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Sample records for monitoracao individual interna

  1. Hyperostosis frontalis interna: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, I; Greenwald, C; Rothschild, B M; Latimer, B; Dutour, O; Jellema, L M; Wish-Baratz, S

    1999-07-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is manifested by the accretion of bone on the inner table of the frontal bone. Despite the vast literature on HFI, ambiguity exists as to its etiology, osteogenesis, demography, and history. This stimulated the present broad-scale study of HFI which included the evaluation of 1,706 early 20th century skulls (1,007 males and 699 females) from the Hamann-Todd and Terry human osteological collections, as well as 2,019 pre-19th century East-Mediterranean, Amerindian, and Central European skulls. In addition, 72 cadavers were dissected for gross inspection and histology. Special attention was paid to the relationship of the brain and meninges to endocranial lesions. HFI is an independent condition, not a symptom of a more generalized syndrome as suggested in the past. It can appear in a variety of forms but each is the result of the same process and probably of the same etiology. Investigators' previous failure to recognize the mild stages of HFI (types A and B) as an early form of the general HFI process led to erroneous statistics and interpretations of observations. HFI should also be considered a phenomenon separate from HCI, hyperostosis cranialis diffusa (HCD), and other endostoses, even when it appears in association with them. To avoid ambiguity and facilitate the description of cranial hyperostoses, uniform nomenclature (HFI, HCD) has been recommended. HFI is rarely seen in historic populations, regardless of geographical origin. It is most commonly found among females and is believed to be associated with prolonged estrogen stimulation. While its magnitude of manifestation and frequency are much higher in females, HFI is not a purely female phenomenon. Males with hormonal disturbances such as atrophic testis were found to manifest HFI type D. HFI is associated with age insofar as it is much less frequent in females under 40 years of age. Although advanced cases of HFI (types C and D) have been observed in individuals as

  2. Hyperostosis frontalis interna and androgen suppression.

    PubMed

    May, Hila; Peled, Natan; Dar, Gali; Abbas, Janan; Medlej, Bahaa; Masharawi, Youssef; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2010-08-01

    Although hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) has been documented in the medical literature for over 300 years, its etiology remains undetermined. It is generally assumed to be associated with hormonal disturbances of the gonads. The aim of this study was to examine the association between androgen deprivation and development of HFI in males. Two groups of males over 60-years old were compared: a control group that included 180 healthy males, 45 suffering from benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and a study group of 127 males with prostate cancer: 67 who received complete androgen block treatment, and 60 who received different treatments or none at all. CT head scans were used to identify and classify HFI (Brilliance 64, Philips Medical Systems, slice thickness 3 mm x 1.5 mm). It was found that males who received a complete androgen block manifested significantly higher prevalence of HFI compared to healthy males. However, no significant difference in HFI prevalence was found between males suffering from BPH and healthy males or males with prostate cancer who had not received a complete androgen block. A positive association between length of hormonal treatment and manifestation of HFI was shown. It can be concluded that BPH does not promote development of HFI; males who are hormonally treated for prostate cancer are at a higher risk of developing HFI compared to healthy males; the longer the duration of hormonal treatment, the higher the risk of developing HFI.

  3. Hyperostosis frontalis interna: criteria for sexing and aging a skeleton.

    PubMed

    May, Hila; Peled, Nathan; Dar, Gali; Cohen, Haim; Abbas, Janan; Medlej, Bahaa; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2011-09-01

    Estimation of sex and age in skeletons is essential in anthropological and forensic medicine investigations. The aim of the current study was to examine the potential of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) as a criterion for determining sex and age in forensic cases. Macroscopic examination of the inner aspect of the frontal bone of 768 skulls (326 males and 442 females) aged 1 to 103, which had undergone a head computerized tomography scan, was carried out using the volume rendering technique. HFI was divided into two categories: minor and major. HFI is a sex- and age-dependent phenomena, with females manifesting significantly higher prevalence than males (p<0.01). In both females and males, prevalence of HFI increases as age increases (p<0.01). We present herein the probabilities of designating an unknown skull to a specific sex and age cohort according to the presence of HFI (standardized to age distribution in an Israeli population). Moreover, we present the probability of an individual belonging to a specific sex or age cohort according to age or sex (respectively) and severity of HFI. We suggest a valid, reliable, and easy method for sex and age identification of unknown skulls.

  4. Identifying and classifying hyperostosis frontalis interna via computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    May, Hila; Peled, Nathan; Dar, Gali; Hay, Ori; Abbas, Janan; Masharawi, Youssef; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize the radiological characteristics of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and to establish a valid and reliable method for its identification and classification. A reliability test was carried out on 27 individuals who had undergone a head computerized tomography (CT) scan. Intra-observer reliability was obtained by examining the images three times, by the same researcher, with a 2-week interval between each sample ranking. The inter-observer test was performed by three independent researchers. A validity test was carried out using two methods for identifying and classifying HFI: 46 cadaver skullcaps were ranked twice via computerized tomography scans and then by direct observation. Reliability and validity were calculated using Kappa test (SPSS 15.0). Reliability tests of ranking HFI via CT scans demonstrated good results (K > 0.7). As for validity, a very good consensus was obtained between the CT and direct observation, when moderate and advanced types of HFI were present (K = 0.82). The suggested classification method for HFI, using CT, demonstrated a sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 90.5%, and positive predictive value of 91.3%. In conclusion, volume rendering is a reliable and valid tool for identifying HFI. The suggested three-scale classification is most suitable for radiological diagnosis of the phenomena. Considering the increasing awareness of HFI as an early indicator of a developing malady, this study may assist radiologists in identifying and classifying the phenomena.

  5. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The site of Marillac (Charente, France) has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains (some of them with peri-mortem manipulations) from lithofacies 2 (Quina Mousterian). This level has been correlated with MIS 4 and is associated with a TL date of 57,600 ± 4600 years BP (before present). The study of one of the cranial fragments (Marillac 3) revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone. This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 (Homo erectus), two other Neandertals (Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5), and several archaeological samples. Forbes' Quarry seems to display more advanced HFI than either Shanidar 5 or Marillac 3. The three Neandertals may be considered mature individuals (≥40 years) and it seems likely that the aetiology of this pathology may be associated with hormonal alterations, as has been suggested for past and extant populations. While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples (Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi), with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Additional data and research are still needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this illness and to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and their possible influences/consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in prehistoric populations.

