystic enlargement or clinical signs of prostatic disease during the first year after surgery. Two dogs were euthanatized within 1 year after surgery, with 1 dog having prostatic enlargement and adenocarcinoma and 1 dog having unrelated lymphosarcoma. Fifteen dogs were continent. The remaining 5 dogs urinated normally but had intermittent and minor incontinence. Eleven dogs had no signs of infection 1 year after surgery, 5 had pyuria or positive urine bacteriologic culture results, 2 did not have urinalysis performed, and 2 were euthanatized. Dogs with severe prostatic abscesses or cysts and infections can be successfully treated by partial prostatectomy with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator and castration, resulting in long-term disease resolution. Although most dogs with severe prostatic disease do not urinate normally before surgery, nearly all dogs resume normal micturition after partial prostatectomy. Postoperative results of partial prostatectomy appear to be better than those of previous drainage techniques for treatment of prostatic cavitary disease.

  9. [The effects of rapid and slow infusion of fluid on coagulation factors in hemorrhagic shock: an experimental dogs model].

    PubMed

    Ikizceli, Ibrahim; Sözüer, Erdoğan M; Avşaroğullari, Levent; Canöz, Ozlem; Yildirim, Cuma; Küçük, Can

    2006-04-01

    The diagnosis of hemorrhagic shock in a patient with tachycardia and hypotension is generally straightforward. The difficulty lies in the selection of optimal approach for the patient. In this study on a canine model of deep hemorrhagic shock induced by bleeding, we used various amounts of fluid infusion to determine the most appropriate amount of fluid resuscitation. The study included 30 mongrel dogs. Mongrel dogs were randomized to three equal groups of 10. The control group received no treatment. The rapid infusion group received 60 mL/kg of lactated Ringer's solution in half an hour whereas the third group received 30 mL/kg during the same time period. The lactate decreased in the two treatment groups. The platelet and fibrinogen levels did not vary in the slow infusion group but decreased markedly in the rapid infusion group. In conclusion, fluid resuscitation should not be unnecessarily aggressive. The coagulation parameters are diluted in proportion with the amount of fluid given. Blood lactate level can be used as a guiding marker in evaluation of treatment effectiveness of hemorrhagic shock patients.

  10. Selecting shelter dogs for service dog training.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Service dogs are an essential aid to persons with disabilities, providing independence, mobility, and improved self-esteem. Because of these proven benefits, the growing se of service dogs is creating a demand and supply crisis. One major cause is the 50% verage dropout rate for dogs selected for training. Weiss and Greenber (1997) re-cently found that a dog, successful on the most commonly used selection test items, was as likely to be either a poor or a good candidate for service work. The experiment presented here evaluated test items developed by the author in 15 years of experience with dogs. The test items were administered to 75 dogs from the Kansas Humane So-ciety. Once tested, the dogs received obedience and retrieval training. The experiment assessed each dog on behavior over 5 weeks of training versus performance on each selection test item. A subset of the selection items, combined in a regression analysis, accounted for 36.4% of the variance with R = 0.603. This research also revealed a reli-able test for dog aggression without risking injury to dog or tester. Items for testing in-cluded fear, motivation, and submission. Another set of selection items reliably pre-dicted the trait of "high energy" commonly described as "high strung." Future research should involve investigating the effectiveness of both cortisol levels and blood pressure in predicting traits to help strengthen the predictive value of the tool and then testing on dogs trained to be full service dogs.

  11. Use of pleural access ports for treatment of recurrent pneumothorax in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Cahalane, Alane Kosanovich; Flanders, James A

    2012-08-15

    An 8-year-old castrated male mixed-breed dog (dog 1) and a 13-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog (dog 2) were evaluated because of spontaneous pneumothorax. Both dogs had decreased bronchovesicular sounds with coughing, tachypnea, cyanosis, lethargy, or a combination of these clinical signs. Radiographic examination revealed pneumothorax in both dogs and consolidation of a lung lobe in dog 2. Pneumothorax was alleviated following thoracocentesis in both dogs but recurred. Dog 1 was initially treated by placement of a thoracostomy tube but underwent thoracotomy when pneumothorax recurred after tube removal; left caudal lung lobectomy was performed because a ruptured bulla was suspected, and a pulmonary bulla was histologically confirmed. Dog 2 underwent thoracotomy with left caudal lung lobectomy and partial removal of the left cranial lung lobe; diffuse pulmonary emphysema was diagnosed. This dog underwent a second surgery for right caudal lung lobectomy because of torsion. When pneumothorax recurred and additional surgery was not considered feasible, pleural access ports were placed in both dogs for repeated removal of air from the thoracic cavity. Ports were used clinically for 17 days in dog 1 and 14 days in dog 2. Dog 1 successfully underwent another surgery when pneumothorax recurred 18 days after port placement but was euthanized 17 months later when dyspnea and tachypnea recurred. Pneumothorax had not recurred further in dog 2 twenty-three months after port placement. Findings suggested that pleural access ports may have a role in the management of spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.

  12. Application of a new subretinal injection device in the dog.

    PubMed

    Komáromy, András M; Varner, Signe E; de Juan, Eugene; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a new subretinal injection device (RetinaJect Subretinal Cannula, SurModics, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN) to access the subretinal space in the canine model was evaluated. Subretinal injections were performed in 33 mongrel dogs between 2 and 52 months of age (median = 9 months). In 5 normal dogs the injection of 150 microl saline or India ink occurred by using a conventional subretinal injection device (CSID) with a 30-gauge anterior chamber irrigating cannula. The sclera had to be surgically exposed and penetrated before the subretinal injection with the CSID could occur. After removing the CSID, the conjunctiva over the sclerotomy site had to be closed. In a second group of 28 dogs [16 normals, 10 RPE65 mutants, and 2 with progressive rod cone degeneration (prcd)], the 25-gauge needle of the RetinaJect was used to penetrate the conjunctiva and the sclera. Once the tip of the needle was close to the retinal surface, a 39-gauge polyimide cannula was extended and brought into apposition with the retina for the subsequent subretinal injection of 150 microl saline, India ink, or adeno-associated virus (AAV). No closure of the conjunctiva was required. The animals were clinically monitored between 1 and 59 weeks after surgery. From this second group 25 eyes were harvested for routine histological analysis either immediately after surgery or after a clinical observation time of between 1 and 40 weeks. Both devices provided equally successful access to the subretinal space. The main advantage of the RetinaJect was that no surgical dissection was required; this led to a shorter procedure time and milder postoperative conjunctival swelling. In summary, the use of the RetinaJect can be recommended as an alternative to the CSID for subretinal injections in dogs.

  13. Comparison between single and three portal laparoscopic splenectomy in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a newly growing technique to replace a more invasive conventional multiple portal laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study was to compare single (SILS) with three portal (Conventional) laparoscopic splenectomy in dogs. Mongrel dogs (n = 18), weighting 15 ± 3 kg, were selected for this study (n = 12 SILS; n = 6 conventional). The area from xiphoid to pubis was prepared under aseptic conditions in dorsal recumbency with the head down and tilted 30 degree in the right lateral position. Pneumoperitoneum was established by CO2 using an automatic high flow pressure until achieving 12 mm Hg. Instrumentation used consisted of curved flexible-tip 5 mm Maryland forceps and ultracision harmonic scalpel for sealing and cutting of the vessels and splenic attachments. Results All dogs recovered uneventfully. The splenectomy procedure using SILS and conventional methods were significantly different in the respective operative time (29.1 ± 1.65 vs. 42.0 + 2.69 min) and the length of the surgical scar (51.6 ± 1.34 mm vs. 72.0 ± 1.63 mm; P < 0.001). There were no post-operative wound complication including inflammation, infection, hernia formation and dehiscence up to one month after surgery. Meanwhile, the conversion to open surgery or application of additional portals was not required in both approaches. Conclusion This study demonstrated that SILS is a safe and feasible operation and could be used as an alternative approach to three portal (Conventional) for splenectomy in dog. PMID:22963734

  14. Effects of isoflurane on echocardiographic parameters in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; De-Nardi, Andrigo B; Brito, Fábio L C; Nunes, Newton; Camacho, Aparecido A

    2008-05-01

    To study the echocardiographic effects of isoflurane at an end-tidal concentration approximating 1.0 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in healthy unpremedicated dogs. Prospective experimental trial. Sixteen mature mongrel dogs of either sex weighing 11.06 +/- 2.72 kg. After performing a baseline echocardiogram in the awake animal, anesthesia was induced with increasing inspired concentrations of isoflurane via a face mask until tracheal intubation was possible. Following intubation, the end-tidal concentration was decreased to 1.4% for the rest of the anesthetic period. Serial echocardiograms were recorded at 25, 40, and 55 minutes after the end-tidal concentration was reached. No changes were observed in heart rate. However, significant decreases were seen in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (Mean maximal change: 13.8%), interventricular septal thickness during systole (15.2%), interventricular septal thickening fraction (72.2%), left ventricular free wall thickening fraction (63.5%), ejection fraction (39.9%), and fractional shortening (46.7%). In addition, peak flow velocities across mitral, pulmonic, and aortic valves were significantly lower than baseline values. Decreases were also observed in end-diastolic left ventricular volume index (approximately 32.1% from the awake value), stroke index (58.2%), and cardiac index (55.3%) when compared with awake measurements. and clinical relevance Our results indicate that 1 x MAC isoflurane caused significant myocardial depression in healthy dogs. These changes in myocardial function need to be considered carefully when isoflurane is to be used in dogs with poor cardiovascular reserve.

  15. Artificial phrenoesophageal ligament. An experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sader, A A; Dantas, R O; Campos, A D; Evora, P R B

    2016-01-01

    This report deals with the preparation of a 'true' artificial phrenoesophageal ligament aimed at restoring effective anchoring of the esophagus to the diaphragm, keeping the esophagogastric sphincter in the abdomen. A total of 24 mongrel dogs were assigned to four groups: (i) Group I (n = 4): the esophageal diaphragm hiatus left wide open; (ii) Group II (n = 8): the anterolateral esophagus walls were attached to the diaphragm by the artificial ligament and the esophageal hiatus was left wide opened; (iii) Group III (n = 5): in addition to the use of the artificial ligament, the esophageal hiatus was narrowed with two retroesophageal stitches; (iv) Group IV (n = 7): the only procedure was the esophageal hiatus narrowing with two retroesophageal stitches. The phrenoesophagogastric connections were released, sparing the vagus nerves. Five animals of groups III and IV, which did not develop hiatal hernia, were submitted to esophageal manometry immediately before and 15 days after surgery. In group I, all animals developed huge sliding hiatal hernias. In group II, two dogs (25%) had a paraesophageal hernia between the two parts of the artificial ligament. In group III, neither sliding hiatal hernia nor paraesophageal hernia occurred. In group IV, two animals (28.6%) developed sliding esophageal hiatus hernia. Regarding esophageal manometry, postoperative significant difference between groups III and IV (P = 0.008) was observed. Thus, the artificial phrenoesophageal ligament maintained the esophagus firmly attached to the diaphragm in all animals and the esophagogastric sphincter pressure was significantly higher in this group.

  16. HISTOCOMPATIBILITY STUDIES IN A CLOSELY BRED COLONY OF DOGS

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Felix T.; Boyd, Arthur D.; Spencer, Frank C.; Lower, Richard R.; Dausset, Jean; Cannon, Florence D.; Ferrebee, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    The DL-A system of histocompatibility plays an important role in conditioning the survival of cardiac allografts in the unmodified canine host. The mean survival time of six cardiac allografts performed in DL-A-compatible littermate dogs obtained from a closely bred colony of beagles was 53.2 days, while the MST of transplants performed in seven DL-A-incompatible animals was 7.3 days. The MST of cardiac allografts performed in nine DL-A-compatible nonlittermate beagles was 26.3 days, as compared with 6.3 days in six DL-A-incompatible nonlittermate transplants. The results did not appear to be affected by Swisher erythrocyte-group incompatibilities. The MST of 28 cardiac allografts performed in randomly selected mongrel dogs was 10.0 days. Incompatibilities for DL-A antigens e, f, g, l, and m may constitute major barriers to transplantation, but antigens b, c, d, and k appeared to act as weak histocompatibility antigens. Under controlled conditions of donor-recipient DL-A compatibility, cardiac allografts may be less immunogenic than renal transplants. Heart transplants performed across major donor-recipient DL-A incompatibilities appeared, however, to be more vulnerable to the events of allograft rejection than renal allografts performed under similar conditions. The selection of optimally compatible donor-recipient combinations for organ transplantation may be aided materially by genetic studies of the transmission of DL-A antigens to the animals under consideration. PMID:4943931

  17. Dogs' Body Language Relevant to Learning Achievement.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2014-02-27

    The facial expressions and body postures of dogs can give helpful information about their moods and emotional states. People can more effectively obedience train their dogs if we can identify the mannerisms associated with learning in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the dog's body language during operant conditioning to predict achievement in the test that followed by measuring the duration of behaviors. Forty-six untrained dogs (17 males and 26 females) of various breeds were used. Each session consisted of 5 minutes of training with a treat reward followed by 3 minutes of rest and finally an operant conditioning test that consisted of 20 "hand motion" cues. The operant tests were conducted a total of nine times over three consecutive days, and the success numbers were counted. The duration of the dog's behavior, focusing on the dog's eyes, mouth, ears, tail and tail-wagging, was recorded during the operant conditioning sessions before the test. Particular behaviors, including wide-eyes, closed mouth, erect ears, and forward and high tail carriage, without wagging or with short and quick wagging, related to high achievement results. It is concluded that dogs' body language during operant conditioning was related to their success rate.

  18. Bilateral appendicular bone tumors in four dogs.

    PubMed

    Selmic, Laura E; Ryan, Stewart D; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Withrow, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral synchronous appendicular bone tumors, occurring in the same bone and same anatomic site within the bone are very rare. This report describes the clinical presentation and oncologic outcome for four dogs with this rare presentation. All cases presented to the authors following a history of unilateral lameness for several weeks. On presentation, case 1 had pain elicited in the contralateral proximal humerus but all the other cases had no abnormalities detectable on physical examination of the contralateral limb. All dogs had technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) nuclear scintigraphy performed that identified bilateral lesions of the distal radii in two dogs, proximal humeri and distal tibiae in one dog each. Thoracic radiographs performed on all dogs showed no evidence of pulmonary metastases. Three dogs were treated with palliative radiation therapy (two dogs received concurrent bisphosphonates) resulting in survival times from initial presentation of 50 days, 193 days, and 523 days, respectively. One dog had stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) and a surgical limb-salvage performed followed by carboplatin chemotherapy, resulting in a survival time of 926 days from initial presentation. Palliative and curative-intent treatments for the bilateral synchronous appendicular bone tumors resulted in survival times similar to those reported for treatment of a single primary appendicular bone tumor.

  19. Combined carotid artery injury and laryngeal fracture secondary to dog bite: case report.

    PubMed

    Varela, J E; Dolich, M O; Fernandez, L A; Kane, A; Henry, R; Livingston, J; Arnold, D; Namias, N

    2000-11-01

    Approximately 914 new dog bite injuries requiring emergency department visits occur daily in the United States. Attacks by dogs with training and strength to attack should be triaged cautiously because of the possibility of serious internal injury. A high index of suspicion is needed when treating patients with neck injuries secondary to dog bites. We report a case of successfully treated combined carotid artery and laryngeal injury produced by a dog bite.

  20. Tylosin-responsive chronic diarrhea in dogs.

    PubMed

    Westermarck, Elias; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Harmoinen, Jaana; Steiner, Jõrg M; Ruaux, Craig G; Williams, David A; Eerola, Erkki; Sundbäck, Pernilla; Rinkinen, Minna

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen dogs had shown chronic or intermittent diarrhea for more than 1 year. Diarrhea had been successfully treated with tylosin for at least 6 months but recurred when treatment was withdrawn on at least 2 occasions. Tylosin-responsive diarrhea (TRD) affects typically middle-aged, large-breed dogs and clinical signs indicate that TRD affects both the small and large intestine. Treatment with tylosin eliminated diarrhea in all dogs within 3 days and in most dogs within 24 hours. Tylosin administration controlled diarrhea in all dogs, but after it was discontinued, diarrhea reappeared in 12 (85.7%) of 14 dogs within 30 days. Prednisone given for 3 days did not completely resolve diarrhea. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG did not prevent the relapse of diarrhea in any of 9 dogs so treated. The etiology of TRD, a likely form of antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (ARD) is unclear. The following reasons for chronic diarrhea were excluded or found to be unlikely: parasites, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, inflammatory bowel disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., or Lawsoni intracellularis), and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Clostridium difficile A toxin. A possible etiologic factor is a specific enteropathogenic organism that is a common resident in the canine gastrointestinal tract and is sensitive to tylosin but difficult to eradicate. Additional studies are required to identify the specific cause of TRD.

  1. Chest wall reconstruction with two types of biodegradable polymer prostheses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiong; Tang, Hua; Xu, Zhifei; Zhao, Xuewei; Sun, Yaochang; Gong, Zhiyun; Duan, Liang

    2008-10-01

    Currently, the choice of chest wall prosthesis remains a challenging problem for thoracic and reconstructive surgeons. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of newly developed biodegradable prostheses. Two types of chest wall prostheses made from degradable polymer, collagen coated polydioxanone (CCP) mesh and chitin fiber reinforced polycaprolactone (CFRP) strut, were developed and studied. Adult mongrel dogs were subjected to extensive resection and reconstruction of anterior-lateral chest wall, CCP mesh was used in six dogs, the combination of CCP mesh and CFRP strut was used in four dogs, and polypropylene (PP) mesh in two dogs, as contrast. With good integration with tissue, CCP meshes maintained strength in the chest wall for more than 8 weeks and were completely resorbed within 24 weeks, and satisfactory short-term and long-term chest wall stabilization was achieved. The combined use of CCP mesh with CFRP strut provided a firmer chest wall in the early postoperative course. A mild wound infection developed in one animal with CCP mesh but resolved without sequelae, and no added complications were observed with the additional use of CFRP strut. Our experimental study shows that the CCP mesh and CFRP prosthesis were favorable for chest wall repair. The advantages of biodegradable copolymer give them promise as an excellent addition to the available reconstructive techniques currently in use.

  2. Increased Cytokine and Nitric Oxide Levels in Serum of Dogs Experimentally Infected with Rangelia vitalii

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S.; Paim, Carlos Breno V.; França, Raqueli T.; Costa, Márcio M.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Sangoi, Manuela B.; Moresco, Rafael N.; Monteiro, Silvia G.; Lopes, Sonia Terezinha A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) in serum of dogs experimentally infected with Rangelia vitalii. Twelve female mongrel dogs were divided into 2 groups; group A (uninfected controls) composed by healthy dogs (n=5) and group B consisting of dogs inoculated with R. vitalii (n=7). Animals were monitored by blood smear examinations, which showed intraerythrocytic forms of the parasite on day 5 post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected through the jugular vein on days 0, 10, and 20 PI to determine the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and NOx. Cytokines were assessed by ELISA quantitative sandwich technique, and NOx was measured by the modified Griess method. Cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6) were increased (P<0.01) in serum of infected animals. Serum levels of NOx were also increased on days 10 PI (P<0.01) and 20 PI (P<0.05) in infected animals. Therefore, the infection with R. vitalii causes an increase in proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide content. These alterations may be associated with host immune protection against the parasite. PMID:23467990

  3. Clinical, cytologic, and histologic features of a mammary micropapillary carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Colodel, Márcia M; Figueiroa, Fernanda C; Soares, Luisa M; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2013-09-01

    Mammary invasive micropapillary carcinoma is a rare variant of mammary carcinoma that was recently recognized in dogs. The cytologic features and biologic behavior of such neoplasms in dogs have not yet been widely discussed in the veterinary literature. We report the clinical, cytologic, and histologic features of a canine micropapillary carcinoma in a 13-year-old female mongrel dog. The mammary region presented with extreme local pain, severe edema and erythema, and multifocal epidermal ulceration, which is typical for an inflammatory mammary carcinoma. Fine-needle aspirates were highly cellular and consisted of individual cells and papillary cell clusters with characteristics of malignant epithelial cells. Histologic examination revealed neoplastic cells arranged in small papillae without fibrovascular cores, sometimes inside clear lymphatic spaces, indicating lymphovascular invasion. Regional lymph node evaluation revealed metastatic cells. Due to deteriorating clinical condition the dog was euthanatized 5 months after mastectomy. At necropsy, metastatic neoplastic mammary cells were found in popliteal and mediastinal lymph nodes, the right femoral biceps muscle, liver, heart, lungs, and urinary bladder.

  4. Experimental study of materials for patch graft on right ventricular outflow tract under extracorporeal circulation in dogs--comparison between Denacol EX-313-treated bovine jugular vein graft and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (EPTFE) graft.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, H; Sugiyama, S; Shibazaki, A; Tanaka, R; Takashima, K; Noishiki, Y; Yamane, Y

    2001-09-01

    A comparison between a bovine jugular vein treated with a hydrophilic polyepoxy compound cross-linker (Denacol), and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (EPTFE), an artificial material, as a patch graft for the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract under extracorporeal circulation in dogs, as if they had pulmonic stenosis, was made. Hemodynamic and histological examinations were conducted two weeks after the transplantation. Hemodynamic problems were not observed in either the Denacol or EPTFE groups. Macroscopically, organization of new tissue on the graft surface was more marked in the EPTFE group than in the Denacol group, and newly-formed tissue was seen surrounding the border of the graft and burying it in the EPTFE group. In the Denacol group, microscopic findings revealed the presence of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, and an invasion of the graft by collagen fibers and elastic fibers. In the EPTFE group, there was minimal cellular infiltration of the graft and a thick layer consisting of collagen fibers and fibroblasts was observed around the graft. These results indicated that two weeks after transplantation the graft was better assimilated and organized with blood vasculature in the patch graft in the Denacol group than in the EPTFE group.

  5. Dog Models for Blinding Inherited Retinal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Komáromy, András M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  6. Dog models for blinding inherited retinal dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Komáromy, András M

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials.

  7. Efficacy of selamectin against biting lice on dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Shanks, D J; Gautier, P; McTier, T L; Evans, N A; Pengo, G; Rowan, T G

    2003-02-22

    The efficacy of selamectin was evaluated against naturally acquired Trichodectes canis infestations on dogs and against Felicola subrostratus infestations on cats. Twenty dogs and 18 cats were randomly allocated to treatment with either a placebo or selamectin (6 mg/kg), administered topically once only on day 0. The treatment had no adverse effects in either the dogs or the cats. Efficacy was assessed by counting the live lice (adults and nymphs) on each animal by using a coat-parting technique on days -3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 for the dogs, and on days -1, 7, 21, 35 and 42 for the cats. On day 43, the number of live lice on each dog was also assessed by using a whole-body combing technique. Selamectin was 100 per cent effective in killing biting lice on the dogs and cats throughout the period of assessment; the louse counts on the treated dogs and cats were significantly lower than the pretreatment counts (P = 0.0001) and were also significantly lower than on the placebo-treated dogs (P < 0.05) and cats (P = 0.0001). There was a marked reduction in the prevalence of clinical signs associated with ectoparasite infestation in the treated dogs and no clinical signs were observed in any of the treated cats.

  8. [Feeding of dogs and cats in Germany].

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Dillitzer, N; Sauter-Louis, C; Kienzle, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine epidemiological data on the feeding of dogs and cats in Germany. A total of 865 dog owners and 243 cat owners were interviewed using standardised questionnaires about their animals (age, sex, weight, body condition, health) and feeding, including treats, additional supplements and reasons for food changes, together with data on the pet owners (age, sex, education, profession). The interviews took place in the waiting rooms of veterinarians, in dog schools, animal shelters and public parks as well as via the internet. Body condition scoring (BCS, scale 1-9) was performed separately by the pet owners and the interviewer. The mean age of dogs was 4.8 years and of cats 6.8 years. The dogs' body weight ranged from 2.2kg (Pomeranian dog) to 95kg (Saint Bernard). The cats had a body weight from 2 to 11kg. Approximately 52% of dogs and cats were overweight (BCS6-9). Differences existed between the assessment by the owner and the interviewer. Many owners underestimated the body condition, in particular, moderate overweight was not recognised (BCS6-7). Commercial food was exclusively used by 58% of dog and 90% of cat owners, while 35% and 10%, respectively, combined these with additional feed. Nearly 8% of dog and <1% of cat owners fed their pets with home-made diets. Elderly (>7 years) and sick dogs received home-made diets more often. Older pet owners (≥ 46 years) fed their pets home-made diets more frequently. The education and profession of owners did not affect the percentage of home-made diets. There was no effect of the type of diet on BCS. Owners with a lower education as well as housewives and pensioners more often had overweight pets. Older owners and working owners gave treats less frequently. However, 95% of dogs and 65% of cats received treats. Being overweight is the biggest dietary problem. In comparison to previous studies, the number of overweight pets has increased. Pet owners should be advised early on excess weight

  9. Intracranial Biodegradable Silica-Based Nimodipine Drug Release Implant for Treating Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Experimental Healthy Pig and Dog Model

    PubMed Central

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2015-01-01

    Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant. PMID:25685803

  10. Expression of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and TGF-beta in lymph nodes associates with parasite load and clinical form of disease in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cíntia F; de Amorim, Izabela F G; Moura, Eliane P; Ribeiro, Raul R; Alves, Cibele F; Michalick, Marilene S; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Tafuri, Wagner L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Melo, Maria N

    2009-04-15

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis of the New World. Dogs are the main reservoir of the disease and there is much interest in the understanding of mechanisms implicated in protection against canine infection. Nevertheless, most studies in dogs have not been carried out in organs that are targets of infection. This work is first to report the profile of cytokines and parasite burdens, as determined by real-time PCR, in the lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi. With this purpose, 18 mongrel dogs were divided in three groups: control non-infected dogs (n=6) and naturally infected animals with L. chagasi, asymptomatic (n=6) and symptomatic (n=6). Parasite burden in lymph nodes was 73-fold greater in symptomatic than asymptomatic animals. Prescapular lymph nodes of asymptomatic dogs had the highest expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and low parasite burden, indicating that these cytokines play a role in protection against infection. Highest expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta and high parasite burden were observed in symptomatic dogs, suggesting a role for these cytokines in the progression of disease. Hence, the balance of expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha (protective) and IL-10 and TGF-beta (disease progression) in lymph nodes determine parasite burden and clinical expression in naturally infected dogs.

  11. Effects of flunixin meglumine in dogs following experimentally induced endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, B L; Bottoms, G D; Denicola, D B; Reed, W M

    1988-07-01

    Twelve dogs were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 dogs were given Escherichia coli endotoxin and then treated with flunixin meglumine. Group 2 dogs were given endotoxin as group 1, but untreated. Group 3 dogs were given flunixin meglumine alone. The dogs were monitored clinically and urine and serum samples were collected at regular intervals for 72 hours. All surviving dogs were humanely killed after 72 hours and examined for gross and histologic lesions. Group 1 dogs all survived 72 hours, but showed prerenal azotemia, hepatocellular damage, hemorrhagic enteritis, and numerous gastric ulcerations. Three of the four dogs in group 2 died before 72 hours. Group 2 dogs showed many of the same chemical and hemodynamic changes as group 1. They had severe hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen; however, there were no gastric ulcerations. Group 3 dogs all survived and showed little physical or hematologic change. The study suggested the following: 1) flunixin meglumine was an effective drug in ameliorating the fatal effects of canine endotoxemia, 2) the effects of endotoxin in combination with flunixin meglumine, at 1.1 mg/kg body weight, caused gastric ulcerations, and 3) in normal dogs flunixin meglumine at 1.1 mg/kg body weight did not cause severe side effects or gross lesions.

