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Sample records for mongrel dogs treated

  1. Induction of specific unresponsiveness to heart allografts in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Modry, D.L.; Hoppe, R.T.; Pennock, J.L.; Bieber, C.P.; Holm, B.I.; Jamieson, S.W.; Stinson, E.B.; Schroder, J.; Suomalainen, H.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-02-01

    The survival of heterotopic heart allografts was determined in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. TLI alone (total dose, 1800 rad) minimally prolonged graft survival as compared with untreated controls. However, marked synergy was observed when TLI was combined with a 10-day post-transplant course of rabbit anti-dog thymocyte globulin (ATG). Approximately 40% of recipients given TLI and ATG showed specific unresponsiveness, as judged by the lack of rejection on serial biopsies for more than 1 year and the prompt rejection of third party hearts. The addition of post-transplant azathioprine (90 to 180 days) to the TLI and ATG regimen increased the mortality of recipients and reduced the fraction of dogs showing specific unresponsiveness. Infusion of donor bone marrow cells at the time of heart transplantation failed to induced specific unresponsiveness in recipients given TLI alone or TLI in combination with post-transplant methotrexate, cyclosporine A, or ATG. The results indicate that the combination of TLI and a brief course of ATG without marrow transplantation was the most effective regimen for the induction of specific unresponsiveness in mongrel dogs.

  2. A New Biologic Prosthesis for Vascular Substitute in Mongrel Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Marquez-Zacarias, Luis A.; Rey, Alejandro R.; Heine, M. Christina; Manrique, Jose J.

    1985-01-01

    New glutaraldehyde-treated vascular prosthesis tubes of bovine pericardium were placed in the abdominal aortas of 29 mongrel dogs and observed for 30 to 540 days. Clinical evaluation was performed during follow-up, and histologic and arteriographic studies were done at the end of the study. Patency was shown by arteriography in 27 of 29 tubes (93.1%). Neoendothelialization was found in all grafts, and there was a mixed effect, characterized by both rejection and foreign body reaction in the prostheses from 180 days onward. Both the handling and consistency of the grafts were excellent for implantation. Graft procoagulation and animal anticoagulation were not necessary. Images PMID:15227017

  3. Organ transplantation in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    SciTech Connect

    Koretz, S.H.; Gottlieb, M.S.; Strober, S.; Pennock, J.; Bieber, C.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Reitz, B.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-03-01

    Although we were able to establish bone marrow chimerism in mongrel dogs using TLI at a cumulative dose of 1800 rad, it was more difficult to establish prolonged organ allograft survival in this system. We review here our experience with allogeneic heart transplantation in dogs using TLI combined with limited courses of pharmacologic immunosuppression, an approach that appears to hold considerable promise for clinical organ transplantation.

  4. Thyroid hormone antibodies and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in mongrel dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Rajatanavin, R.; Fang, S.L.; Pino, S.; Laurberg, P.; Braverman, L.E.; Smith, M.; Bullock, L.P.

    1989-05-01

    Abnormally elevated serum T3 concentrations measured by RIA were observed in 19 clinically euthyroid or hypothyroid mongrel dogs. The serum T4 concentrations in these sera were low, normal, or high. Measurement of the intensity of thyroid hormone binding to serum proteins was determined by equilibrium dialysis. A marked decrease in the percent free T3 was observed in these abnormal sera. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pH 7.4, of normal dog serum enriched with tracer /sup 125/I-labeled thyroid hormones demonstrated binding of (/sup 125/I)T4 to transthyretin, thyroid hormone-binding globulin, and albumin and of (/sup 125/I)T3 primarily to thyroid hormone-binding globulin. In all abnormal sera, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated strikingly higher binding of T3 to immunoglobulin (Ig). Eleven of 16 abnormal sera had minimal to moderate binding of T4 to Ig. The percent free T4 was lower only in dogs whose sera demonstrated markedly increased binding of T4 to Ig. All abnormal sera tested had positive antithyroglobulin antibodies, consistent with the diagnosis of autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. As in humans, antibodies to thyroid hormones in dogs are more common in the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and should be considered when elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations are observed in the absence of clinical thyrotoxicosis. When an antibody to only one thyroid hormone is present, a marked discrepancy in the serum concentrations of T3 and T4 will be observed.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of disodium-fosfomycin in mongrel dogs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, O L; Ocampo, C L; Aguilera, J R; Luna, J; Sumano, L H

    2008-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic variables of fosfomycin were determined after administration of buffered disodium-fosfomycin intravenously (IV), intramuscularly (IM), subcutaneously (SC) and orally (PO), in mongrel dogs, at 40 and 80 mg/kgday for three days. Renal integrity was also assessed by measuring key serum variables. Day 1, day 2 and day 3 plasma concentration vs. time profiles were undistinguishable, but there appears to be a lineal increase in serum concentrations vs. time with the dose. A non-accumulative kinetic behavior was observed after three days with both doses and most pharmacokinetic variables remain unaltered. Considering a MIC range from 1 mirog/mL to 16 microg/mL of fosfomycin in serum for sensitive bacteria, and a negligible plasma protein binding of fosfomycin (<0.5%), useful plasma concentrations can only be achieved after the SC injection of 80 mg/kg every 12h, having a C(max)=18.96+/-0.3 microg/mL; a T(1/2beta)=2.09+/-0.06 microg/mL and a bioavailability of 84-85%. No alterations were observed in serum variables of kidney-related biochemical values.

  6. Gross anatomical study of the nerve supply of genitourinary structures in female mongrel hound dogs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Amaya, S M; Ruggieri, M R; Arias Serrato, S A; Massicotte, V S; Barbe, M F

    2015-04-01

    Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1-S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1-S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions.

  7. Effect of sleep and sighing on upper airway resistance in mongrel dogs.

    PubMed

    Issa, F G; Porostocky, S; Feroah, T

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the effect of sleep and sighing on supratracheal resistance in unrestrained mongrel dogs breathing through the nose by comparing within-breath changes in upper airway pressure-flow relationship in control, sigh, and five postsigh breaths recorded during wakefulness and during non-rapid-eye-movement and rapid-eye-movement sleep. A sigh breath was characterized by a high tidal volume and was typically followed by an apnea of a variable duration. Sleep had little or no effect on supratracheal resistance, measured at peak flow rates, during quiet breathing (awake 7.3 +/- 0.4, non-rapid eye movement 8.3 +/- 0.4, and rapid eye movement 6.8 +/- 0.4 cmH2O.l-1.s). The resistance was identical in the early part of inspiration in control and sigh breaths but increased during the augmented phase of sigh breaths. Resistance at peak inspiratory flow was higher in sigh breaths than in control breaths in all sleep states. The flow-pressure profile of postsigh breaths was identical to that of control breaths in all sleep states. We conclude that upper airway resistance is essentially unaffected by sleep state in the mongrel dog and that sighing increases upper airway resistance regardless of sleep state.

  8. Hepatic and Whole-Body Insulin Metabolism during Proestrus and Estrus in Mongrel Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Erin NZ; Winnick, Jason J; Edgerton, Dale S; Scott, Melanie F; Smith, Marta S; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phillip E; Cherrington, Alan D; Moore, Mary Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance occurs during various stages of the estrus cycle in dogs. To quantify the effects of proestrus–estrus (PE) and determine whether PE affects liver insulin sensitivity, 11 female mongrel dogs were implanted with sampling and intraportal infusion catheters. Five of the dogs (PE group) entered proestrus after surgery; those remaining in anestrus were controls. The dogs were fasted overnight, [3-3H]glucose and somatostatin were infused through peripheral veins, and glucagon was infused intraportally. Insulin was infused intraportally, with the rate adjusted to maintain arterial plasma glucose at basal levels (PE, 294 ± 25 µU/kg/min; control, 223 ± 21 µU/kg/min). Subsequently the insulin infusion rate was increased by 0.2 mU/kg/min for 120 min (P1) and then to 1.5 mU/kg/min for the last 120 min (P2); glucose was infused peripherally as needed to maintain euglycemia. Insulin concentrations did not differ between groups at any time; they increased 3 µU/mL over baseline during P1 and to 3 times baseline during P2. The glucose infusion rate in PE dogs during P2 was 63% of that in control dogs. Net hepatic glucose output and the endogenous glucose production rate declined 40% to 50% from baseline in both groups during P1; during P2, both groups exhibited a low rate of net hepatic glucose uptake with full suppression of endogenous glucose production. The glucose disappearance rate during P1 and P2 was 35% greater in control than PE dogs. Therefore, PE in canines is associated with loss of nonhepatic (primarily muscle) but not hepatic insulin sensitivity. PMID:27298249

  9. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs of Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Deepti; Hoque, Mozammel; Saxena, Abhishek Chandra; Gugjoo, Mudasir Bashir; Bist, Deepika; Chaudhary, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To establish reference values of vertebral heart score (VHS) in Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever, and Mongrel dogs; to assess applicability of VHS in these three dog breeds; to determine if breed, recumbency side, gender, body weight, and thoracic depth (TD) to thoracic width (TW) ratio has an influence on the VHS measurement in these dog breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 60, client owned, clinically healthy Indian Spitz (n=20, mean age = 4.25±2.15 years, body weight = 11.87±2.7 kg), Labrador retriever (n=20, mean age = 4.75±1.91 years, body weight = 27.31±5.43 kg), and Mongrel dogs (n=20, mean age = 4.25±1.52 years, body weight = 16.25±3.99 kg), having no radiological and clinical signs of cardiovascular or pulmonary disease were included in the study. All dogs were restrained manually and left lateral (LL) and right lateral (RL) radiographic views were obtained. The size of heart in lateral radiographs was calculated using VHS method. Besides, the TD, TW and TD: TW were calculated to determine the type of thoracic conformation in the dog breeds. In addition to this, the effect of breed, side of recumbency, gender, body weight, and TD to TW ratio on the calculation of VHS was determined. Results: VHS was calculated in all the animals of the breeds. VHS in Spitz and Labrador retriever was significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively) >9.7±0.5 v. RL and LL VHS in Mongrel dog was significantly (p<0.037) >9.7±0.5 v. Significant (p<0.05) differences in the VHS were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs, being higher for Labrador retriever followed by Spitz and Mongrel dogs. VHS in RL recumbency was significantly (p<0.001) greater than VHS in LL recumbency in all three breeds. LL and RL VHS correlated significantly with each other in Spitz (r=0.58; p=0.02), Labrador retriever (r=0.87; p<0.0001), and Mongrel dogs (r=0.93; p<0.0001). Significant (p<0.05) differences in the TD and TW were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever

  10. Para-clinico-pathological observations of insidious incidence of canine hepatozoonosis from a mongrel dog: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjit; Deshmukh, S; Singh, Rajsukhbir; Bansal, B K; Randhawa, C S; Singla, L D

    2012-04-01

    A rare case of canine hepatozoonosis in a mongrel dog with para-clinico-pathological observations has been reported. The study included detailed haemato-biochemical changes at two stages, i.e. before treatment and after treatment with adopted therapy. Before therapy, blood picture revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia and neutrophilic leucocytosis with variable counts of platelets. Thirty-seven percent of neutrophils were found infected with gametocytes of Hepatozoon canis. Following treatment, further decrease in haemoglobin value with a relative increase in lymphocyte count was seen. Biochemically, increase in alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels along with hyperproteinemia was seen. The 14 days chemotherapy did not bring a respite for the dog and the level of parasitaemia was 33% after the treatment. The alkaline phosphatase and creatinine level further rose up following therapy with sulphadiazine and clindamycin. Continual study is required to explain the best possible therapeutic combination to deal H. canis.

  11. The Influence of DL-A Compatibility on the Survival of Hepatic Allografts in Unmodified Mongrel Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, John H. C.; Rapaport, Felix T.; Ferrebee, Joseph W.; Cannon, Frances D.; Adams, Peter X.; Localio, S. Arthur

    1974-01-01

    Heterotopic hepatic transplantation was performed in 26 pairs of littermate and non-littermate mongrel dogs selected by serological criteria of DL-A compatibility. No immunosuppression was given. In non-littermates, 11 recipients of DL-A incompatible allografts survived 10-22 days (mean 13.4 days). Mean serum bilirubin rose by the 6th day. Three recipients of DL-A compatible allografts survived 13, 41, and 60 days, (mean 38 days). Mean serum bilirubin rose by the 8th day. In littermates, 5 recipients of DL-A incompatible allografts survived 7-12 days (mean 10.2 days) and mean serum bilirubin rose by the 6th day. Four recipients of DL-A compatible allografts from phenotypically DL-A non-identical donors survived 58, 82, 90 and 128 days (mean 89.5 days). Mean serum bilirubin rose by the 29th day. In contrast, 3 recipients of DL-A phenotypically identical allografts survived 171, 536 and over 636 days respectively, with normal mean serum bilirubin levels. The results confirm the role of the DL-A system in hepatic transplantation in mongrel dogs, and suggest that this dog population may constitute a suitable experimental model parallelling the current situation with regard to HL-A compatibility testing in outbred human subjects. The relatively long survival of DL-A compatible heterotopic hepatic allografts, compared with similar transplants of skin, kidney and heart, also suggests a need for studies of possible alteration in parameters of humoral and cellular reactivity in these recipients. PMID:4599072

  12. On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Ruść, Anna; Kamiński, Stanisław; Ruiz Fadel, Fernanda; Mills, Daniel S; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Kłys, Grzegorz; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-12-07

    Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our results suggest that modern European breeds originated locally from European FBDs. East Asian and Arctic breeds show closest affinity to East Asian FBDs, and they both represent the earliest branching lineages in the phylogeny of extant Eurasian dogs. Our biogeographic reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a gradual westward expansion of East Asian indigenous dogs to the Middle East and Europe through Central and West Asia, providing evidence for a major expansion that shaped the patterns of genetic differentiation in modern dogs. This expansion was probably secondary and could have led to the replacement of earlier resident populations in Western Eurasia. This could explain why earlier studies based on modern DNA suggest East Asia as the region of dog origin, while ancient DNA and archaeological data point to Western Eurasia.

  13. On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E.; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Ruść, Anna; Kamiński, Stanisław; Ruiz Fadel, Fernanda; Mills, Daniel S.; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammed, Osama B.; Kłys, Grzegorz; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M.; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our results suggest that modern European breeds originated locally from European FBDs. East Asian and Arctic breeds show closest affinity to East Asian FBDs, and they both represent the earliest branching lineages in the phylogeny of extant Eurasian dogs. Our biogeographic reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a gradual westward expansion of East Asian indigenous dogs to the Middle East and Europe through Central and West Asia, providing evidence for a major expansion that shaped the patterns of genetic differentiation in modern dogs. This expansion was probably secondary and could have led to the replacement of earlier resident populations in Western Eurasia. This could explain why earlier studies based on modern DNA suggest East Asia as the region of dog origin, while ancient DNA and archaeological data point to Western Eurasia. PMID:26631564

  14. Engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow without graft-versus-host disease in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, M.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Grumet, F.C.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-06-01

    We achieved long-term engraftment of unmatched bone marrow (BM) in dogs without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) which could be applied clinically. Twelve normal adult mongrel dogs were given TLI in 18 fractions of 100 rad each (total dose, 1800 rad) over 4 weeks to mantle and abdominal fields in continuity. Nine of the 12 were transfused with one or two random donor whole blood transfusions during the irradiation regimen to determine the risk of sensitization after the onset of immunosuppression. A mean (+- SD) of 0.71 +- 0.54 x 10/sup 9/ BM cells/kg of recipient body weight from unrelated sex-mismatched donors was infused within 24 h of the 18th irradiation fraction. Engraftment was assessed by demonstration of donor-type sex chromosomes in spontaneous metaphase spreads of recipient marrow aspirates, and by the appearance of donor-type red blood cells antigens (DEA) in the recipients' blood. Three untransfused and nine transfused recipients were shown to be stable mixed BM chimeras during a followup period of 2 to 11 months after transplantation. Blood transfusion during TLI did not result in graft rejection. We observed no clinical signs of acute or chronic GVHD. TLI has minimal toxicity when compared with conditioning regimens currently used in BM transplantation for aplastic anemia. Potential advantages of the TLI regimen include the opportunity to use unmatched marrow donors and protection from GVHD.

  15. [The hemodynamic effect of thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade in the anesthetized adult mongrel dogs].

    PubMed

    Yamagami, H

    1994-03-01

    Hemodynamic alterations with the thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade were elucidated in the anesthetized open-chest dogs, under controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen and receiving fentanyl, pentobarbital and pancuronium administration, and the effect of blockade was assessed by increase in skin-surface temperature at the specific regions of the upper extremity. All dogs with thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade revealed the increased skin temperature in blocked extremities and decreased skin temperature in the contralateral side with simultaneous compensatory vasoconstriction ("Borrowing-Lending phenomenon"). Four groups were classified according to the side and range of blockade: A-group (right Th7.8 ganglion, N = 17), B-group (left-Th7.8 ganglion, N = 8), C-group (right Th2.3 ganglion, N = 13) and D-group (left-Th2.3 ganglion, N = 10). The hemodynamic variables after the middle thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade showed no remarkable changes but heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output decreased significantly with the upper right-side thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade, and the inhibited circulatory state lasted twenty minutes after blockade. No significant skin temperature changes were observed after blockade among four groups. The results suggest that the patient after upper thoracic sympathetic ganglion blockade should be cared with these circulatory changes in mind.

  16. Olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma treated with orthovoltage radiotherapy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Kobayashi, Y; Yamada, K

    2007-07-01

    A 13-year-old neutered female mongrel dog presented with a 1-year history of stertorous respiration. On computed tomography examination, a mass was demonstrated in the nasal cavity. Open biopsy of the mass was performed and a diagnosis of olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma was made on histological examination. The dog was treated with orthovoltage x-ray radiation (total dose; 53 Gy given in 14 fractions over an 8 week period). Computed tomography after the twelfth irradiation revealed that tumour size had decreased. Although clinical signs were absent in the 4 months after irradiation, re-growth of the tumour was detected by radiographic evaluation and histological examination. The dog was again treated with orthovoltage x-ray radiation (total dose; 30 Gy given in three fractions over a 4-week period), however, tumour regrowth was again detected 3 months later. Clinical treatment of this tumour type has not been previously reported.

  17. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  18. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients.

  19. Determination of six illegal antibiotics in chicken jerky dog treats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert; Mirabile, Jennifer; Hafler, Kristen

    2014-04-30

    In 2007 chicken jerky dog treats were implicated in causing illnesses and death in dogs in several countries. Affected dogs were diagnosed with acquired Fanconi syndrome, which is characterized by kidney malfunction. Known causes of this condition include a chemical assault by various contaminants including certain drugs. For this reason investigations into possible causes of the illnesses included antibiotics that may be used in animal husbandry. Targeted analyte screens of individual imported chicken jerky dog treats using LC-MS/MS detected six illegal antibiotics in imported products of several brands. Trimethoprim, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, sulfaclozine, and sulfamethoxazole are not allowed in chicken at any level and were found as high as 2800 ng/g (ppb). Sulfaquinoxaline was found in chicken jerky treats as high as 800 ng/g, which is well above the U.S. FDA tolerance of 100 ng/g. Although there is no evidence these contaminants were responsible for the dog illnesses, their misuse could contribute to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

  20. Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions in Dogs Treated with Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Tina; Mueller, Ralf S.; Dobenecker, Britta; Fischer, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders in dogs and life-long treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED) is frequently required. Adverse events of AED targeting the skin are only rarely reported in veterinary medicine and the true incidence and spectrum of cutaneous reactions in epileptic dogs remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that cutaneous reactions commonly occur in epileptic dogs and are related to AED treatment. A retrospective case review of 185 dogs treated for epilepsy identified 20.0% with simultaneous appearance of dermatologic signs. In a subsequent prospective case investigation (n = 137), we identified newly appearing or distinct worsening of skin lesions following initiation of AED therapy in 10.9% of dogs treated for epilepsy (95% CI 6.8–17.7%). Cutaneous lesions were classified as probably drug-induced in 40.0% of these cases. Patch testing and intradermal testing were further investigated as potential diagnostic methods to confirm AED hypersensitivity. They were of high specificity but sensitivity and positive predictive value appeared inappropriate to recommend their routine use in clinical practice. PMID:27148543

  1. Hematologic improvement in dogs with parvovirus infection treated with recombinant canine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Duffy, A; Dow, S; Ogilvie, G; Rao, S; Hackett, T

    2010-08-01

    Previously, dogs with canine parvovirus-induced neutropenia have not responded to treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). However, recombinant canine G-CSF (rcG-CSF) has not been previously evaluated for treatment of parvovirus-induced neutropenia in dogs. We assessed the effectiveness of rcG-CSF in dogs with parvovirus-induced neutropenia with a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized clinical trial. Endpoints of our study were time to recovery of WBC and neutrophil counts, and duration of hospitalization. 28 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia were treated with rcG-CSF and outcomes were compared to those of 34 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia not treated with rcG-CSF. We found that mean WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 28 dogs treated with rcG-CSF compared to disease-matched dogs not treated with rcG-CSF. In addition, the mean duration of hospitalization was reduced (P = 0.01) in rcG-CSF treated dogs compared to untreated dogs. However, survival times were decreased in dogs treated with rcG-CSF compared to untreated dogs. These results suggest that treatment with rcG-CSF was effective in stimulating neutrophil recovery and shortening the duration of hospitalization in dogs with parvovirus infection, but indicate the need for additional studies to evaluate overall safety of the treatment.

  2. Outcome of 45 dogs with laryngeal paralysis treated by unilateral arytenoid lateralization or bilateral ventriculocordectomy.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Katherine L; Howe, Lisa; Jessen, Carl; Goodrich, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess risk factors and complications affecting postoperative outcome of dogs with laryngeal paralysis treated by either unilateral arytenoid lateralization (UAL) or bilateral ventriculocordectomy (VCC). Medical records of all dogs having either UAL or VCC between 2000 and 2011 were analyzed. Twenty-five dogs had VCC and 20 dogs had UAL. The overall postoperative complications rates for VCC and UAL were similar (52% and 60%, respectively; P = .0887). Dogs that had UAL were more likely to have acute postoperative respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia (P = .0526). Dogs with VCC were more likely to have chronic postoperative respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia (P = .0079). Revision surgery was required in 6 dogs (24%) following VCC and 2 dogs (10%) following UAL. Sex, breed, presenting complaint, type of service provided, and concurrent diseases were not significantly associated with higher risk of either death or decreased survival time postoperatively with either procedure. Overall postoperative complication rates, required revision surgeries, and episodes of aspiration pneumonia were similar in dogs undergoing UAL and VCC surgeries. Dogs that had VCC appeared to have an increased risk of lifelong complications postoperatively compared with UAL; therefore, VCC may not be the optimal choice for treatment of laryngeal paralysis.

  3. S100β Levels in CSF of Nonambulatory Dogs with Intervertebral Disk Disease Treated with Electroacupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Murata Hayashi, Ayne; Fonseca Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandão Campos; Cortopassi, Silvia Renata Gaido; Marvulle, Valdecir; Ruivo Maximino, Jessica; Chadi, Gerson; Matera, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate S100β levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of nonambulatory dogs with intervertebral disk disease treated with electroacupuncture: 10 dogs with thoracolumbar disk extrusion graded 3 to 5 (EA group) and 7 dogs without neurologic dysfunction (control group). All dogs regained ambulation. S100β was detected by Western blot analysis where EA group dogs were evaluated at two time points (M1 = before EA and M2 = when the dogs return ambulation) and at one time point from control group. In EA group dogs M1-S100β levels were significantly higher than in control group. EA group dogs were divided into subgroups A (n = 7—early motor recovery; 6.7 ± 7.8 days) and B (n = 3—late motor recovery; 76 ± 17.0 days). M1-S100β levels were similar between subgroups A and B. However, M2-S100β levels were significantly higher in subgroup B than in subgroup A. An elevated S100β levels were observed in dogs with late motor recovery. S100β may be associated with neuroplasticity following spinal cord injuries with intervertebral disk extrusion. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects and control group with affected dogs are necessary to investigate the relationship between neurotrophic factors and electroacupuncture stimulation. PMID:26464906

  4. "Who's been a good dog?" - Owner perceptions and motivations for treat giving.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Ward, L; Pink, C; Craigon, J; Millar, K M

    2016-09-15

    Complex relationships commonly exist between owners and their companion animals, particularly around feeding behaviour with an owner's affection or love for their animal most pronounced through the provision of food. It is notable that the pet food market is experiencing strong year-on-year growth in sales of dog and cat treats. Recognising the impact of treat giving in pet nutrition, the objective of the study was to investigate owner attitudes and motivations towards feeding treats (shop bought and other) to their dogs. A researcher-mediated questionnaire consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was used to interview dog owners (n=280) at two locations: an out-of-town retail park and a country park in the East Midlands. Owners almost unanimously viewed the word 'treat' within a nutritional context, as opposed to a new toy or other pleasure. The majority (96%) of owners interviewed reported feeding treats to their dog, with 69% feeding shop-bought treats on a daily basis. A wide range of treats was reportedly given by owners and the majority of owners interviewed fed multiple treat types. No association was found between owner age and frequency of shop-bought treats fed (P=0.659) nor between owner age and frequency of food given to the dog from the owner's plate (P=0.083). A wide range of foods which would not be considered balanced for the animal's nutritional requirements was viewed as a treat by some dog owners. A range of positive and negative views around the feeding of treats were expressed by dog owners, with some citing beneficial effects while others were clearly aware of the association between treat feeding and potential weight gain/obesity. Owner views included themes around positive reinforcement and responsibility but also reflected relational aspects of the human-animal bond. The results of the study show that treat giving is commonplace in feeding regimes and that treats are embedded in the feeding behaviour of many dog owners

  5. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dogs treated with cephalexin monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Fungwithaya, Punpichaya; Chanchaithong, Pattrarat; Phumthanakorn, Nathita; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs treated with oral cephalexin monohydrate. Ten dogs with superficial pyoderma were monitored longitudinally for carriage of MRSP for up to 1 year after treatment; the strains were typed and antibiograms were determined. Methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) was recovered prior to treatment in all dogs and could be isolated after 12 months in 1 dog. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was detected within 1 week of treatment in all dogs, and 3 clones represented by ST45, ST112, and ST181 were consistently present for up to 12 months after treatment. All MRSP isolates were resistant to at least 7 common antimicrobials. Oral cephalexin monohydrate treatment selected for strains of multi-resistant MRSP, which were still present after 1 year.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine in dogs treated chronically with the amine.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H

    1982-01-01

    Methamphetamine is one of a group of sympathomimetic amines that lower blood pressure upon chronic administration to hypertensive dogs. To determine whether tolerance to the cardiovascular effects of these drugs could play a role in their antihypertensive action, acute blood pressure responses to oral d-methamphetamine were determined in trained conscious renal hypertensive dogs at weekly intervals during treatment with the drug for 2 months. Responses were also obtained in similarly treated normotensive dogs and in normotensive and hypertensive animals receiving l-methamphetamine. Pressor responses to d-methamphetamine in hypertensive dogs remained unchanged throughout treatment, while in all other cases they diminished gradually. Only the dextro isomer reduced blood pressure chronically in the hypertensive group. It was concluded that tolerance is not involved in the antihypertensive effect of methamphetamine and that, considering the stereo specificity of this effect, residual lowering of blood pressure might involve formation of a false mediator metabolite of the amine.

  7. Post-radiotherapy hypothyroidism in dogs treated for thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Amores-Fuster, I; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L

    2017-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common adverse event after head and neck radiotherapy in human medicine, but uncommonly reported in canine patients. Records of 21 dogs with histologically or cytologically confirmed thyroid carcinoma receiving definitive or hypofractionated radiotherapy were reviewed. Nine cases received 48 Gy in 12 fractions, 10 received 36 Gy in 4 fractions and 2 received 32 Gy in 4 fractions. Seventeen cases had radiotherapy in a post-operative setting. Ten cases developed hypothyroidism (47.6%) after radiotherapy. The development of hypothyroidism was not associated with the radiotherapy protocol used. Median time to diagnosis of hypothyroidism was 6 months (range, 1-13 months). Hypothyroidism is a common side effect following radiotherapy for thyroid carcinomas. Monitoring of thyroid function following radiotherapy is recommended. No specific risk factors have been identified.

  8. Owner experiences in treating dogs and cats diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Aptekmann, Karina P; Armstrong, Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Rand, Jacquie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report owner experiences and satisfaction in treating a pet with diabetes mellitus using a descriptive report from an Internet-based survey. Descriptive analysis of results was performed, χ(2) tests were used to detect differences in responses between dog and cat owners, and correlations were assessed using the nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. A total of 834 owners participated in the survey. More diabetic dogs (97%) than cats (82%) were treated with insulin injections. Insulin was administered twice daily in 87% of dogs and 73% of cats. Porcine lente and neutral protamine Hagedorn were the most commonly administered insulins in dogs. In cats, glargine and protamine zinc insulin were the most commonly used insulins. Most pets were not fed a prescribed diabetes diet. More cat (66%) than dog (50%) owners were satisfied with the diabetic control achieved. Cat owners were more likely to use home blood glucose monitoring. Treatment was considered expensive by the majority of owners. Few published reports follow diabetic pets after diagnosis or report owner satisfaction. The results of this study provide useful information that may help veterinarians better educate owners and set expectations regarding diabetes treatment and quality of life for diabetic pets.

  9. Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget

    2013-12-01

    Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions.

  10. Systemic neosporosis in a dog treated for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Magaña, Angie; Sánchez, Félix; Villa, Karina; Rivera, Liliana; Morales, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    A 4-year-old male Toy Poodle was presented to the Small Animal Veterinary Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Autonomous University of Mexico (FMVZ, UNAM) because of depression, lethargy, and hemorrhages involving several areas of the skin and around the eyes. Hematology data and a bone marrow analysis suggested hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. The dog was treated with prednisone, and after one month the hematology variables improved. However, the dog's clinical condition inexplicably worsened and it was euthanized. On necropsy, there were no relevant findings. However, in histology, multifocal lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic meningoencephalitis and necrosis, and a protozoan cyst in the cerebellum were identified. In addition, moderate multifocal lymphoplasmacytic and necrotizing pancreatitis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and diffuse lymphoplasmacytic enteritis were observed. Immunohistochemistry of the cerebellum, liver, pancreas, and intestine with a specific antibody against Neospora caninum confirmed the diagnosis of systemic neosporosis. The systemic neosporosis in this dog was most likely caused by reactivation of latent parasites due to prednisone administration during the one month of treatment. It should be kept in mind that in dogs being treated with immunosuppressants for immune-mediated conditions, opportunistic parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and N caninum, can be reactivated from a latent state, as it probably happened in the present case.

  11. Multiple liver abscesses in a dog secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus treated by percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization

    PubMed Central

    Lemetayer, Julie D.; Snead, Elizabeth C.; Starrak, Greg S.; Wagner, Brent A.

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd × husky cross dog was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses and severe cholangitis secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. The dog was successfully treated with 2 percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization procedures, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and praziquantel. PMID:27247459

  12. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy People Health Benefits of Pets Pets Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses ... Sharks Help Wounded Warriors Heal Loving Your Special Cat Parrots Make Friends for Life Tracking the Mysterious ...

  13. Characterization of Salmonella Associated with Pig Ear Dog Treats in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Clifford; Cunningham, Jane; Ahmed, Rafiq; Woodward, David; Fonseca, Kevin; Isaacs, Sandy; Ellis, Andrea; Anand, Chandar; Ziebell, Kim; Muckle, Anne; Sockett, Paul; Rodgers, Frank

    2001-01-01

    In the summer of 1999, the incidence of Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis infections in Alberta rose dramatically. Subsequent laboratory and epidemiological investigations established that an outbreak of human disease caused by this organism was occurring across Canada and was associated with pet treats for dogs produced from processed pig ears. Laboratory investigations using phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) established that isolates of Salmonella serotype Infantis from pig ear pet treats and humans exposed to pig ear pet treats comprised a well-defined subset of all isolates analyzed. Of the 53 subtypes of Salmonella serotype Infantis obtained around the time of the outbreak as defined by PFGE and phage typing, only 6 subtypes were associated with both human infection and isolation from pig ears. Together with information from epidemiological studies, these investigations established pig ear pet treats as the cause of the Salmonella serotype Infantis outbreak. The results are consistent with a model in which contaminated pig ear pet treats constitute a long-term, continuing vehicle for infection of the human population rather than causing temporally delimited point-source outbreaks. During the course of this outbreak, several other Salmonella serotypes were also isolated from pet treats, suggesting these products may be an important source of enteric infection in both humans and dogs. Though isolates of Salmonella serotypes other than Salmonella serotype Infantis from pet treats were also subjected to PFGE and phage typing, no link with human disease could be definitively established, and the contribution of pig ear pet treats to human disease remains unclear. Elimination of bacterial contamination from pet treats is required to reduce the risk of infection from these products. PMID:11682515

  14. Thoracoscopic foreign body removal and right middle lung lobectomy to treat pyothorax in a dog.

    PubMed

    Peláez, M Jiménez; Jolliffe, C

    2012-04-01

    A three-year-old, 30-kg, spayed female German wirehaired pointer was presented for coughing, pyrexia and lethargy. Thoracic radiographs showed mild right-sided pleural effusion, moderate pneumothorax and a pulmonary lesion in the right middle or caudal lung lobe. A diagnosis of pyothorax was established by fine needle aspiration of the pleural effusion. Thoracoscopic exploration was performed using one-lung ventilation. A vegetal foreign body (grass awn) and an abscess were observed in the distal part of the right middle lung lobe. The foreign body was removed and a right middle lung lobectomy was performed, both thoracoscopically. No complications were noted. The dog was discharged 48 hours after surgery, and no recurrence of the clinical signs was observed during the follow-up time period (three years and three months). Thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive alternative to thoracotomy to explore and successfully treat some non-chronic pyothoraces in dogs, including lesions affecting the right middle lung lobe.

  15. Clinical use of an herbal-derived compound (Huperzine A) to treat putative complex partial seizures in a dog.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barbara M; Dodman, Nicholas H; Faissler, Dominik; Ogata, Niwako

    2009-08-01

    A Bernese mountain dog was diagnosed with complex partial seizures that were supported by electroencephalographic findings. Clinical signs of the problem included "star gazing," fly snapping, licking, vacuous chewing, and ongoing anxiety. Treatment with Huperzine A, a compound isolated from Chinese club moss with NMDA receptor blocking activity, anticholinesterase activity, and anticonvulsant properties, produced useful suppression of the abnormal behavior for more than months. A relapse occurred when the dog was treated with tramadol for joint pain and the improvement that had been made was not recaptured with Huperzine A. At this stage, phenobarbital therapy was instituted and the dog improved greatly. The role of Huperzine A in controlling seizures is discussed.

  16. Survival of 4 dogs with persistent atrial standstill treated by pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Justin D; Kraus, Marc S; Fallaw, Tiffany L; Calvert, Clay A

    2016-03-01

    Pacemakers were implanted in 4 client-owned female dogs which had persistent atrial standstill. Three dogs were alive after 14 to 39 months and 1 dog was euthanized after 10.5 years. This report demonstrates that some dogs with persistent atrial standstill can survive for extended time periods.

  17. Histological evaluation of electrosurgery and formocresol pulpotomy techniques in primary teeth in dogs.

    PubMed

    El-Meligy, O; Abdalla, M; El-Baraway, S; El-Tekya, M; Dean, J A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pulpal and periapical tissue reactions to electrosurgery versus formocresol pulpotomy techniques in the primary teeth of dogs. The study was conducted on 33 primary teeth of three mongrel dogs between the ages of one to three months. Each dog had three teeth treated by Formocresol Pulpotomy with Mechanical Coronal Pulp Removal (FC), three teeth treated by Electrosurgery Pulpotomy with Mechanical Coronal Pulp Removal (ES/MCPR), three teeth treated by Electrosurgery Pulpotomy with Electrosurgical Coronal Pulp Removal (ES/ECPR), and two teeth serving as untreated Controls. Dogs one, two and three were sacrificed performing the pulpotomies at two, four and six weeks, respectively. The pulp, periapical tissue and after surrounding bone were submitted to histological examination and the histological reaction was recorded. The results were fourteen out of 18 unfavorable and zero out of three favorable histological reactions occurred in the FC treated teeth. Six out of 18 unfavorable and one out of three favorable histological reactions occurred in the ES/MCPR treated teeth. Nine out of 18 unfavorable and two out of three favorable histological reactions occurred in the ES/ECPR treated teeth. One out of 18 unfavorable and zero out of three favorable histological reactions occurred in the untreated Control teeth. The conclusion of this study is that of the three experimental groups, the teeth treated by Electrosurgery Pulpotomy with either Mechanical or Electrosurgical Coronal Pulp Removal exhibited less histopathological reaction than the teeth treated by Formocresol Pulpotomy.

  18. Acupoint Injection of Autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction and Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Treat Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Camila; Silveira, Maiele Dornelles; Selbach, Isabel; da Silva, Ariel Silveira; Braga, Luisa Maria Gomes de Macedo; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance Beyer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue show great therapeutic potential in veterinary medicine, but some points such as the use of fresh or cultured cells and route of administration need better knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, n = 4) or allogeneic cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, n = 5) injected into acupuncture points in dogs with hip dysplasia and weak response to drug therapy. Canine ASCs have proliferation and differentiation potential similar to ASCs from other species. After the first week of treatment, clinical evaluation showed marked improvement compared with baseline results in all patients treated with autologous SVF and three of the dogs treated with allogeneic ASCs. On days 15 and 30, all dogs showed improvement in range of motion, lameness at trot, and pain on manipulation of the joints, except for one ASC-treated patient. Positive results were more clearly seen in the SVF-treated group. These results show that autologous SVF or allogeneic ASCs can be safely used in acupoint injection for treating hip dysplasia in dogs and represent an important therapeutic alternative for this type of pathology. Further studies are necessary to assess a possible advantage of SVF cells in treating joint diseases. PMID:25180040

  19. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective.

  20. Spontaneous activity in the trachea of dogs treated with indomethacin: an experimental model for aspirin-related asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Y.; Tajima, K.

    1981-01-01

    1 Electrical and mechanical properties of smooth muscle cells or of neuro-effector transmission in the smooth muscle layer of the dog trachea, were studied after treatment with indomethacin, by means of the double sucrose gap, microelectrode or tension recording methods. 2 After several subcutaneous injections of indomethacin (1.0 mg/kg daily), 6 out of 12 dogs were coughing and wheezing. 3 Smooth muscle tissues dissected from the trachea of the coughing dog showed spontaneous electrical and mechanical activities at the frequency of 8-15 per min. These spontaneous electrical and mechanical activities were completely suppressed by treatment with atropine (10(-6) M), isoprenaline (5 X 10(-7) M) or prostaglandin E2 (10(-9) M) but not by tetrodotoxin (1.5 X 10(-6) M). 4 Direct muscle stimulation induced oscillatory potential changes followed by tension development in the trachea of the indomethacin-treated dog. 5 In the indomethacin-treated dog, mean membrane potential of the tracheal smooth muscle cells was -52.4 mV, and in the control trachea, the potential was -59.0 mV. 6 In the trachea from control dogs, the amplitude of test e.j.ps after conditioning e.j.ps was always smaller than the conditioning e.j.p., at any time interval between the two stimuli. In the trachea from indomethacin-treated dogs, facilitation phenomena were observed. 7 In the trachea from the indomethacin-treated dog, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) or PGE2 (10(-10)-10(-9) M) markedly suppressed the amplitude of the e.j.p. but did not affect the facilitation phenomenon. 8 These results indicate that endogenous prostaglandins play important physiological roles in the feed-back inhibitory mechanisms for acetylcholine release from the nerve terminals during the resting and active states. 9 The results are also discussed in relation to the genesis of aspirin-induced asthma in man. PMID:7237002

  1. Successful Management of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia after Kidney Transplantation in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    PARK, Kyung-Mee; NAM, Hyun-Suk; WOO, Heung-Myong

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 8-year-old male mongrel dog that had undergone renal transplantation was presented 25 days later with an acute cough, anorexia and exercise intolerance. During the investigation, neutrophilic leukocytosis was noted, and thoracic radiographs revealed caudal lung lobe infiltration. While being treated with two broad-spectrum antibiotics, clinical signs worsened. Pneumonia due to infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa, sensitive only to imipenem and amikacin, was confirmed by bacteria isolation. After treatment with imipenem-cilastatin without reducing the immunosuppressant dose, clinical signs completely resolved. During the 2-year follow-up period, no recurrence was observed. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of pneumonia caused by MDR P. aeruginosa in a renal recipient dog and successful management of this disease. PMID:23842146

  2. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P < 0.01) but gnathosoma and podosoma did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects.

  3. Use of ponazuril paste to treat coccidiosis in shelter-housed cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Litster, A L; Nichols, J; Hall, K; Camp, J; Mohamed, A S

    2014-05-28

    Cystoisospora (synonym Isospora) spp. infections are common in dogs and cats worldwide, especially in crowded or unsanitary environments. Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a widely used oral treatment, but protocols that will produce oocyst excretion below the detection limit in shelter-housed animals have not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of ponazuril paste at each of three dosages (dosage 1, 50mg/kg q24 h for 3 days, dogs n=14, cats n=16; dosage 2, 50mg/kg as a single dose, dogs n=13, cats n=25; or dosage 3, 20mg/kg as a single dose, dogs n=16, cats n=23) in shelter-housed dogs (n=43) and cats (n=64) with confirmed coccidiosis. Fecal oocyst counts and identification and fecal consistency scoring was performed pre-treatment (Day 1) and again at Day 3-4 and Day 8. There were higher proportions of animals with oocyst excretion below the detection limit at both Day 3-4 and Day 8 in the dosage 1 group (dogs 92.9%, cats 87.5%) than in the other two groups (dosage 2, dogs 76.9%, cats 80.0%; dosage 3, dogs 68.8%, cats 47.8%). Animals with high fecal oocyst counts at Day 1 were significantly more likely to be infected at Day 3-4 (dogs, P<0.001; cats, P=0.013). Fecal consistency score at Day 3-4 was not significantly related to infection status (dogs, P=0.898; cats, P=0.136). Further studies are warranted to investigate a ponazuril protocol that can safely reduce fecal oocyst burdens in infected dogs and cats to levels below the detection limit. Environmental decontamination is also important to reduce the likelihood of re-infection.

  4. Primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma in a dog treated with surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Pagano, Candace J; Boudreaux, Bonnie B

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year-old castrated male mixed breed dog was presented for a squamous cell carcinoma of the left frontal sinus. A partial craniectomy was performed and polytetrafluoroethylene mesh was placed over the craniectomy site. The dog recovered well with a good cosmetic outcome. Histopathology confirmed primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) to treat a chronic skin wound in a dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Raduan; Plapler, Hélio; Bitar, Renata A.

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an emerging and promising therapeutic modality for treatment of a wide variety of malignant and nononcologic tumors, as well as in the treatment of infected skin ulcers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the PDT to treat a chronic skin wound that had been already subjected to several clinical and surgical type treatments in a dog. The animal with an infected chronic skin wound with 8 cm diameter in the left leg received an injection of an aqueous solution of 1% methylene blue (MB) with 2% lidocaine into the lesion. After MB injection the wound was irradiated using a LED (LED-VET MMOptics(r)) with a wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, of 150 mW of power, light dose of 50 J/cm2. After 3 and 6 weeks PDT was repeated and the wound was re-evaluated. Complete healing was achieved 10 weeks after the first procedure.

  6. Determination of Critical Size Defects in the Mandibles and Calvaria of Mongrel Dogs and Cynomolgus Monkeys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    small section of the greater wing of the sphenoid . The calvaria and the facial bones are pure membranous bones, with the mandible and the greater wing of...the sphenoid being exceptions. Subtle differences exist between the microscopic and macroscopic structures and functions of the calvaria in different

  7. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-05-10

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF.

  8. Bleomycin/interleukin-12 electrochemogene therapy for treating naturally occurring spontaneous neoplasms in dogs.

    PubMed

    Reed, S D; Fulmer, A; Buckholz, J; Zhang, B; Cutrera, J; Shiomitsu, K; Li, S

    2010-07-01

    On the basis of superior outcomes from electrochemogene therapy (ECGT) compared with electrochemotherapy in mice, we determined the efficacy of ECGT applied to spontaneous canine neoplasms. Intralesional bleomycin and feline interleukin-12 DNA (fIL-12 DNA) injection combined with translesional electroporation resulted in complete cure of two recurrent World Health Organization stage T(2b)N(0)M(0) oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and one T(2)N(0)M(0) acanthomatous ameloblastoma. Three remaining dogs, which had no other treatment options, had partial responses to ECGT; one had mandibular T(3b)N(2b)M(1) melanoma with pulmonary and lymph node metastases; one had cubital T(3)N(0)M(1) histiocytic sarcoma with spleen metastases; and one had soft palate T(3)N(0)M(0) fibrosarcoma. The melanoma dog had decrease in size of the primary tumor before recrudescence and euthanasia. The histiocytic sarcoma dog had resolution of the primary tumor, but was euthanized because of metastases 4 months after the only treatment. The dog with T(3)N(0)M(0) fibrosarcoma had tumor regression with recrudescence. Treatment was associated with minimal side effects and was easy to perform. It was associated with repair of bone lysis in cured dogs, it improved quality of life of dogs with partial responses and extended overall survival time. ECGT seems to be a safe and resulted in complete responses in SCC and acanthomatous ameloblastoma.

  9. Bleomycin/interleukin-12 electrochemogenetherapy for treating naturally occurring spontaneous neoplasms in dogs.

    PubMed

    Reed, S D; Fulmer, A; Buckholz, J; Zhang, B; Cutrera, J; Shiomitsu, K; Li, S

    2010-08-01

    On the basis of superior outcomes from electrochemogenetherapy (ECGT) compared with electrochemotherapy in mice, we determined the efficacy of ECGT applied to spontaneous canine neoplasms. Intralesional bleomycin (BLM) and feline interleukin-12 DNA injection combined with translesional electroporation resulted in complete cure of two recurrent World Health Organization stage T(2b)N(0)M(0) oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and one T(2)N(0)M(0) acanthomatous ameloblastoma. Three remaining dogs, which had no other treatment options, had partial responses to ECGT; one had mandibular T(3b)N(2b)M(1) melanoma with pulmonary and lymph node metastases; one had cubital T(3)N(0)M(1) histiocytic sarcoma with spleen metastases; and one had soft palate T(3)N(0)M(0) fibrosarcoma. The melanoma dog had decrease in the size of the primary tumor before recrudescence and euthanasia. The histiocytic sarcoma dog had resolution of the primary tumor, but was euthanized because of metastases 4 months after the only treatment. The dog with T(3)N(0)M(0) fibrosarcoma had tumor regression with recrudescence. Treatment was associated with minimal side effects and was easy to perform, was associated with repair of bone lysis in cured dogs, improved quality of life for dogs with partial responses and extended overall survival time. ECGT seems to be a safe and resulted in complete responses in SCC and acanthomatous ameloblastoma.

  10. The effect of oculo-acupuncture on recovery from ethylene glycol-induced acute renal injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhu; Song, Kun-Ho; You, Myung-Jo; Son, Dong-Soo; Cho, Sung-Whan; Kim, Duck-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    The potential recovery effect by oculo-acupuncture (OA) on ethylene glycol-induced acute renal injury in dogs was investigated. Acute renal damage was induced by ingestion of ethylene glycol in six mongrel dogs. The dogs were assigned to control (three dogs) and experimental (three dogs) groups. The control group did not receive any treatment, while the experimental group was treated with oculo-acupuncture at kidney/urinary bladder region plus zhong jiao region of the eyes after the induction of renal damage. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) were measured in both control and experimental groups. The blood RBC and Hb were also examined. The serum BUN and creatinine activities in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group, the serum Na and Cl had the irregular change in both groups, and the blood Hb in the control and experimental group showed decreasing tendency. Significant differences were observed on the 3rd and 7th day in BUN, 7th day in creatinine, 2nd day in Na and Cl, and 7th day in Hb when compared to the control group. Whereas, serum K concentration and RBC in the experimental group did not change significantly. The recovery findings of the renal injury were also observed in the experimental group histopathologically. In conclusion, OA therapy (kidney/urinary bladder region plus zhong jiao region) was effective for recovery of the renal injury induced by ethylene glycol in dogs.

  11. Effect of a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor on arterial graft patency and platelet deposition in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, M.D.; Huntsman, W.T.; Miett, T.O.; Cronenwett, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This study examined the effect of selective thromboxane synthase inhibition and nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibition on vascular graft patency and indium 111-labeled platelet deposition in 35 mongrel dogs undergoing carotid artery replacement with 4 mm X 4 cm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (one side) and Dacron (opposite side) end-to-end grafts. Aspirin-dipyridamole therapy improved one-week graft patency, from 46% in untreated dogs to 93% in treated dogs. Thromboxane synthase inhibition (U-63557A) improved graft patency in these dogs to 81%. Both drug treatments reduced platelet deposition on Dacron and PTFE grafts by 48% to 68% compared with control dogs. Dacron grafts accumulated significantly more platelets than PTFE grafts but had comparable patency rates. Low-dose aspirin therapy had no significant effect on either graft patency or platelet deposition. All treatment groups showed a 60% to 76% reduction in serum thromboxane B2, but only thromboxane synthase inhibitor treatment increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha by 100%. Selective thromboxane synthase inhibition improved small-caliber prosthetic graft patency to the same extent as did conventional cyclooxygenase inhibition in this preliminary study.

  12. Prevalence of salmonella infection in dogs in maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis.

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Dogs in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

  14. Chemotherapy effectiveness and mortality prediction in surgically treated osteosarcoma dogs: A validation study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A F; Nielen, M; Withrow, S J; Selmic, L E; Burton, J H; Klungel, O H; Groenwold, R H H; Kirpensteijn, J

    2016-03-01

    Canine osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer, and an important cause of mortality and morbidity, in large purebred dogs. Previously we constructed two multivariable models to predict a dog's 5-month or 1-year mortality risk after surgical treatment for osteosarcoma. According to the 5-month model, dogs with a relatively low risk of 5-month mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy treatment. In the present study, we externally validated these results using an independent cohort study of 794 dogs. External performance of our prediction models showed some disagreement between observed and predicted risk, mean difference: -0.11 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]-0.29; 0.08) for 5-month risk and 0.25 (95%CI 0.10; 0.40) for 1-year mortality risk. After updating the intercept, agreement improved: -0.0004 (95%CI-0.16; 0.16) and -0.002 (95%CI-0.15; 0.15). The chemotherapy by predicted mortality risk interaction (P-value=0.01) showed that the chemotherapy compared to no chemotherapy effectiveness was modified by 5-month mortality risk: dogs with a relatively lower risk of mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy. Chemotherapy effectiveness on 1-year mortality was not significantly modified by predicted risk (P-value=0.28). In conclusion, this external validation study confirmed that our multivariable risk prediction models can predict a patient's mortality risk and that dogs with a relatively lower risk of 5-month mortality seem to benefit most from chemotherapy.

  15. Intra-articular therapy to treat septic arthritis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hewes, Christina A; Macintire, Douglass K

    2011-01-01

    A 6 yr old female spayed Labrador retriever was examined for severe pain and a nonweight-bearing right forelimb lameness due to swelling and wounds with direct communication into the elbow joint. The medical management of β hemolytic Streptococcus septic arthritis with needle lavage of the joint, systemic and local antibiotic therapy, and analgesic therapy is described. This case provides information on the need to address septic arthritis in the dog as an emergency situation and the treatment with intra-articular medication. Earlier medical management for septic joints could be considered in dogs to help decrease the long-term complications that can result from septic arthritis.

  16. Improving in-kennel presentation of shelter dogs through response-dependent and response-independent treat delivery.

    PubMed

    Protopopova, Alexandra; Wynne, Clive D L

    2015-09-01

    In a sequence of studies, we evaluated 2 behavioral interventions designed to decrease undesirable in-kennel behaviors of shelter dogs. In Experiment 1, we compared the efficacy of a simple pairing of person with food (response-independent treat delivery) to an increasing interval differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) procedure and a control condition. Both procedures decreased the median percentage of undesirable behavior from baseline (88.13%, interquartile range [IQR] = 52.78% and 66.43%, IQR = 89.06% respectively), and the control condition increased behavior by 15.13% (IQR = 32.08%), H(2) = 6.49, p = .039. In Experiment 2, we assessed the efficacy of a response-independent procedure on the whole shelter population. We found a 68% decrease from baseline in the number of dogs that behaved undesirably (U = -4.16, p < .001). Our results suggest that a response-independent procedure is equivalent in efficacy to a DRO procedure to decrease undesirable in-kennel behavior of shelter dogs.

  17. Doxycycline levels and anti-Wolbachia antibodies in sera from dogs experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis and treated with a combination of ivermectin/doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Menozzi, A; Bertini, S; Turin, L; Serventi, P; Kramer, L; Bazzocchi, C

    2015-04-30

    Sera from Dirofilaria immitis-experimentally infected dogs treated with a combination of ivermectin/doxycycline were analysed for doxycycline levels by HPLC and anti-Wolbachia Surface Protein (rWSP) antibodies by ELISA and compared with sera from dogs treated with doxycycline alone. Results show that doxycycline levels were not statistically different between the two groups. Circulating anti-WSP antibody titres were markedly lower in both treatment groups when compared to control D. immitis infected dogs, indicating that doxycycline is able to reduce Wolbachia and prevent the immune response against the bacteria. The combination treatment protocol has been shown to be highly adulticidal and further studies are needed to better understand the interaction between doxycycline and ivermectin in D. immitis infected dogs.

  18. Prevention of transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs treated with a combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT®).