  6. Etiopathogenesis of hyperostosis frontalis interna: a mystery still.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Athanasios; Paraskevas, George K; Yusuf, Faisal; Kordali, Panagiota; Meditskou, Soultana; Al-Haj, Abdulatif; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2011-10-20

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna is a morphological pattern characterized by single or multiple bony nodules situated on the inner lamina of the frontal bone. It is seldom found in males, but it is a common phenomenon among post-menopausal females in modern societies but relatively rare in antiquity. The etiopathogenesis of the trait is a matter of debate and ranges from genetic predisposition to epigenetic, while endocrine disturbances, aging, and dietary factors are also listed among the causes. We studied the frequency, characteristic features, and etiopathogenesis of the disease in recent cadaveric and dry skull specimens. The frequency of hyperostosis frontalis interna in cadavers and dry skull materials was almost identical, 12.5% and 12.3%, respectively. In cadavers, 87.5% of severe hyperostosis frontalis interna cases were found in females over 65 years-old. Interestingly, in two cadavers we found hyperostotic lesions spreading onto adjacent tissues such as the dura and falx cerebri. We provide some new aspects that may help in better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of hyperostosis frontalis interna. Thereby, we discuss the various etiopathogenesis models found in the literature.

  7. Hyperostosis frontalis interna - a marker of social status? Evidence from the Bronze-Age "high society" of Qatna, Syria.

    PubMed

    Flohr, S; Witzel, C

    2011-02-01

    In 1719 Morgagni described a condition, today known as hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), as one sign within a triad consisting of HFI, virilism, and obesity. Today, HFI is predominantly found in older women. Although the etiology of HFI has not yet been determined precisely, the condition has been linked to metabolic disorders. HFI is reported to be rare in the archaeological record and the frequency of the condition is thought to have increased during the 19th and 20th centuries. We present preliminary results on the occurrence of HFI in the commingled human bone assemblage from "tomb VII" discovered underneath the Bronze Age royal palace of the ancient city of Qatna, Syria. A preliminary minimal number of individuals of 70 has been estimated for the as yet not fully analyzed skeletal remains. Skull fragments of nine individuals exhibit endocranial bone formations consistent with HFI. Rarity of stress indicators in the skeletons, the rich grave goods, and the burial place within the area of the Royal palace are suggestive of a high social status and an economically favorable situation of the buried individuals. Assuming that their life style included a high calorie diet in combination with little physical activity, acquired metabolic disorders may have been present in many individuals. The comparatively high number of individuals presenting HFI in the studied sample might therefore be viewed as being related to their high social status. Multiple occurrences of HFI in archaeological skeletal assemblages might serve as a proxy for social status.

  8. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (I) Standards evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Pérez, R; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Jiménez Contreras, E

    1997-08-01

    The evaluation of scientific journal has become a necessary exercise for a variety of purposes and parties. We evaluated compliance with ISO standards for periodicals by the Spanish biomedical journal An. Med. Interna. Compliance with 136 data items based on different standards was evaluated with the help of a specially developed data sheet, and expressed as overall mean compliance (49.2%) and actual mean compliance (83.4%), i.e., compliance with those items considered necessary for the effective transfer of information via data bases. Items for which standardization was not optimal were examined in detail and specific recommendations for correction were given. We conclude that An. Med. Interna effectively fulfills its mission as an instrument for the communication of research results. In comparison with Spanish journals covering different areas and published by different organizations, compliance with international standards was better in An. Med. Interna.

  9. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna from Bovine Ovarian Follicles during Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna is a specialized stromal layer that envelops each growing ovarian follicle. It contains capillaries, fibroblasts, immune cells and the steroidogenic cells that synthesize androgens for conversion to estradiol by the neighboring granulosa cells. During reproductive life only a small number of follicles will grow to a sufficient size to ovulate, whereas the majority of follicles will undergo regression/atresia and phagocytosis by macrophages. To identify genes which are differentially regulated in the theca interna during follicular atresia, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from healthy (n = 10) and antral atretic (n = 5) bovine follicles at early antral stages (<5 mm). Principal Component Analyses and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed primary clustering into two groups, healthy and atretic. A total of 543 probe sets were differentially expressed between the atretic and healthy theca interna. Further analyses of these genes by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis Toolkit software found most of the genes being expressed were related to cytokines, hormones and receptors as well as the cell cycle and DNA replication. Cell cycle genes which encode components of the replicating chromosome complex and mitotic spindle were down-regulated in atretic theca interna, whereas stress response and inflammation-related genes such as TP53, IKBKB and TGFB1 were up-regulated. In addition to cell cycle regulators, upstream regulators that were predicted to be inhibited included Retinoblastoma 1, E2 transcription factor 1, and hepatocyte growth factor. Our study suggests that during antral atresia of small follicles in the theca interna, arrest of cell cycle and DNA replication occurs rather than up- regulation of apoptosis-associated genes as occurs in granulosa cells. PMID:24956388

  10. [Arteriovenous fistula of the A. vertebralis after catheterization of V. jugularis interna (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Beeger, R; Grabbe, E; Vogel, H

    1982-09-01

    The article reports on an arteriovenous fistula between the a. vertebralis and the v. vertebralis with blood flowing off via the v. vertebralis, v. cervicalis profunda and v. brachiocephalica. The fistula occurred after application of a central venous catheter to the v. jugularis interna.

  11. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (II) Bibliometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Contreras, E; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Ruiz Pérez, R

    1997-08-01

    National and international diffusion, composition of the collective of authors who publish in the journal, and cocitation were studies for the journal An. Med. Interna. Diffusion was analyzed by examining the presence of the journal in medical data bases and specialized libraries in Spain. The institutional affiliations and geographical location of authors were determined on the basis of the affiliations given in the article by-lines. The journal is included in the major medical data bases and in approximately 80% of the libraries studied. The predominant professional affiliation among authors was clinical (hospital); the geographical origin of the authors (expressed as a percentage of all authors) approximately paralleled the volume of scientific publications generated by each of Spain's 17 autonomous regions. The cocitation study showed that An. Med. Interna ranked somewhere in the middle of the group' of 38 Spanish medical journals considered representative of research being done in Spain.

  12. Primera aproximación a la estructura interna de Plutón

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steren, G. A.; Carranza, G. J.; Hubbard, W. B.

    En el presente trabajo se propuso estudiar la estructura interna actual del planeta Plutón. El modelo que se planteó es del tipo de estructura no-diferenciada. Se incluyó como fuente de calor interna la radioactividad y como único mecanismo de transporte de la energía a la conducción. Se encontró que el planeta estaría compuesto por una mezcla de roca (65% en masa) y hielo de agua (35%). Este simple modelo permite inferir que una estructura más realista para Plutón debería incluir también a la convección como mecanismo de transporte. Ello además permitiría avanzar de modo más firme en el estado de diferenciación del planeta, que casi seguramente sea más complejo que el adoptado.