  12. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  13. Vascular and cardiac contractile reserve in the dog heart with chronic multiple coronary occlusions.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, F; Flameng, W; Mack, B; Türschmann, W; Schaper, W

    1976-11-01

    Nineteen mongrel dogs survived chronic occlusion of the left circumflex and of the right coronary artery without infarction due to the timely development of a collateral circulation. Only 38 per cent of the conductance of the arteries before occlusion was restored by collateral vessels. In these animals and in 15 control dogs with normal coronary arteries myocardial contractility, contractility reserve, and myocardial blood flow were studied. The same was done in dogs with chronic coronary artery occlusion after aortocoronary bypass. Myocardial blood flow was determined woth the tracer microsphere technique. Contractility reserve was tested and defined as isovolumetric left ventricular pressure and dp/dt max with norepinephrine infusion and cross-clamping of the aorta. Contractile reserve was not significantly different between normal dogs and dogs with chronic coronary artery occlusion before and after aortocoronary bypass. Myocardial blood flow during control conditions was homogenously distributed in all three groups studied. The ratio of blood flow to the endocardium and the epicardium was not significantly different from inity. Coronary reserve was determined at peak reactive hyperemia following a 20 second period of coronary artery occlusion, with ongoing norepinephrine infusion. Under these conditions subendocardial fow in normal dogs rose by a factor of 7.9 while subepicardial flow increased 7.4 times. In dogs with chronic occlusion of two coronary arteries the increase of myocardial flow was nonnomogenous; subendocardial flow to areas supplied by a normal coronary artery rose by a factor of 7.0 while subepicardial flow increased 5.7 times control. Subendocardial collateral flow rose by a factor of 2.4 and subepicardial collateral flow increased 3.5 times control. In normal dogs norepinephrine alone did not result in maximal coronary flow but only 57 per cent thereof. Dogs with chronic coronary occlusion, however, required the entire coronary reserve in

  14. Molecular detection of Leishmania infantum, filariae and Wolbachia spp. in dogs from southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Altet, Laura; Serrano, Lorena; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Tabar, Maria Dolores; Francino, Olga; Cardoso, Luís; Campino, Lenea; Roura, Xavier

    2016-05-10

    Leishmaniosis caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis caused by the nematodes Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens are vector-borne zoonoses widely present in the Mediterranean basin. In addition, some studies reported that the endosymbiont Wolbachia spp. play a role in the biology and pathogenesis of filarial parasites. The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of mono- and co-infections by L. infantum, filariae and Wolbachia spp. and their association with clinical signs in dogs from the south of Portugal. Leishmanial, filarial and Wolbachia spp. DNA were evaluated by specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays in blood samples from 230 dogs. One hundred and thirty-nine (60.4 %) dogs were qPCR-positive for L. infantum and 26 (11.3 %) for filariae (24 for D. immitis only, one D. immitis and for Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and another one for Acanthocheilonema reconditum only). Wolbachia spp. DNA was amplified from 16 (64.0 %) out of the 25 D. immitis-positive dogs. Nineteen (8.3 %) dogs were co-infected with L. infantum and D. immitis, including the one (0.4 %) A. drancunculoides-positive animal. In dogs without clinical signs consistent with leishmaniosis and/or dirofilariosis, L. infantum prevalence was 69 %, whereas in those dogs with at least one clinical manifestation compatible with any of the two parasitoses prevalence was 42.7 %. Leishmania prevalence was significantly higher in apparently healthy mongrels (77.2 %) and pets (76.9 %) than in defined-breed dogs (including crosses; 58.8 %) and in dogs with an aptitude other than pet (i.e. farm, guard, hunting, shepherd or stray), respectively, whereas in those dogs with at least one clinical sign, the detection of L. infantum DNA was higher in males (53.3 %) and in those dogs not receiving insect repellents (52.8 %). The molecular detection of canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) agents, some of which are zoonotic, reinforces the need to

  15. Angiostrongylosis-related restrictive pneumopathy assessed by arterial blood gas analysis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Csöndes, Judit; Majoros, Gábor; Lajos, Zoltán; Psáder, Roland; Vajdovich, Péter; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary angiostrongylosis was diagnosed by the Baermann method and larval identification from faecal and bronchoalveolar lavage samples in a five-month- old male mongrel dog with dyspnoea and cough. Arterial blood gas analysis indicated arterial hypoxaemia and restrictive pneumopathy. In addition to the palliative treatment, fenbendazole was administered (50 mg/kg/24 h per os) for 14 days. The respiratory signs subsided within a short time clinically, but serial arterial blood gas analysis demonstrated an ongoing ventilation disorder. Repeated haematology, thoracic radiography, bronchoscopy and blood gas analysis were performed to follow the course of the disease. The most severe eosinophilia was detected after the beginning of the anthelmintic therapy, and the arterial pO2 level was permanently low. Arterial blood gas analysis provided the most adequate information about the course of the pneumopathy and it greatly facilitated the patient's medical management.

  16. Placement of implants in distraction osteogenesis: a pilot study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, Y; Tsunokuma, M; Hayashi, H; Kakudo, K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of achieving osseointegration of implants placed in a distracted site during the consolidation period. Four healthy male mongrel dogs were used in this experiment. A subperiosteal corticotomy around the mandible was performed between the left mandibular premolar and first molar. After a 7-day latency period for soft tissue healing, the distraction was performed at the rate of 1 mm per day for 14 consecutive days to allow for 14 mm of elongation, using an extraoral distraction device. Three weeks after the completion of distraction, screw-type implants were placed in the distracted site. Twenty-four weeks after placement of the implants, they were stable, and osseointegration had been achieved physically, radiographically, and histologically. These results suggest the possibility of shortening the period of implant treatment by using the distraction osteogenesis technique.

  17. Rupture of the thoracic aorta associated with experimental Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mozzer, L R; Lima, W S

    2012-05-01

    This note describes the sudden death of a dog by the rupture of the thoracic aorta caused by the presence of Angiostrongylus vasorum. A female mongrel canine with a history of weight loss and exhaustion died two hours after clinical examination. At necropsy, performed one hour after death, showed the presence of clotted blood in the thoracic cavity. Haemothorax was diagnosed. The thoracic aorta wall was thin, congested and an abnormal hole in the wall was detected approximately 0.5 cm from the entrance to the diaphragm. From clotted blood collected from the thoracic cavity, 224 first stage larvae (L1) and 15 adults of Angiostrongylus vasorum were recovered alive. Also, from a blood clot found in the aorta, four adult females and 47 L1 larvae were recovered alive. Possibly, this parasite was responsible for the aortic rupture and death of the animal.

  18. A new device for transcatheter closure of the patent ductus arteriosus. A feasibility study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Magal, C; Wright, K C; Duprat, G; Wallace, S; Gianturco, C

    1989-04-01

    A new device for transcatheter closure of the patent ductus arteriosus was developed and initially evaluated in the vasculature of adult mongrel dogs. The device consists of a nylon sack that can be made in various sizes and shapes. A small flexible crossbar attached to the distal end maintains the position of the sack while it is filled with a segment of modified guide wire. The device is delivered coaxially through a 10-Fr Teflon catheter and is easily repositioned or retrieved before release. The expansile force of the sack against the vessel wall can be varied, and its stability is easily checked prior to detachment. The device produced immediate and permanent vascular occlusion without inflammation or erosion. Over time, the entire unit became incorporated into the vessel wall by neointimal encasement. Nylon sacks offer a simple, unique method of closing virtually any ductus arteriosus without general anesthesia and major surgery.

  19. Clinical and biochemical changes in 53 Swedish dogs bitten by the European adder - Vipera berus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Every year many dogs in Sweden are bitten by Vipera berus, the only venomous viper in Sweden. This prospective study investigated clinical signs, some biochemical parameters, treatment, and progress of disease after snakebite in 53 dogs. Effects of treatment with and without glucocorticoids were evaluated. Methods All fifty-three dogs bitten by Vipera berus were examined the same day the dog was bitten and the next day. Two more examinations during 23 days post snake bite were included. Creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bile acid results were followed through 3 to 4 samplings from 34 of the dogs. Results All dogs had variable severity of local swelling in the bite area and 73 per cent had affected mental status. Initial cardiac auscultation examination was normal in all dogs, but six dogs had cardiac abnormalities at their second examination, including cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac murmurs. All dogs received fluid therapy, 36 dogs were given analgesics, 22 dogs were treated with glucocorticoids, and ten dogs were treated with antibiotics. Evidence of transient muscle damage (increased CK) was seen one day after the snake bite in 15 (54%) of 28 sampled dogs. Moderate changes in hepatic test results occurred in 1 dog and several dogs (22 of 34) had transient, minor increases in one or more hepatic test result. No dog died during the observation period as a consequence of the snake bite. Conclusions Snake bite caused local swelling in all dogs and mental depression of short duration in most dogs. Some dogs had transient clinical signs that could be indicative of cardiac injury and some other had transient biochemical signs of liver injury. Treatment with glucocorticoids did not have any clear positive or negative effect on clinical signs and mortality. PMID:20416040

  20. Effect of cefovecin on the fecal flora of healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M; Kukanich, K; Kukanich, B; Heinrich, E; Coetzee, J F; Grauer, G; Narayanan, S

    2013-10-01

    Cefovecin is an extended-spectrum long-acting third generation cephalosporin used to treat canine infections. The study objective was to determine the effect of cefovecin on the absolute number and antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal enteric bacteria in healthy dogs. Fourteen Beagles were randomly assigned to a treated (n=7, 8 mg/kg cefovecin subcutaneously on day 1) or untreated (n=7) group. LC/MS was used to determine plasma cefovecin concentration on day 14. E. coli, enterococci, and Salmonella were isolated and enumerated from fecal samples collected on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28. Antimicrobial resistance was determined using disc diffusion, MIC, and detected using PCR for the blaCMY-2 gene on select isolates. Mean plasma concentration of cefovecin on day 14 was 9.59 μg/mL in treated dogs; untreated dogs had no measurable plasma cefovecin. The absolute number of E. coli was lower in treated dogs on day 3 (P ≤ 0.0001), and the absolute number of cefovecin-resistant E. coli was higher in treated dogs on days 7 (P=0.002), 14 (P=0.004) and 28 (P ≤ 0.0001), compared to untreated dogs. Enterococci increased and were higher in the treatment group on day 7 (P=0.0226). Isolation of Salmonella was rare. After cefovecin treatment, beta-lactam resistance was more common in fecal E. coli from treated dogs than untreated dogs, while resistance of enterococci was not altered. On day 28, treated dogs were 3.25 times more likely to carry the blaCMY-2 gene than untreated dogs (95% CI 1.27 - 8.35). The implications of these findings in clinically ill patients require further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Failure of papyerine hydrocholoride and doxycycline hyclate as antipruritis agents in pruritic dogs: Results of an open clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Danny W.; Cayatte, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Papaverine hydrochloride (150 to 300 mg/dog every 12 hours) and doxycycline hyclate (3 mg/kg every 12 hours) were both administered orally as individual agents to 13 dogs with pruritus of allergic or idiopathic origin. No dog improved. Depression, anorexia, and vomiting were seen in one dog treated with papaverine hydrochloride. Under the conditions of the study, papaverine and doxycycline were not useful antipruritic agents for the dog. PMID:17424184

  2. [Seroprevalence, clinical and biochemical data of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania and phlebotominae sandfly fauna in an endemic area in São Luis Island, Maranhão State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Tiago B; De Macedo, Auricélio A; Moraes-Júnior, Felipe De Jesus; Dias, Elaine L; Batista, Zulmira Da S; Calabrese, Katia Da S; Moraes, Jorge Luiz P; Rebêlo, José Manuel M; Guerra, Rita Maria S N De C

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence, clinical and biochemical profile of Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs naturally infected and identify the phlebotominae fauna in an endemic area of São Luis Island. In this present study, 62 household mongrel dogs were sampled for antibodies anti-Leishmania. The seroprevalence was 51.61%. In the clinical evaluation, 36.68% dogs were symptomatic, 38.41% were oligosymptomatic and 26.13% were asymptomatic. The most frequent signs were onychogryphosis and lymphadenomegaly. In 29.41% animals were observed anemia. In the biochemical analysis hepatic function showed changes in relation to alaninoaminotransferase (ALT) and aspartato aminotransferase (AST). Urea values were higher than the references ones for canine specie. The following phlebotominae sandflies were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (86.9%), L. evandroi (9.6%), L. choti (2.1%), L. umbratilis (0.7%) e L. whitmani (0.7%).

  3. Chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship in dogs with inherited essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Papanek, P E; Bovee, K C; Skelton, M M; Cowley, A W

    1993-11-01

    A genetic model of essential hypertension in the dog was studied to describe the phenotypic expression of the arterial pressure, as well as to determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), hormone, and renal excretory responses to four different levels of sodium intake (5, 40, 120, 240 mEq/day) delivered intravenously and isotonically. This model was developed at the University of Pennsylvania (U/Penn) and termed Pennsylvania hypertensive dogs (PHD). The MAP was recorded beat-by-beat, 24 h/day, in 16 dogs. Water and sodium balances were determined daily for 4 days at each level of intake and blood samples were collected on the last day of each salt step for analysis of plasma renin activity (PRA), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone (ALDO), and vasopressin (AVP). After the study, the dogs were designated as hypertensive (PHD-HT) when the 24-h average MAP was greater than 110 mm Hg and systolic pressure was greater than 160 mm Hg. Dogs that failed to meet both criteria were designated as normotensive genetic controls (PHD-NT). Although sodium was retained during the first day of each increase of salt intake in both groups, a return to balance was observed within the 4 days. There was no apparent change in the slope of the chronic renal function curve in either group of PHD studied, although the PHD-HT exhibit a curve shifted to a higher level of MAP. Plasma hormone levels in both groups of PHD studied responded in a manner similar to normal mongrel dogs with reductions of PRA, ALDO, elevations of ANP, and no change in AVP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Circovirus in Dogs FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports Tools for K-12 Educators Circovirus in Dogs FAQ November 22, 2013 Update November 22, 2013: ... information. Canine circovirus infections have been documented in dogs with vomiting and diarrhea. The distribution of the ...

  5. Clinical results of single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair in 26 small breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Daniel G; Kramek, Betty

    2016-04-01

    Medical records of 26 small breed dogs treated with single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair were reviewed. Excluding dogs with complications associated with cranial cruciate ligament disease, 20/21 dogs with long-term follow-up achieved a complete or acceptable clinical recovery. The complication rate was not increased compared to that previously reported for unilateral patellar luxation repair.

  6. Electrochemotherapy for the treatment of recurring aponeurotic fibromatosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Spugnini, Enrico P.; Di Tosto, Giovanni; Salemme, Scirin; Pecchia, Luca; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baldi, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the clinical findings, histopathology, and clinical outcome of a rare case of aponeurotic fibromatosis in a dog. The dog was treated with 4 courses of electrochemotherapy using the drugs cisplatin and bleomycin. There was complete remission and the dog was still disease-free after 18 months. PMID:24155455

  7. Medical management of a patent ductus venosus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 2.5-year-old dog with signs of weight loss, vomiting, and hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed with a patent ductus venosus, based on serum biochemical analysis, jejunal portography, and biopsies, and treated with lactulose, antibiotics, and a reduced protein diet. Two years after initial presentation, the dog is still being managed medically. PMID:15943124

  8. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: <0·30 ng/mL) were measured initially and after changing the diet. Twelve dogs were presented with a median age of five years. The median plasma thyroxine concentration was 156·1 (range of 79·7 to 391·9) nmol/L; in six dogs, thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration was measured and was <0·03 ng/mL in five dogs and 0·05 ng/mL in one dog. Six dogs showed clinical signs such as weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Evaluation of Immunity and Seropositivity of IgG Antibodies to Canine Parvoviruses in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Babalola, E T; Ijaopo, O K; Okonko, I O

    2016-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a very contagious and virulent viral disease affecting domestic dogs all over the world causing high morbidity and mortality in dogs, especially puppies. This study aimed at determining the seropositivity of IgG antibodies against CPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs and to evaluate the immune status of dogs presented in Abeokuta. Forty-eight dogs were enrolled in this study. These dogs were presented at random for treatment, routine checkup, and vaccination at the State Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary Teaching Hospital all in Abeokuta. All the dogs were fully maintained under domestic setting. Selection for study was done based on thorough examination of the dogs and their medical records. The clients were informed of the nature of the investigation. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-CPV-IgG. In principle, protective immunity correlates with high antibody titers and this was determined using a commercially available immunocomb® test kit for anti-CPV IgG antibody. Of 48 dogs sampled, 38 (79.2%) had high level of anti-CPV antibody titer and 10 (20.8%) had low level of anti-CPV antibody titer. Twenty six (54.2%) were males while 22 (45.8%) were females. Forty-five (93.75%) dogs were exotic breeds while 3 (6.25%) dogs were mongrels. Thirty (62.5%) of the dogs were less than one year old and the age range of all dogs sampled was between 7 weeks and 7 years. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sex and the level of immunity but significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between ages of dogs, breeds, post-vaccination period, and the level of immunity. In conclusion, this study has further confirmed the presence of IgG antibodies against canine parvovirus among dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Of all variables evaluated, ages of dogs, breeds and post-vaccination period were the main correlates of the level of immunity to CPV. This study also showed agreement with previous studies in the diagnostic value

  10. The relationship of feeding patterns and obesity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, R; Wakshlag, J

    2011-02-01

    The rates of dog obesity are increasing and a greater understanding of feeding patterns is required to combat the problem. This study examined relationships between dietary patterns and caloric intake, and nutrient content of foods fed as it relates to obesity in dogs in the United States. Sixty-one owners and their dogs were enrolled, and lifestyle surveys, food frequencies, and 3-day food records were collected. Significant differences in overall kcal intake per kilogram of body weight were found (p< 0.04). Crude fibre in dog food was positively associated with protein and negatively associated with fat regardless of the dog's weight (p< 0.001). Lean dogs received significantly more crude fibre in relation to overweight dogs regardless of the number of treats they received (p< 0.01), and their diets had greater micronutrient densities (p< 0.03) suggesting that high fibre influences body condition. Additionally, owners who ate nutrient-rich, calorie-poor diets had normal weight dogs, and owners that fed more table scraps had overweight dogs. Regardless of body condition, 59% of dogs received table scraps, which constituted 21% of daily caloric intake. The nutrient density of scraps fed was variable and did not meet National Research Council's recommendations for micronutrient adequacy. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. VAC protocol for treatment of dogs with stage III hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco J; Hosoya, Kenji; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Kisseberth, William; Couto, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hemangiosarcomas (HSAs) are aggressive tumors with a high rate of metastasis. Clinical stage has been considered a negative prognostic factor for survival. The study authors hypothesized that the median survival time (MST) of dogs with metastatic (stage III) HSA treated with a vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) chemotherapy protocol would not be different than those with stage I/II HSA. Sixty-seven dogs with HSA in different anatomic locations were evaluated retrospectively. All dogs received the VAC protocol as an adjuvant to surgery (n = 50), neoadjuvant (n = 3), or as the sole treatment modality (n = 14). There was no significant difference (P = 0.97) between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II HSA. For dogs presenting with splenic HSA alone, there was no significant difference between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II disease (P = 0.12). The overall response rate (complete response [CR] and partial response [PR]) was 86%). No unacceptable toxicities were observed. Dogs with stage III HSA treated with the VAC protocol have a similar prognosis to dogs with stage I/II HSA. Dogs with HSA and evidence of metastases at the time of diagnosis should not be denied treatment.

  12. Clinical and laboratory findings of Babesia infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara Reddy, B; Sivajothi, S; Varaprasad Reddy, L S S; Solmon Raju, K G

    2016-06-01

    Canine babesiosis is a worldwide tick borne disease. Dogs with fever, in appetence and enlarged lymph nodes were screened for the presence of haemoprotozoan parasites during the one year period of study at T.V.C.C., C.V.Sc., Proddatur. Based on the stained peripheral blood smears examination, six dogs were found to be affected with babesiosis. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed ticks over the body, congested conjunctival mucus membranes, dullness, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea in all the dogs. Some of the dogs had icterus, lymphadenopathy, haemoglobinuria. Laboratory examination of the clinical samples revealed reduction in haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, platelet count, serum total protein, serum albumin and glucose levels. Increased serum SGPT, creatinine, BUN levels were recorded. Dogs were treated with inj. Diminazene aceturate (Berenil RTU) @ 5 mg/kg body weight, single dose along with supportive and symptomatic therapy in individual cases.

  13. Radiotherapy of metastatic seminoma in the dog. Case reports

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.K.; Walker, M.; Legendre, A.M.; vanEe, R.T.; Gompf, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    Four dogs with metastatic seminoma were treated with cesium 137 teleradiotherapy. Minimum total tumor dose ranged from 17 to 40 gray (Gy) and was usually given through bilateral opposing sublumbar ports in eight to ten fractions, with three fractions given weekly. The tumor regressed in all four dogs. The first dog (case 1) was free of tumor and died of non-tumor related causes at 57 months. The second dog (case 2) was free of tumor but was euthanatized at 37 months for a limb fracture. The third dog (case 3) was euthanatized for undertermined pulmonary disease 43 months after radiotherapy. The fourth dog (case 4) was euthanatized 6 months following radiotherapy because of transitional cell carcinoma and renal failure. No evidence of seminoma was found at necropsy. Radiotherapy was shown to be effective treatment for seminoma with regional metastasis.

  14. Generalized vitiligo in a dog with primary hypoadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Eleonora; Morini, Maria; Fracassi, Federico

    2015-10-01

    Vitiligo is presumed to be an autoimmune disorder in the dog; primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is associated with immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortex. In this case report we describe a dog with primary hypoadrenocorticism that developed generalized vitiligo. A 4-year-old spayed female cross-bred dog developed signs of Addison's disease and this was confirmed by biochemical testing; the dog was treated with fludrocortisone acetate and then desoxycorticosterone pivalate. Three months after the diagnosis, the dog developed depigmentation of the whole hair coat and of several focal areas of the skin. Histopathological findings were consistent with vitiligo. Dogs with immune-mediated disease may develop other manifestations of immune-mediated disease, including a combination of Addison's disease and vitiligo. The cause in this case was not determined. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Adeno-associated virus mediated gene delivery into coronary microvessels of chronically instrumented dogs.

    PubMed

    Post, Heiner; Kajstura, Jan; Lei, Biao; Sessa, William C; Byrne, Barry; Anversa, Piero; Hintze, Thomas H; Recchia, Fabio A

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery into coronary microvessels in vivo in a large animal. Ten mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented and allowed to recover for 10 days. Dogs were reanesthetized, and the aorta was constricted by a hydraulic occluder, whereby left ventricular (LV) pressure increased by 30% and left circumflex coronary artery blood flow by 50%. Recombinant AAV (serotype 2, CMV enhancer/chicken beta-actin promoter) encoding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected as a bolus into the left atrium during aortic constriction at total titers of 1010 or 1012 infectious units. Dogs were followed for 2 (n = 4)or4wk(n = 6). Hemodynamics or body weight did not change. In LV tissue slices, a fluorescein-labeled antibody to GFP stained endothelial and smooth muscle cells but was absent in myocytes. To quantify transduction, slices were then stained with antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin or von Willebrand factor. Approximately 4% of arterioles and 2% of microvessels stained positive for anti-GFP independent from viral titer or duration. By regression analyses, the percent of vessels transfected was proportional to the increase in LV systolic pressure during occlusion. AAV is a potential vector for gene transfer into the coronary microcirculation in large animals, including perhaps humans.

  16. Therapeutic neonatal hepatic gene therapy in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ponder, Katherine Parker; Melniczek, John R.; Xu, Lingfei; Weil, Margaret A.; O'Malley, Thomas M.; O'Donnell, Patricia A.; Knox, Van W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Mazrier, Hamutal; Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Sleeper, Meg; Maguire, Albert M.; Volk, Susan W.; Mango, Robert L.; Zweigle, Jean; Wolfe, John H.; Haskins, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) were injected intravenously at 2–3 days of age with a retroviral vector (RV) expressing canine β-glucuronidase (cGUSB). Five animals received RV alone, and two dogs received hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) before RV in an attempt to increase transduction efficiency. Transduced hepatocytes expanded clonally during normal liver growth and secreted enzyme with mannose 6-phosphate. Serum GUSB activity was stable for up to 14 months at normal levels for the RV-treated dogs, and for 17 months at 67-fold normal for the HGF/RV-treated dog. GUSB activity in other organs was 1.5–60% of normal at 6 months for two RV-treated dogs, which was likely because of uptake of enzyme from blood by the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. The body weights of untreated MPS VII dogs are 50% of normal at 6 months. MPS VII dogs cannot walk or stand after 6 months, and progressively develop eye and heart disease. RV- and HGF/RV-treated MPS VII dogs achieved 87% and 84% of normal body weight, respectively. Treated animals could run at all times of evaluation for 6–17 months because of improvements in bone and joint abnormalities, and had little or no corneal clouding and no mitral valve thickening. Despite higher GUSB expression, the clinical improvements in the HGF/RV-treated dog were similar to those in the RV-treated animals. This is the first successful application of gene therapy in preventing the clinical manifestations of a lysosomal storage disease in a large animal. PMID:12232044

  17. Dogs catch human yawns.

    PubMed

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  18. The influence of Bio-Oss Collagen on healing of an extraction socket: an experimental study in the dog.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Mauricio; Linder, Elena; Wennström, Jan; Lindhe, Jan

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect on hard tissue modeling and remodeling of the placement of a xenograft in fresh extraction sockets in dogs. Five mongrel dogs were used. Two mandibular premolars (4P4) were hemisected in each dog, and the distal roots were carefully removed. In one socket, a graft consisting of Bio-Oss Collagen (Geistlich) was placed, whereas the contralateral site was left without grafting. After 3 months of healing, the dogs were euthanized and biopsies sampled. From each experimental site, four ground sections (two from the mesial root and two from the healed socket) were prepared, stained, and examined under the microscope. The presence of Bio-Oss Collagen failed to inhibit the processes of modeling and remodeling that took place in the socket walls following tooth extraction. However, it apparently promoted de novo hard tissue formation, particularly in the cortical region of the extraction site. Thus, the dimension of the hard tissue was maintained and the profile of the ridge was better preserved. The placement of a biomaterial in an extraction socket may promote bone modeling and compensate, at least temporarily, for marginal ridge contraction.

  19. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist NP260

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Alison H.; Eaddy, John S.; Rose, Kelly; Cullen, John M.; Ramanathan, Lakshmi; Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu; Watkins, Paul B.; LeCluyse, Edward L.

    2014-06-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA{sub A} receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity.