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Ollagnier, Catherine; Beugnet, Frederic; Luus, Herman G; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-31

    The ability of CERTIFECT(®) (a combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of eight dogs. One group was treated with CERTIFECT while the other group remained untreated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and again on day 28 post-treatment by releasing ticks into the kennels of the dogs to simulate the natural way of infestation. Animals were examined in situ for ticks on Days 9, 16 and 23 and any ticks present were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of CERTIFECT against R. sanguineus was 100%, since no ticks were found on the treated dogs at any time. Clinical examinations (including monitoring body temperature and blood collections for PCR analysis and serology) were performed at intervals throughout the study until Day 56. Five out of 8 untreated control dogs (62.5%) became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by detection of specific E. canis antibodies and the presence of E. canis DNA in blood samples by PCR. These dogs displayed fever and thrombocytopenia and were rescue-treated with doxycline. None of the 8 dogs treated with CERTIFECT became infected with E. canis, in comparison to the 5/8 control dogs, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of any ehrlichial DNA in blood samples by PCR. CERTIFECT prevented transmission of E. canis and effectively provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiose for at least 4 weeks post treatment.

  19. Serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs detected by polyacrylamide-gel disk electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Yoshito; Kimura, Sayaka; Goto, Ken; Nakamura, Daichi; Wakita, Atsushi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka

    2011-10-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is frequently measured in toxicity studies. Itoh et al. (2002) reported that a commercially available polyacrylamide-gel (PAG) disk electrophoresis kit used in humans (AlkPhor System, Jokoh Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for identifying serum ALP isoenzymes was useful for veterinary clinicopathological diagnosis in mongrel dogs. In the present study, based on the report of Itoh et al. (2002), we tried to expand the application range of this kit to laboratory beagle dogs which are commonly used in toxicity studies. In order to identify the origin of each ALP isoenzyme, tissue ALP extracts from the liver, bone and small intestine and serum samples were treated with neuraminidase, anti-small intestinal ALP antibody, ALP inhibitor levamisole and/or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The main serum ALP isoenzymes in 5-month-old intact beagle dogs were bone-derived (bone and atypical ALP: corresponding to human variant bone ALP) and they tended to decrease with age. However, liver-derived ALP isoenzyme greatly increased in the serum of cholestasis model dogs. The cholestasis model dogs also had a large molecular ALP detected in the resolving gel. This ALP could be originated from intestinal ALP or corticosteroid-induced ALP (CALP), because the activity remained even after levamisole inhibition. CALP was observed in intact laboratory beagle dogs with individual differences. These results suggest that the present method is a useful tool for detecting serum ALP isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs and concomitant levamisole inhibition with another gel is applicable for the evaluation of organ toxicity.

  20. The matrix components of the epiphyseal growth plate and articular cartilages from dogs treated with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, a copper antagonist.

    PubMed

    Read, R; Sutherland, J; Ghosh, P

    1986-12-01

    As part of a project to study the effect of copper deficiency (CD) on bone development in young dogs, the composition and metabolism of proteoglycans (PGs) and extractability of collagens in the epiphyseal growth plate cartilage (EGPC) and articular cartilages (AC) were investigated. Copper deficiency was induced by feeding ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) a copper antagonist. The collagen of cartilages from TTM-treated animals was significantly more soluble in 0.5 saline than control tissues. While no distinction between TTM-treated and control cartilages was evident in terms of PG content or extractability under associative (0.5 M-GuHCl) or dissociative (4.0 M-GuHCl) conditions, the sedimentation behaviour of the PG aggregates following CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation suggested less polydispersity of PGs in preparations from the TTM-treated animals. Moreover, analysis of the PG monomers from EGPC of TTM animals showed galactosamine/glucosamine ratios higher than control preparations, suggesting a reduced keratan sulphate content in these preparations. Organ culture of EGPC showed a significant reduction in the incorporation of 35S into PGs and of 3H-thymidine into DNA in the tissues of TTM-treated animals relative to controls. From these findings we deduce that the catabolism of PGs and the extent of collagen cross-linking in EGPC of TTM-treated animals may be reduced relative to age-matched control tissues.

  1. Combined preputial advancement and phallopexy as a revision technique for treating paraphimosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wasik, S M; Wallace, A M

    2014-11-01

    A 7-year-old neutered male Jack Russell terrier-cross was presented for signs of recurrent paraphimosis, despite previous surgical enlargement of the preputial ostium. Revision surgery was performed using a combination of preputial advancement and phallopexy, which resulted in complete and permanent coverage of the glans penis by the prepuce, and at 1 year postoperatively, no recurrence of paraphimosis had been observed. The combined techniques allow preservation of the normal penile anatomy, are relatively simple to perform and provide a cosmetic result. We recommend this combination for the treatment of paraphimosis in the dog, particularly when other techniques have failed.

  2. Canine Pancreas-Specific Lipase and C-reactive Protein in Dogs Treated With Anticonvulsants (Phenobarbital and Potassium Bromide).

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Viviana; Teles, Mariana; Meléndez-Lazo, Antonio; Rodón, Jaume; Pastor, Josep

    2015-06-01

    Animals treated with anticonvulsant drugs may have increased canine pancreas-specific lipase (cPLI) values. Inflammatory conditions and specifically acute pancreatitis are of major concern in these animals. Elevation in C-reactive protein is being associated with inflammatory status in dogs and it has been correlated with the clinical severity of pancreatitis. In the present study, we investigated if there is a correlation between the cPLI increase, changes in C-reactive protein and hepatic enzymes, as well as the incidence of severe acute pancreatitis (AP) in dogs with anticonvulsant treatment (phenobarbital, or potassium bromide or both). Increased values of pancreas-specific lipase were found in 6.8% of the animals in treatment with anticonvulsants, and this increase is correlated with the increase in triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase but not with C-reactive protein levels, which suggests a possible induction or release phenomenon rather than a clear severe AP. C-reactive protein levels did not affect cPLI values on the population studied. Only 2 animals had clinical and analytical data suggestive of AP, indicating a low prevalence (0.6%). In conclusion, cPLI may be increased in a low percentage of animals with anticonvulsants treatment and its increase may not be associated with severe AP. It may be induced by the anticonvulsants drugs; however, further studies are advised to rule out other possible causes that increased cPLI.

  3. Comparative efficacy assessment of pentamidine isethionate and diminazene aceturate in the chemotherapy of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Akpa, P O; Ezeokonkwo, R C; Eze, C A; Anene, B M

    2008-02-14

    The chemotherapeutic efficacy of diminazene aceturate (Berenil)--a standard veterinary trypanocide and pentamidine isethionate (PMI)--a human trypanocide was compared in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Also, the activities of the drugs on some serum liver enzymes were evaluated before and after treatment to ascertain the relative safety of the drugs. Fifteen local dogs (mongrels) were used for the study. Three of the dogs were uninfected controls, and twelve were infected with a stock of T. brucei brucei. Three of the infected dogs were untreated controls, three were given diminazene aceturate (DA) at 7 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly (i/m), another three received pentamidine isethionate (PMI) at 4 mg/kg i/m on days 14, 17, 19, 27, 29, and 31 post infection (PI) and the remaining three dogs were also given same dose of PMI on days 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26 PI. Both trypanocides effectively cleared the parasites from the blood of the infected treated dogs. However, the infection subsequently relapsed at day 42 PI in one of the dogs in the DA treated group which later died at day 70 PI. Relapse infection was not recorded with the PMI treated groups although two dogs died in the PMI treated group II (treatment at days 14, 17, 19, 27, 29, and 31 PI) without showing relapsed parasitaemia. The packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) count, and haemoglobin (Hb) level which decreased significantly following infection, were reversed by the trypanocidal treatment. The reversal in the red cell values was faster in the PMI treated groups than in the DA treated group. The serum alkaline phosphate (SAP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels increased following infection and drug administration. The increase in the enzyme levels was greater in the DA treated groups than PMI treated groups. It was thus concluded that PMI given at 4 mg/kg i/m at days 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26 PI constituted a safe

  4. Intratesticular injection of a zinc-based solution as a contraceptive for dogs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Erika C S; Moura, Maria Raquel; Silva, Valdemiro A; Peixoto, Christina A; Saraiva, Karina L A; de Sá, Marcelo Jorge Cavalcanti; Douglas, Robert H; de Pinho Marques, Antônio

    2007-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate, by light and transmission electron microscopy, the efficacy of a single intratesticular injection of a novel zinc-based solution, as a contraceptive for male dogs. Fifteen mongrel dogs were assigned to three groups (five dogs/group). Group 1, the control group, which consisted of animals ranging from 8 mo to 4 yr, was injected with saline solution. Group 2, which consisted of animals ranging from 8 mo to 1 yr old and Group 3, animals ranging from 2 to 4 yr old, were injected with a zinc-based solution (0.2-1.0mL; volume based on testicular width). There were no histopathological changes detected in testes from control dogs. Histological examination of treated groups revealed degeneration, vacuolation, fewer germ cells, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and a lack of elongated spermatids in atrophic seminiferous tubules. Leydig cells had varying degrees of lipid degeneration and necrosis. The majority of seminiferous tubules in all zinc-treated dogs were lined only by Sertoli cells, which were vacuolated. Ultrastructure of testis of treated groups had degenerate Sertoli and Leydig cells, characterized by numerous mitochondria with the lack of a matrix and agglomeration of lysosomal bodies. The cytoplasm of elongated spermatids was characterized by tubules of hyperplastic and hypertrophic smooth endoplasmic reticulum and numerous Golgi apparati. Round spermatids in Golgi phase had lysis of acrosomal vesicles. The degree of histological changes suggested irreversibility. In conclusion, intratesticular injection of a zinc-based solution effectively impaired spermatogenesis.

  5. Gene therapy rescues photoreceptor blindness in dogs and paves the way for treating human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Beltran, William A; Cideciyan, Artur V; Lewin, Alfred S; Iwabe, Simone; Khanna, Hemant; Sumaroka, Alexander; Chiodo, Vince A; Fajardo, Diego S; Román, Alejandro J; Deng, Wen-Tao; Swider, Malgorzata; Alemán, Tomas S; Boye, Sanford L; Genini, Sem; Swaroop, Anand; Hauswirth, William W; Jacobson, Samuel G; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2012-02-07

    Hereditary retinal blindness is caused by mutations in genes expressed in photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium. Gene therapy in mouse and dog models of a primary retinal pigment epithelium disease has already been translated to human clinical trials with encouraging results. Treatment for common primary photoreceptor blindness, however, has not yet moved from proof of concept to the clinic. We evaluated gene augmentation therapy in two blinding canine photoreceptor diseases that model the common X-linked form of retinitis pigmentosa caused by mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene, which encodes a photoreceptor ciliary protein, and provide evidence that the therapy is effective. After subretinal injections of adeno-associated virus-2/5-vectored human RPGR with human IRBP or GRK1 promoters, in vivo imaging showed preserved photoreceptor nuclei and inner/outer segments that were limited to treated areas. Both rod and cone photoreceptor function were greater in treated (three of four) than in control eyes. Histopathology indicated normal photoreceptor structure and reversal of opsin mislocalization in treated areas expressing human RPGR protein in rods and cones. Postreceptoral remodeling was also corrected: there was reversal of bipolar cell dendrite retraction evident with bipolar cell markers and preservation of outer plexiform layer thickness. Efficacy of gene therapy in these large animal models of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa provides a path for translation to human treatment.

  6. Clinico-anesthetic changes following administration of propofol alone and in combination of meperidine and pentazocine lactate in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Anandmay, A. K.; Dass, L. L.; Sharma, A. K.; Gupta, M. K.; Singh, K. K.; Roy, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to find out the effect of propofol and its combination with meperidine and pentazocine lactate on certain clinico-anesthetic profiles in dogs. Materials and Methods: 15 apparently healthy mongrel dogs of either sex of about 1 year of age were randomly divided into three groups of five dogs each. The animals of Group I were administered propofol intravenously alone “to effect,” whereas meperidine at 2 mg/kgb.wt. and pentazocine lactate at 2 mg/kg b.wt. were injected intramuscularly 15 min before propofol “to effect” in Groups II and III, respectively. Atropine sulfate at 0.04 mg/kgb.wt. was injected intramuscularly 20 min before each treatment. Rectal temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and anesthetic indices were recorded before and at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min of induction. Results: As compared to Group I, the animals of Groups II and III exhibited a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the level of rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate. Duration of recumbency, time of standing, time of recovery as well as the duration of analgesia were longer in pentazocine lactate (Group III) followed by meperidine (Group II) as compared to propofol alone (Group I). Meperidine treated dogs showed defecation and muscle twitching during anesthesia. Conclusion: Meperidine and pentazocine are suitable opioids used in combination with propofol for achieving surgical anesthesia and helpful in reduction of propofol dose. PMID:27956765

  7. Fresh vein allograft survival in dogs after cyclosporine treatment.

    PubMed

    Mingoli, A; Edwards, J D; Feldhaus, R J; Hunter, W J; Naspetti, R; Cavallari, N; Sapienza, P; Kretchmar, D H; Cavallaro, A

    1996-04-01

    Synthetic grafts are widely used for peripheral arterial reconstructions when autologous veins are not available, but their results have not been satisfactory. Venous allograft may be used as an alternative to synthetic prostheses. The aim of the study was to explore the immunosuppressive efficacy of Cyclosporine A (CyA) as a means of preventing venous allograft failures and rejection. We utilized 56 mongrel dogs. Immunological incompatibility was checked with the skin graft method. Donor inferior vena cava was transplanted into the infrarenal abdominal aorta of recipient animals. One group (group 1, 10 dogs) served as a control and three groups received CyA treatment regimens. Group 2 (10 dogs) received postoperative oral CyA treatment for 30 days. Group 3 (12 dogs) received a vein graft pretreated with a CyA solution without postoperative immunosuppressive therapy. Group 4 (9 dogs) received a vein graft pretreated with a CyA solution and postoperative CyA treatment for 30 days. Allografts were examined at 30 days for patency, aneurysmal dilatation, gross structural changes, inflammatory response, and lymphocytic infiltration. Sex chromatine assessment determined the origin (donor or recipient) of the endothelial cells. The allografts from groups 1 and 3 showed significant aneurysmal dilatation and perivenous inflammation when compared to dogs treated with oral CyA therapy (P < 0.0002). Moreover allografts treated with CyA therapy had a better-developed venous neointima (P < 0.009) with less fibrin (P < 0.02) and thinner medial (P < 0.0009) with less fibrin (P < 0.02), and thinner medial (P < 0.0009) and adventitial layers (P < 0.02). No significant differences were observed in neointimal thickness among the four groups. Lymphocytic infiltration was greater in the group of animals who did not receive oral CyA therapy (P < 0.0004). Barr bodies status showed significant differences between oral CyA treated groups and nontreated groups (P < 0.0003). Oral CyA therapy

  8. A case of non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia treated by combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil in a dog.

    PubMed

    Yuki, M

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old female Shih Tzu dog was referred with diarrhea. Hematological examination indicated severe non-regenerative anemia. Bone marrow aspiration smears and core biopsy specimens revealed normal bone marrow. Based on those results, non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia was diagnosed. The dog was initially treated using prednisolone and cyclosporine. However, this treatment regimen did not prove effective. Nevertheless, the patient achieved a good hematological response after the administration of a combination therapy of human immune globulin and mycophenolate mofetil. Such a combination therapy may prove effective against non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia.

  9. Effect of a collagen membrane enriched with fibronectin on guided tissue regeneration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kurtis, Bülent; Balos, Köksal; Oygür, Tülin

    2002-01-01

    The present study was planned to assess the capacity of a resorbable collagen membrane enriched with fibronectin to prevent the apical migration of epithelium and to facilitate new attachment and new bone. Experimental osseous dehiscence defects were produced on the bilateral labial aspect of mandibular 2nd, 3rd and 4th premolar teeth in six mongrel dogs. Guided tissue regeneration therapy using collagen membranes, which were rehydrated with fibronectin solution, was performed on one quadrant (group A). In the contralateral quadrant, the same collagen membranes, but rehydrated only with saline (group B), were placed over the bony defects. The third premolar teeth, which were treated by open-flap debridement, served as control (group C). Flaps were positioned slightly coronally and sutured; sutures were removed 10 days later. The dogs were killed 30 days after reconstructive therapy. Tissue blocks containing the experimental and control teeth were excised, demineralized in EDTA, and embedded in paraffin. Histological and histometric evaluation revealed that all groups demonstrated similar effects on preventing the down-growth of epithelium and formation of new cementum and new bone. Collagen membranes were tolerated well within the tissues, and membrane remnants were identified at 30 days. In summary, this study indicated that in this dog model similar healing results could be achieved with a bovine type I collagen membrane with or without fibronectin solution and open-flap debridement.

  10. Primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma in three dogs treated with piroxicam combined with carboplatin or toceranib.

    PubMed

    de Vos, J; Ramos Vega, S; Noorman, E; de Vos, P

    2012-09-01

    In human medicine, primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma (pFS-SCC) is not frequently reported. In veterinary medicine, frontal sinus SCC is exclusively described as an extension of nasal cavity SCC. To our knowledge, this is the first publication concerning canine pFS-SCC, diagnosed using histology or cytology and medical imaging, in three dogs. The tumours extended into the orbit or brain cavity, without nasal involvement. Treatment was initiated with piroxicam-carboplatin. Prolongation of carboplatin delivery with a low dose intensity was performed on dogs with a favourable initial response. Dog 1 achieved a complete remission (CR), but was euthanized 344 days after start of therapy. Dog 2, still alive 3 years after start of therapy and in CR, received 14 carboplatin deliveries. In dog 3, after changing the treatment protocol into piroxicam-toceranib, a significant tumour reduction occurred, but the dog was euthanized after 195 days because of a relapse.

  11. Development of an ELISA to detect circulating anti-asparaginase antibodies in dogs with lymphoid neoplasia treated with Escherichia coli l-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Kidd, J A; Ross, P; Buntzman, A S; Hess, P R

    2015-06-01

    Resistance to Escherichia coli l-asparaginase in canine lymphoma occurs frequently with repeated administration, a phenomenon often attributed, without substantiation, to the induction of neutralizing antibodies. To test the hypothesis that treated dogs develop antibodies against the drug, we created an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure plasma anti-asparaginase immunoglobulin G responses. Using samples from dogs that had received multiple doses, specific reactivity against l-asparaginase was demonstrated, while naïve patients' samples were negative. The optimized ELISA appeared sensitive, with endpoint titers >1 600 000 in positive control dogs. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 3.6 and 14.5%. The assay was supported by the observation that ELISA-positive plasma could immunoprecipitate asparaginase activity. When clinical patients were evaluated, 3/10 dogs developed titers after a single injection; with repeated administration, 4/7 dogs were positive. l-asparaginase antibodies showed reduced binding to the PEGylated drug formulation. The ELISA should prove useful in investigating the potential correlation of antibody responses with resistance.

  12. Influence of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normal, electrolytes depleted and aldosterone treated dogs.

    PubMed

    Bak, M; Szczepańska-Sadowska, E; Krzymień, J; Kozłowski, S; Czyzyk, A

    1987-10-01

    Effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium were compared in conscious dogs 1) maintained in water and electrolytes balance (Series 1, 10 dogs), 2) depleted of electrolytes by repeated i.v. loading with 20% mannitol (Series 2, 10 dogs), and 3) aldosterone treated (0.8 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 i.v., Series 3, 10 dogs). In each Series intravenous infusion of insulin at a rate of 0.05 U.kg-1.h-1 elicited transient increase in plasma sodium concentration and prolonged hypokalemia. Repeated loading with mannitol in Series 2 elicited significant elevation of plasma sodium, ADH and aldosterone concentrations, as well as decrease in extracellular fluid volume. Infusion of insulin in this Series elicited smaller decrease in plasma potassium concentration and longer lasting hypernatremia than in dogs in water-electrolytes balance. Aldosterone infusion in Series 3 did not change hypokalemic effect of insulin but attenuated hypernatremia. Infusion of insulin in Series 1 elicited increase of sodium excretion and decrease in potassium excretion. These effects were absent in Series 2 and 3. The results indicate that depletion of electrolytes and blood aldosterone elevation modify the effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium.

  13. The phylogenetic position and diversity of the enigmatic mongrel frog Nothophryne Poynton, 1963 (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B; Conradie, Werner; Siu-Ting, Karen; Tolley, Krystal A; Channing, Alan; Cunningham, Michael; Farooq, Harith M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2016-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the African mongrel frog genus Nothophryne are poorly understood. We provide the first molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of, and diversity within, this monotypic genus from across its range-the Afromontane regions of Malawi and Mozambique. Our analysis using a two-tiered phylogenetic approach allowed us to place the genus in Pyxicephalidae. Within the family, Nothophryne grouped with Tomopterna, a hypothesis judged significantly better than alternative hypotheses proposed based on morphology. Our analyses of populations across the range of Nothophryne suggest the presence of several cryptic species, at least one species per mountain. Formal recognition of these species is pending but there is a major conservation concern for these narrowly distributed populations in an area impacted by major habitat change. The phylogenetic tree of pyxicephalids is used to examine evolution of life history, ancestral habitat, and biogeography of this group.

  14. Pooled sample strategy in conjunction with high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based background subtraction to identify toxicological markers in dogs treated with ibipinabant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Patrone, Laura; Kozlosky, John; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Cosma, Greg; Horvath, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Metabolomics with chromatography-mass spectrometry is often challenging and relies on statistical tools to discern changes in a metabolome. A pooled sample strategy was proposed, consisting of (1) identification of potential marker candidates by detecting changes of metabolites in a few pooled samples between treated and control groups and (2) validation of markers of statistically significant changes with a large set of individual samples. This strategy was enabled by applying a thorough background subtraction approach based on high-resolution mass spectrometry. In a proof-of-principle study, plasma samples were generated and pooled in a 6-week investigational study to identify potential toxicological markers for an observed muscle toxicity associated with the treatment of ibipinabant in dogs. With pooled control samples as backgrounds, potential marker candidates were revealed in the background-subtracted profiles of the pooled ibipinabant-treated samples. After further cleaning with the use of mass defect filtering to exclude drug metabolites and the comparison of profiles between pooled treated samples to eliminate inconsistent peaks, the major biomarker candidates in the profiles were identified to be 19 acylcarnitines. A total of 3 of the 19 acylcarnitines were measured on the set of individual samples to allow for statistical analysis. The results confirmed the significance of acylcarnitine elevations in ibipinabant-treated dogs and indicated that the acylcarnitines could be early markers for the dog-specific toxicity. The advantages of the pooled sample strategy and its potential limitations for metabolomics are discussed.

  15. Athletic heart syndrome in dogs competing in a long-distance sled race.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D; Hinchcliff, K W; Olson, J; Hamlin, R L

    1994-01-01

    The cardiac effects of endurance training were evaluated by cardiac auscultation and electrocardiographic examination of 48 heavily trained sled dogs (3,000-5,000 km of training), 18 lightly trained sled dogs (300-800 km of training), 19 untrained sled dogs, and 14 mongrel dogs. A grade I-II/VI early- to midsystolic cardiac murmur was auscultated with increasing frequency as training level increased. The QRS duration (66.1 +/- 7.4 ms) and QT interval (236 +/- 20 ms) were significantly (P < 0.05) longer in heavily trained sled dogs than in mongrel dogs (QRS, 60.6 +/- 4.6; QT, 219 +/- 11 ms). A long QT interval (> 250 ms) was observed in 8 (16.7%) heavily trained dogs but not in the other groups. A significant rightward shift in the mean electrical axis of ventricular depolarization in the frontal plane was observed in heavily trained sled dogs. The auscultatory and electrocardiographic findings in heavily trained sled dogs were remarkably similar to those reported in elite human endurance athletes, suggesting that endurance-trained sled dogs provide a naturally occurring model for the athletic heart syndrome.

  16. Brain and Optic System Pathology in Hypocholesterolemic Dogs Treated with a Competitive Inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Berry, P. H.; MacDonald, J. S.; Alberts, A. W.; Molon-Noblot, S.; Chen, J. S.; Lo, C.-Y. L.; Greenspan, M. D.; Allen, H.; Durand-Cavagna, G.; Jensen, R.; Bailly, Y.; Delort, P.; Duprat, P.

    1988-01-01

    The cholesterol lowering compound lovastatin, a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (EC 1.1.1.34 HMG CoA reductase), was given in nine separate experiments to normocholesterolemic dogs at rates up to 180 times the maximum therapeutic dose in man (1 mg/kg/day). Mean serum total cholesterol concentrations were reduced as much as 88% below normal. Clinical evidence of neurotoxicity occurred in up to 37% of animals given 180 mg/kg/day lovastatin for 11 or more days, especially in one laboratory where the dosing regime resulted in higher concentrations of plasma drug levels. Dogs receiving 60 mg/kg/day or less never exhibited neurologic signs. The central nervous system (CNS) of affected dogs exhibited endothelial degeneration and hemorrhagic encephalopathy. Focal extravasation of horseradish peroxidase occurred frequently (6/8) in the retrolaminar optic nerve of asymptomatic or clinically affected dogs given 180 mg/kg/day lovastatin, with endothelial degeneration and discrete optic nerve degenerative lesions interpreted as ischemic. The association between the degree of hypocholesterolemia and occurrence of clinical signs was not exact. Total brain cholesterol was similar in treated and control dogs. Hypocholesterolemic dogs had proportionally lowered serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, but oral supplementation of this vitamin did not prevent the neurologic syndrome. Endothelial degeneration in the CNS and optic nerve may have reflected in vitro morphologic effects of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors due to extreme inhibition of nonsterol isoprene synthesis. Retinogeniculate axonal (Wallerianlike) degeneration occurred in ≥12% of dogs given 60 mg/kg/day or more lovastatin, with central chromatolysis of occasional retinal ganglion cells. These neuroaxonal changes may have been secondary to vascular effects, but superimposed direct neurotoxic action at the high dosage levels of lovastatin could not be excluded. There was no

  17. Early stellate cell activation and veno-occlusive-disease (VOD)-like hepatotoxicity in dogs treated with AR-H047108, an imidazopyridine proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Berg, Anna-Lena; Böttcher, Gerhard; Andersson, Kjell; Carlsson, Enar; Lindström, Anna-Karin; Huby, Russell; Håkansson, Helen; Skånberg-Wilhelmsson, Inger; Hellmold, Heike

    2008-07-01

    Dogs treated with AR-H047108, an imidazopyridine potassium competitive acid blocker (P-CAB), developed clinical signs of hepatic dysfunction as well as morphologically manifest hepatotoxicity in repeat-dose toxicity studies. An investigative one-month study was performed, with interim euthanasia after one and two weeks. A detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of the liver lesions was conducted, including markers for fibrosis, Kupffer cell activation, apoptosis, and endothelial injury. In addition, hepatic retinoid and procollagen 1alpha2 mRNA levels in livers of dogs treated with AR-H047108 were analyzed. The results showed an early inflammatory process in central veins and centrilobular areas, present after one week of treatment. This inflammatory reaction was paralleled by activation of stellate/Ito cells to myofibroblasts and was associated with sinusoidal and centrivenular fibrosis. The early activation of stellate cells coincided with a significant decrease in retinyl ester levels, and a significant increase in procollagen 1alpha2 mRNA levels, in the liver. At later time points (three and six months), there was marked sinusoidal fibrosis in centrilobular areas, as well as occlusion of central veins resulting from a combination of fibrosis and increased thickness of smooth muscle bundles in the vessel wall. The pattern of lesions suggests a veno-occlusive-disease (VOD)-like scenario, possibly linked to the imidazopyridine chemical structure of the compound facilitated by specific morphological features of the dog liver.

  18. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  19. [Histopathological studies of periodontal tissue reactions to perforations in the furcation of dogs' teeth treated with cyanoacrylate cement (FH Cement)].

    PubMed

    Morinaga, K; Furusawa, M; Kitamura, M; Sato, H; Watanabe, H; Yokoya, S; Nakagawa, K; Asai, Y

    1989-06-01

    In the previous study (Shikwa Gakuho, 85: 413-451, 1985.), Morinaga reported on the histopathology of furcation perforations treated with ethyl cyanoacrylate and showed that, because of its properties, this material cannot be expected to effect a permanent blockade. It did not, however, irritate the wound. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a new cyanoacrylate cement (FH Cement) when applied to furcation perforations. Subjects were 25 mandibular and maxilla premolars and molars obtained from 3 adult dogs. The method used in the study was as follows. After administration of pentobarbital-sodium general anesthesia, the pulp chamber was opened by means of a high-speed air turbine fitted with a diamond point. According to usual procedures, the pulp was removed, and the main root canal was filled. Next the floor of the pulp chamber was deliberately perforated by means of a 1mm round bur that had been previously sterilized in advance pouring a physiological sodium chloride solution at the same time. The perforated areas were then washed with a same solution, wiped, and dried with aseptic cotton pellets. They were then stuffed with cyanoacrylate cement. The cavity was lined with gutta-percha temporary stopping, and the remainder of the cavity was filled with silver amalgam. At periods of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the operation, the animals were sacrificed by means of electricity under general anesthesia. The jaw bones were removed, fixed, decalcified, and embedded in celloidin. Longitudinal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results 1. Periodontal tissues around perforated sites were healed by means of scar tissue, though suppuration occurred in a few cases. 2. Hard tissue was appended to the teeth in a small number of cases. 3. Repair of the alveolar bone was observed in the damaged site in about half of all cases. From the result mentioned above, cyanoacrylate cement (FH Cement) was seemed to did not close the site perforation for

  20. [Prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection in household dogs].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Muraoka, Noboru; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2003-06-01

    A total of 1,505 household dogs were investigated for the prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection by fecal examination in relation to their fecal conditions, rearing environments, origins, age, sex and breed. Strongyloides spp. infection was demonstrated in 29 of 1,505 (1.93%) dogs. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected in 28 dogs, and Strongyloides planiceps was detected in one dog. The rate of Strongyloides spp. infection was higher in dogs reared indoors, originated from pet shops/breeding kennels and aged 1-6 months. The infected rate was higher in dogs excreting soft feces. No significant sex-related difference was observed in Strongyloides spp. infection. The rate was high in Pomeranians and low in mongrels. The detection of S. stercolaris in dogs reared indoors will involve a serious problem in public health, because the parasite has zoonoitic potential. It suggests that a positive sanitary instruction against a dog's owner and a worker in pet shops/breeding kennels seems necessary for prevention of transmission from dogs to humans. Furthermore, the reliable treatment for dogs infected with S. stercoralis seems to be important.

  1. Gene flow between wolf and shepherd dog populations in Georgia (Caucasus).

    PubMed

    Kopaliani, Natia; Shakarashvili, Maia; Gurielidze, Zurab; Qurkhuli, Tamar; Tarkhnishvili, David

    2014-01-01

    We studied the distribution of the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes at 8 loci in 102 gray wolves, 57 livestock guarding dogs, and 9 mongrel dogs from Georgia (Caucasus). Most of the studied dogs had mitochondrial haplotypes clustered with presumably East Asian dog lineages, and most of the studied wolves had the haplotypes clustered with European wolves, but 20% of wolves and 37% of dogs shared the same mitochondrial haplotypes. Bayesian inference with STRUCTURE software suggested that more than 13% of the studied wolves had detectable dog ancestry and more than 10% of the dogs had detectable wolf ancestry. About 2-3% of the sampled wolves and dogs were identified, with a high probability, as first-generation hybrids. These results were supported by the relatedness analysis, which showed that 10% of wolves and 20% of dogs had closest relatives from an opposite group. The results of the study suggest that wolf-dog hybridization is a common event in the areas where large livestock guarding dogs are held in a traditional way, and that gene flow between dogs and gray wolves was an important force influencing gene pool of dogs for millennia since early domestication events. This process may have been terminated 1) in areas outside the natural range of gray wolves and 2) since very recent time, when humans started to more tightly control contacts of purebred dogs.

  2. Encephalitozoon cuniculi causes focal anterior cataract and uveitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nell, B; Csokai, J; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Maaß, G

    2015-01-01

    Three mongrel dogs, aged 10 months (case 1), 14 months (case 2) and 7.5 years (case 3), were presented because of ophthalmologic disorders of 4 months, 6 months and 7 years duration, respectively. All three dogs were offspring of stray dogs from Hungary and Serbia and had positive serum antibody titres against Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi. The two young dogs showed unilateral, the older dog bilateral chronic anterior uveitis with posterior synechia and focal anterior cortical cataract. The fundi that could be evaluated developed focal tapetal hyporeflective lesions in the course of the disease. Dogs 1 and 2 underwent removal of the lens via phacoemulsification. PCR of the lens material was positive for E. cuniculi strains IV and II, respectively. In dog 2 findings suggestive of microsporidia were detected underneath the anterior lens capsule by immunohistochemical staining. In all cases medical treatment consisted of systemic fenbendazole, prednisolone, and topical anti-inflammatory drugs, and additional brinzolamid/timolol for dog 3. For the time being all cases (follow up 23 months, 6 months and 3 months, respectively) are still on topical anti-inflammatory therapy. It is concluded that E. cuniculi infections can cause cataract and chorioretinal lesions in dogs.

  3. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation.

  4. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  5. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Yanpiset, K; Trope, M

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of topical treatment with doxycycline and/or the application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown on the occurrence of revascularization in reimplanted dog teeth. Ninety-six teeth in 4 young mongrel dogs were used. Eighty one teeth were atraumatically extracted and divided into four groups. Group 1, 17 teeth were kept dry for 5 min and then replanted. Group 2, 21 teeth were soaked with a freshly prepared solution of doxycycline (1 mg/20 mL saline) for 5 min before replantation. Group 3, 23 teeth were soaked with the doxycycline solution for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were coated with 2 layers of light cured unfilled resin. Group 4, 20 teeth were kept dry for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were treated as with the teeth in Group 3. Three months after surgery, radiographic evaluation revealed that 27 teeth had continued root development and 32 teeth showed arrested root development with periradicular pathosis. The remaining 17 teeth, which had arrested root development but no signs of periradicular pathosis, were all histologically evaluated for final assessment. The occurrence of revascularization according to treatment group was 29.4%, 60%, 60%, 36.8% in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis in SAS indicated there was no significant association between vitality and dog (P = 0.7564). Soaking for 5 min in doxycycline significantly increased the revascularization rate (P = 0.024) while the addition of resin to the crown did not result in an increased incidence of pulp revascularization (P = 0.823).

  6. Regulation of retinal function but nonrescue of vision in RPE65-deficient dogs treated with doxycycline-regulatable AAV vectors.

    PubMed

    Lhériteau, Elsa; Libeau, Lyse; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Weber, Michel; Le Meur, Guylène; Provost, Nathalie; Guihal, Caroline; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2010-06-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene transfer of the doxycycline (Dox)-regulatable system allows for the regulation of erythropoietin (EPO) expression in the retina of nonhuman primates after intravenous or oral administration of Dox. In addition, it was shown that administrating different amounts of Dox resulted in a dose-response dynamic of transgene expression. Adeno-associated viral gene therapy has raised hope for the treatment of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis, caused by mutations in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific gene RPE65. The preliminary results of three clinical trials suggest some improvement in visual function. However, further improvements might be necessary to optimize vision recovery and this means developing vectors able to generate transgene expression at physiological levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Dox-regulatable system to regulate retinal function in RPE65(-/-) Briard dogs. rAAV vectors expressing RPE65 under the control of either the TetOff and TetOn Dox-regulated promoters or the cytomegalovirus (CMV) constitutive promoter were generated and administered subretinally to seven RPE65-deficient dogs. We demonstrate that the induction and deinduction of retinal function, as assessed by electroretinography (ERG), can be achieved using a Dox-regulatable system, but do not lead to any recovery of vision.

  7. Histidine, an essential amino acid for adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Cianciaruso, B; Jones, M R; Kopple, J D

    1981-06-01

    Twenty-seven adult female mongrel dogs were studied to evaluate whether histidine is an essential amino acid. Dogs were tube-fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous amino acid diets which provided either no histidine or 67 mg histidine/kg body weight/day. The histidine-free diet was fed to 10 dogs for 5.6 +/- 3.6 (SD) days and to six dogs for 59.2 +/- 6.0 days. In the short-term studies, there were no differences between the responses of the dogs fed the histidine-free and histidine-replete diets. In the long-term studies, dogs fed the histidine-free diet developed a significant decrease in plasma and muscle histidine, muscle carnosine, body weight, hematocrit and serum albumin. The dogs fed the histidine-free diet tried to avoid the feedings, and after several weeks, they often manifested reduced activity and listlessness. One dog died on the 72nd day. None of these manifestations occurred in the dogs fed the histidine-replete diet in the long-term studies. Plasma zinc and copper were not different in the two groups of dogs. However, at the end of the long-term studies, the dogs fed the histidine-free diet had significantly lower final whole blood zinc and copper concentrations as compared to the histidine-replete dogs. These findings indicate that histidine is an essential amino acid in adult female dogs. The syndrome associated with histidine-deficiency tends to develop slowly over many days to several weeks.

  8. Esophageal and duodenal approach for testing duodenogastric reflux in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hollinger, A; Vollenweider, A; Casanova, M; Buchmann, P

    1982-01-01

    A modified Komarov-Marks esophagostomy is described. It was the aim of our experiments to show that this procedure does not harm the vagal innervation of the stomach. The vagal function was assessed by testing (1) basal secretion, (2) 2-deoxy-D-glucose-stimulated secretion, (3) pentagastrin-stimulated secretion, and (4) serum gastrin levels in five mongrel dogs. Each test was performed at least three times in each dog before and after the esophagostomy procedure, respectively. The secretion rates were not affected by surgery. It is concluded that cervical esophagostomy in dogs does not affect vagal stimulation of gastric acid secretion. For the application of tracer substances into the duodenum, two types of conduits are described: (1) a short jejunal segment and (2) a jejunal segment with an invagination valve. The pros and cons of these procedures are discussed.

  9. Providencia stuartii infection in a dog with severe skin ulceration and cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Papadogiannakis, E; Perimeni, D; Velonakis, E; Kontos, V; Vatopoulos, A

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present a case of severe skin ulceration and cellulitis in a seven year old mongrel dog following cystitis. The Providencia stuartii strain was the only isolate from skin lesions. This bacterium is a Gram-negative rod belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. To the best of our knowledge, even though there are some reports in the literature concerning animal infections with Providencia species, there have been no cases of cellulitis in which this pathogen is involved. The Providencia stuartii strain was highly sensitive to amikacin, and the dog responded quickly to this antibiotic.

  10. [Partial replacement of the trachea with jejunal autograft in the dog].

    PubMed

    Szántó, Z; Ferencz, A; Kovács, F; Horváth, O P; Röth, E; Molnár, F T

    2001-10-01

    Extensive lesions of the cervical trachea can occur as a result of malformation, inflammation, tumor disease or trauma. If a short segment of the trachea is resected primary anastomosis may be possible. The problem of how to treat lesions longer than 50% of total tracheal length is still unresolved. The aim of our study was to clarify the possible use and limitations of small bowel interposition for tracheal replacement in veterinary model. We resected 6 cm of the cervical trachea of 5 adult mongrel dogs. Autolog jejunum free flap was used for replacement. The wall of the implant was supported with 5 polytetrafluoroethylene rings placed on the outer surface of the bowel perpendicular to its axis. We performed the surgery in two stages. Intraoperative tracheostomy was necessary in every case. The tracheal tube extended through the whole length of the implant. The survivals, the viability of the graft and complications were examined. The length of survival ranged between 18 h and 72 h. In one case obstruction of the tracheal tube occurred, in 3 cases the micro vessel anastomosis of the graft thrombosed, in one case both complications developed. In our experience use of the small bowel flap was complicated with fatal technical difficulties. The micro vessel anastomosis proved to be highly risky. Further investigations are needed to improve the results with this method.

  11. Healing of periodontal defects treated with enamel matrix proteins and root surface conditioning--an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sakallioğlu, Umur; Açikgöz, Gökhan; Ayas, Bülent; Kirtiloğlu, Tuğrul; Sakallioğlu, Eser

    2004-05-01

    Application of enamel matrix proteins has been introduced as an alternative method for periodontal regenerative therapy. It is claimed that this approach provides periodontal regeneration by a biological approach, i.e. creating a matrix on the root surfaces that promotes cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone regeneration, thus mimicking the events occurring during tooth development. Although there have been numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating periodontal regeneration, acellular cementum formation and clinical outcomes via enamel matrix proteins usage, their effects on the healing pattern of soft and hard periodontal tissues are not well-established and compared with root conditioning alone. In the present study, the effects of Emdogain (Biora, Malmö, Sweden), an enamel matrix derivative mainly composed of enamel matrix proteins (test), on periodontal wound healing were evaluated and compared with root surface conditioning (performed with 36% orthophosphoric acid) alone (control) histopathologically and histomorphometrically by means of the soft and hard tissue profile of periodontium. An experimental periodontitis model performed at premolar teeth of four dogs were used in the study and the healing pattern of periodontal tissues was evaluated at days 7, 14, 21, 28 (one dog at each day), respectively. At day 7, soft tissue attachment evaluated by means of connective tissue and/or epithelial attachment to the root surfaces revealed higher connective tissue attachment rate in the test group and the amount of new connective tissue proliferation in the test group was significantly greater than the control group (p<0.01). New bone formation by osteoconduction initiated at day 14 in the test and control group. At day 21, the orientation of supra-alveolar and PDL fibers established, and new cementum formation observed in both groups. At day 28, although regenerated cementum was cellular in all of the roots in the control samples, an

  12. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals.

  13. Outcome of pyometra in female dogs and predictors of peritonitis and prolonged postoperative hospitalization in surgically treated cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most common diseases in intact bitches is pyometra– a potentially life-threatening disease associated with a variety of clinical and laboratory findings. The aims of the present study were to describe complications of the disease and to investigate clinically useful indicators associated with peritonitis and/or prolonged postoperative hospitalization. Results A retrospective study was performed using records from 356 bitches diagnosed with pyometra during the years 2006–2007 at the University Animal Hospital, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Of the 356 bitches, 315 were surgically treated by ovariohysterectomy, 9 were medically treated and 32 were euthanized without treatment. In the surgically treated bitches, univariable associations between clinical and laboratory data, risk for prolonged hospitalization (≥ 3 days) and/or signs of peritonitis, were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. Logistic regression models were used to assess multivariable associations. The most common complication observed in surgically treated bitches was peritonitis (40 bitches), followed by urinary tract infection (19 bitches), wound infection (8 bitches), uveitis (6 bitches), and cardiac arrhythmia (5 bitches). Leucopenia and fever/hypothermia were associated with increased risk for peritonitis (18-fold and three-fold, respectively). Moderate to severe depression of the general condition, pale mucous membranes and leucopenia were associated with increased risk (seven-fold, three-fold, and over three-point-five-fold, respectively) for prolonged postoperative hospitalization. Conclusions Several clinically useful indicators were identified. Leucopenia was the most important marker, associated with 18-fold increased risk for peritonitis and an over three-point-five increased risk for prolonged hospitalization. Fever/hypothermia, depression and pale mucous membranes were associated with increased risk for peritonitis and

  14. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Cadieu, Jennifer; Kiupel, Matti; Lim, Ailam; Bolin, Steve R; Mansell, Joanne

    2012-05-01

    Cutaneous toxoplasmosis has been previously reported in human beings, rarely reported in cats, and reported in 1 dog with systemic toxoplasmosis. The present report describes 2 cases of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in 2 dogs treated with immunosuppressive therapy. One of the dogs developed generalized cutaneous pustules and pruritus, and the other dog only had a single subcutaneous nodule. Microscopically, skin biopsies showed moderate to severe pyogranulomatous and necrotizing dermatitis and panniculitis, with multifocal vasculitis and vascular thrombosis. Single or aggregates of protozoal tachyzoites were mostly intracytoplasmic and occasionally extracellular. The etiology was confirmed in both cases by immunohistochemistry and by polymerase chain reaction assays, which were followed by nucleic acid sequencing. Both patients were treated with clindamycin. The dog with generalized lesions developed pulmonary and neurological signs and was euthanized. The dog with a single nodule recovered completely with no remission of cutaneous lesions.

  15. Cerebellar pressor response in the dog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dormer, K. J.; Stone, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A fastigial pressor response has been elicited in the anesthetized mongrel dog. Stimulation within the rostral portions of this nucleus results in mean arterial pressure rises up to 150 mmHg above control. A proportional tachycardia is simultaneously evoked which may rapidly attain heart rates of 190 beats/min above control levels. Peak tachycardias immediately subside and often the heart rate declines below control values during stimulation while arterial pressure remains elevated. When either the carotid sinuses were isolated by ligation or a bilateral vagotomy was performed, the fastigial tachycardia was sustained. The response could still be attained when submaximal doses of alpha-chloralose anesthesia or high levels of barbiturates (30-40 mg/kg) were given. Both portions of the response result from widespread sympathetic activation; however, buffering of the response through the baroreceptor reflexes is only demonstrated in the cardiac segment of the response.

  16. Impact evaluation of two different general anesthesia protocols (TIVA with propofol vs isoflurane) on the total number of interventions to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery receiving an intrathecal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    SAROTTI, Diego; RABOZZI, Roberto; FRANCI, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to compare the total number of anesthetic interventions (TNAI) performed by the anesthetist to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs receiving intrathecal and general anesthesia (GA), maintained using propofol-based TIVA (group P) or isoflurane (group I). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) before (T0) and 12 min after intrathecal anesthesia (T1) and intraoperative vasoactive consumption were also compared. The TNAI to deepen the anesthetic plane or to treat hemodynamic depression in the pre-surgical and intra-surgical period was calculated in forty-two client-owned dogs randomly assigned to group P or I. Ten dogs for each group complied with the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. In pre-surgical period, the TNAI was higher in Group I [2 (0–5)] than Group P [0 (0–2)] (P=0.022), and ephedrine consumption was also higher in Group I [75 (0–200) µg/kg)] than Group P [(0 (0–50)] (P=0.016). MAP (mmHg) in Group P was 79 (66–95) at T0 and 65 (59–86) at T1 and 67.5 (50–73) and 57 (53–66) in Group I, respectively. At T0 and T1, MAP was higher in Group P (P=0.005 and P=0.006, respectively). No differences were found between the two groups in the intrasurgical period (P>0.05). This study shows that the GA protocol can have a relevant impact on the TNAI performed by the anesthetist in the pre-surgical period of anesthesia, to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs receving intrathecal anesthesia. PMID:27334295

  17. Recurrence rates and clinical outcome for dogs with grade II mast cell tumours with a low AgNOR count and Ki67 index treated with surgery alone.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Kiupel, M; Farrelly, J; Cohen, R; Olmsted, G; Kirpensteijn, J; Brocks, B; Post, G

    2017-03-01

    Grade II mast cell tumours (MCT) are tumours with variable biologic behaviour. Multiple factors have been associated with outcome, including proliferation markers. The purpose of this study was to determine if extent of surgical excision affects recurrence rate in dogs with grade II MCT with low proliferation activity, determined by Ki67 and argyrophilic nucleolar organising regions (AgNOR). Eighty-six dogs with cutaneous MCT were evaluated. All dogs had surgical excision of their MCT with a low Ki67 index and combined AgNORxKi67 (Ag67) values. Twenty-three (27%) dogs developed local or distant recurrence during the median follow-up time. Of these dogs, six (7%) had local recurrence, one had complete and five had incomplete histologic margins. This difference in recurrence rates between dogs with complete and incomplete histologic margins was not significant. On the basis of this study, ancillary therapy may not be necessary for patients with incompletely excised grade II MCT with low proliferation activity.

  18. Prolongation of survival of dogs with oral malignant melanoma treated by en bloc surgical resection and adjuvant CSPG4-antigen electrovaccination.

    PubMed

    Piras, L A; Riccardo, F; Iussich, S; Maniscalco, L; Gattino, F; Martano, M; Morello, E; Lorda Mayayo, S; Rolih, V; Garavaglia, F; De Maria, R; Lardone, E; Collivignarelli, F; Mignacca, D; Giacobino, D; Ferrone, S; Cavallo, F; Buracco, P

    2016-05-04

    Reported post-surgery 1-year survival rate for oral canine malignant melanoma (cMM) is around 30%; novel treatments are needed as the role of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear. This prospective study regards adjuvant electrovaccination with human chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-4 (hCSPG4)-encoded plasmid in 23 dogs with resected II/III-staged CSPG4-positive oral cMM compared with 19 dogs with resected only II/III-staged CSPG4-positive oral cMM. Vaccination resulted in 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month survival rate of 95.6, 73.9, 47.8 and 30.4%, respectively [median survival time (MST) 684 days, range 78-1694, 8 of 23 dogs alive] and 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month disease-free interval (DFI) rate of 82.6, 47.8, 26.1 and 17.4%, respectively (DFI 477 days, range 50-1694). Non-vaccinated dogs showed 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month survival rate of 63.2, 26.3, 15.8 and 5.3%, respectively (MST 200 days, range 75-1507, 1 of 19 dogs alive) and 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month DFI rate of 52.6, 26.3, 10.5 and 5.3%, respectively (DFI 180 days, range 38-1250). Overall survival and DFI of vaccinated dogs was longer in those <20 kg. In vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs local recurrence rate was 34.8 and 42%, respectively while lung metastatic rate was 39 and 79%, respectively.

  19. BCL2 and MYC are expressed at high levels in canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but are not predictive for outcome in dogs treated with CHOP chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Curran, K M; Schaffer, P A; Frank, C B; Lana, S E; Hamil, L E; Burton, J H; Labadie, J; Ehrhart, E J; Avery, P R

    2016-08-11

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common haematopoietic malignancy in dogs. Recently, MYC and BCL2 expression levels determined with immunohistochemistry (IHC) were found to be prognostic in people with DLBCL. We hypothesized that canine DLBCL can be similarly subdivided into prognostic subtypes based on expression of MYC and BCL2. Cases of canine DLBCL treated with CHOP chemotherapy were retrospectively collected and 43 dogs had available histologic tissue and complete clinical follow-up. Median values of percent immunoreactive versus immunonegative cells were used to determine positive or negative expression status. Completion of CHOP was significantly associated with a positive outcome. Compared with human patients, our canine DLBCL patients had high IHC expression of both MYC and BCL2, and relative expression levels of one or both markers were not associated with clinical outcome.

  20. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... M.D., a veterinarian in FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine, adding that a normal amount of cortisol ...

  1. [Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis in the dog].

    PubMed

    Weingart, C; Eule, C; Welle, M; Kohn, B

    2011-04-01

    Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis is a rare immune-mediated skin disease in young dogs. History, signalment, diagnostics, treatment, and outcome in 10 dogs are described. The age ranged from 8 - 36 weeks. The lymph nodes were enlarged in all dogs, especially the mandibular and prescapular lymph nodes. Systemic signs including fever were present in 8 dogs. Seven dogs suffered from blepharitis and painful edema of the muzzle with hemorrhagic discharge, pustules and papules. Cytology of pustules and lymph node aspirates revealed a pyogranulomatous inflammation. In 7 cases the diagnosis of juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis was confirmed by histology. Nine dogs were treated with prednisolone (0.5 - 1.25 mg/kg BID), H2-receptor antagonists and analgetics; all dogs were treated with antibiotics. Four dogs were treated with eye ointment containing antibiotics and glucocorticoids. The prednisolone dosage was tapered over 3 - 8 weeks. One dog had a relapse.

  2. [Dog bite accidents in a children hospital at Lima, Peru. Retrospective study from 1995 - 2009].

    PubMed

    Morales, Carmen; Falcón, Néstor; Hernández, Henry; Férnandez, Carla

    2011-12-01

    From 1995 to 2009, 206 cases of dog bites were recorded among hospitalized patients at the Children National Health of, Lima-Peru. The median of age was 4 years, and for hospitalization time was 3 days. Most patients were males (61.7 %). The bites occurred in the house of a third person (39.3 %), on the street (33.5 %), or in the victim's house (27.2 %). A 66.5 % of the bites were provoked and 88.8 % were from animals known to the victim. The dog breed was recognized in 34 % (52.9 % were mongrel dogs). Multiple lesions were identified in 79.1 %, and the most frequently bitten areas were head and neck (79.1 %). Complications were reported in 20.4 % and aesthetic sequelae in 94.7 %.

  3. The seminiferous epithelium cycle and its duration in different breeds of dog (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jaqueline M; Avelar, Gleide F; França, Luiz R

    2009-01-01

    Testis structure and function in dogs are relatively poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to carry out a comparative investigation of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and its duration in different breeds of dog. Fifty-six sexually mature dogs (mongrel, n = 12; pinscher, n = 12; beagle, n = 5; American pit bull, n = 9; poodle, n = 12; and Labrador retriever, n = 6) were analysed. Intratesticular injections of tritiated thymidine were given to determine the duration of spermatogenesis. Orchiectomy was performed at different time periods following injection (1 h, 2 and 4 weeks). Testis fragments were embedded in plastic and routinely prepared for histological and autoradiographic evaluations. Eight stages were characterized based on the acrosome system. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were found for the frequencies of the different stages characterized (except Stages V, VI and VIII), particularly for the mongrel. Stage IV (when spermiation occurs) was the most frequent in all six breeds (∼25%), whereas Stages II and VIII were the least frequent (< 8%). Each spermatogenic cycle and the total duration of spermatogenesis lasted 13.73 ± 0.03 and 61.9 ± 0.14 days, respectively, for the mongrel, poodle, pinscher, beagle, and Labrador retriever. These values were ∼10% lower (P < 0.03) for the American pit bull (12.55 ± 0.26 and 56.5 ± 1.17 days, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to perform a careful investigation of stage frequencies and seminiferous epithelium cycle duration in this very important domestic species. PMID:19627387

  4. Porencephaly and hydranencephaly in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Davies, E S S; Volk, H A; Behr, S; Summers, B; de Lahunta, A; Syme, H; Jull, P; Garosi, L

    2012-02-01

    A retrospective study was performed to identify dogs with cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavitatory lesions on MRI. Six dogs were included and the lesions were classified. In the three dogs in the present study with hydranencephaly, unilateral but complete loss of the temporal and parietal lobes was noted and had almost complete loss of the occipital and frontal lobes of a cerebral hemisphere. In the three dogs with porencephaly, there was unilateral incomplete loss of the parietal lobe and one dog had additional partial loss of the temporal and frontal lobes. Two of the dogs with porencephaly had seizures; the third showed no associated clinical signs. The dogs with hydranencephaly had mentation changes and circled compulsively. The two porencephalic dogs with seizures were treated with phenobarbitone. One of the dogs with hydranencephaly showed increased frequency and duration of circling; one dog's clinical signs did not progress and the third dog was euthanased due to increasing aggression. The dog with increased circling had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and the circling frequency reduced.