  13. Brief communication: unusual finding at Pueblo Bonito: multiple cases of hyperostosis frontalis interna.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, Dawn M; Wilczak, Cynthia A; Dudar, J Christopher

    2006-08-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a disease characterized by excess bone growth on the internal lamina of the frontal bone and, occasionally, other cranial bones. Although the disease is fairly common in modern populations, its etiology is poorly understood. Hyperostosis frontalis interna has been identified in antiquity, primarily in the Old World, but with a much lower frequency than in modern groups. The purpose of the present study is to report multiple cases of HFI at Pueblo Bonito (Chaco Canyon, New Mexico). Twelve out of 37 adults with observable frontal bones exhibited HFI, ranging from mild to severe, including 11 females and one male. This is the first published case report of HFI in archaeological remains from the New World having a frequency comparable with modern groups. Most archaeological cases of HFI are isolated, so comparative data for multiple cases at one site are rare. The results of this study emphasize the importance of looking for HFI in archaeological remains, although it is rarely observed. Possible genetic and environmental factors for the high frequency of HFI at Chaco Canyon are considered, but additional research is needed to discover the etiology and to better understand why HFI sometimes occurs at modern frequencies in ancient populations.

  14. Bilateral Granulomatous and Fibrinoheterophilic Otitis Interna due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Captive Little Bustard ( Tetrax tetrax ).

    PubMed

    Scala, Christopher; Langlois, Isabelle; Lemberger, Karin

    2015-06-01

    A captive juvenile little bustard ( Tetrax tetrax ) was presented for acute onset of right head tilt and right circling. The bird failed to respond to supportive care and systemic antibiotic therapy. A bilateral granulomatous and fibrinoheterophilic otitis interna due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa was diagnosed postmortem by histopathologic examination and bacterial culture. In bustards, Pseudomonas species have been documented in the normal bacterial flora of the oropharynx and are frequently reported in upper respiratory tract infections. This is the first report of a peripheral vestibular syndrome due to P aeruginosa otitis interna in a bustard species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa should be included as a possible cause of otitis and peripheral vestibular syndrome in bustards.

  15. Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna in some osteoarcheological series from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, T; Fóthi, E; Bernert, Zs; Molnár, E; Lovász, G; Kovári, I; Köhler, K; Marcsik, A

    2009-01-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a generalised pathological condition with an unknown etiology and variable clinical association. It is characterized by excess bone growth and manifested on the inner table of the frontal bone, occasionally extending onto the temporals, parietals and the occipital. The etiology of HFI is uncertain: it may be an unknown genetic predisposition, a common environmental exposure, or special metabolic diseases. The purpose of the present study is to report cases of HFI in some osteoarcheological series from Hungary and to emphasize the importance of the investigation of HFI in ancient populations. Twenty out of 803 adults with observable frontal bones exhibited HFI, ranging from early to mid-type, including 15 females and 5 males. Some overgrowths with edges were blending into the endocranial surface, and some were prominently protruding from the surface. Advanced cases of HFI (type C) were observed after age 40-60 years.

  16. Ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna after dye-assisted membrane peeling.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Tobias; Steger, Claudia; Westermann, Martin; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koenigsdoerffer, Ekkehart; Strobel, Juergen; Dawczynski, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna (internal limiting membrane, ILM) and to evaluate alterations to the retinal cell layers after membrane peeling with vital dyes. Twenty-five patients (25 eyes) who underwent macular hole surgery were included, whereby 12 indocyanine green (ICG)- and 13 brilliant blue G (BBG)-stained ILM were analyzed using light, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy. Retinal cell fragments on the ILM were identified in both groups using immunohistochemistry. Comparing ICG- and BBG-stained membranes, larger cellular fragments were observed at a higher frequency in the BBG group. Thereby, the findings indicate that ICG permits an enhanced separation of the ILM from the underlying retina with less mechanical destruction. A possible explanation might be seen in the known photosensitivity of ICG, which induces a stiffening and shrinkage of the ILM but also generates retinal toxic metabolites.

  17. Ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior in a dog: keratotomy and extraction of a Cuterebra sp. larva.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Michele L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Kern, Thomas J; Bowman, Dwight D; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    A 1-year-old female spayed mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of acute onset of lethargy and blepharospasm OD. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a segmented larva embedded in the inferonasal iris. Moderate anterior uveitis was present. After pharmacologic dilation, mild vitreal hemorrhage and chorioretinal migration tracks were identified. The dog was treated empirically for uveitis for 5 days, after which a keratotomy and larval foreign body extraction was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully from intraocular surgery and remained visual and comfortable. Parasite evaluation confirmed the larva to be a Cuterebra sp. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of canine ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior, and the first report of successful surgical removal from the anterior segment in a dog with preservation of vision.

  18. 3D-Microarchitectural patterns of Hyperostosis frontalis interna: a micro-computed tomography study in aged women.

    PubMed

    Bracanovic, Djurdja; Djonic, Danijela; Nikolic, Slobodan; Milovanovic, Petar; Rakocevic, Zoran; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Marija

    2016-11-01

    Although seen frequently during dissections and autopsies, Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) - a morphological pattern of the frontal bone thickening - is often ignored and its nature and development are not yet understood sufficiently. Current macroscopic classification defines four grades/stages of HFI based on the morphological appearance and size of the affected area; however, it is unclear if these stages also depict the successive phases in the HFI development. Here we assessed 3D-microarchitecture of the frontal bone in women with various degrees of HFI expression and in an age- and sex-matched control group, hypothesizing that the bone microarchitecture bears imprints of the pathogenesis of HFI and may clarify the phases of its development. Frontal bone samples were collected during routine autopsies from 20 women with HFI (age: 69.9 ± 11.1 years) and 14 women without HFI (age: 74.1 ± 9.7 years). We classified the HFI samples into four groups, each group demonstrating different macroscopic type or stage of HFI. All samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography to evaluate 3D bone microarchitecture in the following regions of interest: total sample, outer table, diploe and inner table. Our results revealed that, compared to the control group, the women with HFI showed a significantly increased bone volume fraction in the region of diploe, along with significantly thicker and more plate-like shaped trabeculae and reduced trabecular separation and connectivity density. Moreover, the inner table of the frontal bone in women with HFI displayed significantly increased total porosity and mean pore diameter compared to controls. Microstructural reorganization of the frontal bone in women with HFI was also reflected in significantly higher porosity and lower bone volume fraction in the inner vs. outer table due to an increased number of pores larger than 100 μm. The individual comparisons between the control group and different macroscopic stages of

  19. The Cognitive Role of the Globus Pallidus interna; Insights from Disease States.

    PubMed

    Gillies, M J; Hyam, J A; Weiss, A R; Antoniades, C A; Bogacz, R; Fitzgerald, J J; Aziz, T Z; Whittington, M A; Green, Alexander L

    2017-02-28

    The motor symptoms of both Parkinson's disease and focal dystonia arise from dysfunction of the basal ganglia, and are improved by pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus interna (GPi). However, Parkinson's disease is associated with a greater degree of basal ganglia-dependent learning impairment than dystonia. We attempt to understand this observation in terms of a comparison of the electrophysiology of the output of the basal ganglia between the two conditions. We use the natural experiment offered by Deep Brain Stimulation to compare GPi local field potential responses in subjects with Parkinson's disease compared to subjects with dystonia performing a forced-choice decision-making task with sensory feedback. In dystonic subjects, we found that auditory feedback was associated with the presence of high gamma oscillations nestled on a negative deflection, morphologically similar to sharp wave ripple complexes described in human rhinal cortex. These were not present in Parkinson's disease subjects. The temporal properties of the high gamma burst were modified by incorrect trial performance compared to correct trial performance. Both groups exhibited a robust low frequency response to 'incorrect' trial performance in dominant GPi but not non-dominant GPi at theta frequency. Our results suggest that cellular processes associated with striatum-dependent memory function may be selectively impaired in Parkinson's disease even if dopaminergic drugs are administered, but that error detection mechanisms are preserved.