  1. The attitudes of owners and veterinary professionals in the United Kingdom to the risk of adverse events associated with using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat dogs with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Belshaw, Zoe; Asher, Lucy; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed by veterinary surgeons for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis, and affected dogs may receive these drugs for long periods of time. Whilst short term administration of NSAIDs to dogs is linked to adverse events such as gastrointestinal haemorrhage and renal injury, reports of adverse events associated with their long-term administration are limited in the veterinary literature. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes towards the long term use of NSAIDs for canine osteoarthritis held by three groups who manage osteoarthritic dogs in the United Kingdom: dog owners, veterinary surgeons and veterinary nurses. A qualitative methodology was adopted, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Thematic analysis of these data identified three themes: awareness of potential risks; recognition of adverse events; and influence of risk perception on the use of NSAIDs. Awareness of, and concern about, the risk of adverse events associated with NSAID administration to dogs with osteoarthritis was high in all groups, with veterinary surgeons being one of a variety of information sources used by owners to acquire this knowledge. Veterinary surgeons described difficulty in recognising, managing and avoiding adverse events associated with NSAIDs. When adverse events occurred, a wide range of management approaches were adopted ranging from a brief drug respite to permanent cessation of administration of any NSAIDs to that dog. Commonly employed approaches to minimise risk included dose reduction and screening blood tests. This study describes a high level of concern about the risks associated with long term NSAID administration to dogs with osteoarthritis and highlights a diverse range of strategies employed to minimise these risks. The evidence base for these strategies is poor, and this may present a risk to animal welfare if the affected dogs are not receiving adequate analgesia. In order to

  2. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  3. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, Uwe; Burke, Edward J.; Butler, Bruce D.; Davis, Karen L.; Katz, Jeffrey; Melamed, Evan; Morris, William P.; Allen, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 years ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 deg down (LLR-10 deg; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  4. Experimental dog model for assessment of fasting and postprandial fatty acid metabolism: pitfalls and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, S; Benrezzak, O; Battista, M C; Naimi, F; Labbé, S M; Frisch, F; Normand-Lauzière, F; Gallo-Payet, N; Carpentier, A C; Baillargeon, J P

    2015-07-01

    The dog is a widely-used model for conducting metabolic studies. This is mainly due to its large size and its physiology which is relatively similar to that of humans. Here, we attempted to optimize a postprandial metabolic study protocol used in dogs. Following acclimatization, female mongrel dogs underwent 9 h profiling for time-course baseline plasma data on triglyceride, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels. One week later, carotid and jugular catheters were surgically inserted for sampling and infusions. Initial post-operative care, based on the literature (Protocol 1), consisted of analgesia (buprenorphine every 8-12 h and 2-3 doses/day of acepromazine), restriction by Pavlov harness within cages, and a two- to three-day recovery period. Throughout the experiment, dogs received a lipid tracer diluted in 5% bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared with baseline, animals vomited (n = 6/6) and exhibited high ACTH + cortisol levels (stress biomarkers), resulting in blunted triglyceride peak levels. To avoid these undesirable effects, post-operative care was modified (Protocol 2) as follows: animals (n = 19) were given a single dose of buprenorphine and no acepromazine, were unrestrained and free to move within cages, the recovery period was extended to seven days, and the lipid tracer was diluted in 0.002% versus 5% BSA. Using this modified protocol, postprandial plasma-triglyceride and ACTH/cortisol patterns were similar to baseline values. Controlling for stressors, as well as for factors which may alter proper digestion, is critical for all postprandial metabolic studies. Our results show that an optimized postprandial metabolic protocol used in dogs reduces experimental variability, while improving animal care and comfort. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  6. Cardiovascular and renal effects of carvedilol in dogs with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Masami; Sasaki, Takahiro; Ueno, Kouichiro; Yamamoto, Taiji; Ishikawa, Yumi

    2002-06-01

    To determine the acute effects of carvedilol (beta-blocker) on cardiovascular and renal function and its pharmacokinetics in dogs. Fifteen mature mongrel dogs (7-15 kg) of both sexes were used in these experiments. Eight dogs served as controls, and seven dogs served as iatrogenic mitral regurgitation (MR) experimental animals. Carvedilol (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, P.O.) was administered, and the blood carvedilol concentration was analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The response to isoproterenol or phenylephrine was also evaluated. Isoproterenol (0.025 microg/kg/min) was infused via the saphenous vein for 5 min, and phenylephrine (5 microg/kg) was injected with carvedilol (0.2, 0.4 mg/kg) or placebo for 4 days. The heart rate and arterial blood pressure were measured, and LV fractional shortening was measured by echocardiography. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous infusion of sodium thiosulfate and sodium para-aminohippurate. Carvedilol (0.2 mg/kg) decreased the heart rate, whereas renal function, arterial blood pressure, and left ventricular contractile function were not affected. Carvedilol (0.4 mg/kg) decreased heart rate, blood pressure, and renal function. The tachycardic response to isoproterenol was significantly diminished for 36 hr by 0.4 mg/kg carvedilol. Carvedilol 0.2 mg/kg inhibited this effect for 24 hr. Thus, it is necessary to titrate the dosage of carvedilol, it should be initiated at less than 0.2 mg/kg and titrated up to 0.4 mg/kg for heart failure dogs.

  7. Prostatic cavitary lesions containing urine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bokemeyer, J; Peppler, C; Thiel, C; Failing, K; Kramer, M; Gerwing, M

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the proportion of urine-containing prostatic cavitary lesions ("urinary cysts") in dogs and to describe their clinical management. The study included dogs with clinically relevant prostatic-retention cyst/abscess (n=87) treated initially by percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage of the prostatic cavity. Based on a prostatic fluid:serum creatinine ratio, the study population was divided into two groups: group 1 (n=16) with and group 2 (n=71) without evidence of urine within the lesion. Medical records of both the groups were reviewed. Cavitary lesions containing urine were observed in 16 of the 87 dogs (18·4%; group 1). In 10 (62·5%) of the group 1 dogs, abdominal surgery was recommended, because of recurrent filling during follow-up. In group 2, abdominal surgery was recommended in only 11 of 71 cases (15·5%). In dogs, 18·4% (95% confidence interval, 10·9 to 28·1%) of the prostatic cavitary lesions contain urine. Measurement of creatinine within the prostatic cavity fluid is a helpful tool in diagnosing a presurgical intra-prostatic urethral fistulation, and these dogs tend to require a more aggressive surgical therapy than percutaneous drainage alone. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Efficacy of dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) for ameliorating separation-related behavioral signs in hospitalized dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mee; Lee, Jong-Kyung; el-aty, A.M. Abd; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Mok

    2010-01-01

    Dogs hospitalized in veterinary clinics are likely to show signs of separation-induced anxiety from hospitalization. The study assessed the effect of dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) on 10 typical separation-related behavioral signs in hospitalized dogs. A DAP treated group (n = 24) was compared with a placebo control group (n = 19). There was overall amelioration of the signs without ‘vigilance’ and ‘anorexia’ in the DAP-treated dogs; marked decreases were noted in elimination (P = 0.038), excessive licking (P = 0.005), and pacing (P = 0.017). The results suggest that the use of DAP could decrease separation-induced anxiety, distress, and fear in inpatients, and possibly facilitate recovery in hospitalized dogs. PMID:20592826

  9. Efficacy of dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) for ameliorating separation-related behavioral signs in hospitalized dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Mee; Lee, Jong-Kyung; Abd el-aty, A M; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Mok

    2010-04-01

    Dogs hospitalized in veterinary clinics are likely to show signs of separation-induced anxiety from hospitalization. The study assessed the effect of dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) on 10 typical separation-related behavioral signs in hospitalized dogs. A DAP treated group (n = 24) was compared with a placebo control group (n = 19). There was overall amelioration of the signs without 'vigilance' and 'anorexia' in the DAP-treated dogs; marked decreases were noted in elimination (P = 0.038), excessive licking (P = 0.005), and pacing (P = 0.017). The results suggest that the use of DAP could decrease separation-induced anxiety, distress, and fear in inpatients, and possibly facilitate recovery in hospitalized dogs.

  10. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4-18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001) lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05) better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs.

  11. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4–18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001) lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05) better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs. PMID:27317462

  12. Factors associated with dog rabies immunisation status in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Mauti, S; Traoré, A; Hattendorf, J; Schelling, E; Wasniewski, M; Schereffer, J L; Zinsstag, J; Cliquet, F

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Bamako, Mali, to determine for the first time the seroprevalence of rabies virus antibodies in the dog population and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards the disease and its control. Antibody detection was done with the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (FAVN) test, with a positivity threshold of 0.25IU/ml. We visited 2956 households in 2010 and 2011 and found 379 dogs in 279 households. Data were collected on 279 dog-owning households, on 1017 non-dog-owning households and on 311 dogs. A serum or plasma sample was collected from 98 dogs. For 26 dogs we had sufficient data to describe the antibody decline over time after rabies vaccination using a quadratic regression. Ninety percent of interviewed persons (95% CI: 85%-91%) knew about rabies. The majority of interviewees knew that rabies is transmitted from dogs to humans, and some of the characteristic clinical signs seen in rabid dogs (change of behaviour, biting, salivation) could be listed by the majority. When asked how people behave regarding a rabid dog, killing the animal was the most frequent answer (>70%). Most (65% of the non-dog-owners and 81% of the dog-owners) were aware that vaccination of dogs can prevent rabies, but only a minority of dog-owners could answer correctly at what age the dog should get a first rabies vaccination (i.e. at 3 months). There was also strong consensus among dog-owners that it is better to protect their dog from becoming rabid by vaccinating it rather than needing to treat a bitten person. Forty-five percent (n=306; 95% CI 38%-52%) of dogs were reported as vaccinated against rabies at least once, but less than half of these (59/136) had a valid vaccination card. When asked for reasons for non-vaccination, cost was the most frequent reason at 31% (95% CI: 21%-43%), while general negligence was mentioned by 15% (95% CI: 10%-24%). Approximately one third of dog-owners would not pay for vaccination. To reach

  13. Ophthalmic corticosteroid therapy: systemic effects in the dog.

    PubMed

    Glaze, M B; Crawford, M A; Nachreiner, R F; Casey, H W; Nafe, L A; Kearney, M T

    1988-01-01

    Degenerative myopathy suggestive of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy was diagnosed in a 10-year-old female Poodle X Pekingese dog with a history of progressive lameness. Electromyography revealed bizarre high-frequency discharges. Evidence of adrenal suppression was obtained in response to exogenous ACTH. The predominant source of corticosteroid was an ophthalmic preparation used in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Considering the apparent adverse effects of the corticosteroid in this case, a study was undertaken to determine the systemic effects, if any, induced by long-term ophthalmic administration of 0.1% dexamethasone suspension in healthy adult dogs. Dogs in one group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 8 weeks, and dogs in another group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 16 weeks. All dogs remained healthy throughout the study, but dexamethasone-treated dogs developed marked adrenal suppression, beginning the second week of treatment and intensifying throughout the treatment period. Histopathologic changes in the liver of dexamethasone-treated dogs included scattered foci of vacuolated hepatocytes, increased hepatocytic glycogen content, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. Muscle specimens were histologically, histochemically, and electromyographically normal.

  14. Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools for K-12 Educators Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers CC by Tomwsulcer Whether you’re walking ... routes or durations may need to be altered. Dog bites Always be careful when walking a dog ...

  15. Lateral patellar luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 65 dogs.

    PubMed

    Kalff, S; Butterworth, S J; Miller, A; Keeley, B; Baines, S; McKee, W M

    2014-01-01

    To report the signalment and clinical features of dogs with non-traumatic lateral patellar luxation and to report the complications and outcomes following surgery. A multicentre retrospective study was performed. Medical records were reviewed and the signalment, clinical features, and treatment of dogs presenting with lateral patellar luxation were recorded. In dogs treated surgically, the outcome and complications were investigated. Sixty-five dogs (95 stifles) were included; 39 were male and median age at presentation was 10 months. Breeds were classified as small (n = 6), medium (n = 23), large (n = 27), and giant (n = 9). Lateral patellar luxation was classified as grade I (n = 14), II (n = 41), III (n = 29), and IV (n = 11). Conformational abnormalities were noted in 34 stifles; genu valgum was the most common (n = 28). Higher-grade luxation was associated with a younger age at presentation (p = 0.032) and genu valgum (p = 0.01). Surgery was performed on 58 stifles, 22 of which sustained one or more complications; 16 complications were managed conservatively, four with implant removal and six with revision surgery. Surgeon-assessed outcome was good or excellent in 47 of the 51 dogs available for review. Non-traumatic lateral patellar luxation is a disease of predominantly medium and large breed dogs. It has several similar clinical features and can be surgically treated in a similar manner to medial patellar luxation with similar types of complications and outcomes expected.

  16. Comparative efficacy of the combination fipronil-(S)-methoprene and the combination permethrin-imidacloprid against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European dog tick, applied topically to dogs.

    PubMed

    Doyle, V; Beugnet, F; Carithers, D

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of two of the most widely veterinary-dispensed topical products for control of ticks on dogs: fipronil-(S)-methoprene and imidacloprid-permethrin. Eighteen healthy beagle dogs of both sexes were divided into three groups of six dogs. Group 1 served as the untreated control. Dogs in group 2 were treated with fipronil 10% + (S)-methoprene 9% w/v applied once on day 0, and those in group 3 were treated with imidacloprid 8.8% and permethrin 44% w/v, applied once on day 0. All dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, and ticks remaining were counted and removed 48 hours after each infestation. The 48-hour efficacy of the fipronil-(S)-methoprene combination remained at 100% at all assessment points through and including day 37, declining to 95.30% on day 44. The 48-hour efficacy of the imidacloprid-permethrin combination peaked at 86.46% on day 9, decreased to 73.37% by the third week, and fell to 63.53% by the end of the study (day 44). Significantly (P < .05) fewer ticks were recovered from dogs treated with fipronil-(S)-methoprene or imidacloprid-permethrin than from untreated control dogs at each infestation. Notably, the dogs treated with fipronil-(S)-methoprene had significantly (P < .05) lower tick counts at every assessment than the dogs treated with imidacloprid-permethrin.

  17. Partial resection and omentalization: a new technique for management of prostatic retention cysts in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bray, J P; White, R A; Williams, J M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the results of a new technique for management of prostatic retention cysts in dogs. A retrospective clinical study. Eighteen client-owned dogs. Dogs with prostatic retention cysts were treated by celiotomy and drainage of the cysts. The majority of the cyst wall was resected and residual cyst cavities were packed with omentum. All dogs were castrated. Long-term resolution of clinical signs was achieved in all dogs, with follow-up periods ranging from 6 to 42 months. Five dogs developed urinary incontinence postoperatively. This persisted in two dogs, but was well controlled with phenylpropanolamine. In the remaining dogs, the incontinence was transient and resolved within 2 months of surgery. Partial cyst resection combined with omentalization and castration was a simple and effective means of managing prostatic retention cysts. The incidence of serious complications, including postoperative urinary incontinence, was low.

  18. [Alimentary thyrotoxcicosis in two dogs].

    PubMed

    Kempker, Karsten; Güssow, Arne; Cook, Andrea M; Rick, Markus; Neiger, Reto

    2017-06-20

    Two dogs with increased thyroxin concentrations compatible with hyperthyroidism were referred for further examinations. One dog displayed clinical signs of hyperthyroidism. Based on history, clinical examination, laboratory evaluation and scintigraphy an alimentary thyrotoxicosis was identified. It was caused by feeding a BARF diet containing thyroidal tissue in one dog and by conventional dog food in the other patient. After changing the diet the clinical signs resolved in the affected dog. A control examination revealed thyroxin concentrations within the reference range in both dogs.

  19. Results of irradiation of infiltrative lipoma in 13 dogs.

    PubMed

    McEntee, M C; Page, R L; Mauldin, G N; Thrall, D E

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen dogs with infiltrative lipomas were treated with cobalt 60 radiation. Four of the thirteen dogs also received either whole body (n = 2) or combination local/whole body (n = 2) hyperthermia in conjunction with radiation therapy. Cytoreductive surgery was performed prior to radiation in 10 dogs, although only 3 dogs had microscopic disease at the time of radiation therapy. Dogs received a total dose of 45.6 Gy-63 Gy in 2.5-4 Gy/fraction on either a Monday/Wednesday/Friday schedule or on a daily Monday through Friday schedule. Twelve of the 13 dogs had computed tomography (CT) images acquired prior to irradiation. Survival time was determined from the time of completion of radiation therapy. Survival ranged from 6 months to 94 months, with a median (95% confidence interval) of 40 (18.5-77) months and a mean of 46.4 months. Only one dog was euthanized due to persistent signs related to the infiltrative lipoma at 6 months after the end of radiation therapy. There was no apparent difference in response based on whether or not the dogs received hyperthermia in conjunction with irradiation, although the numbers were too small to make any significant conclusions. It appears that dogs with infiltrative lipomas can benefit from external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery to effect long-term local tumor control.

  20. Prostate cancer in dogs: comparative and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Bruce E; Northrup, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    The canine prostate gland shares many morphological and functional similarities with the human prostate and dogs are the only other large mammals that commonly develop spontaneous prostate cancer. However, the incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in dogs and the precise cell of origin is not known. Dogs with prostate cancer usually present with advanced disease that does not respond to androgen deprivation therapy. Similar to humans, affected dogs often develop osteoblastic bone metastases in the pelvis and/or lumbar spine with associated pain and neurological deficits. Other clinical signs include weight loss, lethargy, and abnormal urination and/or defecation. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation have been used to treat dogs with prostate cancer, but success has been limited by the location and aggressive nature of the disease. It is evident that better methods of early detection and more effective therapies are needed for prostate cancer in dogs and advanced prostate carcinoma in men. Dogs with naturally-occurring prostate cancer are relevant models for the disease in humans and pre-clinical studies of new diagnostics and therapies in dogs may benefit both humans and dogs with prostate cancer.

  1. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal.

  2. Hyperammonemic hepatic encephalopathy management through L-ornithin-L-aspartate administration in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin-Ok; Li, Qiang; Lee, Young-Heun; Han, Sei-Myoung; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seventeen dogs were treated with L-ornithin-L-aspartate (LOLA; experimental group). Three dogs were treated with lactulose recognized therapy (control group). Following LOLA administration, 15 dogs experienced a significant decrease in ammonia level (p < 0.05) and showed clinical signs of improvement. However, there were no clinical signs of improvement in two dogs, even though the ammonia level decreased. Conversely, the clinical signs of the control group also improved and the ammonia level decreased, although these changes were not significant (p > 0.05). These results suggest that LOLA is an effective drug to treat hyperammonemia in veterinary medicine. PMID:26726023

  3. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ankylosis and pseudoankylosis of the temporomandibular joint in 10 dogs (1993-2015).

    PubMed

    Strøm, Peter C; Arzi, Boaz; Cissell, Derek D; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2016-09-20

    To describe the clinical features and results of treatment of true ankylosis and pseudoankylosis of the temporomandibular joint in dogs. This study was a retrospective case series. Ten client-owned dogs that were presented for inability to open the mouth or a severely decreased range of motion of the temporomandibular joint were included. Information on the surgical procedures performed and the perioperative complications were documented. Three-dimensional printing of the skull was performed in four dogs. Two dogs were diagnosed with temporomandibular joint ankylosis and seven dogs with pseudoankylosis. One dog had evidence of combined temporomandibular joint ankylosis and pseudoankylosis. Of the seven dogs with pseudoankylosis, six had an osseous fusion involving the zygomatic arch and mandible. Surgical treatment was performed in nine dogs and a revision surgery was needed in one dog. Follow-up ranged from five months to eight years (mean: 48.6 months). Eight out of nine dogs that were treated surgically regained the ability to open their mouth, but six dogs never regained a fully normal temporomandibular joint range of motion. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis and pseudoankylosis are uncommon in the dog. Surgical treatment for temporomandibular joint ankylosis or pseudoankylosis in dogs is a successful option and carries a prognosis dependent on patient-specific abnormalities. Computed tomography complemented with three-dimensional printing is valuable for understanding the extent of abnormalities and for preoperative planning.

  5. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  6. [Structural reorganization of the dermis of dog tibia during its elongation by the method of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Ye N

    2014-01-01

    Using the methods of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and morphometry the status of the various components of the dermis was studied in the experiment performed on 16 adult mongrel dogs that had their shank extended by 17% of its original length using the method of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis with a daily rate of 1 mm for 4 steps. During the period of distraction, a reduction in the thickness of the dermis, change of the architectonics of its fibrous component, active collageno- and elastogenesis, cell proliferation, and the expressiveness of heteromorphism of fibroblast and macrophage cell populations were detected. In postdistraction period, all the indices were gradually approaching the norm. The data obtained may serve as criteria for the estimation of the stages of the reparative process developing under the created conditions and should be considered in the development of new technologies aimed at optimizing reparative-regenerative processes during tibial lengthening.

  7. Effects of chronic digitalization on cardiac and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate activity and circulating catecholamines in the dog.

    PubMed

    Nechay, B R; Jackson, R E; Ziegler, M G; Neldon, S L; Thompson, J D

    1981-09-01

    To extend our understanding of the mechanism of action of digitalis drugs, we studied electrocardiograms (ECGs), renal function, plasma concentrations of catecholamines, and myocardial and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate (Na+ + K+ ATPase) activity in chronically digitalized dogs. Five healthy, male, mongrel dogs received a therapeutic regimen of digoxin (0.1 mg/kg on day 1 in three divided doses followed by 0.025 mg/kg per day) orally for 2-4 months. This resulted in plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.1 to 4.7 ng/ml as determined by radioimmunoassay. Six control dogs received daily gelatin capsules by mouth. ECGs monitored throughout the study showed no changes. Digitalized dogs had elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations (347 vs. 137 pg/ml in controls) and no change in plasma epinephrine concentrations. Digitalized dogs had elevated glomerular filtration rates (0.74 vs. 0.94 ml/min per g of kidney) without significant changes in renal handling of electrolytes and water. All of the above studies were done without the aid of restraining drugs or infusions. The animals were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital for in vitro studies. In digitalized dogs, microsomal Na+ + K+ ATPase-specific activity was 26 to 33% lower in the renal cortex, medulla, and papilla, and 46% lower in the cardiac left ventricle than in control dogs. Digitalization did not alter the osmolalities of renal tissues. We conclude that chronic reduction Na+ + K+ ATPase activity by one-third dose does not cause abnormalities in renal handling of electrolytes and water, and inhibition of Na+ + K+ ATPase in the left ventricular muscle by one-half is associated with no obvious ECG changes in the dog. Further, elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations may contribute to both the therapeutic and the toxic effects of digitalis.

  8. The post-operative analgesic effects of epidurally administered morphine and transdermal fentanyl patch after ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pekcan, Zeynep; Koc, Bahattin

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the analgesic and side effects of epidural morphine or a fentanyl patch after ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Prospective, randomized clinical study. Twenty female mongrel dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. The dogs were allocated to one of two groups: epidural morphine or transdermal fentanyl patch. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Morphine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) was administered epidurally in the epidural morphine group and a transdermal fentanyl patch was applied 24 hours before the operation in the fentanyl patch group. The heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, plasma cortisol concentration, and sedation and analgesia scores were recorded during the 24 hour post-operative period. Adverse effects such as vomiting, anorexia, skin reactions, urinary retention, and time to start licking the surgical site were also recorded. p<0.05 was considered significant. Statistical analyses utilized anova for repeated measures, Friedman tests, Mann-Whitney U-tests and independent sample t-tests as relevant. Pain scores were lower in the epidural group than in the fentanyl group at all post-operative times. The dogs in the epidural morphine group were calm and relaxed, whereas discomfort and vocalization were recorded in the fentanyl patch group. The sedation scores were higher in the fentanyl patch group throughout the 12 hour period. Salivation and anorexia lasted longer in the fentanyl patch group than in the epidural morphine group. Plasma cortisol concentrations were high in the early post-operative period in both groups. The fentanyl patch group had higher cortisol concentrations than the epidural morphine group. Slight erythema was recorded in two dogs when the patches were removed. Epidurally administered morphine provided better analgesia and caused fewer adverse effects than the fentanyl patch after ovariohysterectomy in dogs. © 2010 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2010 Association of Veterinary

  9. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  10. Radial shock wave therapy in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alexandre N A; Ferreira, Marcio P; Hagen, Stefano C F; Patrício, Geni C F; Matera, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    The study aims were to evaluate the effects of radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA) using clinical assessment and kinetic analysis. Thirty dogs diagnosed with bilateral hip OA and 30 healthy dogs were used. In OA dogs, one limb was randomly selected for treatment with RSWT while the contralateral limb served as an untreated control. Dogs were evaluated while walking on a pressure walkway. Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were documented; symmetry index (SI) was also calculated. Blinded clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Owner perception data regarding levels of physical activity were also collected. The RSWT protocol (2000 pulses, 10 Hz, 2-3.4 bars) consisted of three weekly treatment sessions (days 1, 8 and 16). Follow-up data were collected 30, 60 and 90 days after the first session. Data were compared between time points, groups and limbs pairs. At the end of the experimental period, mean PVF and VI values had increased (25.9 to 27.6%BW and 2.1 to 12.7%BW × s respectively) in treated limbs, with no significant differences in control limbs; SI values suggest improvement. Mean PVF and VI remained lower in the treated compared to the healthy group following treatment. The VAS scores suggested improvement in pain and lameness in treated dogs. Owner perception data suggested improved levels of physical activity following treatment. Outcomes of this study suggested beneficial effects of RSWT in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.

  11. [Primary hyperparathyroidism in the dog. Diagnosis, therapy and postoperative management in 19 dogs].

    PubMed

    Jores, K; Kessler, M

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of diagnosis and outcome in 20 dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism. In 20 dogs primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed and 19 patients were treated via parathyroidectomy, 10 additionally with partial thyroidectomy. Medical records of the dogs were reviewed for signalment, clinical features, laboratory findings and results of histopathologic examination. In some cases postsurgical rehabilitation of calcium metabolism required substitution with calcium and vitamin D preparations. Mean age of the dogs was 11.5 years. The most common clinical signs comprised polydipsia, polyuria, reduced activity, and stiff gait. Laboratory findings were moderate to extensive hypercalcaemia, low or low-normal serum phosphorus concentrations and normal or increased serum parathyroid hormone concentrations. None of the dogs had an elevated parathyroid hormone-related polypeptide level. Histological examination revealed 11 adenomas, six carcinomas and two glandular hyperplasias. Postsurgical management of calcium homeostasis was challenging in some cases. Tumours of the parathyroid gland can be easily treated by parathyroidectomy and usually have a good prognosis. With careful interpretation of laboratory findings of a patient presenting with hypercalcaemia and ruling out other causes of hypercalcaemia diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism can be easily achieved and successfully treated byparathyroidectomy.

  12. Pre-operative fibrous osteodystrophy and severe, refractory, post-operative hypocalcemia following parathyroidectomy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Jennifer M; Nuth, Ellie K; Byers, Christopher G; Thoesen, Mike; Armbrust, Laura J; Biller, David S; Harkin, Kenneth R

    2015-08-01

    A 13-year-old dog exhibited dramatic, radiographic osteopenia consistent with fibrous osteodystrophy secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. Following parathyroidectomy, the dog developed severe, prolonged hypocalcemia, but was successfully treated and discharged 32 d after surgery. A variety of factors may have contributed to this dog's hypocalcemia including hypoparathyroidism and hungry bone syndrome.