  5. Hepatic extracellular matrix alterations in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Ferdinan Almeida; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Ribeiro, Raul Rio; Alves, Cíntia Fontes; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; da Silva Calabrese, Kátia; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study alterations in the extracellular matrix of liver in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi that are correlated with clinical aspects and with histological, parasitological and immunological findings. The study was carried out on 30 dogs, 10 uninfected (control group) and 20 infected. The infected animals were further divided into two groups: an asymptomatic group of 10 dogs without clinical signs of the disease; and a symptomatic group of 10 dogs with classical clinical signs. All thirty animals were mongrel dogs of undefined age, obtained from the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, metropolitan area. During necropsy, liver fragments were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for histological examination. Paraffined sections of the tissues were stained with haematoxylin–eosin, Gomori’s ammoniacal silver stain for reticular fibres and strepto-avidin peroxidase for immunohistochemical detection of Leishmania amastigotes. Frozen tissue sections were stained by immunofluorescence for fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN). Liver collagen deposition was significantly greater in the infected than the control animals and differed significantly between the symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. There was a positive correlation between the parasite load and liver collagen deposition. The increased collagen deposition in infected animal livers may be associated with the parasite burden. Adhesive FN and LN fibres were significantly more highly expressed in the livers of symptomatic than of asymptomatic dogs. Our results demonstrate that canine visceral leishmaniasis causes fibrogenesis in liver, associated with the parasite load and degenerative processes. PMID:19765108

  6. Accelerated recovery of sensorimotor function in a dog submitted to quasi-total transection of the cervical spinal cord and treated with PEG

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Hwang, In-Kyu; Kim, Hana; Jang, Se-Woong; Kim, Hong Seog; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background: A case report on observing the recovery of sensory-motor function after cervical spinal cord transection. Case Description: Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on a male beagle weighing 3.5 kg. After applying polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the severed part, reconstruction of cervical spinal cord was confirmed by the restoration of sensorimotor function. Tetraplegia was observed immediately after operation, however, the dog showed stable respiration and survival without any complication. The dog showed fast recovery after 1 week, and recovered approximately 90% of normal sensorimotor function 3 weeks after the operation, although urinary disorder was still present. All recovery stages were recorded by video camera twice a week for behavioral analysis. Conclusion: While current belief holds that functional recovery is impossible after a section greater than 50% at C5-6 in the canine model, this case study shows the possibility of cervical spinal cord reconstruction after near-total transection. Furthermore, this case study also confirms that PEG can truly expedite the recovery of sensorimotor function after cervical spinal cord sections in dogs. PMID:27656327

  7. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  8. Phase I clinical trial and pharmacodynamic evaluation of combination hydroxychloroquine and doxorubicin treatment in pet dogs treated for spontaneously occurring lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Rebecca A; Wittenburg, Luke A; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Gustafson, Daniel L; Thorburn, Andrew; Thamm, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process that may act as a mechanism of survival in a variety of cancers. While pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is currently being explored in human clinical trials, it has never been evaluated in canine cancers. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most prevalent tumor types in dogs and has similar pathogenesis and response to treatment as human NHL. Clinical trials in canine patients are conducted in the same way as in human patients, thus, to determine a maximum dose of HCQ that can be combined with a standard chemotherapy, a Phase I, single arm, dose escalation trial was conducted in dogs with spontaneous NHL presenting as patients to an academic, tertiary-care veterinary teaching hospital. HCQ was administered daily by mouth throughout the trial, beginning 72 h prior to doxorubicin (DOX), which was given intravenously on a 21-d cycle. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and biopsies were collected before and 3 d after HCQ treatment and assessed for autophagy inhibition and HCQ concentration. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the trial. HCQ alone was well tolerated with only mild lethargy and gastrointestinal-related adverse events. The overall response rate (ORR) for dogs with lymphoma was 93.3%, with median progression-free interval (PFI) of 5 mo. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a 100-fold increase in HCQ in tumors compared with plasma. There was a trend that supported therapy-induced increase in LC3-II (the cleaved and lipidated form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3/LC3, which serves as a maker for autophagosomes) and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) after treatment. The superior ORR and comparable PFI to single-agent DOX provide strong support for further evaluation via randomized, placebo-controlled trials in canine and human NHL.

  9. Thrombocytosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Degen, M.A.; Feldman, B.F.; Turrel, J.M.; Goding, B.; Kitchell, B.; Mandell, C.P. )

    1989-05-15

    A dog with a myeloproliferative disorder and thrombocytosis had clinical signs that were consistent with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The dog was treated with aspirin, radioactive phosphorus, and melphalan. Eighteen months after referral, the disorder progressed to chronic granulocytic leukemia, and treatment was switched to hydroxyurea. Fourteen months later, the dog was euthanatized because of uncontrollable atrial fibrillation.

  10. Kinetic compartmental analysis of carnitine metabolism in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Engel, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantitate the dynamic parameters of carnitine metabolism in the dog. Six mongrel dogs were given intravenous injections of L-(methyl-3H)carnitine and the specific radioactivity of carnitine was followed in plasma and urine for 19-28 days. The data were analyzed by kinetic compartmental analysis. A three-compartment, open-system model ((a) extracellular fluid, (b) cardiac and skeletal muscle, (c) other tissues, particularly liver and kidney) was adopted and kinetic parameters (carnitine flux, pool sizes, kinetic constants) were derived. In four of six dogs the size of the muscle carnitine pool obtained by kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 5%) with estimates based on measurement of carnitine concentrations in different muscles. In three of six dogs carnitine excretion rates derived from kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 9%) with experimentally measured values, but in three dogs the rates by kinetic compartmental analysis were significantly higher than the corresponding rates measured directly. Appropriate chromatographic analyses revealed no radioactive metabolites in muscle or urine of any of the dogs. Turnover times for carnitine were (mean +/- SEM): 0.44 +/- 0.05 h for extracellular fluid, 232 +/- 22 h for muscle, and 7.9 +/- 1.1 h for other tissues. The estimated flux of carnitine in muscle was 210 pmol/min/g of tissue. Whole-body turnover time for carnitine was 62.9 +/- 5.6 days (mean +/- SEM). Estimated carnitine biosynthesis ranged from 2.9 to 28 mumol/kg body wt/day. Results of this study indicate that kinetic compartmental analysis may be applicable to study of human carnitine metabolism.

  11. Statistical comparison of dog and cat guard hairs using numerical morphology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime; Matsuda, Hideaki; Kubota, Satoshi; Kawano, Koichi

    2006-05-10

    Numerical features obtained from the guard hairs of dogs and cats (total 300 hairs per dog or cat) were statistically compared, in an attempt to discriminate between them. Using hairs from each of five mongrel dogs and cats, eight measurements (length (Len), maximum width (MaxWid), cross sectional maximum diameter, cross sectional minimum diameter, cuticular thickness of the cross section and three scale counts per 100 microm length (observed at three positions: distal third (disSC), middle (midSC) and the proximal third (proSC) portions) and five indexes (hair width index (HWI), medulla index (MI), hair index, cuticle index and the difference in scale counts between the distal and proximal parts (defSC)) were examined. The range for each numerical feature overlapped each other extensively, and none of the features permitted a discrimination between dog and cat hairs, based on the values obtained. However, 12 numerical features, except for the midSC, showed a statistically significant difference between dog and cat hairs, as evidenced by a t-test. For the purpose of comprehensively comparing numerical features and statistically discriminating between dog and cat hairs, a discriminant analysis between the two were carried out using a multiple regression analysis. Four types of discriminant functions produced by combining over five numerical features were examined. Dog and cat hairs could clearly be discriminated using any of the discriminant functions. Species discrimination using the discriminant function permitted the species of a dog or cat to be determined, based on the overall morphologies of various numerical features. When experimentally collected test samples were investigated using the discriminant function using Combination-2, consisting of eight numerical features (Len, MaxWid, MI, HWI, disSC, midSC, proSC and defSC), all 10 cat hairs were correctly determined to be cat hair and 22 of 23 dog hairs were correctly identified. This discriminant function

  12. Treatment of T cell lymphoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Antony S

    2016-09-17

    Overall, canine lymphoma remains one of the most chemotherapy-responsive cancers in the dog. In addition to the stage and the substage of disease, T cell phenotype is the most consistently important prognostic factor. T cell lymphoma (TCL) in dogs is a heterogeneous disease; dogs with a separate entity of indolent TCL can have a considerably better prognosis than dogs with other forms of lymphoma, and indolent TCL may not always require immediate treatment. In contrast, high-grade TCL is an aggressive disease, and when treated with CHOP-based protocols, dogs with this high-grade TCL have a complete remission rate as low as 40 per cent, relapse earlier and have shorter survival time than dogs with a comparable stage, high-grade B cell lymphoma. This review describes the different disease entities that comprise canine TCL, discusses prognosis for each and treatment options that appear to give the best outcomes.

  13. Long-term outcome of myotonia associated with hyperadrenocorticism in 2 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Yuki, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Two dogs were diagnosed with myotonia associated with hyperadrenocorticism and treated with trilostane. One dog showed temporary improvement, but the other dog showed no improvement. The dogs survived 2383 and 1902 days, respectively. Findings suggest that myotonia persists despite treatment, but this condition is not associated with a poor prognosis for survival. PMID:26347041

  14. [Dynamics of local cerebral blood flow after thermodestruction of the thalamus in the dog].

    PubMed

    Kaasik, A A; Asser, T K

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of changes in local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) after stereotaxic thermodestruction of the right thalamus was studied by the method of hydrogen clearance. The experiments were conducted on 22 mongrel dogs. On the 10-12th day after implantation of platinum electrodes the initial values of LCBF were determined symmetrically in the thalami and frontal cortex of dogs who were awake. The animals were anesthetized, the initial values of LCBF were again determined, and destruction of the right thalamus was performed. Reactive hyperemia developed close to the focus of thermodestruction and persisted 90 minutes. In the remaining sites the reactive hyperemia was less manifest and was seen 10-15 minutes.

  15. Oral doxycycline, niacinamide and prednisolone used to treat bilateral nodular granulomatous conjunctivitis of the third eyelid in an Australian Kelpie dog.

    PubMed

    Hurn, Simon; Mc Cowan, Christina; Turner, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A 5-year-old, female neutered, Australian Kelpie presented with a 2-month history of dramatic bilateral erythematous thickening of the third eyelids. Ophthalmic examination demonstrated raised, pink to red, irregular thickening of the entire palpebral surface of both third eyelids. There were no other ocular abnormalities. A surgical biopsy was taken from each third eyelid. Histopathologic examination revealed sheets of macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and occasional fibroblasts and neutrophils infiltrating the third eyelid stroma. A diagnosis of chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis was made. Grossly and histopathologically this case closely resembles previously described cases of nodular granulomatous conjunctivitis involving the third eyelids of Collie dogs. This report describes an unusual case of nodular granulomatous conjunctivitis isolated to the third eyelids in an Australian Kelpie. Resolution of the condition was achieved with a combination of oral doxycycline, niacinamide and prednisolone.

  16. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  17. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  18. Dog Bite Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  19. Low positive end-expiratory pressure does not exacerbate nebulized-acid lung injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Andrew A; Welsh, David A; deBoisblanc, Bennett P; Lipscomb, Gary; Johnson, Royce W; Lord, Kevin C; Levitzky, Michael G

    2005-03-01

    It is not clear if low end-expiratory pressures contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury in large animals. We sought to determine whether ventilation with a low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) worsens preexisting permeability lung injury in dogs. Lung injury was initiated in 20 mongrel dogs by ventilating with nebulized 3N hydrochloric acid until a lower inflection point (LIP) appeared on the respiratory system pressure-volume loop. One group of 10 dogs was then ventilated for 4 hours with PEEP set below the LIP (low PEEP), whereas the remaining group of dogs was ventilated for the same time period with similar tidal volumes but with PEEP set above the LIP (high PEEP). We found histologic evidence of reduced alveolar volumes in the low-PEEP animals. However, there were no differences in neutrophil infiltration, lung lobe weights, pulmonary capillary hemorrhage or congestion, or arterial endothelin-1 concentration between the 2 protocol groups. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate that ventilation with PEEP set below the LIP exacerbates hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in dogs.

  20. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication.

  1. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  2. The fecal microbiome of dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Isaiah, Anitha; Parambeth, Joseph Cyrus; Steiner, Jörg M; Lidbury, Jonathan A; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2017-02-20

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in dogs is a syndrome of inadequate synthesis and secretion of pancreatic enzymes. Small intestinal bacterial dysbiosis occurs in dogs with EPI, and is reversed with pancreatic enzyme therapy. However, there are no studies evaluating the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. Three day pooled fecal samples were collected from healthy dogs (n = 18), untreated (n = 7) dogs with EPI, and dogs with EPI treated with enzyme replacement therapy (n = 19). Extracted DNA from fecal samples was used for Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups and functional genes between the healthy dogs and dogs with EPI. There was a significant difference in fecal microbial communities when healthy dogs were compared to treated and untreated dogs with EPI (unweighted UniFrac distance, ANOSIM P = 0.001, and 0.001 respectively). Alpha diversity was significantly decreased in untreated and treated EPI dogs when compared to the healthy dogs with respect to Chao1, Observed OTU, and Shannon diversity (P = 0.008, 0.003, and 0.002 respectively). The families Bifidobacteriaceae (P = 0.005), Enterococcaceae (P = 0.018), and Lactobacillaceae (P = 0.001) were significantly increased in the untreated and treated dogs with EPI when compared to healthy dogs. In contrast, Lachnospiraceae (P < 0.001), and Ruminococcaceae (P < 0.01) were significantly decreased in dogs with EPI. Dogs with EPI (before treatment) had significant increases in functional genes associated with secretion system, fatty acid metabolism, and phosphotransferase system. In contrast, healthy dogs had a significant increase in genes related

  3. Azathioprine therapy for acquired myasthenia gravis in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Dewey, C W; Coates, J R; Ducoté, J M; Meeks, J C; Fradkin, J M

    1999-01-01

    Five dogs with acquired myasthenia gravis (MG), verified via positive serum acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antibody concentrations, were treated with a drug protocol including azathioprine (AZA). Four of the five dogs were concurrently treated with pyridostigmine. Azathioprine was used as the sole immunosuppressive agent in four dogs. One dog was temporarily treated with a combination of an immunosuppressive dose of prednisone and AZA, then maintained on AZA as the sole immunosuppressive drug. Three patients experienced complete remission of clinical signs within three months of therapy. In the four dogs for which follow-up serum ACh receptor antibody concentrations were available, initial versus final concentrations decreased substantially (81%), coincident with clinical improvement. One dog died suddenly due to a suspected myasthenic crisis before attaining the target dose of AZA. Two of the four surviving dogs were euthanized approximately one and seven years after diagnosis. One of these two dogs was euthanized because of a rib osteosarcoma, and the other dog was euthanized because of paraparesis of undetermined cause. The remaining two dogs were alive and doing well at the time of final follow-up evaluation, approximately six months and one year after diagnosis. The use of AZA as a therapeutic agent for acquired canine MG has not been investigated. The cases presented in this report suggest a potentially important role for AZA in the treatment of acquired MG in dogs.

  4. Dog obesity: owner attitudes and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bland, I M; Guthrie-Jones, A; Taylor, R D; Hill, J

    2009-12-01

    Animal (dog) factors that contribute to obesity are classified into three broad categories: genetic pre-disposition, reproductive management and dietary/exercise (human) management. This paper examined the latter-dietary/exercise (human) management. A quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses from dog owners and veterinarians was used to determine the routine care and obesity management strategies for dogs. A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed to dog owners in Victoria, Australia. Owners were asked to score the body condition of their animal by comparison with photographic images of animals with condition score ranging from 2 to 5. The management routines of 219 dog owners were received, including data on 302 dogs. There were 168 households with normal weight animals (BCS 2 and 3) and 51 with obese animals (BCS 4 and 5). The mean number of people per household (normally involved with caring for the animal(s)) with normal weight dogs was significantly lower than that of households with dogs categorised as overweight or obese (Kruskal-Wallis, Chi; chi(2)=6.28; 2.2 (s=0.79) vs. 2.5 (s=1.66); d.f.=2, P<0.05). Dog owners identified a preference for main meal feeding of 'twice a day' (60%), followed by 'once daily' (33%), 'greater than or equal to three times daily' (2%), and 'always feed available' (5%). There was a significant difference (Chi; chi(2)=6.30; d.f.=1; P<0.05) in the frequency of main meal feeding between households. Normal weight animals had food divided into two portions, whereas obese animals or animals from mixed households were more often fed their meal in either one or three-plus portions. Almost all owners fed treats (99%) in the daily feed. Households with normal weight dogs gave treats significantly less frequently than households with obese or mixed weight dogs (Chi; chi(2)=31.81; d.f.=6; P<0.001). The frequency of exercise differed between households (Chi; chi(2)=9.9; d.f.=1; P<0.01), with normal weight dogs being exercised daily

  5. Selecting shelter dogs for service dog training.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Service dogs are an essential aid to persons with disabilities, providing independence, mobility, and improved self-esteem. Because of these proven benefits, the growing se of service dogs is creating a demand and supply crisis. One major cause is the 50% verage dropout rate for dogs selected for training. Weiss and Greenber (1997) re-cently found that a dog, successful on the most commonly used selection test items, was as likely to be either a poor or a good candidate for service work. The experiment presented here evaluated test items developed by the author in 15 years of experience with dogs. The test items were administered to 75 dogs from the Kansas Humane So-ciety. Once tested, the dogs received obedience and retrieval training. The experiment assessed each dog on behavior over 5 weeks of training versus performance on each selection test item. A subset of the selection items, combined in a regression analysis, accounted for 36.4% of the variance with R = 0.603. This research also revealed a reli-able test for dog aggression without risking injury to dog or tester. Items for testing in-cluded fear, motivation, and submission. Another set of selection items reliably pre-dicted the trait of "high energy" commonly described as "high strung." Future research should involve investigating the effectiveness of both cortisol levels and blood pressure in predicting traits to help strengthen the predictive value of the tool and then testing on dogs trained to be full service dogs.

  6. Application of a new subretinal injection device in the dog.

    PubMed

    Komáromy, András M; Varner, Signe E; de Juan, Eugene; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a new subretinal injection device (RetinaJect Subretinal Cannula, SurModics, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN) to access the subretinal space in the canine model was evaluated. Subretinal injections were performed in 33 mongrel dogs between 2 and 52 months of age (median = 9 months). In 5 normal dogs the injection of 150 microl saline or India ink occurred by using a conventional subretinal injection device (CSID) with a 30-gauge anterior chamber irrigating cannula. The sclera had to be surgically exposed and penetrated before the subretinal injection with the CSID could occur. After removing the CSID, the conjunctiva over the sclerotomy site had to be closed. In a second group of 28 dogs [16 normals, 10 RPE65 mutants, and 2 with progressive rod cone degeneration (prcd)], the 25-gauge needle of the RetinaJect was used to penetrate the conjunctiva and the sclera. Once the tip of the needle was close to the retinal surface, a 39-gauge polyimide cannula was extended and brought into apposition with the retina for the subsequent subretinal injection of 150 microl saline, India ink, or adeno-associated virus (AAV). No closure of the conjunctiva was required. The animals were clinically monitored between 1 and 59 weeks after surgery. From this second group 25 eyes were harvested for routine histological analysis either immediately after surgery or after a clinical observation time of between 1 and 40 weeks. Both devices provided equally successful access to the subretinal space. The main advantage of the RetinaJect was that no surgical dissection was required; this led to a shorter procedure time and milder postoperative conjunctival swelling. In summary, the use of the RetinaJect can be recommended as an alternative to the CSID for subretinal injections in dogs.

  7. Comparison between single and three portal laparoscopic splenectomy in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a newly growing technique to replace a more invasive conventional multiple portal laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study was to compare single (SILS) with three portal (Conventional) laparoscopic splenectomy in dogs. Mongrel dogs (n = 18), weighting 15 ± 3 kg, were selected for this study (n = 12 SILS; n = 6 conventional). The area from xiphoid to pubis was prepared under aseptic conditions in dorsal recumbency with the head down and tilted 30 degree in the right lateral position. Pneumoperitoneum was established by CO2 using an automatic high flow pressure until achieving 12 mm Hg. Instrumentation used consisted of curved flexible-tip 5 mm Maryland forceps and ultracision harmonic scalpel for sealing and cutting of the vessels and splenic attachments. Results All dogs recovered uneventfully. The splenectomy procedure using SILS and conventional methods were significantly different in the respective operative time (29.1 ± 1.65 vs. 42.0 + 2.69 min) and the length of the surgical scar (51.6 ± 1.34 mm vs. 72.0 ± 1.63 mm; P < 0.001). There were no post-operative wound complication including inflammation, infection, hernia formation and dehiscence up to one month after surgery. Meanwhile, the conversion to open surgery or application of additional portals was not required in both approaches. Conclusion This study demonstrated that SILS is a safe and feasible operation and could be used as an alternative approach to three portal (Conventional) for splenectomy in dog. PMID:22963734

  8. Combined carotid artery injury and laryngeal fracture secondary to dog bite: case report.

    PubMed

    Varela, J E; Dolich, M O; Fernandez, L A; Kane, A; Henry, R; Livingston, J; Arnold, D; Namias, N

    2000-11-01

    Approximately 914 new dog bite injuries requiring emergency department visits occur daily in the United States. Attacks by dogs with training and strength to attack should be triaged cautiously because of the possibility of serious internal injury. A high index of suspicion is needed when treating patients with neck injuries secondary to dog bites. We report a case of successfully treated combined carotid artery and laryngeal injury produced by a dog bite.

  9. Bilateral appendicular bone tumors in four dogs.

    PubMed

    Selmic, Laura E; Ryan, Stewart D; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Withrow, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral synchronous appendicular bone tumors, occurring in the same bone and same anatomic site within the bone are very rare. This report describes the clinical presentation and oncologic outcome for four dogs with this rare presentation. All cases presented to the authors following a history of unilateral lameness for several weeks. On presentation, case 1 had pain elicited in the contralateral proximal humerus but all the other cases had no abnormalities detectable on physical examination of the contralateral limb. All dogs had technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) nuclear scintigraphy performed that identified bilateral lesions of the distal radii in two dogs, proximal humeri and distal tibiae in one dog each. Thoracic radiographs performed on all dogs showed no evidence of pulmonary metastases. Three dogs were treated with palliative radiation therapy (two dogs received concurrent bisphosphonates) resulting in survival times from initial presentation of 50 days, 193 days, and 523 days, respectively. One dog had stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) and a surgical limb-salvage performed followed by carboplatin chemotherapy, resulting in a survival time of 926 days from initial presentation. Palliative and curative-intent treatments for the bilateral synchronous appendicular bone tumors resulted in survival times similar to those reported for treatment of a single primary appendicular bone tumor.

  10. HISTOCOMPATIBILITY STUDIES IN A CLOSELY BRED COLONY OF DOGS

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Felix T.; Boyd, Arthur D.; Spencer, Frank C.; Lower, Richard R.; Dausset, Jean; Cannon, Florence D.; Ferrebee, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    The DL-A system of histocompatibility plays an important role in conditioning the survival of cardiac allografts in the unmodified canine host. The mean survival time of six cardiac allografts performed in DL-A-compatible littermate dogs obtained from a closely bred colony of beagles was 53.2 days, while the MST of transplants performed in seven DL-A-incompatible animals was 7.3 days. The MST of cardiac allografts performed in nine DL-A-compatible nonlittermate beagles was 26.3 days, as compared with 6.3 days in six DL-A-incompatible nonlittermate transplants. The results did not appear to be affected by Swisher erythrocyte-group incompatibilities. The MST of 28 cardiac allografts performed in randomly selected mongrel dogs was 10.0 days. Incompatibilities for DL-A antigens e, f, g, l, and m may constitute major barriers to transplantation, but antigens b, c, d, and k appeared to act as weak histocompatibility antigens. Under controlled conditions of donor-recipient DL-A compatibility, cardiac allografts may be less immunogenic than renal transplants. Heart transplants performed across major donor-recipient DL-A incompatibilities appeared, however, to be more vulnerable to the events of allograft rejection than renal allografts performed under similar conditions. The selection of optimally compatible donor-recipient combinations for organ transplantation may be aided materially by genetic studies of the transmission of DL-A antigens to the animals under consideration. PMID:4943931

  11. Artificial phrenoesophageal ligament. An experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sader, A A; Dantas, R O; Campos, A D; Evora, P R B

    2016-01-01

    This report deals with the preparation of a 'true' artificial phrenoesophageal ligament aimed at restoring effective anchoring of the esophagus to the diaphragm, keeping the esophagogastric sphincter in the abdomen. A total of 24 mongrel dogs were assigned to four groups: (i) Group I (n = 4): the esophageal diaphragm hiatus left wide open; (ii) Group II (n = 8): the anterolateral esophagus walls were attached to the diaphragm by the artificial ligament and the esophageal hiatus was left wide opened; (iii) Group III (n = 5): in addition to the use of the artificial ligament, the esophageal hiatus was narrowed with two retroesophageal stitches; (iv) Group IV (n = 7): the only procedure was the esophageal hiatus narrowing with two retroesophageal stitches. The phrenoesophagogastric connections were released, sparing the vagus nerves. Five animals of groups III and IV, which did not develop hiatal hernia, were submitted to esophageal manometry immediately before and 15 days after surgery. In group I, all animals developed huge sliding hiatal hernias. In group II, two dogs (25%) had a paraesophageal hernia between the two parts of the artificial ligament. In group III, neither sliding hiatal hernia nor paraesophageal hernia occurred. In group IV, two animals (28.6%) developed sliding esophageal hiatus hernia. Regarding esophageal manometry, postoperative significant difference between groups III and IV (P = 0.008) was observed. Thus, the artificial phrenoesophageal ligament maintained the esophagus firmly attached to the diaphragm in all animals and the esophagogastric sphincter pressure was significantly higher in this group.

  12. Dog models for blinding inherited retinal dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Komáromy, András M

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials.

  13. Dog Models for Blinding Inherited Retinal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Komáromy, András M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  14. Increased Cytokine and Nitric Oxide Levels in Serum of Dogs Experimentally Infected with Rangelia vitalii

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S.; Paim, Carlos Breno V.; França, Raqueli T.; Costa, Márcio M.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Sangoi, Manuela B.; Moresco, Rafael N.; Monteiro, Silvia G.; Lopes, Sonia Terezinha A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) in serum of dogs experimentally infected with Rangelia vitalii. Twelve female mongrel dogs were divided into 2 groups; group A (uninfected controls) composed by healthy dogs (n=5) and group B consisting of dogs inoculated with R. vitalii (n=7). Animals were monitored by blood smear examinations, which showed intraerythrocytic forms of the parasite on day 5 post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected through the jugular vein on days 0, 10, and 20 PI to determine the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and NOx. Cytokines were assessed by ELISA quantitative sandwich technique, and NOx was measured by the modified Griess method. Cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6) were increased (P<0.01) in serum of infected animals. Serum levels of NOx were also increased on days 10 PI (P<0.01) and 20 PI (P<0.05) in infected animals. Therefore, the infection with R. vitalii causes an increase in proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide content. These alterations may be associated with host immune protection against the parasite. PMID:23467990

  15. Clinical, cytologic, and histologic features of a mammary micropapillary carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Colodel, Márcia M; Figueiroa, Fernanda C; Soares, Luisa M; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2013-09-01

    Mammary invasive micropapillary carcinoma is a rare variant of mammary carcinoma that was recently recognized in dogs. The cytologic features and biologic behavior of such neoplasms in dogs have not yet been widely discussed in the veterinary literature. We report the clinical, cytologic, and histologic features of a canine micropapillary carcinoma in a 13-year-old female mongrel dog. The mammary region presented with extreme local pain, severe edema and erythema, and multifocal epidermal ulceration, which is typical for an inflammatory mammary carcinoma. Fine-needle aspirates were highly cellular and consisted of individual cells and papillary cell clusters with characteristics of malignant epithelial cells. Histologic examination revealed neoplastic cells arranged in small papillae without fibrovascular cores, sometimes inside clear lymphatic spaces, indicating lymphovascular invasion. Regional lymph node evaluation revealed metastatic cells. Due to deteriorating clinical condition the dog was euthanatized 5 months after mastectomy. At necropsy, metastatic neoplastic mammary cells were found in popliteal and mediastinal lymph nodes, the right femoral biceps muscle, liver, heart, lungs, and urinary bladder.

  16. Intracranial Biodegradable Silica-Based Nimodipine Drug Release Implant for Treating Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Experimental Healthy Pig and Dog Model

    PubMed Central

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2015-01-01

    Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant. PMID:25685803

  17. Effects of flunixin meglumine in dogs following experimentally induced endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, B L; Bottoms, G D; Denicola, D B; Reed, W M

    1988-07-01

    Twelve dogs were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 dogs were given Escherichia coli endotoxin and then treated with flunixin meglumine. Group 2 dogs were given endotoxin as group 1, but untreated. Group 3 dogs were given flunixin meglumine alone. The dogs were monitored clinically and urine and serum samples were collected at regular intervals for 72 hours. All surviving dogs were humanely killed after 72 hours and examined for gross and histologic lesions. Group 1 dogs all survived 72 hours, but showed prerenal azotemia, hepatocellular damage, hemorrhagic enteritis, and numerous gastric ulcerations. Three of the four dogs in group 2 died before 72 hours. Group 2 dogs showed many of the same chemical and hemodynamic changes as group 1. They had severe hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen; however, there were no gastric ulcerations. Group 3 dogs all survived and showed little physical or hematologic change. The study suggested the following: 1) flunixin meglumine was an effective drug in ameliorating the fatal effects of canine endotoxemia, 2) the effects of endotoxin in combination with flunixin meglumine, at 1.1 mg/kg body weight, caused gastric ulcerations, and 3) in normal dogs flunixin meglumine at 1.1 mg/kg body weight did not cause severe side effects or gross lesions.

  18. Clinical and biochemical changes in 53 Swedish dogs bitten by the European adder - Vipera berus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Every year many dogs in Sweden are bitten by Vipera berus, the only venomous viper in Sweden. This prospective study investigated clinical signs, some biochemical parameters, treatment, and progress of disease after snakebite in 53 dogs. Effects of treatment with and without glucocorticoids were evaluated. Methods All fifty-three dogs bitten by Vipera berus were examined the same day the dog was bitten and the next day. Two more examinations during 23 days post snake bite were included. Creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bile acid results were followed through 3 to 4 samplings from 34 of the dogs. Results All dogs had variable severity of local swelling in the bite area and 73 per cent had affected mental status. Initial cardiac auscultation examination was normal in all dogs, but six dogs had cardiac abnormalities at their second examination, including cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac murmurs. All dogs received fluid therapy, 36 dogs were given analgesics, 22 dogs were treated with glucocorticoids, and ten dogs were treated with antibiotics. Evidence of transient muscle damage (increased CK) was seen one day after the snake bite in 15 (54%) of 28 sampled dogs. Moderate changes in hepatic test results occurred in 1 dog and several dogs (22 of 34) had transient, minor increases in one or more hepatic test result. No dog died during the observation period as a consequence of the snake bite. Conclusions Snake bite caused local swelling in all dogs and mental depression of short duration in most dogs. Some dogs had transient clinical signs that could be indicative of cardiac injury and some other had transient biochemical signs of liver injury. Treatment with glucocorticoids did not have any clear positive or negative effect on clinical signs and mortality. PMID:20416040

  19. Expression of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and TGF-beta in lymph nodes associates with parasite load and clinical form of disease in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cíntia F; de Amorim, Izabela F G; Moura, Eliane P; Ribeiro, Raul R; Alves, Cibele F; Michalick, Marilene S; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Tafuri, Wagner L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Melo, Maria N

    2009-04-15

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis of the New World. Dogs are the main reservoir of the disease and there is much interest in the understanding of mechanisms implicated in protection against canine infection. Nevertheless, most studies in dogs have not been carried out in organs that are targets of infection. This work is first to report the profile of cytokines and parasite burdens, as determined by real-time PCR, in the lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi. With this purpose, 18 mongrel dogs were divided in three groups: control non-infected dogs (n=6) and naturally infected animals with L. chagasi, asymptomatic (n=6) and symptomatic (n=6). Parasite burden in lymph nodes was 73-fold greater in symptomatic than asymptomatic animals. Prescapular lymph nodes of asymptomatic dogs had the highest expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and low parasite burden, indicating that these cytokines play a role in protection against infection. Highest expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta and high parasite burden were observed in symptomatic dogs, suggesting a role for these cytokines in the progression of disease. Hence, the balance of expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha (protective) and IL-10 and TGF-beta (disease progression) in lymph nodes determine parasite burden and clinical expression in naturally infected dogs.

  20. Vascular and cardiac contractile reserve in the dog heart with chronic multiple coronary occlusions.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, F; Flameng, W; Mack, B; Türschmann, W; Schaper, W

    1976-11-01

    Nineteen mongrel dogs survived chronic occlusion of the left circumflex and of the right coronary artery without infarction due to the timely development of a collateral circulation. Only 38 per cent of the conductance of the arteries before occlusion was restored by collateral vessels. In these animals and in 15 control dogs with normal coronary arteries myocardial contractility, contractility reserve, and myocardial blood flow were studied. The same was done in dogs with chronic coronary artery occlusion after aortocoronary bypass. Myocardial blood flow was determined woth the tracer microsphere technique. Contractility reserve was tested and defined as isovolumetric left ventricular pressure and dp/dt max with norepinephrine infusion and cross-clamping of the aorta. Contractile reserve was not significantly different between normal dogs and dogs with chronic coronary artery occlusion before and after aortocoronary bypass. Myocardial blood flow during control conditions was homogenously distributed in all three groups studied. The ratio of blood flow to the endocardium and the epicardium was not significantly different from inity. Coronary reserve was determined at peak reactive hyperemia following a 20 second period of coronary artery occlusion, with ongoing norepinephrine infusion. Under these conditions subendocardial fow in normal dogs rose by a factor of 7.9 while subepicardial flow increased 7.4 times. In dogs with chronic occlusion of two coronary arteries the increase of myocardial flow was nonnomogenous; subendocardial flow to areas supplied by a normal coronary artery rose by a factor of 7.0 while subepicardial flow increased 5.7 times control. Subendocardial collateral flow rose by a factor of 2.4 and subepicardial collateral flow increased 3.5 times control. In normal dogs norepinephrine alone did not result in maximal coronary flow but only 57 per cent thereof. Dogs with chronic coronary occlusion, however, required the entire coronary reserve in

  1. Failure of papyerine hydrocholoride and doxycycline hyclate as antipruritis agents in pruritic dogs: Results of an open clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Danny W.; Cayatte, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Papaverine hydrochloride (150 to 300 mg/dog every 12 hours) and doxycycline hyclate (3 mg/kg every 12 hours) were both administered orally as individual agents to 13 dogs with pruritus of allergic or idiopathic origin. No dog improved. Depression, anorexia, and vomiting were seen in one dog treated with papaverine hydrochloride. Under the conditions of the study, papaverine and doxycycline were not useful antipruritic agents for the dog. PMID:17424184

  2. Dog Bite Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... records. Consult with your veterinarian about your dog’s aggressive action. Your veterinarian can examine your dog to ... or one they know. Some owners actually promote aggression in their dogs or allow aggression to go ...

  3. Electrochemotherapy for the treatment of recurring aponeurotic fibromatosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Spugnini, Enrico P.; Di Tosto, Giovanni; Salemme, Scirin; Pecchia, Luca; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baldi, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the clinical findings, histopathology, and clinical outcome of a rare case of aponeurotic fibromatosis in a dog. The dog was treated with 4 courses of electrochemotherapy using the drugs cisplatin and bleomycin. There was complete remission and the dog was still disease-free after 18 months. PMID:24155455

  4. Clinical results of single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair in 26 small breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Daniel G; Kramek, Betty

    2016-04-01

    Medical records of 26 small breed dogs treated with single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair were reviewed. Excluding dogs with complications associated with cranial cruciate ligament disease, 20/21 dogs with long-term follow-up achieved a complete or acceptable clinical recovery. The complication rate was not increased compared to that previously reported for unilateral patellar luxation repair.

  5. Chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship in dogs with inherited essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Papanek, P E; Bovee, K C; Skelton, M M; Cowley, A W

    1993-11-01

    A genetic model of essential hypertension in the dog was studied to describe the phenotypic expression of the arterial pressure, as well as to determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), hormone, and renal excretory responses to four different levels of sodium intake (5, 40, 120, 240 mEq/day) delivered intravenously and isotonically. This model was developed at the University of Pennsylvania (U/Penn) and termed Pennsylvania hypertensive dogs (PHD). The MAP was recorded beat-by-beat, 24 h/day, in 16 dogs. Water and sodium balances were determined daily for 4 days at each level of intake and blood samples were collected on the last day of each salt step for analysis of plasma renin activity (PRA), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone (ALDO), and vasopressin (AVP). After the study, the dogs were designated as hypertensive (PHD-HT) when the 24-h average MAP was greater than 110 mm Hg and systolic pressure was greater than 160 mm Hg. Dogs that failed to meet both criteria were designated as normotensive genetic controls (PHD-NT). Although sodium was retained during the first day of each increase of salt intake in both groups, a return to balance was observed within the 4 days. There was no apparent change in the slope of the chronic renal function curve in either group of PHD studied, although the PHD-HT exhibit a curve shifted to a higher level of MAP. Plasma hormone levels in both groups of PHD studied responded in a manner similar to normal mongrel dogs with reductions of PRA, ALDO, elevations of ANP, and no change in AVP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Medical management of a patent ductus venosus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 2.5-year-old dog with signs of weight loss, vomiting, and hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed with a patent ductus venosus, based on serum biochemical analysis, jejunal portography, and biopsies, and treated with lactulose, antibiotics, and a reduced protein diet. Two years after initial presentation, the dog is still being managed medically. PMID:15943124

  7. [Seroprevalence, clinical and biochemical data of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania and phlebotominae sandfly fauna in an endemic area in São Luis Island, Maranhão State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Tiago B; De Macedo, Auricélio A; Moraes-Júnior, Felipe De Jesus; Dias, Elaine L; Batista, Zulmira Da S; Calabrese, Katia Da S; Moraes, Jorge Luiz P; Rebêlo, José Manuel M; Guerra, Rita Maria S N De C

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence, clinical and biochemical profile of Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs naturally infected and identify the phlebotominae fauna in an endemic area of São Luis Island. In this present study, 62 household mongrel dogs were sampled for antibodies anti-Leishmania. The seroprevalence was 51.61%. In the clinical evaluation, 36.68% dogs were symptomatic, 38.41% were oligosymptomatic and 26.13% were asymptomatic. The most frequent signs were onychogryphosis and lymphadenomegaly. In 29.41% animals were observed anemia. In the biochemical analysis hepatic function showed changes in relation to alaninoaminotransferase (ALT) and aspartato aminotransferase (AST). Urea values were higher than the references ones for canine specie. The following phlebotominae sandflies were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (86.9%), L. evandroi (9.6%), L. choti (2.1%), L. umbratilis (0.7%) e L. whitmani (0.7%).

  8. VAC protocol for treatment of dogs with stage III hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco J; Hosoya, Kenji; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Kisseberth, William; Couto, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hemangiosarcomas (HSAs) are aggressive tumors with a high rate of metastasis. Clinical stage has been considered a negative prognostic factor for survival. The study authors hypothesized that the median survival time (MST) of dogs with metastatic (stage III) HSA treated with a vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) chemotherapy protocol would not be different than those with stage I/II HSA. Sixty-seven dogs with HSA in different anatomic locations were evaluated retrospectively. All dogs received the VAC protocol as an adjuvant to surgery (n = 50), neoadjuvant (n = 3), or as the sole treatment modality (n = 14). There was no significant difference (P = 0.97) between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II HSA. For dogs presenting with splenic HSA alone, there was no significant difference between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II disease (P = 0.12). The overall response rate (complete response [CR] and partial response [PR]) was 86%). No unacceptable toxicities were observed. Dogs with stage III HSA treated with the VAC protocol have a similar prognosis to dogs with stage I/II HSA. Dogs with HSA and evidence of metastases at the time of diagnosis should not be denied treatment.

  9. Dogs catch human yawns.

    PubMed

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-10-23

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary form of empathy. Since yawning is known to modulate the levels of arousal, yawn contagion may help coordinate dog-human interaction and communication. Understanding the mechanism as well as the function of contagious yawning between humans and dogs requires more detailed investigation.

  10. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs.

  11. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist NP260

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Alison H.; Eaddy, John S.; Rose, Kelly; Cullen, John M.; Ramanathan, Lakshmi; Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu; Watkins, Paul B.; LeCluyse, Edward L.

    2014-06-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA{sub A} receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity.

  12. The influence of Bio-Oss Collagen on healing of an extraction socket: an experimental study in the dog.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Mauricio; Linder, Elena; Wennström, Jan; Lindhe, Jan

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect on hard tissue modeling and remodeling of the placement of a xenograft in fresh extraction sockets in dogs. Five mongrel dogs were used. Two mandibular premolars (4P4) were hemisected in each dog, and the distal roots were carefully removed. In one socket, a graft consisting of Bio-Oss Collagen (Geistlich) was placed, whereas the contralateral site was left without grafting. After 3 months of healing, the dogs were euthanized and biopsies sampled. From each experimental site, four ground sections (two from the mesial root and two from the healed socket) were prepared, stained, and examined under the microscope. The presence of Bio-Oss Collagen failed to inhibit the processes of modeling and remodeling that took place in the socket walls following tooth extraction. However, it apparently promoted de novo hard tissue formation, particularly in the cortical region of the extraction site. Thus, the dimension of the hard tissue was maintained and the profile of the ridge was better preserved. The placement of a biomaterial in an extraction socket may promote bone modeling and compensate, at least temporarily, for marginal ridge contraction.

  13. The attitudes of owners and veterinary professionals in the United Kingdom to the risk of adverse events associated with using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat dogs with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Belshaw, Zoe; Asher, Lucy; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed by veterinary surgeons for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis, and affected dogs may receive these drugs for long periods of time. Whilst short term administration of NSAIDs to dogs is linked to adverse events such as gastrointestinal haemorrhage and renal injury, reports of adverse events associated with their long-term administration are limited in the veterinary literature. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes towards the long term use of NSAIDs for canine osteoarthritis held by three groups who manage osteoarthritic dogs in the United Kingdom: dog owners, veterinary surgeons and veterinary nurses. A qualitative methodology was adopted, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Thematic analysis of these data identified three themes: awareness of potential risks; recognition of adverse events; and influence of risk perception on the use of NSAIDs. Awareness of, and concern about, the risk of adverse events associated with NSAID administration to dogs with osteoarthritis was high in all groups, with veterinary surgeons being one of a variety of information sources used by owners to acquire this knowledge. Veterinary surgeons described difficulty in recognising, managing and avoiding adverse events associated with NSAIDs. When adverse events occurred, a wide range of management approaches were adopted ranging from a brief drug respite to permanent cessation of administration of any NSAIDs to that dog. Commonly employed approaches to minimise risk included dose reduction and screening blood tests. This study describes a high level of concern about the risks associated with long term NSAID administration to dogs with osteoarthritis and highlights a diverse range of strategies employed to minimise these risks. The evidence base for these strategies is poor, and this may present a risk to animal welfare if the affected dogs are not receiving adequate analgesia. In order to

  14. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4–18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001) lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05) better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs. PMID:27317462

  15. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4-18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001) lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05) better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs.

  16. Cardiovascular and renal effects of carvedilol in dogs with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Masami; Sasaki, Takahiro; Ueno, Kouichiro; Yamamoto, Taiji; Ishikawa, Yumi

    2002-06-01

    To determine the acute effects of carvedilol (beta-blocker) on cardiovascular and renal function and its pharmacokinetics in dogs. Fifteen mature mongrel dogs (7-15 kg) of both sexes were used in these experiments. Eight dogs served as controls, and seven dogs served as iatrogenic mitral regurgitation (MR) experimental animals. Carvedilol (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, P.O.) was administered, and the blood carvedilol concentration was analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The response to isoproterenol or phenylephrine was also evaluated. Isoproterenol (0.025 microg/kg/min) was infused via the saphenous vein for 5 min, and phenylephrine (5 microg/kg) was injected with carvedilol (0.2, 0.4 mg/kg) or placebo for 4 days. The heart rate and arterial blood pressure were measured, and LV fractional shortening was measured by echocardiography. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous infusion of sodium thiosulfate and sodium para-aminohippurate. Carvedilol (0.2 mg/kg) decreased the heart rate, whereas renal function, arterial blood pressure, and left ventricular contractile function were not affected. Carvedilol (0.4 mg/kg) decreased heart rate, blood pressure, and renal function. The tachycardic response to isoproterenol was significantly diminished for 36 hr by 0.4 mg/kg carvedilol. Carvedilol 0.2 mg/kg inhibited this effect for 24 hr. Thus, it is necessary to titrate the dosage of carvedilol, it should be initiated at less than 0.2 mg/kg and titrated up to 0.4 mg/kg for heart failure dogs.

  17. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  18. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, Uwe; Burke, Edward J.; Butler, Bruce D.; Davis, Karen L.; Katz, Jeffrey; Melamed, Evan; Morris, William P.; Allen, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 years ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 deg down (LLR-10 deg; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  19. Ophthalmic corticosteroid therapy: systemic effects in the dog.

    PubMed

    Glaze, M B; Crawford, M A; Nachreiner, R F; Casey, H W; Nafe, L A; Kearney, M T

    1988-01-01

    Degenerative myopathy suggestive of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy was diagnosed in a 10-year-old female Poodle X Pekingese dog with a history of progressive lameness. Electromyography revealed bizarre high-frequency discharges. Evidence of adrenal suppression was obtained in response to exogenous ACTH. The predominant source of corticosteroid was an ophthalmic preparation used in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Considering the apparent adverse effects of the corticosteroid in this case, a study was undertaken to determine the systemic effects, if any, induced by long-term ophthalmic administration of 0.1% dexamethasone suspension in healthy adult dogs. Dogs in one group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 8 weeks, and dogs in another group (n = 5) were treated 4 times daily for 16 weeks. All dogs remained healthy throughout the study, but dexamethasone-treated dogs developed marked adrenal suppression, beginning the second week of treatment and intensifying throughout the treatment period. Histopathologic changes in the liver of dexamethasone-treated dogs included scattered foci of vacuolated hepatocytes, increased hepatocytic glycogen content, and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. Muscle specimens were histologically, histochemically, and electromyographically normal.

  20. Factors associated with dog rabies immunisation status in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Mauti, S; Traoré, A; Hattendorf, J; Schelling, E; Wasniewski, M; Schereffer, J L; Zinsstag, J; Cliquet, F

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Bamako, Mali, to determine for the first time the seroprevalence of rabies virus antibodies in the dog population and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards the disease and its control. Antibody detection was done with the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (FAVN) test, with a positivity threshold of 0.25IU/ml. We visited 2956 households in 2010 and 2011 and found 379 dogs in 279 households. Data were collected on 279 dog-owning households, on 1017 non-dog-owning households and on 311 dogs. A serum or plasma sample was collected from 98 dogs. For 26 dogs we had sufficient data to describe the antibody decline over time after rabies vaccination using a quadratic regression. Ninety percent of interviewed persons (95% CI: 85%-91%) knew about rabies. The majority of interviewees knew that rabies is transmitted from dogs to humans, and some of the characteristic clinical signs seen in rabid dogs (change of behaviour, biting, salivation) could be listed by the majority. When asked how people behave regarding a rabid dog, killing the animal was the most frequent answer (>70%). Most (65% of the non-dog-owners and 81% of the dog-owners) were aware that vaccination of dogs can prevent rabies, but only a minority of dog-owners could answer correctly at what age the dog should get a first rabies vaccination (i.e. at 3 months). There was also strong consensus among dog-owners that it is better to protect their dog from becoming rabid by vaccinating it rather than needing to treat a bitten person. Forty-five percent (n=306; 95% CI 38%-52%) of dogs were reported as vaccinated against rabies at least once, but less than half of these (59/136) had a valid vaccination card. When asked for reasons for non-vaccination, cost was the most frequent reason at 31% (95% CI: 21%-43%), while general negligence was mentioned by 15% (95% CI: 10%-24%). Approximately one third of dog-owners would not pay for vaccination. To reach

  1. Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers

    MedlinePlus

    ... make the dog ill. Dead rodents, wildlife or birds may present an irresistible temptation for many dogs, ... your care has been exposed to a toxin, call the owner and a veterinarian immediately. Dog walking ...

  2. Hyperammonemic hepatic encephalopathy management through L-ornithin-L-aspartate administration in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin-Ok; Li, Qiang; Lee, Young-Heun; Han, Sei-Myoung; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seventeen dogs were treated with L-ornithin-L-aspartate (LOLA; experimental group). Three dogs were treated with lactulose recognized therapy (control group). Following LOLA administration, 15 dogs experienced a significant decrease in ammonia level (p < 0.05) and showed clinical signs of improvement. However, there were no clinical signs of improvement in two dogs, even though the ammonia level decreased. Conversely, the clinical signs of the control group also improved and the ammonia level decreased, although these changes were not significant (p > 0.05). These results suggest that LOLA is an effective drug to treat hyperammonemia in veterinary medicine. PMID:26726023

  3. Results of irradiation of infiltrative lipoma in 13 dogs.

    PubMed

    McEntee, M C; Page, R L; Mauldin, G N; Thrall, D E

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen dogs with infiltrative lipomas were treated with cobalt 60 radiation. Four of the thirteen dogs also received either whole body (n = 2) or combination local/whole body (n = 2) hyperthermia in conjunction with radiation therapy. Cytoreductive surgery was performed prior to radiation in 10 dogs, although only 3 dogs had microscopic disease at the time of radiation therapy. Dogs received a total dose of 45.6 Gy-63 Gy in 2.5-4 Gy/fraction on either a Monday/Wednesday/Friday schedule or on a daily Monday through Friday schedule. Twelve of the 13 dogs had computed tomography (CT) images acquired prior to irradiation. Survival time was determined from the time of completion of radiation therapy. Survival ranged from 6 months to 94 months, with a median (95% confidence interval) of 40 (18.5-77) months and a mean of 46.4 months. Only one dog was euthanized due to persistent signs related to the infiltrative lipoma at 6 months after the end of radiation therapy. There was no apparent difference in response based on whether or not the dogs received hyperthermia in conjunction with irradiation, although the numbers were too small to make any significant conclusions. It appears that dogs with infiltrative lipomas can benefit from external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery to effect long-term local tumor control.

  4. Prostate cancer in dogs: comparative and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Bruce E; Northrup, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    The canine prostate gland shares many morphological and functional similarities with the human prostate and dogs are the only other large mammals that commonly develop spontaneous prostate cancer. However, the incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in dogs and the precise cell of origin is not known. Dogs with prostate cancer usually present with advanced disease that does not respond to androgen deprivation therapy. Similar to humans, affected dogs often develop osteoblastic bone metastases in the pelvis and/or lumbar spine with associated pain and neurological deficits. Other clinical signs include weight loss, lethargy, and abnormal urination and/or defecation. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation have been used to treat dogs with prostate cancer, but success has been limited by the location and aggressive nature of the disease. It is evident that better methods of early detection and more effective therapies are needed for prostate cancer in dogs and advanced prostate carcinoma in men. Dogs with naturally-occurring prostate cancer are relevant models for the disease in humans and pre-clinical studies of new diagnostics and therapies in dogs may benefit both humans and dogs with prostate cancer.

  5. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal.

  6. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  7. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  8. Effects of chronic digitalization on cardiac and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate activity and circulating catecholamines in the dog.

    PubMed

    Nechay, B R; Jackson, R E; Ziegler, M G; Neldon, S L; Thompson, J D

    1981-09-01

    To extend our understanding of the mechanism of action of digitalis drugs, we studied electrocardiograms (ECGs), renal function, plasma concentrations of catecholamines, and myocardial and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate (Na+ + K+ ATPase) activity in chronically digitalized dogs. Five healthy, male, mongrel dogs received a therapeutic regimen of digoxin (0.1 mg/kg on day 1 in three divided doses followed by 0.025 mg/kg per day) orally for 2-4 months. This resulted in plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.1 to 4.7 ng/ml as determined by radioimmunoassay. Six control dogs received daily gelatin capsules by mouth. ECGs monitored throughout the study showed no changes. Digitalized dogs had elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations (347 vs. 137 pg/ml in controls) and no change in plasma epinephrine concentrations. Digitalized dogs had elevated glomerular filtration rates (0.74 vs. 0.94 ml/min per g of kidney) without significant changes in renal handling of electrolytes and water. All of the above studies were done without the aid of restraining drugs or infusions. The animals were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital for in vitro studies. In digitalized dogs, microsomal Na+ + K+ ATPase-specific activity was 26 to 33% lower in the renal cortex, medulla, and papilla, and 46% lower in the cardiac left ventricle than in control dogs. Digitalization did not alter the osmolalities of renal tissues. We conclude that chronic reduction Na+ + K+ ATPase activity by one-third dose does not cause abnormalities in renal handling of electrolytes and water, and inhibition of Na+ + K+ ATPase in the left ventricular muscle by one-half is associated with no obvious ECG changes in the dog. Further, elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations may contribute to both the therapeutic and the toxic effects of digitalis.

  9. [Structural reorganization of the dermis of dog tibia during its elongation by the method of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Ye N

    2014-01-01

    Using the methods of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and morphometry the status of the various components of the dermis was studied in the experiment performed on 16 adult mongrel dogs that had their shank extended by 17% of its original length using the method of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis with a daily rate of 1 mm for 4 steps. During the period of distraction, a reduction in the thickness of the dermis, change of the architectonics of its fibrous component, active collageno- and elastogenesis, cell proliferation, and the expressiveness of heteromorphism of fibroblast and macrophage cell populations were detected. In postdistraction period, all the indices were gradually approaching the norm. The data obtained may serve as criteria for the estimation of the stages of the reparative process developing under the created conditions and should be considered in the development of new technologies aimed at optimizing reparative-regenerative processes during tibial lengthening.