  20. Globus Pallidus Interna in Tourette Syndrome: Decreased Local Activity and Disrupted Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gong-Jun; Liao, Wei; Yu, Yang; Miao, Huan-Huan; Feng, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Kai; Feng, Jian-Hua; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is an effective deep brain stimulation site for the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS), and plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of TS. To investigate the functional network feature of GPi in TS patients, we retrospectively studied 24 boys with ‘pure’ TS and 32 age-/education-matched healthy boys by resting state functional magnetic resonance images. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and functional connectivity were used to estimate the local activity in GPi and its functional coordinate with the whole brain regions, respectively. We found decreased ALFF in patients’ bilateral GPi, which was also negatively correlated with clinical symptoms. Functional connectivity analysis indicated abnormal regions within motor and motor-control networks in patients (inferior part of sensorimotor area, cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, and brain stem). Transcranial magnetic stimulation sites defined by previous studies (“hand knob” area, premotor area, and supplementary motor area) did not show significantly different functional connectivity with GPi between groups. In summary, this study characterized the disrupted functional network of GPi and provided potential regions-of-interest for further basic and clinical studies on TS. PMID:27799898

  1. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in postmenopausal women-Possible relation to osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Djonic, Danijela; Bracanovic, Djurdja; Rakocevic, Zoran; Ivovic, Miomira; Nikolic, Slobodan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Marija

    2016-01-01

    To improve our understanding of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), we investigated whether HFI was accompanied by changes in the postcranial skeleton. Based on head CT scan analyses, 103 postmenopausal women were divided into controls without HFI and those with HFI, in whom we measured the thickness of frontal, occipital, and parietal bones. Women in the study underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to analyze the bone density of the hip and vertebral region and external geometry of the proximal femora. Additionally, all of the women completed a questionnaire about symptoms and conditions that could be related to HFI. Women with HFI had a significantly higher prevalence of headaches, neurological and psychiatric disorders, and a significantly lower prevalence of having given birth. Increased bone thickness and altered bone structure in women with HFI was localized only on the skull, particularly on the frontal bone, probably due to specific properties of its underlying dura. Bone loss in the postcranial skeleton showed the same pattern in postmenopausal women with HFI as in those without HFI. Recording of HFI in medical records can be helpful in distinguishing whether reported disorders occur as a consequence of HFI or are related to other diseases, but does not appear helpful in identifying women at risk of bone loss.

  2. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and castration: the case of the famous singer Farinelli (1705-1782).

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Todero, Antonio; Fornaciari, Gino; Mariotti, Valentina

    2011-11-01

    The famous castrato singer Farinelli (1705-1782) was exhumed by our research group in July 2006 for the purpose of gaining some insight into his biological profile through a study of his skeletal remains. Farinelli was castrated before puberty to preserve the treble pitch of the boy's voice into adult life. His powerful and sweet voice became legendary. In spite of its bad preservation state, the skeleton displayed some interesting characteristics that are probably related to the effects of castration, including long limb-bones, persistence of epiphyseal lines and osteoporosis. In particular, the frontal bone was affected by severe hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI). This condition consists in a symmetrical thickening of the inner table of the bone. The epidemiology of HFI shows that it is relatively common in postmenopausal women but very rare in men. Men affected by this pathology suffer from diseases, syndromes or treatments causing androgen deficiency. In the case of Farinelli, castration was probably responsible for the onset and development of this lesion.

  3. A case of extensive hyperostosis frontalis interna in an 87-year-old female human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Talarico, Ernest F; Prather, Andrew D; Hardt, Kevin D

    2008-04-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a condition that involves thickening of the inner surface of the frontal bone with sparing of the midline. Little is known about the etiology and clinical presentation of HFI. We report unusual findings in a woman with extensive Type D hyperostosis of the frontal bone and a large hyperostotic nodule in the parietal bone with impingement on the precentral gyrus, distinguishing this from the common form of HFI. The scalp was dissected from the cranial vault, and the calvaria and brain were removed and digitally imaged. Bone specimens were embedded in methyl methacrylate plastic, sectioned, and stained using the Von Kossa Method with MacNeal's tetrachrome. Medical records were reviewed, and additional history was obtained through interviews with the donor's family. The calvaria had extensive, bilateral thickening of the frontal bone with irregular topography and clearly demarcated borders. The dura was adherent to all hyperostotic regions. A 3.5-cm nodule was visible on the inner table of the left parietal bone. The dura and cerebrum showed compression in this region, but it was unclear if this resulted in clinical ramifications. Microscopic analysis revealed a larger proportion of cancellous bone was present in regions of macroscopic hyperostosis. Quantitative analysis of sections through areas of gross hyperostosis demonstrated a lower proportion of lamellar bone than in the control. The patient exhibited symptoms that have been correlated to HFI in previous studies. We suggest that the HFI disease process was responsible for the manifestation of these symptoms in this patient.

  4. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and castration: the case of the famous singer Farinelli (1705–1782)

    PubMed Central

    Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Todero, Antonio; Fornaciari, Gino; Mariotti, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The famous castrato singer Farinelli (1705–1782) was exhumed by our research group in July 2006 for the purpose of gaining some insight into his biological profile through a study of his skeletal remains. Farinelli was castrated before puberty to preserve the treble pitch of the boy's voice into adult life. His powerful and sweet voice became legendary. In spite of its bad preservation state, the skeleton displayed some interesting characteristics that are probably related to the effects of castration, including long limb-bones, persistence of epiphyseal lines and osteoporosis. In particular, the frontal bone was affected by severe hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI). This condition consists in a symmetrical thickening of the inner table of the bone. The epidemiology of HFI shows that it is relatively common in postmenopausal women but very rare in men. Men affected by this pathology suffer from diseases, syndromes or treatments causing androgen deficiency. In the case of Farinelli, castration was probably responsible for the onset and development of this lesion. PMID:21740437

  5. The pars interna/media anatomy and histology in the human larynx.

    PubMed

    Charpied, George L

    2007-01-01

    The pars interna/media (PIM) is a small muscle found in the human larynx that has not been successfully described in contemporary literature on laryngeal structure. The objective of this study was to describe the PIM's anatomy in detail. Thirteen human larynges obtained from postmortem examination were cleaned and preserved. Exposure of the PIM was through a lateral disarticulation of the cricothyroid joint and reflection of the cricothyroid muscle and the thyroid lamina. In the human, the PIM was found to be strap-like in form and to have two bellies with attachments to the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage at the root of the inferior horn and anteriosuperior cricoid arch. It appears to be innervated by a middle division, vestibular branch, of the internal superior laryngeal nerve. The average fiber diameter is 40 mum. Its type 1-to-type 2 fiber ratio places it within the range of other intrinsic laryngeal muscles. A muscle spindle was identified in medial bundle at the PIM's thyroid attachment. Thyroid medial surface attachment is within few millimeters of the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. These data show that the PIM is a robust muscle and deserves attention anatomically. Its orientation within the thyroid and nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve innervations of the human PIM may place it in the vocal fold tensor group rather than the laryngeal sphincter group. It is possible the PIM reports on cricothyroid distance and right versus left cricothyroid joint stresses. Electromyographic examination of the PIM in the Rhesus larynx may help elucidate its physiology to elaborate its human physiology.