  13. High detection rate of dog circovirus in diarrheal dogs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Han-Siang; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lee-Shuan; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-06-17

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis. DogCV has previously only been identified in the United States, Italy, Germany (GeneBank accession number: KF887949) and China (GeneBank accession number: KT946839). Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of DogCV in Taiwan and to explore the correlation between diarrhea and DogCV infection. Clinical specimens were collected between 2012 and 2014 from 207 dogs suffering from diarrhea and 160 healthy dogs. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detected DogCV in naturally infected animals. Of the analyzed fecal samples from diarrheal dogs and health dogs, 58 (28.0 %) and 19 (11.9 %), respectively, were DogCV positive. The difference in DogCV prevalence was highly significant (P = 0.0002755) in diarrheal dogs. This is the first study to reveal that DogCV is currently circulating in domestic dogs in Taiwan and to demonstrate its high detection rate in dogs with diarrhea.

  14. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  15. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  16. Intranasal administration of oxytocin promotes social play in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper,(1) we examined whether oxytocin in the domestic dog modulates the maintenance of close social bonds in non-reproductive contexts. We found that exogenous oxytocin promotes positive social behaviors not only toward conspecifics, but also toward human partners. Here we examined in further detail the effect that oxytocin manipulation has on social play. When sprayed with oxytocin, subjects initiated play sessions more often and played for longer periods of time than when sprayed with saline. Furthermore, after oxytocin nasal intake dogs displayed play signals more often than after saline administration, suggesting that oxytocin enhances dogs' play motivation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that oxytocin promotes social play in the domestic dog. We use these results to hypothesize on the potential therapeutic use of oxytocin for promoting social behaviors and treating social deficits in the domestic dog.

  17. Dog bite injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Marianne; Dahlin, Lars B

    2011-04-01

    Dog bites to the hand and forearm are common. Although bites are usually minor, aggressive dogs may cause extensive bites developing to a public health problem. In a database review of dog bites to the hand applied to Emergency Department or to the Department of Hand Surgery in Malmö, Sweden 2008-2009, we found 81 cases [42 men and 39 women; median age 45 (range 2-88) years]. Three of 81 (4%) were children younger than 11 years. Six of the 81 (8%) patients included had bilateral injuries. Seventy-five patients were treated at the Department of Hand Surgery, where 31 of 75 (41%) were admitted to hospital in 181 days (median 4, range 1-20). The injuries included lacerations of the skin, muscle, and tendons as well as fractures, arterial and nerve injuries, and traumatic amputations of fingers. Some cases developed infections, necrosis of muscle and skin, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and even sepsis. A total of 96 operations were done for 51 patients (median 1, range 1-8) and the patients had 343 (median 2, range 0-22) outpatient visits. Almost half of the bites occurred when the patients was trying to separate two fighting dogs. The size of the lacerations increased with the size of the dog. Serious infections were found independently of size of dog. We suggest that education of owners and the public, reporting of all bites, and control of animals are some of the actions to reduce the number of attacks. At least one serious case could have been prevented if the dog had been put down after a previous serious attack.

  18. Experimental acute toxicity of xylitol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Z; He, Y; Yu, J

    2009-10-01

    The Cases of xylitol poisoning in dogs are increasing as a result of ingestion of xylitol-containing products. Eighteen adult, clinically normal Pekingese dogs were orally dosed with 1 or 4 g/kg xylitol in aqueous solution. Blood samples were collected before and after dosing. Plasma insulin concentrations of both treated groups rose sharply from 20 min after xylitol dosing, peaking at 40 min. Hypoglycemia followed the increase in insulin concentration, with blood glucose values started to decrease 30 min after dosing. Other plasma biochemistry changes associated with xylitol administration were increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hypercalcemia. Plasma sodium and chloride concentrations remained normal. This study established a biochemical basis for diagnosis and treatment of xylitol poisoning in dogs.

  19. Magnet ingestion in dogs: two cases.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Kristina; Hottinger, Heidi; Kahn, Tony; Ngo, Mary; Ben-Amotz, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Two dogs that had ingested foreign bodies were presented with vomiting. The foreign bodies appeared as metal and dense on abdominal radiographs. Abdominal exploratory identified intestinal perforation in one case and gastrointestinal tissue trapped between the two foreign bodies adhered to each other in the second case. The foreign bodies were identified as magnets in one case and magnets and other metallic foreign bodies in the second case. Both dogs had excellent outcomes following surgical intervention. These cases demonstrate the danger of tissue entrapment between the foreign bodies as a result of the magnetic attraction between two objects. Dogs that are presented with a history of or are suspect for ingesting multiple magnets or a magnet and metal foreign bodies should be treated with surgical intervention because of the risk of gastrointestinal perforation as a result of magnetic attraction between the foreign bodies.

  20. Dental follicle infection following a dog bite.

    PubMed

    Wright, G; Muir, M L; Bryan, R; Smith, A J; Hosey, M T

    2006-03-01

    Animal bite wounds and their subsequent infection are relatively common. Incidence rates for dog bites are significantly higher among children aged 0-9 years, especially among boys. Although bite wounds may initially look innocuous, they frequently lead to serious infection with a potential for life-threatening complications. The microbiology of dog bite wounds is usually polymicrobial, typically including anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella species. A case is described of a 22-month-old boy who, subsequent to a dog bite over the left maxilla, suffered infection of the dental follicle of the primary maxillary canine with Pasteurella multocida. The infection proved difficult to treat, requiring several attempts at incision and drainage of the abscess together with systemic antibiotics, and resulted in the eventual loss of the tooth.

  1. Histological observations of pulpal replacement tissue in immature dog teeth after revascularization of infected pulps.

    PubMed

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Zaazou, Ashraf; Nabil, Ahmed; Moussa, Sybel; Aly, Hanaa Mohamed; Okazaki, Katsushi; Rosenberg, Paul A; Lin, Louis M

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have examined the nature of tissue formed in the canals of immature necrotic teeth, following revascularization in animals and humans. While speculations have been made that regeneration of the pulp tissue might take place in the canal, the tissue has been found to be cementum-like, bone-like, and periodontal ligament-like. The purpose of this study was to histologically examine the tissue in the root canals in immature dog teeth that had been artificially infected and then revascularized. Two 4- to 5-month-old mongrel dogs with immature teeth were used in the study. In one dog, four maxillary and four mandibular anterior teeth, and in another dog, four maxillary and five mandibular anterior teeth were used in the experiment. Pulp infection was artificially induced in the immature teeth. Revascularization was performed on all teeth by disinfecting the root canals with sodium hypochlorite irrigation and triple antibiotic intracanal dressing, completed with induction of intracanal bleeding, and sealed with an MTA plug. The access cavity was restored with silver amalgam. The animals were sacrificed 3 months after revascularization procedures. The revascularized teeth and surrounding periodontal tissues were removed and prepared for histological examination. Besides cementum-like, bone-like, and periodontal ligament-like tissues formed in the canals, residual remaining pulp tissue was observed in two revascularized teeth. In four teeth, ingrowth of alveolar bone into the canals was seen; presence of bone in the root canals has the potential for ankylosis. Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that residual pulp tissue can remain in the canals after revascularization procedures of immature teeth with artificially induced pulp infection. This can lead to the misinterpretation that true pulpal regeneration has occurred. Ingrowth of apical bone into the root canals undergoing revascularization can interfere with normal tooth eruption if

  2. Effects of Lidocaine, Dexmedetomidine or Their Combination on the Minimum Alveolar Concentration of Sevoflurane in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    MORAN-MUÑOZ, Rafael; IBANCOVICHI, J. A.; Gutierrez-BLANCO, Eduardo; ACEVEDO-ARCIQUE, Carlos M.; Victoria MORA, J. Mauro; TENDILLO, Francisco J.; SANTOS-GONZALEZ, Martin; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lidocaine (LIDO) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) or their combination (LIDO–DEX), administered by constant-rate infusion (CRI), on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in dogs. Seven healthy mongrel dogs were used with a 2-week washout interval between treatments in this study. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen, and MAC of sevoflurane was determined after 90 min equilibration period in the dogs (SEV-MACBASAL). Then, sevoflurane MAC was determined again in the dogs after 45 min equilibration period of one of the following treatments: an intravenous loading dose of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by 6 mg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACLIDO); an intravenous loading dose of dexmedetomidine 2 µg/kg followed by 2 µg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACDEX); or their combination (SEV-MACLIDO-DEX). These SEV-MACs were determined in duplicate. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tuckey test when appropriate. The SEV-MACBASAL was 1.82 ± 0.06%, SEV-MACLIDO was 1.38 ± 0.08%, SEV-MACDEX was 1.22 ± 0.10%, and SEV-MACLIDO-DEX was 0.78 ± 0.06%. The CRI administration of lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination produced a significant reduction in the MAC of sevoflurane by 26.1 ± 9.0% (P<0.0001), 43.7 ± 11.8% (P<0.0002) and 54.4 ± 9.8% (P<0.0001), respectively. The MAC reduction was significantly greater after the CRI combination of lidocaine and dexmedetomidine when compared with lidocaine CRI (P<0.0001) or dexmedetomidine CRI treatments (P<0.025). PMID:24572631

  3. Reimplantation of dental implants following ligature-induced peri-implantitis: a pilot study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Levin, Liran; Zigdon, Hadar; Coelho, Paulo G; Suzuki, Marcelo; Machtei, Eli E

    2013-02-01

    This preliminary investigation aimed to evaluate the potential of contaminated implants to reosseointegrate into pristine sites and, in addition, to assess the potential of osseointegration of new implants in peri-implantitis sockets in a canine model. All mandibular premolars were bilaterally extracted from two mongrel dogs. Following 12 weeks of healing, two dental implants were inserted on each hemiarch. Forty-five days following implant placement, a silk ligature secured with cyanoacrylate was placed around the implants' cervical region in order to induce peri-implantitis. After another 45 days from ligature placement, the implants were mechanically removed using counter rotation with a ratchet and were reimplanted without any decontamination (neither rinsing nor chemical or mechanical cleaning) in adjacent pristine zones. In sites where implants were removed, new, wider-diameter implants were placed in the infected sockets. Forty-five days following reimplantation surgery, the dogs were sacrificed; nondecalcified specimens were processed and toluidine blue stained for morphologic and morphometric (bone-to-implant contact [BIC]) assessment under an optical microscope. In dog 1 all the implants (both in the pristine and in the infected sites) survived and osseointegrated while in dog 2, six out of eight implants failed to osseointegrate and exfoliated. Overall, the mean BIC of all implants was 51.08% (SD 20.54). The mean BIC for the infected implants placed into pristine sites was 51.48% ± 26.29% (SD) and the mean BIC for the new implants in peri-implantitis socket was 50.58% ± 14.27% (SD). Within the limitations of this preliminary investigation, especially the small number of animals, osseointegration seems to be achievable both in infected sites and around contaminated implant surfaces. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Effect of hydroxyethyl starch and Ringer's solution on splanchnic perfusion in dogs with septic shock].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Qiu, Hai-bo; Liu, Song-qiao; Chen, Yong-ming; Li, Na; Shen, Ju-fang; Li, Jia-qiong

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the effect of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and Ringer's solution (RS) on splanchnic perfusion in dogs with septic shock. Twenty-four mongrel dogs with septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were randomly divided into two groups: HES group and RS group. Dogs of each group received an intravenous infusion of HES or RS (1 mlxkg(-1)xmin(-1)) for 60 minutes, followed by normal saline for 180 minutes with same infusion speed. Parameters of hemodynamics, oxygen dynamic, and splanchnic perfusion were monitored at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 minutes after basic measurements (pre-LPS). (1) After LPS infusion, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac index (CI) lowered significantly (P<0.05). Compared to that of 0 minutes, MAP and CI were elevated by fluid therapy in both groups, but there was no difference between HES and RS group. (2) Compared with pre-LPS, oxygen delivery (DO(2)) was reduced, arterial blood pH lowered and arterial lactate level increased markedly at 0 minutes (P<0.05). DO(2) increased by fluid therapy in both groups, but DO(2) was higher in HES group at the same time points (P<0.05). Compared to 0 minutes, arterial lactate levels were lowered at 180 minutes in both groups. (3) Mesenteric blood flow decreased after LPS infusion in all animals (P<0.05). Mesenteric blood flow increased after HES infusion, at the same time intramucosal pH (pHi) was elevated and Pg-aCO(2) decreased significantly (all P<0.05), but they showed no difference in RS group. At the same time, mesenteric blood flow and pHi was higher in HES group than that in RS group. Both HES and RS could improve MAP and DO(2) in dogs with septic shock, but the effect of HES was better than RS on splanchnic perfusion.

  5. Increased apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) during general and epidural anaesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Galina P; Slavov, Emil; Usunov, Roustislav; Halacheva, Krasimira; Dinev, Dinco N

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that perioperative lymphocytopenia was due to apoptosis of these cells induced by either halothane or epidural anaesthesia in dogs. The relationship between apoptosis induction and plasma concentrations of the stress hormone cortisol and the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-10 was examined as well. The study was performed on 22 healthy mongrel dogs, equal numbers from both genders, weighing 18.3 +/- 2.9 kg, and aged between 3-5 years. Dogs were divided in three groups. Eight of the animals were anaesthetized with halothane, another eight received epidural anaesthesia using lidocaine, and six served as controls. Venous blood samples were obtained immediately before (0 minute) anaesthesia, during deep anaesthesia (120 minute), and on the next day (24 hour) in order to determine the following parameters: the total lymphocyte counts, the percentage of apoptotic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by flow cytometry, plasma concentrations of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and plasma cortisol levels by radioimmune assay. Both halothane and epidural anaesthesia in dogs induces apoptosis of PBMC with slight decrease in total lymphocyte counts. These immunomodulatory effects were transient and faded till the 24th hour. Concerning the mechanism of inducing lymphocyte apoptosis by general or epidural anaesthesia, it seemed that neither cortisol, nor the tested cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-10 were implicated in this process. Further investigations are necessary to confirm this assumption.

  6. Heartworm in dogs in Canada in 1989

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. Owen D.

    1990-01-01

    In late November 1989, 1732 clinics and institutional veterinarians were sent a questionnaire to assess the status of Dirofilaria immitis, and 51.7% responded. Of 247,716 dogs tested, 394 had D. immitis microfilariae and 51 were amicrofilaremic for a total of 445 cases and heartworm prevalence of 0.17%. Most (408) of these dogs had no preventive medication and the prevalence among dogs tested and unprotected was 1.01%. That prevalence was considerably higher in endemic areas. Thirty-seven dogs with heartworm had preventive medication. Heartworm was most frequent in companion dogs over three years of age maintained outdoors in rural areas. About 75% of the cases had never left Canada, 26% had clinical signs and 125 were not treated. Heartworm was reported from British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, but 383 cases were in Ontario. South-western Ontario was the primary focus of infection. There were 33 cases in Quebec and 24 in Manitoba, mainly found in and around Metropolitan Montreal and Winnipeg respectively. PMID:17423627

  7. Traumatic lung injury attributed to tornadic activity-induced barometric pressure changes in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Brandy N; Dugat, Danielle R; Snider, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 7-year-old castrated male Italian Greyhound (dog 1) and an approximately 1-year-old female Labrador Retriever (dog 2) were evaluated because of respiratory distress 8 and 10 days, respectively, after a tornado. CLINICAL FINDINGS No obvious external injuries were identified auscultation revealed decreased bronchovesicular sounds in the affected hemithorax of both dogs. Clinicopathologic changes were mild, with evidence of inflammation in both dogs. Thoracic radiography of both dogs revealed pneumothorax and pleural effusion with effacement of the diaphragm; findings on CT included severe pulmonary atelectasis of affected lung lobes with normal bronchial tree configurtion and no evidence of diaphragmatic hernia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory thoracotomy of both dogs confirmed CT findings Pulmonary parenchymal damage consistent with a large rupture was found in both patients. A large hematoma was adhered to the ruptured lung lobe of dog 1. Grossly affected lung tissue was removed; histologic examination revealed atelectasis, pulmonary fib osis, thrombosis, and minimal (dog 1) to marked (dog 2) inflammation Microbial culture of lung tissue yielded no growth for dog 1 and Streptococcus spp and Escherichia coli susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for dog 2. Dog 1 had a recurrence of pneumothorax treated by drainage with a thoracostomy tube 1 month after surgery. Eighteen months after surgery, both dogs were reportedly doing well. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Development of clinical signs after a tornado, together with clinical, diagnostic imaging, surgical, and histologic findings led to a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary barotrauma for both dogs. Long-term outcome for these dogs, treated at a referral hospital, was good.

  8. Perioperative morbidity and outcome of esophageal surgery in dogs and cats: 72 cases (1993-2013).

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jessie S; Culp, William T N; Scotti, Katherine; Seibert, Rachel L; Lux, Cassie N; Singh, Ameet; Wormser, Chloe; Runge, Jeffrey J; Schmiedt, Chad W; Corrie, Jessica; Phillips, Heidi; Selmic, Laura E; Nucci, Daniel J; Mayhew, Philipp D; Kass, Philip H

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate perioperative morbidity and outcome in dogs and cats undergoing esophageal surgery. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 63 client-owned dogs and 9 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent esophageal surgery were reviewed for information on signalment, history, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, condition treated, details of surgery, intraoperative complications, and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up data were obtained via veterinarian and client telephone conversations. The relationship between complications and survival to hospital discharge was evaluated by means of regression analysis. RESULTS The most common indication for surgical intervention was an esophageal foreign body in dogs (50/63 [79%]) and esophageal stricture in cats (3/9). Complications were documented in 54% (34/63) of dogs and 3 of 9 cats. The most common immediate postoperative complications were respiratory in nature (9 dogs, 1 cat). Partial esophagectomy and resection with anastomosis were significantly associated with the development of immediate postoperative complications in dogs. The most common delayed postoperative complications were persistent regurgitation (7 dogs) and esophageal stricture formation (3 dogs, 1 cat). For dogs, a mass lesion and increasing lesion size were significantly associated with the development of delayed postoperative complications. Six dogs (10%) and 1 cat died or were euthanized prior to discharge, and pneumomediastinum and leukopenia were negative prognostic factors for dogs being discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study suggested that the short-term prognosis for dogs and cats that survive surgery for treatment of esophageal lesions is favorable, with 90% of patients discharged from the hospital (57/63 dogs; 8/9 cats). However, dogs treated for more extensive esophageal lesions as well as those undergoing esophagectomy or

  9. Effects of flunixin and flunixin plus prednisone on the gastrointestinal tract of dogs.

    PubMed

    Dow, S W; Rosychuk, R A; McChesney, A E; Curtis, C R

    1990-07-01

    Flunixin meglumine has been reported to induce gastrointestinal lesions in dogs when administered at therapeutic dosages. We administered flunixin meglumine to dogs daily for 10 days to assess the effect of this drug on the gastrointestinal tract. We also evaluated the possibility of corticosteroid potentiation of gastrointestinal toxicosis by concurrent administration of prednisone to 1 group of dogs. Dogs were monitored for gastrointestinal toxicosis by means of serial endoscopic evaluation, measurement of fecal occult blood, PCV, and total solid concentration, and by physical examination. There were 3 treatment groups of 5 dogs each. Group-1 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses IM; group-2 dogs were given 4.4 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses IM; and group-3 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses IM plus 1.1 mg of prednisone/kg/d orally, in 2 divided doses. A fourth group of 5 dogs served as a control group. Endoscopically visible gastric mucosal lesions developed in all treated dogs within 4 days of initiating treatment. Lesions first developed in the gastric pylorus and antrum and lesions at these sites were more severe than those observed elsewhere. Dogs treated with flunixin meglumine plus prednisone developed the earliest and most severe lesions; lesion scores in group-2 dogs were higher than those in group-1 dogs. All dogs treated had occult blood in their feces by day 5 and its presence appeared to correlate more closely with endoscopic findings than did physical examination findings or changes in values for PCV or total solids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of afoxolaner against two European dog tick species: Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Pascal; Blair, Jeffrey; Fourie, Josephus J; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The acaricidal efficacy of a novel oral formulation of afoxolaner (NEXGARD(®), Merial) against two European tick species was assessed in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. Three studies, each characterized by a negative controlled randomized block design, were conducted with a total of 52 beagle or mongrel dogs of both sexes. Starting 2 days before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with approximately 50 ticks. The number of live ticks was counted at 48 h post-treatment (Day 2) as well as 48 h following each infestation on Days 9, 16, 23, and 30. Afoxolaner, administered at an average dose of 2.7 mg/kg bodyweight (range 2.5-2.9 mg/kg), rapidly eliminated the pre-existing tick infestations with over 99% acaricidal efficacy and controlled the weekly re-infestations for up to 30 days post treatment with over 96% efficacy on both tick species. Afoxolaner provides excellent acaricidal efficacy against these two major European tick species using the oral route of administration.

  11. Real-time PCR in clinical practice: a powerful tool for evaluating Leishmania chagasi loads in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, R N; Amorim, A C; Brandão, R M S S; de Andrade, H M; Yokoo, M; Ribeiro, M L; Bartchewsky, W; Socorro-Silva, A; de Castro, J A F; do Monte, S J H

    2010-03-01

    The performance of the less expensive SYBR-Green-based PCR assay, for quantifying Leishmania chagasi in smears of bone-marrow aspirates from naturally infected, mongrel dogs, was recently compared with that of a similar PCR based on TaqMan chemistry. Aspirates were obtained from 36 infected dogs and examined for parasites by direct examination, culture, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) using specific primers (based on the parasite's kinetoplast DNA), DNA extracted from a smear, and either the SYBR-Green or TaqMan chemistries. Every aspirate smear was found PCR-positive for L. chagasi (whether the assay employed SYBR Green or TaqMan) but only 74% of the aspirates were found positive by culture and only 33% by direct, microscopical examination. There was no evidence of PCR inhibition when the DNA was collected from smears, and the parasite loads estimated using the SYBR-Green PCR were almost identical to those estimated using the TaqMan PCR (r=0.99). As a method for quantifying parasite loads in dogs infected with L. chagasi (and, probably, other mammals infected with other leishmanial parasites), PCR based on SYBR Green may therefore be an appropriate and inexpensive alternative to PCR based on TaqMan, and a reliable clinical tool.

  12. Anatomical Evaluation of the Thoracolumbar Nerves Related to the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Technique in the Dog.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Herrera, F E; Buriticá-Gaviria, E F; Echeverry-Bonilla, D F

    2017-08-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) is a fascial plane containing the thoracolumbar nerve branches that innervate the abdominal wall. Limited information is available on the anatomical organization of these nerve branches in the dog, which is of great importance for the success of the TAP block anaesthetic technique. The aim of this study was to describe the origin and conformation of thoracolumbar nerves running through the TAP in 20 hemi-abdominal walls of 10 adult mongrel dog cadavers with an average body weight of 12.6 kg (range: 9.6-15.6). The abdominal walls were dissected from superficial to deep direction, the skin and both obliquus externus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis muscles were dissected and reflected dorsally to expose the transversus abdominis muscle and the thoracolumbar nerve branches located in this plane. The anatomical features of ventral nerve branches were described. The thoracic nerve branches: T7-T12 and costoabdominalis; and the lumbar nerve branches: iliohypogastricus cranialis, iliohypogastricus caudalis, ilioinguinalis and cutaneus femoris lateralis were identified in all the cadavers. Anatomical variations related to the presence or absence within the TAP of the T7, T8 and T9 nerve branches were found. These variations should be taken into account when planning the TAP block technique in dogs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging of early subchondral cyst-like lesions in induced cranial cruciate ligament deficient dogs.

    PubMed

    Baird, D K; Hathcock, J T; Kincaid, S A; Rumph, P F; Kammermann, J; Widmer, W R; Visco, D; Sweet, D

    1998-01-01

    Six healthy adult male mongrel dogs underwent cranial cruciate ligament transection in the left stifle. Survey radiography of both stifles and low-field (0.064 T) MRI of the left stifle were performed preoperatively and at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Focal changes in signal intensity were seen with MRI in the subchondral bone of the medial tibial condyle at 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. At 12 weeks postoperative, a cyst-like lesion was detected using MRI in the subchondral bone of the medial tibial condyle in 4 of 6 dogs and a less defined lesion at this site in the remaining 2 dogs. The cyst-like lesion was spherical in shape and showed typical characteristics of fluid with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and high signal intensity on inversion recovery images. The lesion was seen in the subchondral bone of the caudal medial and/or middle region of the tibial plateau slightly cranial to the insertion of the caudal cruciate ligament. No subchondral cysts were seen in the tibia on radiographs. Histopathologically, the tibia was characterized by a loose myxomatous phase of early subchondral cyst formation.

  14. Development of a new benazepril hydrochloride chewable tablet and evaluation of its bioequivalence for treatment of heart failure in dogs.

    PubMed

    Qian, M; Chen, T; Zhou, D; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Q; Tang, S; Xiao, X

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a new chewable benazepril hydrochloride(BH) tablet, investigate its physical properties, and evaluate its bioequivalence with the branded formulation (Fortekor). A corrective agent was included in the formula to improve its palatability and convenience for administration to dogs. The tablet remained stable in light, heat, and humidity tests, and its physical properties such as hardness, uniformity of content, and dissolution rate were highly consistent with the technical standards. After single and repeated administrations to eight beagles and single dose to 14 mongrel dogs (0.5 mg/kg p.o.), plasma BH and its active metabolite, benazeprilat (BZ), were detected. There was no significant difference in the major pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax , Tmax, and AUC₀₋₂₄) between the two formulations. The 90% confidence intervals calculated for the ratios of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC₀₋₂₄) were 92.4-116.3% for BH and 89.9-102.3% for BZ, within the accepted range for bioequivalence of 80-125%. The results showed our new chewable tablet is bioequivalent to the commercial product and suitable for addition to the benazepril product family for the treatment of heart failure in dogs.

  15. Technique of, and complications attributable to, repeated hyperosmotic blood-brain barrier disruption in dogs.

    PubMed

    Culver, B; Inzana, K; Jones, J; Troy, G; Kroll, R; Culver, B; Jortner, B

    1998-11-01

    To design a repeatable technique for reversible, hyperosmotic blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) in dogs and evaluate clinical effects of multiple BBBD. 10 healthy adult dogs. Using fluoroscopic guidance, an arterial catheter was directed into the internal carotid artery via the femoral artery of 10 dogs. Blood-brain barrier disruption was achieved in 5 dogs, using intracarotid infusion of mannitol. Five control dogs received only saline solution. After recovery, dogs were monitored for clinical signs of disease before a second, nonsurvival procedure was performed 2 to 3 weeks later. BBBD was estimated, using computed tomographic (CT) densitometry values, as well as Evan's blue dye staining on necropsy specimens. Seven dogs completed the entire study. Two treatment dogs were lost after the first infusion because of deteriorating neurologic function attributed to CNS edema and increased intracranial pressure. One control dog was lost because of vessel wall damage during catheterization. The remaining dogs had only transient neurologic, ocular, and vasculature injuries. Successful BBBD was documented in all treated dogs by use of CT and Evan's blue dye evaluation. Repeated catheterization of the internal carotid artery and disruption of the blood- brain barrier is possible in dogs. Refinement of this technique would be useful not only for improved delivery of chemotherapeutic agents in patients with brain tumors, but also would allow further investigation of new treatments involving genetically engineered retroviruses and monoclonal antibodies.