  10. Pre-operative fibrous osteodystrophy and severe, refractory, post-operative hypocalcemia following parathyroidectomy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Jennifer M; Nuth, Ellie K; Byers, Christopher G; Thoesen, Mike; Armbrust, Laura J; Biller, David S; Harkin, Kenneth R

    2015-08-01

    A 13-year-old dog exhibited dramatic, radiographic osteopenia consistent with fibrous osteodystrophy secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. Following parathyroidectomy, the dog developed severe, prolonged hypocalcemia, but was successfully treated and discharged 32 d after surgery. A variety of factors may have contributed to this dog's hypocalcemia including hypoparathyroidism and hungry bone syndrome.

  11. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  12. Intranasal administration of oxytocin promotes social play in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper,(1) we examined whether oxytocin in the domestic dog modulates the maintenance of close social bonds in non-reproductive contexts. We found that exogenous oxytocin promotes positive social behaviors not only toward conspecifics, but also toward human partners. Here we examined in further detail the effect that oxytocin manipulation has on social play. When sprayed with oxytocin, subjects initiated play sessions more often and played for longer periods of time than when sprayed with saline. Furthermore, after oxytocin nasal intake dogs displayed play signals more often than after saline administration, suggesting that oxytocin enhances dogs' play motivation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that oxytocin promotes social play in the domestic dog. We use these results to hypothesize on the potential therapeutic use of oxytocin for promoting social behaviors and treating social deficits in the domestic dog.

  13. Dog bite injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Marianne; Dahlin, Lars B

    2011-04-01

    Dog bites to the hand and forearm are common. Although bites are usually minor, aggressive dogs may cause extensive bites developing to a public health problem. In a database review of dog bites to the hand applied to Emergency Department or to the Department of Hand Surgery in Malmö, Sweden 2008-2009, we found 81 cases [42 men and 39 women; median age 45 (range 2-88) years]. Three of 81 (4%) were children younger than 11 years. Six of the 81 (8%) patients included had bilateral injuries. Seventy-five patients were treated at the Department of Hand Surgery, where 31 of 75 (41%) were admitted to hospital in 181 days (median 4, range 1-20). The injuries included lacerations of the skin, muscle, and tendons as well as fractures, arterial and nerve injuries, and traumatic amputations of fingers. Some cases developed infections, necrosis of muscle and skin, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and even sepsis. A total of 96 operations were done for 51 patients (median 1, range 1-8) and the patients had 343 (median 2, range 0-22) outpatient visits. Almost half of the bites occurred when the patients was trying to separate two fighting dogs. The size of the lacerations increased with the size of the dog. Serious infections were found independently of size of dog. We suggest that education of owners and the public, reporting of all bites, and control of animals are some of the actions to reduce the number of attacks. At least one serious case could have been prevented if the dog had been put down after a previous serious attack.

  14. Dental follicle infection following a dog bite.

    PubMed

    Wright, G; Muir, M L; Bryan, R; Smith, A J; Hosey, M T

    2006-03-01

    Animal bite wounds and their subsequent infection are relatively common. Incidence rates for dog bites are significantly higher among children aged 0-9 years, especially among boys. Although bite wounds may initially look innocuous, they frequently lead to serious infection with a potential for life-threatening complications. The microbiology of dog bite wounds is usually polymicrobial, typically including anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella species. A case is described of a 22-month-old boy who, subsequent to a dog bite over the left maxilla, suffered infection of the dental follicle of the primary maxillary canine with Pasteurella multocida. The infection proved difficult to treat, requiring several attempts at incision and drainage of the abscess together with systemic antibiotics, and resulted in the eventual loss of the tooth.

  15. Experimental acute toxicity of xylitol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Z; He, Y; Yu, J

    2009-10-01

    The Cases of xylitol poisoning in dogs are increasing as a result of ingestion of xylitol-containing products. Eighteen adult, clinically normal Pekingese dogs were orally dosed with 1 or 4 g/kg xylitol in aqueous solution. Blood samples were collected before and after dosing. Plasma insulin concentrations of both treated groups rose sharply from 20 min after xylitol dosing, peaking at 40 min. Hypoglycemia followed the increase in insulin concentration, with blood glucose values started to decrease 30 min after dosing. Other plasma biochemistry changes associated with xylitol administration were increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hypercalcemia. Plasma sodium and chloride concentrations remained normal. This study established a biochemical basis for diagnosis and treatment of xylitol poisoning in dogs.

  16. Heartworm in dogs in Canada in 1989

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. Owen D.

    1990-01-01

    In late November 1989, 1732 clinics and institutional veterinarians were sent a questionnaire to assess the status of Dirofilaria immitis, and 51.7% responded. Of 247,716 dogs tested, 394 had D. immitis microfilariae and 51 were amicrofilaremic for a total of 445 cases and heartworm prevalence of 0.17%. Most (408) of these dogs had no preventive medication and the prevalence among dogs tested and unprotected was 1.01%. That prevalence was considerably higher in endemic areas. Thirty-seven dogs with heartworm had preventive medication. Heartworm was most frequent in companion dogs over three years of age maintained outdoors in rural areas. About 75% of the cases had never left Canada, 26% had clinical signs and 125 were not treated. Heartworm was reported from British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, but 383 cases were in Ontario. South-western Ontario was the primary focus of infection. There were 33 cases in Quebec and 24 in Manitoba, mainly found in and around Metropolitan Montreal and Winnipeg respectively. PMID:17423627

  17. Traumatic lung injury attributed to tornadic activity-induced barometric pressure changes in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Brandy N; Dugat, Danielle R; Snider, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 7-year-old castrated male Italian Greyhound (dog 1) and an approximately 1-year-old female Labrador Retriever (dog 2) were evaluated because of respiratory distress 8 and 10 days, respectively, after a tornado. CLINICAL FINDINGS No obvious external injuries were identified auscultation revealed decreased bronchovesicular sounds in the affected hemithorax of both dogs. Clinicopathologic changes were mild, with evidence of inflammation in both dogs. Thoracic radiography of both dogs revealed pneumothorax and pleural effusion with effacement of the diaphragm; findings on CT included severe pulmonary atelectasis of affected lung lobes with normal bronchial tree configurtion and no evidence of diaphragmatic hernia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory thoracotomy of both dogs confirmed CT findings Pulmonary parenchymal damage consistent with a large rupture was found in both patients. A large hematoma was adhered to the ruptured lung lobe of dog 1. Grossly affected lung tissue was removed; histologic examination revealed atelectasis, pulmonary fib osis, thrombosis, and minimal (dog 1) to marked (dog 2) inflammation Microbial culture of lung tissue yielded no growth for dog 1 and Streptococcus spp and Escherichia coli susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for dog 2. Dog 1 had a recurrence of pneumothorax treated by drainage with a thoracostomy tube 1 month after surgery. Eighteen months after surgery, both dogs were reportedly doing well. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Development of clinical signs after a tornado, together with clinical, diagnostic imaging, surgical, and histologic findings led to a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary barotrauma for both dogs. Long-term outcome for these dogs, treated at a referral hospital, was good.

  18. Effects of flunixin and flunixin plus prednisone on the gastrointestinal tract of dogs.

    PubMed

    Dow, S W; Rosychuk, R A; McChesney, A E; Curtis, C R

    1990-07-01

    Flunixin meglumine has been reported to induce gastrointestinal lesions in dogs when administered at therapeutic dosages. We administered flunixin meglumine to dogs daily for 10 days to assess the effect of this drug on the gastrointestinal tract. We also evaluated the possibility of corticosteroid potentiation of gastrointestinal toxicosis by concurrent administration of prednisone to 1 group of dogs. Dogs were monitored for gastrointestinal toxicosis by means of serial endoscopic evaluation, measurement of fecal occult blood, PCV, and total solid concentration, and by physical examination. There were 3 treatment groups of 5 dogs each. Group-1 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses IM; group-2 dogs were given 4.4 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses IM; and group-3 dogs were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg daily, in 2 divided doses IM plus 1.1 mg of prednisone/kg/d orally, in 2 divided doses. A fourth group of 5 dogs served as a control group. Endoscopically visible gastric mucosal lesions developed in all treated dogs within 4 days of initiating treatment. Lesions first developed in the gastric pylorus and antrum and lesions at these sites were more severe than those observed elsewhere. Dogs treated with flunixin meglumine plus prednisone developed the earliest and most severe lesions; lesion scores in group-2 dogs were higher than those in group-1 dogs. All dogs treated had occult blood in their feces by day 5 and its presence appeared to correlate more closely with endoscopic findings than did physical examination findings or changes in values for PCV or total solids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effects of Lidocaine, Dexmedetomidine or Their Combination on the Minimum Alveolar Concentration of Sevoflurane in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    MORAN-MUÑOZ, Rafael; IBANCOVICHI, J. A.; Gutierrez-BLANCO, Eduardo; ACEVEDO-ARCIQUE, Carlos M.; Victoria MORA, J. Mauro; TENDILLO, Francisco J.; SANTOS-GONZALEZ, Martin; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lidocaine (LIDO) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) or their combination (LIDO–DEX), administered by constant-rate infusion (CRI), on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in dogs. Seven healthy mongrel dogs were used with a 2-week washout interval between treatments in this study. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen, and MAC of sevoflurane was determined after 90 min equilibration period in the dogs (SEV-MACBASAL). Then, sevoflurane MAC was determined again in the dogs after 45 min equilibration period of one of the following treatments: an intravenous loading dose of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by 6 mg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACLIDO); an intravenous loading dose of dexmedetomidine 2 µg/kg followed by 2 µg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACDEX); or their combination (SEV-MACLIDO-DEX). These SEV-MACs were determined in duplicate. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tuckey test when appropriate. The SEV-MACBASAL was 1.82 ± 0.06%, SEV-MACLIDO was 1.38 ± 0.08%, SEV-MACDEX was 1.22 ± 0.10%, and SEV-MACLIDO-DEX was 0.78 ± 0.06%. The CRI administration of lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination produced a significant reduction in the MAC of sevoflurane by 26.1 ± 9.0% (P<0.0001), 43.7 ± 11.8% (P<0.0002) and 54.4 ± 9.8% (P<0.0001), respectively. The MAC reduction was significantly greater after the CRI combination of lidocaine and dexmedetomidine when compared with lidocaine CRI (P<0.0001) or dexmedetomidine CRI treatments (P<0.025). PMID:24572631

  20. Impact of Toceranib/Piroxicam/Cyclophosphamide Maintenance Therapy on Outcome of Dogs with Appendicular Osteosarcoma following Amputation and Carboplatin Chemotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mathie, Tamra; Stingle, Nicole; Portela, Roberta; Pennell, Michael L.; Clifford, Craig A.; Rosenberg, Mona P.; Vail, David M.; Williams, Laurel E.; Cronin, Kim L.; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Borgatti, Antonella; Henry, Carolyn J.; Bailey, Dennis B.; Locke, Jennifer; Northrup, Nicole C.; Crawford-Jakubiak, Martin; Gill, Virginia L.; Klein, Mary K.; Ruslander, David M.; Thamm, Doug H.; Phillips, Brenda; Post, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that the addition of toceranib to metronomic cyclophosphamide/piroxicam therapy would significantly improve disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) following amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy. Methods and Findings This was a randomized, prospective clinical trial in which dogs with OSA free of gross metastatic disease (n = 126) received carboplatin chemotherapy (4 doses) following amputation. On study entry, dogs were randomized to receive piroxicam/cyclophosphamide with or without toceranib (n = 63 each) after completing chemotherapy. Patient demographics were not significantly different between both groups. During or immediately following carboplatin chemotherapy, 32 dogs (n = 13 toceranib; n = 19 control) developed metastatic disease, and 13 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Following carboplatin chemotherapy, 81 dogs (n = 46 toceranib; n = 35 control) received the metronomic treatment; 35 dogs (n = 20 toceranib; n = 15 control) developed metastatic disease during the maintenance therapy, and 26 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Nine toceranib-treated and 11 control dogs completed the study without evidence of metastatic disease 1-year following amputation. Toceranib-treated dogs experienced more episodes of diarrhea, neutropenia and weight loss than control dogs, although these toxicities were low-grade and typically resolved with supportive care. More toceranib-treated dogs (n = 8) were removed from the study for therapy-associated adverse events compared to control dogs (n = 1). The median DFI for control and toceranib treated dogs was 215 and 233 days, respectively (p = 0.274); the median OS for control and toceranib treated dogs was 242 and 318 days, respectively (p = 0.08). The one year survival rate for control dogs was 35% compared to 38% for dogs receiving toceranib. Conclusions The

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum in 17 dogs.

    PubMed

    Lascelles, B D; Parry, A T; Stidworthy, M F; Dobson, J M; White, R A

    2000-10-21

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum was diagnosed in 17 dogs over a period of 11 years. Ulceration, bleeding and sneezing were the most common clinical signs. One dog had cytological evidence of metastasis to the local lymph node. The dogs were treated by surgical resection, fractionated megavoltage irradiation, or a combination of the two. Surgical resection gave the most favourable results; four of six dogs were cured but a recurrence of the tumour was predicted in the other two on the basis of incomplete or marginal resection. Radiotherapy alone was not as effective; one of four dogs was cured, and the tumour recurred in the others within 24 weeks (median eight weeks). Combined surgical resection and radiotherapy did not produce a cure in any of the seven remaining dogs, and the tumour recurred within 12 weeks (median nine weeks). Three dogs had cytological evidence of lymph node metastasis when the tumour recurred. The dogs' prognosis was adversely affected by the interval between their initial examination and treatment, but there was no apparent association between the histological grade of the tumour and the clinical outcome.

  2. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging of early subchondral cyst-like lesions in induced cranial cruciate ligament deficient dogs.

    PubMed

    Baird, D K; Hathcock, J T; Kincaid, S A; Rumph, P F; Kammermann, J; Widmer, W R; Visco, D; Sweet, D

    1998-01-01

    Six healthy adult male mongrel dogs underwent cranial cruciate ligament transection in the left stifle. Survey radiography of both stifles and low-field (0.064 T) MRI of the left stifle were performed preoperatively and at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Focal changes in signal intensity were seen with MRI in the subchondral bone of the medial tibial condyle at 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. At 12 weeks postoperative, a cyst-like lesion was detected using MRI in the subchondral bone of the medial tibial condyle in 4 of 6 dogs and a less defined lesion at this site in the remaining 2 dogs. The cyst-like lesion was spherical in shape and showed typical characteristics of fluid with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and high signal intensity on inversion recovery images. The lesion was seen in the subchondral bone of the caudal medial and/or middle region of the tibial plateau slightly cranial to the insertion of the caudal cruciate ligament. No subchondral cysts were seen in the tibia on radiographs. Histopathologically, the tibia was characterized by a loose myxomatous phase of early subchondral cyst formation.

  3. Real-time PCR in clinical practice: a powerful tool for evaluating Leishmania chagasi loads in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, R N; Amorim, A C; Brandão, R M S S; de Andrade, H M; Yokoo, M; Ribeiro, M L; Bartchewsky, W; Socorro-Silva, A; de Castro, J A F; do Monte, S J H

    2010-03-01

    The performance of the less expensive SYBR-Green-based PCR assay, for quantifying Leishmania chagasi in smears of bone-marrow aspirates from naturally infected, mongrel dogs, was recently compared with that of a similar PCR based on TaqMan chemistry. Aspirates were obtained from 36 infected dogs and examined for parasites by direct examination, culture, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) using specific primers (based on the parasite's kinetoplast DNA), DNA extracted from a smear, and either the SYBR-Green or TaqMan chemistries. Every aspirate smear was found PCR-positive for L. chagasi (whether the assay employed SYBR Green or TaqMan) but only 74% of the aspirates were found positive by culture and only 33% by direct, microscopical examination. There was no evidence of PCR inhibition when the DNA was collected from smears, and the parasite loads estimated using the SYBR-Green PCR were almost identical to those estimated using the TaqMan PCR (r=0.99). As a method for quantifying parasite loads in dogs infected with L. chagasi (and, probably, other mammals infected with other leishmanial parasites), PCR based on SYBR Green may therefore be an appropriate and inexpensive alternative to PCR based on TaqMan, and a reliable clinical tool.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of afoxolaner against two European dog tick species: Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Pascal; Blair, Jeffrey; Fourie, Josephus J; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The acaricidal efficacy of a novel oral formulation of afoxolaner (NEXGARD(®), Merial) against two European tick species was assessed in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. Three studies, each characterized by a negative controlled randomized block design, were conducted with a total of 52 beagle or mongrel dogs of both sexes. Starting 2 days before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with approximately 50 ticks. The number of live ticks was counted at 48 h post-treatment (Day 2) as well as 48 h following each infestation on Days 9, 16, 23, and 30. Afoxolaner, administered at an average dose of 2.7 mg/kg bodyweight (range 2.5-2.9 mg/kg), rapidly eliminated the pre-existing tick infestations with over 99% acaricidal efficacy and controlled the weekly re-infestations for up to 30 days post treatment with over 96% efficacy on both tick species. Afoxolaner provides excellent acaricidal efficacy against these two major European tick species using the oral route of administration.

  5. Development of a new benazepril hydrochloride chewable tablet and evaluation of its bioequivalence for treatment of heart failure in dogs.

    PubMed

    Qian, M; Chen, T; Zhou, D; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Q; Tang, S; Xiao, X

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a new chewable benazepril hydrochloride(BH) tablet, investigate its physical properties, and evaluate its bioequivalence with the branded formulation (Fortekor). A corrective agent was included in the formula to improve its palatability and convenience for administration to dogs. The tablet remained stable in light, heat, and humidity tests, and its physical properties such as hardness, uniformity of content, and dissolution rate were highly consistent with the technical standards. After single and repeated administrations to eight beagles and single dose to 14 mongrel dogs (0.5 mg/kg p.o.), plasma BH and its active metabolite, benazeprilat (BZ), were detected. There was no significant difference in the major pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax , Tmax, and AUC₀₋₂₄) between the two formulations. The 90% confidence intervals calculated for the ratios of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC₀₋₂₄) were 92.4-116.3% for BH and 89.9-102.3% for BZ, within the accepted range for bioequivalence of 80-125%. The results showed our new chewable tablet is bioequivalent to the commercial product and suitable for addition to the benazepril product family for the treatment of heart failure in dogs.

  6. Analysis of the sexual dimorphism in the basioccipital portion of the dog's skull.

    PubMed

    Trouth, C O; Winter, S; Gupta, K C; Millis, R M; Holloway, J A

    1977-01-01

    Sexual differences in the basioccipital portion of the skull of dogs have been described and an index is presented which reliably predicts the sex of the skull. 92 dolichocephalic skull (44 male, 48 female) from mongrel dogs were used. In the basioccipital region of the male skulls, a triangular area, which extends from the basion to a line joining the medialmost points of the two jugular foramina, appears narrow and elevated. The pharyngeal tubercle is also prominent. In female skulls the rostral angle of this triangle is wider and the triangular area seems smoother and flat. The anterior half of the female basioccipital portion is wider and smoother than in the male skull. In order to quantify the observed differences, four indices were calculated. All of the indices were statistically significant. However, only index IV could be reliably used in predicting the sex of an unknown skull: (formula: see text) was derived from breadth IV (distance between the two temporo-occipital fissures at their lateralmost points) and length II (distance between the basion and a line drawn between the two medialmost points of the jugular foramina in the midline). Values of less than 123 for male and greater than 136 for female placed the skulls in their proper sex group. Skulls that had intermediate values could be placed in correct sex grouping only in conjunction with strong observational criteria. It is suggested that in absence of such strong observational criteria these skulls may belong to immature or castrate animals.

  7. [Recombinant thrombopoietin antiradiation therapeutic effectiveness evaluation on dogs according to hemopoiesis and survival criteria].

    PubMed

    Rozhdestvenskiĭ, L M; Shliakova, T G; Shchegoleva, R A; Lisina, N I; Zorin, V V

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rh TPO) has been investigated as a means of acute radiation disease urgent treatment in the experiments on 24 mongrel dogs. The animals were exposed to total acute gamma-irradiation at the doses of 3.5 Gy (exceeding LD50/45 under our conditions) and 3 Gy. All the dogs including control ones received antibiotics Ampicillin and Gentamicin twice a day during the acute period from the 7th to the 21st day. TPO was injected one time s/c or i/v at the doses of5 or 10 mkg/kg 1.5-2 h after exposure. TPO at a dose of 5 mkg/kg was ineffective. TPO at a dose of 10 mkg/kg had a positive effect on the kinetics of blood forming units, especially platelets (nadir, restoration rate) in terms of the 45-day survival. As a result, in TPO groups, nadir averaged at both exposure doses on leucocytes (1.3-1.4) x 10(9)/l vs (0.70-0.75) x 10(9)/l in control groups and on thrombocytes (102-112) x 10(9)/l vs (44-33) x 10(9)/l in control ones. Despite the low number of animals in experimental groups, the results permit to regard rhTPO as a worth-while urgent therapeutic means for the acute radiation damage treatment and preventing thrombopenia.

  8. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Treseder, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented. PMID:27297421

  9. Major dog attack injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, N E; Chochinov, H; Fraser, V

    1983-10-01

    Children are frequently admitted to a hospital with injuries sustained as a result of being attacked by a dog. Over a 5-year period (1977 to 1981), 57 such patients have been treated at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital. Half of the dog attack victims were 5 years or younger with injuries occurring more often in boys (55%). The majority of patients (95%) sustained puncture wounds and lacerations to the face (77%) and extremities (23%). In three of the cases, the dog attack victims presented with peritonitis secondary to bowel perforation and were treated successfully. A fourth child died as a result of his injuries prior to reaching the hospital. In the past, much attention has been focused on soft tissue injuries and their cosmetic repair. It is also important to recognize that the small child is particularly vulnerable to dog maulings from which the injuries sustained may be life threatening or lethal. Prevention seems to be the only rational approach to solving this problem.

  10. A cross-sectional study on canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil ratifies a higher prevalence of specific IgG-antibody response than delayed-type hypersensitivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Fernando T; Carneiro, Liliane A; Ramos, Patrícia K S; Chagas, Eugênia J; Lima, Luciana V R; Campos, Marliane B; Laurenti, Márcia D; Gomes, Claudia M C; Corbett, Carlos E P

    2012-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study which analyzed the prevalence and the clinical and immunological spectrum of canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in a cohort of 320 mongrel dogs living in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Amazonian Brazil by using, mainly, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT-IgG) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the parasite research by the popliteal lymph node aspiration. The IFAT and DTH reactivity recognized three different immune response profiles: (1) IFAT((+))/DTH((-)) (107 dogs), (2) IFAT((-))/DTH((+)) (18 dogs), and (3) IFAT((+))/DTH((+)) (13 dogs), providing an overall prevalence of infection of 43% (138/320). Thus, the specific prevalence of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) 33.4% (107/320) was higher than those of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) 5.6% (18/320) and IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) 4.0% (13/320). Moreover, the frequency of these profiles among 138 infected dogs showed that the IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) rate of 77.5% (107/138) was also higher than those of 13.0% (18/138) of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) and 9.5% (13/138) of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) rates. The frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105) was higher than those of symptomatic (16.6%-23) and oligosymptomatic ones (7.4%-10). A total of 16 (11.6%) L. (L.) i. chagasi isolates were obtained from infected dogs, all from the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile: 41% (9/22) from symptomatic, 33.3% (3/9) from oligosymptomatic, and 5.2% (4/76) from asymptomatic dogs. These findings strongly suggested that despite the higher frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105), the majority (72.4%-76) was characterized by the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile with a doubtful immunogenetic resistance against infection.

  11. North American snake envenomation in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Lyndi L; Brunker, Jill

    2011-11-01

    Snake envenomation can be a cause of significant morbidity in dogs and cats in North America. Being familiar with the venomous snakes in your area and understanding the mechanisms of action of their venom will allow for successful treatment of envenomation cases. Treatment of snake envenomation revolves around supportive care in mild to moderate cases and venom neutralization with antivenom in severe cases. Dogs and cats envenomated by North American snakes have a good prognosis if treated appropriately.

  12. [A worm infection in the skin of a dog. First autochthonous Dirofilaria repens infection ofa dog in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, P A M; van Dijk, E P

    2009-11-15

    The history of an 18-month-old English bulldog with a painful lump in the skin on its thigh is described. After opening the nodule a few Dirofilaria repens nematodes were found. Oval-shaped transparent eggs with moving larvae were seen microscopically. The dog was treated with milbemycin and made a complete recovery. The dog had never been abroad, but 6 months earlier in early May had been on a campsite in the middle of the Netherlands where many mosquitoes were present. This is the first described case of an autochthonous D. repens infection of a dog in the Netherlands.

  13. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  14. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  15. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  16. [Experimental Subarachnoid hemmorrhage in dogs--effect of various drugs and sympathectomy on cerebral arterial spasm (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Noda, S

    1975-09-01

    Adult mongrel dogs were used. The posterior communicating artery was punctured with a fine needle and subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced, which simulated aneurysmal rupture in human. The cerebral basal arteries were constricted remarkably after the puncture. However this vasospasm disappeared in about 60-120 minutes. After this restoration, the vessels began to be constricted again and reduced their diameter in greater degree with lapse of time. Effect of various drugs and sympathectomy on the experimental spasm induced by this method were studied utilizing the magnified vertebral angiography. The drugs used were papverine, isoxuprine, methysergide, phentolamine and propranolol. One of these drugs was given to each dog into the vertebral artery 15 minutes after the puncture of the artery for study of the early spasm, and the same procedure was carried out 24 hours after the late spasm. Vertebral arteriograms were taken immediately after and at 5, 10 and 30 minutes after injection of the drug. Diameter changes of the cerebral basal arteries were measured on the film. Smooth muscle relaxtants, papaverine and isoxsuprine, were effective on relieving the early and the late spasm. An antiserotonin agent, methysergide, relieved slightly the early spasm, but it had no effect on the late spasm. Phentolamine, that is an adrenergic blocking agent, relieved the early spam remarkably, but it was less effective on the late spam. A beta adrenergic blocking agent, propranolol, was effective on relieving neither the early nor the late spasm. Two weeks after the removal of the bilateral upper cervical ganglia, subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by the smae method as mentioned above in four dogs. Arteriograms taken 24 hours after puncture of the posterior communicating artery in these dogs showed vasoconstriction as same as in the non-sympathectomized dogs. From these experimental results, it was suggested that an etiological difference in the early and the late spasm may exist

  17. Fungal rhinitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrzeszewicz, M; Sapierzyński, R

    2015-01-01

    Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in dogs are quite common reasons of chronic nasal discharge and rhinoscopy in such cases is commonly suggested. Forty three dogs were examined using rhinoscopy because of the presence of chronic airway symptoms. Clinical examination, routine hematology and serum biochemistry profiles, nasal and frontal sinus radiographs were made in all animals. Additionally, computed tomography in one dog was performed. Samples for histopathology were taken from 9 patients during rhinoscopy, additionally, from 8 of these patients samples for cytopathology were collected by blind nasal swab technique. In 9 of 43 dogs (20,5%), all males aged 1 to 13 years, examinations led to a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis. In 2 cases a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis was obtained based solely on cytopathology, while in 7 cases - mycosis of nasal mucosa was confirmed by histopathology. The present study revealed that cytopathological examination of nasal swabs has a low diagnostic value in the case of nasal infections in dogs. Although, in some dogs cytopathology, together with other widely available diagnostic techniques was sufficient to reliably diagnose fungal rhinitis, histopathology of samples collected during rhinoscopy is still the gold standard in such cases.

  18. Global Positioning System Derived Performance Measures Are Responsive Indicators of Physical Activity, Disease and the Success of Clinical Treatments in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Elizabeth A.; Guthrie, James W.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Clements, Dylan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1) different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2) healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3) osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia. Design Prospective study. Animals Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs). Procedure Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball) whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar. Results GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation. PMID:25692761

  19. Maxillary osteomyelitis in two Scottish terrier dogs with chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Boutoille, Florian; Hennet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Two Scottish terrier dogs were presented for recurrent oral problems. They were diagnosed with refractory chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis and necrosis of the incisive and maxillary bones. Both dogs were treated with a combination of bilateral rostral maxillectomy and tooth extractions. The ostectomy was performed with a specific cutting device using piezoelectric bone surgery technology. These two cases show that a precise evaluation of dogs is essential for the diagnose of chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis and its differentiation from mucocutaneous autoimmune diseases.

  20. Clinical results of single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair in 26 small breed dogs

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Daniel G.; Kramek, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of 26 small breed dogs treated with single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair were reviewed. Excluding dogs with complications associated with cranial cruciate ligament disease, 20/21 dogs with long-term follow-up achieved a complete or acceptable clinical recovery. The complication rate was not increased compared to that previously reported for unilateral patellar luxation repair. PMID:27041762

  1. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals.

  2. Multi-agent chemotherapy for mast cell tumours in the dog.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, R J; Teske, E; Kraus, J S; Rutteman, G R

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen dogs with mast cell tumours received chemotherapy. Fifteen dogs were treated with a vincristine, cyclophosphamide, hydroxyurea, and prednisolone (VCHP) regimen. Seven of these were later switched to doxyrubicin and prednisolone either because they stopped responding or because they did not respond from the start of the treatment. Two dogs received the latter regimen as the primary therapy. All dogs were treated with cimitidine and metoclopramide to minimize the effect of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with histamine release. Ten of the 17 dogs were found to respond (4/17 complete response (CR), 6/17 partial response (PR)). Response duration varied from 39 to 910 days (median 53 days), including 3 dogs with a CR that lasted more than 2 years. Survival time in responders varied from 41 to 910 days (median 97 days) and from 30 to 126 (median 39) in the other 7 dogs. Dogs that became refractory to VCHP did not respond to doxyrubicin and prednisolone. It is concluded that multi-agent chemotherapy has anti-tumour activity in a considerable proportion of dogs with mast cell tumours, but its efficacy is variable. The multivariate analyses showed that significant factors predicting survival in dogs with mast cell tumours were sex (P = 0.009), absence or presence of non-abdominal distant metastases, or abdominal metastases, respectively (P = 0.023), and malignancy grade of the tumours (P = 0.053).

  3. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  4. Familial anthropophobia in pointer dogs?

    PubMed

    Dykman, R A; Murphree, O D; Reese, W G

    1979-08-01

    This article assesses a dog model in terms of a proposed cross-species definition of phobia, the model referring to a strain of unstable dogs that has been produced by selection and inbreeding. The unstable dogs are contrasted with a strain of stable dogs. New findings are presented on approach and activity behavior toward three stimulus objects (man, another dog, and a sheet-covered chair) in a naturalistic setting. The fear response of unstable dogs to objects other than man habituates gradually, whereas the fear response to the sight of man is far more enduring, suggesting a relatively specific fear of man.

  5. Comparison of terazosin and prazosin for treatment of vesico-urethral reflex dyssynergia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Haagsman, A N; Kummeling, A; Moes, M E; Mesu, S J; Kirpensteijn, J

    2013-07-13

    Nineteen dogs with vesico-urethral reflex dyssynergia (VURD) were treated with prazosin or terazosin 0.5 mg/kg twice daily to compare efficacy and side effects. Dogs were referred because of signs of (partial) urethral obstruction. Physical examination, abdominal ultrasonography, urinalysis and a radiographic contrast study of bladder and urethra (urethrocystography) were routinely performed. If no mechanical causes of obstruction or disease of the distal urinary tract were observed, the diagnosis VURD was presumed and the dogs were included in our study. Follow-up information was obtained from owners or referring veterinarians. Significantly more side effects were seen in the dogs treated with terazosin (n=14; 93 per cent) compared with the dogs treated with prazosin (n=5; 20 per cent; P=0.002). Effects of the treatment were comparable between prazosin and terazosin. Labradors and dogs that were castrated surgically had a significant better survival (P<0.01) compared with other breeds and animals that were castrated chemically. There was a moderate to good effect in 60 per cent of the dogs treated with prazosin, and in 64 per cent of the dogs treated with terazosin.

  6. Managing Neuropathic Pain in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of the somatosensory system such as neuropathic pain are common in people with chronic neurologic and musculoskeletal diseases, yet these conditions remain an underappreciated morbidity in veterinary patients. This is likely because assessment of neuropathic pain in people relies heavily on self-reporting, something our veterinary patients are not able to do. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex phenomenon, and concepts related to it are frequently not addressed in the standard veterinary medical curriculum such that veterinarians may not recognize this as a potential problem in patients. The goals of this review are to discuss basic concepts in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, provide definitions for common clinical terms used in association with the condition, and discuss pharmacological treatment options for dogs with neuropathic pain. The development of neuropathic pain involves key mechanisms such as ectopic afferent nerve activity, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, impaired inhibitory modulation, and pathologic activation of microglia. Treatments aimed at reducing neuropathic pain are targeted at one or more of these mechanisms. Several drugs are commonly used in the veterinary clinical setting to treat neuropathic pain. These include gabapentin, pregabalin, amantadine, and amitriptyline. Proposed mechanisms of action for each drug, and known pharmacokinetic profiles in dogs are discussed. Strong evidence exists in the human literature for the utility of most of these treatments, but clinical veterinary-specific literature is currently limited. Future studies should focus on objective methods to document neuropathic pain and monitor response to therapy in veterinary patients. PMID:26942185

  7. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  8. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy: Experience in 45 Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Kathryn A.; Stanley, Bryden J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report experience with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in 45 consecutive dogs admitted with extensive cutaneous wounds and to determine if NPWT is feasible in veterinary hospital practice. Study Design Prospective descriptive study Animals Dogs (n = 45) Methods Collected data were organized into 6 categories: patient data, wound data, NPWT data, adjunctive treatments, complications, and final outcome Results Wounds (53 in 45 dogs) were largely traumatic in origin, and distributed fairly evenly to the trunk, proximal and distal aspects of the limbs. Most wounds (34 dogs, 76%) had no granulation tissue and were treated a mean of 4.2 days after wounding, whereas 11 dogs had granulating wounds that were initially treated a mean of 87 days after wounding. Median NPWT use was 3 days with a mean hospitalization of 7.8 days. Most wounds (33; 62%) were closed surgically after NPWT and were healed by 14 days. The other 18 wounds healed (mean, 21 days) by second intention after hospital discharge. Overall, 96% of the wounds healed; 2 dogs died before definitive closure could be attempted. Conclusion NPWT is applicable to a wide variety of canine wounds is well tolerated, allows for several days between dressing changes, and can used to optimize the wound bed for surgical closure or second intention healing. PMID:24512302

  9. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  10. Dogs, zoonoses and immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R A; Pugh, R N

    2002-06-01

    Dogs are the source of a wide range of zoonotic infections that pose a significant threat to human health. This is particularly the case for immunocompromised people, although there are few robust studies that determine immunosuppression as a risk factor for transmission of zoonoses from dogs to humans. An increasing proportion of human society is immunodeficient, principally through the advent of HIV infection and through more people, particularly the expanding elderly group, being subjected to immunosuppressive agents. This is happening at a time when more such people are capitalizing on the acknowledged benefits of dog ownership, making for a potentially dangerous mix. Enteric pathogens (for example, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium species, that may be canine derived) are a frequent risk to the health of immunocompromised persons. Veterinarians and physicians can be criticised for not communicating with each other, and for not providing adequate risk assessment to pet owners. There is scope for voluntary groups to provide information and support for the immunosuppressed who wish to keep their dogs. Key recommendations are to maintain a clean personal environment and intact mucocutaneous barriers. Public health professionals could help rectify the current communications gap between veterinary and medical staff and so facilitate in the appropriate management of dog-owning immunocompromised people.

  11. Breed differences in development of anti-insulin antibodies in diabetic dogs and investigation of the role of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes.

    PubMed

    Holder, Angela L; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ollier, William E R; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-10-15

    Administration of insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs can stimulate an immune response, with a proportion of animals developing anti-insulin antibodies (AIA). For an IgG antibody response to occur, this would require B cell presentation of insulin peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, encoded by dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes, in order to receive T-cell help for class switching. DLA genes are highly polymorphic in the dog population and vary from breed to breed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate AIA reactivity in diabetic dogs of different breeds and to investigate whether DLA genes influence AIA status. Indirect ELISA was used to determine serological reactivity to insulin in diabetic dogs, treated with either a porcine or bovine insulin preparation. DLA haplotypes for diabetic dogs were determined by sequence-based typing of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. Significantly greater insulin reactivity was seen in treated diabetic dogs (n=942) compared with non-diabetic dogs (n=100). Relatively few newly diagnosed diabetic dogs (3/109) were found to be AIA positive, although this provides evidence that insulin autoantibodies might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease in some cases. Of the diabetic dogs treated with a bovine insulin preparation, 52.3% (182/348) were AIA positive, compared with 12.6% (75/594) of dogs treated with a porcine insulin preparation, suggesting that bovine insulin is more immunogenic. Breeds such as dachshund, Cairn terrier, miniature schnauzer and Tibetan terrier were more likely to develop AIA, whereas cocker spaniels were less likely to develop AIA, compared with crossbreed dogs. In diabetic dogs, DLA haplotype DRB1*0015--DQA1*006--DQB1*023 was associated with being AIA positive, whereas the haplotype DLA-DRB1*006--DQA1*005--DQB1*007 showed an association with being AIA negative. These research findings suggest that DLA genes influence AIA responses in treated diabetic

  12. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  13. [Bacteriology and mycology of otitis externa in dogs].

    PubMed

    Bornand, V

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial and fungal flora of 1118 ears of dogs with otitis externa and 100 ears of healthy control dogs were studied in order to isolate the causative agents. The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis (56%) was by far the most common organism in otitic dogs followed by the bacteria Staphylococcus intermedius (23%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Proteus spp. (6%) and Streptococcus canis (5%). A statistical analysis of observed results showed that the incidence of these organisms is significant in otitic dogs. Many strains of S.intermedius, P.aeruginosa and Proteus spp. are resistant to antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat otitis externa. Therefore an antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using "Cobas Bact" for these bacterias. Furthermore, 80 strains of M.pachydermatis were submitted to identification-kits (API 20 CAUX, API STAPH, Cobas Micro). The observed results showed that an identification with these tests was not possible.

  14. Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

  15. Ability of an oral formulation of afoxolaner to protect dogs from Borrelia burgdorferi infection transmitted by wild Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Baker, C F; McCall, J W; McCall, S D; Drag, M D; Mitchell, E B; Chester, S T; Larsen, D

    2016-12-01

    A randomized, blinded, negative controlled study was conducted to determine whether treatment with afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial, Inc.) would prevent the transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to dogs by wild caught Ixodes scapularis ticks. Twenty healthy dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of ten dogs each. Ten dogs were treated orally on Day 0 at a dose near the minimum recommended dose of afoxolaner of 2.5mg/kg (actual doses 2.5-3.1mg/kg) and ten control dogs were not treated. On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 50 adult unfed wild caught I. scapularis that had a 67% B. burgdorferi infection rate (determined by polymerase chain reaction). On Day 33, live ticks were counted and removed. No ticks were found on treated dogs while control dogs had an average of 21.4 ticks. To detect infection, the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test (IDEXX) was performed on serum collected before infestation (all dogs seronegative on Days -6 and 27) and on Days 48, 63, 77 and 92. The ten treated dogs remained seronegative through the end of the study (Day 92), while nine out of the ten control dogs were infected, as demonstrated by their seroconversion to being positive for the presence of the B. burgdorferi-specific C6 antibody starting on Day 48. In this study, all dogs treated with NexGard(®) 28days prior to challenge with wild caught I. scapularis ticks were protected from B. burgdorferi infection, while nine out of the ten untreated control dogs were infected.

  16. Bartonella quintana Endocarditis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maggi, Ricardo; Sontakke, Sushama; Keene, Bruce; Hunter, Stuart; Lepidi, Hubert; Breitschwerdt, Kyle T.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Raoult, Didier

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first evidence that Bartonella quintana can infect dogs and cause typical signs of endocarditis. Using PCR and sequencing, we identified B. quintana in the blood of a dog from the United States with aortic valve endocarditis and probably also in the mitral valve of a dog from New Zealand with endocarditis. PMID:17326937

  17. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed... veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden and clarify those benefits. This rulemaking would...

  18. Olprinone/dopamine combination for improving diaphragmatic fatigue in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2006-01-01

    Background: Diaphragmatic fatigue might contribute to the development of respiratory failure. In particular, the spontaneous, natural rate of phrenic nerve discharge occurs mainly in low-frequency ranges making low-frequency fatigue clinically important in both humans and animals. Olprinone, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, improves contractility in fatigued diaphragm, but is also associated with hypotension. Dopamine might be used concomitantly for treating related hypotension. Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of olprinoneplus dopamine on diaphragmatic fatigue in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Methods: This nonblinded study was conducted at the Department ofAnesthesiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Japan. Diaphragmatic fatigue (assessed by a decrease in diaphragmatic contractility) was induced by intermittent supramaximal bilateral electrophrenic stimulation at a frequency of 20 Hz applied for 30 minutes. Immediately after the fatigue-producing period, groups 2, 3, and 4 received an initial 10 μg/kg dose of olprinone. Group 2 then received maintenance olprinone of 0.3 μg/kg · min; group 3 received maintenance olprinone 0.3 μg/kg · min plus dopamine 2 μg/kg · min; and group 4 received maintenance olprinone 0.3 μg/kg · min plus dopamine 5 μg/kg · min. Group 1 received no study drug. Olprinone and dopamine were administered IV for 30 minutes. Diaphragmatic contractility was assessed by measuring the maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) generated by test stimuli after airway occlusion at functional residual capacity. Hypotension induced by the study drugs was defined as a >10 mm Hg decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP), calculated by diastolic pressure plus ⅓ pulse pressure, from baseline. Results: Twenty-eight mongrel dogs (18 males and 10 females, weighing 10-15 kg)were used in the study; 7 dogs were randomly assigned to each treatment group. When fatigue was established in each group, mean (SD) Pdi

  19. The biological effects of radium-224 injected into dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1996-08-01

    A life-span study was conducted in 128 beagle dogs to determine the biological effects of intravenously injected {sup 224}Ra chloride. The {sup 224}Ra chloride was prepared by the same method used for intravenous injections in humans who were treated for ankylosing spondylitis and tuberculosis. Thus the results obtained from dogs can be compared directly to the population of treated humans, both for the elucidation of the effect of exposure rate and for comparison with other radionuclides for which data for humans are unavailable. Using equal numbers of males and females, the dogs were injected with one of four levels of {sup 224}Ra resulting in initial body burdens of approximately 13, 40, 120 or 350 kBq of {sup 224}Ra kg{sup -1} body mass. A control group of dogs was injected with diluent only. All dogs were divided further into three groups for which the amount of injected {sup 224}Ra (half-life of 3.62 days) or diluent was given in a single injection or divided equally into 10 or 50 weekly injections. As a result of these three injection schedules, the accumulation of dose from the injected {sup 224}Ra was distributed over approximately 1, 3 or 12 months. Each injection schedule included four different injection levels resulting in average absorbed {alpha}-particle doses to bone of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Gy, respectively. The primary early effect observed was a hematological dyscrasia in the dogs receiving either of the two highest injection levels. The effect was most severe in the dogs receiving a single injection of {sup 224}Ra and resulted in the death of three dogs injected at the highest level. The late-occurring biological effects were tumors. Bone tumors were the most common followed by tumors in the nasal mucosa. 52 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  1. Escherichia coli-induced lung and liver dysfunction in dogs: effects of flunixin meglumine treatment.

    PubMed

    Hardie, E M; Rawlings, C A; Shotts, E B; Waltman, D W; Rakich, P M

    1987-01-01

    Twelve dogs were infused with 10(10) Escherichia coli/kg of body weight through a portal vein catheter over a 1-hour period; 6 dogs were treated with flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg) 15 minutes after the infusion had begun. Six dogs (controls) were infused with a comparable volume of sterile saline solution over the same period. Over a 4-hour monitoring period, nontreated septicemic dogs developed systemic hypotension, decreased cardiac output, increased portal pressure, increased serum alanine transaminase values, increased extravascular liver water, increased liver glycogen depletion, and decreased arterial oxygen tension compared with control dogs. Accumulations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and E coli were found in the livers and lungs of septicemic dogs. Flunixin meglumine treatment prevented systemic hypotension and hypoxemia, reversed the early but not the late stages of portal hypertension, and decreased E coli concentrations in the lungs. Other effects of treatment were not noticed.

  2. Longitudinal analysis of serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune®.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Mary; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; de Araújo, Maria de Fátima Lereno; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo; Vieira, Rafael F C; Biondo, Alexander W

    2013-11-08

    Development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide a prophylactic barrier, but antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques may not separate vaccinated from naturally infected dogs. Moreover, anti-Leishmania antibody levels in vaccinated dogs may be detectable for months. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate an "in-house" ELISA with three serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of CVL in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®). A total of 18 mongrel dogs were submitted to a complete protocol of the vaccine, monitored and evaluated in 5 times (T0-T4) up to 180 days after T0. Twenty-one days after the first dose (T1), 50% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA and 5.5% by IFAT, while by the official ELISA and DPP(®) CVL rapid test all dogs tested negative. At time T2, 42 days after of the first dose, 100%, 83.3%, 11.1%, and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, IFAT, official ELISA kit and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Ninety days after the first dose (T3), 100%, 83.3%, 72.2% and 33.3% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, IFAT, and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Finally, at time T4, 88.8%, 33.3%, 11.1% and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, DPP(®) CVL rapid test and IFAT, respectively. In conclusion, dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) cross-react by an "in-house" ELISA and by the three official Brazilian serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis up to six months after the first vaccine dose, and may be mistakenly diagnosed and removed.

  3. Histological and Histometrical Evaluation of two Synthetic Hydroxyapatite Based Biomaterials in the Experimental Periodontal Defects in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jose; Palathingal, Plato; Varma, BRR; Bhat, Mahalinga; Mohanty, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was to evaluate histologically and histometrically the efficacy of Chitra granules in the regeneration of alveolar bone and to compare it with that of OsteoGenR (HA Resorb)TM in iatrogenically created alveolar bone defects in mongrel dogs. Materials and Methods: Four dogs (16 sites) were used for this split-mouth study. The animals were divided randomly into two groups of two animals. Same animals were used as control and test. Each dog had four implantation sites. The periodontal defects were prepared by acute defect model. Animals were sacrificed at 3 months (n=2), 6 months (n=2) and histologic and histometric evaluation was carried out. Statistical Analysis: The data was analysed using statistical package Graph pad Software. Comparison of the hard and soft tissue parameters in the two groups was done using the Wilcoxan (Man Whitney), two tailed t-test. A p-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Maturing bone with immature periodontal ligament fibers were observed at three months and advanced osteogenesis at six months with both the types of bone graft materials. The mean values showed that amount of new bone formed with OsteoGenR (HA Resorb)TM was slightly more than that obtained by Chitra granules in histometric evaluation. Conclusion: Histological study showed similar healing pattern with both the types of bone graft materials with maturing bone at 3 months and advanced osteogenesis at six months in experimental intraosseous periodontal defects in dogs. However, histological evaluation for longer period is necessary to determine the time taken for complete replacement of the bone graft materials with new bone. PMID:25386523

  4. Clinical effects of vinorelbine administration in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs: 58 cases (1997–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Wouda, Raelene M.; Miller, Mairin E.; Chon, Esther; Stein, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of vinorelbine in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs. Design Retrospective case series. Animals 58 dogs with malignant tumors, including pulmonary carcinoma (n = 31), histiocytic sarcoma (9), mast cell tumor (5), lymphoma (4), melanoma (2), and 7 other tumor types (1 each). Procedures Medical records of dogs treated with vinorelbine from December 1997 to December 2012 were reviewed for data regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic test results, diagnostic imaging results, vinorelbine doses and dose frequency, surgery and radiotherapy details when applicable, other chemotherapeutics administered, and outcomes. Descriptive, comparative, and survival statistics were computed for all dogs and for dogs by histologic subgroup of tumors. Results Vinorelbine was administered palliatively to 44 (76%) dogs. One (2%) dog had a complete response for 162 days, 5 (11%) dogs had a partial response for a median duration of 91 days, 19 (43%) dogs had stable disease for a median duration of 68 days, and 19 (43%) dogs developed progressive disease after a median duration of 21 days. Clinical benefit was more difficult to assess in the remaining 14 (24%) dogs that received vinorelbine as an adjuvant treatment. Overall median time to tumor progression was 103 days (range, 5 to 1,533 days). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Vinorelbine appeared to be effective in the treatment of several tumor types in dogs. Follow-up prospective studies of the clinical benefit of the drug in specific clinical scenarios will be necessary to support this conclusion. PMID:25970220

  5. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  6. Experimental parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, L N; Jones, J B; Patton, C S; Webb-Martin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Five eight week old dogs were inoculated orally and intranasally with cell culture origin canine parvovirus. Three dogs became depressed and anorectic and developed a mild (one dog) to severe diarrhea five days postinfection. The remaining dogs had subclinical infections but developed a lymphopenia followed by a transient lymphocytosis. The ill dogs developed mild (one dog) to severe neutropenia and a moderate lymphopenia. One died nine days postinfection. Recovery was associated with cessation of viral excretion and with lymphocytosis and antibody production. Two of three dogs challenged intragastrically developed mild clinical signs and a moderate panleukopenia four to eight days postinfection. The pathological changes of the experimental disease were very similar to that of spontaneous disease. Bone marrow changes included a severe granulocytic and mild erythroid depletion. The pathogenesis of canine parvovirus infection is discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7340906

  7. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation of susceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicals from a less susceptible host.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs.

  8. The effects of cromolyn sodium in dogs undergoing high-frequency oscillation superimposed on conventional mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Terada, Y; Matsunobe, S; Nemoto, T; Shimizu, Y; Hitomi, S

    1992-09-01

    The effects on gas exchange of superimposition of high-frequency oscillation (HFO) (40 Hz) on conventional mechanical ventilation were investigated in mongrel dogs with eucapnic gas exchange on conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). The dogs were anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated with CMV until stable. Oscillation was then superimposed for 15 min, followed by CMV alone for a further 30 min. During HFO superimposed on CMV (CMV-HFO), the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) increased from 43.6 +/- 1.2 mm Hg to 47.2 +/- 1.4 mm Hg (p less than 0.02), whereas the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) did not change at all. The change was inhibited completely by administration of intravenous cromolyn sodium (CS) (6 mg/kg/min). The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), cardiac output (CO), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) did not change during the experiment. These results demonstrate that CMV-HFO appears to cause CO2 accumulation and eliminates the impaired O2 transfer, and that these effects are inhibited completely by CS administration.

  9. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    PubMed

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes

  10. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  11. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  12. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  13. Protothecosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Vince, Andrew R; Pinard, Chantale; Ogilvie, Adam T; Tan, Emmeline O; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G

    2014-10-01

    A case of a disseminated algal infection is reported in a young rough-coated collie dog with progressive neurologic deficits, blindness, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Prototheca zopfii organisms were cultured from feces, urine, and blood. At necropsy, granulomas containing typical organisms were identified within the proximal colon, heart, kidneys, and eyes.

  14. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  15. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  16. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania: infestation with arthropod ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Visser, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    To establish the diversity and seasonality of ectoparasite infestation in client-owned dogs in Albania, 602 dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana from March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive were examined for ectoparasites by full body search and total body comb. In addition, ear swab specimens collected from all dogs and scrapings taken from skin lesions suspicious of mite infestation were examined for parasitic mites. Overall, 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95%CI 12.6-18.6) were demonstrated to be infested, and nine species of ectoparasites were identified: Ixodes ricinus, 0.8 %; Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l., 8.1 %; Demodex canis, 0.2 %; Sarcoptes scabiei, 0.7 %; Otodectes cynotis, 2.8 %; Ctenocephalides canis, 4.8 %; Ctenocephalides felis, 3.0 %; Pulex irritans, 0.2 %; and Trichodectes canis, 0.2 %. Single and multiple infestations with up to four species of ectoparasites concurrently were recorded in 67 (11.1 %, 95%CI 8.7-13.9) and 26 dogs (4.3 %, 95%CI 2.8-6.3), respectively. On univariate analysis, the category of breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the housing environment (mainly indoors/indoors with regular outside walking vs. yard plus kennel/run), the history of ectoparasiticide treatment and the season of examination were identified as significant (p < 0.05) factors predisposing dogs to various ectoparasites, while the variables dog's age, gender, the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural) and the presence/absence of other pets were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall ectoparasitism revealed that dogs treated with ectoparasiticides at least once per year (odds ratio [OR] = 0.24; p < 0.001) had a significantly lower risk of infestation compared with dogs not treated against ectoparasite infestation. Dogs examined during spring, summer and autumn (OR = 7.08, 7.43 and 2.48, respectively; all p < 0

  17. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy and therapeutic exercise for supraspinatus and biceps tendinopathies in 29 dogs.

    PubMed

    Leeman, J J; Shaw, K K; Mison, M B; Perry, J A; Carr, A; Shultz, R

    2016-10-15

    Supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST) and biceps tendinopathy (BT) are common causes of forelimb lameness in large-breed dogs and have historically been treated with conservative management or surgery. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and therapeutic exercise (TE) are thought to be treatment options for these conditions. The objectives of this study were to report the clinical presentations of dogs treated with ESWT for shoulder tendinopathies, to determine the association between shoulder lesion severity identified on ultrasonography or MRI and outcome, and to compare the outcomes of dogs treated with ESWT with and without TE. Medical records of 29 dogs diagnosed with shoulder tendinopathies and treated with ESWT were reviewed, and 24 dogs were diagnosed with either unilateral BT or BT and ST. None were found to have unilateral ST. Five dogs were diagnosed with bilateral disease. Eighty-five per cent of dogs had good or excellent outcomes determined by owner assessment 11-220 weeks after therapy. Outcomes were found to be better as tendon lesion severity increased (P=0.0497), regardless if ESWT was performed with or without TE (P=0.92). ESWT should be considered a safe primary therapeutic option for canine shoulder tendinopathies. Larger controlled prospective studies are needed to adequately assess these findings.