  6. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  7. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  8. Connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus pars interna to regions within the speech network: a meta-analytic connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Manes, Jordan L; Parkinson, Amy L; Larson, Charles R; Greenlee, Jeremy D; Eickhoff, Simon B; Corcos, Daniel M; Robin, Donald A

    2014-07-01

    Cortico-basal ganglia connections are involved in a range of behaviors within motor, cognitive, and emotional domains; however, the whole-brain functional connections of individual nuclei are poorly understood in humans. The first aim of this study was to characterize and compare the connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) using meta-analytic connectivity modeling. Structure-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses were performed for STN and GPi seeds using archived functional imaging coordinates from the BrainMap database. Both regions coactivated with caudate, putamen, thalamus, STN, GPi, and GPe, SMA, IFG, and insula. Contrast analyses also revealed coactivation differences within SMA, IFG, insula, and premotor cortex. The second aim of this study was to examine the degree of overlap between the connectivity maps derived for STN and GPi and a functional activation map representing the speech network. To do this, we examined the intersection of coactivation maps and their respective contrasts (STN > GPi and GPi > STN) with a coordinate-based meta-analysis of speech function. In conjunction with the speech map, both STN and GPi coactivation maps revealed overlap in the anterior insula with GPi map additionally showing overlap in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Among cortical regions activated by speech tasks, STN was found to have stronger connectivity than GPi with regions involved in cognitive linguistic processes (pre-SMA, dorsal anterior insula, and inferior frontal gyrus), while GPi demonstrated stronger connectivity to regions involved in motor speech processes (middle insula, SMA, and premotor cortex).

  9. [Individualizing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, William J.

    The individually guided education (IGE) program developed by the Kettering Foundation was implemented in September of 1973 at the John F. Kennedy Memorial Junior High School in Woburn, Massachusetts. The components of the program described in this speech include pupil and teacher scheduling, physical layout, pupil selection and adjustment,…

  10. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  11. Transcriptomal profiling of bovine ovarian granulosa and theca interna cells in primary culture in comparison with their in vivo counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Glister, Claire; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Knight, Philip G.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro culture of ovarian granulosa cells and theca cells has been very important for our understanding of their function and regulation. One of the most eagerly sought attributes of cell culture is the use of chemically-defined conditions. However, even under such in vitro conditions cell behaviour could differ from the in vivo situation because of differences in oxygen tension, nutrients, adhesion matrix and other factors. To examine this further we compared the transcriptomes of both granulosa cells and cells from the theca interna that were cultured in what are arguably the best in vitro conditions for maintaining the ‘follicular’ phenotypes of both tissue types, as displayed by their respective freshly-isolated counterparts. The array data analysed are from recently published data and use the same sizes of bovine follicles (small antral 3–6 mm) and the same Affymetrix arrays. We conducted analysis using Partek, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and GOEAST. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering clearly separated the in vivo from the in vitro groups for both cells types and transcriptomes were more homogeneous upon culture. In both cell cultures behaviours associated with cell adhesion, migration and interaction with matrix or substrate were more abundant. However, the pathways involved generally differed between the two cell types. With the thecal cultures a gene expression signature of an immune response was more abundant, probably by leukocytes amongst the cells cultured from the theca interna. These results indicate differences between in vivo and in vitro that should be considered when interpreting in vitro data. PMID:28282394

  12. [Individual consciousness].

    PubMed

    Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2009-01-01

    The main modern concepts on the consciousness nature are considered. Together with the dualistic concepts, there exist concepts the adherents of which find it possible to get to know the origin of consciousness on the basis of natural science. A critical analysis of those concepts brings the author to the conclusion that they do not solve the main problem of individual consciousness: how subjective elements of consciousness arise in the brain as a result of objectively registered processes. The main reason of failures to solve said problem is considered by the author in the fact that the subjective categories of consciousness are not really subject to science. Nevertheless, it does not mean the dualism is to be inevitably accepted. In fact, the subjective categories arise in the limits of a life the area of which is substantially wider than that of science. An original information and physical hypothesis is being set up that provides for necessary premises and conditions enabling the origination of subjective categories of consciousness during the progressive natural evolution of living systems.

  13. Rate of occurrence, gross appearance, and age relation of hyperostosis frontalis interna in females: a prospective autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Djonić, Danijela; Zivković, Vladimir; Babić, Dragan; Juković, Fehim; Djurić, Marija

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our study was to determine rate of occurrence and appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) in females and correlation of this phenomenon with ageing. The sample included 248 deceased females: 45 of them with different types of HFI, and 203 without HFI, average age 68.3 +/- 15.4 years (range, 19-93), and 58.2 +/- 20.2 years (range, 10-101), respectively. According to our results, the rate of HFI was 18.14%. The older the woman was, the higher the possibility of HFI occurring (Pearson correlation 0.211, N=248, P=0.001), but the type of HFI did not correlate with age (Pearson correlation 0.229, N=45, P=0.131). Frontal and temporal bone were significantly thicker in women with than in women without HFI (t= -10.490, DF=246, P=0.000, and t= -5.658, DF=246, P=0.000, respectively). These bones became thicker with ageing (Pearson correlation 0.178, N=248, P=0.005, and 0.303, N=248, P=0.000, respectively). The best predictors of HFI occurrence were respectively, frontal bone thickness, temporal bone thickness, and age(Wald. coeff.=35.487, P=0.000; Wald. coeff.=3.288, P=0.070, and Wald.coeff. =2.727, P =0.099). Diagnosis of HFI depends not only on frontal bone thickness, but also on waviness of internal plate of the frontal bone, as well as-the involvement of the inner bone surface.