  16. Brucella canis endophthalmitis in 3 dogs: clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Eric C; Landry, Matthew P; Stokol, Tracy; Kern, Thomas J; Messick, Joanne B

    2009-01-01

    To describe historical, clinical and diagnostic features of dogs with Brucella canis endophthalmitis and the response to medical therapy. Three dogs with naturally acquired B. canis endophthalmitis. Dogs were treated symptomatically with topical ophthalmic anti-inflammatories and a novel antimicrobial protocol that included doxycycline, enrofloxacin, rifampin and streptomycin. All dogs presented with chronic or recurrent uveitis in the absence of overt systemic disease. Clinical ophthalmologic abnormalities were unilateral in each dog and included mild-to-moderate anterior uveitis, iris hyperpigmentation, marked vitreal infiltrates, and multifocal chorioretinitis. Dogs were diagnosed with canine brucellosis serologically and by blood culture (n = 2 dogs) or polymerase chain reaction of aqueous humor and blood (n = 1 dog). Active ocular inflammation resolved in all dogs during treatment, with preservation of vision in 2 dogs. Following treatment, B. canis could not be cultured from blood samples and serological values declined with seronegativity achieved in all dogs after a median of 96 weeks (range: 36-112 weeks) of therapy. Brucella canis infection should be included in the differential diagnosis for dogs with intraocular inflammation, regardless of previous history or neuter status. This is the first report of apparently successful medical therapy of canine brucellosis with ocular involvement.

  17. Analysis of the sexual dimorphism in the basioccipital portion of the dog's skull.

    PubMed

    Trouth, C O; Winter, S; Gupta, K C; Millis, R M; Holloway, J A

    1977-01-01

    Sexual differences in the basioccipital portion of the skull of dogs have been described and an index is presented which reliably predicts the sex of the skull. 92 dolichocephalic skull (44 male, 48 female) from mongrel dogs were used. In the basioccipital region of the male skulls, a triangular area, which extends from the basion to a line joining the medialmost points of the two jugular foramina, appears narrow and elevated. The pharyngeal tubercle is also prominent. In female skulls the rostral angle of this triangle is wider and the triangular area seems smoother and flat. The anterior half of the female basioccipital portion is wider and smoother than in the male skull. In order to quantify the observed differences, four indices were calculated. All of the indices were statistically significant. However, only index IV could be reliably used in predicting the sex of an unknown skull: (formula: see text) was derived from breadth IV (distance between the two temporo-occipital fissures at their lateralmost points) and length II (distance between the basion and a line drawn between the two medialmost points of the jugular foramina in the midline). Values of less than 123 for male and greater than 136 for female placed the skulls in their proper sex group. Skulls that had intermediate values could be placed in correct sex grouping only in conjunction with strong observational criteria. It is suggested that in absence of such strong observational criteria these skulls may belong to immature or castrate animals.

  18. Effects of tap water on esophageal burns in dogs from button lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, J; Yamashita, M; Yamashita, M; Kajigaya, H

    1999-10-01

    Incidences of swallowing lithium batteries have been increasing. A lithium battery is more dangerous than button alkali batteries because the tissue erosion and perforation of the esophagus is more rapid than with button alkali batteries. We hypothesized that a bolus fresh water wash out or dilution of the alkali produced by the direct current flow, and/or inhibition of the alkali production by interrupting the direct current flow, might lessen the severity of the necrotic injury at a contact esophageal site with a battery. Model CR2032 lithium batteries were fixed in the esophagus of 21 adult mongrel dogs for 15, 30, 60 or 90 min. In 9 of the dogs serial 20 mL boluses of tap water (adjusted pH at 7.0 by bicarbonate) were administered at 15-min intervals after placement of the battery. The esophageal injuries were graded microscopically according to the depth of the necrosis. The consumed electricity of the batteries was also evaluated. Serial bolus administration of water reduced the consumed electricity of the batteries significantly 30 and 60 min after fixation and delayed the corrosive change in a contact esophageal area during the first 30 min. Dosing with tap water as soon as possible within 30 min after ingestion seemed a useful first aid measure to prevent esophageal injury after accidental swallowing of a lithium battery.

  19. Reinforcement therapy using nitric oxide synthase inhibitors against endotoxin shock in dogs.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroyasu; Nakagawa, Takao; Soga, Yukihiro; Deguchi, Yoshizumi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Norio; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Fukuda, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors were confirmed to correct the hypotension associated with septic shock, but the overall prognosis is often pessimistic. The histological findings failed to show any improvement. In fact, some patients even exhibited signs of exacerbation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of NOS inhibitors and catecholamines in dogs suffering from endotoxin shock. The histological changes produced by these agents were also evaluated. Mongrel dogs were used under midazolam anesthesia. A PiCCO continuous cardiac output monitoring catheter was placed in the femoral artery, and a central venous monitoring catheter was placed in the external carotid artery. Endotoxin (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered to cause shock. After this shock state was observed, the NOS inhibitors and catecholamines raised the blood pressure, and norepinephrine (NA, 2 microg/kg/h) was found to be more potent than S-methylisothiourea (SMT, 20 microg/kg/h). The combined effects of SMT-NA or SMT-DOB were greater than those of NA or dobutamine (DOB) alone. The histological changes induced by endotoxin shock were not ameliorated by the administration of NOS inhibitors but instead appeared to be exacerbated to some degree. NOS inhibitors combined with cathecholamines were thus suggested to be able to reduce the cathecolamine dosage in patients suffering from septic shock; They are thus considered to be hemodynamically effective agents.

  20. [Recombinant thrombopoietin antiradiation therapeutic effectiveness evaluation on dogs according to hemopoiesis and survival criteria].

    PubMed

    Rozhdestvenskiĭ, L M; Shliakova, T G; Shchegoleva, R A; Lisina, N I; Zorin, V V

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rh TPO) has been investigated as a means of acute radiation disease urgent treatment in the experiments on 24 mongrel dogs. The animals were exposed to total acute gamma-irradiation at the doses of 3.5 Gy (exceeding LD50/45 under our conditions) and 3 Gy. All the dogs including control ones received antibiotics Ampicillin and Gentamicin twice a day during the acute period from the 7th to the 21st day. TPO was injected one time s/c or i/v at the doses of5 or 10 mkg/kg 1.5-2 h after exposure. TPO at a dose of 5 mkg/kg was ineffective. TPO at a dose of 10 mkg/kg had a positive effect on the kinetics of blood forming units, especially platelets (nadir, restoration rate) in terms of the 45-day survival. As a result, in TPO groups, nadir averaged at both exposure doses on leucocytes (1.3-1.4) x 10(9)/l vs (0.70-0.75) x 10(9)/l in control groups and on thrombocytes (102-112) x 10(9)/l vs (44-33) x 10(9)/l in control ones. Despite the low number of animals in experimental groups, the results permit to regard rhTPO as a worth-while urgent therapeutic means for the acute radiation damage treatment and preventing thrombopenia.

  1. Impact of Toceranib/Piroxicam/Cyclophosphamide Maintenance Therapy on Outcome of Dogs with Appendicular Osteosarcoma following Amputation and Carboplatin Chemotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mathie, Tamra; Stingle, Nicole; Portela, Roberta; Pennell, Michael L.; Clifford, Craig A.; Rosenberg, Mona P.; Vail, David M.; Williams, Laurel E.; Cronin, Kim L.; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Borgatti, Antonella; Henry, Carolyn J.; Bailey, Dennis B.; Locke, Jennifer; Northrup, Nicole C.; Crawford-Jakubiak, Martin; Gill, Virginia L.; Klein, Mary K.; Ruslander, David M.; Thamm, Doug H.; Phillips, Brenda; Post, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that the addition of toceranib to metronomic cyclophosphamide/piroxicam therapy would significantly improve disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) following amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy. Methods and Findings This was a randomized, prospective clinical trial in which dogs with OSA free of gross metastatic disease (n = 126) received carboplatin chemotherapy (4 doses) following amputation. On study entry, dogs were randomized to receive piroxicam/cyclophosphamide with or without toceranib (n = 63 each) after completing chemotherapy. Patient demographics were not significantly different between both groups. During or immediately following carboplatin chemotherapy, 32 dogs (n = 13 toceranib; n = 19 control) developed metastatic disease, and 13 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Following carboplatin chemotherapy, 81 dogs (n = 46 toceranib; n = 35 control) received the metronomic treatment; 35 dogs (n = 20 toceranib; n = 15 control) developed metastatic disease during the maintenance therapy, and 26 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Nine toceranib-treated and 11 control dogs completed the study without evidence of metastatic disease 1-year following amputation. Toceranib-treated dogs experienced more episodes of diarrhea, neutropenia and weight loss than control dogs, although these toxicities were low-grade and typically resolved with supportive care. More toceranib-treated dogs (n = 8) were removed from the study for therapy-associated adverse events compared to control dogs (n = 1). The median DFI for control and toceranib treated dogs was 215 and 233 days, respectively (p = 0.274); the median OS for control and toceranib treated dogs was 242 and 318 days, respectively (p = 0.08). The one year survival rate for control dogs was 35% compared to 38% for dogs receiving toceranib. Conclusions The

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum in 17 dogs.

    PubMed

    Lascelles, B D; Parry, A T; Stidworthy, M F; Dobson, J M; White, R A

    2000-10-21

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum was diagnosed in 17 dogs over a period of 11 years. Ulceration, bleeding and sneezing were the most common clinical signs. One dog had cytological evidence of metastasis to the local lymph node. The dogs were treated by surgical resection, fractionated megavoltage irradiation, or a combination of the two. Surgical resection gave the most favourable results; four of six dogs were cured but a recurrence of the tumour was predicted in the other two on the basis of incomplete or marginal resection. Radiotherapy alone was not as effective; one of four dogs was cured, and the tumour recurred in the others within 24 weeks (median eight weeks). Combined surgical resection and radiotherapy did not produce a cure in any of the seven remaining dogs, and the tumour recurred within 12 weeks (median nine weeks). Three dogs had cytological evidence of lymph node metastasis when the tumour recurred. The dogs' prognosis was adversely affected by the interval between their initial examination and treatment, but there was no apparent association between the histological grade of the tumour and the clinical outcome.

  3. Stereotactic radiosurgery and fracture fixation in 6 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Covey, Jennifer L; Farese, James P; Bacon, Nicholas J; Schallberger, Sandra P; Amsellem, Pierre; Cavanaugh, Ryan P; Milner, Rowan J

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate clinical outcome of dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and subsequent internal fixation of a pathologic fracture. Retrospective case series. Dogs with spontaneous-occurring appendicular OSA (n = 6). Medical records (May 2002-January 2008) of dogs that had SRS for appendicular OSA were reviewed. Dogs were included if they had a pathologic fracture either before or after SRS and were treated with internal fixation. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, diagnostic imaging findings, biopsy results, surgical complications, number of surgeries, adjuvant therapy, development of metastatic disease and cause of death were recorded. Six dogs met the inclusion criteria. Two dogs had a pathologic fracture at admission and 4 dogs developed a fracture after SRS with a mean ± SD time to fracture development of 6.25 ± 1.65 months. The first 3 fractures were repaired using an open approach and the latter three using minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis (MIPO). Infection occurred in 5 dogs and implant failure in 3. Limb function was subjectively assessed as good in all dogs when the implants were stable and infections were subclinical. Survival times ranged from 364-897 days; 1 dog was lost to follow-up. Fracture repair using internal fixation should be considered a viable limb-sparing alternative for pathologic fractures that have been treated with SRS. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Effect of Metoclopramide on the Incidence of Early Postoperative Aspiration Pneumonia in Dogs with Acquired Idiopathic Laryngeal Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Milovancev, Milan; Townsend, Katy; Spina, Jason; Hurley, Connie; Ralphs, S Christopher; Trumpatori, Brian; Seguin, Bernard; Jermyn, Kieri

    2016-07-01

    Evaluate the effect of a perioperative intravenous continuous rate infusion (CRI) of metoclopramide on the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in the short term postoperative period in dogs undergoing unilateral arytenoid lateralization. Prospective, randomized, multi-center clinical trial. 61 client-owned dogs with idiopathic laryngeal paralysis and normal preoperative thoracic radiographs. All dogs underwent unilateral arytenoid lateralization with a uniform anesthetic, analgesic, and management protocol. Dogs in the treatment group received an intravenous CRI of metoclopramide for 24 hours perioperative. All dogs were assessed for clinical signs of aspiration pneumonia based on the results of physical examination and owner interview up to the point of suture removal (10-14 days postoperative). Any dog with suspected aspiration pneumonia had thoracic radiographs performed. Six dogs developed aspiration pneumonia in the short term postoperative period (2/28 control dogs and 4/33 treated dogs), accounting for an overall frequency of 10% with no significant difference between control and treated dogs. No variables measured in the study were significantly different between control and treated dogs. Perioperative metoclopramide, at the doses used in this study, did not affect the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in the short term postoperative period in dogs with idiopathic laryngeal paralysis undergoing unilateral arytenoid lateralization. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. A cross-sectional study on canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil ratifies a higher prevalence of specific IgG-antibody response than delayed-type hypersensitivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Fernando T; Carneiro, Liliane A; Ramos, Patrícia K S; Chagas, Eugênia J; Lima, Luciana V R; Campos, Marliane B; Laurenti, Márcia D; Gomes, Claudia M C; Corbett, Carlos E P

    2012-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study which analyzed the prevalence and the clinical and immunological spectrum of canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in a cohort of 320 mongrel dogs living in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Amazonian Brazil by using, mainly, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT-IgG) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the parasite research by the popliteal lymph node aspiration. The IFAT and DTH reactivity recognized three different immune response profiles: (1) IFAT((+))/DTH((-)) (107 dogs), (2) IFAT((-))/DTH((+)) (18 dogs), and (3) IFAT((+))/DTH((+)) (13 dogs), providing an overall prevalence of infection of 43% (138/320). Thus, the specific prevalence of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) 33.4% (107/320) was higher than those of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) 5.6% (18/320) and IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) 4.0% (13/320). Moreover, the frequency of these profiles among 138 infected dogs showed that the IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) rate of 77.5% (107/138) was also higher than those of 13.0% (18/138) of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) and 9.5% (13/138) of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) rates. The frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105) was higher than those of symptomatic (16.6%-23) and oligosymptomatic ones (7.4%-10). A total of 16 (11.6%) L. (L.) i. chagasi isolates were obtained from infected dogs, all from the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile: 41% (9/22) from symptomatic, 33.3% (3/9) from oligosymptomatic, and 5.2% (4/76) from asymptomatic dogs. These findings strongly suggested that despite the higher frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105), the majority (72.4%-76) was characterized by the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile with a doubtful immunogenetic resistance against infection.

  6. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  7. Glomerular Lipidosis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kohnken, Rebecca A; Amerman, Hayley; Brown, Cathy A; Furrow, Eva; Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E

    2017-09-01

    Glomerular lipidosis (GL) is characterized by dilated glomerular capillary loops containing lipid-laden cells (foam cells). Previously, GL was considered to be an incidental finding because affected dogs were typically not azotemic. However, the International Renal Interest Society staging system for canine chronic kidney disease has increased the awareness of other clinical parameters (eg, proteinuria and hypertension) that should be included in the assessment of renal function. As such, the aim of this study was to determine clinical abnormalities and concurrent renal lesions in dogs with GL. GL was identified in renal biopsies from 46 dogs evaluated by the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service. GL was the sole diagnosis in 5 of 46 cases (11%), all of which were proteinuric. All 5 dogs had at least 1 additional clinicopathologic abnormality consistent with renal disease, including hypertension (4), azotemia (3), and/or hypoalbuminemia (2). The remaining 41 dogs had GL in combination with other glomerular lesions, the most common being focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (16, 35%), lesions consistent with juvenile nephropathy (8, 17%), and glomerular amyloidosis (5, 11%). Overall, dogs with severe GL were younger than were those with mild GL ( P < .001). The percentage of glomeruli affected by GL differed by concurrent diagnoses ( P = .034), with the highest percentage of affected glomeruli in dogs with GL alone or those with concurrent juvenile nephropathy. These findings suggest that GL should be a recognized histologic phenotype of glomerular injury associated with clinical renal dysfunction and/or juvenile nephropathies.

  8. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  9. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Treseder, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented. PMID:27297421

  10. Major dog attack injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, N E; Chochinov, H; Fraser, V

    1983-10-01

    Children are frequently admitted to a hospital with injuries sustained as a result of being attacked by a dog. Over a 5-year period (1977 to 1981), 57 such patients have been treated at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital. Half of the dog attack victims were 5 years or younger with injuries occurring more often in boys (55%). The majority of patients (95%) sustained puncture wounds and lacerations to the face (77%) and extremities (23%). In three of the cases, the dog attack victims presented with peritonitis secondary to bowel perforation and were treated successfully. A fourth child died as a result of his injuries prior to reaching the hospital. In the past, much attention has been focused on soft tissue injuries and their cosmetic repair. It is also important to recognize that the small child is particularly vulnerable to dog maulings from which the injuries sustained may be life threatening or lethal. Prevention seems to be the only rational approach to solving this problem.

  11. Reduction in accumulation of plaque, stain, and calculus in dogs by dietary means.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L; Logan, E; Finney, O; Lowry, S; Smith, M; Hefferren, J; Simone, A; Richardson, D

    1995-12-01

    We conducted 215 evaluations for plaque, stain, and calculus in 120 dogs at two research sites. Dogs were balanced in groups of five according to baseline plaque index scores; groups were randomly assigned to treatment or control dietary regimens. Dental cleanings were done on Day 0. Dogs in the treatment group were fed a food formulated to reduce accumulation of plaque, stain, and calculus. Control group dogs were fed a commercially available dry dog food. No other foods, treats, or snacks were given to either group. We graded 22 teeth for plaque accumulation on Day 7 and for stain and calculus accumulation on Day 21. Six trials were conducted and the results reported as a combined mean for all treatment and control groups. Dogs fed the treatment food had significantly less plaque, stain, and calculus accumulation (p = 0.001) than dogs fed the control food. Plaque, stain, and calculus accumulation can be reduced by dietary means.

  12. Do domestic dogs show any evidence of being able to count?

    PubMed

    West, Rebecca E; Young, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Numerical competence has been demonstrated in a wide range of animal species. The level of numerical abilities shown ranges from simple relative numerousness judgements to true counting. In this study we used the preferential looking technique to test whether 11 pet dogs could count. The dogs were presented with three simple calculations: "1+1=2"; "1+1=1"; and "1+1=3". These calculations were performed by presenting the dogs with treats that were placed behind a screen that allowed manipulation of the outcome of the calculation. When the dogs expected the outcome they spent the same amount of time looking at the result of the calculation as they did on the initial presentation. However, when the result was unexpected dogs spent significantly longer looking at the outcome of the calculation. The results suggest that the dogs were anticipating the outcome of the calculations they observed, thus suggesting that dogs may have a rudimentary ability to count.

  13. The diagnostic approach to fever of unknown origin in dogs.

    PubMed

    Flood, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the cause of a fever of unknown origin (FUO) in dogs presents a considerable diagnostic challenge. The diagnostic workup can be frustrating for veterinarians and clients, especially when it fails to reach a final diagnosis after extensive testing. Fortunately, most causes of FUO can be found or treated successfully. This article discusses FUO in dogs and provides information about common causes, the diagnostic approach, and potential treatments.

  14. North American snake envenomation in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Lyndi L; Brunker, Jill

    2011-11-01

    Snake envenomation can be a cause of significant morbidity in dogs and cats in North America. Being familiar with the venomous snakes in your area and understanding the mechanisms of action of their venom will allow for successful treatment of envenomation cases. Treatment of snake envenomation revolves around supportive care in mild to moderate cases and venom neutralization with antivenom in severe cases. Dogs and cats envenomated by North American snakes have a good prognosis if treated appropriately.

  15. [Experimental Subarachnoid hemmorrhage in dogs--effect of various drugs and sympathectomy on cerebral arterial spasm (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Noda, S

    1975-09-01

    Adult mongrel dogs were used. The posterior communicating artery was punctured with a fine needle and subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced, which simulated aneurysmal rupture in human. The cerebral basal arteries were constricted remarkably after the puncture. However this vasospasm disappeared in about 60-120 minutes. After this restoration, the vessels began to be constricted again and reduced their diameter in greater degree with lapse of time. Effect of various drugs and sympathectomy on the experimental spasm induced by this method were studied utilizing the magnified vertebral angiography. The drugs used were papverine, isoxuprine, methysergide, phentolamine and propranolol. One of these drugs was given to each dog into the vertebral artery 15 minutes after the puncture of the artery for study of the early spasm, and the same procedure was carried out 24 hours after the late spasm. Vertebral arteriograms were taken immediately after and at 5, 10 and 30 minutes after injection of the drug. Diameter changes of the cerebral basal arteries were measured on the film. Smooth muscle relaxtants, papaverine and isoxsuprine, were effective on relieving the early and the late spasm. An antiserotonin agent, methysergide, relieved slightly the early spasm, but it had no effect on the late spasm. Phentolamine, that is an adrenergic blocking agent, relieved the early spam remarkably, but it was less effective on the late spam. A beta adrenergic blocking agent, propranolol, was effective on relieving neither the early nor the late spasm. Two weeks after the removal of the bilateral upper cervical ganglia, subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by the smae method as mentioned above in four dogs. Arteriograms taken 24 hours after puncture of the posterior communicating artery in these dogs showed vasoconstriction as same as in the non-sympathectomized dogs. From these experimental results, it was suggested that an etiological difference in the early and the late spasm may exist

  16. [A worm infection in the skin of a dog. First autochthonous Dirofilaria repens infection ofa dog in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, P A M; van Dijk, E P

    2009-11-15

    The history of an 18-month-old English bulldog with a painful lump in the skin on its thigh is described. After opening the nodule a few Dirofilaria repens nematodes were found. Oval-shaped transparent eggs with moving larvae were seen microscopically. The dog was treated with milbemycin and made a complete recovery. The dog had never been abroad, but 6 months earlier in early May had been on a campsite in the middle of the Netherlands where many mosquitoes were present. This is the first described case of an autochthonous D. repens infection of a dog in the Netherlands.

  17. Multi-Center Retrospective Evaluation of Screw and Polymethylmethacrylate Constructs for Atlantoaxial Fixation in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Stout Steele, Megan W; Hodshon, Amy W; Hopkins, Andrew L; Tracy, Gaemia M; Cohen, Noah D; Kerwin, Sharon C; Boudreau, C Elizabeth; Thomas, William B; Mankin, Joseph M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate outcome and adverse events following ventral stabilization of the atlantoaxial (AA) joint in dogs with clinical AA subluxation using screw/polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) constructs in a retrospective, multi-center cohort study. Historical cohort study. 35 client-owned dogs. Medical records from 3 institutions were reviewed to identify dogs with AA subluxation treated with ventral screw and PMMA constructs. Data on signalment, pre- and postoperative neurologic status, imaging performed, and adverse events were retrieved. Neurologic examination data were abstracted to generate a modified Frankel score at admission, discharge, and re-examination. Telephone interview of owners >180 days postoperative was conducted. Thirty-five dogs with AA subluxation treated with ventral screw/PMMA constructs were included. Most dogs were young (median age 1 year), small breed dogs with acute onset of neurologic signs (median duration 22.5 hours). Most dogs were non-ambulatory at the time of admission (median modified Frankel score 3). Adverse events were identified in 15/35 dogs including 9 dogs with major adverse events. Four dogs required a second surgery due to vertebral canal violation (n = 2) or implant failure (n = 2). Re-examination at 4-6 weeks postoperative reported 15/28 dogs with improved neurologic status and 19/28 dogs were ambulatory. Telephone follow-up was available for 23/35 dogs with 23/23 reported as ambulatory (median follow-up 390 days). Ventral application of screw and PMMA constructs for AA subluxation, as described here, is associated with clinical improvement in the majority of dog. Major adverse events are infrequent and the technique is considered relatively safe. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  19. Closed suction drainage for treatment of septic peritonitis of confirmed gastrointestinal origin in 20 dogs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert J; Doyle, Ronan S; Bray, Jonathan P; Burton, Carolyn A

    2014-10-01

    To determine survival rate in dogs with septic peritonitis of confirmed gastrointestinal origin treated with closed suction drainage. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 20) with septic peritonitis. Medical records (2007-2010) of dogs with septic peritonitis of confirmed gastrointestinal origin treated by closed suction drainage were reviewed. Information on signalment, clinicopathologic abnormalities, underlying cause, surgical procedure performed, postoperative management, complications, and outcome was obtained. Dehiscence of a previous anastomosis was the most common source of contamination (80%). Drains remained in place, collecting fluid produced within the abdomen, for a median of 6 days (range, 2-11 days). Eighteen dogs received nutritional support, and 14 received plasma transfusions. Seventeen dogs (85%) survived to discharge. Closed suction drainage together with resolution of the underlying cause of peritonitis and appropriate postoperative management is an effective technique for treatment of septic peritonitis of confirmed gastrointestinal origin in dogs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Dog Bite Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    IF YOU are bitten • If your own dog bit you, confine it immediately and call your veterinarian to check your dog’s vaccination records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive ...

  1. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  2. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  3. Jealousy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.

  4. Effects of pimobendan on myocardial perfusion and pulmonary transit time in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Apple, S M; Menciotti, G; Braz-Ruivo, L; Crosara, S; Häggström, J; Borgarelli, M

    2016-09-01

    To describe pulmonary transit time (nPTT) and myocardial perfusion (nMP) normalised to heart rate in dogs with stable ACVIM stage C myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and to assess short-term effects of pimobendan on these variables. We hypothesised that nPTT and nMP would increase in dogs with MMVD compared with normal dogs. Additionally, we hypothesised that treatment with pimobendan would decrease nMP and nPTT in dogs with MMVD. Prospective, single-blind study involving 6 normal dogs and 12 dogs with MMVD. Dogs with MMVD were treated with enalapril and furosemide for at least 1 month prior to examination. All dogs underwent standard and contrast echocardiographic examinations at the beginning of the study (T0). At this time, MMVD dogs were randomly assigned to receive either pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg) or not. All dogs with MMVD were re-evaluated by standard and contrast echocardiography after 1 week (T1) and nPTT and nMP were measured. nPTT was significantly increased in dogs with MMVD (P = 0.0063), compared with normal dogs. It was significantly decreased at T1 in dogs receiving pimobendan (P = 0.0250). The nMP was not significantly different in dogs with MMVD, compared with healthy dogs (P = 0.2552), and it was not significantly different at T1 in the treatment group (P = 0.8798). Contrast echocardiography was a valid, complementary tool for echocardiographic analysis of dogs with MMVD. Pimobendan decreased nPTT in dogs affected by MMVD. Myocardial perfusion was not different in dogs with severe MMVD. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Multiple thoracolumbar partial lateral corpectomies in 17 dogs.

    PubMed

    Flegel, Thomas; Münch, Maria; Held, Karina; Salger, Florian; Ziegler, Luisa; Böttcher, Peter

    2016-12-05

    To report feasibility and outcome of multiple thoracolumbar partial lateral corpectomies (TLPLCs) in dogs with predominantly ventral spinal cord compression caused by intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) in the light of reported decreased spinal stability following single TLPLC. Material und methods: In a retrospective study the records of dogs treated by multiple TLPLCs for ventral spinal cord compression caused by Hansen type I or type II IVDD were reviewed. Presurgical spinal cord compression and postsurgical decompression, as well as slot dimensions were determined based on computed tomography (CT)-myelography images. Neurological outcome was assessed based on repetitive examinations applying a modified Frankel Score as well as on an owner questionnaire. Seventeen dogs with a mean body weight of 20.3 kg (range 4.0-49.0 kg) were included. Fourteen dogs had two TLPLCs, two dogs had three TLPLCs and one dog had four TLPLCs performed. The mean slot depth was 63% of entire vertebral body width, the mean slot height was 29% of the entire vertebral body height, the mean slot length was 25% of the entire vertebral body length and the mean residual vertebral interslot length between two adjacent TLPLCs was 55% of the vertebral body length. At reevaluation 4 weeks after surgery, 6/17 dogs (35.3%) had the same modified Frankel Score as before surgery, whereas 11/17 dogs (64.7%) showed a neurological improvement. According to the owners 78.5% of dogs were walking normally within 6 months after surgery. The mean survival time of 16 dogs, where follow-up was available, was 951 days. Multiple spinal cord compressions caused by IVDD can be eliminated by multiple, even consecutive, TLPLCs without the risk of a clinically significant risk of spinal instability.