  18. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  19. The First Simultaneous Intraoperative Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Procedure: Dog Experiment and Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ashayeri, Ebrahim; Halyard, Michele; Goldson, Alfred L.; Cruz, Leon; Nibhanupudy, J. Rao; DeWitty, Robert; Galal, Fathy; Marquis, Bernard; Slaughter, Lynnard; Landes, Fred

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Radiation Therapy of Howard University Hospital was the first to revive (1976) the use of intraoperative radiotherapy, or direct view irradiation, using electron beam (IORTe−) in the United States. Since that time, this pioneering effort has gained both national and international acceptance. Now, many leading centers employ this investigational treatment modality. Recently, a new mode of cancer therapy has been gaining acceptance, namely hyperthermia (the treatment of cancer by heat). Hyperthermia has been shown, both experimentally and clinically, to improve the rate of local control (thermal enchancement ratio [TER]) when combined with radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer. Maximal TER has been observed with simultaneous or immediate application of radiation and hyperthermia for both tumor and normal tissues. Therefore, to achieve maximum therapeutic gain, selective, intraoperative, simultaneous heating and irradiation of the tumor with mechanical retraction of the normal and sensitive structures from the treatment field seems a promising alternative. There have been no published reports, to the authors' knowledge, on the combination of simultaneous IORTe− with intraoperative hyperthermia (IOHT). To employ this combination in human subjects, several questions must be answered first using animal models, including the technical and practical feasibility, the toxicity and morbidity, as well as the pathologic changes that may arise. The technical aspects of the first animal case, using a mongrel dog, applying simultaneous IORTe− and IOHT are presented. PMID:3112416

  20. [Visco-elastic characteristics of the aorta in conscious dogs in a model of experimental calcinosis].

    PubMed

    Armentano, R; Levenson, J; Cabrera, E; Pichel, R; Simon, A

    1989-07-01

    Effects of experimental calcinosis induced by daily overdose of 500.000 IU Vit D3 during 10 days were studied in 6 mongrel conscious dogs chronically instrumented with intra-aortic Konigsberg microtransducer and two ultrasonic piezo-electric crystals diametrically opposed in the adventitia of the descending thoracic aorta. Simultaneous recording of instantaneous aortic pressure and diameter waves in basal state and during transient acute hypertension induced by intravenous angiotensin bolus (0.1 microgram/kg) allowed to obtain the pressure (y) diameter (x) relationship of the aorta according to an exponential regression: P = expo (beta D + A), with a highly significant correlation coefficient in all animals (r greater than 0.99). (table; see text) Anatomopathological studies of aortas revealed abnormal calcium deposition, ruptures of elastic fibers and disorganization of collagen. Thus, a striking decrease in aortic rigidity is observed after calcinosis in relation with structural changes of elastic materials and responsible in part for a reduction in pulsatile pressure; moreover this unexpected phenomena might represent an initiative process of development of aortic aneurysms.

  1. Muscle mitochondrial density after exhaustive exercise in dogs - Prolonged restricted activity and retraining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.

  2. Oxygen and coronary vascular resistance during autoregulation and metabolic vasodilation in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Drake-Holland, A J; Laird, J D; Noble, M I; Spaan, J A; Vergroesen, I

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis that tissue oxygen tension controls coronary vascular resistance during changes in perfusion pressure and oxygen consumption was expressed in a simplified mathematical form capable of making quantitative predictions. The predictive value of this formulation of the hypothesis was tested in experiments on anaesthetized mongrel dogs subjected to constant-pressure perfusion of the left main coronary artery, with measurements of coronary blood flow and arterio-venous oxygen content differences. Coronary venous oxygen content was used as an index of tissue oxygenation. The responses of coronary blood flow and arterio-venous oxygen content difference, made over a range of perfusion pressures (which caused autoregulation) and heart rates (which caused metabolic regulation) were predicted qualitatively by the model. Coronary vascular conductance was positively related to metabolic rate only during metabolic regulation (heart rate changes); during autoregulation the relationship between these two variables was inverse. Coronary vascular conductance and resistance values taken from both interventions (both perfusion pressure and heart rate variations) were closely related to coronary venous oxygen content and calculated PO2. These findings suggest that further examination of oxygen tension, as the controller of the coronary vascular bed under physiological conditions should be considered. PMID:6716287

  3. Human-dog interactions in a guide-dog training program.

    PubMed

    Koda, N; Shimoju, S

    1999-06-01

    We analyzed dyadic interactions between 12 neutered dogs (6 females and 6 males) and 44 humans (20 women, 14 men, and 10 girls) who were unfamiliar with each other. We also examined the effect of sex differences in dogs and humans as well as age differences in humans on human-dog interactions in a guide-dog training program. Female dogs more actively regulated their distance from humans than male dogs. Dogs made contact with women more frequently than with men, and men made contact with dogs more frequently than women. Girls initiated interactions with dogs more frequently than women; girls formed reciprocal interactions with dogs less frequently than women.

  4. Impact of collaborative care on survival time for dogs with congestive heart failure and revenue for attending primary care veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Lefbom, Bonnie K; Peckens, Neal K

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of in-person collaborative care by primary care veterinarians (pcDVMs) and board-certified veterinary cardiologists (BCVCs) on survival time of dogs after onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) and on associated revenue for the attending pcDVMs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 26 small-breed dogs treated for naturally occurring CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease at a multilocation primary care veterinary hospital between 2008 and 2013. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with confirmed CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease and collect information on patient care, survival time, and pcDVM revenue. Data were compared between dogs that received collaborative care from the pcDVM and a BCVC and dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone. RESULTS Dogs that received collaborative care had a longer median survival time (254 days) than did dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone (146 days). A significant positive correlation was identified between pcDVM revenue and survival time for dogs that received collaborative care (ie, the longer the dog survived, the greater the pcDVM revenue generated from caring for that patient). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that collaborative care provided to small-breed dogs with CHF by a BCVC and pcDVM could result in survival benefits for affected dogs and increased revenue for pcDVMs, compared with care provided by a pcDVM alone.

  5. Treatment of partial seizures and seizure-like activity with felbamate in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Ruehlmann, D; Podell, M; March, P

    2001-08-01

    Six dogs with partial seizures or partial seizure-like activity were treated with the antiepileptic drug felbamate between 1993 and 1998. All dogs had a history and results of diagnostic testing suggestive of either primary (idiopathic) or occult secondary epilepsy. Dogs ranged between four months and eight years of age at the onset of seizure activity. The median time period between onset of the first seizure and the start of felbamate therapy was 3.8 months (range 0.75 to 36 months). Median duration of therapy was nine months (range two to 22 months). All dogs experienced a reduction in seizure frequency after felbamate administration. Median total number of seizures post-treatment was two (range 0 to 9). Two dogs had an immediate and prolonged cessation of seizure activity. Steady-state trough serum felbamate concentrations measured at two weeks, and one, 12 and 22 months after the commencement of therapy in four dogs ranged between 13 and 55 mg/litre (median 35 mg/litre). Reversible haematological adverse effects were detected in two dogs, with one dog developing concurrent keratoconjunctivitis sicca. These results suggest that felbamate can be an effective antiepileptic drug without life-threatening complications when used as monotherapy for partial seizures in the dog.

  6. Treatment of naturally occurring, asymptomatic Giardia sp. in dogs with Drontal Plus flavour tablets.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Liotta, Janice L; Ulrich, Michael; Charles, Sam D; Heine, Josef; Schaper, Roland

    2009-08-01

    The administration of three consecutive daily doses of the recommended 1x dose of Drontal Plus flavour tablets (Bayer) was examined for its effect on Giardia sp. cyst-shedding in 7 treated and 7 untreated random-source dogs. Dogs were treated on study days 0, 1 and 2. Cysts were quantified using direct immunofluorescent labelling on days -7, -5, -3 and -2, and daily from day 1 through 11. Three treated dogs never shed cysts again during the study, one shed again only on day 4, and the remaining three dogs started to shed again on days 8, 9 and 11. The mean numbers of cysts per gramme in the faeces of the treated dogs were significantly reduced (t-tests using log(10)(counts)) on days 1 and 2 (geometric means: controls = 447,000; treated = 1,050; p = 0.004) and days 3 to 8 (geometric means: controls = 23,400; treated 5.0; p < 0.001). Four controls that had been consistently positive, changed to negative status on day 11, and thus, on the final day of the trial, there were only three positive control and three positive treated dogs. Three consecutive days of treatment with Drontal Plus flavour tablets halted Giardia sp. cyst shedding by dogs. But starting six days post third treatment, some of the dogs started shedding cysts again. Since the prepatent period of Giardia sp. can be as short as 4 days, shedding of Giardia sp. cysts 6 days after treatment could be caused by a reinfection.

  7. Probable essential thrombocythemia in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, P.E.; Mandell, C.P.; Turrel, J.M.; Jain, N.C.; Tablin, F.; Zinkl, J.G.

    1989-04-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET), in an 11-year-old dog was characterized by persistently high platelet counts range, 4.19 X 10(6)/microliters to 4.95 X 10(6)/microliters, abnormal platelet morphology, marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia in the bone marrow, absence of circulating megakaryoblasts, and history of splenomegaly and gastrointestinal bleeding. Increased numbers of megakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts (15% to 20%) in the bone marrow were confirmed by a positive acetylcholinesterase reaction. Another significant finding was the presence of a basophilia in blood (4,836/microliters) and bone marrow. The marked persistent thrombocytosis, absence of reactive (secondary) thrombocytosis, abnormal platelet morphology, and quantitative and qualitative changes in the megakaryocytic series in the bone marrow suggested the presence of a myeloproliferative disease. Cytochemical and ultrastructural findings aided in the diagnosis of ET. The dog was treated with radiophosphorus. The results was a rapid decline in the numbers of megakaryoblasts and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and platelets and basophils in the peripheral blood. The dog died unexpectedly of acute necrotizing pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus before a complete remission was achieved.

  8. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  9. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1–5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs’ behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner’s emotion and reactivity to other dogs’ behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner’s empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog’s emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement “My dog is more important for me than any human being”. In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose

  10. Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826).

    PubMed

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Yoon, Stephen S; Roques, Martine; Manavella, Coralie; Vermot, Solange; Cramer, Luiz G; Ollagnier, Catherine; Franc, Michel

    2011-07-15

    A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), 8.0mg amitraz/kg bw, and 6.0mg (S)-methoprene/kg bw. The combination was designed to enhance the efficacy against ticks of the original fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination. Each dog was infested with 100 adult unfed dog fleas within 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. At 24h after treatment or after each subsequent infestation, each dog was combed thoroughly to remove live fleas to be counted. A single treatment with CERTIFECT provided excellent knock-down of fleas within 24h after treatment and controlled re-infestations for up to 7 weeks (efficacy ≥96.5%, p<0.05).

  11. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient.

  12. Antibiotic-responsive histiocytic ulcerative colitis in 9 dogs.

    PubMed

    Hostutler, Roger A; Luria, Brian J; Johnson, Susan E; Weisbrode, Steven E; Sherding, Robert G; Jaeger, Jordan Q; Guilford, W Grant

    2004-01-01

    Canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC) is characterized by colonic inflammation with predominantly periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive macrophages. The inflammation results in colonic thickening, ulcerations, and distortion of normal glandular architecture. Resultant clinical signs consist of chronic large bowel diarrhea, tenesmus, and marked weight loss, and the disease frequently results in euthanasia. Conventional therapy consists of some combination of prednisone, azathioprine, sulfasalazine, and metronidazole. Nine dogs (8 Boxers and 1 English Bulldog) with histologic confirmation of HUC were treated with antibiotic therapy (either with enrofloxacin alone or in combination with metronidazole and amoxicillin). Clinical signs, physical examination findings, laboratory abnormalities, and the histologic severity of the disease were evaluated. Four of the 9 dogs had been treated previously with conventional therapy and had failed to respond favorably; then, these dogs were placed on antibiotic therapy (enrofloxacin, n = 1; enrofloxacin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin, n = 3) and had resolution of clinical signs within 3-12 days. Five dogs were treated solely with antibiotic therapy (enrofloxacin, n = 1; enrofloxacin and metronidazole, n = 1; enrofloxacin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin, n = 3), and clinical signs resolved in 2-7 days. Repeated biopsy specimens were obtained from 5 dogs after treatment, and all showed marked histologic improvement. The increase in body weight after treatment was statistically significant (P = .01). Three dogs currently are not on any treatment and have had resolution of clinical signs for up to 14 months. These observations suggest that an infectious agent responsive to antibiotics plays an integral role in the clinical manifestation of canine HUC, and they support the use of antibiotics in its treatment.

  13. Effects of trazodone on behavioral signs of stress in hospitalized dogs.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-Gregory, Shana E; Stull, Jason W; Rice, Mary Rose; Herron, Meghan E

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of trazodone treatment on behavioral signs of stress in hospitalized dogs. DESIGN Prospective observational study. ANIMALS 120 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Hospitalized dogs administered trazodone (n = 60) were observed for stress-related signs or behaviors ≤ 45 minutes after the drug was administered (time 1) and approximately 90 minutes later (time 2). Dogs that did not receive trazodone (n = 60) were selected to serve as controls for environmental stimuli that could affect behavior and were observed at the same times. Signs or behaviors (scored as present or absent) were assessed individually and grouped into behavioral summation categories (frenetic [lip licking, pacing, panting, spinning, trembling, wet dog shake, whining, and yawning], freeze [averting gaze, pinning back ears, and whale eye sign], or fractious [growling, lunging, showing teeth, and snapping], with lifting of a forelimb and pupil dilation included in all categories). Results were compared between groups and within groups over time. Logistic regression was performed to assess associations between reduction in stress-related signs or behaviors and trazodone administration while controlling for environmental influences. RESULTS Lip licking, panting, and whining were reduced (defined as present at time 1 and absent at time 2) in trazodone-treated but not environmentally matched dogs. The median number of stress-related behaviors and of frenetic and freeze behaviors was significantly lower at time 2, compared with time 1, in trazodone-treated dogs. Odds of reduced panting and reduced frenetic behaviors at time 2 for trazodone-treated dogs were > 2 times those for environmentally matched dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that trazodone administration reduced stress-related signs and behaviors in hospitalized dogs and may thereby improve patient welfare.

  14. Anti-diabetic effect of camel milk in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs: a dose-response experiment.

    PubMed

    Sboui, A; Khorchani, T; Djegham, M; Agrebi, A; Elhatmi, H; Belhadj, O

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of camel milk in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs and to follow this effect at three doses of milk. Firstly, three groups of dogs were used: two groups composed each of four diabetic dogs and receiving raw camel milk (treatment 1) or cow milk (treatment 2), and four healthy dogs getting raw camel milk (treatment 3) were used as control. Each animal was treated with 500 ml of milk daily. Secondly, we compared the effects of three amounts of camel milk: 100 ml, 250 ml and 500 ml to treat the diabetic dogs. After week 3, the dogs treated with camel milk showed a statistically significant decrease in blood glucose (from 10.88 +/- 0.55 to 6.22 +/- 0.5 mmol/l) and total protein concentrations (from 78.16 +/- 2.61 g/l to 63.63 +/- 4.43 g/l). For cholesterol levels, there was a decrease from week 2 (from 6.17 +/- 0.5 mmol/l to 4.79 +/- 0.5 mmol/l). There were no significant difference in blood glucose, cholesterol or total protein concentrations in dogs drinking 250 and 500 ml of camel milk. The dogs treated with 100 ml of camel milk did not show any significant decrease in blood glucose levels, and cholesterol and total protein concentrations. The investigation was not limited to the improvement in glycemic balance, lipids and proteins control in diabetic dogs getting camel milk, but we also noted a stability of this state after the dogs stopped to drink milk. This effect depended on the quantity of camel milk used to treat diabetic dogs.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of an injectable long-acting formulation of doxycycline hyclate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lilia; Velasco, Zazil-Ha; Vázquez, Carlos; Vargas, Dinorah; Sumano, Héctor

    2012-06-08

    Based on its PK/PD ratios, doxycycline hyclate (DOX-h), a time-dependant antibacterial, is ideally expected to achieve both sustained plasma drug concentrations at or slightly above the MIC level for as long as possible between dosing intervals. Pursuing this end, a poloxamer-based matrix was used to produce a long-acting injectable preparation (DOX-h-LA) and its serum concentrations vs. time profile investigated after its SC injection to dogs (≤ 0.3 mL per injection site), and results compared with the oral (PO) and IV pharmacokinetics of DOX-h, prepared as tablet or as freshly made solution. A crossover (4 x 4 x 4) study design was employed with 12 Mongrel dogs, with washout periods of 21 days, and at dose of 10 mg/kg in all cases. DOX-h-LA showed the greatest values for bioavailability (199.48%); maximum serum concentration (Cmax) value was 2.8 ± 0.3 with a time to reach Cmax (Tmax) of 2.11 ± 0.12 h and an elimination half-life of 133.61 ± 6.32 h. Considering minimum effective serum concentration of 0.5 μg/mL, a dose-interval of at least 1 week h can be achieved for DOX-h-LA, and only 48 h and 24 h after the IV or PO administration of DOX-h as a solution or as tablets, respectively. A non-painful small bulge, apparently non-inflammatory could be distinguished at injection sites. These lumps dissipated completely in 30 days in all cases.

  16. Lack of usefulness of ureteral reconstruction with free bladder mucosa flap in dogs confirmed by microangiography

    PubMed Central

    Kuzaka, Bolesław; Borkowski, Tomasz; Kuzaka, Piotr; Szostek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data addressing the blood supply in the surgically reconstructed ureter, and complete lack of microangiographic studies of the reconstructed ureter with the use of a free bladder mucosa flap. The present study evaluated the blood supply in the reconstructed dog ureter after a 5-centimeter segment resection, supplemented by a tube constructed from a free bladder mucosa flap. Material/Methods Female mongrel dogs (n=29) were used in this study. Under general anaesthesia, a 5-centimeter autologous free bladder mucosa flap was used to construct a tube, which was afterwards grafted to replace a 5-centimeter ureter resection. After a period of 3 months (n=2) and after 1 year (n=2), microangiography was performed to assess the revascularization of the grafted ureter. Results In our study, we observed the continuity of the ureter, but the grafted reconstruction was narrowed by the cicatrization in about 86% (n=25) of cases. This resulted in the development of hydronephrosis, as described in previous publications. The ureteral wall was covered by a normal urothelium, but consisted of fibrous connective tissue, which failed to restore a regular (normal) coat. The reconstructed segment showed no smooth muscle cells. A few smooth monocytes were found only at the border with intact portions of the ureter. The microangiography performed at the end of the experiments showed no vascularization of the restored segment of the ureter. Conclusions The experiments showed a whole regeneration of urothelium in the transected and reanastomosed ureters. However, there was no regeneration of the muscular coat and a complete lack of revascularization. PMID:24980521

  17. Pharmacokinetics of an injectable long-acting formulation of doxycycline hyclate in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Based on its PK/PD ratios, doxycycline hyclate (DOX-h), a time-dependant antibacterial, is ideally expected to achieve both sustained plasma drug concentrations at or slightly above the MIC level for as long as possible between dosing intervals. Pursuing this end, a poloxamer-based matrix was used to produce a long-acting injectable preparation (DOX-h-LA) and its serum concentrations vs. time profile investigated after its SC injection to dogs (≤ 0.3 mL per injection site), and results compared with the oral (PO) and IV pharmacokinetics of DOX-h, prepared as tablet or as freshly made solution. A crossover (4 x 4 x 4) study design was employed with 12 Mongrel dogs, with washout periods of 21 days, and at dose of 10 mg/kg in all cases. DOX-h-LA showed the greatest values for bioavailability (199.48%); maximum serum concentration (Cmax) value was 2.8 ± 0.3 with a time to reach Cmax (Tmax) of 2.11 ± 0.12 h and an elimination half-life of 133.61 ± 6.32 h. Considering minimum effective serum concentration of 0.5 μg/mL, a dose-interval of at least 1 week h can be achieved for DOX-h-LA, and only 48 h and 24 h after the IV or PO administration of DOX-h as a solution or as tablets, respectively. A non-painful small bulge, apparently non-inflammatory could be distinguished at injection sites. These lumps dissipated completely in 30 days in all cases. PMID:22682068

  18. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  19. Intrathecal resiniferatoxin in a dog model: efficacy in bone cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dorothy C; Agnello, Kimberly; Iadarola, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is the most potent among all known endogenous and synthetic agonists for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor, which is a calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel, expressed on the peripheral and central terminals of small-diameter sensory neurons. Prolonged calcium influx induced by RTX causes cytotoxicity and death of only those sensory neurons that express the TRPV1 ion channel leading to selective targeting and permanent deletion of the TRPV1-expressing C-fiber neuronal cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia. The goal of this project was to provide preclinical efficacy data, that intrathecal RTX could provide effective pain relief and improve function in dogs with bone cancer without significant long-term side effects. In a single-blind, controlled study, 72 companion dogs with bone cancer pain were randomized to standard of care analgesic therapy alone (control, n = 36) or 1.2 μg/kg intrathecal RTX in addition to standard of care analgesic therapy (treated, n = 36). Significantly more dogs in the control group (78%) required unblinding and adjustment in analgesic protocol or euthanasia within 6 weeks of randomization, than dogs that were treated with RTX (50%; P < 0.03); and overall, dogs in the control group required unblinding significantly sooner than dogs that had been treated with RTX (P < 0.02). The analgesic effect was documented in these dogs without any evidence of development of deafferentation pain syndrome that can be seen with neurolytic therapies.

  20. The Effect of Neonatal Gene Therapy on Skeletal Manifestations in Mucopolysaccharidosis VII Dogs after a Decade

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Elizabeth M.; Knox, Van W.; O'Donnell, Patricia A.; Sikura, Tracey; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Susan; Casal, Margret L.; Haskins, Mark E.; Ponder, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disease due to deficient activity of β-glucuronidase (GUSB), and results in glycosaminoglycan accumulation. Skeletal manifestations include bone dysplasia, degenerative joint disease, and growth retardation. One gene therapy approach for MPS VII involves neonatal intravenous injection of a gamma retroviral vector expressing GUSB, which results in stable expression in liver and secretion of enzyme into blood at levels predicted to be similar or higher to enzyme replacement therapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of neonatal gene therapy on skeletal manifestations in MPS VII dogs. Treated MPS VII dogs could walk throughout their lives, while untreated MPS VII dogs could not stand beyond 6 months and were dead by 2 years. Luxation of the coxofemoral joint and the patella, dysplasia of the acetabulum and supracondylar ridge, deep erosions of the distal femur, and synovial hyperplasia were reduced, and the quality of articular bone was improved in treated dogs at 6 to 11 years of age compared with untreated MPS VII dogs at 2 years or less. However, treated dogs continued to have osteophyte formation, cartilage abnormalities, and an abnormal gait. Enzyme activity was found near synovial blood vessels, and there was 2% as much GUSB activity in synovial fluid as in serum. We conclude that neonatal gene therapy reduces skeletal abnormalities in MPS VII dogs, but clinically-relevant abnormalities remain. Enzyme replacement therapy will probably have similar limitations long-term. PMID:23628461

  1. Efficacy of Drontal Flavour Plus (50 mg praziquantel, 144 mg pyrantel embonate, 150 mg febantel per tablet) against Giardia sp in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ana; Dado, Diana; Mateo, Marta; Espinosa, Carmen; Miró, Guadalupe

    2008-10-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel (Drontal Flavour Plus) for three and five consecutive days was evaluated for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs. In the study, 24 dogs naturally infected with Giardia were divided into three groups of eight dogs each. Dogs were treated at the recommended dosage for three or five consecutive days, and a control group remained untreated. Faecal samples from each dog were submitted to coprological examination from day-4 to -2 and at days 5, 7, 9 and 11. Faecal consistency was also assessed daily to study end. All dogs in the control group remained positive until study end. Giardia cysts were not detected in faeces of six of the eight dogs in the group treated on three consecutive days, and in faeces of five of the dogs in the group treated on five consecutive days. Unformed to diarrhoeic faeces were more often reported in dogs in the untreated control group than in dogs in both treatment groups. Efficacy of treatment for five consecutive days was not statistically better than treatment for three consecutive days.

  2. Improvement in clinical signs and cellular immunity of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis using the immunomodulator P-MAPA.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Maria Emília B; Neto, Luiz Silveira; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Munari, Danísio Prado; Andrade, Mariana Macedo C; Somenzari, Marcos Arruda; Ciarlini, Paulo César; de Lima, V M F

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the immunotherapeutic potential of the protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride immuno-modulator (P-MAPA) on canine visceral leishmaniasis. Twenty mongrel dogs presenting clinical symptoms compatible with leishmaniasis and diagnosis confirmed by the detection of anti-leishmania antibodies were studied. Ten dogs received 15 doses of the immunomodulator (2.0 mg/kg) intramuscularly, and 10 received saline as a placebo. Skin and peripheral blood samples were collected following administration of the immunomodulator. The groups were followed to observe for clinical signals of remission; parasite load in the skin biopsies using real-time PCR, the cytokines IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in vitro with either total promastigote antigen or phytohemagglutinin measured by capture ELISA, and changes in CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell subpopulations evaluated by flow cytometry. Comparison between the groups showed that treatment with the immunomodulator promoted improvement in clinical signs and a significant reduction in parasite load in the skin. In peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, supernatants showed a decrease in IL-10 levels and an increase in IL-2 and IFN-γ. An increase in CD8⁺ T cells was observed in peripheral blood. In addition, the in vitro leishmanicidal action of P-MAPA was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and no leishmanicidal activity was detected. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as an immunotherapeutic drug in canine visceral leishmaniasis, since it assists in reestablishing partial immunocompetence of infected dogs.

  3. Treatment with gabapentin of 11 dogs with refractory idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Platt, S R; Adams, V; Garosi, L S; Abramson, C J; Penderis, J; De Stefani, A; Matiasek, L

    Eleven dogs diagnosed with refractory idiopathic epilepsy were treated orally with gabapentin for a minimum of three months at an initial dose of 10 mg/kg every eight hours. They were all experiencing episodes of generalised tonic-clonic seizures and had been treated chronically with a combination of phenobarbital and potassium bromide at doses sufficient to reach acceptable therapeutic serum levels without causing significant side effects. In each dog, the number of seizures per week, the average duration of the seizures and the number of days on which seizures occurred were compared for the three months before and after they were treated with gabapentin. A minimum 50 per cent reduction in the number of seizures per week was interpreted as a positive response to gabapentin, and six of the dogs showed a positive response. After the addition of gabapentin, both the number of seizures per week (P= 0.005) and the number of days with any seizures in a one-week period (P=0.03) were significantly reduced. Mild side effects of ataxia and sedation were observed in five of the dogs, but they were not severe enough to warrant the treatment being discontinued during the trial.

  4. Efficacy of the Bm86 antigen against immature instars and adults of the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Perez-Perez, D; Bechara, G H; Machado, R Z; Andrade, G M; Del Vecchio, R E M; Pedroso, M S; Hernández, M V; Farnós, O

    2010-02-10

    The Bm86 antigen has been used to control ticks of the Boophilus genera in integrated programs that also include the use of acaricides. Because of recent phylogenetic studies have lead to the inclusion of all Boophilus species within the Rhipicephalus genera, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of the Bm86 antigen on the biotic potential of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Domestic dogs were vaccinated with Bm86 and challenged with the three instars of R. sanguineus. Male and female mongrel dogs were divided into two groups of four animals each, comprising non-vaccinated and vaccinated animals. Immunized dogs were given two doses of an experimental formulation containing 50mug of recombinant Bm86, at 21 days interval while the other group was given placebo, consisting of the same preparation without Bm86. Each dog was challenged 21 days after the last dose with 250 larvae, 100 nymphs and 55 adults (25 females and 30 males) released inside feeding chambers (one per instar) glued to their shaved flank. The effect of the vaccination was evaluated by determining biological parameters of ticks including the yield rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females. Adult females engorged weight, egg mass weight, efficiency rate of conversion to eggs (ERCE) and hatchability. In addition, sera were collected from dogs at 0, 21, 36, 45 and 75 days after the vaccination and used for the detection of specific antibodies by ELISA. Collection rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females fed on vaccinated dogs were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 38%, 29% and 31%, respectively, as compared with non-vaccinated controls. Significant reductions were also observed in weight of engorged females and egg mass, in ERCE, but not in the hatch rate of ticks fed on immunized dogs. ELISA data revealed a marked and significant increase in optical densities of sera from vaccinated animals after the second dose of Bm86. We concluded that the Bm86 antigen used as a vaccine for dogs reduced the viability and

  5. A single-blinded phenobarbital-controlled trial of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fredsø, N; Sabers, A; Toft, N; Møller, A; Berendt, M

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of canine epilepsy is problematic. Few antiepileptic drugs have proven efficacy in dogs and undesirable adverse effects and pharmacoresistance are not uncommon. Consequently, the need for investigation of alternative treatment options is ongoing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam as mono-therapy in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. The study used a prospective single-blinded parallel group design. Twelve client-owned dogs were included and were randomised to treatment with levetiracetam (30 mg/kg/day or 60 mg/kg/day divided into three daily dosages) or phenobarbital (4 mg/kg/day divided twice daily). Control visits were at days 30, 60 and then every 3 months for up to 1 year. Two or more seizures within 3 months led to an increase in drug dosage (levetiracetam: 10 mg/kg/day, phenobarbital: 1 mg/kg/day). Five of six levetiracetam treated dogs and one of six phenobarbital treated dogs withdrew from the study within 2-5 months due to insufficient seizure control. In the levetiracetam treated dogs there was no significant difference in the monthly number of seizures before and after treatment, whereas in the phenobarbital treated dogs there were significantly (P = 0.013) fewer seizures after treatment. Five phenobarbital treated dogs were classified as true responders (≥50% reduction in seizures/month) whereas none of the levetiracetam treated dogs fulfilled this criterion. Adverse effects were reported in both groups but were more frequent in the phenobarbital group. In this study levetiracetam was well tolerated but was not effective at the given doses as mono-therapy in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

  6. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  7. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports.

  8. Pancreatic torsion in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Brabson, Tamera L.; Maki, Lynn C.; Newell, Susan M.; Ralphs, S. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old male intact Cane Corso mastiff dog was presented for a recent history of vomiting, abdominal pain, and lethargy. A diagnosis of pancreatic torsion was made during abdominal exploratory surgery and was confirmed with histopathology. The dog underwent partial pancreatectomy and recovered with no complications. PMID:25969579

  9. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Elhiblu, M. A.; Dua, K.; Mohindroo, J.; Mahajan, S. K.; Sood, N. K.; Dhaliwal, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG), and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for liver cirrhosis

  10. Epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bhang, Dong Ha; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Min-Soo; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Kim, Dae-Yong; Youn, Hwa Young; Lee, Chang Woo

    2006-03-01

    A seven-year-old castrated male Yorkshire terrier dog was presented for a recurrent skin disease. Erythematous skin during the first visit progressed from multiple plaques to patch lesions and exudative erosion in the oral mucosa membrane. Biopsy samples were taken from erythematous skin and were diagnosed with epitheliotropic T cell cutaneous lymphoma by histopathology and immunochemical stain. In serum chemistry, the dog had a hypercalcemia (15.7 mg/dl) and mild increased alkaline phosphatase (417 U/l). Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rP) in epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma tissues but the neoplastic cells were not labeled with anti-PTH-rP antibodies. The patient was treated with prednisolone and isotretinoin. However, the dog died unexpectedly.

  11. Generalized calcinosis cutis associated with probable leptospirosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Bergen, David J; Roe, Wendi D

    2005-12-01

    A 6.5-year-old male German Shepherd acutely developed renal and hepatic disease. Serology revealed high concentrations of antibodies against Leptospira copenhageni, and a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis was made. The dog was successfully treated with antibiotics and supportive care over a 12-day period. Sixty-two days after the initial presentation, alopecia predominantly involving the dorsum and perineal areas developed. The skin lesions expanded over a 20-day period. Histology revealed generalized calcinosis cutis with follicular atrophy. An injection of 0.01 mg kg-1 dexamethasone suppressed serum cortisol concentrations. No treatment was given and lesions resolved over the following 30 days. This is the third case of generalized calcinosis cutis that has developed in an adult dog after severe systemic disease. Both previous cases developed calcinosis cutis in association with blastomycosis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of generalized calcinosis cutis in an adult dog in association with a presumptive bacterial infection.

  12. Streptococcus constellatus-associated pyoderma in a dog.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Luisa; Nizza, Sandra; de Martinis, Claudio; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Iovane, Valentina; Paciello, Orlando; Pagnini, Ugo

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a case of chronic and deep pyodermitis in a 4-year-old male dog with a 3-month skin problems history that had been treated unsuccessfully with fluoroquinolone therapy, prescribed by a private medical veterinary practice, without an early diagnosis. Microbiological examination and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed in our laboratory (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine) and a diagnosis of Streptococcus constellatus-associated pyoderma in the dog was made. A new antimicrobial treatment, with tetracyclines, was designed after the definitive diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The dog remained free of clinical illness at completion of therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a canine pyoderma caused by S. constellatus, a commensal organism which may also cause pyogenic infections. Furthermore, this study confirms that a fluoroquinolone represents a poor empirical choice for initial therapy of canine pyoderma.

  13. Multiple myeloma with associated polyneuropathy in a German shepherd dog.

    PubMed

    Villiers, E; Dobson, J

    1998-05-01

    A 12-year-old female, neutered German shepherd dog developed progressive hindlimb followed by forelimb ataxia leading to tetraplegia. Neurological examination suggested lower motor dysfunction. Biochemical evaluation revealed a monoclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and hypercalcaemia. Multiple lytic lesions were identified radiographically in numerous bones. A bone marrow aspirate confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma, with large numbers of plasma cells seen in clusters. An electromyogram revealed positive sharp waves and fibrillation potentials in the skeletal muscles of the limbs, suggesting a polyneuropathy. The dog was treated with chemotherapy using melphalan and prednisolone. Both the hypergammaglobulinaemia and the polyneuropathy resolved and the dog had normal motor function four weeks after commencing treatment. Polyneuropathy may occur as a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to myeloma, and in this case was reversible following treatment of the underlying disease.

  14. Dog bites of the face, head and neck in children.

    PubMed

    Horswell, Bruce B; Chahine, Carol J

    2011-01-01

    Dog bites of the facial region are increasing in children according to the Center for Disease Control. To evaluate the epidemiology of such injuries in our medical provider region, we undertook a retrospective review of those children treated for facial, head and neck dog bite wounds at a level 1 trauma center. Most dog bites occurred in or near the home by an animal known to the child/family. Most injuries were soft tissue related, however more severe bites and injuries were observed in attacks from the pit-bull and Rottweiler breeds. Younger (under five years) children sustained more of the injuries requiring medical treatment. Injury Severity Scales were determined as well as victim and payer mix demographics, type and characteristics of injury, and complications from the attack.

  15. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Ralić, M.; Vasić, J.; Jovanović, M.; Cameron, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred. PMID:26623338

  16. A service dog in group.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Brian; Collins, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Service dogs are sanctioned by the Americans with Disabilities Act as having protected rights allowing them to assist owners with disabilities. These dogs are appearing with increasing frequency in healthcare settings, and it is important for healthcare providers to understand the rules and regulations given to service animals and owners. We discuss processes that transpired when a service dog was brought into a psychodynamic psychotherapy group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the unintended consequences of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 2010 as it concerns service dogs and the impact on the group process. Problems resulting from the introduction of service dogs into therapy groups should be anticipated and explicitly discussed in the course of the group's transactions.

  17. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Christy L; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A; Jacobson, Kristen C

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog's care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners' attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs' attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners' attachments to their dogs.

  18. Refractory hypoglycaemia in a dog infected with Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Desquesnes, Marc; Dorso, Laetitia; Ravel, Sophie; Bossard, Géraldine; Charbonneau, Morgane; Garand, Annabelle; Roux, Françoise A

    2016-01-01

    A 20 kg German shepherd dog was presented to a French veterinary teaching hospital for seizures and hyperthermia. The dog had returned 1 month previously from a six-month stay in Senegal and sub-Saharan Africa. Biochemistry and haematology showed severe hypoglycaemia (0.12 g/L), anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Despite administration of large amounts of glucose (30 mL of 30% glucose IV and 10 mL of 70% sucrose by gavage tube hourly), 26 consecutive blood glucose measurements were below 0.25 g/L (except one). Routine cytological examination of blood smears revealed numerous free extracytoplasmic protozoa consistent with Trypanosoma congolense. PCR confirmed a Trypanosoma congolense forest-type infection. Treatment consisted of six injections of pentamidine at 48-hour intervals. Trypanosomes had disappeared from the blood smears four days following the first injection. Clinical improvement was correlated with the normalization of laboratory values. The infection relapsed twice and the dog was treated again; clinical signs and parasites disappeared and the dog was considered cured; however, 6 years after this incident, serological examination by ELISA T. congolense was positive. The status of this dog (infected or non-infected) remains unclear. Hypoglycaemia was the most notable clinical feature in this case. It was spectacular in its severity and in its refractory nature; glucose administration seemed only to feed the trypanosomes, indicating that treatment of hypoglycaemia may in fact have been detrimental.

  19. Refractory hypoglycaemia in a dog infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Desquesnes, Marc; Dorso, Laetitia; Ravel, Sophie; Bossard, Géraldine; Charbonneau, Morgane; Garand, Annabelle; Roux, Françoise A.

    2016-01-01

    A 20 kg German shepherd dog was presented to a French veterinary teaching hospital for seizures and hyperthermia. The dog had returned 1 month previously from a six-month stay in Senegal and sub-Saharan Africa. Biochemistry and haematology showed severe hypoglycaemia (0.12 g/L), anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Despite administration of large amounts of glucose (30 mL of 30% glucose IV and 10 mL of 70% sucrose by gavage tube hourly), 26 consecutive blood glucose measurements were below 0.25 g/L (except one). Routine cytological examination of blood smears revealed numerous free extracytoplasmic protozoa consistent with Trypanosoma congolense. PCR confirmed a Trypanosoma congolense forest-type infection. Treatment consisted of six injections of pentamidine at 48-hour intervals. Trypanosomes had disappeared from the blood smears four days following the first injection. Clinical improvement was correlated with the normalization of laboratory values. The infection relapsed twice and the dog was treated again; clinical signs and parasites disappeared and the dog was considered cured; however, 6 years after this incident, serological examination by ELISA T. congolense was positive. The status of this dog (infected or non-infected) remains unclear. Hypoglycaemia was the most notable clinical feature in this case. It was spectacular in its severity and in its refractory nature; glucose administration seemed only to feed the trypanosomes, indicating that treatment of hypoglycaemia may in fact have been detrimental. PMID:26795063

  20. Paracoccidioidomycosis in a dog: case report of generalized lymphadenomegaly.

    PubMed

    de Farias, Marconi Rodrigues; Condas, Larissa Anuska Zeni; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Muro, Marisol Dominguez; Werner, Juliana; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Bagagli, Eduardo; Marques, Sílvio Alencar; Franco, Marcello

    2011-08-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a severe systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America and highly prevalent in Brazil, where it ranks eighth as a mortality cause among infectious and parasitic diseases in humans. The disease in animals has been little explored. It is observed that armadillos can harbor the fungus at high frequencies, although the active disease has not been well documented in this wild mammal. Dogs are susceptible to experimental infection, and the naturally acquired PCM-disease was reported only recently in a dog from Brazil. The present work reports the second case of naturally acquired PCM in a 6-year-old female dog that presented emaciation, lymphadenomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly. Biochemical and pulmonary radiographic evaluation did not reveal any abnormalities. PCM was diagnosed by clinical findings, culturing, immunohistochemistry, and histopathology of popliteal lymph node. The fungus was recovered from popliteal lymph node, and the molecular analysis showed respective sequencing similarities of 99 and 100% for 803 nucleotides of the Gp43 gene and 592 nucleotides from the ITS-5.8S region of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Immunohistochemistry revealed severe lymphadenitis and presented numerous yeasts, which reacted against the gp43 antibody. Histopathology revealed a severe granulomatous lymphadenitis associated with numerous single or multiple budding yeasts. After diagnosis, the dog was successfully treated with itraconazol for 2 years. Veterinarians should be aware of the importance of considering PCM for differential diagnosis, especially in dogs from PCM-endemic areas, whose monophagocytic system involvement is evident.

  1. Rotary slot dog

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Smauley, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

  2. Azithromycin pharmacokinetics in the serum and its distribution to the skin in healthy dogs and dogs with pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Zur, Gila; Soback, Stefan; Weiss, Yfat; Perry, Elad; Lavy, Eran; Britzi, Malka

    2014-04-01

    Serum and skin tissue azithromycin (AZM) concentrations were analysed in healthy and pyoderma affected dogs to determine AZM pharmacokinetics and to establish the effect of disease on AZM skin disposition. AZM was administered orally to two groups of healthy dogs: (1) at 7.02 mg/kg (n=7) and (2) at 11.2mg/kg (n=9). A crossover design was used on five of them. Seven dogs with pyoderma were treated with AZM at 10.7 mg/kg. The two groups of healthy dogs received AZM once daily over three consecutive days and dogs with pyoderma received the same treatment repeated twice with an interval of 1 week. AZM concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AZM was rapidly absorbed and slowly excreted. In healthy dogs, maximum serum concentrations appeared 2h after administration and were (mean ± standard deviation) 0.60 ± 0.25 μg/mL and 1.03 ± 0.43 μg/mL, and the half-lives were 49.9 ± 5.10 and 51.9 ± 6.69 h for doses of 7.02 and 11.2mg/kg, respectively. Clearance (CL0-24/F) was similar in both dosing groups (1.24 ± 0.24 and 1.29 ± 0.24 L/h/kg) and the respective mean residence time (MRT0-24) was 11.1 ± 0.8 and 8.4 ± 2.2h. The skin concentration in healthy dogs was 3.5-6.5 and 5.0-12.0 times higher than the corresponding serum concentration after the two doses and increased after the cessation of AZM administration. The ratio increased significantly in inflamed tissue (9.5-26.2).

  3. 38 CFR 17.148 - Service dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service dogs. 17.148..., Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.148 Service dogs. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: Service dogs are guide or service dogs prescribed for a disabled veteran under this section. (b)...

  4. Hypoadrenocorticism in a kindred of Pomeranian dogs.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Erin T; Hammond, Tara N; Mahony, Orla M

    2015-01-01

    Three adult Pomeranian dogs, full siblings from 2 litters, were diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism following onset of hypoadrenal crisis. Review of the family history revealed the dogs' maternal grandmother also had hypoadrenocorticism. All 4 dogs were pedigree-certified by the American Kennel Club. An inherited basis for hypoadrenocorticism is proposed in these Pomeranian dogs.

  5. Parasite load induces progressive spleen architecture breakage and impairs cytokine mRNA expression in Leishmania infantum-naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Amanda S; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pereira, Luiza de O R; Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; Ferreira, Anna Beatriz Robottom; Morgado, Fernanda N; Boité, Mariana C; Cupolillo, Elisa; Moraes, Milton O; Porrozzi, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) shares many aspects with the human disease and dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of L. infantum in zoonotic VL. Infected dogs develop progressive disease with a large clinical spectrum. A complex balance between the parasite and the genetic/immunological background of the host are decisive for infection evolution and clinical outcome. This study comprised 92 Leishmania infected mongrel dogs of various ages from Mato Grosso, Brazil. Spleen samples were collected for determining parasite load, humoral response, cytokine mRNA expression and histopathology alterations. By real-time PCR for the ssrRNA Leishmania gene, two groups were defined; a low (lowP, n = 46) and a high parasite load groups (highP, n = 42). When comparing these groups, results show variable individual humoral immune response with higher specific IgG production in infected animals but with a notable difference in CVL rapid test optical densities (DPP) between highP and lowP groups. Splenic architecture disruption was characterized by disorganization of white pulp, more evident in animals with high parasitism. All cytokine transcripts in spleen were less expressed in highP than lowP groups with a large heterogeneous variation in response. Individual correlation analysis between cytokine expression and parasite load revealed a negative correlation for both pro-inflammatory cytokines: IFNγ, IL-12, IL-6; and anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TGFβ. TNF showed the best negative correlation (r2 = 0.231; p<0.001). Herein we describe impairment on mRNA cytokine expression in leishmania infected dogs with high parasite load associated with a structural modification in the splenic lymphoid micro-architecture. We also discuss the possible mechanism responsible for the uncontrolled parasite growth and clinical outcome.

  6. Use of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D; Nicholson, A; Church, D B; Pearson, M R

    1996-09-01

    Responses (486) were collared from a survey of 5054 Australian veterinarians on their use of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs in dogs and cats. Almost all respondents used glucocorticoids (usually prednisolone) to treat allergic, pruritic dermatoses in dogs, while two-thirds also gave fatty acid supplements and one-half used antihistamines. Almost 60% of respondents initially injected a glucocorticoid (frequently a long-acting preparation) when treating inflammatory skin diseases in dogs. More than 90% of respondents used glucocorticoids to treat immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia or thrombocytopenia, and about one-third also gave cytotoxic drugs. Administration of prednisolone on alternate days was generally favoured for long-term enteral steroid therapy. Phenylbutazone was the most preferred treatment for painful or inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders of dogs, but aspirin and pentosan polysulphate were also used widely. Regarding the use of analgesics drugs generally, both narcotic analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were used more widely in dogs than in cats, but alpha-2 agonists were used similarly in both species. The most commonly used narcotic analgesics were pethidine and buprenorphine in both species, while the NSAIDs used most often were flunixin and dipyrone in dogs and ketoprofen in cats. More than 80% of respondents generally used analgesic drugs with potentially painful surgical procedures, with doses given usually before anaesthetic recovery. Analgesic use rates varied with the condition, ranging from 94% for patients with acute severe trauma, through 60% for cruciate ligament repair and 29% for perineal herniorrahphy, to about 5% for ovariohysterectomy and dog castration. The three clinical signs most frequently nominated as indicators of pain in dogs and cats were (in descending order) vocalisation, response to handling or palpating the affected area, and mental depression. Other items mentioned frequently were

  7. Afoxolaner against fleas: immediate efficacy and resultant mortality after short exposure on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; deVos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-01-01

    The speed of efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®) against Ctenocephalides felis fleas was evaluated in two studies. Study A assessed the efficacy against existing fleas whereas study B assessed the efficacy against new infesting fleas. In study A, 12 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 20 dogs to the treated group. All dogs were infested by 100 fleas each at Day −1, treated at Day 0 and flea combed at 2 h or at 6 h post treatment. In study B, 6 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 10 to the treated group. They were infested with 100 fleas each on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were removed and counted at 6 h post-infestation. Immediate and persistent efficacies were evaluated by counting fleas on the dogs. To evaluate induced mortality after exposure on dogs, fleas collected alive were placed in an insectarium for 24 h and assessed for viability. The immediate efficacy on dogs was significant at 6 h with 100%. The induced death of the fleas collected live from dogs 2 h after exposure was 99.7%. Concerning new infesting fleas, the observed efficacy at 6 h and the induced mortality were significantly different (p < 0.05) from the control at all time-points. At 6 h, the prophylactic efficacy was > 97% at Day 2 and Day 8 and > 90% at Day 14. The induced mortality after 6 h of exposure on dogs varied between 73.3% and 100% for the whole study. PMID:25148564

  8. Afoxolaner against fleas: immediate efficacy and resultant mortality after short exposure on dogs.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; deVos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Fourie, Josephus

    2014-01-01

    The speed of efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard) against Ctenocephalides felis fleas was evaluated in two studies. Study A assessed the efficacy against existing fleas whereas study B assessed the efficacy against new infesting fleas. In study A, 12 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 20 dogs to the treated group. All dogs were infested by 100 fleas each at Day -1, treated at Day 0 and flea combed at 2 h or at 6 h post treatment. In study B, 6 dogs were allocated to the untreated group and 10 to the treated group. They were infested with 100 fleas each on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fleas were removed and counted at 6 h post-infestation. Immediate and persistent efficacies were evaluated by counting fleas on the dogs. To evaluate induced mortality after exposure on dogs, fleas collected alive were placed in an insectarium for 24 h and assessed for viability. The immediate efficacy on dogs was significant at 6 h with 100%. The induced death of the fleas collected live from dogs 2 h after exposure was 99.7%. Concerning new infesting fleas, the observed efficacy at 6 h and the induced mortality were significantly different (p < 0.05) from the control at all time-points. At 6 h, the prophylactic efficacy was > 97% at Day 2 and Day 8 and > 90% at Day 14. The induced mortality after 6 h of exposure on dogs varied between 73.3% and 100% for the whole study.

  9. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Fahrion, Anna; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Pete; Webster, Pia; Kranjc, Asja; Glaus, Tony; Deplazes, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n=3) or 500 (n=3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two dogs were treated with moxidectin/imidacloprid spot-on solution and two further dogs with an oral experimental compound 92 days post infection (dpi), and were necropsied 166 dpi. Two untreated control dogs were necropsied 97 dpi. Prepatency was 47-49 days. Dogs inoculated with 500 L3 exhibited earlier (from 42 dpi) and more severe respiratory signs. Clinical signs resolved 12 days after treatment and larval excretion stopped within 20 days in all four treated dogs. Upon necropsy, 10 and 170 adult worms were recovered from the untreated dogs inoculated with 50 and 500 L3, respectively. Adult worms were also found in two treated dogs, in the absence of L1 or eggs. Despite heavy A. vasorum infection load and severe pulmonary changes including vascular thrombosis, only mild haematological changes were observed. Eosinophilia was absent but the presence of plasma cells was observed. Neutrophilic leucocytes showed a transient increase but only after treatment. Signs for coagulopathies were slight; nevertheless coagulation parameters were inoculation dose dependent. Ten weeks after treatment pulmonary fibrosis was still present. Infections starting from 50 L3 of A. vasorum had a massive impact on lung tissues and therefore on the health of affected dogs, particularly after prepatency, although only mild haematological abnormalities were evident.

  10. Animal-assisted therapy and loneliness in nursing homes: use of robotic versus living dogs.

    PubMed

    Banks, Marian R; Willoughby, Lisa M; Banks, William A

    2008-03-01

    Loneliness is a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCF) and previous work has shown that animal-assisted therapy (AAT) can to some degree reverse loneliness. Here, we compared the ability of a living dog (Dog) and a robotic dog (AIBO) to treat loneliness in elderly patients living in LTCF. In comparison with a control group not receiving AAT, both the Dog and AIBO groups had statistically significant improvements in their levels of loneliness. As measured by a modified Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (MLAPS), residents showed high levels of attachment to both the dog and AIBO. Subscale analysis showed that the AIBO group scored lower than the living dog on "animal rights/animal welfare" but not on "general attachment" or "people substituting." However, MLAPS measures did not correlate with changes in loneliness, showing that attachment was not the mechanism by which AAT decreases loneliness. We conclude that interactive robotic dogs can reduce loneliness in residents of LTCF and that residents become attached to these robots. However, level of attachment does not explain the decrease in loneliness associated with AAT conducted with either a living or robotic dog.

  11. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine A; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-11-15

    When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs' scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher's Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher's Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  12. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  13. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

  14. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  15. Effects of transient increased afterload during experimentally induced acute myocardial infarction in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, H; Kloner, R A; Alker, K J; Schoen, F J; Braunwald, E

    1985-02-15

    Alterations in afterload may occur during acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but it is unknown whether such alterations cause long-term changes in the left ventricular topography or alter healing of the AMI. AMI was produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in open-chest dogs. Eight dogs were randomized to a methoxamine group with an infusion dose of 30 micrograms/kg/min starting 1 hour after ligation for 4 hours to increase systemic systolic pressure by 40 to 50 mm Hg, and 8 were randomized to a saline control group (n = 8). Seven days later the dogs were killed and the hearts examined. The ratio of infarct wall thickness to noninfarct wall thickness was 1.13 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) in control dogs and was 0.98 +/- 0.03 in the dogs treated with methoxamine (p less than 0.005). An expansion index was determined as previously reported and expansion was considered to have occurred if this index exceeded 1.09. The expansion index was 0.98 +/- 0.06 in the control group and 1.18 +/- 0.07 in the methoxamine group (p less than 0.05). Histologic analysis suggested a lag in the healing rate in the methoxamine-treated dogs. Thus, early, brief increases in afterload cause infarct expansion and thinning and appears to slow the early healing phase of AMI in dogs.

  16. A comparison of a new mucolytic N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate with N-acetylcysteine: airway epithelial function and mucus changes in dog.

    PubMed

    Tomkiewicz, R P; App, E M; De Sanctis, G T; Coffiner, M; Maes, P; Rubin, B K; King, M

    1995-12-01

    A newly synthesized mucolytic agent, N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate (Nacystelyn) was studied. Tracheal mucus velocity (TMV), transepithelial potential difference (PD), rheological properties, and ion content of collected airway secretions were evaluated in six healthy mongrel dogs after placebo, Nacystelyn (NAL) and acetylcysteine (NAC) metered dose inhaler (MDI) aerosols. Although TMV was increased and viscoelasticity decreased after both treatments, the treatment effect with NAL was significantly greater. Furthermore, NAL increased the negative PD and CI- content of secretions in the trachea, an effect not observed after NAC. Both compounds increased ciliary beat frequency (CBF) on the frog palate at a concentration range similar to that approximated in dog airways. The increased mucociliary clearance could be partially explained by favourable rheological changes combined with stimulation of CBF. Since both compounds break disulfide bonds in mucus polymers, the greater change in mucus rheology and clearance rate after NAL, without change in water content, could be explained by the increase in CI- content. Nacystelyn appears to combine different modes of action which synergistically cause an increase in the clearance rate of airway secretions.