  14. Individualized Training and the Training of Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, William A.

    Two current instructional research efforts relating to the problem of an individual student's learning and personal needs are reported. Characteristics of individualized instruction (e.g., terminal course objectives, remedial materials, measurement procedures), administrative constraints (e.g., fixed time, cost of equipment, lack of skilled…

  15. Effect of frozen storage duration and cooking on physical and oxidative changes in M. Gastrocnemius pars interna and M. Iliofiburalis of Rhea americana.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, R S; Gatellier, P; Zambiazi, R C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of frozen storage time (30, 60, 90 or 180 days) and cooking (100 °C, 30 min) on the physical characteristics and oxidative stability of M. Gastrocnemius pars interna (GN) and M. Iliofiburalis (IF) of rhea americana. Physical parameters measured included thawing and cooking loss, colour parameters (L*a*b*), while oxidation was assessed by determining the TBA-RS, carbonyl and aromatic amino acid content. Prolonged frozen storage of rhea meat decreased lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), and increased the discoloration parameter hue angle and redness a*. During storage, muscle IF was more prone to lipid and myoglobin oxidation than muscle GN. Cooking loss declined with the increase of storage time and was higher in GN than in IF muscle. With cooking, TBA-RS, carbonyl content, and aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) were highly affected, but the extent of oxidation ranged according to muscle and duration of frozen storage.

  16. The neurobiology of individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  17. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  18. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality.

  19. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  20. Problems of Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Clarence

    Due in part to the open enrollment policy in junior colleges, there is a great diversity in student reading ability that dictates a need to individualize reading instruction. Individualization, defined as personalized instruction, may be accomplished through helping the student to read course materials, helping him to read special materials, or…

  1. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  2. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different…

  3. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  4. Elements of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svara, Ronald

    Although many schools claim to make use of individualized instruction, no common definition of this term has been agreed on. The author reviewed definitions of "individualized instruction" in five studies and then surveyed 30 community and junior colleges who claimed to be using this method of instruction to learn what their programs…

  5. Individual and Family Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jean; Simpson, Elizabeth

    This curriculum guide, in working paper form, for a semester-long three-credit course in individual and family development is one of nine technical core courses in an associate degree consumer/family manager program. The course studies individual and family development through the life cycle. Emphasis is on the relationship of basic needs to the…

  6. The elusive quantal individual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    In the formal hedgehog representation of quantum mechanics [5] (ambiguous) weights are derived for hedgehogs with a finite number of questions and answers, in particular applied to spin {1}/{2} and to correlated spin {1}/{2} pairs. Unavoidable negative weights are a clear signal for conceptual difficulties in quantum mechanical interpretation. If these weights had been presupposed to be non-negative, they could have led to Bell-like inequalities inconsistent with quantum mechanics. This is what has happened already in various special models. Owing to the indefinite weights, the hedgehog hypothesis of one-to-one mapping between individual physical samples and individual fictitious hedgehogs cannot be maintained. If no physical interpretation is conceived for the negative weights, the only way to avoid unsolved conceptual difficulties appears to resign (even in the hedgehog representation) to the skeptical ensemble interpretation [1], without theorizing about individual physical samples at all.

  7. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  8. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  9. Individual Differences in Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  10. AN INDIVIDUALIZED SCIENCE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIPSON, JOSEPH I.

    THE LEARNING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH IS WORKING ON AN EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT TO EXAMINE METHODS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN SCIENCE AT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LEVEL. AT THIS TIME, THE EXPERIMENT IS FOCUSED UPON NON-READERS IN GRADES K-3. EACH STUDENT RECEIVES A TAPE CARTRIDGE AND A PLASTIC BOX CONTAINING…

  11. Individualized Systems of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.

    The techniques and effectiveness of systems for adjusting the pace, content, sequence, and style of instruction to fit the needs of individual learners are briefly reviewed. These systems are all designed to function in group instructional settings. They may be separated into print-oriented approaches (programmed instruction, personalized system…

  12. An Individualized Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy B.

    The operating procedures of a university reading and study skills center for completely individualized reading instruction are described. The program is offered as a student service (no fee) on a voluntary, noncredit basis. A prepared set of instructional tapes is used whereby students can largely serve themselves, proceeding at their own rates,…

  13. Individualized Instruction and Unipacs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.

    Individualized instruction is an educational program in which grade levels and time units are designed to permit the student to work at his own pace and level with the use of unipacs. The unipac, a "unique package," is a specially designed group of learning activities based on specific behavioral objectives chosen by the student. Unipacs consist…

  14. Individual Instruction: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirr, Peter J.

    The bibliography lists 58 references (1969-74) on individualized instruction. Topics covered include computer assisted instruction, diagnostic teaching, and instructional materials, for handicapped as well as nonhandicapped children. Entries are listed in alphabetical order by author (or source) and usually include name of publisher, date, and…

  15. Individual Differences in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on individual differences in learning. "Novice and Expert Learning: Impact on Training" (Barbara J. Daley) reports on a study in which 20 novice and expert nurses were interviewed to identify their different learning processes and the factors that facilitated or hindered their learning.…

  16. Individual Folk Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jean L.

    An individual folk anthology unit covering eight topics is described in this paper. The eight topics include (1) I have an identity, (2) my interesting name, (3) mandalas and sentences, (4) rhythms and rhymes of old times, (5) myths of my childhood, (6) folk legends/old and new, (7) aspects of folklore, and (8) slang. The activities accompanying…

  17. Individual Voices, Common Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausslein, Evelyn, Comp.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the "Early Childhood Bulletin" describes some of the ways in which parents are learning to speak out on behalf of young children and their families being served through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part H early intervention programs. The document consists of four sections in which parents share…

  18. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions.

  19. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  20. Understanding individual routing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779–782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65–100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325–362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin–destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  1. Individuality of handwriting.

    PubMed

    Srihari, Sargur N; Cha, Sung-Hyuk; Arora, Hina; Lee, Sangjik

    2002-07-01

    Motivated by several rulings in United States courts concerning expert testimony in general, and handwriting testimony in particular, we undertook a study to objectively validate the hypothesis that handwriting is individual. Handwriting samples of 1,500 individuals, representative of the U.S. population with respect to gender, age, ethnic groups, etc., were obtained. Analyzing differences in handwriting was done by using computer algorithms for extracting features from scanned images of handwriting. Attributes characteristic of the handwriting were obtained, e.g., line separation, slant, character shapes, etc. These attributes, which are a subset of attributes used by forensic document examiners (FDEs), were used to quantitatively establish individuality by using machine learning approaches. Using global attributes of handwriting and very few characters in the writing, the ability to determine the writer with a high degree of confidence was established. The work is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting handwriting evidence in court. The mathematical approach and the resulting software also have the promise of aiding the FDE.