  6. Clinical characteristics of doxorubicin-associated alopecia in 28 dogs.

    PubMed

    Falk, Elizabeth F; Lam, Andrea T H; Barber, Lisa G; Ferrer, Lluis

    2017-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is common in humans, but there are limited reports describing the clinical features of CIA in dogs. To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of doxorubicin-associated alopecia (DAA) in canine patients at a teaching hospital from 2012 to 2014. Signalment, diagnosis, treatment protocols and clinical examination findings were recorded in 150 dogs treated with doxorubicin from 2012 to 2014. Medical records were searched retrospectively for the keywords "alopecia" and "hypotrichosis." Dogs were excluded if the causal link of hair loss was unclear. Doxorubicin-associated alopecia was reported in 28 of 150 dogs (19%). Two parameters were statistically associated with the development of DAA: coat-type and cumulative doxorubicin dose. Dogs with curly or wire-haired coat-type were significantly more likely to develop DAA than dogs with straight-haired coat-type [χ(2) (1, N = 147) = 30, P < 0.0001]. After adjusting for sex, weight and doxorubicin dose, the odds of dogs with curly or wire-haired coat-type developing DAA were 22 times higher than those with straight-haired coat-type (P < 0.0001). Dogs that developed DAA received a significantly higher median cumulative doxorubicin dose (103.0 versus 84.5 mg/m(2) ; P = 0.0039) than those that did not develop DAA. Dogs treated with doxorubicin may be at risk for developing DAA. This risk increases as the cumulative dose of doxorubicin increases, and with a curly or wire-haired coat-type. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against Ctenocephalides felis flea infestation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, Becky; Dumont, Pascal; Halos, Lénaïg; Hunter, James S; Kunkle, Bruce; Everett, William R; Chester, Theodore S; Fourie, Josephus J; Soll, Mark D

    2015-01-29

    Five studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin on cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, when applied to dogs, including dogs that underwent water exposure or shampooing. In each study, 16 dogs were allocated to two groups. Each dog was infested with 100 unfed adult fleas on Days -1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Eight dogs were treated with a new topical spot-on formulation containing 6.76% w/v fipronil + 50.48% w/v permethrinon Day 0; and eight dogs served as untreated controls. Twenty-four or 48 h after treatment or subsequent infestation, each dog was combed to remove and count live fleas. In addition, the dogs were subjected to different levels of water or shampoo exposure. In study 1, dogs were not subjected to any water exposure or shampooing; in study 2, dogs were water immersed twice during the month on Days 10 and 24; in study 3, dogs were water immersed three times on Days 10, 17 and 24; and in studies 4 and 5, dogs were shampooed once on Day 17. All groups of dogs administered a single topical treatment with a combination of fipronil and permethrin had significantly (p < 0.005) lower flea counts than untreated controls 24 h and 48 h post-treatment or post-infestation, regardless of whether they underwent water exposure/shampooing or not. The reductions in C. felis counts were between 98.4% and 100% at all time points in all studies. The new topical spot-on formulation of fipronil and permethrin maintains a high level of protection of dogs against C. felis flea infestations even when the dogs are exposed to environmental factors that are believed to adversely affect efficacy, such as water exposure or shampooing.

  8. Global Positioning System Derived Performance Measures Are Responsive Indicators of Physical Activity, Disease and the Success of Clinical Treatments in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Elizabeth A.; Guthrie, James W.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Clements, Dylan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1) different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2) healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3) osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia. Design Prospective study. Animals Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs). Procedure Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball) whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar. Results GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation. PMID:25692761

  9. Procarbazine as adjunctive therapy for treatment of dogs with presumptive antemortem diagnosis of granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis: 21 cases (1998-2004).

    PubMed

    Coates, Joan R; Barone, Georgina; Dewey, Curtis W; Vitale, Christina L; Holloway-Azene, Nicole M; Sessions, John K

    2007-01-01

    Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Remission often is short-lived in dogs treated with glucocorticoids. Procarbazine is T cell-specific and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Dogs with presumptive antemortem diagnosis of GME given procarbazine as adjunctive therapy to prednisone will have improved long-term outcome compared with dogs given no treatment or glucocorticoids alone. Two groups were studied: (1) Dogs with presumptive antemortem diagnosis of GME treated with procarbazine and prednisone (n = 21); (2) Dogs that had a histologic diagnosis of GME at postmortem examination and received no treatment (n = 11). Dogs with presumptive GME treated with procarbazine were identified retrospectively from medical records of 2 veterinary referral hospitals. Selection criteria required all dogs have a neurologic examination, blood work, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and brain imaging (MRI or CT). Median survival time for all dogs studied was 5.0 months. Median survival time for dogs treated with procarbazine was 14.0 months and for untreated dogs, 0.73 months. Treatment with procarbazine was significantly correlated with survival time (P < .001). Procarbazine was the only independent predictor of survival. Prednisone was reduced in dosage or discontinued in 17 dogs. Adverse reactions to procarbazine therapy included myelosuppression in 7 dogs and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in 3 dogs. These data suggest that procarbazine treatment of presumptive GME may result in greater improved long-term outcome than has been previously reported for glucocorticoid treatment alone and may complement other immunomodulatory therapies. Procarbazine-treated dogs must be monitored for adverse reactions.

  10. Evaluation of a Burdizzo castrator for neutering of dogs.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Bolio-González, M E; Colin-Flores, R F; Sauri-Arceo, C H; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Jiménez-Coello, M; Linde Forsberg, C

    2006-06-01

    A Burdizzo castrator was evaluated for the neutering of dogs. Histological and morphological changes of spermatic cells and peripheral serum testosterone after challenge with a GnRH-analogue (gonadorelin) were assessed. There was a control group (G1), a surgically castrated group (G2) and a Burdizzo group (G3) divided in two, G3a receiving two crunches in each spermatic cord and G3b receiving one crunch in each spermatic cord. Sixteen days after application of the Burdizzo blood samples were taken from the dogs at 30 min interval during 2 h; after the second sample the dogs were treated with 1 mug/kg body weight of gonadorelin i.v. The same protocol of gonadorelin challenge was performed in G1 and G2 dogs. The G2 dogs were surgically castrated after the second blood sample, before the gonadorelin treatment, and the G1 dogs after the last blood sample. The excised gonads were examined histologically, and sperm smears were prepared from the caudae epididymidis. The testes and plexus pampiniformis of the G1 and G2 dogs had a normal histological appearance, and they had morphologically normal epididymal sperm cells. In all G3 dogs, there was an acute fibrosis with an inflammatory reaction in the plexus pampiniformis. The testes from the G3a dogs showed diffuse areas of infarction and degeneration of the parenchyma. Similar but less diffuse lesions were seen in group 3b dogs. The deferent ducts from all G3 dogs showed vasitis and/or sperm granulomas. Azoospermia or sperm malformations were observed in the epididymal smears from the G3 dogs. Testosterone concentration in the G1 dogs increased after gonadorelin application (p < 0.0001). The G2 dogs had basal testosterone levels after castration (p < 0.001) and did not respond to gonadorelin. Groups 3a and b showed a slight but non-significant increase in testosterone concentration after gonadorelin challenge, supposedly due to the reduction of testicular blood flow and loss of testicular interstitial tissue.

  11. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fungal rhinitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrzeszewicz, M; Sapierzyński, R

    2015-01-01

    Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in dogs are quite common reasons of chronic nasal discharge and rhinoscopy in such cases is commonly suggested. Forty three dogs were examined using rhinoscopy because of the presence of chronic airway symptoms. Clinical examination, routine hematology and serum biochemistry profiles, nasal and frontal sinus radiographs were made in all animals. Additionally, computed tomography in one dog was performed. Samples for histopathology were taken from 9 patients during rhinoscopy, additionally, from 8 of these patients samples for cytopathology were collected by blind nasal swab technique. In 9 of 43 dogs (20,5%), all males aged 1 to 13 years, examinations led to a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis. In 2 cases a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis was obtained based solely on cytopathology, while in 7 cases - mycosis of nasal mucosa was confirmed by histopathology. The present study revealed that cytopathological examination of nasal swabs has a low diagnostic value in the case of nasal infections in dogs. Although, in some dogs cytopathology, together with other widely available diagnostic techniques was sufficient to reliably diagnose fungal rhinitis, histopathology of samples collected during rhinoscopy is still the gold standard in such cases.

  13. [Prevalence of Dog circovirus in healthy and diarrhoeic dogs].

    PubMed

    Gentil, Michaela; Gruber, Achim D; Müller, Elisabeth

    2017-04-19

    In 2012, a Dog circovirus (DogCV) was discovered in the USA, which was followed by further descriptions of the virus in the USA, Italy and Germany. The present study is the first to examine the prevalence of DogCV in faeces of dogs from Germany and other European countries. Faecal samples from 184 dogs with diarrhoea and from 82 clinically healthy dogs (control group) were analysed for the presence of DogCV by PCR. Furthermore, the detection of parvovirus, coronavirus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium was performed in all samples. In the group of dogs with diarrhoea the prevalence of DogCV was 20.1% (37/184), in the healthy control group it was 7.3% (6/82). Therefore, the virus could be detected significantly more frequently in dogs with diarrhoea. The detection frequency of DogCV is comparable with those of the other tested pathogens. In approximately 50% of the DogCV-positive dogs, infections with other enteropathogenic organisms were diagnosed. The role of co-infection in the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, but there appears to be an association between co-infection and disease severity. Evidence of DogCV in clinically healthy dogs appears important for the epidemiology and raises questions about its pathogenicity. Further studies are needed to clarify questions regarding the pathogenesis, causal relevance and possible interference by other diarrhoeal pathogens. Nevertheless, the results of this study are an important indication that DogCV should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhoea.

  14. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-agent chemotherapy for mast cell tumours in the dog.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, R J; Teske, E; Kraus, J S; Rutteman, G R

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen dogs with mast cell tumours received chemotherapy. Fifteen dogs were treated with a vincristine, cyclophosphamide, hydroxyurea, and prednisolone (VCHP) regimen. Seven of these were later switched to doxyrubicin and prednisolone either because they stopped responding or because they did not respond from the start of the treatment. Two dogs received the latter regimen as the primary therapy. All dogs were treated with cimitidine and metoclopramide to minimize the effect of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with histamine release. Ten of the 17 dogs were found to respond (4/17 complete response (CR), 6/17 partial response (PR)). Response duration varied from 39 to 910 days (median 53 days), including 3 dogs with a CR that lasted more than 2 years. Survival time in responders varied from 41 to 910 days (median 97 days) and from 30 to 126 (median 39) in the other 7 dogs. Dogs that became refractory to VCHP did not respond to doxyrubicin and prednisolone. It is concluded that multi-agent chemotherapy has anti-tumour activity in a considerable proportion of dogs with mast cell tumours, but its efficacy is variable. The multivariate analyses showed that significant factors predicting survival in dogs with mast cell tumours were sex (P = 0.009), absence or presence of non-abdominal distant metastases, or abdominal metastases, respectively (P = 0.023), and malignancy grade of the tumours (P = 0.053).

  16. Clinical results of single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair in 26 small breed dogs

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Daniel G.; Kramek, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of 26 small breed dogs treated with single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair were reviewed. Excluding dogs with complications associated with cranial cruciate ligament disease, 20/21 dogs with long-term follow-up achieved a complete or acceptable clinical recovery. The complication rate was not increased compared to that previously reported for unilateral patellar luxation repair. PMID:27041762

  17. Maxillary osteomyelitis in two Scottish terrier dogs with chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Boutoille, Florian; Hennet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Two Scottish terrier dogs were presented for recurrent oral problems. They were diagnosed with refractory chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis and necrosis of the incisive and maxillary bones. Both dogs were treated with a combination of bilateral rostral maxillectomy and tooth extractions. The ostectomy was performed with a specific cutting device using piezoelectric bone surgery technology. These two cases show that a precise evaluation of dogs is essential for the diagnose of chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis and its differentiation from mucocutaneous autoimmune diseases.

  18. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  19. Familial anthropophobia in pointer dogs?

    PubMed

    Dykman, R A; Murphree, O D; Reese, W G

    1979-08-01

    This article assesses a dog model in terms of a proposed cross-species definition of phobia, the model referring to a strain of unstable dogs that has been produced by selection and inbreeding. The unstable dogs are contrasted with a strain of stable dogs. New findings are presented on approach and activity behavior toward three stimulus objects (man, another dog, and a sheet-covered chair) in a naturalistic setting. The fear response of unstable dogs to objects other than man habituates gradually, whereas the fear response to the sight of man is far more enduring, suggesting a relatively specific fear of man.

  20. Hyperadrenocorticism in 10 dogs with skin lesions as the only presenting clinical signs.

    PubMed

    Zur, Gila; White, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Ten dogs that had skin lesions as the only presenting signs of hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) and as the owners' primary complaint are described. Dogs were included if the initial examination was for skin disease, there were no signs of systemic illness on initial presentation and there was a confirmed diagnosis of HAC by specific screening tests. Dogs were excluded if they had a severe disease that might interfere with screening tests for HAC or if the screening tests were not diagnostic. There were five males and five females; six dogs were intact. Nine dogs were diagnosed at ≥7 years. Eight dogs weighed ≤10 kg. Alopecia was present in nine dogs. Eight dogs had bacterial pyoderma, five had hyperpigmentation, and four had thin skin. One dog had unresolved dermatophytosis. Skin lesions resolved after treatment in eight dogs. One dog was not treated and one was lost to follow-up. This study showed that skin lesions may be the only clinical signs of HAC. The presence of the more common clinical signs of HAC, such as a non-pruritic, truncal alopecia and/or thin skin, without any systemic signs of HAC and/or the presence of poorly responsive skin infections warrant screening for this disease.

  1. Comparison of terazosin and prazosin for treatment of vesico-urethral reflex dyssynergia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Haagsman, A N; Kummeling, A; Moes, M E; Mesu, S J; Kirpensteijn, J

    2013-07-13

    Nineteen dogs with vesico-urethral reflex dyssynergia (VURD) were treated with prazosin or terazosin 0.5 mg/kg twice daily to compare efficacy and side effects. Dogs were referred because of signs of (partial) urethral obstruction. Physical examination, abdominal ultrasonography, urinalysis and a radiographic contrast study of bladder and urethra (urethrocystography) were routinely performed. If no mechanical causes of obstruction or disease of the distal urinary tract were observed, the diagnosis VURD was presumed and the dogs were included in our study. Follow-up information was obtained from owners or referring veterinarians. Significantly more side effects were seen in the dogs treated with terazosin (n=14; 93 per cent) compared with the dogs treated with prazosin (n=5; 20 per cent; P=0.002). Effects of the treatment were comparable between prazosin and terazosin. Labradors and dogs that were castrated surgically had a significant better survival (P<0.01) compared with other breeds and animals that were castrated chemically. There was a moderate to good effect in 60 per cent of the dogs treated with prazosin, and in 64 per cent of the dogs treated with terazosin.

  2. Comparison of two treatments for preventing dogs eating their own faeces.

    PubMed

    Wells, D L

    2003-07-12

    Twenty-eight domestic dogs with the behavioural problem of eating their own faeces were treated in two ways. Half of them were treated with a citronella spray collar, and the others were treated with sound therapy. To assess the relative efficacy of the treatments their owners rated the severity of their dog's faeces eating for a week before the study began, during each of three weeks of treatment, and at the end of a fourth week during which they had not been treated. The owners reported a significantly lower incidence of the behavioural problem during the first week of both treatments, but in the dogs treated by sound therapy its incidence subsequently increased. The behavioural problem was reduced most effectively in the dogs treated with the spray collar, and continued to decrease during the period of treatment.

  3. Field evaluations of the efficacy and safety of Emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox® oral suspension for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and Isospora spp. infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Gasda, Nadine; Adler, Kerstin; Hellmann, Klaus; Thurieau, Heloise; Schimmel, Annette; Hutchens, Douglas; Krieger, Klemens J

    2011-08-01

    Three controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new formulation containing emodepside plus toltrazuril (Procox® suspension for dogs) against naturally acquired parasite infections in dogs. In two studies dogs positive for gastrointestinal nematodes and/or Isospora spp. were treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension (at least 0.45 mg emodepside plus 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight) or a reference product containing either milbemycin oxime plus praziquantel (Milbemax®) or sulfadimethoxine (Kokzidiol SD®) at recommended dose rates. The third study investigated efficacy against prepatent natural Isospora spp. infections in comparison to an untreated control group by enrolling Isospora- negative dogs that were at risk to develop a patent infection during the study.No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in any of the 403 dogs enrolled in the three studies including 234 dogs treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension. In dogs treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension against nematode infection faecal egg counts were reduced by 100 % (reference product: 99.7 %). Similarly, in the dogs that had been treated against patent Isospora spp. infection, faecal oocyst counts were reduced by 100 % (reference product: 99.0 %). In both studies, statistical analysis demonstrated non-inferiority and even superiority to the reference products (p ≤ 0.009). Dogs treated with emodepside/toltrazuril suspension during suspected prepatent Isospora spp. infection had 98.7 % lower faecal oocyst counts after treatment compared to untreated dogs (p < 0.0001).The studies demonstrated that emodepside/toltrazuril suspension is safe and highly efficacious against nematodes and Isospora spp. under field conditions.

  4. Managing Neuropathic Pain in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of the somatosensory system such as neuropathic pain are common in people with chronic neurologic and musculoskeletal diseases, yet these conditions remain an underappreciated morbidity in veterinary patients. This is likely because assessment of neuropathic pain in people relies heavily on self-reporting, something our veterinary patients are not able to do. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex phenomenon, and concepts related to it are frequently not addressed in the standard veterinary medical curriculum such that veterinarians may not recognize this as a potential problem in patients. The goals of this review are to discuss basic concepts in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, provide definitions for common clinical terms used in association with the condition, and discuss pharmacological treatment options for dogs with neuropathic pain. The development of neuropathic pain involves key mechanisms such as ectopic afferent nerve activity, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, impaired inhibitory modulation, and pathologic activation of microglia. Treatments aimed at reducing neuropathic pain are targeted at one or more of these mechanisms. Several drugs are commonly used in the veterinary clinical setting to treat neuropathic pain. These include gabapentin, pregabalin, amantadine, and amitriptyline. Proposed mechanisms of action for each drug, and known pharmacokinetic profiles in dogs are discussed. Strong evidence exists in the human literature for the utility of most of these treatments, but clinical veterinary-specific literature is currently limited. Future studies should focus on objective methods to document neuropathic pain and monitor response to therapy in veterinary patients. PMID:26942185

  5. The effects of topical aqueous sirolimus on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory dry eye.

    PubMed

    Spatola, Ronald; Nadelstein, Brad; Berdoulay, Andrew; English, Robert V

    2017-10-03

    To evaluate the effect of twice daily aqueous 0.02% sirolimus drops on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Two groups of dogs were studied. Ten normal dogs with no signs of ocular disease were administered topical 0.02% sirolimus ophthalmic solution in right eye, and a vehicle control in the left eye twice daily for 4 weeks. Complete ophthalmic examinations, including Schirmer tear test were performed weekly. Eighteen dogs with refractory KCS were randomly assigned to receive 0.02% sirolumus ophthalmic solution or 0.02% tacrolimus ophthalmic solution twice daily. Complete ophthalmic examinations were was performed at 2 and 6 weeks following treatment. Tear production in the sirolimus-treated eyes of normal dogs was greater when compared to vehicle controls with a mean difference over all time points of 3.46 mm (95% CI 1.17, 5.75; P = 0.006). After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean difference was 5 mm (95% CI 1.95, 8.05; P = 0.002). In dogs with refractory dry eye, 37.5% of eyes treated with sirolimus exhibited increased tear production >4 mm/min after 6 weeks of treatment, compared to 20% of eyes receiving tacrolimus (P = 0.433). One normal dog experienced topical irritation to both sirolimus and vehicle-treatment. Side effects were not reported in any treated eyes with chronic KCS. Topical 0.02% sirolimus might be an alternative treatment for canine patients with keratoconjunctivits sicca. The drug appears safe when applied topically in an aqueous suspension for up to 6 weeks. While initial results are promising, further studies are warranted. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  7. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  8. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  9. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  10. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a dog.

    PubMed

    Dell'Orco, Marta; Bertazzolo, Walter; Pagliaro, Luigi; Roccabianca, Paola; Comazzi, Stefano

    2005-09-01

    A 3-year-old, spayed, female Boxer was presented because of acute onset of anorexia, vomiting, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure were detected. The dog was treated with fluids, antiemetics, antibiotics, and diuretics. Despite supportive therapy, the dog's condition worsened, and the owners elected euthanasia. Necropsy revealed disseminated petechiae on the parietal peritoneum and serosal surfaces of the intestinal tract. The histologic lesions were consistent with severe arteritis and microvascular thrombosis involving only the renal and intestinal arterioles. The final diagnosis was hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a rarely described disorder in dogs. The clinical presentation of primarily gastrointestinal clinical signs was similar to that of typical or diarrhea-associated HUS (D+ HUS) in humans (mainly children), which is caused by gastrointestinal proliferation of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Bacterial toxins can be adsorbed and cause endothelial injury, activation of hemostasis, and thrombosis, with lesions confined primarily to the kidneys. Although rare, HUS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.

  11. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy: Experience in 45 Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Kathryn A.; Stanley, Bryden J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report experience with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in 45 consecutive dogs admitted with extensive cutaneous wounds and to determine if NPWT is feasible in veterinary hospital practice. Study Design Prospective descriptive study Animals Dogs (n = 45) Methods Collected data were organized into 6 categories: patient data, wound data, NPWT data, adjunctive treatments, complications, and final outcome Results Wounds (53 in 45 dogs) were largely traumatic in origin, and distributed fairly evenly to the trunk, proximal and distal aspects of the limbs. Most wounds (34 dogs, 76%) had no granulation tissue and were treated a mean of 4.2 days after wounding, whereas 11 dogs had granulating wounds that were initially treated a mean of 87 days after wounding. Median NPWT use was 3 days with a mean hospitalization of 7.8 days. Most wounds (33; 62%) were closed surgically after NPWT and were healed by 14 days. The other 18 wounds healed (mean, 21 days) by second intention after hospital discharge. Overall, 96% of the wounds healed; 2 dogs died before definitive closure could be attempted. Conclusion NPWT is applicable to a wide variety of canine wounds is well tolerated, allows for several days between dressing changes, and can used to optimize the wound bed for surgical closure or second intention healing. PMID:24512302

  12. Olprinone/dopamine combination for improving diaphragmatic fatigue in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2006-01-01

    Background: Diaphragmatic fatigue might contribute to the development of respiratory failure. In particular, the spontaneous, natural rate of phrenic nerve discharge occurs mainly in low-frequency ranges making low-frequency fatigue clinically important in both humans and animals. Olprinone, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, improves contractility in fatigued diaphragm, but is also associated with hypotension. Dopamine might be used concomitantly for treating related hypotension. Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of olprinoneplus dopamine on diaphragmatic fatigue in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Methods: This nonblinded study was conducted at the Department ofAnesthesiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Japan. Diaphragmatic fatigue (assessed by a decrease in diaphragmatic contractility) was induced by intermittent supramaximal bilateral electrophrenic stimulation at a frequency of 20 Hz applied for 30 minutes. Immediately after the fatigue-producing period, groups 2, 3, and 4 received an initial 10 μg/kg dose of olprinone. Group 2 then received maintenance olprinone of 0.3 μg/kg · min; group 3 received maintenance olprinone 0.3 μg/kg · min plus dopamine 2 μg/kg · min; and group 4 received maintenance olprinone 0.3 μg/kg · min plus dopamine 5 μg/kg · min. Group 1 received no study drug. Olprinone and dopamine were administered IV for 30 minutes. Diaphragmatic contractility was assessed by measuring the maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) generated by test stimuli after airway occlusion at functional residual capacity. Hypotension induced by the study drugs was defined as a >10 mm Hg decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP), calculated by diastolic pressure plus ⅓ pulse pressure, from baseline. Results: Twenty-eight mongrel dogs (18 males and 10 females, weighing 10-15 kg)were used in the study; 7 dogs were randomly assigned to each treatment group. When fatigue was established in each group, mean (SD) Pdi

  13. Cervical arthroplasty in two dogs with disk-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Pietro Filippo

    2011-09-15

    A 4-year-old sexually intact male Doberman Pinscher (dog 1) was evaluated for signs of recurrent cervical pain and ataxia, and a 12-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog (dog 2) was evaluated for a 4-month history of ataxia and tetraparesis. Examination via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spinal cord compression due to disk-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy at C6-7 in dog 1 and at C5-6 in dog 2. Both dogs were surgically treated with a ventral slot procedure and spinal cord decompression, followed by insertion of a titanium cervical disk prosthesis at the affected site. Evaluation of radiographs obtained immediately after surgery indicated that each prosthesis was appropriately placed and provided adequate distraction. Radiographic and neurologic evaluations were performed 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery in both dogs and 18 months after surgery in dog 1. Distraction of the vertebral bodies decreased moderately over time in both dogs. Intervertebral mobility determined via radiographic assessment of the prosthetic disk during neutral positioning, flexion, and traction of the cervical vertebral column was lost over time in dog 1 and was not achieved in dog 2. Eighteen months after surgery, results of MRI in dog 1 indicated adequate spinal cord decompression with no degeneration in other cervical disks. Cervical arthroplasty was well tolerated with no complications, and outcome was excellent in both dogs; prosthesis presence did not affect ability to reassess the area via MRI. Studies of cervical arthroplasty in dogs with disk-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy are warranted.

  14. Evaluation of adverse effects of long-term oral administration of carprofen, etodolac, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and meloxicam in dogs.

    PubMed

    Luna, Stelio P L; Basílio, Ana C; Steagall, Paulo V M; Machado, Luciana P; Moutinho, Flávia Q; Takahira, Regina K; Brandão, Cláudia V S

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate adverse effects of long-term oral administration of carprofen, etodolac, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and meloxicam in dogs. 36 adult dogs. Values for CBC, urinalysis, serum biochemical urinalyses, and occult blood in feces were investigated before and 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after daily oral administration (n = 6 dogs/group) of lactose (1 mg/kg, control treatment), etodolac (15 mg/kg), meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg), carprofen (4 mg/kg), and ketoprofen (2 mg/kg for 4 days, followed by 1 mg/kg daily thereafter) or flunixin (1 mg/kg for 3 days, with 4-day intervals). Gastroscopy was performed before and after the end of treatment. For serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity, values were significantly increased at day 30 in dogs treated with lactose, etodolac, and meloxicam within groups. Bleeding time was significantly increased in dogs treated with carprofen at 30 and 90 days, compared with baseline. At 7 days, bleeding time was significantly longer in dogs treated with meloxicam, ketoprofen, and flunixin, compared with control dogs. Clotting time increased significantly in all groups except those treated with etodolac. At day 90, clotting time was significantly shorter in flunixin-treated dogs, compared with lactose-treated dogs. Gastric lesions were detected in all dogs treated with etodolac, ketoprofen, and flunixin, and 1 of 6 treated with carprofen. Carprofen induced the lowest frequency of gastrointestinal adverse effects, followed by meloxicam. Monitoring for adverse effects should be considered when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat dogs with chronic pain.