  17. Rate of infection and of reinfection by Echinococcus granulosus in rural dogs of the province of Rio Negro, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, E; Costa, M T; Cantoni, G; Labanchi, J L; Bigatti, R; Aquino, A; Araya, D; Herrero, E; Iglesias, L; Mancini, S; Thakur, A S

    2000-02-01

    Hydatidosis (cystic echinococcosis) constitutes a serious public health problem in the Province of Rio Negro, Argentina. In the present work it was intended to evaluate the prevalence of the canine echinococcosis in rural areas of the Province of Rio Negro and studied the reinfection rate in dogs after treatment with Praziquantel during the period 1980-1997. A total of 496 dogs were studied in 18 canine concentrations in order to establish the initial prevalence rate which was 42.3%. From 1980 onward dogs should have been systematically treated with anthelmintic every 2 months in rural areas and every 6 months in urban areas. We estimated that approximately 65% of dogs were treated. To determine the reinfection rate, 476 dogs (1984) and 598 dogs (1996) were studied after anthelmintic treatment during two sequential time periods (0-45; 46-90 days). In both cases treated animals were compared with untreated dogs. Prevalences were 3.5%, 6.7% and 21.3% in 1984 and 0.8%, 4.0% and 10.0% in 1996. For the purpose of surveillance a total number of 21,444 dogs were studied during 18 years. Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus decreased significantly in the first year from 42.3% to 6.1%.

  18. Phylogenetic identification of Cystoisospora spp. from dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Carreno, Ramon A; Tani, Hiroyuki; Yoshiuchi, Ryusaku; Kanai, Takenori; Kimata, Isao; Uni, Shigehiko; Furuya, Masaru; Sasai, Kazumi

    2011-03-10

    Cystoisospora spp. from feces in dogs, cats, and raccoon dogs were isolated, sequenced at the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene locus and compared to other Cystoisospora spp. Cystoisospora oocysts from dogs and raccoon dogs were morphologically similar with those of C. ohioensis, and cat isolates were similar with those of C. felis. The sequences from dogs and raccoon dogs, and cats have a homology with C. ohioensis and C. felis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequences showed that the dog and raccoon dog isolates were nested in a clade with other Cystoisospora spp. including C. ohioensis, C. belli, and C. orlovi. The cat isolate formed a sister group with C. felis that was a separate clade from the dog and raccoon dog group. We report sequence variation in these Cystoisospora sequences and have identified raccoon dogs as another carnivore host for Cystoisospora spp. infecting dogs.

  19. Modulation of the Bifidobacterial Communities of the Dog Microbiota by Zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Sabbioni, Alberto; Ferrario, Chiara; Milani, Christian; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Riccardi, Enzo; Di Ianni, Francesco; Beretti, Valentino; Superchi, Paola; Ossiprandi, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    During last decades canine health and well being is becoming an important issue for human owners. In dogs, several factors including diet, pathogenic bacterial and stress conditions can affect the composition of the gut microbiota. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary chabazitic zeolitite (CZ) supplementation on the contribution of bifidobacteria to the fecal microbiota in training hunting dogs. Fecal microbiota cataloging based on 16S rRNA microbial profiling analyses highlighted an increase of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in animals treated with CZ, with a simultaneous decrease of pathogens associated with dog gastrointestinal infections, such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter. A detailed profiling of the bifidobacterial population of dogs receiving CZ based on the ITS-based sequencing approach, revealed an enhancement bifidobacterial of species typical of animals such as Bifidobacterium animalis and B. pseudolongum. Moreover, these analyses identified the occurrence of putative new bifidobacterial taxa in both treated and untreated samples. PMID:27713735

  20. A Human Case of Zoonotic Dog Tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2017-01-01

    We described a human case of zoonotic dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), rarely occurring in China. The mother of a 17 month-old boy noted the appearance of small white and active worms over a month period in her son’s feces, but the boy was asymptomatic except mild diarrhea. We observed 3 tapeworm proglottids resembling cucumber seeds in his stool sample. Microscopically, each proglottid had 2 genital pores, 1 on each lateral edge, and numerous egg capsules in the uterus. The patient was successfully treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel. Adult worms were recovered in the diarrheic stool after praziquantel treatment and purgation. His family had household pet dogs for several years, and he might have acquired the infection by ingestion of infected fleas of his pet dogs. A history of dog or cat pets and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis of D. caninum infection. The infected pets should also be treated. PMID:28285500

  1. Pharmacokinetic study and evaluation of the safety of taurolidine for dogs with osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma in dogs and humans share many similarities and the dog has been described as an excellent model to study this disease. The median survival in dogs has not improved in the last 25 years. Taurolidine has been shown to be cytotoxic to canine and human osteosarcoma in vitro. The goals of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of taurolidine in healthy dogs and the safety of taurolidine in combination with doxorubicin or carboplatin in dogs with osteosarcoma. Methods Two percent taurolidine was infused into six healthy dogs (150 mg/kg) over a period of two hours and blood samples were taken periodically. One dog received taurolidine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as its carrier and later received PVP-free taurolidine as did all other dogs in this study. Serum taurolidine concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) online coupled to ESI-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Subsequently, the same dose of taurolidine was infused to seven dogs with osteosarcoma also treated with doxorubicin or carboplatin. Results Taurolidine infusion was safe in 6 healthy dogs and there were no significant side effects. Maximum taurolidine serum concentrations ranged between 229 to 646 μM. The dog that received taurolidine with PVP had an immediate allergic reaction but recovered fully after the infusion was stopped. Three additional dogs with osteosarcoma received doxorubicin and taurolidine without PVP. Toxicities included dilated cardiomyopathy, protein-losing nephropathy, renal insufficiency and vasculopathy at the injection site. One dog was switched to carboplatin instead of doxorubicin and an additional 4 dogs with osteosarcoma received taurolidine-carboplatin combination. One incidence of ototoxicity occurred with the taurolidine- carboplatin combination. Bone marrow and gastro-intestinal toxicity did not appear increased with taurolidine over doxorubicin or carboplatin alone

  2. Prevalence of food-responsive enteropathy among dogs with chronic enteropathy in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KAWANO, Koji; SHIMAKURA, Hidekatsu; NAGATA, Noriyuki; MASASHI, Yuki; SUTO, Akemi; SUTO, Yukinori; UTO, Shohei; UENO, Hiromichi; HASEGAWA, Takehiro; USHIGUSA, Takahiro; NAGAI, Takashi; ARAWATARI, Yasunori; MIYAJI, Kazuki; OHMORI, Keitaro; MIZUNO, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    There have been limited reports on the prevalence of adverse food reactions among dogs suffering from chronic enteropathy (CE) in Japan. We examined the prevalence and histological features of food-responsive enteropathy (FRE) in a total of 32 dogs with history of CE. Fourteen of 18 cases (56.2%) diagnosed as FRE had lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis or eosinophilic enteritis by histopathological examination. Characteristic histopathological changes indicating FRE were not identified in 18 cases, though 4 cases did not show any abnormalities. Results collected from this study provided important information that can help to change the way dogs with CE are treated in the future. PMID:27150023

  3. Dog pack attack: hunting humans.

    PubMed

    Avis, S P

    1999-09-01

    Dog bite-related fatalities, although unusual, accounted for 304 deaths in the United States between 1979 and 1996 and 6 fatalities in Canada between 1994 and 1996. Fatal dog pack attacks and attacks involving human predation are less common. The following describes a dog pack attack on a family of four involving 2 fatalities with predation of the victims. Factors previously identified that contribute to pack attacks and predation, including prior group hunting, social feeding, territorial defense, lack of human interaction, and prey stimuli, are discussed.

  4. Punch resection alaplasty technique in dogs and cats with stenotic nares: 14 cases.

    PubMed

    Trostel, C Todd; Frankel, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Punch resection alaplasty is a previously unreported surgical technique for the management of stenotic nares. Nine dogs underwent the procedure in conjunction with soft palate resection and/or laryngeal sacculectomy. Three dogs and two cats were treated with the novel punch resection alaplasty technique alone. Symmetrical resection was achieved, providing excellent cosmesis. Good to excellent results were achieved in all cases, with owners feeling that their pet's overall well being was improved following surgery.

  5. [A survey on intestinal parasites of livestock guardian dogs and herding dogs in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Frey, C F; Regotz, J; Rosenberg, G; Gottstein, B; Kohler, S

    2010-12-01

    The present study describes the occurrence of intestinal parasite infections in livestock guardian dogs and herding dogs. A total of 71 guardian dogs (more than half of the total number of guardian dogs in Switzerland) and 21 herding dogs were coprologically examined, using a combined sedimentation-flotation method. In 21 (23 %) of the dogs intestinal parasites were detected, and 8 (8.7 %) of these dogs shed either sporocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (n = 6) or taeniid eggs (n = 2). The evaluation of questionnaires providing data on age, origin and deworming schemes of the dogs completed the study.

  6. Prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Taishi; Toyoguchi, Midori; Hirano, Fumitaka; Chiba, Mei; Onuma, Kenta; Sato, Hisaaki

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the pathogenesis of pyoderma, isolates from dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs were analyzed. According to reverse passive latex agglutination, 14/184 isolates (7.6%) from dogs with pyoderma and 9/87 (10.3%) from healthy dogs produced SEs (SEA, SEC or SED). According to multiplex PCR, 99 isolates (53.7%) from dogs with pyoderma and 97 (90.8%) from healthy dogs possessed one or more se genes. There was no significant difference regarding ses between dogs with pyoderma and healthy dogs. Therefore, SEs may not be a direct virulence factor in pyoderma.

  7. Continuous infusion of enzyme replacement therapy is inferior to weekly infusions in MPS I dogs

    PubMed Central

    Passage, M.B.; Krieger, A.W.; Peinovich, M.C.; Lester, T.; Le, S.Q.; Dickson, P.I.; Kakkis, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Intravenous enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human α-l-iduronidase (rhIDU) is used weekly to treat mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I. We tested continuous administration of rhIDU at two dosing levels (0.58 mg/kg/week and 2 mg/kg/week) in MPS I dogs, and compared the efficacy of continuous to the clinically-used 0.58 mg/kg weekly three-hour infusion. Peak plasma concentrations of rhIDU were much higher in weekly-treated dogs (mean 256 units/ml) than steady-state concentrations in dogs treated with continuous infusion (mean 1.97 units/ml at 0.58 mg/kg/week; 10.1 units/ml at 2 mg/kg/week). Dogs receiving continuous IV rhIDU, even at a higher (2 mg/kg/week) dose, had consistently lower iduronidase levels in tissues than dogs receiving a weekly (0.58 mg/kg/week) dose. GAG storage was also less improved by continuous intravenous infusion. Adverse events were similar in all dosing groups. We found that continuous administration of 2 mg/kg/week rhIDU to MPS I dogs was insufficient to achieve GAG storage reduction comparable to 0.58 mg/kg weekly dosing. PMID:19562502

  8. Frustration behaviors in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    During extinction a previously learned behavior stops being reinforced. In addition to the decrease in the rate of the instrumental response, it produces an aversive emotional state known as frustration. This state can be assimilated with the fear reactions that occur after aversive stimuli are introduced at both the physiological and behavioral levels. This study evaluated frustration reactions of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) during a communicative situation involving interactions with a human. The task included the reinforcement and extinction of the gaze response toward the experimenter's face when the dogs tried to obtain inaccessible food. The dog's frustration reactions during extinction involved an increase in withdrawal and side orientation to the location of the human as well as lying down, ambulation, sniffing, and vocalizations compared with the last acquisition trial. These results are especially relevant for domestic dog training situations in which the extinction technique is commonly used to discourage undesirable behaviors.

  9. Do dogs (Canis familiaris) show contagious yawning?

    PubMed

    Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2009-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs showed contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs showed significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs showing contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans showing this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008).

  10. Clinical efficacy and safety of recombinant canine erythropoietin in dogs with anemia of chronic renal failure and dogs with recombinant human erythropoietin-induced red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Randolph, John E; Scarlett, Janet; Stokol, Tracy; MacLeod, James N

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of recombinant canine erythropoietin (rcEPO) therapy was evaluated in 19 dogs with anemia of chronic renal failure (group 1) and 6 dogs with chronic renal failure and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO)-induced red cell aplasia (group 2). Hematocrit (Hct) and absolute reticulocyte count (ARC) were monitored weekly for the first 8 weeks, CBC (including ARC) and serum iron profiles were evaluated monthly, and serum biochemical analyses were performed every 2 months for 6 (group 2) to 12 (group 1) months. For group 1 dogs, median Hct and ARC increased significantly during the 1st week of rcEPO treatment, and median Hct was sustained at >35% after week 5. In contrast, median Hct and ARC for group 2 did not change significantly with rcEPO treatment, even with doses greater than those used in group 1. Nevertheless, 2 (33%) of the 6 dogs in group 2 developed erythroid hyperplasia, reticulocytosis, and increases in Hct with rcEPO treatment. Although median systolic blood pressure did not change significantly in either group, 5 dogs developed systolic blood pressures > or = 180 mm Hg during the study. Appetite and energy level improved in most group 1 dogs with increases in Hct. Recombinant cEPO stimulated erythrocyte production in dogs with nonregenerative anemia secondary to chronic renal failure without causing the profound erythroid hypoplasia that can occur in rhEPO-treated dogs. Unfortunately, rcEPO was not as effective in restoring erythrocyte production in dogs that had previously developed rhEPO-induced red cell aplasia.

  11. Microarray analysis of inflammatory response-related gene expression in the uteri of dogs with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, D; Kempisty, B; Zawierucha, P; Jopek, K; Piotrowska, H; Antosik, P; Ciesiółka, S; Woźna, M; Brüssow, K P; Jaśkowski, J M

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra, which is accompanied by bacterial contamination of the uterus, is defined as a complex disease associated with the activation of several systems, including the immune system. The objective of the study was to evaluate the gene expression profile in dogs with pyometra compared with those that were clinically normal. The study included uteri from 43 mongrel bitches (23 with pyometra, 20 clinically healthy). RNA used for the microarray study was pooled to four separated vials for control and pyometra. A total of 17,138 different transcripts were analyzed on the uteri of female dogs with pyometra and of healthy controls. From 264 inflammatory response-related transcripts, we found 23 transcripts that revealed a 10- to 77-fold increased expression. Thereby, the expression of interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin-1-beta (IL1B), interleukin 18 receptor (IL18RAP), interleukin 1-alpha (IL1A), interleukin receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and interleukin 6 (IL6) increased 77-, 20-, 17-, 13-, 13- and 11-fold, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of the calcium binding proteins S100A8 was 44-fold higher, and that of S100A12 and S100A9 37-fold, respectively, in the uteri of canines with pyometra compared with that of the controls. Moreover, the expression of the transcripts of toll-like receptors (TLR8 and TLR2), integrin beta 2 (ITGB2), chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A), CD14 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) was increased between 10- and 18-fold. Furthermore, after using RT-qPCR we found an increased expression of AOAH, IL1A, IL8, CCL3, IL1RN and SERPINE 1 mRNAs which can be served also as markers of the occurrence of pyometra in domestic bitches. In summary, it is concluded that up-regulation of interleukins may be used as a marker of the inflammatory response in dogs with pyometra. Moreover, all of the 23 up-regulated transcripts may be novel molecular markers of the pathogenesis of canine pyometra. Several proteins--–products of these

  12. Study of severe scorpion envenoming following subcutaneous venom injection into dogs: Hemodynamic and concentration/effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Elatrous, Souheil; Ouanes-Besbes, Lamia; Ben Sik-Ali, Habiba; Hamouda, Zineb; BenAbdallah, Saoussen; Tilouche, Nejla; Jalloul, Faten; Fkih-Hassen, Mohamed; Dachraoui, Fahmi; Ouanes, Islem; Abroug, Fekri

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the dose-effects of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom injected subcutaneously on hemodynamics and neurohormonal secretions, 10 anesthetized and ventilated mongrel dogs, were split in two groups (n = 5/group). Subcutaneous injection was done with either 0.2 mg/kg or 0.125 mg/kg of the purified G50 scorpion toxic fraction. Hemodynamic parameters using right heart catheter were recorded and plasma concentrations of catecholamine, troponin, and serum toxic fraction were measured sequentially from baseline to 120 min. We identified the dose of toxic fraction evoking characteristic hemodynamic perturbation of severe envenomation, the time-lapse to envenomation, and the associated plasma level. The injection of 0.125 mg/kg toxic fraction was not associated with significant variations in hemodynamic parameters, whereas the 0.2 mg/kg dose caused envenomation characterized by significant increase in plasma catecholamines, increased pulmonary artery occluded pressure, mean arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance (p < 0.05), in association with sustained decline in cardiac output (p < 0.001). Envenomation occurred by the 30th minute, and the corresponding concentration of toxic fraction was 1.14 ng/ml. The current experiment allowed the identification of the sub-lethal dose (0.2 mg/kg) of the toxic fraction of Aah administered by the subcutaneous route. Two parameters with potential clinical relevance were also uncovered: the time-lapse to envenomation and the corresponding concentration of toxic fraction.

  13. Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the in vivo metabolism of antithrombin III (AT III) in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Maekawa, T.

    1985-11-01

    Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the metabolism of I-125-labelled canine AT III was studied in mongrel dogs. Under control condition, mean total amount of intravascular AT III with standard deviation was 23.4 +/- 2.4 mg/kg, plasma half life of i.v. injected I-125-AT III was 1.7 +/- 0.2 days, and the fractional catabolic flux (j3x) was 16.3 +/- 1.6 mg/kg/day. The total amount of intra- and extra-vascular AT III was 36.0 +/- 0.34 mg/kg. Neither a 3 hour infusion of a small dose (30 units/kg/hr) of thrombin nor i.v. injection of a large amount of thrombin (5,000-15,000 units/day) with heparin significantly affected AT III metabolism except for a transient decrease in AT III concentration in the latter case, although decrease in plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count was observed in both cases. Two injections with 200 micrograms/kg of endotoxin resulted in an evident acceleration of AT III metabolism with significant decrease in the plasma AT III, fibrinogen concentrations and platelet count. More marked changes in AT III metabolism were induced by a single infusion with 1 mg/kg of endotoxin. Changes in hemostatic system coincided with those observed in DIC.

  14. Extramedullary hematopoiesis in a case of benign mixed mammary tumor in a female dog: cytological and histopathological assessment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is defined as the presence of hematopoietic stem cells such as erythroid and myeloid lineage plus megakaryocytes in extramedullary sites like liver, spleen and lymph nodes and is usually associated with either bone marrow or hematological disorders. Mammary EMH is a rare condition either in human and veterinary medicine and can be associated with benign mixed mammary tumors, similarly to that described in this case. Case presentation Hematopoietic stem cells were found in a benign mixed mammary tumor of a 7-year-old female mongrel dog that presents a nodule in the left inguinal mammary gland. The patient did not have any hematological abnormalities. Cytological evaluation demonstrated two distinct cell populations, composed of either epithelial or mesenchymal cells, sometimes associated with a fibrillar acidophilic matrix, apart from megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, metarubricytes, prorubricytes, rubricytes, rubriblasts, promyelocytes, myeloblasts. Histological examination confirmed the presence of an active hematopoietic bone marrow within the bone tissue of a benign mammary mixed tumor. Conclusions EMH is a rare condition described in veterinary medicine that can be associated with mammary mixed tumors. It's detection can be associated with several neoplastic and non-neoplastic mammary lesions, i.e. osteosarcomas, mixed tumors and bone metaplasia. PMID:20846427

  15. Effect of acetylcysteine on experimental corneal wounds in dogs.

    PubMed

    Aldavood, S J; Behyar, R; Sarchahi, A A; Rad, M A; Noroozian, I; Ghamsari, S M; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 3, 10 and 20% concentrations of acetylcysteine on experimental corneal wound healing in dogs were evaluated. Experimental corneal wounds were induced surgically, up to the depth of the anterior third of the stroma, in both eyes of 18 dogs. One of the eyes was treated topically with 0.9% NaCl solution three times a day. The contralateral eye was treated topically with acetylcysteine (3, 10 and 20% concentrations) in each of 6 cases separately. Corneal wounds were measured by fluorescein staining every day. The mean time of healing in the 3% group was significantly different from control eyes (6.17 +/- 1.94 days). It was 7.19 +/- 0.75 days in the 20% group and 7 +/- 2 days in the 10% group. The last two groups were not significantly different from the controls (9.67 +/- 3.01 days and 8.17 +/- 3.60 days, respectively).

  16. Service Dogs in the Perioperative Setting.

    PubMed

    Levey, Janet A; Chappy, Sharon L

    2017-04-01

    Service dogs are critical for the independence of individuals with disabilities because they assist with daily living activities and help these individuals navigate society. Perioperative nurses need a working knowledge of disability laws pertaining to service dogs to provide patient-centered care for individuals using service dogs. This article provides information on the Americans With Disabilities Act regulations regarding service dogs, makes recommendations for the care of patients with service dogs across the perioperative continuum, and offers policy directives to ensure that safe, high-quality care is delivered to patients using service dogs.

  17. Elimination of Dirofilaria (syn. Nochtiella) repens microfilariae in dogs with monthly treatments of moxidectin 2.5%/imidacloprid 10% (Advocate, Bayer) spot-on.

    PubMed

    Fok, Eva; Jacsó, Olga; Szebeni, Zsolt; Gyorffy, András; Sükösd, László; Lukács, Zoltán; Schaper, Roland

    2010-04-01

    Elimination of microfilaria in dogs infected with zoonotic Dirofilaria repens would be desirable to reduce further spread. Moxidectin has demonstrated efficacy against microfilariae and safety in dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis and could be an option for controlling D. repens microfilariae. A field study with 64 dogs previously confirmed positive for D. repens microfilaria was conducted in Hungary, in which a spot-on product (Advocate, Bayer) was tested. Treatments were applied to 44 dogs once a month for 3 months (five dogs) or 6 months (22 dogs), alternatively every 2 weeks for 6 months (17 dogs). Twenty dogs remained untreated. Microfilaria counts were performed once a month and for a further 6 months following the last treatment. Two weeks after the first treatment, 38 of 44 dogs were microfilaria negative. Four weeks after the initial treatment, one dog still showed a low microfilaria count. Following the second treatment, all treated dogs were negative. This status was maintained during the 6-month observation period after the last treatment. These data demonstrate the successful long-lasting elimination of microfilariae. Moreover, it may be supposed that adult D. repens were killed based on the observation that no further microfilariae were seen up to 6 months after the end of the treatment period.

  18. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Radeloff, Isabelle; LeSueur, Christophe; Schimmel, Annette; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    A controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new anthelmintic tablet formulation containing emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in dogs in France, Germany, Portugal and Slovakia. Dogs positive for nematodes and/or cestodes (demonstrated by faecal egg counts and/or the presence of proglottids) were treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (n = 239) or the reference product containing milbemycin oxime and praziquantel (Milbemax [n = 115]) at the recommended dose rate. Two faecal samples collected between 7 and 13 days after treatment were evaluated for proglottids, nematode and cestode eggs. No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in the study. The following parasite species were identified: Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Mesocestoides spp. Geometric mean nematode egg counts in dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets were reduced by 99.9 % compared with a reduction of 99.6 % for the reference product. Statistical analysis demonstrated noninferiority of investigational versus reference product (p = 0.0342). None of the dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel or reference product remained positive for cestodes after treatment. The study demonstrated that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and highly efficacious against a broad spectrum of nematodes and cestodes under field conditions.

  19. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  20. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  1. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  2. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  3. [Patent ductus arteriosus in the dog: a retrospective study of clinical presentation, diagnostics and comparison of interventional techniques in 102 dogs (2003-2011)].

    PubMed

    Meijer, M; Beijerink, N J

    2012-06-01

    A left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common congenital heart defect in dogs. If it is left uncorrected, life expectancy in most cases is decreased due to the development of left-sided congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to describe the dogs diagnosed with PDA in the Utrecht University Companion Animal Clinic from 2003 to 2011. The medical records of 102 patients were retrieved, and the clinical presentation and outcome of PDA closure by surgical ligation or transarterial catheter occlusion (TCO) were reviewed. In the TCO group, the result of coiling was compared with the placement of an Amplatz Canine Duct Occluder (ACDO). A predisposition to PDA was found in the German Brak, Stabyhoun, and Schapendoes. Dogs treated with surgical ligation were significantly older and heavier than those treated with TCO; within the TCO group, dogs treated with ACDO were significantly older and heavier The initial success rate (complete disappearance of the audible murmur in a patient that survived the procedure) was not significantly different between the different treatment modalities. Major complications were more common with surgical ligation, but the incidence of minor complications was not significantly different. There was no diference in survival between dogs treated with surgical ligation and dogs treated with TCO. This study shows a previously unreported predisposition to PDA in certain breeds. Both surgical ligation and TCO are suitable techniques for PDA closure, although major complications were more common with surgical ligation. ACDO appears to be the method with the least complications and thus can be considered the safest method.

  4. [Influence of pacing site on myocardial transmural dispersion of repolarization in intact normal and dilated cardiomyopathy dogs].

    PubMed

    Bai, Rong; Pu, Jun; Liu, Nian; Lu, Jia-Gao; Zhou, Qiang; Ruan, Yan-Fei; Niu, Hui-Yan; Wang, Lin

    2003-12-25

    In order to verify the hypothesis that left ventricular epicardial (LV-Epi) pacing and biventricular (BiV) pacing unavoidably influence the myocardial electrophysiological characters and may result in high risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmia, we calculated, in both normal mongrel dogs and dog models with rapid-right-ventricular-pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy congestive heart failure (DCM-CHF), the monophasic action potential duration (MAPD) and the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in intracardiac electrogram together with the QT interval and T(peak)-T(end) (T(p(-T(e)) interval in surface electrocardiogram (ECG) during LV-Epi and BiV pacing, compared with those during right ventricular endocardial (RV-Endo) pacing. To prepare the DCM-CHF dog model, rapid right ventricular pacing (250 bpm) was performed for 23.6+/-2.57 days to the dog. All the normal and DCM-CHF dogs were given radio frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) to His bundle with the guide of X-ray fluoroscopy. After the RFCA procedures, the animals were under the situation of complete atrioventricular block so that the canine heart rates could be voluntarily controlled in the following experiments. After a thoracotomy, ECG and monophasic action potentials (MAP) of subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-layer myocardium were recorded synchronously in 8 normal and 5 DCM-CHF dogs during pacing from endocardium of RV apex (RV-Endo), epicardium of LV anterior wall (LV-Epi) and simultaneously both of the above (biventricular, BiV), the later was similar to the ventricular resynchronization therapy to congestive heart failure patients in clinic. The Tp-Te) meant the interval from the peak to the end of T wave, which was a representative index of TDR in surface ECG. The TDR was defined as the difference between the longest and the shortest MAPD of subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-layer myocardium. Our results showed that in normal dogs, pacing participating of LV (LV-Epi, BiV) prolonged

  5. Evaluation of silymarin in the treatment on asymptomatic Giardia infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chon, Seung-Ki; Kim, Nam-Soo

    2005-12-01

    We have reported previously the efficacy of antiprotozoal drugs against canine giardiasis (In press, Journal of Veterinary Clinic, the Korean Society of Veterinary Clinics). Fenbendazole was found to be the most efficacious for the treatment of canine giardiasis. There were no significant differences between the efficacy of albendazole and fenbendazole against canine giardiasis. On the other hand, the efficacy of metronidazole for the treatment of canine giardiasis, the efficacy was lower when compared to that of albendazole and fenbendazole. On the basis of these results, to evaluate clinical effect of silymarin, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of metronidazole alone, or combined with silymarin for 2 weeks for canine giardiasis. In addition, to observe effects on nutrition, we investigated the changes of body weight, the serum biochemical indicators for liver inflammation (GOT, GPT, NH3), the liver cell regeneration indicators (total protein, albumin) and the hematological changes during treatment (WBC, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC). The dogs were allocated to four groups; one group was treated with silymarin (3.5 mg/kg once a day, oral), another with metronidazole (50 mg/kg once a day, oral), and the other group with silymarin (3.5 mg/kg once a day, oral) plus metronidazole (50 mg/kg once a day, oral), while control group remained nontreated. The fecal samples from all the dogs were examined, using the ZSCT and giardia antigen test kit (SNAP(*) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories), from each dog of each group for three times a week for 2 weeks. Dogs were considered to have giardiasis when one or more of the fecal samples had positive results for Giardia cysts. Seven days after treatment, the efficacy of silymarin plus metronidazole was found 79%, whereas that of metronidazole was 72%. Ten days post-treatment the efficacy of metronidazole plus silymarin (91%) was significantly different in comparison with that of metronidazole (75%). Two weeks post-treatment no cysts were

  6. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  7. Delivery Systems for Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) for Repair of Battle Incurred Bone Injuries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    infections, congenital malformations that fail to heal are eligible for BMP treatment. I (my child/my ward) will be one of 50 patients to be treated with...Fusions in Dogs 6. Craniotomy Defects in Sheep t0 7. Craniotomy Defects in Monkeys 10 8. BMP Delivery System of Bone Matrix Non Collagenous 11 Proteins...effects. The most important and indispensptle substitutes for experiments in human beings are adult mongrel dogs, monkeys, and sheep . Experimental .S

  8. Domestic dogs and cancer research: a breed-based genomics approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian W; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are unique from other animal models of cancer in that they generally experience spontaneous disease. In addition, most types of cancer observed in humans are found in dogs, suggesting that canines may be an informative system for the study of cancer genetics. Domestic dogs are divided into over 175 breeds, with members of each breed sharing significant phenotypes. The breed barrier enhances the utility of the model, especially for genetic studies where small numbers of genes are hypothesized to account for the breed cancer susceptibility. These facts, combined with recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies allows for an unrivaled ability to use pet dog populations to find often subtle mutations that promote cancer susceptibility and progression in dogs as a whole. The meticulous record keeping associated with dog breeding makes the model still more powerful, as it facilitates both association analysis and family-based linkage studies. Key to the success of these studies is their cooperative nature, with owners, scientists, veterinarians and breed clubs working together to avoid the cost and unpopularity of developing captive populations. In this article we explore these principals and advocate for colony-free, genetic studies that will enhance our ability to diagnose and treat cancer in dogs and humans alike.

  9. Hepatic neosporosis in a dog treated for pemphigus foliaceus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4 year old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented for progressive lethargy, inappetence, and weakness of four days duration. The animal had been diagnosed with pemphigus foliaceus three months prior and was receiving combination immunosuppressive therapy. Serum biochemistry revealed severely ...

  10. Comparative efficacy of Prolene and Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh for experimental ventral hernia repair in dogs.

    PubMed

    Anjum, H; Bokhari, S G; Khan, M A; Awais, M; Mughal, Z U; Shahzad, H K; Ijaz, F; Siddiqui, M I; Khan, I U; Chaudhry, A S; Akhtar, R; Aslam, S; Akbar, H; Asif, M; Maan, M K; Khan, M A; Noor, A; Khan, W A; Ullah, A; Hayat, M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, efficacy of two hernia mesh implants viz. conventional Prolene and a novel Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh was assessed for experimental ventral hernia repair in dogs. Twelve healthy mongrel dogs were selected and randomly divided into three groups, A, Band C (n=4). In all groups, an experimental laparotomy was performed; thereafter, the posterior rectus sheath and peritoneum were sutured together, while, a 5 × 5 cm defect was created in the rectus muscle belly and anterior rectus sheath. For sublay hernioplasty, the hernia mesh (Prolene: group A; Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh: group B), was implanted over the posterior rectus sheath. In group C (control), mesh was not implanted; instead the laparotomy incision was closed after a herniorrhaphy. Post-operative pain, mesh shrinkage and adhesion formation were assessed as short term complications. Post-operatively, pain at surgical site was significantly less (P<0.001) in group B (composite mesh); mesh shrinkage was also significantly less in group B (21.42%, P<0.05) than in group A (Prolene mesh shrinkage: 58.18%). Group B (composite mesh) also depicted less than 25% adhesions (Mean ± SE: 0.75 ± 0.50 scores, P≤0.013) when assessed on the basis of a Quantitative Modified Diamond scale; a Qualitative Adhesion Tenacity scale also depicted either no adhesions (n=2), or, only flimsy adhesions (n=2) in group B (composite mesh), in contrast to group A (Prolene), which manifested greater adhesion formation and presence of dense adhesions requiring blunt dissection. Conclusively, the Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh proved superior to the Prolene mesh regarding lesser mesh contraction, fewer adhesions and no short-term follow-up complications.

  11. Benefits of mineralized bone cortical allograft for immediate implant placement in extraction sites: an in vivo study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mineralized bone cortical allograft (MBCA), with or without a resorbable collagenous membrane derived from bovine pericardium, on alveolar bone remodeling after immediate implant placement in a dog model. Methods Six mongrel dogs were included. The test and control sites were randomly selected. Four biradicular premolars were extracted from the mandible. In control sites, implants without an allograft or membrane were placed immediately in the fresh extraction sockets. In the test sites, an MBCA was placed to fill the gap between the bone socket wall and implant, with or without a resorbable collagenous membrane. Specimens were collected after 1 and 3 months. The amount of residual particles and new bone quality were evaluated by histomorphometry. Results Few residual graft particles were observed to be closely embedded in the new bone without any contact with the implant surface. The allograft combined with a resorbable collagen membrane limited the resorption of the buccal wall in height and width. The histological quality of the new bone was equivalent to that of the original bone. The MBCA improved the quality of new bone formation, with few residual particles observed at 3 months. Conclusions The preliminary results of this animal study indicate a real benefit in obtaining new bone as well as in enhancing osseointegration due to the high resorbability of cortical allograft particles, in comparison to the results of xenografts or other biomaterials (mineralized or demineralized cancellous allografts) that have been presented in the literature. Furthermore, the use of an MBCA combined with a collagen membrane in extraction and immediate implant placement limited the extent of post-extraction resorption. PMID:27800212

  12. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  13. Weakness, tremors, and depression associated with macadamia nuts in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S R; Buck, W B; Meerdink, G; Khan, S A

    2000-02-01

    The ASPCA National Animal Poison Center managed 29 cases of ingestion of commercially available macadamia nuts in dogs during a 5-y period. Clinical signs included, from most to least, weakness, depression, vomiting, ataxia, tremor, hyperthermia, abdominal pain, lameness, stiffness, recumbency, and pale mucous membranes. The onset of clinical signs was reported as < 12 h in 79% of the cases. The duration of clinical signs for the majority of cases was < 24 h. The amount of macadamia nuts ingested was estimated in 72% of the calls with a mean of 11.7 g/kg bw. In an attempt to reproduce the syndrome, 4 dogs were gavaged with 20 g macadamia nuts/kg bw in a water slurry. The experimentally dosed dogs developed weakness, manifested by the inability to rise 12 h after dosing, mild central nervous system depression, vomiting, and hyperthermia, with rectal temperatures up to 40.5 C. Mild elevations in serum triglycerides and serum alkaline phosphatase were detected. Lipase values peaked sharply at 24 h and returned to normal by 48 h after dosing. Other serum biochemical and electrolyte determinations were unremarkable. Serum lipoprotein electrophoresis determinations were unchanged from baseline. The mechanism of the syndrome is unknown. All field and experimental dogs recovered uneventfully within 1 to 2 d whether treated by a veterinarian or not.

  14. Antioxidant enzymes attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog

    SciTech Connect

    Triana, J.F.; Unisa, A.; Bolli, R. )

    1990-02-26

    Several studies have shown that postischemic myocardial dysfunction (myocardial stunning) is attenuated by antioxidants, implying a pathogenetic role of oxy-radicals in this phenomenon. However, since all these studies have been performed in open-chest preparations, artifacts due to anesthesia, trauma, and other nonphysiologic conditions cannot be excluded. Accordingly, chronically instrumented dogs underwent a 15-minute occlusion (o) of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion. Dogs received i.v. either saline or superoxide dismutase (SOD) plus catalase (CAT) (16,000 U/kg and 55,000 U/kg, respectively, over 1 hour starting 15 minutes before O). Regional myocardial function was assessed as systolic wall thickening (WTh) using a pulsed Doppler probe. WTh after reperfusion was significantly greater in treated dogs, and this difference could not be ascribed to differences in collateral flow or hemodynamics. The authors conclude that SOD plus catalase attenuate myocardial stunning in the conscious dog, indicating that oxy-radicals play a pathogenetic role in this phenomenon under physiologic conditions.

  15. "I'm Just a'-Walking the Dog" correlates of regular dog walking.

    PubMed

    Christian nee Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Intrapersonal and environmental factors associated with dog walking (N = 483) were examined. A greater proportion of regular (80%) than irregular (59%) dog walkers met the recommended 150 minutes of physical activity per week. Owners who perceived greater social support and motivation from their dogs to walk, and who had access to a dog-supportive park within their neighborhood, were more likely to regularly walk with their dogs, even after adjustment for other well-known correlates of physical activity. The higher level of physical activity of regular dog walkers can be attributed to the additional walking these owners perform with their dogs.

  16. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  17. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  18. Prevention and treatment of dog bites.

    PubMed

    Presutti, R J

    2001-04-15

    Almost one half of all dog bites involve an animal owned by the victim's family or neighbors. A large percentage of dog bite victims are children. Although some breeds of dogs have been identified as being more aggressive than other breeds, any dog may attack when threatened. All dog bites carry a risk of infection, but immediate copious irrigation can significantly decrease that risk. Assessment for the risk of tetanus and rabies virus infection, and subsequent selection of prophylactic antibiotics, are essential in the management of dog bites. The dog bite injury should be documented with photographs and diagrams when appropriate. Family physicians should educate parents and children on ways to prevent dog bites.

  19. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.

    PubMed

    Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2012-06-08

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points

  20. Changes in erythrocyte insulin receptors in normal dogs and keeshond dogs with inheritable, early onset, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Validation of a procedure to evaluate insulin receptors on erythrocytes (RBC-IR) in dogs is described. The specific binding of (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin to RBC-IR of normal dogs is significantly greater than binding in keeshonds with an inheritable form of early onset diabetes mellitus. This decreased binding was due to a significant decrease in RBC-IR affinity in the diabetic keeshonds. To determine the effect on RBC-IR, normal dogs were treated with either dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or prednisone (0.3 mg/kg) for 10 days: concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, and insulin, plus binding characteristics of RBC-IR were determined. In the dexamethasone treated group, plasma glucose concentrations were elevated significantly by day 6 and continued through day 10. Insulin concentrations were elevated significantly by day 3 and remained elevated through day 10. In the prednisone treated group, glucose concentrations were elevated significantly by day 3, while insulin concentrations were elevated significantly by day 8. Maximum binding of RBC-IR was unaffected by prednisone and neither affinities nor receptor numbers were significantly different from day 1. No changes in plasma cortisol concentration were seen. Diabetic keeshonds on daily insulin treatment were removed from exogenous insulin therapy for 48 hours. Significant increases in glucose concentrations were observed, but no significant changes in cortisol, insulin, average receptor binding affinity, or RBC-IR number per cell occurred.

  1. Original surgical treatment of thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts in six chondrodystrophic dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid cysts are rare conditions in veterinary medicine, associated with spinal cord dysfunction. Most of the 100 cases of subarachnoid cysts described since the first report in 1968 were apparently not true cysts. Reported cysts are usually situated in the cervical area and occur in predisposed breeds such as the Rottweiler. The purpose of this retrospective study, from May 2003 to April 2012, was to describe the distinctive features of thoracolumbar spinal subarachnoid cysts, together with their surgical treatment and outcome in 6 chondrodystrophic dogs. Results Five Pugs and 1 French Bulldog were examined. Images suggestive of a subarachnoid cyst were obtained by myelography (2/6) and computed tomography myelography (4/6), and associated disc herniation was observed in 3/6 dogs. A hemilaminectomy was performed. The protruding disc eventually found in 5/6 dogs was treated by lateral corpectomy. The ventral leptomeningeal adhesions observed in all dogs after durotomy were dissected. No or only mild post-operative neurological degradation was observed. Follow-up studies (7 months to 4 years) indicated good outcome and no recurrence. Conclusions All the thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts described in these 6 chondrodystrophic dogs were associated with leptomeningeal adhesions. Good results seemed to be obtained by dissecting and removing these adhesions. A protruding disc, found here in 5/6 dogs, needs to be ruled out and can be treated by lateral corpectomy. PMID:24884635

  2. Phenobarbitone-induced haematological abnormalities in idiopathic epileptic dogs: prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Bersan, E; Volk, H A; Ros, C; De Risio, L

    2014-09-13

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome of phenobarbitone induced haematological abnormalities (PBIHA) in dogs. The medical records of two veterinary referral institutions were searched for dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and treated with PB as monotherapy or polytherapy between March 2003 and September 2010. Sixteen dogs had PBIHA; the median age at diagnosis was 69.5 months. Phenobarbitone was administered at a median dose of 3 mg/kg twice a day for a median period of 100.5 days and the median serum phenobarbitone level was 19 μg/ml. Two dogs had neutropenia, three had anaemia and thrombocytopenia, two had anaemia and neutropenia; the remaining nine had pancytopenia. All dogs were referred for non-specific clinical signs. Phenobarbitone was discontinued after diagnosis, and the median time to resolution of PBIHA was 17 days. The prevalence and risk factors for PBIHA were evaluated from a questionnaire survey of referring practices to obtain more detailed follow-up on cases diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The prevalence rate of PBIHA was 4.2%, and the condition occurred in dogs treated with standard therapeutic doses often within the first three months after starting treatment. Serial haematological evaluations should be therefore considered from the beginning of phenobarbitone therapy to allow early diagnosis and treatment of PBIHA.

  3. Artificial Blood for Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Kureishi, Moeka; Akiyama, Motofusa; Kihira, Kiyohito; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no blood bank for pet animals. Consequently, veterinarians themselves must obtain “blood” for transfusion therapy. Among the blood components, serum albumin and red blood cells (RBCs) are particularly important to save lives. This paper reports the synthesis, structure, and properties of artificial blood for the exclusive use of dogs. First, recombinant canine serum albumin (rCSA) was produced using genetic engineering with Pichia yeast. The proteins showed identical features to those of the native CSA derived from canine plasma. Furthermore, we ascertained the crystal structure of rCSA at 3.2 Å resolution. Pure rCSA can be used widely for numerous clinical and pharmaceutical applications. Second, hemoglobin wrapped covalently with rCSA, hemoglobin–albumin cluster (Hb-rCSA3), was synthesized as an artificial O2-carrier for the RBC substitute. This cluster possesses satisfactorily negative surface net charge (pI = 4.7), which supports enfolding of the Hb core by rCSA shells. The anti-CSA antibody recognized the rCSA exterior quantitatively. The O2-binding affinity was high (P50 = 9 Torr) compared to that of the native Hb. The Hb-rCSA3 cluster is anticipated for use as an alternative material for RBC transfusion, and as an O2 therapeutic reagent that can be exploited in various veterinary medicine situations. PMID:27830776

  4. Assessment of eosinophil peroxidase as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Bastan, Idil; Robinson, Nicholas A; Ge, Xiao Na; Rendahl, Aaron K; Rao, Savita P; Washabau, Robert J; Sriramarao, P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate a method for identifying intact and degranulated eosinophils in the small intestine of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by use of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against eosinophil peroxidase (EPX). ANIMALS 11 untreated dogs with IBD, 5 dogs with IBD treated with prednisolone, and 8 control dogs with no clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease and no immunosuppressive treatment. PROCEDURES 4-μm-thick sections of paraffin-embedded tissues from necropsy specimens were immunostained with EPX mAb. Stained intact and degranulated eosinophils in consecutive microscopic fields (400X magnification) of the upper (villus tips) and lower (between the muscularis mucosae and crypts) regions of the lamina propria of the jejunum were manually counted. RESULTS Compared with control and treated IBD dogs, untreated IBD dogs had a significantly higher number of degranulated eosinophils in the lower region of the lamina propria. However, no significant differences were detected in the number of intact eosinophils in this region among groups. In the upper region of the lamina propria, untreated IBD dogs had a significantly higher number of degranulated and intact eosinophils, compared with control and treated IBD dogs. Number of degranulated and intact eosinophils did not differ significantly between control and treated IBD dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Immunohistologic analysis with EPX mAb yielded prominent granule staining that allowed reliable morphological identification of degranulated and intact eosinophils, which may provide a strategy for quantitative and selective evaluation of eosinophils in gastrointestinal biopsy specimens and a potential method to diagnose IBD and evaluate treatment outcome.

  5. Internet resources cataloguing inherited disorders in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Crook, Alice; Sargan, David R

    2011-08-01

    Up-to-date annotated catalogues of known inherited disorders in dogs are freely available on the Internet, providing vital information to existing and prospective dog owners, dog breeders, veterinarians, geneticists and others interested in the occurrence and control of inherited disorders. These resources are the Canine Inherited Disorders Database (CIDD), Inherited Diseases in Dogs (IDID) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) the latter associated with Listing of Inherited Disorders in Animals (LIDA). The history and features of these resources are summarised.

  6. Orthopedic problems in geriatric dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Beale, Brian S

    2005-05-01

    Senior dogs and cats with orthopedic injuries and diseases often require a treatment plan that differs from that of younger patients. Injured bone and soft tissues tend to heal more slowly in the geriatric patient. The older animal is likely to have a less competent immune system and may have compromised metabolic and endocrine function. Pre-existing musculoskeletal problems may make ambulation difficult for an animal convalescing from a new orthopedic problem. Special attention is often needed when treating these patients for fractures, joint instability, infection, and neoplasia. In general, issues that should be addressed in the geriatric patient include reducing intraoperative and anesthesia time, enhancing bone and soft tissue healing, return to early function, control of postoperative pain, physical therapy, and proper nutrition.

  7. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  8. Selective renal vasodilation and active renal artery perfusion improve renal function in dogs with acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, K; Shimizu, J; Yi, G H; Gu, A; Wang, J; Keren, G; Burkhoff, D

    2001-09-01

    Renal failure is common in heart failure due to renovascular constriction and hypotension. We tested whether selective pharmacological renal artery vasodilation and active renal artery perfusion (ARP) could improve renal function without adverse effects on systemic blood pressure in a canine model of acute heart failure (AHF). AHF was induced by coronary microembolization in 16 adult mongrel dogs. In five dogs, selective intrarenal (IR) papaverine (1, 2, and 4 mg/min) was administered into the left renal artery. In six dogs, ARP was performed in the left renal artery to normalize mean renal arterial pressure followed by administration of IR papaverine (2 mg/min). In five dogs, ARP plus intravenous furosemide was tested. Urine output (UO) and cortical renal blood flow decreased during AHF and were restored by 2 mg/min IR papaverine (UO: baseline 4.2 +/- 0.6, AHF 1.6 +/- 1.3, IR papaverine 5.8 +/- 1.1 ml/15 min; cortical blood flow: baseline 4.3 +/- 0.2, AHF 2.4 +/- 0.6, IR papaverine 4.2 +/- 1.2 ml/min/g) with no significant change in aortic pressure. ARP also increased urine output and cortical renal blood flow (UO: baseline 5.0 +/- 1.1, AHF 0.5 +/- 0.4, ARP 3.8 +/- 3.1 ml/15 min; cortical blood flow: baseline 4.0 +/- 0.5, AHF 2.0 +/- 0.8, ARP 3.52 +/- 1.1 ml/min/g). A combination of these methods in AHF further increased urine output to twice the normal baseline (10.5 +/- 7.5 ml/15 min). Addition of furosemide synergistically increased UO above that achieved with ARP alone (5.5 +/- 2.6 versus 40.3 +/- 24.7 ml/15 min, p = 0.03). In conclusion, ARP and selective renal vasodilation may effectively promote salt and water excretion in the setting of heart failure, particularly when systemic blood pressure is low.

  9. Perceptions and treatment seeking behavior for dog bites in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rumana, R; Sayeed, A A; Basher, A; Islam, Z; Rahman, M R; Faiz, M A

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dog bites among residents of a rural community in Bangladesh from September 2006 to February 2007 using face to face interviews with 1,973 adults from five villages. The mean age of the respondents was 34+/-16 years. Sixty-eight percent of subjects were female, 7.3% of respondents reported a history of dog bite in a family member; 10% had been bitten twice. Sixty-five percent of subjects were aware of rabies and 99.1% knew a dog bite was the cause of rabies. Seventy-one percent of subjects were aware of a rabies vaccine, 77.5% of respondents stated rabies can cause death. Ninty percent of dog bite victims received treatment by traditional healers, 25% were treated with a rabies vaccine and 2.1% of victims died. Greater awareness is needed in rural Bangladesh regarding prevention of rabies.

  10. Ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior in a dog: keratotomy and extraction of a Cuterebra sp. larva.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Michele L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Kern, Thomas J; Bowman, Dwight D; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    A 1-year-old female spayed mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of acute onset of lethargy and blepharospasm OD. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a segmented larva embedded in the inferonasal iris. Moderate anterior uveitis was present. After pharmacologic dilation, mild vitreal hemorrhage and chorioretinal migration tracks were identified. The dog was treated empirically for uveitis for 5 days, after which a keratotomy and larval foreign body extraction was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully from intraocular surgery and remained visual and comfortable. Parasite evaluation confirmed the larva to be a Cuterebra sp. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of canine ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior, and the first report of successful surgical removal from the anterior segment in a dog with preservation of vision.

  11. Dogs as pets, visitors, therapists and assistants.

    PubMed

    Winkle, Melissa Y; Wilder, Anna; Jackson, Liberty Z

    2014-01-01

    Dogs can play an integral role in the recovery of patients through companionship, animal-assisted therapy, and as assistance dogs. This article will define and differentiate these 3 categories and provide resources for home healthcare and hospice clinicians who may want to include dogs in the plan of care for select patients.

  12. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  13. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  14. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  15. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  16. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  17. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  18. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  19. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  20. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  1. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  2. Chronic mesenteric volvulus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Spevakow, Andrea B.; Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Carr, Anthony P.; Linn, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus. PMID:20357947

  3. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  4. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    PubMed

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners.

  5. Taeniasis in non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, Tanzania: Prevalence and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Swai, Emmanuel S; Miran, Miran B; Kasuku, Ayubu A; Nzalawahe, Jahashi

    2016-05-24

    The prevalence of taeniasis was determined during the period January to April 2013 in a cross-sectional study of non-descript domestic dogs from the livestock-wildlife ecosystem of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Taeniid eggs were determined by screening faecal samples using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Predisposing factors for dog infection were assessed in relation to demographic, husbandry and management data. Of the 205 faecal samples screened, 150 (73.2%) were positive for taeniid eggs. The prevalence of dogs harbouring taeniid eggs was 80%, 30.2% and 75.3% in the less than 1 year, 1-3 years and greater than 3 years of age groups, respectively. Age group and sex prevalence in dogs did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), although the females showed a marginally higher prevalence (73.8%) in comparison to the males (72.7%). Taeniid eggs were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of dogs located in Waso (80.6%) and Endulen (75%) than in Malambo (63.2%, P < 0.05). The study revealed that dogs owned and raised by agro-pastoralists were at a lower risk of acquiring Taenia spp. infection (P = 0.001) than those that were raised by pastoralists. The majority of dog owners were not aware of the predisposing factors and the mode of transmission of taeniids. Dogs were frequently fed on viscera, trimmings and the heads of slaughtered animals, and they were not treated for parasitic infections. The findings of this study indicate that taeniasis is prevalent among non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, underscoring the need for further research and active surveillance to better understand the transmission cycle of Taenia spp. in a wider geographical area in Tanzania.

  6. Does affective information influence domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) point-following behavior?

    PubMed

    Flom, Ross; Gartman, Peggy

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have examined dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) comprehension and use of human communicative cues. Relatively few studies have, however, examined the effects of human affective behavior (i.e., facial and vocal expressions) on dogs' exploratory and point-following behavior. In two experiments, we examined dogs' frequency of following an adult's pointing gesture in locating a hidden reward or treat when it occurred silently, or when it was paired with a positive or negative facial and vocal affective expression. Like prior studies, the current results demonstrate that dogs reliably follow human pointing cues. Unlike prior studies, the current results also demonstrate that the addition of a positive affective facial and vocal expression, when paired with a pointing gesture, did not reliably increase dogs' frequency of locating a hidden piece of food compared to pointing alone. In addition, and within the negative facial and vocal affect conditions of Experiment 1 and 2, dogs were delayed in their exploration, or approach, toward a baited or sham-baited bowl. However, in Experiment 2, dogs continued to follow an adult's pointing gesture, even when paired with a negative expression, as long as the attention-directing gesture referenced a baited bowl. Together these results suggest that the addition of affective information does not significantly increase or decrease dogs' point-following behavior. Rather these results demonstrate that the presence or absence of affective expressions influences a dogs' exploratory behavior and the presence or absence of reward affects whether they will follow an unfamiliar adult's attention-directing gesture.

  7. Acute effects of intravenous dronedarone on electrocardiograms, hemodynamics and cardiac functions in anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Saengklub, Nakkawee; Limprasutr, Vudhiporn; Sawangkoon, Suwanakiet; Buranakarl, Chollada; Hamlin, Robert L; Kijtawornrat, Anusak

    2016-02-01

    Dronedarone is a class III antiarrhythmic that has been used for management of atrial fibrillation in humans, but limited information was found in dogs. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of escalating concentrations of dronedarone on electrocardiograms (ECG), hemodynamics and cardiac mechanics in healthy dogs. A total of 7 beagle dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and instrumented to obtain lead II ECG, pressures at ascending aorta, right atrium, pulmonary artery and left ventricle, and left ventricular pressure-volume relationship. Five dogs were given vehicle and followed by escalating doses of dronedarone (0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, 15 min for each dose), and two dogs were used as a vehicle-treated control. All parameters were measured at 15 min after the end of each dose. The results showed that all parameters in vehicle-treated dogs were unaltered. Dronedarone at 2.5 mg/kg significantly lengthened PQ interval (P<0.01), reduced cardiac output (P<0.01) and increased systemic vascular resistance (P<0.01). Dronedarone produced negative inotropy assessed by significantly lowered end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, preload recruitable stroke work, contractility index and dP/dtmax. It also impaired diastolic function by significantly increased end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship, tau and dP/dtmin. These results suggested that acute effects of dronedarone produced negative dromotropy, inotropy and lusitropy in anesthetized dogs. Care should be taken when given dronedarone to dogs, especially when the patients have impaired cardiac function.