  2. Amniotic Fluid Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Soluble Receptor Tunica Interna Endothelial Cell Kinase-2 Levels and Regulation in Normal Pregnancy and Intraamniotic Inflammation-Induced Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T.; Thung, Stephen; Razeq, Sonya S. Abdel-; Rosenberg, Victor; Han, Christina S.; Ali, Unzila A.; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhao, Guomao; Funai, Edmund F.; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Ang-2 act selectively on endothelial cells by engaging the Tunica interna endothelial cell kinase-2 (Tie2) receptor. A soluble form of Tie2 (sTie2) blocks angiopoietin bioactivity. Objective: The aim of the study was to characterize changes and expression patterns of Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 in amniotic fluid (AF) and placenta during human pregnancy and intraamniotic inflammation (IAI)-induced preterm birth. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary university hospital. Patients: AF levels of Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 were evaluated in 176 women during second trimester (n = 40), third trimester (n = 37), and preterm labor (positive IAI, n = 50; negative IAI, n = 49). Placenta and cord blood of select women were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: Ang-1, Ang-2, sTie2, and IL-6 were evaluated by ELISA. Real-time PCR measured Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie2 placental mRNA levels. Placenta was immunostained for Ang-1 and Ang-2. Placental explant cultures were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, Pam3Cys, and modulators of protein synthesis/secretion (cycloheximide, monensin, and brefeldin A). Results: In normal pregnancy, the levels and ratios of AF Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 varied with gestational age (GA) (P < 0.001). PCR revealed corresponding changes in placental Ang-1 and Ang-2, but not Tie2, mRNA. IAI raised AF Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 above the expected level for GA without affecting their placental mRNA. Ang-2 immunoreactivity appeared enhanced in areas of villous edema. AF Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio was an important determinant of cord blood IL-6 (P < 0.001). Ex-vivo, sTie2 release was increased by Golgi disrupting but not bacterial mimic agents. Conclusions: Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 are physiological constituents of AF that are GA and IAI regulated. Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio may play a role in modulating the fetal inflammatory response to IAI. Placental sTie2 shedding likely involves a Golgi-mediated mechanism. PMID:20410222

  3. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Hall

    2008-12-08

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 & Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent! deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  4. Individual susceptibility to toxicity.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    1992-12-01

    Individual variation in susceptibility to chemical toxicity may be due to differences in toxicokinetic patterns or effect modification. Well-documented interspecies genetic differences in susceptibility to chemicals had lead to studies of such variation also within species. Epidemiological evidence now suggests that common variations, particularly in the P-450 enzymes, may play a major role in determining individual susceptibility to chemically-induced disease. Physiologic factors are involved in the particular susceptibility of the fetus, the newborn, and the old. Constitutional susceptibility is also affected by acquired conditions, including chronic disease, such as diabetes mellitus. Perhaps the most complex area relates to the increase in vulnerability caused by previous or contemporary exposure to other factors, thus eliciting, e.g., synergistic effects. Although amply demonstrated by experimental studies, epidemiological or clinical confirmation is generally lacking. One hypothesis suggests that a chemical exposure may affect the reserve capacity of the body, though not resulting in any immediate adverse effect. Subsequently, the body becomes unable to compensate for an additional stress, and toxicity then develops. Epidemiological approaches are available and need to be expanded. Research in this area has potential ethical implications which should be dealt with in an open, informed forum.

  5. Muscle pH and temperature changes in hot- and cold-deboned ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) Muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna and Muscularis iliofibularis during the first 23h post-mortem.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Botha, Suné St C; Britz, T J

    2007-02-01

    Cold-shortening is the response when muscles are exposed to temperatures below 10°C with a pH>6.20. The course of pH within hot-deboned and intact ostrich M. gastrocnemius, pars interna and M. iliofibularis were followed for the first 23-24h post-mortem to investigate the changes in pH as well as to determine the point of minimum pH for ostrich muscles post-mortem. The hot-deboned muscles took longer to reach the point of minimum pH than the intact muscles. There was no significant (P=0.4508) difference in the minimum pH (5.91±0.26) between the hot-deboned and the intact muscles. It was concluded that both the M. gastrocnemius, pars interna and the M. iliofibularis reached a pH<6.20 early post-mortem with muscle temperatures above 10°C; and therefore showed no risk of cold-shortening if these muscles were to be hot-deboned 2-4h post-mortem.

  6. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo Geo

  7. A Viable Individualized Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubillo, James M.

    1977-01-01

    An individualized learning system for college algebra was devised and tested. Results indicated that the individualized system was at least as effective as traditional approaches, and superior with respect to student attitudes toward the course. (SD)

  8. The Science of the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to establish a science of the individual, grounded in dynamic systems, and focused on the analysis of individual variability. Our argument is that individuals behave, learn, and develop in distinctive ways, showing patterns of variability that are not captured by models based on statistical averages. As such, any meaningful attempt to…

  9. Individualizing Secondary School Chemistry Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses a study comparing the effectiveness of the group studies approach recommended in the teacher's guide for CBA chemistry with an individualized approach utilizing CBA materials. The individualized group did a well as or better than the other group. Reviews students' attitudes toward individualized course. Twenty-four references. (PR)

  10. Individual health services

    PubMed Central

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hunger, Theresa; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin Regina; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Background The German statutory health insurance (GKV) reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK), individual health services (IGeL) are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. Research questions The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL? What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? For two of the most common IGeL, the screening for glaucoma and the screening for ovarian and endometrial cancer by vaginal ultrasound (VUS), the following questions are addressed: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness? Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? Methods The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. Results 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by ultrasound assessments

  11. Methodological Individualism and Public Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule-Jones, Mark, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The economic reasoning that individuals use in making public choices regarding politics, society, and the economy is examined in these essays. All of the essays set the agenda for addressing the perplexing problems of understanding individual behavior in relation to the behavior of others. (RM)

  12. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  13. Individual Differences in Equity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

  14. Administering the Individualized Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James, Jr.

    This book provides discussion and guidelines for administering an individualized instruction program; it is stated, however, that the book is not confined to individualized study units alone but brings in the creation of any educational instrument, a variety of which are illustrated in the appendixes. The following topics are considered in this…

  15. Individualizing Instruction: Purpose and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.

    The author discusses the benefits of using individualized instructional methods in physical education and describes the various components of the method. General rationale for the implementation of individualized instruction is that subject matter taught is frequently dependent upon the processes provided for learning--if learning does not take…

  16. Individualizing Reading Instruction: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Larry A.; Smith, Carl B.

    The articles contained in this volume were selected to support and strengthen the concept of individualized instruction through diagnostic teaching. The book is divided into six major parts, each of which is preceded by a brief overview that emphasizes the main tenets advanced by the authors of the individual articles. The six major divisions of…

  17. Individual Differences, Computers, and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von

    1995-01-01

    Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…

  18. Readability of Individualized Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Lusa

    2014-01-01

    An individualized education program is a legal document that details information regarding the special education program of a student with a disability. For parents to determine whether they agree with the individualized education program that is proposed by the school, they must first be able to read and comprehend the document. This study aimed…

  19. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  20. Dance for Individuals With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Lapum, Jennifer L; Bar, Rachel J

    2016-03-01

    The movement and music associated with dance plays an important role in many individuals' lives and can become imprinted upon the body and mind. Dance is thus closely associated with memory because of these deep connections. Without conscious thought, dance has the potential to be initiated as individuals age. In the current article, the authors share narrative reflections about their experiences with, and the potential of, dance as an intervention for aging populations diagnosed with dementia-related diseases. They draw upon their experiences in working with the aging population and a dance program currently being developed by Canada's National Ballet School and Baycrest Health Sciences for individuals with dementia-related diseases in long-term care. The current article is structured as dialogue between the authors because it mimics dance as a dialogical encounter between movement and music, and/or between individuals.