  15. Dogs, zoonoses and immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R A; Pugh, R N

    2002-06-01

    Dogs are the source of a wide range of zoonotic infections that pose a significant threat to human health. This is particularly the case for immunocompromised people, although there are few robust studies that determine immunosuppression as a risk factor for transmission of zoonoses from dogs to humans. An increasing proportion of human society is immunodeficient, principally through the advent of HIV infection and through more people, particularly the expanding elderly group, being subjected to immunosuppressive agents. This is happening at a time when more such people are capitalizing on the acknowledged benefits of dog ownership, making for a potentially dangerous mix. Enteric pathogens (for example, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium species, that may be canine derived) are a frequent risk to the health of immunocompromised persons. Veterinarians and physicians can be criticised for not communicating with each other, and for not providing adequate risk assessment to pet owners. There is scope for voluntary groups to provide information and support for the immunosuppressed who wish to keep their dogs. Key recommendations are to maintain a clean personal environment and intact mucocutaneous barriers. Public health professionals could help rectify the current communications gap between veterinary and medical staff and so facilitate in the appropriate management of dog-owning immunocompromised people.

  16. Breed differences in development of anti-insulin antibodies in diabetic dogs and investigation of the role of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes.

    PubMed

    Holder, Angela L; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ollier, William E R; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-10-15

    Administration of insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs can stimulate an immune response, with a proportion of animals developing anti-insulin antibodies (AIA). For an IgG antibody response to occur, this would require B cell presentation of insulin peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, encoded by dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes, in order to receive T-cell help for class switching. DLA genes are highly polymorphic in the dog population and vary from breed to breed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate AIA reactivity in diabetic dogs of different breeds and to investigate whether DLA genes influence AIA status. Indirect ELISA was used to determine serological reactivity to insulin in diabetic dogs, treated with either a porcine or bovine insulin preparation. DLA haplotypes for diabetic dogs were determined by sequence-based typing of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. Significantly greater insulin reactivity was seen in treated diabetic dogs (n=942) compared with non-diabetic dogs (n=100). Relatively few newly diagnosed diabetic dogs (3/109) were found to be AIA positive, although this provides evidence that insulin autoantibodies might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease in some cases. Of the diabetic dogs treated with a bovine insulin preparation, 52.3% (182/348) were AIA positive, compared with 12.6% (75/594) of dogs treated with a porcine insulin preparation, suggesting that bovine insulin is more immunogenic. Breeds such as dachshund, Cairn terrier, miniature schnauzer and Tibetan terrier were more likely to develop AIA, whereas cocker spaniels were less likely to develop AIA, compared with crossbreed dogs. In diabetic dogs, DLA haplotype DRB1*0015--DQA1*006--DQB1*023 was associated with being AIA positive, whereas the haplotype DLA-DRB1*006--DQA1*005--DQB1*007 showed an association with being AIA negative. These research findings suggest that DLA genes influence AIA responses in treated diabetic

  17. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  18. [Bacteriology and mycology of otitis externa in dogs].

    PubMed

    Bornand, V

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial and fungal flora of 1118 ears of dogs with otitis externa and 100 ears of healthy control dogs were studied in order to isolate the causative agents. The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis (56%) was by far the most common organism in otitic dogs followed by the bacteria Staphylococcus intermedius (23%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Proteus spp. (6%) and Streptococcus canis (5%). A statistical analysis of observed results showed that the incidence of these organisms is significant in otitic dogs. Many strains of S.intermedius, P.aeruginosa and Proteus spp. are resistant to antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat otitis externa. Therefore an antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using "Cobas Bact" for these bacterias. Furthermore, 80 strains of M.pachydermatis were submitted to identification-kits (API 20 CAUX, API STAPH, Cobas Micro). The observed results showed that an identification with these tests was not possible.

  19. Urinary tract infections due to Mycoplasma canis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ulgen, M; Cetin, C; Sentürk, S; Ozel, A E; Ozdemir, U

    2006-09-01

    Urine samples were obtained from 100 dogs with symptoms of lower urinary tract disease by cystocentesis and were examined for mycoplasmas. Urinalysis, haematological and biochemical analyses were also performed. Bacteria were isolated from urine in 41 of 100 dogs; Mycoplasma canis was isolated from four of 100 (4%) urine samples and three were pure culture. Selective mycoplasma media were used for isolation. In growth inhibition test, propagation of the four M. canis isolates was inhibited by their specific hyperimmune sera and there was no cross reactivity between isolates and hyperimmune sera of other mycoplasmas. Dogs in which M. canis was isolated were azotemic. All dogs were treated with enrofloxacin, furosemide, and supportive therapy (fluid therapy, ascorbic acid). In all animals, clinical improvements were observed after treatment.

  20. Child health update. Management of dog bites in children.

    PubMed

    Sabhaney, Vikram; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-10-01

    A 4-year-old girl was playing with her neighbour's dog. The dog became excited and bit the girl on the forearm, leaving a puncture wound. As a result of the injury, she has presented to my office. Should she be treated with antibiotics? If so, which antibiotic should be used and for how long? Initiation of prophylactic antibiotics is indicated if the dog bite has undergone primary closure; if there is a moderate or severe bite wound; for puncture wounds (especially if penetration of bone, tendon sheath, or joint), facial bites, bites to the hands or feet, or genital area bites; or wounds sustained by victims who are immunocompromised or asplenic. The first-line choice of antibiotic is amoxicillin-clavulanate. Appropriate tetanus and rabies prophylaxis as indicated should also be a part of caring for a patient who has sustained a dog bite, as well as local debridement and thorough cleaning of the wound.

  1. Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens

    PubMed Central

    Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

  2. Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

  3. B-cell lymphoma in a dog with ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and systemic histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)

    PubMed Central

    Brunker, Jill D.; Hoover, John P.

    2007-01-01

    A mixed breed dog treated for ehrlichiosis and systemic histoplasmosis developed a refractory thrombocytopenia. When an abdominal mass was detected, exploratory laparotomy and biopsies confirmed lymphoma, which on immunohistochemical stains was determined to be of B-cell origin. Conceivably, the B-cell lymphoma in this dog was associated with chronic inflammation from ehrlichiosis, histoplasmosis, or both. PMID:17436907

  4. B-cell lymphoma in a dog with ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and systemic histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum).

    PubMed

    Brunker, Jill D; Hoover, John P

    2007-03-01

    A mixed breed dog treated for ehrlichiosis and systemic histoplasmosis developed a refractory thrombocytopenia. When an abdominal mass was detected, exploratory laparotomy and biopsies confirmed lymphoma, which on immunohistochemical stains was determined to be of B-cell origin. Conceivably, the B-cell lymphoma in this dog was associated with chronic inflammation from ehrlichiosis, histoplasmosis, or both.

  5. Ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to protect dogs from Borrelia burgdorferi infection transmitted by wild Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Baker, C F; McCall, J W; McCall, S D; Drag, M D; Mitchell, E B; Chester, S T; Larsen, D

    2016-12-01

    A randomized, blinded, negative controlled study was conducted to determine whether treatment with afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial, Inc.) would prevent the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to dogs by wild caught Ixodes scapularis ticks. Twenty healthy dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of ten dogs each. Ten dogs were treated orally on Day 0 at a dose near the minimum recommended dose of afoxolaner of 2.5mg/kg (actual doses 2.5-3.1mg/kg) and ten control dogs were not treated. On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 50 adult unfed wild caught I. scapularis that had a 67% B. burgdorferi infection rate (determined by polymerase chain reaction). On Day 33, live ticks were counted and removed. No ticks were found on treated dogs while control dogs had an average of 21.4 ticks. To detect infection, the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test (IDEXX) was performed on serum collected before infestation (all dogs seronegative on Days -6 and 27) and on Days 48, 63, 77 and 92. The ten treated dogs remained seronegative through the end of the study (Day 92), while nine out of the ten control dogs were infected, as demonstrated by their seroconversion to being positive for the presence of the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody starting on Day 48. In this study, all dogs treated with NexGard(®) 28days prior to challenge with wild caught I. scapularis ticks were protected from B. burgdorferi infection, while nine out of the ten untreated control dogs were infected.

  6. 77 FR 54368 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... effects of mental health illnesses, while providing benefits for service dogs that mitigate the effects of... benefits for a dog to mitigate the effects of a mental illness that are not related to visual, hearing, or... determine that these dogs provide a medical benefit to veterans with mental illness. Until such a...

  7. Bartonella quintana Endocarditis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maggi, Ricardo; Sontakke, Sushama; Keene, Bruce; Hunter, Stuart; Lepidi, Hubert; Breitschwerdt, Kyle T.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Raoult, Didier

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first evidence that Bartonella quintana can infect dogs and cause typical signs of endocarditis. Using PCR and sequencing, we identified B. quintana in the blood of a dog from the United States with aortic valve endocarditis and probably also in the mitral valve of a dog from New Zealand with endocarditis. PMID:17326937

  8. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  9. Association of pruritus with anxiety or aggression in dogs.

    PubMed

    Klinck, Mary P; Shofer, Frances S; Reisner, Ilana R

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the association between pruritus and anxiety-related and aggressive behaviors in dogs. Cross-sectional survey. 238 dogs between 1 and 8 years old. Information including a score for general degree of pruritus (visual analogue scale from 0 to 10) and frequency of anxiety-related and aggressive behaviors was collected via a survey distributed to clients at 3 privately owned practices. Median score for pruritus was 2.4. Dogs were assigned to 2 groups on the basis of pruritus score (nonpruritic [0 to 2.4] and pruritic [2.5 to 10]). There was no significant difference between pruritic and nonpruritic dogs with regard to aggression or with regard to reactivity to being alone; to thunderstorms or noises; or to unfamiliar people, animals, or objects. Post hoc analysis revealed significantly more reactivity to thunderstorms or noises in dogs treated with glucocorticoids (18/37 [49%]) than in those not administered glucocorticoids (57/197 [29%]). An association was not detected between pruritus and aggressive, anxious, or fearful behavior in dogs. There was greater reactivity to thunderstorms or noises in glucocorticoid-treated dogs. These findings do not preclude the possibility of a relationship between certain dermatoses or pruritic conditions and behavior. However, a concurrent behavioral abnormality cannot be assumed to result from a dermatosis and be expected to resolve with treatment of only the skin disease. Dogs with behavioral disorders and pruritic disease require primary treatment of both conditions. Additional studies to examine the effect of disease and glucocorticoids on canine behavior are warranted.

  10. The biological effects of radium-224 injected into dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1996-08-01

    A life-span study was conducted in 128 beagle dogs to determine the biological effects of intravenously injected {sup 224}Ra chloride. The {sup 224}Ra chloride was prepared by the same method used for intravenous injections in humans who were treated for ankylosing spondylitis and tuberculosis. Thus the results obtained from dogs can be compared directly to the population of treated humans, both for the elucidation of the effect of exposure rate and for comparison with other radionuclides for which data for humans are unavailable. Using equal numbers of males and females, the dogs were injected with one of four levels of {sup 224}Ra resulting in initial body burdens of approximately 13, 40, 120 or 350 kBq of {sup 224}Ra kg{sup -1} body mass. A control group of dogs was injected with diluent only. All dogs were divided further into three groups for which the amount of injected {sup 224}Ra (half-life of 3.62 days) or diluent was given in a single injection or divided equally into 10 or 50 weekly injections. As a result of these three injection schedules, the accumulation of dose from the injected {sup 224}Ra was distributed over approximately 1, 3 or 12 months. Each injection schedule included four different injection levels resulting in average absorbed {alpha}-particle doses to bone of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Gy, respectively. The primary early effect observed was a hematological dyscrasia in the dogs receiving either of the two highest injection levels. The effect was most severe in the dogs receiving a single injection of {sup 224}Ra and resulted in the death of three dogs injected at the highest level. The late-occurring biological effects were tumors. Bone tumors were the most common followed by tumors in the nasal mucosa. 52 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Oral Cobalamin Supplementation in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathies and Hypocobalaminemia.

    PubMed

    Toresson, L; Steiner, J M; Suchodolski, J S; Spillmann, T

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin deficiency is commonly associated with chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs and current treatment protocols recommend parenteral supplementation. In humans, several studies have reported equal efficacy of oral and parenteral cobalamin administration of cobalamin. To retrospectively evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobalaminemia in dogs with CE and hypocobalaminemia. Fifty-one client-owned dogs with various signs of CE and hypocobalaminemia. Retrospective study based on a computerized database search for dogs treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden during January 2012-March 2014. Inclusion criteria were dogs with signs of CE, an initial serum cobalamin ≤270 ng/L (reference interval: 234-811 ng/L) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Serum cobalamin for follow-up was analyzed 20-202 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation started. All dogs became normocobalaminemic with oral cobalamin supplementation. The mean increase in serum cobalamin concentration after treatment was 794 ± 462 ng/L. Serum cobalamin concentrations were significantly higher after supplementation (mean 1017 ± 460 ng/L; P < .0001) than at baseline (mean 223 ± 33 ng/L). Our results suggest that oral cobalamin supplementation is effective in normalizing serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs with CE. Prospective studies comparing cellular cobalamin status in dogs being treated with parenteral versus oral cobalamin supplementation are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine supplementation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Efficacy of AST-120 in dogs with chronic idiopathic enteropathies.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, M; Wirtherle, N C; Beddies, G F; Kohn, B

    2013-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic enteropathies (CIE) in dogs are complex diseases of unknown origin. AST-120 is a spherical carbon adsorbent preparation with a high adsorption ability for low molecular substances. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of AST-120 in dogs with CIE. Ten client-owned dogs with mild (n = 7) to moderate (n = 3) CIE. Explorative, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded pilot study. Dogs with chronic diarrhea and no or insufficient response to an elimination diet were included. The dogs received either AST-120 (n = 5) or placebo (n = 5) for a duration of 21 days. The canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI) was used to assess disease severity at baseline and clinical outcome after 3 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, changes in body weight and the parameters stool consistency and frequency were compared within and between groups. The mean CIBDAI score decreased from 5.6 (SD 1.5) to 2.0 (SD 1.2) in the AST-120 group (P = .125) and from 4.8 (SD .8) to 3.6 (SD 2.3) in the placebo group (P = .688). Compared with baseline, posttreatment CIBDAI scores decreased more than 60% in 4/5 dogs treated with AST-120 and in 1/5 dogs treated with placebo (P = .206). Changes in CIBDAI scores, body weights, stool consistency, and frequency within and between groups did not achieve statistical significance after 3 weeks of treatment. No adverse effects of AST-120 were noted. This study investigated potential efficacy of AST-120 as an alternative therapy in dogs with mild-to-moderate CIE. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Longitudinal analysis of serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune®.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Mary; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; de Araújo, Maria de Fátima Lereno; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo; Vieira, Rafael F C; Biondo, Alexander W

    2013-11-08

    Development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide a prophylactic barrier, but antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques may not separate vaccinated from naturally infected dogs. Moreover, anti-Leishmania antibody levels in vaccinated dogs may be detectable for months. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate an "in-house" ELISA with three serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of CVL in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®). A total of 18 mongrel dogs were submitted to a complete protocol of the vaccine, monitored and evaluated in 5 times (T0-T4) up to 180 days after T0. Twenty-one days after the first dose (T1), 50% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA and 5.5% by IFAT, while by the official ELISA and DPP(®) CVL rapid test all dogs tested negative. At time T2, 42 days after of the first dose, 100%, 83.3%, 11.1%, and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, IFAT, official ELISA kit and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Ninety days after the first dose (T3), 100%, 83.3%, 72.2% and 33.3% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, IFAT, and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Finally, at time T4, 88.8%, 33.3%, 11.1% and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, DPP(®) CVL rapid test and IFAT, respectively. In conclusion, dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) cross-react by an "in-house" ELISA and by the three official Brazilian serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis up to six months after the first vaccine dose, and may be mistakenly diagnosed and removed.

  14. Use of ketoconazole in treatment of dermatophytosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Angarano, D W; Scott, D W

    1987-06-01

    Ketoconazole, an antifungal imidazole derivative, was used successfully to treat Tricophyton mentagrophytes infection in a dog. The drug was administered orally (11 mg/kg of body weight, q 24 h) and continued for 90 days. Though ketoconazole is not licensed currently for veterinary purposes, it has been used successfully to treat dermatophyte infections as well as intermediate and deep fungal diseases in both dogs and cats. In this case, ketoconazole was found to be nontoxic and less expensive than griseofulvin in the treatment of dermatophytosis.

  15. Comparison of analgesia provided by lidocaine, lidocaine-morphine or lidocaine-tramadol delivered epidurally in dogs following orchiectomy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ricardo M; Escobar, André; Maguilnik, Samara

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the postoperative analgesia provided by epidural lidocaine, lidocaine/morphine or lidocaine/tramadol in dogs following elective orchiectomy. Prospective experimental trial. Thirty-six mongrel dogs aged 2-8 years old, weighing 6.6-22 kg. The dogs received 6.0 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine combined with 1.0 mg kg(-1) of tramadol, 0.1 mg kg(-1) of morphine or 0.01 mL kg(-1) of 0.9% NaCl epidurally. Analgesia was assessed at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours (T4, T8, T12 and T24) after the offset of lidocaine using a scale composed of physiologic and behavioral parameters. Rescue analgesia with morphine (0.2 mg kg(-1) , IM) was performed if the evaluation score exceeded 10 during the postoperative period. The scores over time were analyzed using the Friedman's two-way analysis of variance and the comparison between groups was made by the Kruskal-Wallis test with statistical significances accepted if p ≤ 0.05. There were no differences in the pain scores between the morphine and tramadol groups over time and no rescue analgesia was administered. In the NaCl group, rescue analgesia was needed at T4, T8 and T12. Within this group, the final evaluation times (T18 and T24) had lower pain scores than at T4, T8 and T12. Epidural lidocaine/tramadol provided an analgesic effect comparable to that of epidural lidocaine/morphine during the first 12 hours after surgical castration without substantial side effects, suggesting that tramadol may be an effective postoperative analgesic in dogs submitted to this surgical procedure. © 2010 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2010 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  16. The effect of pre-anaesthetic fasting time and type of food on gastric content volume and acidity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Savvas, Ioannis; Rallis, Timoleon; Raptopoulos, Dimitris

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the effect of pre-anaesthetic fasting time and variety of food on gastric content (GC) volume and pH in dogs. Randomized, cross-over, prospective experimental study. Fifteen mongrel dogs (nine females and six males 1-4 years old, weighing 10-24.5 kg). Each dog received the same seven treatments in random order: dry food 3 hours before anaesthesia (BA) (treatment 3D), canned food (half daily rate) 3 hours BA (treatment 3C), 0% fat cow milk 3 hours BA (treatment 3M), dry food 10 hours BA (treatment 10D), canned food 10 hours BA (treatment 10C), low fat canned food 10 hours BA (treatment 10F) and low protein canned food 10 hours BA (treatment 10P). All animals were pre-medicated with propionyl promazine and anaesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium and maintained with halothane. GC was aspirated using an orogastric catheter and its volume and pH were measured. Treatment 10F had significantly lower GC pH than all the 3-hour treatments. Treatments 10D and 10P had significantly lower pH than treatments 3D and 3C. Treatment 3M had significantly lower pH than the other 3-hour treatments. Treatment 3D had significantly greater gastric volume than treatments 3M, 10C, 10F and 10P. Canned food at half the daily rate administered 3 hours before anaesthesia did not increase significantly the GC volume compared to the other types of food used. The GC pH was also high. This type of food fed 3 hours before induction of anaesthesia may be of benefit in reduction of the incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux during anaesthesia in dogs.

  17. Histological and Histometrical Evaluation of two Synthetic Hydroxyapatite Based Biomaterials in the Experimental Periodontal Defects in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jose; Palathingal, Plato; Varma, BRR; Bhat, Mahalinga; Mohanty, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was to evaluate histologically and histometrically the efficacy of Chitra granules in the regeneration of alveolar bone and to compare it with that of OsteoGenR (HA Resorb)TM in iatrogenically created alveolar bone defects in mongrel dogs. Materials and Methods: Four dogs (16 sites) were used for this split-mouth study. The animals were divided randomly into two groups of two animals. Same animals were used as control and test. Each dog had four implantation sites. The periodontal defects were prepared by acute defect model. Animals were sacrificed at 3 months (n=2), 6 months (n=2) and histologic and histometric evaluation was carried out. Statistical Analysis: The data was analysed using statistical package Graph pad Software. Comparison of the hard and soft tissue parameters in the two groups was done using the Wilcoxan (Man Whitney), two tailed t-test. A p-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Maturing bone with immature periodontal ligament fibers were observed at three months and advanced osteogenesis at six months with both the types of bone graft materials. The mean values showed that amount of new bone formed with OsteoGenR (HA Resorb)TM was slightly more than that obtained by Chitra granules in histometric evaluation. Conclusion: Histological study showed similar healing pattern with both the types of bone graft materials with maturing bone at 3 months and advanced osteogenesis at six months in experimental intraosseous periodontal defects in dogs. However, histological evaluation for longer period is necessary to determine the time taken for complete replacement of the bone graft materials with new bone. PMID:25386523

  18. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  19. Preliminary findings on the effect of melatonin on the clinical outcome of cataract surgery in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sande, Pablo H; Álvarez, Javier; Calcagno, Javier; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2016-05-01

    Cataract is the most prevalent cause of blindness in dogs. Phacoemulsification (PE) is currently the surgical treatment of choice to remove the opaque lens; however, it is associated with varying degrees of postoperative inflammation. We assessed the effect of melatonin on postoperative complications of canine cataract surgery. Eleven diabetic and thirteen healthy owned dogs with cataracts. All dogs underwent cataract surgery by PE. The anti-inflammatory effect of melatonin was compared with the reference treatments: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for diabetic dogs, and dexamethasone for nondiabetic dogs. Eyes were examined by means of clinical evaluation and intraocular pressure (IOP). In diabetic dogs, melatonin was more effective than topical and systemic NSAIDs in reducing the clinical score at 2, 7, and 20 days postsurgery, while it showed a similar efficacy to topical dexamethasone in dogs with hereditary cataracts. IOP decreased in all groups at 2 days postsurgery, but this decrease reached statistical significance only in diabetic dogs treated with NSAIDs, and persisted at 7 days postsurgery in this group. Afterward, IOP returned to normal values in all groups. Melatonin decreased the occurrence of surgical sequelae in diabetic and nondiabetic dogs. These results indicate that melatonin might constitute a useful tool for reducing postoperative PE complications in dogs. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Effects of a transdermal lidocaine patch on indicators of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing midline ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Merema, Danielle K; Schoenrock, Emily K; Le Boedec, Kevin; McMichael, Maureen A

    2017-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of a transdermal lidocaine patch (TLP) on indicators of postoperative pain in healthy dogs following ovariohysterectomy. DESIGN Randomized, blinded controlled trial. ANIMALS 40 healthy shelter-owned female dogs admitted to a student surgery program for ovariohysterectomy. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive after ovariohysterectomy a 5-cm-wide strip of TLP applied topically on both sides of the incision, for the full length of the incision and a wound dressing (n = 19) or a placebo patch (nonmedicated wound dressing; 21). All dogs underwent midline ovariohysterectomy. Immediately afterward, dogs received 2 IM morphine injections, carprofen (SC, q 12 h for 2 days), and the assigned patch (left in place for 18 hours). Postoperative comfort was evaluated by use of the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measures Pain Scale and serum cortisol concentrations measured prior to premedication and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 hours after surgery. RESULTS No significant difference in pain scores or serum cortisol concentrations was identified between dogs that received the TLP and dogs that received a placebo patch after ovariohysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The TLP provided no additional analgesic benefit to dogs treated concurrently with recommended doses of morphine and carprofen following ovariohysterectomy. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether similar results might be achieved in dogs treated concurrently with other analgesics. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250:1140-1147).

  1. Multiple extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs: 30 cases (1981-1993).

    PubMed

    Boothe, H W; Howe, L M; Edwards, J F; Slater, M R

    1996-06-01

    To describe the long-term outcome in dogs with naturally developing multiple extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (PSS). Retrospective case series. 30 dogs with multiple PSS. Medical records of dogs with multiple PSS were reviewed. Follow-up data were obtained by 1 or more of the following methods: recheck at the veterinary teaching hospital (n = 6) or telephone contact with the referring veterinarian (n = 18) or owner (n = 10). The chi 2 or Mann-Whitney rank sum test was used to determine the association of clinical factors with long-term outcome. Survival curves were generated by the Kaplan-Meier product limit method. Median age at diagnosis was 1 year. Findings on exploratory surgery in 25 dogs included ascites; numerous tortuous vessels connecting the portal vein with systemic veins; a small, misshapen liver; and an enlarged portal vein. The most common lesions on histologic evaluation of hepatic tissue specimens were hepatocellular atrophy, portal vascular duplication, cirrhosis, inflammation, and bile duct proliferation. Twelve dogs were treated surgically with vena caval banding, whereas 13 dogs were treated conservatively with dietary restriction of protein and administration of antibiotics, diuretics, and other drugs. Long-term survival and quality of life were similar in dogs from both treatment groups. Median follow-up interval in dogs that survived hospitalization was 24 months (range, 1 to 54 months). On the basis of these findings, vena caval banding in dogs with multiple PSS is not superior to medical and nutritional treatment.

  2. Escherichia coli-induced lung and liver dysfunction in dogs: effects of flunixin meglumine treatment.

    PubMed

    Hardie, E M; Rawlings, C A; Shotts, E B; Waltman, D W; Rakich, P M

    1987-01-01

    Twelve dogs were infused with 10(10) Escherichia coli/kg of body weight through a portal vein catheter over a 1-hour period; 6 dogs were treated with flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg) 15 minutes after the infusion had begun. Six dogs (controls) were infused with a comparable volume of sterile saline solution over the same period. Over a 4-hour monitoring period, nontreated septicemic dogs developed systemic hypotension, decreased cardiac output, increased portal pressure, increased serum alanine transaminase values, increased extravascular liver water, increased liver glycogen depletion, and decreased arterial oxygen tension compared with control dogs. Accumulations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and E coli were found in the livers and lungs of septicemic dogs. Flunixin meglumine treatment prevented systemic hypotension and hypoxemia, reversed the early but not the late stages of portal hypertension, and decreased E coli concentrations in the lungs. Other effects of treatment were not noticed.