  8. The efficacy of a topically applied combination of cyphenothrin and pyriproxyfen against the southern African yellow dog tick, Haemaphysalis elliptica, and the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, on dogs.

    PubMed

    Fourie, J J; Fourie, L J; Horak, I G; Snyman, M G

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic and residual efficacy of a topically applied combination of cyphenothrin (40%) and pyriproxyfen (2%) against the tick Haemaphysalis elliptica and the flea Ctenocephalides felis on dogs. Twelve dogs were infested with 50 ticks 2 days before they were treated and with approximately 100 fleas 6 days before treatment and again 2 days before treatment and with 50 ticks and approximately 100 fleas at weekly intervals thereafter. They were ranked according to their flea counts and sex 5 days before treatment and randomly allocated to an untreated control group of 6 dogs and a treated group of 6 dogs. Ticks and fleas were collected from the dogs 48 h after treatment and 48 h after each infestation and live and dead ticks and live fleas were counted. The counts of ticks and fleas were transformed to geometric means, and efficacy was calculated by comparing these means. The product had a therapeutic efficacy of 83.1% against H. elliptica and 97.5% against C. felis 2 days after treatment. The residual period of protection during which efficacy was > or = 90% was 5 weeks for both H. elliptica and C. felis.

  9. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis.

  10. ENCHONDROMATOSIS IN AN ADULT DOG.

    PubMed

    Movilla, Rebeca; Dominguez, Elisabet; Novellas, Rosa; Martinez, Jorge; Mesa, Ignacio; Roura, Xavier

    2017-02-24

    A 7-year-old crossbreed dog presented for lameness with diffuse soft tissue swelling in the right fore limb. Radiographs identified increased opacity of medullary cavity involving the radius and ulna. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed mineral attenuation in the medullary cavity of multiple bones. Histopathology of the right distal tibia showed a fibrocartilaginous matrix occupying intertrabecular spaces. The final diagnosis was enchondromatosis. Long-term favorable progression of the dog's clinical condition further supported the benign histopathologic classification. This is the fifth case of canine enchondromatosis reported so far and the first documentation of further characterization with CT.

  11. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and treatment of intestinal nematode infections in dogs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brad; Schnitzler, Beate; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2015-01-15

    Two separate randomised, blinded, multicentre field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) (Trifexis(®), Elanco Animal Health) in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and intestinal nematode infections in European dogs. Treatments using Trifexis(®) and each control veterinary product (CVP) were administered once on Day 0 in both field studies. In the flea field trial, 11 veterinary clinics in France participated in the study. On Day 0, whole body flea comb counts were conducted on all dogs being evaluated for enrolment. Dogs with ≥7 fleas on Day 0 were enrolled, treated once on Day 0 with spinosad/MO or the CVP (Stronghold(®); selamectin) and then underwent post-treatment flea counts on Days 14 and 30. There were 150 spinosad/MO treated dogs and 71 CVP treated dogs included in the flea effectiveness population. Effectiveness against fleas (% reduction in geometric means; GM) was 98.97% and 97.37% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs, and 97.43% and 93.96% for the CVP dogs on Days 14 and 30, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment baseline flea counts. Of the spinosad/MO dogs, 89.3% and 80.0% had no live fleas on Days 14 and 30, compared to 77.5% and 70.4% of the CVP dogs, respectively. In the nematode field trial, data from 10 veterinary clinics in France and 19 in Ireland were pooled. Faecal samples from dogs at each clinic were analysed. A positive result at screening (parasite eggs from Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum) allowed for enrolment. Dogs were randomised to spinosad/MO or the CVP (Milbemax(®); MO/praziquantel). On Day 8, a post-treatment faecal sample was taken and analysed. Of 2333 dogs screened for nematode eggs, 238 dogs were positive with one or more of these nematodes, and 229 were enrolled in the study. Of the 229 dogs, 151 were treated with a single dose of spinosad/MO, and 77 were treated with

  12. Terbinafine pharmacokinetics after single dose oral administration in the dog.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mary R; May, Elizabeth R; Imerman, Paula M; Felz, Charles; Day, Timothy A; Carlson, Steve A; Noxon, James O

    2011-12-01

    Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal prescribed for the treatment of mycoses in humans. It is increasingly being used in veterinary patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of terbinafine in dogs after a single oral dose. Ten healthy adult dogs were included in the study. A single dose of terbinafine (30-35 mg/kg) was administered orally, and blood samples were periodically collected over a 24 h period during which dogs were monitored for adverse effects. Two of 10 dogs developed transient ocular changes. A high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed and used to determine plasma terbinafine concentrations. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using PK Solutions(®) computer software. Area under the curve (AUC) from time 0 to 24 h was 15.4 μg·h/mL (range 5-27), maximal plasma concentration (C(max) ) was 3.5 μg/mL (range 3-4.9 μg/mL) and time to C(max) (T(max) ) was 3.6 h (range 2-6 h). The time above minimal inhibitory concentration (T > MIC) as well as AUC/MIC was calculated for important invasive fungal pathogens and dermatophytes. The T > MIC was 17-18 h for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), while the MIC for Sporothrix schenckii and Coccidioides immitis was exceeded for 9.5-11 h. The AUC/MIC values ranged from 9 to 13 μg h/mL for these fungi. Our results provide evidence supporting the use of terbinafine as an oral therapeutic agent for treating systemic and subcutaneous mycoses in dogs.

  13. Volumetric assessment of cerebral asymmetries in dogs.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Franchini, Delia; Pepe, Anna M; Sasso, Raffaella; Dimatteo, Salvatore; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Quaranta, Angelo

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we quantified volumetric brain asymmetries from computed tomography (CT) scans in 12 healthy dogs, using a semi-automated technique for assessing in vivo structure asymmetry. Volumetric assessment of asymmetrical cerebral lateral ventricle (ALV) was also investigated. Our results showed that seven dogs exhibited a right hemisphere significantly greater than the left, two dogs had a left-greater-than-right hemisphere asymmetry, and finally two dogs displayed no significant brain volumetric asymmetry. This right-biased hemispheric asymmetry supports data reported previously using post-mortem morphological studies in both dogs and other mammalian species.

  14. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  15. Cephalic index and perceived dog trainability.

    PubMed

    Helton, William S

    2009-11-01

    People rank breeds of dogs for trainability despite a lack of evidence of breed differences in underlying behaviour. Instead of using behavioural information, people may use dog morphology to determine the trainability of breeds. Dogs are categorized as dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, or brachycephalic based on cephalic index, a ratio between skull width and length. Dolichocephalic breeds are anatomically more specialized for running and brachycephalic breeds are more specialized for fighting. Dog breeds rated as highly trainable are instead mesocephalic, morphological generalists. Looking trainable in dogs may reflect differences in physical morphology.

  16. AAV-mediated Gene Therapy Halts Retinal Degeneration in PDE6β-deficient Dogs.

    PubMed

    Pichard, Virginie; Provost, Nathalie; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Libeau, Lyse; Hulin, Philippe; Tshilenge, Kizito-Tshitoko; Biget, Marine; Ameline, Baptiste; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Weber, Michel; Le Meur, Guylène; Colle, Marie-Anne; Moullier, Philippe; Rolling, Fabienne

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that subretinal injection of AAV2/5 RK.cpde6β allowed long-term preservation of photoreceptor function and vision in the rod-cone dysplasia type 1 (rcd1) dog, a large animal model of naturally occurring PDE6β deficiency. The present study builds on these earlier findings to provide a detailed assessment of the long-term effects of gene therapy on the spatiotemporal pattern of retinal degeneration in rcd1 dogs treated at 20 days of age. We analyzed the density distribution of the retinal layers and of particular photoreceptor cells in 3.5-year-old treated and untreated rcd1 dogs. Whereas no rods were observed outside the bleb or in untreated eyes, gene transfer halted rod degeneration in all vector-exposed regions. Moreover, while gene therapy resulted in the preservation of cones, glial cells and both the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers, no cells remained in vector-unexposed retinas, except in the visual streak. Finally, the retinal structure of treated 3.5-year-old rcd1 dogs was identical to that of unaffected 4-month-old rcd1 dogs, indicating near complete preservation. Our findings indicate that gene therapy arrests the degenerative process even if intervention is initiated after the onset of photoreceptor degeneration, and point to significant potential of this therapeutic approach in future clinical trials.

  17. Treatment of wobbler syndrome in dogs with electroacupuncture.

    PubMed

    Sumano, H; Bermudez, E; Obregon, K

    2000-06-01

    Based on favorable experiences with acupuncture for the treatment of hind limbs paralysis, lumbo-sacral alterations, and other spinal cord problems; a clinical trial, involving 40 dogs affected with wobbler syndrome was carried out. Patients were graded in three categories according to the severity of each case and then randomly divided in two groups. Both groups contained all three grades. Group 1 (20 dogs) was treated using orthodox medical and surgical interventions, while Group 2 (20 dogs) were treated mainly with electroacupuncture, and in few cases with surgical intervention as well. The study was carried out in a three-year period. Acupuncture treatments were given every other day delivering 150 to 300 mVolts at 125 Hz, equivalents to approximately 20 microAmps, in ten acupuncture points per treatment. Deep needle insertion was used. Overall per cent success in Group I was only 20%, while in group II the corresponding value was 85%. The number of acupuncture treatments required to achieve full recovery in Group II was dependent upon the severity of the case, as follows: Grade I: 18.5 +/- 2.5; Grade II: 25 +/- 5.4; and Grade III: 34 +/- 6.7 (r = 0.962). No adverse effects were observed with acupuncture. The use of this technique is proposed for large-scale clinical trials.

  18. Comparative efficacy of two oral treatments for dogs containing either afoxolaner or fluralaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lenaïg

    2015-04-15

    The present study compares the efficacy of two recent oral ectoparasiticides containing isoxazolines (NexGard(®), containing afoxolaner and administered at a monthly regimen, and Bravecto™ containing fluralaner and administered at a tri-monthly regimen) against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks on dogs. 24 dogs were randomly allocated to untreated control, NexGard(®) treated, and Bravecto™ treated groups. The treatments were administered on Days 0, 28 and 56 for afoxolaner and on Day 0 for fluralaner. Tick infestations were performed weekly with 50 unfed adult ticks per each species on each dog from Days 30 to 84 (with the exception of R. sanguineus on Day 63). Ticks were counted at 24h post-infestation. The dogs from both treated groups had statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus ticks compared to the untreated dogs on all assessment days. Percent efficacy against R. sanguineus ranged from 86.4% to 99.5% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 65.7% to 100% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less R. sanguineus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Day 78. Percent efficacy against D. reticulatus ranged from 85.2% to 99.6% at 24h post-infestation for NexGard(®) and from 63.4% to 99.1% for Bravecto™. Statistically significantly (p<0.05) less D. reticulatus ticks were recorded for NexGard(®) treated dogs compared to Bravecto™ treated dogs on Days 71, 78 and 85.

  19. A Prospective, Randomized, Masked, and Placebo-Controlled Efficacy Study of Intraarticular Allogeneic Adipose Stem Cells for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harman, Robert; Carlson, Kim; Gaynor, Jamie; Gustafson, Scott; Dhupa, Sarit; Clement, Keith; Hoelzler, Michael; McCarthy, Tim; Schwartz, Pamela; Adams, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with a high prevalence in dogs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to treat humans, dogs, and horses with OA. This report describes a prospective, randomized, blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical efficacy study of intraarticular allogeneic adipose stem cells for the treatment of dogs with OA. Health assessments and measurements of pain and activity impairment were performed at baseline and at selected time points through day 60. The primary outcome variable was the owner Client-Specific Outcome Measurement (CSOM) and secondary measures included veterinary pain on manipulation, veterinary global score, and owner global score. The dogs were treated with either a saline placebo or a single dose of allogeneic adipose-derived MSCs in either one or two joints. Seventy-four dogs were statistically analyzed for efficacy outcomes. Success in the primary outcome variable, CSOM, was statistically improved in the treated dogs compared to the placebo dogs (79.2 versus 55.4%, p = 0.029). The veterinary pain on manipulation score (92.8 versus 50.2%, p = 0.017) and the veterinary global score (86.9 versus 30.8%, p = 0.009) were both statistically improved in treated dogs compared to placebo. There was no detected significant difference between treated and placebo dogs in the incidence of adverse events or negative health findings. Allogeneic adipose-derived stem cell treatment was shown to be efficacious compared to placebo. This large study of dogs also provides valuable animal clinical safety and efficacy outcome data to our colleagues developing human stem cell therapy. PMID:27695698

  20. Reduction of ischemic myocardial damage in the dog by lidocaine infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, R. G.; Stewart, G.; Strong, M.; Ruotolo, R.; Lemoie, G.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of lidocaine infusion on the ultrastructural damage induced in cardiac muscle by normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass were assessed in 15 dogs. Six dogs received no medication other than sodium pentobarbital (25 mg/kg, intravenously) while 9 dogs were treated with lidocaine after anesthesia. Lidocaine was given as a 2-mg/kg loading dose 10 minutes prior to ischemic arrest and a 2-mg/min continuous infusion during the entire experimental period. Biopsy samples of the left ventricular apex were taken 15 and 45 minutes after the start of ischemic arrest and 5 minutes after resumption of coronary blood flow. Biopsy samples were also obtained from 4 animals after thoracotomy to serve as controls for experimental procedures. Myocardial ultrastructure in the 4 control animals was comparable to that reported by other investigators. Five of 6 of the nontreated dogs and 8 of 9 lidocaine-treated dogs survived the entire period of ischemia and 5 minutes of coronary reperfusion. However, the extent of ultrastructural damage varied considerably between the two groups. In the experimental dogs receiving no lidocaine, mitochondria were swollen, cristae were absent, the mitochondrial matrix was cleared, and sarcomeres were disrupted. Myelin figures and contraction bands were also observed. None of the surviving lidocaine-treated animals had ultrastructural changes comparable to the worst ones in nontreated dogs. Damage was limited to some swelling of mitochondria with focal clearing of matrix. Most cristae remained intact. There were no myelin figures and few contraction bands. The results suggest that lidocaine protects the integrity of ischemic myocardium. It is suggested that this protection resulted from stabilization of plasma and/or mitochondrial membranes. (Am J Pathol 87:399-414, 1977). Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:851172

  1. The effects of prednisone and azathioprine on circulating immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Rinkardt, N E; Kruth, S A; Kaushik, A

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates serum immunoglobulin (SIg) levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs in response to putative immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and/or azathioprine. The objectives were to quantify SIg levels and lymphocyte subpopulations, including Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8+ and B cells, in normal dogs both before and after the administration of prednisone and/or azathioprine at 2 mg/kg, PO, each. Eighteen beagles were divided into 3 groups of 6 dogs each. Blood samples for radial immunodiffusion assay of IgG, IgM and IgA, complete blood count (CBC)and flow cytometry were collected prior to the administration of any drugs and again after 14 d of azathioprine, prednisone or azathioprine and prednisone. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated using density centrifugation and were incubated with monoclonal antibodies reacting with CD4+, CD8+, Thy-1+ and membrane immunoglobulin. Lymphocyte subsets were quantified using flow cytometry. Azathioprine-treated dogs had no significant changes in SIg levels or lymphocyte subpopulations. Prednisone-treated dogs had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in all SIg levels, all lymphocyte subpopulations and erythrocyte numbers, and had an increase in neutrophil counts. Prednisone and azathioprine-treated dogs had significant (P < 0.05) decreases in serum IgG levels and Thy-1+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subpopulations, with an increase in the CD4:CD8. These dogs also had a significant decrease in erythrocyte number and a significant increase in the monocyte count. These findings suggest that azathioprine and prednisone in combination or prednisone alone may be useful for the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases since decreased circulating T cell levels were demonstrated following treatment. The combination of drugs or azathioprine alone may not be appropriate for treatment of acute or autoantibody-mediated immune disease, because SIg levels were minimally affected by treatment. PMID:9918329

  2. Breed-specific dog-dandruff allergens.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Belin, L; Dreborg, S; Einarsson, R; Påhlman, I

    1988-08-01

    Fifty-one patients with clinical history of dog allergy were skin prick tested with eight individual standardized dog breed-allergen preparations, one mixed breed-allergen preparation (Poodle/Alsatian), dog-serum albumin, and histamine hydrochloride, 1 mg/ml. All extracts were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis with a pool of sera from patients clinically sensitive to dog. The dog-breed extracts contained common antigens/allergens, as well as components represented only in one or two dog-breed extracts. The concentration corresponding 1000 BU/ml varied from 16 to 100 micrograms of protein per milliliter. The sensitivity of skin prick test was 67% to 88% for the various dog breed-allergen preparations, but only 18% for dog-serum albumin. Significant difference between the skin test response to different dog breed-allergen preparations indicating dog breed-specific allergens was obtained in 15% of the patients. There was no significant correlation between skin prick test results and symptoms related to a specific dog breed.

  3. Stray dog population health in Jodhpur, India in the wake of an animal birth control (ABC) program.

    PubMed

    Totton, Sarah C; Wandeler, Alex I; Ribble, Carl S; Rosatte, Rick C; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-02-01

    Our objectives were to (1) estimate the prevalence of various health indices in the stray dog population in Jodhpur, India and (2) determine if there was an association between an animal birth control (ABC) program and the prevalence of these health indices in this population. A prevalence survey of 323 sexually intact stray dogs >3 months caught from the streets of Jodhpur from September to November, 2005 indicated that low body condition score (70%), skin conditions (69%) and tick infestation (68%) were the most common health problems in this population. An observational study of 888 stray dogs on the streets of Jodhpur from March to April, 2006 revealed that sterilized dogs were more likely to have a higher body condition score (BCS) than sexually intact dogs when controlling for age, based on a multinomial regression model. However, sterilized dogs were more likely to have a skin condition than sexually intact dogs, based on a logistic regression model. Our observations of the surgical/kennel facility indicated that an effective tick control program was needed. Additionally, the current parasite control protocol at the kennel/shelter facility was inadequate to treat mange, a contact-transmitted skin disease. This is the first study to evaluate the associations between an ABC program and stray dog health, apart from rabies.

  4. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with L-asparaginase administration in 142 dogs and 68 cats with lymphoid malignancies: 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Mary Kay; Carr, Brittany J.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2016-01-01

    Clinically significant hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to the chemotherapy drug L-asparaginase are reported in humans and dogs, but frequency in small animals is not well-defined. This study retrospectively evaluated the frequency of HSR to L-asparaginase given by IM injection to dogs and cats with lymphoid malignancies. The medical records of all dogs and cats treated with at least 1 dose of L-asparaginase chemotherapy over a 5-year period were reviewed. A total of 370 doses of L-asparaginase were administered to the dogs, with 88 of 142 dogs receiving multiple doses, and 6 dogs experiencing an HSR. A total of 197 doses were administered to the cats, with 33 of 68 cats receiving multiple doses, and no cats experiencing an HSR. Hypersensitivity reactions were documented in 4.2% of dogs, and in association with 1.6% of L-asparaginase doses administered. These results show that HSRs occur uncommonly among dogs and cats, even with repeated dosing. PMID:26834270

  5. Comparison of postoperative phacoemulsification results in dogs with and without diabetes mellitus: 153 cases (1991-1992).

    PubMed

    Bagley, L H; Lavach, J D

    1994-10-15

    Data were collected from the medical records of 123 nondiabetic dogs (182 eyes) and 30 diabetic dogs (57 eyes) in which phacoemulsification surgery was performed. Pre- and postoperative comparisons, including signalment, initial ophthalmic examination findings, surgical variables, and postoperative findings for the short-term follow-up period (mean, 5.75 weeks), between nondiabetic and diabetic dogs revealed that the complication rate was not greater in the diabetic group. Postoperative uveitis was evident with nearly equal frequency (in nondiabetic dogs, 90% or 164 of 182 eyes and in diabetic dogs, 88% or 50 of 57 eyes). In nondiabetic dogs, 1% prednisolone ophthalmic solution and prednisone were administered pre- and postoperatively, and amoxicillin and dichlorphenamide postoperatively. In diabetic dogs, the same treatment regimen, except for treatment with flunixin meglumine IV at surgery and substitution of aspirin for prednisone, was used. When nondiabetic and diabetic dogs were treated according to their respective pre- and postoperative medical regimens, clinical differences in postoperative findings were not apparent.

  6. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with L-asparaginase administration in 142 dogs and 68 cats with lymphoid malignancies: 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Blake, Mary Kay; Carr, Brittany J; Mauldin, Glenna E

    2016-02-01

    Clinically significant hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to the chemotherapy drug L-asparaginase are reported in humans and dogs, but frequency in small animals is not well-defined. This study retrospectively evaluated the frequency of HSR to L-asparaginase given by IM injection to dogs and cats with lymphoid malignancies. The medical records of all dogs and cats treated with at least 1 dose of L-asparaginase chemotherapy over a 5-year period were reviewed. A total of 370 doses of L-asparaginase were administered to the dogs, with 88 of 142 dogs receiving multiple doses, and 6 dogs experiencing an HSR. A total of 197 doses were administered to the cats, with 33 of 68 cats receiving multiple doses, and no cats experiencing an HSR. Hypersensitivity reactions were documented in 4.2% of dogs, and in association with 1.6% of L-asparaginase doses administered. These results show that HSRs occur uncommonly among dogs and cats, even with repeated dosing.

  7. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-09

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being.

  8. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    PubMed Central

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  9. Proteinuria reduction after treatment with miltefosine and allopurinol in dogs naturally infected with leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Perego, and Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in proteinuria in dogs naturally infected with visceral leishmaniasis, following treatment with miltefosine (MLF) and allopurinol. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 40 dogs with leishmaniasis, treated with 2 mg/kg MLF every 24 h PO and 10 mg/kg allopurinol every 12 h for 28 days were reviewed. 20 dogs were included in the study, and clinical staging was performed following guidelines of the Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) Working Group, and dogs were categorized for proteinuria according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) staging system. Clinical score, indirect fluorescent antibody test titer, serum total protein, gamma globulin (IgG), serum creatinine and urea concentration, and urine protein creatinine ratio (UP/C) were recorded at the time of diagnosis before the start of therapy (D0) and at the end of 28 days of therapy (D28). Results: Following the CanL Working Group staging, all 20 dogs were classified as the clinical Stage C (Clinical disease) before and after the cycle of treatment. Before the cycle of therapy, dogs were categorized according to the IRIS staging system, as: 9/20 non-proteinuric (NP), 7/20 borderline proteinuric (BP), and 4/20 proteinuric (P). After treatment, 12/20 dogs were NP, 7/20 were BP, and 1/20 was P. There was a significant change in UP/C values before and after one cycle of treatment with MLF. In detail, after 28 days of therapy, 2 of 9 NP dogs became BP, 3 of the 7 BP dogs became NP, and 2 of the 4 P dogs became NP. Conclusion: This study showed a significant decrease in UP/C values occurred after one cycle of treatment with MLF and allopurinol in dogs naturally affected with CanL. This suggests that MLF does not increase proteinuria, and the use of MLF could be considered for the management of dogs with leishmaniasis, particularly in those with impaired renal function at the time of diagnosis. PMID:27651682

  10. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach.

  11. Generalised peripheral oedema associated with amlodipine therapy in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Creevy, K E; Scuderi, M A; Ellis, A E

    2013-11-01

    This report details two cases of adverse drug reactions to amlodipine. The first case presented with diffuse peripheral oedema and a history of amlodipine therapy. Haematology, clinical chemistry, endocrine testing, thoracic, abdominal and cardiac imaging revealed no cause for oedema. Amlodipine therapy was discontinued and oedema diminished markedly within 72 hours. The second case presented for bilateral retinal detachments secondary to systemic hypertension. Haematology, clinical chemistry, thoracic and abdominal imaging were unremarkable and amlodipine therapy was begun. Within 72 hours, diffuse peripheral oedema developed that was unresponsive to therapy and the dog was euthanised. Veterinarians should be aware of the potential serious adverse events associated with commonly used drugs; severe, diffuse oedema is a possible adverse drug event in dogs treated with amlodipine.

  12. Unicameral bone cyst of the patella in a young dog.

    PubMed

    Petazzoni, M; Briotti, F; Beale, B

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of a solitary unicameral patellar bone cyst in a young dog. A five-month-old, male Dobermann Pinscher dog was referred for a 10-day left hindlimb lameness. A mild swelling of the peripatellar soft tissues of the left patella was detected upon physical examination. Signs of pain were elicited upon direct palpation of the patella. Radiographic examination revealed an oval radiolucency within the medullary cavity at the base of the left patella. Radiographic examination, arthroscopy, and histopathology findings supported the diagnosis of a benign patellar bone cyst. The condition was treated by surgical curettage and autogenous bone graft harvested from the ipsilateral proximal tibia. Clinical signs, including lameness and signs of pain upon deep palpation, disappeared three weeks after surgery. Follow-up re-evaluation five years after surgery revealed no recurrence of the cyst and the patient was asymptomatic.

  13. Hyperthermic treatment of superficial tumors in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Grier, R L; Brewer, W G; Theilen, G H

    1980-08-01

    Local current field radiofrequency hyperthermia was applied to 33 superficial tumors in 11 cats and 5 dogs. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the cat was the most frequent tumor treated. Of 19 SCC in cats, 13 (68%) were reduced completely, combining complete and partial tumor reduction, there was an 89% favorable response to hyperthermia for SCC. A small number of other tumors such as fibrosarcoma in the cat and perianal tumors in the dog were favorably responsive. Local current field hyperthermia (50 C for 30 sec) resulted in destruction of tumor tissue as well as normal tissue. However, tissue destruction did not extend more than 2 or 3 mm from the electrodes. Ulcerative superficial tumors exposed to air rapidly reduced in size, and a dry eschar that developed fell off at 17 to 25 days.

  14. [Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in a dog with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection].

    PubMed

    Kruse, B D; Hartmann, K; Groth, A; Schulz, B; Wehner, A

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old female spayed Epagneul-Breton dog was presented with ecchymoses, but an undisturbed general condition. Clinical examination additionally revealed petechia and a haematoma. Travel history included Italy and Denmark. Laboratory abnormalities were moderate thrombocytopenia, prolonged PT, aPTT and TT, and elevated d-dimers. Initial therapy consisted of plasma transfusions, fluids, doxycycline and famotidine administration. Babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, dirofilariosis or anaplasmosis could not be confirmed. Abdominal ultrasound was unremarkable, while thoracic radiographs showed a bronchointerstitial pattern. Faecal samples collected over 3 days were positive for Angiostrongylus vasorum after examination using the Baermann lungworm test. The A. vasorum infection was successfully treated with fenbendazole, whereupon thrombocytopenia and prolonged coagulation times were resolved. In regions of low prevalence, an infection with A. vasorum should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with coagulation abnormalities. Respiratory signs can be absent with this disease. The patient may have acquired the infection abroad or in Germany.

  15. Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

    2010-12-01

    Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia.

  16. Neurobiology of the aging dog.

    PubMed

    Head, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    Aged canines naturally accumulate several types of neuropathology that may have links to cognitive decline. On a gross level, significant cortical atrophy occurs with age along with an increase in ventricular volume based on magnetic resonance imaging studies. Microscopically, there is evidence of select neuron loss and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of aged dogs, an area critical for intact learning and memory. The cause of neuronal loss and dysfunction may be related to the progressive accumulation of toxic proteins, oxidative damage, cerebrovascular pathology, and changes in gene expression. For example, aged dogs naturally accumulate human-type beta-amyloid peptide, a protein critically involved with the development of Alzheimer's disease in humans. Further, oxidative damage to proteins, DNA/RNA and lipids occurs with age in dogs. Although less well explored in the aged canine brain, neuron loss, and cerebrovascular pathology observed with age are similar to human brain aging and may also be linked to cognitive decline. Interestingly, the prefrontal cortex appears to be particularly vulnerable early in the aging process in dogs and this may be reflected in dysfunction in specific cognitive domains with age.

  17. Training Dogs for Heroin Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The acquisition and maintenance of detection and search task behaviors are accomplished with positive control techniques. The principal controlling reinforcer (consequence) used is food. The dog is permitted to behave freely in the work environment without coercion and with minimal restraint. The conditioned reinforcers are then used to obtain the fundamental skills, and odor discrimination. Training procedures are described.

  18. Cricopharyngeal achalasia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Renate M

    2003-12-01

    A 4-month-old, female terrier-poodle cross was presented with a chronic history of dysphagia. Fluoroscopic swallowing studies localized the problem to the upper esophageal sphincter. A diagnosis of cricopharyngeal achalasia was made. After cricopharyngeal and thyropharyngeal myectomy, the dog was able to eat soft food without difficulty.

  19. Selective imitation in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Viranyi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig

    2007-05-15

    The transmission of cultural knowledge requires learners to identify what relevant information to retain and selectively imitate when observing others' skills. Young human infants--without relying on language or theory of mind--already show evidence of this ability. If, for example, in a communicative context, a model demonstrates a head action instead of a more efficient hand action, infants imitate the head action only if the demonstrator had no good reason to do so, suggesting that their imitation is a selective, interpretative process [1]. Early sensitivity to ostensive-communicative cues and to the efficiency of goal-directed actions is thought to be a crucial prerequisite for such relevance-guided selective imitation [2]. Although this competence is thought to be human specific [2], here we show an analog capacity in the dog. In our experiment, subjects watched a demonstrator dog pulling a rod with the paw instead of the preferred mouth action. In the first group, using the "inefficient" action was justified by the model's carrying of a ball in her mouth, whereas in the second group, no constraints could explain the demonstrator's choice. In the first trial after observation, dogs imitated the nonpreferred action only in the second group. Consequently, dogs, like children, demonstrated inferential selective imitation.

  20. Efficacy of cobalt-60 radiation therapy for the treatment of nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma in the dog.

    PubMed

    Correa, Stephanie Shank; Mauldin, G Neal; Mauldin, Glenna E; Patnaik, Amiya K

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of cobalt-60 radiotherapy in the treatment of nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity in dogs and to compare this treatment group to historical controls. Six dogs with histopathologically confirmed nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma were treated with cobalt-60 radiotherapy to a total dose of either 63 Gy or 54 Gy. Overall survival times ranged from 30 days to 330 days, with a median survival time of 165 days. Nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma in the dog is an aggressive tumor that responds poorly to radiotherapy.

  1. Development and evaluation of a protocol for control of Giardia duodenalis in a colony of group-housed dogs at a veterinary medical college.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Meriam N; Gilley, Alexandra D; Byrnes, Meghan K; Zajac, Anne M

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a protocol for control of Giardia duodenalis in naturally infected group-housed dogs at a veterinary medical college. DESIGN Prospective evaluation study. ANIMALS 34 dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs were tested for evidence of G duodenalis infection. Dogs were treated with fenbendazole on study days 1 through 10. On day 5, dogs were bathed and moved into clean, disinfected kennels in a different room to allow for disinfection and drying of their assigned kennels at 26.7°C (80°F) for 24 hours on day 6. After treatment, dogs were returned to their original housing; fecal samples were collected weekly from days 8 through 41 and then every 3 weeks until day 209. Samples were fixed in formalin and examined by direct immunofluorescence assay. Additionally, 1 pretreatment sample underwent PCR assay and DNA sequencing to determine the assemblage (genotype) of the organism. Normal handling routines for the dogs and their use in teaching activities were not changed. RESULTS Initially, all dogs in the colony shed G duodenalis cysts. During and immediately after treatment (days 8 and 13), no cysts were detected in any dogs. On day 20, 1 cyst was observed in the fecal sample from 1 dog; results for all subsequent fecal analyses were negative. The G duodenalis cysts collected from the pretreatment sample had an assemblage C genotype. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The integrated protocol was successful in controlling G duodenalis infection in this dog colony, despite exposure of dogs to a variety of environments and frequent handling by multiple individuals. Sequence analysis identified an assemblage typically found in dogs but not in people, indicating that zoonotic transmission would be unlikely.

  2. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Dogs With Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maura K. W.; Barros, Michele A.; Martins, João Flávio P.; Vasconcellos, Jose Paulo C.; Morais, Bruna P.; Pompeia, Celine; Bittencourt, Matheus Domingues; Evangelho, Karine dos Santos; Kerkis, Irina; Wenceslau, Cristiane V.

    2016-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a dysfunction in tear production associated with clinical signs, which include conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge, discomfort, pain, and, eventually, corneal vascularization and pigmentation. Immunosuppressive drugs are routinely administrated for long periods to treat KCS but with side effects and limited results. Evaluation of the clinical benefits of intralacrimal transplantation of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in dogs with mild–moderate and severe KCS was done. A total of 24 eyes with KCS from 15 dogs of different breeds were enrolled in the present study. A single transplantation of MSCs (1 × 106) directly into lacrimal glands (dorsal and third eyelid) was performed. The Schirmer tear tests (STTs) and ocular surface improvements were used to assess short- and long-term effects of these cells. The STTs were carried out on day 0 (before MSCs transplantation) and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, as well as 6 and 12 months after MSC transplantation. Our data demonstrate that allogeneic MSC transplantation in KCS dogs is safe since no adverse effects were observed immediately after transplantation and in short- and long-term follow-ups. A statistically significant increase in the STT and ocular surface improvements was found in all eyes studied. In all the eyes with mild–moderate KCS, STT values reverted to those of healthy eyes, while in eyes with severe KCS, although complete reversion was not found, there was improvement in tear production and in other clinical signs. Our study shows that a single dose of a low number of MSCs can be used to treat KCS in dogs. In contrast to immunosuppressive drug use, MSC transplantation has an effect over a long period (up to 12 months), even after a single administration, and does not require daily drug administration. PMID:28003932

  3. Successful treatment of intracardiac and intraocular blastomycosis in a dog with combination azole therapy.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Daniel K; Pelosi, Augusta; Kruger, John M

    2013-01-01

    A 4 yr old spayed female Labrador retriever with clinical signs of blindness, cutaneous lesions, coughing, inappetence, and lethargy was diagnosed with disseminated blastomycosis based on cytologic (skin and lymph node aspirates) and histopathologic (skin biopsy) examinations of tissue samples. The dog deteriorated clinically during hospitalization and developed sustained ventricular tachycardia. Echocardiography revealed pericardial effusion, a nodule associated with the left ventricular papillary muscle, and a right atrial mural lesion. Therapy for myocardial performance and glaucoma was initiated. A combination of itraconazole and fluconazole successfully treated the dog. The dog regained vision in the left eye (oculus sinister [OS]) and had no residual cardiac disease detectable by either electrocardiography or echocardiography. This report is unique in documenting survival from intracardiac blastomycosis and in the use of combination azole therapy for treating disseminated disease with intraocular involvement.

  4. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  5. Mesenteric thrombus associated with pulmonary, splenic, portal, and caval thrombi in a dog that was presented for an acute abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Rudinsky, Adam Joseph; Parker, Valerie Jill; Guillaumin, Julien

    2016-01-01

    A 6-year-old Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute abdominal pain. A tentative diagnosis of mesenteric thrombosis was established antemortem. The dog was treated with supportive care and anti-coagulation but was ultimately euthanized due to disease-related complications. Necropsy examination confirmed an acute mesenteric thrombus along with widespread thromboembolic disease. Potential causes were protein-losing nephropathy, hepatopathy, and/or corticosteroid administration. PMID:27708446

  6. Retrospective study of the clinical effects of acupuncture on cervical neurological diseases in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ching Ming; Chang, Fang Chia

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate new acupuncture protocols for the clinical treatment of cervical spinal cord diseases in 19 dogs. Three treatment options containing Jing-jiaji (cervical jiaji) were developed to treat neck pain, hemiparesis, and tetraparesis depending on the severity. The interval between the neurological disease onset and treatment (duration of signs), time to improvement after treatment, and recovery time were compared in dogs by body weight, age, and dry needle acupuncture (AP) with or without electro-AP (EAP). The duration of signs was longer in dogs weighing greater than 10 kg than in those weighing less than 10 kg (p < 0.05). Improvement and recovery times did not vary by body weight. Additionally, improvement and recovery times did not vary by age. The improvement and recovery times were longer in the AP+EAP group than the AP group (p < 0.05). Acupuncture with Jing-jiaji was effective in cervical spinal cord diseases in different sized dogs and in middle-aged and senior dogs. This report standardized AP treatment containing Jing-jiaji for canine cervical problems and evaluated its effects. The newly standardized AP methodology offers clinical practitioners an effective way to improve the outcomes of cervical neurological diseases in dogs. PMID:26645331

  7. Development of an autologous canine cancer vaccine system for resectable malignant tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yannelli, J R; Wouda, R; Masterson, T J; Avdiushko, M G; Cohen, D A

    2016-12-01

    While conventional therapies exist for canine cancer, immunotherapies need to be further explored and applied to the canine setting. We have developed an autologous cancer vaccine (K9-ACV), which is available for all dogs with resectable disease. K9-ACV was evaluated for safety and immunogenicity for a variety of cancer types in a cohort of companion dogs under veterinary care. The autologous vaccine was prepared by enzymatic digestion of solid tumor biopsies. The resultant single cell suspensions were then UV-irradiated resulting in immunogenic cell death of the tumor cells. Following sterility and endotoxin testing, the tumor cells were admixed with CpG ODN adjuvant and shipped to the participating veterinary clinics. The treating veterinarians then vaccinated each patient with three intradermal injections (10 million cells per dose) at 30-day intervals (one prime and two boost injections). In a cohort of 20 dogs completing the study, 17 dogs (85%) developed an augmented IgG response to autologous tumor antigens as demonstrated using western blot analysis of pre- and post-peripheral blood samples. We also report several dogs have lived beyond expected survival time based on previously published data. In summary, K9-ACV is an additional option to be considered for the treatment of dogs with resectable cancer.

  8. Telomerase and HER-2/neu as targets of genetic cancer vaccines in dogs.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, Daniela; Mesiti, Giuseppe; Ciliberto, Gennaro; La Monica, Nicola; Aurisicchio, Luigi

    2010-02-03

    Pet dogs represent a valuable pre-clinical model to assess the efficacy of oncology drugs. Additionally, canine cancers occur with an incidence similar to that of humans and share many features with human malignancies including histological appearance, tumor genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional therapies. The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is reactivated in most of human and dog tumors. Similarly, HER-2/neu oncoprotein is overexpressed in a proportion of canine breast cancers. Therefore, TERT and HER-2/neu can constitute valid tumor associated antigens (TAA), suitable targets for translational cancer immunotherapy in dogs. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of DNA electroporation (DNA-EP) and Adenovirus serotype 6 (Ad6) to induce immune responses against dog TERT (dTERT) and HER-2/neu in healthy dogs. Vaccination was effective in all treated animals and the adaptive immune response remained detectable and long-lasting in the absence of autoimmunity or other side-effects. Our results show that DNA-EP/Ad6-based cancer vaccine induces adaptive immune responses against TAA in canine subjects and support further evaluation of this approach in cancer dog patients.

  9. Effects of flunixin meglumine on dogs with experimental gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J R; Lantz, G C; Salisbury, S K; Kazacos, E A; Bottoms, G D

    1992-01-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) was created experimentally and maintained for 90 minutes in 16 anesthetized, mixed-breed dogs. After the GDV was corrected, normal saline solution (0.044 mL/kg intravenously [IV]) was administered to eight dogs (controls), and flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg IV) was administered to eight dogs. Microspheres labeled with radioactive cobalt, scandium, tin, or niobium were injected intravenously at baseline (before GDV) and minutes 90, 100, and 270, respectively, to determine tissue blood flows. Plasma endotoxin and prostacyclin were measured at the same intervals. Electrocardiogram, mean arterial pressure, portal pressure, and cardiac output were recorded continuously. Dogs were euthanatized at minute 270 and necropsied. There was no significant difference between treatment groups for any measured variable at any time. Endotoxin levels increased significantly during GDV. Prostacyclin levels were lower in dogs treated with flunixin meglumine than in controls at minutes 210 and 270. Histopathologic findings were similar for all dogs and consistent with those associated with endotoxemia. Flunixin meglumine treatment did not alter cardiac indices or tissue blood flows significantly. However, elevation of prostacyclin was inhibited by flunixin meglumine, which suggested that continued effects of endotoxic damage might be attenuated or inhibited.

  10. Canine atopic dermatitis: validation of recorded diagnosis against practice records in 335 insured Swedish dogs.

    PubMed

    Nødtvedt, Ane; Bergvall, Kerstin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Egenvall, Agneta

    2006-06-15

    A cross-sectional study of insured Swedish dogs with a recorded diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) was performed. In order to validate the correctness of this specific diagnosis in the insurance database, medical records were requested by mail from the attending veterinarians. All dogs with a reimbursed claim for the disease during 2002 were included in the original study sample (n = 373). Medical records were available for 335 individuals (response rate: 89.8%). By scrutinizing the submitted records it was determined that all dogs had been treated for dermatologic disease, and that 327 (97.6%) could be considered to have some allergic skin disease. However, as information regarding dietary trial testing was missing in many dogs the number that were truly atopic could not be determined. The clinical presentation and nature of test diet for dogs with or without response to dietary trial testing was compared for a subset of 109 individuals that had undergone such testing. The only significant difference between these two groups was that the proportion of dogs with reported gastrointestinal signs was higher in the group that subsequently responded to a diet trial. In conclusion, the agreement between the recorded diagnosis in the insurance database and the clinical manifestations recorded in the submitted medical records was considered acceptable. The concern was raised that many attending veterinarians did not exclude cutaneous adverse food reactions before making the diagnosis of CAD.

  11. Risk factors for treatment-related adverse events in cancer-bearing dogs receiving piroxicam.

    PubMed

    Eichstadt, L R; Moore, G E; Childress, M O

    2016-10-06

    Piroxicam has antitumour effects in dogs with cancer, although side effects may limit its use. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively identify factors predisposing cancer-bearing dogs to adverse events (AEs) following piroxicam therapy. Medical records of dogs presented to the Purdue Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed, and 137 dogs met the criteria for study inclusion. Toxic effects of piroxicam in these dogs were graded according to an established system. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the extent to which certain factors affected the risk for AEs. Age [odds ratio (OR) 1.250, P = 0.009; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.057-1.479] and concurrent use of gastroprotectant medications (OR 2.612, P = 0.025; 95% CI 1.127-6.056) significantly increased the risk for gastrointestinal AEs. The results of this study may help inform the risk versus benefit calculation for clinicians considering the use of piroxicam to treat dogs with cancer.

  12. Coprological study on intestinal helminths in Swiss dogs: temporal aspects of anthelminthic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sager, H; Moret, Ch Steiner; Grimm, F; Deplazes, P; Doherr, M G; Gottstein, B

    2006-03-01

    Coproscopic examination of 505 dogs originating from the western or central part of Switzerland revealed the presence (prevalence data) of the following helminthes: Toxocara canis (7.1%), hookworms (6.9%), Trichuris vulpis (5.5%), Toxascaris leonina (1.3%), Taeniidae (1.3%), Capillaria spp. (0.8%), and Diphyllobothrium latum (0.4%). Potential risk factors for infection were identified by a questionnaire: dogs from rural areas significantly more often had hookworms and taeniid eggs in their feces when compared to urban family dogs. Access to small rodents, offal, and carrion was identified as risk factor for hookworm and Taeniidae, while feeding of fresh and uncooked meat did not result in higher prevalences for these helminths. A group of 111 dogs was treated every 3 months with a combined medication of pyrantel embonate, praziquantel, and febantel, and fecal samples were collected for coproscopy in monthly intervals. Despite treatment, the yearly incidence of T. canis was 32%, while hookworms, T. vulpis, Capillaria spp., and Taeniidae reached incidences ranging from 11 to 22%. Fifty-seven percent of the 111 dogs had helminth eggs in their feces at least once during the 1-year study period. This finding implicates that an infection risk with potential zoonotic pathogens cannot be ruled out for the dog owner despite regular deworming four times a year.

  13. High-dose-rate brachytherapy for intranasal tumours in dogs: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Klueter, S; Krastel, D; Ludewig, E; Reischauer, A; Heinicke, F; Pohlmann, S; Wolf, U; Grevel, V; Hildebrandt, G

    2006-12-01

    This prospective study describes the feasibility and toxicity of (192)Iridium high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as an alternative strategy for the treatment of canine intranasal tumours. Fifteen dogs with malignant intranasal tumours were treated twice weekly using a hypofractionated protocol with eight fractions, 5 Gy per fraction, resulting in a total dose of 40 Gy. Acute and chronic adverse side-effects appeared to be rare. Only 7% of the acute side-effects and 5% of the chronic were classified as severe (grade 3). Eight dogs showed clinical complete remission, and five dogs had partial remission, with a resolution of tumour-related symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a reduced tumour mass in 12 cases. Median survival time was 17 months (range 4-48 months), with four dogs (three without disease) still alive. Median time to recurrence of these dogs was 14 months. In nine dogs, progression or recurrence of the tumour was the cause of death. This study suggests that HDR brachytherapy is feasible and well tolerated.

  14. Comparison of non-selective adrenocorticolysis with mitotane or trilostane for the treatment of dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Clemente, M; De Andrés, P J; Arenas, C; Melián, C; Morales, M; Pérez-Alenza, M D

    2007-12-15

    Forty-six dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism were treated with mitotane by the non-selective adrenocorticolysis protocol and 40 were treated twice a day with trilostane. The treatment groups were compared by chi-squared tests, and survival data were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and a Cox proportional hazard method. The non-selective adrenocorticolysis protocol was very effective (89 per cent), its toxicity was moderate (24 per cent) and there were fewer recurrences (29 per cent) than reported with the classical selective adrenocorticolysis protocol (58 per cent). In a multivariate model, age and bodyweight at diagnosis were significantly negatively correlated with survival time. The median survival time of the dogs treated with trilostane twice a day (900 days) was longer (P=0.05) than that of the dogs treated with mitotane (720 days).

  15. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    PubMed

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes).

  16. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis.

  17. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma or both.

    PubMed

    May, Elizabeth R; Kinyon, Joann M; Noxon, James O

    2012-12-07

    In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus schleiferi was previously assumed to be an inhabitant of carnivore skin, however, more recently, it has been repeatedly documented in the literature as both an inhabitant and as a pathogen. In order to determine the frequency of nasal carriage, and the methicillin susceptibility pattern of S. schleiferi from healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and/or pyoderma, a prospective study including 24 dogs with healthy ears and skin, 27 dogs with healthy ears and pyoderma, 15 dogs with otitis without pyoderma and 20 dogs with both otitis and pyoderma was performed. Specimens were obtained and cultured and isolates were identified as S. schleiferi based on growth and biochemical characteristics. S. schleiferi was isolated from the nares of 1 healthy dog, 3 dogs with recurrent pyoderma, 2 dogs with recurrent otitis, and 1 dog with both recurrent otitis and pyoderma. One of the S. schleiferi isolates was methicillin resistant. Nasal carriage of S. schleiferi does occur in healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and pyoderma. Methicillin resistant and sensitive S. schleiferi can be found in the nares of dogs with diseased ears and skin.

  18. Comparison of cytokine responses between dogs with sepsis and dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Valerie; Burgess, Brandy; Morley, Paul; Bragg, Ryan; Avery, Anne; Dow, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Cytokine abnormalities have been described previously in dogs with varied immune mediated and inflammatory conditions such as IMHA and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to establish references ranges for cytokine levels in dogs and to compare cytokine levels in normal dogs and dogs with two common inflammatory diseases (sepsis and IMHA). We hypothesized that cytokine response profiles in dogs with sepsis would be significantly different from those in dogs with IMHA due to the very different etiologies of the two diseases. Concentrations of 14 different cytokines in serum were measured and values grouped according to cytokine function. Serum from clinically normal dogs was used to establish cytokine concentration reference ranges. Rank values for each of the 4 cytokine groups were then compared statistically between healthy control, septic and IMHA dogs. This analysis revealed differences in cytokine groups between dogs with sepsis and IMHA when compared to healthy control dogs but no difference between dogs with either of these conditions. In conclustion, dogs in the early stage of sepsis and IMHA have similar circulating cytokines despite different etiologies suggesting activation of common immunologic pathways. This may have implications for immunotherapy of immune mediated diseases in dogs of varying etiology.

  19. Effects of administration of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and platelet-rich plasma to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, David A; Renberg, Walter C; Roush, James K; Milliken, George A; Weiss, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of simultaneous intra-articular and IV injection of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints. ANIMALS 22 client-owned dogs (12 placebo-treated [control] dogs and 10 treated dogs). PROCEDURES Dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints that caused signs of lameness or discomfort were characterized on the basis of results of orthopedic examination, goniometry, lameness score, the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), a visual analogue scale, and results obtained by use of a pressure-sensing walkway at week 0 (baseline). Dogs received a simultaneous intraarticular and IV injection of SVF and PRP or a placebo. Dogs were examined again 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. RESULTS CBPI scores were significantly lower for the treatment group at week 24, compared with scores for the control group. Mean visual analogue scale score for the treatment group was significantly higher at week 0 than at weeks 4, 8, or 24. Dogs with baseline peak vertical force (PVF) in the lowest 25th percentile were compared, and the treatment group had a significantly higher PVF than did the control group. After the SVF-PRP injection, fewer dogs in the treated group than in the control group had lameness confirmed during examination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints treated with SVF and PRP, improvements in CBPI and PVF were evident at some time points, compared with results for the control group.

  20. Anaplasma platys in dogs from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luis; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Sosa, Nicolás; Félix, María Laura; Venzal, José Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Anaplasmataceae family members include vector-borne bacteria of veterinary importance that may also affect humans. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the main members of this family detected in dogs worldwide. In Uruguay there are not many published studies on tick-borne pathogens affecting dogs, the only haemoparasite molecularly confirmed in dogs, is the piroplasm Rangelia vitalii. The aim of the present work was to detect the presence of A. platys and E. canis in dogs and dogs-associated ticks of two localities in Northwestern Uruguay. Blood samples from dogs with and without clinical signs associated with vector-borne diseases, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus obtained from these dogs were analyzed by PCR for Anaplasmataceae. Positive dogs were further analyzed by PCR for Ehrlichia spp. and A. platys. All the ticks were found negative. No dog was detected infected with E. canis, while eight dogs (4.2%) were found to be infected with A. platys. Phylogenetic analysis of groESL operon sequence for A. platys revealed no differences with sequences described for A. platys in neighbor countries and from other regions of the world. This is the first report of the presence of A. platys in Uruguay.

  1. The efficacy of Advantix® to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus Johannes; Luus, Herman Gerhardus; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of a topical combination of imidacloprid and permethrin (Advantix(®)) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of six dogs. One group served as controls, whereas the other group was treated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and Day 28 post acaricidal treatment. The adult R. sanguineus ticks were released into the individual kennels of the dogs to simulate natural tick exposure. In situ tick counts were conducted on Day 9, 16 and 23 and any remaining ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of the acaricidal treatment against R. sanguineus ranged between 96.1% and 98.9% at 48 h post-application and lasted up to 4 weeks. Four out of six control dogs became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by the presence of specific E. canis antibodies and the detection by PCR of E. canis DNA in blood samples. These dogs became thrombocytopenic and displayed fever and were consecutively rescue-treated by doxycycline. None of the six treated dogs became infected with E. canis, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of E. canis DNA in blood samples. Advantix(®) prevented transmission of E. canis and provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiosis for 4 weeks post acaricidal treatment.

  2. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  3. Evaluating a Website to Teach Children Safety with Dogs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Li, Peng; McClure, Leslie A.; Severson, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Dog bites represent a significant threat to child health. Theory-driven interventions scalable for broad dissemination are sparse. A website was developed to teach children dog safety via increased knowledge, improved cognitive skills in relevant domains, and increased perception of vulnerability to bites. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 69 children aged 4–5 randomly assigned to use the dog safety website or a control transportation safety website for ~3 weeks. Assessment of dog safety knowledge and behavior plus skill in three relevant cognitive constructs (impulse control, noticing details, and perspective-taking) was conducted both at baseline and following website use. The dog safety website incorporated interactive games, instructional videos including testimonials, a motivational rewards system, and messaging to parents concerning child lessons. Our results showed that about two-thirds of the intervention sample was not adherent to website use at home, so both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted. Intent-to-treat analyses yielded mostly null results. Per-protocol analyses suggested children compliant to the intervention protocol scored higher on knowledge and recognition of safe behavior with dogs following the intervention compared to the control group. Adherent children also had improved scores post-intervention on the cognitive skill of noticing details compared to the control group. We concluded that young children’s immature cognition can lead to dog bites. Interactive eHealth training on websites shows potential to teach children relevant cognitive and safety skills to reduce risk. Compliance to website use is a challenge, and some relevant cognitive skills (e.g., noticing details) may be more amenable to computer-based training than others (e.g., impulse control). PMID:27918466

  4. Evaluating a Website to Teach Children Safety with Dogs: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Li, Peng; McClure, Leslie A; Severson, Joan

    2016-12-02

    Dog bites represent a significant threat to child health. Theory-driven interventions scalable for broad dissemination are sparse. A website was developed to teach children dog safety via increased knowledge, improved cognitive skills in relevant domains, and increased perception of vulnerability to bites. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 69 children aged 4-5 randomly assigned to use the dog safety website or a control transportation safety website for ~3 weeks. Assessment of dog safety knowledge and behavior plus skill in three relevant cognitive constructs (impulse control, noticing details, and perspective-taking) was conducted both at baseline and following website use. The dog safety website incorporated interactive games, instructional videos including testimonials, a motivational rewards system, and messaging to parents concerning child lessons. Our results showed that about two-thirds of the intervention sample was not adherent to website use at home, so both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted. Intent-to-treat analyses yielded mostly null results. Per-protocol analyses suggested children compliant to the intervention protocol scored higher on knowledge and recognition of safe behavior with dogs following the intervention compared to the control group. Adherent children also had improved scores post-intervention on the cognitive skill of noticing details compared to the control group. We concluded that young children's immature cognition can lead to dog bites. Interactive eHealth training on websites shows potential to teach children relevant cognitive and safety skills to reduce risk. Compliance to website use is a challenge, and some relevant cognitive skills (e.g., noticing details) may be more amenable to computer-based training than others (e.g., impulse control).