  3. Hepatic encephalopathy in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Lidbury, Jonathan A; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M

    2016-07-01

    To comparatively review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in dogs and cats. The Medline database was searched for articles related to HE in people, dogs, and cats. Articles published within the last 5 years were given special importance. The pathogenesis of HE is complex and incompletely understood, but ammonia appears to play a central role. Hyperammonemia leads to accumulation of glutamine in astrocytes, with subsequent astrocyte swelling and neurological dysfunction. The development of HE in patients with hepatic cirrhosis is a poor prognostic indicator. The fermentable disaccharide lactulose and the antimicrobial rifaximin are US Food and Drug Administration approved treatments for human HE. Severe protein restriction is no longer recommended for patients with this condition. HE is often associated with portosystemic shunting in dogs and cats. Ammonia plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HE in dogs and cats, but other factors such as manganese and endogenous benzodiazepines may also contribute. Recently, a soy protein-based diet was found to be beneficial in treating canine HE. Severe dietary protein restriction is likely to be detrimental in affected animals. There have been no clinical trials of drugs routinely used in the management HE in veterinary medicine, but lactulose and antimicrobials such as metronidazole are well-established treatments. HE is a potentially life-threatening condition that is probably underdiagnosed in companion animals. Although various treatment recommendations have been proposed, there is a lack of evidence in the veterinary literature regarding optimal strategies for the management of this condition. As our understanding of the pathogenesis of HE in dogs and cats evolves, novel diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents may become available. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  4. Clinical effects of vinorelbine administration in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs: 58 cases (1997–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Wouda, Raelene M.; Miller, Mairin E.; Chon, Esther; Stein, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of vinorelbine in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs. Design Retrospective case series. Animals 58 dogs with malignant tumors, including pulmonary carcinoma (n = 31), histiocytic sarcoma (9), mast cell tumor (5), lymphoma (4), melanoma (2), and 7 other tumor types (1 each). Procedures Medical records of dogs treated with vinorelbine from December 1997 to December 2012 were reviewed for data regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic test results, diagnostic imaging results, vinorelbine doses and dose frequency, surgery and radiotherapy details when applicable, other chemotherapeutics administered, and outcomes. Descriptive, comparative, and survival statistics were computed for all dogs and for dogs by histologic subgroup of tumors. Results Vinorelbine was administered palliatively to 44 (76%) dogs. One (2%) dog had a complete response for 162 days, 5 (11%) dogs had a partial response for a median duration of 91 days, 19 (43%) dogs had stable disease for a median duration of 68 days, and 19 (43%) dogs developed progressive disease after a median duration of 21 days. Clinical benefit was more difficult to assess in the remaining 14 (24%) dogs that received vinorelbine as an adjuvant treatment. Overall median time to tumor progression was 103 days (range, 5 to 1,533 days). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Vinorelbine appeared to be effective in the treatment of several tumor types in dogs. Follow-up prospective studies of the clinical benefit of the drug in specific clinical scenarios will be necessary to support this conclusion. PMID:25970220

  5. The effects of cromolyn sodium in dogs undergoing high-frequency oscillation superimposed on conventional mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Terada, Y; Matsunobe, S; Nemoto, T; Shimizu, Y; Hitomi, S

    1992-09-01

    The effects on gas exchange of superimposition of high-frequency oscillation (HFO) (40 Hz) on conventional mechanical ventilation were investigated in mongrel dogs with eucapnic gas exchange on conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). The dogs were anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated with CMV until stable. Oscillation was then superimposed for 15 min, followed by CMV alone for a further 30 min. During HFO superimposed on CMV (CMV-HFO), the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) increased from 43.6 +/- 1.2 mm Hg to 47.2 +/- 1.4 mm Hg (p less than 0.02), whereas the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) did not change at all. The change was inhibited completely by administration of intravenous cromolyn sodium (CS) (6 mg/kg/min). The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), cardiac output (CO), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) did not change during the experiment. These results demonstrate that CMV-HFO appears to cause CO2 accumulation and eliminates the impaired O2 transfer, and that these effects are inhibited completely by CS administration.

  6. Platelet-rich plasma plus bioactive glass in the treatment of intra-bony defects: a study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    CARVALHO, Marcelo Diniz; SUAID, Fabrícia Ferreira; SANTAMARIA, Mauro Pedrine; CASATI, Marcio Zaffalon; NOCITI Jr., Francisco Humberto; SALLUM, Antonio Wilson; SALLUM, Enilson Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate, histomorphometrically, the association of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bioactive glass (BG) in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. Material and Methods Nine mongrel dogs were included in the study. Three-wall intrabony defects were surgically created at the mesial and distal aspect of first mandibular molar and exposed to plaque accumulation for 1 month. The defects were randomly assigned to the groups: control, BG, PRP, PRP+BG. Dogs were sacrificed 90 days after the surgeries. The histometric parameters evaluated were: length of sulcular and junctional epithelium, connective tissue adaptation, new cementum, new bone, defect extension and area of new bone filling the defect. Results A superior area of new bone was observed in PRP+BG and BG (13.80±2.32 mm2 and 15.63±2.64 mm2, respectively) when compared to the other groups (8.19±1.46 mm2 and 8.81±1.47 mm2 for control and PRP, respectively). No statistically significant differences were observed in the remaining parameters. Conclusion Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that PRP failed to provide statistically significant improvements in the histometric parameters. PMID:21437475

  7. Experimental parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, L N; Jones, J B; Patton, C S; Webb-Martin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Five eight week old dogs were inoculated orally and intranasally with cell culture origin canine parvovirus. Three dogs became depressed and anorectic and developed a mild (one dog) to severe diarrhea five days postinfection. The remaining dogs had subclinical infections but developed a lymphopenia followed by a transient lymphocytosis. The ill dogs developed mild (one dog) to severe neutropenia and a moderate lymphopenia. One died nine days postinfection. Recovery was associated with cessation of viral excretion and with lymphocytosis and antibody production. Two of three dogs challenged intragastrically developed mild clinical signs and a moderate panleukopenia four to eight days postinfection. The pathological changes of the experimental disease were very similar to that of spontaneous disease. Bone marrow changes included a severe granulocytic and mild erythroid depletion. The pathogenesis of canine parvovirus infection is discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7340906

  8. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  9. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation of susceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicals from a less susceptible host.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    PubMed

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes

  11. Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Souza, Marina Campos de Castro; Vermelho, Ligia Lobato Ramos; Vermelho, Marina Lobato Ramos; Perciano, Pedro Griffo; Vargas, Fabiano Souza; Borges, Andréa Pacheco Batista; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent illness that affects many dogs, reaching up to 85 % prevalence in individuals over the age of 4 years. Currently the drug of choice for combating the formation of dental plaque in these animals, the etiologic agent of the disease, is chlorhexidine, which has several side effects reported. Thus, surveys are conducted throughout the world in order to identify potential substitutes for antimicrobial therapy and prevention of periodontal disease. The objective of the work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of β-caryophyllene against bacteria from dog's dental plaque in vitro and in vivo. The minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated by agar microdilution assay, the induction or inhibition of bacterial adherence by sub-inhibitory concentrations in 96-well plates, and reduction of dental plaque formation in mongrel dogs subjected to topical solution with β-caryophyllene for 15 days. Results showed minimum inhibitory concentrations above 100 mg/mL for 25 % of the isolates, 100 mg/mL for 3 %, 50 mg/mL for 25 %, 25 mg/mL for 12 %, 12.5 mg/mL for 19 % and 6.25 mg/mL for 16 %. Bacterial adherences of three Enterococcus sp., one Streptococcus sp., one Haemophilus sp., one Aerococcus sp., one Bacillus sp. and one Lactococcus sp. isolates were inhibited by subinhibitory concentration. One Lactococcus sp., one Bacillus sp. and one Streptococcus sp. were stimulated to adhere by concentrations of 0.19, 1.56 and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. In vivo assay showed reduction in dental plaque formation by β-caryophyllene, with final plaque coverage of 23.3 ± 2.6 % of the total area of the teeth, with significant difference compared with chlorhexidine group (37.5 ± 3.7 % - p < 0.05) and negative control group (65.5 ± 2.5 % - p < 0.001). The results showed that β-caryophyllene has antimicrobial activity against the proliferation of dog's dental plaque-forming bacteria representing a suitable

  12. Continuous cardiac output monitoring via arterial pressure waveform analysis following severe hemorrhagic shock in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Edward S; Muir, William W

    2007-07-01

    To determine agreement and correlation between cardiac output determined by arterial pressure waveform analysis (PulseCO) and the lithium dilution indicator technique (LiDCO) during severe hemorrhagic shock and after fluid resuscitation in dogs. Prospective experimental study. University research laboratory. Twelve adult mongrel dogs. Dogs were anesthetized, and selected arteries and veins were catheterized. Baseline cardiac output was determined by LiDCO and used to calibrate the PulseCO. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood to achieve and maintain a mean arterial pressure of 30-40 mm Hg for 60 mins, and cardiac output was measured again using both methods. All dogs were resuscitated by administering lactated Ringer's solution intravenously to achieve and maintain a mean arterial pressure between 60 and 70 mm Hg. PulseCO and LiDCO values were measured at 10 and 120 mins after resuscitation. Mean baseline cardiac output was 2.93 +/- 0.45 L/min. PulseCO values overestimated cardiac output compared with LiDCO during hemorrhagic shock (2.25 vs. 0.78 L/min). There were no differences in cardiac output determined by PulseCO and LiDCO at 10 and 120 mins after fluid resuscitation. Bland-Altman analysis suggested that PulseCO values were inaccurate after hemorrhage, producing significant bias with wide limits of agreement and percentage error (1.47 +/- 1.46 L/min; 97%). Bias was small but the limits of agreement and percentage error were large for cardiac output at 10 and 120 mins after resuscitation (-0.1 +/- 1.88 [98%] and -0.17 +/- 1.32 [71%] L/min, respectively). There appeared to be a negative but not significant correlation after hemorrhage (r = -.45; p = .15). PulseCO determination of cardiac output does not accurately predict rapid decreases in cardiac output or the effects of fluid resuscitation in dogs. Recalibration of PulseCO may be necessary after any apparent or suspected decrease in cardiac preload, afterload, or contractility.

  13. Evaluation of praziquantel for treatment of experimentally induced paragonimiasis in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bowman, D D; Frongillo, M K; Johnson, R C; Beck, K A; Hornbuckle, W E; Blue, J T

    1991-01-01

    Praziquantel was used successfully for treatment of a small number of dogs and 1 cat infected with Paragonimus kellicotti. To further evaluate the usefulness of this drug in treating such infections, 7 cats and 7 dogs were inoculated orally with metacercariae (12 and 20 to 22, respectively) obtained from crayfish, then were treated after the infections became patent; 2 cats and 2 dogs served as noninfected controls. Beginning 1 week before infection, and continuing weekly thereafter, physical, hematologic, and fecal examinations were performed on each animal; thoracic radiography was performed every other week. By postinoculation week 6, all dogs given metacercariae had patent infection diagnosed on the basis of positive results of fecal examination. By postinoculation week 7, 5 cats had confirmed patent infection, but 2 cats given metacercariae never had patent infection or had signs of infection. Clinical signs of infection were minor and included increased respiratory tract noise, slight inducible cough, or mild dyspnea. Transient eosinophilia was detected in dogs around postinoculation week 3. Pretreatment radiography revealed cavitated lesions in cats only; pleural lines and patchy infiltrates in cats and dogs; or pneumothorax in dogs only. The treatment regimen consisted of 23 mg of praziquantel/kg of body weight given every 8 hours for 3 days; 1 infected cat and dog were not treated. By 11 days after treatment, eggs had disappeared from the feces of infected animals, and marked resolution of lung lesions was evident radiographically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Efficacy and safety of cefovecin (Convenia) for the treatment of urinary tract infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Passmore, C A; Sherington, J; Stegemann, M R

    2007-03-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of cefovecin (Convenia); Pfizer Animal Health) in the treatment of urinary tract infections in dogs. A multi-centre, blinded, randomised study was conducted in 129 dogs with urinary tract infections. Cephalexin (Rilexine) administered twice daily at 15 mg/kg bodyweight orally for 14 days was compared with a single, subcutaneous injection of cefovecin (Convenia) in dogs. The primary efficacy parameter assessed was bacterial elimination of the pretreatment uropathogen. One hundred and twenty-nine dogs were included in efficacy assessments. Escherichia coli was eliminated in 90.5 per cent of cefovecin-treated dogs compared with 52.9 per cent of cephalexin-treated dogs (P=0.0004). Overall cure rates for dogs with Escherichia coli infections were 79.1 per cent for cefovecin and 36.4 per cent for cephalexin-treated dogs (P=0.0003). There were no suspected adverse drug reactions attributed to treatment with cefovecin or cephalexin. Cefovecin was shown to be an effective and safe treatment for urinary tract infections.

  15. Effects of radiotherapy on pituitary corticotroph macrotumors in dogs: A retrospective study of 12 cases

    PubMed Central

    de Fornel, Pauline; Delisle, Françoise; Devauchelle, Patrick; Rosenberg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of low doses of radiotherapy for the treatment of pituitary corticotroph macrotumors in dogs is evaluated retrospectively. Twelve dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and a large pituitary tumor treated with 36 Gy of radiation were included. Radiation was delivered in 12 fractions of 3 Gy over a 4- to 6-week period. Effects of radiation therapy on tumor size were assessed by computed tomography scans; a decrease was observed in 11 dogs (decrease > 50% in 6 dogs). Three dogs were reirradiated due to major tumor regrowth or a lack of tumor decrease (mean total dose: 22 Gy given in 3-Gy fractions over 3 or 4 weeks). The mean and median survival times following the initiation of radiotherapy were 22.6 months (688 days) and 17.7 months (539 days), respectively. These data are consistent with previous findings, based on high-dose radiation, showing that radiotherapy is a useful option for treating pituitary corticotroph macrotumors in dogs. Furthermore, computed tomography follow-up of the treated dogs demonstrates objectively the efficacy of radiotherapy against corticotroph tumors in dogs. PMID:17542365

  16. Protothecosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Vince, Andrew R; Pinard, Chantale; Ogilvie, Adam T; Tan, Emmeline O; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G

    2014-10-01

    A case of a disseminated algal infection is reported in a young rough-coated collie dog with progressive neurologic deficits, blindness, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Prototheca zopfii organisms were cultured from feces, urine, and blood. At necropsy, granulomas containing typical organisms were identified within the proximal colon, heart, kidneys, and eyes.

  17. Neosporosis in dogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  18. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  19. Automatic imitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-22

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to 'automatic imitation'; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication.

  20. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  1. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  2. Thoracolumbar partial lateral corpectomy for the treatment of chronic intervertebral disc disease in 107 dogs.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, François-Xavier; Moissonnier, Pierre; Filleur, Aurélie; Cachon, Thibaut; Fau, Didier; Viguier, Eric; Carozzo, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess short-and medium-term outcomes in dogs with chronic ventral thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) treated by thoracolumbar partial lateral corpectomy (TLPLC). Dogs surgically treated for chronic ventral IVDD by TLPLC were included. For each dog, neurological status evolution and complications were reported. Factors that could have influenced neurological recovery were statistically tested. A total of 107 dogs were included in the study. Before surgery, 67.3 % of the dogs were able to walk, 24.3 % were grade 3, and 8.4 % were grade 4. The median hospitalization time was 3 days, and 82.2 % of the dogs were able to walk at discharge. The medium-term neurological grade was reached at a median time of 2 months. At the medium-term follow-up (median 12 months), 74.3 % of the dogs were neurologically improved, 22.9 % were stable, and 2.8 % were worsened. A total of 91.4 % of dogs were ambulatory, with 58.6 % of dogs having a normal gait. Preoperative neurological grade was significantly associated with the neurological status 24 h after the surgery and at discharge. Dogs with a higher preoperative neurological grade had a better chance of improving but lower odds of walking at 24 h after the surgery and at discharge compared with dogs with a lower preoperative grade. Spinal compression recurrence at the same surgical site was confirmed in 8 cases. Even if TLPLC leads to several intra and postoperative complications, this technique is a viable surgical option to treat chronic ventral IVDD.

  3. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  4. Babesia gibsoni infection in a dog from indiana.

    PubMed

    Irizarry-Rovira, Armando R.; Stephens, Julie; Christian, John; Kjemtrup, Anne; DeNicola, Dennis B.; Widmer, William R.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    A 10-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented to the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (PUVTH) with complaints of persistent anemia with occasional exacerbations, anorexia, and lethargy. The dog had been presented to the referring veterinarian 2 months prior with multiple bite wounds received during a fight with 3 Pit Bull Terriers. The dog was discharged after the wounds were cleaned and surgically closed. Upon admission to the PUVTH, blood was collected for a complete blood count and biochemical analysis. Microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic protozoal parasites consistent with Babesia gibsoni. Molecular analysis confirmed that the organism was B. gibsoni and that its 18S ribosomal RNA sequence was identical to that of other B. gibsoni isolates from Oklahoma, North Carolina, and Okinawa, Japan. Hematologic changes included moderately severe, regenerative, macrocytic, normochromic anemia, with poikilocytosis, polychromasia, anisocytosis, and a marked increase in nucleated RBCs. Biochemical changes included increased serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities. The dog was treated with imidocarb, but despite initial clinical improvement, the dog died 2 weeks after the first dose. A necropsy was not performed. The infection in this dog is the first reported case of B. gibsoni infection in Indiana. Because of the widespread geographical distribution of the organism, veterinarians and veterinary clinical pathologists throughout the United States should carefully examine Romanowsky-stained blood smears from patients with acute hemolytic anemia for small intraerythrocytic babesial parasites.

  5. Use of an activity monitor to detect response to treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Boston, Raymond C.; Farrar, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether an activity monitor (AM) could be used to detect changes in activity in dogs with osteoarthritis treated with carprofen or a placebo. Design Randomized controlled trial. Animals 70 dogs with no clinically important abnormalities other than osteoarthritis for which they were not currently being treated. Procedures Dogs wore an AM continuously for 21 days. On days 8 through 21, the dogs were treated with carprofen (n = 35) or a placebo (35). Total activity counts for days 1 through 7 (baseline) were compared with total activity counts for days 15 through 21 (endpoint). The change in total activity count from baseline to endpoint was assessed within each treatment group as well as between groups. Linear regression analysis was performed to test for an association between treatment and percentage change in activity counts while controlling for other variables. Results For placebo-treated dogs, median baseline total activity count was not significantly different from median endpoint total activity count (1,378,408 vs 1,310,112, respectively). For dogs receiving carprofen, there was a significant increase in median activity count from baseline to endpoint (1,276,427 vs 1,374,133). When age and baseline activity counts were controlled for, dogs in the carpofen-treated group had a 20% increase in activity counts, compared with placebo-treated dogs (95% confidence interval, 10% to 26%). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that the AM used in the present study may be a valid outcome assessment tool for documenting improved activity associated with treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis. PMID:20590496

  6. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania: infestation with arthropod ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Visser, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    To establish the diversity and seasonality of ectoparasite infestation in client-owned dogs in Albania, 602 dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana from March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive were examined for ectoparasites by full body search and total body comb. In addition, ear swab specimens collected from all dogs and scrapings taken from skin lesions suspicious of mite infestation were examined for parasitic mites. Overall, 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95%CI 12.6-18.6) were demonstrated to be infested, and nine species of ectoparasites were identified: Ixodes ricinus, 0.8 %; Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l., 8.1 %; Demodex canis, 0.2 %; Sarcoptes scabiei, 0.7 %; Otodectes cynotis, 2.8 %; Ctenocephalides canis, 4.8 %; Ctenocephalides felis, 3.0 %; Pulex irritans, 0.2 %; and Trichodectes canis, 0.2 %. Single and multiple infestations with up to four species of ectoparasites concurrently were recorded in 67 (11.1 %, 95%CI 8.7-13.9) and 26 dogs (4.3 %, 95%CI 2.8-6.3), respectively. On univariate analysis, the category of breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the housing environment (mainly indoors/indoors with regular outside walking vs. yard plus kennel/run), the history of ectoparasiticide treatment and the season of examination were identified as significant (p < 0.05) factors predisposing dogs to various ectoparasites, while the variables dog's age, gender, the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural) and the presence/absence of other pets were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall ectoparasitism revealed that dogs treated with ectoparasiticides at least once per year (odds ratio [OR] = 0.24; p < 0.001) had a significantly lower risk of infestation compared with dogs not treated against ectoparasite infestation. Dogs examined during spring, summer and autumn (OR = 7.08, 7.43 and 2.48, respectively; all p < 0

  7. Use of imidacloprid-permethrin to prevent transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from naturally infected Ixodes scapularis ticks to dogs.

    PubMed

    Blagburn, Byron L; Spencer, Jennifer A; Billeter, Sarah A; Drazenovich, Nicole L; Butler, Jamie M; Land, Tracey M; Dykstra, Christine C; Stafford, Kirby C; Pough, Margaret B; Levy, Steven A; Bledsoe, David L

    2004-01-01

    One group of eight beagles was treated with a combination of imidacloprid and permethrin 7 days before exposure to Ixodes scapularis ticks that were naturally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A second group of eight beagles was not treated and was also exposed to infected ticks. Seven of eight non-treated dogs--but none of the treated dogs--developed specific antibodies to A. phagocytophilum. Results of this study indicate that a combination of imidacloprid and permethrin can prevent transmission of A. phagocytophilum to dogs if administered before exposure to infected ticks.

  8. The First Simultaneous Intraoperative Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Procedure: Dog Experiment and Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ashayeri, Ebrahim; Halyard, Michele; Goldson, Alfred L.; Cruz, Leon; Nibhanupudy, J. Rao; DeWitty, Robert; Galal, Fathy; Marquis, Bernard; Slaughter, Lynnard; Landes, Fred

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Radiation Therapy of Howard University Hospital was the first to revive (1976) the use of intraoperative radiotherapy, or direct view irradiation, using electron beam (IORTe−) in the United States. Since that time, this pioneering effort has gained both national and international acceptance. Now, many leading centers employ this investigational treatment modality. Recently, a new mode of cancer therapy has been gaining acceptance, namely hyperthermia (the treatment of cancer by heat). Hyperthermia has been shown, both experimentally and clinically, to improve the rate of local control (thermal enchancement ratio [TER]) when combined with radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer. Maximal TER has been observed with simultaneous or immediate application of radiation and hyperthermia for both tumor and normal tissues. Therefore, to achieve maximum therapeutic gain, selective, intraoperative, simultaneous heating and irradiation of the tumor with mechanical retraction of the normal and sensitive structures from the treatment field seems a promising alternative. There have been no published reports, to the authors' knowledge, on the combination of simultaneous IORTe− with intraoperative hyperthermia (IOHT). To employ this combination in human subjects, several questions must be answered first using animal models, including the technical and practical feasibility, the toxicity and morbidity, as well as the pathologic changes that may arise. The technical aspects of the first animal case, using a mongrel dog, applying simultaneous IORTe− and IOHT are presented. PMID:3112416

  9. Effects of alterations in urine flow rate on prostaglandin E excretion in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Kirschenbaum, M A; Serros, E R

    1980-02-01

    The relationships between urinary prostaglandin E excretion and urine flow rate were evaluated in 11 conscious mongrel dogs during antidiuresis, maximal water loading, vasopressin administration during maximal water loading, and mannitol infusion. Urine flow rates between 0.21 and 15.1 ml/min were achieved. Urinary prostaglandin E excretion rates, determined by a membrane receptor assay, varied directly with urine flow rates (r = 0.908). Vasopressin administration (34--540 microU . kg-1 . min-1) resulted in a fall, rather than the expected rise, in urinary prostaglandin E excretion. When the concentration of prostaglandin E in the urine was plotted against urine flow rate, the demonstrated relationship appeared most consistent with passive diffusion. Mannitol infusion increased urine flow rates to levels comparable to the levels seen with maximal water loading but did not result in a fall in plasma osmolality. Urinary prostaglandin E excretion rates, however, were not distinguishable from those in the previous group. These data demonstrate that urinary prostaglandin E excretion rates are determined, to a great extent, by urine flow rate and that the significance of the interpretation of elevated excretion levels of these lipids in diuretic states may have to be reevaluated.

  10. Treatment of carotid artery aneurysms with platinum coils: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Graves, V B; Partington, C R; Rüfenacht, D A; Rappe, A H; Strother, C M

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the consistency, patency, and natural history of a vein graft canine aneurysm model and to determine the effectiveness of various coil designs on inducing aneurysm thrombosis. Twenty-one sacculuslike aneurysms were created in mongrel dogs by anastomosing a vein pouch to the common carotid artery. The model produced wide-neck aneurysms with 100% patency. The canine vein graft aneurysm provided an excellent model for the evaluation of endovascular devices. Three types of specially designed platinum coils were placed in the aneurysms: those with simple curves, those with complex curves, and those with flower petal curves and silk fibers. These coils were placed by the endovascular route by means of microcatheters. Flower petal coils with silk fibers were effective in producing thrombosis of the aneurysms, suggesting that coils of the appropriate design may be useful in the endovascular treatment of aneurysms. The other coil designs evaluated, those with simple and complex curves without silk fibers, demonstrated insufficient thrombogenicity and spatial stability.

  11. Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

  12. Cricothyroid membrane puncture: oxygenation and ventilation in a dog model using an intravenous catheter.

    PubMed

    Coté, C J; Eavey, R D; Todres, I D; Jones, D E

    1988-06-01

    A method for pediatric airway support was evaluated for the situation when mask ventilation or intubation is impossible. Mongrel dogs were sedated, intubated, and allowed to breathe room air for 30 min. Baseline variables were recorded, and the airway obstructed. After 2 to 3 min of hypoxia, arterial blood gas and hemodynamic data were again recorded. A percutaneous cricothyroid membrane puncture (PCMP) was then performed with a 12-ga iv catheter. Studies were carried out both in the presence and absence of spontaneous ventilatory efforts. With spontaneous ventilation, continuous low flow (1.0 L/min) oxygen insufflation provided oxygenation for 30 min and reversed increases in mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance that had been produced by the obstruction. Respiratory acidosis occurred but was well tolerated. With paralyzed animals, whose ventilation was supported by a self-inflating bag with 10.0 L/min of oxygen, all hemodynamic variables except PAP returned to normal, oxygenation was excellent, and PaCO2 values were maintained at steady, but elevated levels. Complications included bilateral tension pneumothorax in one animal. This experimental study supports anecdotal experiences where PCMP has been used and has proven lifesaving when standard resuscitative measures to establish a clear airway have failed.

  13. [Visco-elastic characteristics of the aorta in conscious dogs in a model of experimental calcinosis].

    PubMed

    Armentano, R; Levenson, J; Cabrera, E; Pichel, R; Simon, A

    1989-07-01

    Effects of experimental calcinosis induced by daily overdose of 500.000 IU Vit D3 during 10 days were studied in 6 mongrel conscious dogs chronically instrumented with intra-aortic Konigsberg microtransducer and two ultrasonic piezo-electric crystals diametrically opposed in the adventitia of the descending thoracic aorta. Simultaneous recording of instantaneous aortic pressure and diameter waves in basal state and during transient acute hypertension induced by intravenous angiotensin bolus (0.1 microgram/kg) allowed to obtain the pressure (y) diameter (x) relationship of the aorta according to an exponential regression: P = expo (beta D + A), with a highly significant correlation coefficient in all animals (r greater than 0.99). (table; see text) Anatomopathological studies of aortas revealed abnormal calcium deposition, ruptures of elastic fibers and disorganization of collagen. Thus, a striking decrease in aortic rigidity is observed after calcinosis in relation with structural changes of elastic materials and responsible in part for a reduction in pulsatile pressure; moreover this unexpected phenomena might represent an initiative process of development of aortic aneurysms.

  14. Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

  15. Esophageal electrochemical burns due to button type lithium batteries in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, J; Yamashita, M; Yamashita, M; Kajigaya, H

    1998-08-01

    Incidences of swallowing lithium batteries have been increasing. More severe tissue damage may be produced by the flow of electric current through tissue due to a lit