  5. Intrathecal substance-p saporin in the dog: Efficacy in bone cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Agnello, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance-p saporin (SP-SAP), a chemical conjugate of substance-p and a recombinant version of the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin, when administered intrathecally, acts as a targeted neurotoxin producing selective destruction of superficial neurokinin 1 receptor bearing cells in the spinal dorsal horn. The goal of this project was to provide proof of concept data, that a single intrathecal injection of SP-SAP could safely provide effective pain relief in spontaneous bone cancer pain in companion (pet) dogs. Methods In a single blind, controlled study, 70 companion dogs with bone cancer pain were randomized to standard of care analgesic therapy alone (control, n=35) or intrathecal SP-SAP (20-60μg) in addition to standard of care analgesic therapy (n=35). Activity, pain scores, and videography data was collected at baseline, 2 weeks post randomization, and then monthly until death. Results While the efficacy results at the 2-week post randomization point were equivocal, the outcomes evaluated beyond two weeks revealed a positive effect of SP-SAP on chronic pain management. Significantly more dogs in the control group (74%) required unblinding and adjustment in analgesic protocol or euthanasia within 6 weeks of randomization, than dogs that were treated with SP-SAP (24%; p<0.001); and overall, dogs in the control group required unblinding significantly sooner than dogs that had been treated with SP-SAP (p<0.01). Conclusions Intrathecal SP-SAP administration in dogs with bone cancer produces a time dependent anti-nociceptive effect with no evidence of development of deafferentation pain syndrome that can be seen with neurolytic therapies. PMID:24195949

  6. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

  7. Immunotherapy with the saponin enriched-Leishmune vaccine versus immunochemotherapy in dogs with natural canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Borja-Cabrera, G P; Santos, F N; Santos, F B; Trivellato, Fernando Antonio de A; Kawasaki, Jarbas Kiyoshi A; Costa, Andreia Cerqueira; Castro, Tatiana; Nogueira, F S; Moreira, M A B; Luvizotto, M C R; Palatnik, M; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B

    2010-01-08

    Leishmune, the first licensed vaccine for prophylaxis against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and is also immunotherapeutic when used with double saponin adjuvant concentration. The Leishmune therapeutic vaccine was assessed for immunotherapy (IT) in 31 infected dogs and for immunochemotherapy (ICT) in combination with allopurinol or amphotericinB/allopurinol, in 35 dogs. Compared to infected untreated control dogs, at month 3, both treatments increased the proportion of dogs showing intradermal response to Leishmania antigen to a similar extent (from 8 to 67%, in the IT and to 76%, in the ICT groups), and conversely reduced from 100 to 38% (IT) and to 18% (ICT) the proportion of symptomatic cases, from 54 to 12% (IT) and to 15% (ICT) the proportion of parasite evidence in lymph nodes and from 48 to 19% (IT) and 12% (ICT) the proportion of deaths, indicating that the immunotherapy with enriched-Leishmune vaccine promotes the control of the clinical and parasitological signs of CVL rendering most dogs asymptomatic although PCR positive. By month 8, negative lymph node PCR results were obtained in 80% of the ICT-treated dogs, but only in 33% of the IT group (p=0.0253), suggesting that the combination of additional chemotherapy with Leishmune-enriched saponin vaccination abolished, not only the symptoms but also the latent infection condition, curing the dogs. The animals were followed up until 4.5 years after the beginning of the experiment and, compared to the untreated control group at month 3 (12/25 dogs; 48%), a decrease in the rate of CVL deaths was only seen after ICT treatment (7/35 dogs; 20%; 0.0273) but not after IT treatment (10/31 dogs; 32%; p=0.278), pointing out an additional advantage of the ICT treatment with the enriched-Leishmune in the control and cure of CVL.

  8. Transient cold agglutinins associated with Mycoplasma cynos pneumonia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pinkos, Alyssa C; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Monaghan, Kelly N; Sample, Saundra H; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-12-01

    This report details a case of reversible cold agglutinins in a dog with Mycoplasma cynos pneumonia. An 11-month-old female spayed Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented for lethargy and cough. Thoracic radiographs revealed an alveolar pattern present bilaterally in the cranioventral lung lobes. Septic neutrophilic inflammation with suspected Mycoplasma sp. organisms was noted on cytologic examination of a trans-tracheal wash, and the dog was treated empirically with IV ampicillin/sulbactam and enrofloxacin pending culture results. Red blood cell agglutination was noted unexpectedly on several blood film reviews during hospitalization; however, the dog never developed clinical or laboratory evidence of hemolysis. Cold agglutinins were demonstrated based on the results of a saline dilution and cold agglutinin test that showed agglutination at 4°C but not at room temperature (21°C) or 37°C. Based on a positive culture for M cynos, the dog was treated for 8 weeks with oral enrofloxacin. After clinical and radiographic resolution of the pneumonia, repeated saline dilution and cold agglutinin tests of peripheral blood were negative at all temperatures. Reversible, asymptomatic cold agglutinins are common in human patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, but this is the first reported case in a dog.

  9. Intestinal and lung parasites in owned dogs and cats from central Italy.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Francesca; Mannella, Riccardo; Ariti, Gaetano; Perrucci, Stefania

    2013-03-31

    Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal and lung parasites were investigated in 239 owned dogs and 81 owned cats from central Italy. In 36 dogs and 20 cats found infected by nematodes, pre and post-treatment faecal egg count (FEC) was also evaluated. About 31% of dogs and about 35% of cats resulted positive for at least one intestinal or lung parasitic species. Helminthic, intestinal and zoonotic infections resulted prevalent in examined animals. Examined dogs resulted infected by Toxocara canis (13.0%), Toxascaris leonina (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis (3.3%), Ancylostoma caninum (2.0%), Uncinaria stenocephala (1.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.8%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.4%), Dipylidium caninum (1.25%), Taeniidae eggs (0.4%), Giardia duodenalis (3.8%), and Cystoisospora (Isospora) spp. (7.5%). Examined cats were infected by Toxocara cati (22.2%), Capillaria aerophila (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (1.2%), U. stenocephala (3.7%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (1.2%), Mesocestoides sp. (1.2%), D. caninum (1.2%), G. duodenalis (1.2%) and Cystoisospora spp. (4.5%). The presence of clinical signs and the young age (less than 6 months) were identified as risk factors by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. In 63.9% treated dogs and in 80.0% treated cats, percentages of post-treatment FEC reduction higher than 90% were found. Results obtained in this study are discussed.

  10. Neosporosis in Beagle dogs clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, isolation and genetic characterization of Neospora caninum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical neosporosis was diagnosed in a litter of five pups born to a Beagle bitch from Virginia, USA. Four of the pups developed limb weakness starting at 4 weeks of age. The dogs were suspected to have neosporosis based on clinical signs and empirically treated with Clindamycin (75 mg, oral, twice...

  11. Management of dogs and cats with endotracheal tube tracheal foreign bodies

    PubMed Central

    Nutt, Laura K.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Prosser, Kirsten J.; Defarges, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Two cats and 3 dogs were treated for an endotracheal tube tracheal foreign body (ETFB) during recovery from general anesthesia. Bronchoscopy was used to remove the ETFB. Animals were clinically normal at discharge. While rare, ETFB can occur upon recovery from anesthesia. Bronchoscopy is an effective way to remove ETFB. PMID:24891640

  12. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family.

  13. Application of a Four-dimensional Mathematical Model in the Establishment of an Early Post-burn Cerebral Oedema Model in Severely Burned Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Haitao, L.; Dajun, Y.; Kaifa, W.; Xiuwu, B.; Jiansen, S.; Zongchen, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal development of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA, third degree), using a four-dimensional (4D) mathematical model. Twenty-six male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control and 6, 12, 18, and 24 post-burn hour (PBH) groups. The manifestation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology, changes of brain water content, and intracranial pressure were observed in each group respectively. A 4D mathematical model was established on the basis of the results of MRI scanning. Two turning points (6 and 18 PBH) and three phases of pathological change were displayed by the 4D mathematical model of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn. The first phase was in the subclinical period, and effective treatment should therefore be performed as quickly as possible in order to prevent deterioration of post-burn cerebral oedema. The second phase (6-18 PBH), with pathological characteristics of cytotoxic cerebral oedema, was in the apoptosis period. The third stage (18-24 PBH) was the danger period of cerebral oedema. Intracranial pressure increased rapidly owing to the limitation of the cranial cavity. As a result, cerebral hernia could easily occur. An S-shape curve in the pathological process of cerebral oedema occurred in the early post-burn stage following severe burn. PMID:21990986

  14. Application of a Four-dimensional Mathematical Model in the Establishment of an Early Post-burn Cerebral Oedema Model in Severely Burned Dogs.

    PubMed

    Haitao, L; Dajun, Y; Kaifa, W; Xiuwu, B; Jiansen, S; Zongchen, Y

    2005-06-30

    The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal development of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA, third degree), using a four-dimensional (4D) mathematical model. Twenty-six male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control and 6, 12, 18, and 24 post-burn hour (PBH) groups. The manifestation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology, changes of brain water content, and intracranial pressure were observed in each group respectively. A 4D mathematical model was established on the basis of the results of MRI scanning. Two turning points (6 and 18 PBH) and three phases of pathological change were displayed by the 4D mathematical model of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn. The first phase was in the subclinical period, and effective treatment should therefore be performed as quickly as possible in order to prevent deterioration of post-burn cerebral oedema. The second phase (6-18 PBH), with pathological characteristics of cytotoxic cerebral oedema, was in the apoptosis period. The third stage (18-24 PBH) was the danger period of cerebral oedema. Intracranial pressure increased rapidly owing to the limitation of the cranial cavity. As a result, cerebral hernia could easily occur. An S-shape curve in the pathological process of cerebral oedema occurred in the early post-burn stage following severe burn.

  15. Midge-transmitted bluetongue in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Oura, C A L; El Harrak, M

    2011-09-01

    The role of domestic dogs in the long-distance spread of bluetongue virus (BTV) remains unproven. It is currently known that dogs are capable of being infected with BTV, can mount an antibody response to the virus and in some cases die showing severe clinical signs of disease. Infection of dogs is currently thought to be by oral ingestion of infected meat or meat products rather than through vector feeding. In this study we show that a high percentage of domestic dogs in Morocco (21%) were seropositive for BTV and, as these dogs were fed tinned commercial food only, and had no access to other meat products, the most likely source of infection was through Culicoides midges. This finding increases the chances of dogs being infected with BTV during an outbreak but their role in the onward transmission of BTV remains unproven.

  16. Perineal herniorrhaphy: perioperative data from 100 dogs.

    PubMed

    Hosgood, G; Hedlund, C S; Pechman, R D; Dean, P W

    1995-01-01

    One hundred dogs (83 intact males, 15 castrated males, and two intact females) underwent 110 perineal herniorrhaphy procedures. Mixed-breed dogs (n = 32), miniature poodles (n = 14), Boston terriers (n = 11), and Pekingese (n = 9) were represented most frequently. Perineal swelling (n = 48) and a perineal defect on rectal palpation (n = 31) were common clinical signs. Twenty dogs had urinary bladder retroflexion and were significantly more likely to have elevated serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis. Only five of 43 dogs evaluated radiographically had prostatomegaly. Of 30 dogs receiving oral barium, all had rectal deviation. The most frequent complications during the hospitalization period were incisional (n = 35), followed by rectal prolapse (n = 9), tenesmus (n = 8), and depression (n = 8). Fifty-six of 70 dogs with follow-up had no complications.

  17. Incentive contrast in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Bentosela, Mariana; Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Papini, Mauricio R

    2009-05-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) trained to receive a preferred food (dry beef liver) from an experimenter learned to maintain a longer gaze on the experimenter than dogs receiving a less preferred food (dog pellets). Dogs downshifted from dry liver to pellets rejected food more frequently than nonshifted controls. Gaze duration also decreased in downshifted dogs below the level of a group always reinforced with pellets. In addition, downshifted dogs tended to move away from the experimenter, adopting a lying down posture. This phenomenon, called successive negative contrast, has been described in analogous experiments with a variety of mammalian species, but has failed to occur in similar experiments with nonmammalian vertebrates. Unlike similar previous observations, the present data were obtained in an environment involving interspecific communication.

  18. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms in canine adrenal glands treated with trilostane.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Kumagai, Takayuki; Kurano, Mai; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2014-06-01

    Trilostane, a competitive inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, is often used to treat canine hyperadrenocorticism. In some species, trilostane has been shown to have additional effects on steroid biosynthesis, and it has been postulated that trilostane might have effects on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) in dogs. To investigate the effect of trilostane on 11β-HSD in canine adrenal glands, healthy Beagle dogs were treated with trilostane for 8 weeks. Trilostane treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the cortisol/cortisone ratio in the serum. The adrenal gland mRNA and protein expression levels of 11β-HSD type 1 and 11β-HSD type 2 were significantly higher and significantly lower respectively in dogs treated with trilostane compared to those in control healthy Beagle dogs. These findings suggest that trilostane may have an effect on 11β-HSD activity in canine adrenal glands.

  19. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A; Moxon, R; England, G C W

    2010-06-19

    In a retrospective survey, researchers identified 100 incidents of attacks on guide dogs by other dogs. These were reviewed in order to determine the number, severity and impact on the handler and dog, and the characteristics of the aggressors and victims. During the study period there were more than three attacks reported each month, with 61 per cent of the attacks being upon dogs that were in harness and working with an owner or trainer. The majority of the dogs that were attacked were male (62 per cent), and the breeds that were over-represented (relative to their prevalence in the general guide dog population) were the labrador and the golden retriever x flat-coated retriever crossbreed. Most of the attacks occurred in public places between 09.00 and 15.00 and the majority (61 per cent) of the attacking dogs were off the lead at the time of the attack. Thirty-eight per cent of the attacking dogs were of bull breeds, which were over-represented among attackers compared with the proportion of this breed type in the general dog population. Veterinary attention was sought after 41 per cent of the attacks, and in 19 per cent of instances there was injury to the handler or to a member of the public. The attacks were reported to have affected the working performance and behaviour of the victim dog in 45 per cent of the instances, and two dogs had to be subsequently withdrawn from working as guide dogs.

  20. Discrimination of human and dog faces and inversion responses in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Racca, Anaïs; Amadei, Eleonora; Ligout, Séverine; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Although domestic dogs can respond to many facial cues displayed by other dogs and humans, it remains unclear whether they can differentiate individual dogs or humans based on facial cues alone and, if so, whether they would demonstrate the face inversion effect, a behavioural hallmark commonly used in primates to differentiate face processing from object processing. In this study, we first established the applicability of the visual paired comparison (VPC or preferential looking) procedure for dogs using a simple object discrimination task with 2D pictures. The animals demonstrated a clear looking preference for novel objects when simultaneously presented with prior-exposed familiar objects. We then adopted this VPC procedure to assess their face discrimination and inversion responses. Dogs showed a deviation from random behaviour, indicating discrimination capability when inspecting upright dog faces, human faces and object images; but the pattern of viewing preference was dependent upon image category. They directed longer viewing time at novel (vs. familiar) human faces and objects, but not at dog faces, instead, a longer viewing time at familiar (vs. novel) dog faces was observed. No significant looking preference was detected for inverted images regardless of image category. Our results indicate that domestic dogs can use facial cues alone to differentiate individual dogs and humans and that they exhibit a non-specific inversion response. In addition, the discrimination response by dogs of human and dog faces appears to differ with the type of face involved.

  1. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  2. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  3. Clostridium difficile in faeces from healthy dogs and dogs with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the faecal occurrence and characterization of Clostridium difficile in clinically healthy dogs (N = 50) and in dogs with diarrhea (N = 20) in the Stockholm-Uppsala region of Sweden. Findings Clostridium difficile was isolated from 2/50 healthy dogs and from 2/20 diarrheic dogs. Isolates from healthy dogs were negative for toxin A and B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. Both isolates from diarrheic dogs were positive for toxin B and for the tcdA and tcdB genes. The C. difficile isolates from healthy dogs had PCR ribotype 009 (SE-type 6) and 010 (SE-type 3) whereas both isolates from dogs with diarrhoea had the toxigenic ribotype 014 (SE-type 21). One of the isolates from healthy dogs was initially resistant to metronidazole. Conclusions This study revealed presence of toxigenic C. difficile in faecal samples of diarrheic dogs and low number of non- toxigenic isolates in healthy dogs from Uppsala-Stockholm region in Sweden. However, more comprehensive studies are warranted to investigate the role of C. difficile in gastrointestinal disease in dogs. PMID:23497714

  4. Imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collars (Seresto®, Bayer) successfully prevent long-term transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

    PubMed

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Fourie, Josephus J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the empirical efficacy of imidacloprid 10 %/flumethrin 4.5 % (Seresto®) collars in preventing long-term transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs. The study was a parallel group design, single centre, randomised, non-blinded, controlled, long-term efficacy study. The treatment group of 8 dogs was fitted with Seresto® collars, the untreated control group of 8 dogs received no collars. Ehrlichia canis-infected ticks were released into the dogs sleeping quarters at 14-day intervals up to Day +378. Control group dogs infected with E. canis were continuously replaced to keep the control sample size constant, and a total of 39 control dogs were required. The final clinical examination and blood sampling occurred on Day +420. The primary assessment criterion was the number of dogs infected with E. canis, as confirmed by IFA and PCR, and the secondary criterion was the acaricidal efficacy based on tick counts. All scheduled blood samples taken were subject to analyses for both PCR and IFA, but only positive cases are discussed. Up to Day +378, none of the collar-treated dogs were infected with E. canis, whereas 34 of the 35 untreated dogs enrolled before Day +371 were infected. The acaricidal efficacy of the collar ranged from 90 % to 100 % for the duration of the assessment period.

  5. Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-31

    ehrlichiosis. The potential of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus as a reservoir of Ehrlichia canis was investigated. R. sanguineus adults...harbored and efficiently transmitted E. canis to susceptible dogs for as long as 155 days after detachment as engorged nymphs from a dog experiencing...acute ehrlichiosis. Two modifications of the original tissue culture technique for the propagation of E. canis were developed to study the effect of

  6. [Is being licked by dogs not dirty?].

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, Paul; van Knapen, Frans

    2012-09-01

    Being licked by pet dogs is frequently a common advice in articles for the uninitiated. An overview is given about the special antibacterial and wound healing properties of human and canine saliva. New developments in the human area are presumably assigned to dog saliva. Because of the presence of a quite different mouth flora including various potential zoonotic pathogens, it is strictly not advised to let dogs lick the wounds or face of the human.

  7. Serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Parnell, Nolie K; Grützner, Niels; Mansell, Joanne; Berghoff, Nora; Schellenberg, Stefan; Reusch, Claudia E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) protein loss, due to lymphangiectasia or chronic inflammation, can be challenging to diagnose. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1PI) concentrations to detect crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs. Serum and fecal cα1PI concentrations were measured in 120 dogs undergoing GI tissue biopsies, and were compared between dogs with and without crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Serial serum cα1PI concentrations were also evaluated in 12 healthy corticosteroid-treated dogs. Serum cα1PI and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation than in those without (both P <0.001), and more severe lesions were associated with lower serum cα1PI concentrations, higher 3 days-mean fecal cα1PI concentrations, and lower serum/fecal cα1PI ratios. Serum and fecal cα1PI, and their ratios, distinguished dogs with moderate or severe GI crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation from dogs with only mild or none such lesions with moderate sensitivity (56-92%) and specificity (67-81%). Serum cα1PI concentrations increased during corticosteroid administration. We conclude that serum and fecal α1PI concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation in dogs. Due to its specificity for the GI tract, measurement of fecal cα1PI appears to be superior to serum cα1PI for diagnosing GI protein loss in dogs. In addition, the serum/fecal cα1PI ratio has an improved accuracy in hypoalbuminemic dogs, but serum cα1PI concentrations should be carefully interpreted in corticosteroid-treated dogs.

  8. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  9. Effectiveness of mefloquine against Clonorchis sinensis in rats and Paragonimus westermani in dogs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-hua; Xue, Jian; Li-li, Xu; Zhang, Yong-nian; Qiang, Hui-qing

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the effect of mefloquine against Clonorchis sinensis and Paragonimus westermani. For anti-C. sinensis study, a total of 71 rats were divided into four batches for oral infection of each rat with 50 C. sinensis metacercariae. Five to 7 weeks post-infection, groups of rats were treated orally with mefloquine at single doses or multiple daily doses while infected, but untreated rats served as control. All treated rats were euthanized 2 weeks post-treatment for assessment of efficacy. For anti-P. westermani study, two batches of eight and ten dogs were each infected intraperitoneally with 100 P. westermani metacercariae. Eighty-five to 96 days post-infection, groups of two or three dogs were treated orally with mefloquine and groups of two dogs were treated with praziquantel at a single dose or multiple doses. In each batch of test, three untreated but infected dogs served as control. All treated dogs were euthanized 26-30 days post-treatment for evaluation of efficacy. In rats infected with C. sinensis and treated orally with mefloquine at a single dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg, no effect against C. sinensis was observed. When the dose of mefloquine was increased to 250 mg/kg, one third (five out of 15) rats died 3-5 days post-treatment. Although the mean worm burden was lower than that of the control, the difference between the treated and control groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05) with worm burden reduction of 22.4%. Whereas, the group of infected rats received mefloquine at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg for 3 days, one out of five rats died after the last administration. The mean worm burden was significantly lower than that of the control with worm burden reduction of 67.6% (P<0.01). In the first test of mefloquine against P. westermani, three infected dogs received two oral doses of the drug, 50 mg/kg, given at a 4-h interval, the mean worm burden were similar to that of the control. While other two dogs were treated with

  10. Effect of Propolis on Experimental Cutaneous Wound Healing in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates clinically the effect of propolis paste on healing of cutaneous wound in dogs. Under general anesthesia and complete aseptic conditions, two full thickness skin wounds (3 cm diameter) were created in each side of the chest in five dogs, one dorsal and one ventral, with 10 cm between them. These wounds were randomly allocated into two groups, control group (10 wounds) and propolis group (10 wounds). Both groups were represented in each dog. The wounds were cleaned with normal saline solution and dressed with macrogol ointment in control group and propolis paste in propolis group, twice daily till complete wound healing. Measurement of the wound area (cm2) was monitored planimetrically at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after injury. The data were analyzed statistically. The results revealed a significant reduction in the wound surface area in the propolis group after 14 and 21 days compared to control group. The wound reepithelization, contraction, and total wound healing were faster in propolis group than in control group during five weeks of study. In conclusion, propolis paste has a positive impact on cutaneous wound healing and it may be suggested for treating various types of wounds in animals. PMID:26783495

  11. Systematic Review of Brain Tumor Treatment in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Barker, A; Harcourt-Brown, T; Jeffery, N

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial neoplasia is commonly diagnosed in dogs and can be treated by a variety of methods, but formal comparisons of treatment efficacy are currently unavailable. This review was undertaken to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding outcome after the treatment of intracranial masses in dogs, with the aim of defining optimal recommendations for owners. This review summarizes data from 794 cases in 22 previously published reports and follows PRISMA guidelines for systematic review. A Pubmed search was used to identify suitable articles. These then were analyzed for quality and interstudy variability of inclusion and exclusion criteria and the outcome data extracted for summary in graphs and tables. There was a high degree of heterogeneity among studies with respect to inclusion and exclusion criteria, definition of survival periods, and cases lost to follow-up making comparisons among modalities troublesome. There is a need for standardized design and reporting of outcomes of treatment for brain tumors in dogs. The available data do not support lomustine as an effective treatment, but also do not show a clear difference in outcome between radiotherapy and surgery for those cases in which the choice is available.

  12. Nasal Granuloma Caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Cabañes, F. J.; Roura, X.; García, F.; Domingo, M.; Abarca, M. L.; Pastor, J.

    1998-01-01

    A 10-month-old male American Staffordshire terrier was presented to the Autonomous University of Barcelona Veterinary Teaching Hospital because of a 6-month history of a mucopurulent bilateral nasal discharge. The dog had not responded to antibiotics. A follow-up X ray revealed a mixed pattern of osteolysis and increased radiodensity confined to the nasal cavity. Histologic sections of the biopsy specimens revealed the presence of granules containing numerous septate hyphae that were hyaline to pale brown and smooth, one-celled, subspherical-to-elongate conidia that were hyaline to brownish green, and bacteria. Cultures yielded numerous colonies belonging to Scedosporium apiospermum. Susceptibility tests were performed on the isolated strain. The isolate was sensitive to ketoconazole, intermediate to clotrimazole, and resistant to amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, and itraconazole. The dog was treated with oral ketoconazole. During the treatment a general improvement in the lesions was observed. To our knowledge, S. apiospermum has not been implicated previously as an etiologic agent of nasal disease in dogs. This report provides its first description as such. PMID:9705431

  13. Myxosarcoma in the eye and brain in a dog.

    PubMed

    Richter, Marianne; Stankeova, Simona; Hauser, Beat; Scharf, Gernot; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2003-09-01

    A male mixed breed dog of unknown age was presented with sudden onset of blindness and a slightly exophthalmic right eye. Ophthalmoscopically, a spherical, pinkish mass protruding from the region of the optic disc into the vitreous was seen in the right eye. Ultrasound and computer tomography demonstrated an extension of the mass into the right retrobulbar space, continuing intracranially to the optic chiasm. Cytologic findings, obtained by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration from the retrobulbar space, were consistent with myxosarcoma. On the basis of these findings of a well-delineated mass in the brain stem area, irradiation was planned as the therapy of choice. The dog was treated under general anesthesia using a proton beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). A curative protocol (56 Gy in 16 fractions over 4 weeks, 3.5 Gy/fraction) was used. Twenty-seven days post radiation therapy the dog was euthanized, as clinical symptoms progressed. Enlargement of the intracranial tumor was seen on a CT study repeated on the day of euthanasia. A gross pathologic and histologic examination were performed and confirmed the diagnosis of a myxosarcoma involving the eye, retrobulbar space of the right side, and the optic chiasm. Post-mortem examination failed to identify any abnormalities or metastases elsewhere in the body.

  14. Human listeners attend to size information in domestic dog growls.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna M; Reby, David; McComb, Karen

    2008-05-01

    The acoustic features of vocalizations have the potential to transmit information about the size of callers. Most acoustic studies have focused on intraspecific perceptual abilities, but here, the ability of humans to use growls to assess the size of adult domestic dogs was tested. In a first experiment, the formants of growls were shifted to create playback stimuli with different formant dispersions (Deltaf), simulating different vocal tract lengths within the natural range of variation. Mean fundamental frequency (F0) was left unchanged and treated as a covariate. In a second experiment, F0 was resynthesized and Deltaf was left unchanged. In both experiments Deltaf and F0 influenced how participants rated the size of stimuli. Lower formant and fundamental frequencies were rated as belonging to larger dogs. Crucially, when F0 was manipulated and Deltaf was natural, ratings were strongly correlated with the actual weight of the dogs, while when Deltaf was varied and F0 was natural, ratings were not related to the actual weight. Taken together, this suggests that participants relied more heavily on Deltaf, in accordance with the fact that formants are better predictors of body size than F0.

  15. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-11-01

    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of ototoxicity in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows one to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy.

  16. Dynamic gearing in running dogs.

    PubMed

    Carrier, D R; Gregersen, C S; Silverton, N A

    1998-12-01

    Dynamic gearing is a mechanism that has been suggested to enhance the performance of skeletal muscles by maintaining them at the shortening velocities that maximize their power or efficiency. We investigated this hypothesis in three domestic dogs during trotting and galloping. We used ground force recordings and kinematic analysis to calculate the changes in gear ratio that occur during the production of the external work of locomotion. We also monitored length changes of the vastus lateralis muscle, an extensor muscle of the knee, using sonomicrometry in four additional dogs to determine the nature and rate of active shortening of this muscle. During both trotting and galloping, the gear ratios of the extensor muscles of the elbow, wrist and ankle joints were relatively constant early in limb support, but decreased rapidly during the second half of support. The gear ratio at the hip exerted an extensor moment initially, but decreased throughout limb support and became negative midway through support. This pattern of decreasing gear ratio during the second half of support indicates that dynamic gearing does not maximize muscle power or efficiency at the elbow, wrist, hip and ankle joints. In contrast, the extensor muscles of the shoulder and knee joints exhibited an increase in gear ratio during limb support. In two dogs, the vastus lateralis muscle shortened at a relatively constant rate of 3.7-4 lengths s-1 during intermediate-speed galloping. This pattern of increasing gear ratio and constant velocity of muscle shortening at the knee joint is consistent with the hypothesis of dynamic gearing. Given the amount of work done at the knee and shoulder joints of running dogs, dynamic gearing may contribute to the economy of constant-speed running and may be important to integrated limb function.

  17. [Keeping dogs indoor aggravates infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Hizawa, T; Fukuzumi, T; Kataoka, Y

    1999-12-01

    We had a two-month-old girl with severe dermatitis since birth. Her serum RAST to HD, Df and Dp were 1.06, 0.03 and 0.01 Ua/ml respectively. A Yorkshire terrier were kept at her mother's parents' home where the patient had lived for a month since birth. Her eczema, which became markedly aggravated whenever she visited there, improved after the elimination of the dog. We investigated the relationship between keeping dogs and infantile atopic dermatitis. We studied 368 patients under the age of two years (211 boys and 157 girls). Skin symptoms were graded globally mild, moderate or severe. Total serum IgE and specific antibody titer to dog dander were measured. We asked them whether they kept dogs and specifically, where they kept dogs, outdoor, indoor, in their own house, or in their grandparents' house. 197 patients had no contact with dogs, 90 patients kept dogs outdoor and 81 patients did indoor. The positive rate of RAST (> or = 0.7 Ua/ml) to dog dander was 6.1%, 17.8% and 46.9% respectively in these three groups. There were strong statistical differences between three groups. On the other hand, among the 81 patients who kept indoor, the RAST positive rates were almost same regarding where the dogs were kept, in their own house or their grandparents' house. Interestingly this difference happens only with patients under the age of 3 months. Patients older than 4 months showed no significant differences in the positive RAST rates, whether they kept dogs indoor or outdoor. This suggests the sensitization occurs before the age of 3 months. Speaking of symptoms, patients who kept dogs indoor showed significantly more severe symptoms than patients who had no contact with dogs and patients who kept dogs outdoor. There was no significant difference between the symptoms of patients who had no contact with dogs and those of patients who kept dogs outdoor. This implies the patient's symptom will improve only by moving the dog out of the house.

  18. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.

  19. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    PubMed

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  20. Primary ciliary dyskinesia in Newfoundland dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, P J; Herrtage, M E; Peacock, M A; Sargan, D R

    1999-06-26

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia was diagnosed in three Newfoundland dogs with histories of chronic rhinitis and bronchopneumonia from an early age. Thoracic radiographs of two of them showed severe, dependent bronchopneumonia and right displacement of the cardiac apex but normal positioning of other organs. Histopathological examination of sections of lung from the other dog showed severe bronchopneumonia. A semen sample from one dog had a high percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal tails and poor progressive motility. Transmission electron microscopy of nasal brushings from all three dogs showed consistent ultrastructural defects in the cilia, including an absence of outer and inner dynein arms, disorganisation of peripheral doublets, occasional supernumerary doublets and singlets, and consistently disorganised basal bodies and foot processes; sections of trachea from one dog also had disorganised basal bodies. Pedigree analysis was consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance for the defect. One dog is still alive, one dog died aged five years two months, and one dog was euthanased aged nine months. This is the first time primary ciliary dyskinesia has been reported in Newfoundland dogs.

  1. Gliomatosis cerebri in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Porter, B; de Lahunta, A; Summers, B

    2003-01-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri is a well-recognized entity in human medicine characterized by unusually widespread infiltration of the neuraxis by neoplastic glial cells with relative preservation of brain architecture. This report describes the pathologic features of the disease in six dogs. The dogs ranged from 3 to 9 years of age (mean 6.1 years) without evidence of breed predilection; five of the six dogs were neutered or intact males. The clinical findings were mixed (including depression, circling, cranial nerve deficits), reflecting the diffuse nature of the disease. Histologically, there was remarkably diffuse infiltration of the white and gray matter of the brain by small numbers of elongated neoplastic cells. Areas of greater cellularity formed grossly visible lesions in four cases. Anisocytosis and pleomorphism were greater in areas of higher cellularity. Other features of tumor growth included subpial accumulation, neuronal satellitosis, perivascular cuffing, and tropism for cranial nerve and brain stem nuclei. Neoplastic cells were negative on immunohistochemical stains for glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and leukocyte markers, reflecting the uncertain histogenesis of these unusual neoplasms.

  2. Transient renal Fanconi syndrome in a Chihuahua exposed to Chinese chicken jerky treats.

    PubMed

    Hooijberg, E H; Furman, E; Leidinger, J; Brandstetter, D; Hochleithner, C; Sewell, A C; Leidinger, E; Giger, U

    2015-01-01

    Transient Fanconi syndrome without azotemia was diagnosed in a dog and was associated with ingestion of Chinese chicken jerky treats. Fanconi syndrome is a proximal renal tubular defect and a diagnosis was made based upon severe glucosuria with normoglycemia, and severe generalized aminoaciduria. The clinical signs of polyuria and polydipsia as well as the massive urinary metabolic abnormalities resolved after jerky treat withdrawal. While frequently seen in North America and Australia, this is the first report of jerky treat induced Fanconi syndrome in continental Europe. Clinicians should be aware of this potential intoxication and be vigilant for a history of jerky treat consumption in a dog with glucosuria.

  3. Morphologic and functional effects of piroxicam on myocardial scar formation after coronary occlusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, H; Alker, K J; Schoen, F J; Kloner, R A

    1984-02-01

    To determine whether piroxicam, a widely used, long-acting anti-inflammatory agent, causes scar thinning after acute myocardial infarction (MI), MI was produced in 16 anesthetized, open-chest dogs by ligation of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. The dogs were randomized into 2 groups and treated in a blinded fashion, 8 with piroxicam, 1 mg/kg i.v. at 15 minutes and at 3 hours after ligation (Group 1) and 8 with saline solution (Group 2). Two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed 7 days and 6 weeks after ligation. At 6 weeks, the dogs were killed and the hearts examined. Scar thickness was 7.1 +/- 0.3 mm in control dogs and 5.2 +/- 0.4 mm in piroxicam-treated dogs (p less than 0.01). The ratio of scar thickness to noninfarcted wall thickness was 0.87 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) in the control group, and was significantly lower (0.62 +/- 0.04) in the piroxicam-treated group (p less than 0.001). Regional function, expressed as the percent change in the area of the left ventricular cavity (% delta A) from short-axis 2-dimensional echocardiograms, was 42 +/- 3% 7 days after occlusion in the control group and was not significantly different in the treated group (34 +/- 5%). At the end of 6 weeks % delta A had improved in the piroxicam-treated group to 44 +/- 3% (p less than 0.05 compared with the value after 7 days), and was similar to % delta A of the control group at 6 weeks (43 +/- 3%). Thus, clinical doses of piroxicam administered early after MI caused moderate scar thinning, which was not associated with impairment of regional left ventricular function 6 weeks later.

  4. CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS AND IN DOGS WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Schur, David; Gaschen, Frédéric; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most frequent disease affecting the exocrine pancreas in dogs and reliable diagnostic techniques for predicting fatal complications are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) improves detection of tissue perfusion as well as organ lesion vascular pattern. Objectives of this prospective case control study were to compare perfusion characteristics and enhancement patterns of the pancreas in healthy dogs and dogs with pancreatitis using CEUS. Ten healthy dogs and eight dogs with pancreatitis were selected based on physical examination, abdominal ultrasound, and blood analysis findings. A CEUS study of the pancreas was performed for each dog and two observers who were aware of clinical status used advanced ultrasound quantification software to analyze time-intensity curves. Perfusion patterns were compared between healthy and affected dogs. In dogs with acute pancreatitis, mean pixel and peak intensity of the pancreatic parenchyma was significantly higher than that of normal dogs (P = 0.05) in between 6 and 60 s (P = <0.0001-0.046). This corresponds to a 311% increase in mean pixel intensity in dogs with acute pancreatitis compared to healthy dogs. Wash-in rates were greater and had a consistently steeper slope to peak in dogs with pancreatitis as opposed to healthy dogs. All dogs with pancreatitis showed a decrease in pixel intensity 10-15 days after the initial examination (P = 0.011) and their times to peak values were prolonged compared to the initial exam. Findings from the current study supported the use of CEUS for diagnosing pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis, and disease monitoring following therapy in dogs.

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among veterinary staff and dogs in private veterinary clinics in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kanako; Saito, Mieko; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Maetani, Shigeki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    To explore the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medical practices, MRSA carriage was tested among 96 veterinarians (Vets), 70 veterinary technicians (VTs) and 292 dogs with which they had contact at 71 private veterinary clinics (VCs) in Hokkaido, Japan. MRSA isolates were obtained from 22 Vets [22.9%] and 7 VTs [10%]. The prevalence of MRSA among Vets was as high as that found in an academic veterinary hospital in our previous study. In contrast, only two blood donor dogs and one dog with liver disease (1.0%, 3/292) yielded MRSA. All MRSA-positive dogs were reared or treated in different VCs, in each of which at least one veterinary staff member carrying MRSA worked. Sequence types (ST) identified by multilocus sequence typing, spa types, and SCCmec types for canine MRSA isolates (ST5-spa t002-SCCmec II [from two dogs] or ST30-spa t021-SCCmec IV [from a dog]) were concordant with those from veterinary staff members in the same clinics as the MRSA-positive dogs, with which they had potentially had contact. Most MRSA isolates from veterinary staff were the same genotype (SCCmec type II and spa type t002) as a major hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan. The remaining MRSA was the same genotypes as domestic and foreign community-associated MRSA. Measures against MRSA infection should be provided in private VCs.

  6. Cestodes of dogs and cats in North America.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Gary

    2009-11-01

    Cestodes are hermaphroditic flatworms (tapeworms) consisting of a scolex, neck region, and repeating segments. Cestodes lack a mouth, intestine, and body cavity. Life cycles are indirect, with the definitive host acquiring the adult form of the tapeworm by the ingestion of the larval metacestode stage contained in an intermediate host. This article describes the cyclophyllidean and pseudophyllidean groups of infective cestodes. Tapeworm infection is common in dogs and cats in North America. Infection rarely results in clinical disease, but animals infected with tapeworms should be treated. Echinococcosis, though infrequently diagnosed, remains a serious human health threat in North America.

  7. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  8. Altering histone acetylation status in donor cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid does not affect dog cloning efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Geon A; Suh, Han Na; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoo Bin; Kim, Dong Hoon; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-10-15

    Although dog cloning technology has been applied to conservation of endangered canids, propagation of elite dogs, and production of transgenic dogs, the efficiency of cloning is still very low. To help overcome this problem, we evaluated the effect of treating donor cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on dog cloning efficiency. Relative messenger RNA expressions of the bax1/bcl2 ratio and Dnmt1 in fibroblasts treated with different concentrations (0, 1, 10, 50 μM) of SAHA and durations (0, 20, 44 hours) were compared. Treatment with 1 μM for 20 hours showed significantly lower bax1/bcl2 and Dnmt1 transcript abundance. Acetylation of H3K9 was significantly increased after SAHA treatment, but H4K5, H4K8 and H4K16 were not changed. After SCNT using control or donor cells treated with SAHA, a total of 76 and 64 cloned embryos were transferred to seven and five recipients, respectively. Three fetuses were diagnosed in both control and SAHA-treated groups by ultrasonography 29 days after the embryo transfer, but there was no significant difference in the pregnancy rate (4.2% vs. 4.3%). In conclusion, although SAHA treatment as used in this study significantly decreased bax1/bcl2 and Dnmt1 transcripts of donor nuclei, as well as increased H3 acetylation, it was not enough to increase in vivo developmental competence of cloned dog embryos.

  9. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  10. Treating Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Colby, W. David

    1992-01-01

    Background information on treating syphilis indicates that some currently recommended approaches to therapy are not optimal. There is no perfect drug schedule available, but penicillin remains the drug of choice. The author's recommendations for treatment and follow up are presented. PMID:21221354

  11. Gene therapy in the second eye of RPE65-deficient dogs improves retinal function

    PubMed Central

    Annear, MJ; Bartoe, JT; Barker, SE; Smith, AJ; Curran, PG; Bainbridge, JW; Ali, RR; Petersen-Jones, SM

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether immune responses interfered with gene therapy rescue using subretinally delivered recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotype 2 carrying the RPE65 cDNA gene driven by the human RPE65 promoter (rAAV2.hRPE65p.hRPE65) in the second eye of RPE65−/− dogs that had previously been treated in a similar manner in the other eye. Bilateral subretinal injection was performed in nine dogs with the second eye treated 85–180 days after the first. Electroretinography (ERG) and vision testing showed rescue in 16 of 18 treated eyes, with no significant difference between first and second treated eyes. A serum neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to rAAV2 was detected in all treated animals, but this did not prevent or reduce the effectiveness of rescue in the second treated eye. We conclude that successful rescue using subretinal rAAV2.hRPE65p.hRPE65 gene therapy in the second eye is not precluded by prior gene therapy in the contralateral eye of the RPE65−/− dog. This finding has important implications for the treatment of human LCA type II patients. PMID:20703309

  12. Effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma application on cutaneous wound healing in dogs.

    PubMed

    Jee, Cho-Hee; Eom, Na-Young; Jang, Hyo-Mi; Jung, Hae-Won; Choi, Eul-Soo; Won, Jin-Hee; Hong, Il-Hwa; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Jeong, Dong Wook; Jung, Dong-In

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and efficacy of intralesional injection as a method of application to acute cutaneous wounds in dogs. Healthy adult beagles (n = 3) were used in this study. Autologous PRP was separated from anticoagulant treated whole blood in three dogs. Cutaneous wounds were created and then treated by intralesional injection of PRP in the experimental group, while they were treated with saline in the control group on days 0, 2 and 4. The healing process was evaluated by gross examination throughout the experimental period and histologic examination on day 7, 14 and 21. In PRP treated wounds, the mean diameter was smaller and the wound closure rate was higher than in the control. Histological study revealed that PRP treated wounds showed more granulation formation and angiogenesis on day 7, and faster epithelialization, more granulation formation and collagen deposition were observed on day 14 than in control wounds. On day 21, collagen deposition and epithelialization were enhanced in PRP treated groups. Overall, PRP application showed beneficial effects in wound healing, and intralesional injection was useful for application of PRP and could be a good therapeutic option for wound management in dogs.

  13. Rescue administration of a helper-dependent adenovirus vector with long-term efficacy in dogs with glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Crane, B; Luo, X; Demaster, A; Williams, K D; Kozink, D M; Zhang, P; Brown, T T; Pinto, C R; Oka, K; Sun, F; Jackson, M W; Chan, L; Koeberl, D D

    2012-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) stems from glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency and causes hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, hypercholesterolemia and lactic acidemia. Three dogs with GSD-Ia were initially treated with a helper-dependent adenovirus encoding a human G6Pase transgene (HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 5) on postnatal day 3. Unlike untreated dogs with GSD-Ia, all three dogs initially maintained normal blood glucose levels. After 6-22 months, vector-treated dogs developed hypoglycemia, anorexia and lethargy, suggesting that the HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 5 vector had lost efficacy. Liver biopsies collected at this time revealed significantly elevated hepatic G6Pase activity and reduced glycogen content, when compared with affected dogs treated only by frequent feeding. Subsequently, the HDAd-cG6Pase serotype 2 vector was administered to two dogs, and hypoglycemia was reversed; however, renal dysfunction and recurrent hypoglycemia complicated their management. Administration of a serotype 2 HDAd vector prolonged survival in one GSD-Ia dog to 12 months of age and 36 months of age in the other, but the persistence of long-term complications limited HDAd vectors in the canine model for GSD-Ia.

  14. Larvicidal effect of imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on solution in dogs experimentally inoculated with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, M; Fahrion, A; Ossent, P; Kohler, L; Webster, P; Heine, J; Deplazes, P

    2009-12-23

    A controlled, randomized, blinded dose confirmation study was conducted to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10 mg/kg/moxidectin 2.5 mg/kg body weight spot-on solution in dogs experimentally inoculated with 200 infective third stage larvae (L3) of Angiostrongylus vasorum. Twenty-four adult dogs were randomly allocated to three study groups of 8 dogs each. Animals in group 1 were treated 4 days post-inoculation (dpi), those in group 2 at 32 dpi, and the dogs in group 3 were left untreated. All dogs were euthanized and necropsied 56-59 dpi. In order to determine the worm burdens in the arterial lung vessels a method of reverse lung perfusion with phosphate buffered solution after inhibition of coagulation with heparin was applied. In the control group, excretion of first stage larvae (L1) of A. vasorum started 47-55 dpi and all dogs excreted L1 at least on one sample day before euthanasia (0.1-32.5 larvae per gram of faeces). A mean of 99 (SD 42.8) adult parasites were recovered in the post-mortem examinations in these eight control dogs. In contrast, no L1 at all were found in the faeces of dogs of groups 1 and 2, nor were any adult parasites detected at necropsy. Respiratory symptoms were observed in dogs of groups 2 and 3. Pathological findings in the lungs correlated with the treatment groups: in the animals of group 1, no or minimal lesions were found, while in all those of group 2 dispersed patterns of pale pink, slightly raised and consolidated foci were present in all lung lobes. In contrast, the lungs of the dogs from group 3 were severely affected: large confluent areas were hardened, raised and discoloured, with frequent haemorrhagic patches. Pneumonia, thrombi and parasites were histologically confirmed. The lung lymph nodes were regularly enlarged. Hence, imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on effectively eliminated fourth stage larvae (L4) and immature adult A. vasorum in experimentally infected dogs and prevented patent infections

  15. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™), for the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Becskei, Csilla; De Bock, Filip; Illambas, Joanna; Cherni, Judith A; Fourie, Josephus J; Lane, Melanie; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of the novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™) was investigated in dogs with clinical signs consistent with sarcoptic mange and harbouring natural infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei. One placebo-controlled laboratory study and one multi-centred field study with a commercial comparator containing imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate(®) spot-on) were conducted. Oral or topical treatments were administered on Days 0 and 30. Up to 10 skin scrapings were taken for the assessment of S. scabiei infestations from each dog before treatment and on Days 14, 30, 44 and 60 in the laboratory study, and on Days 30 and 60 in the field study. In the laboratory study, efficacy was calculated based on the percent reduction of mean live mite counts compared to the placebo group. In the field study parasitological cure rate (% dogs free of mites) was determined and non-inferiority of sarolaner to the control product was assessed. In the laboratory study 44 mixed breed dogs were enrolled in four batches. Due to decreasing mite counts in the placebo treated dogs, immunosuppression with dexamethasone (0.4mg/kg three times per week for two weeks) was initiated in all dogs on study at that time (n=6) and those subsequently enrolled (n=14). In the field study, dogs were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio (sarolaner:comparator); 79 dogs were assessed for efficacy and safety, and an additional 45 dogs were assessed for safety only. There were no treatment related adverse events in either study. In the laboratory study, no mites were found on any sarolaner-treated dogs 14 days after the first treatment except for one dog that had a single mite on Day 44. In the field study, the parasitological cure rate was 88.7% and 100% in the sarolaner group and 84.6% and 96.0% in the imidacloprid/moxidectin group, on Days 30 and 60, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that sarolaner was non-inferior to imidacloprid/moxidectin at both time points. The clinical signs of sarcoptic mange, including

  16. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk.

  17. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    PubMed

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities.

  18. [Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in dogs from Warsaw region].

    PubMed

    Turkowicz, Monika; Cielecka, Danuta

    2002-01-01

    Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in dogs from Warsaw region. Investigation of prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs have been conducted in order to protect human and animal health. The aim of the study was to establish species composition of intestinal parasites and to evaluate their prevalence in dogs from the shelter in Józefów situated on north from Warsaw. Additionally, urban dogs from Warsaw and village dogs from areas near the shelter, were examined. The prevalence of nematodes was: 62.3% in dogs from shelter, 37.5% in village dogs and 18.8% in urban dogs. In homeless dogs, the most common parasite was Uncinaria stenocephala, then Trichuris vulpis and Toxascaris leonina. In village dogs only eggs of U. stenocephala were detected; in urban dogs Toxocara canis and U. stenocephala were found.

  19. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Kitshoff, A M; du Plessis, C J; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8- 6.2 mmol/l). Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Fifteen dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 %) made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004). The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the "diabetes of injury" phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia.

  20. Dog bite risk: an assessment of child temperament and child-dog interactions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Aaron L; Schwebel, David C; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

    2012-08-01

    Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children's interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5-6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs-impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shyness-were assessed via the parent-report Children's Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, children's behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog.

  1. Application of Flumethrin Pour-On on Reservoir Dogs and Its Efficacy against Sand Flies in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Meshkinshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jalilnavaz, Mohammad Reza; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Zarei, Zabihollah; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yaver

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies. Methods: Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope. Results: The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (P< 0.0001). The blood feeding inhibition was 75.0–87.0 % and 41.0–46.0 % for the control and treated dogs (P< 0.0001), respectively.The total mortality rate was 94.0–100 % and 19.0–58.0 % respectively for the treated and control groups (P< 0.001). Conclustion: Application of pour-on flumethrin on dogs caused 90–100 % mortality until 2.5 month and inhibited the blood-feeding of sand flies. PMID:27047974

  2. A survey of the dog population in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Moazzem; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Marma, Aung Swi Prue; Hossain, Sohrab; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Shamsuzzaman, Abul Khair Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Globally, Bangladesh ranks third in the number of human deaths from rabies. Although dogs are the principal known transmitters of rabies and knowledge of dog populations is essential for effective national control and proper planning, dog control programs are scarce in Bangladesh. Our objective was to count dogs in a rural area to understand the dog population of the country. For this purpose we selected six unions of Raipura upazila in Narsingdi district. Dog counting was done by direct observation following accepted guidelines. We determined the mean density of the dog population in Bangladesh to be 14 dog/km(2) (95% CI 3.7, 24) and the human:dog ratio to be 120 (95% CI 55, 184). Our paper contribute to the literature which shows great variation in the human:dog ratio across regions of the developing world. The human:dog ratio depends on the area's human (as well as dog) population, whereas dog density per unit area indicates the true number of dogs. We propose that extrapolating from the human:dog ratios of other regions not be relied upon for estimating dog populations, unless the ratios can be supplemented by actual counts of dogs within the target area.

  3. Changes of endothelin-1 and big endothelin-1 levels and action potential duration during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in dogs with and without ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Vágó, Hajnalka; Soós, Pál; Zima, Endre; Gellér, László; Keltai, Katalin; Róka, Attila; Kékesi, Violetta; Juhász-Nagy, Alexander; Merkely, Béla

    2004-11-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is associated with increased production of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Moreover, exogenous ET-1 has arrhythmogenic properties. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between endogenous ET-1, big ET-1 levels and epicardial monophasic action potential duration during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in anesthetized dogs. Thirty-minute myocardial ischemia was followed by a 90-minute reperfusion period in 18 mongrel dogs. The total incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during ischemia and reperfusion was 11.1% and 33.3%, respectively. During ischemia, the monophasic action potential duration at 90% repolarization (MAPD90) decreased significantly (control versus ischemia, 30 minutes, 224.7 +/- 7.1 ms versus 173.8 +/- 7.6 ms; P < 0.05), while during reperfusion a significant prolongation of MAPD90 was observed (ischemia, 30 minutes versus reperfusion, 30 minutes, 173.8 +/- 7.6 ms versus 249.7 +/- 9.9 ms, P < 0.05). During reperfusion ET-1 and big ET-1 levels increased significantly in the coronary sinus and femoral artery (control versus reperfusion, 90 minutes: coronary sinus ET-1, 15.1 +/- 1.4 fmol/mL versus 22.3 +/- 1.1 fmol/mL; big ET-1, 14.7 +/- 1.9 fmol/mL versus 27.4 +/- 2.3 fmol/mL; P < 0.05). The ET-1 concentration increased to a higher level during ischemia in dogs with VF compared with dogs surviving ischemia-reperfusion (non-VF versus VF: control, 15.1 +/- 1.3 versus 15.2 +/- 1.3; ischemia, 30 minutes, 17.6 +/- 1.2 fmol/mL versus 22 +/- 1.6 fmol/mL; P < 0.05), demonstrating a trend of correlation between endothelin levels and development of VF (P = 0.07). ET-1 and big ET-1 levels increased during reperfusion and in the VF group during ischemia; however, there was no correlation between endothelin levels and MAPD90.

  4. Preliminary Study Characterizing the Use of Sitagliptin for Glycemic Control in Healthy Beagle Dogs with Normal Gluco-Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    ODA, Hitomi; MORI, Akihiro; LEE, Peter; SAEKI, Kaori; ARAI, Toshiro; SAKO, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor aimed at treating Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and T1DM, by increasing blood levels of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and insulin. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize Sitagliptin’s ability for glycemic control, in healthy dogs under an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) environment. Overall, Sitagliptin did not result in any significant changes to temporal glucose and insulin concentrations. However, a ~55% increase in median total GLP-1 AUC0–120min was observed, as compared to baseline control in healthy dogs (n=5), thus indicating a similar mode of action of Sitagliptin between healthy dogs and humans. Future studies to validate the use of Sitagliptin with dogs suffering from insulin independent diabetes are warranted. PMID:24931645

  5. Dog Walking among Adolescents: Correlates and Contribution to Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Glanz, Karen; Frank, Lawrence D.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the association of dog walking with adolescents’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and BMI, and identify correlates of dog walking. METHODS/DESIGN Participants were 12–17 year-olds (n=925) from the Baltimore, MD and Seattle, WA regions. Differences in accelerometer-assessed minutes/day of MVPA and self-reported BMI (percentile) were compared among adolescents (1) without a dog (n=441) and those with a dog who (2) did (≥1 days/week, n=300) or (3) did not (n=184) walk it. Correlates of (1) dog walking (a