  1. Theme: Serving Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Marty; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for…

  2. Succession planning and individual development.

    PubMed

    Goudreau, Kelly A; Hardy, Jacalyn

    2006-06-01

    The authors present a framework for a succession planning and individual development initiative implemented in a Veterans Health Administration facility. Foundational strategic goals and a conceptual framework in the Veterans Affairs system provide the structure for the 3 facility-level succession planning and individual development programs. Outcomes of the programs are promising with 2 of 3 programs demonstrating clear succession planning outcomes and the other one showing positive preliminary results.

  3. From physical to biological individuation.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Paul-Antoine; Hwang, Su-Young

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we insist on stressing the epistemic and metaphysical difference between individual and individuation, a distinction originally developed by Gilbert Simondon. Individuation occurs in complex physical systems by the coupling (R1) between the system and its outside conditions. As such the system is not well defined by its sole constituents. Let's characterize (R2) as follows: the system is not entirely defined by its structure at a given time because this structure will change and global emergent properties will appear, as in the paradigmatic example of phase transition. Thus physical individuation is defined both by the coupling of a physical system with its environment (R1) and by its diachronic dynamics taking place (R2). We interpret biological individuation as a second order one, i.e. as a recursive procedure through which physical individuation is also acting on "its own theatre". We represent this procedure like a mapping through which (R1R2) are applied to themselves, so that: RN = (R1R2)(N). We highlight the relation between this assumption and the concept of extended criticality developed by Bailly, Longo and Montévil.

  4. Bayesian Models of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Georgie; Meredith, Zoe; McMillin, Rebecca; Freeman, Tom C. A.

    2016-01-01

    According to Bayesian models, perception and cognition depend on the optimal combination of noisy incoming evidence with prior knowledge of the world. Individual differences in perception should therefore be jointly determined by a person’s sensitivity to incoming evidence and his or her prior expectations. It has been proposed that individuals with autism have flatter prior distributions than do nonautistic individuals, which suggests that prior variance is linked to the degree of autistic traits in the general population. We tested this idea by studying how perceived speed changes during pursuit eye movement and at low contrast. We found that individual differences in these two motion phenomena were predicted by differences in thresholds and autistic traits when combined in a quantitative Bayesian model. Our findings therefore support the flatter-prior hypothesis and suggest that individual differences in prior expectations are more systematic than previously thought. In order to be revealed, however, individual differences in sensitivity must also be taken into account. PMID:27770059

  5. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., individuals with disabling mental disorders (including children with serious emotional disturbances and adults with serious mental illness), individuals with chronic substance use disorders, individuals...

  6. Individual differences in distance perception.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Russell E

    2009-05-07

    Distance perception is among the most pervasive mental phenomena and the oldest research topics in behavioural science. However, we do not understand well the most pervasive finding of distance perception research, that of large individual differences. There are large individual differences in acrophobia (fear of heights), which we commonly assume consists of an abnormal fear of stimuli perceived normally. Evolved navigation theory (ENT) instead suggests that acrophobia consists of a more normal fear of stimuli perceived abnormally. ENT suggests that distance perception individual differences produce major components of acrophobia. Acrophobia tested over a broad range in the present study predicted large individual differences in distance estimation of surfaces that could produce falls. This fear of heights correlated positively with distance estimates of a vertical surface-even among non-acrophobic individuals at no risk of falling and without knowledge of being tested for acrophobia. Acrophobia score predicted magnitude of the descent illusion, which is thought to reflect the risk of falling. These data hold important implications in environmental navigation, clinical aetiology and the evolution of visual systems.

  7. Motivational Antecedents of Individual Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa

    The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.

  8. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals.

  9. Individualizing Instruction: Nine Ways to Individualize MACBETH or Anything Else.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffert, Beatrice G.

    This paper describes a model for individualized instruction, in which instruction is seen as a flexible series of interactions between three factors: the student, the content, and the strategy for teaching. The model is based on the student's active involvement in the content and on the teacher's facilitation of student learning. The paper shows…

  10. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., individuals with disabling mental disorders, individuals with serious and complex medical conditions, and... this chapter, individuals with disabling mental disorders (including children with serious emotional disturbances and adults with serious mental illness), individuals with chronic substance use...

  11. Standardization of individual dosimetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallini, A.

    1983-10-01

    The activities of an Italian operating group for the standardization of individual dosimeters are discussed. Intercalibration was performed for about 10,000 individual dosimeters in order to analyze systematic and random measuring errors. The validity of normalized inspection procedures was examined and the necessity of periodic checks was considered. Legislation is proposed including a technical inspection prior to authorization to start a dosimetry center and a norm for periodic controls of dosimetry services. The creation of a dosimetric data bank is also suggested.

  12. Individualized assessment and phenomenological psychology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, C T

    1979-04-01

    Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic approach to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in phenomenological psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. Phenomenological psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.

  13. Communication Disorders: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children (kindergarten through high school) with communication disorders. An introductory chapter covers…

  14. Individualized Learning Package about Etching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael J.

    An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

  15. FLEXIBLE WING INDIVIDUAL DROP GLIDER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The feasibility of the paraglider concept as a means of descent for individual airborne troops is presented. Full-scale 22-foot inflatable wings and...in an effort to achieve system reliability. The feasibility of using the paraglider as a means of controlled delivery of airborne paratroopers was successfully demonstrated.

  16. Individual Defenses against Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that death anxiety is related to degree of individuation and self-actualization. Sees concerns about death increasing as people relinquish defenses, reach new levels of differentiation of self, and expand their lives and personal power. Notes that therapeutic progress poses existential dilemma. (Author/NB)

  17. The Individual Career Plan Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide explains the purpose and use of the Individual Career Plan (ICP) document as a tool that students can use from the middle grades onward to help them through the career planning process. Section 1, which provides a rationale for ICPs, examines their role in the career development process and use in the middle grades and high school.…

  18. Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  19. Nutritional Deficiencies: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for obese children (primary through secondary level). An introductory chapter on obesity…

  20. Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

  1. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  2. Structural Design with Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milks, Donald E.

    This paper describes the use of individualized instruction concepts in courses on structural design in undergraduate engineering programs. Areas covered include the distribution of time, unit packages, laboratory, and grading. Specific features discussed include class discussion, programmed problems, and summary units. Outcomes of such courses…

  3. Individualized Instruction Using Computer Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, S.; Lagowski, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Explains how computer-based instructional techniques are being used to individualize general chemistry instruction. After describing the computer equipment and language used, author describes simulated experiments and computer programmed drill exercises. Outlines fifteen topics programmed for instruction. Comparisons were made between experimental…

  4. Injuries and Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Chaudhry, Ramiz A.

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults with disabilities are at an increased risk of injury. Falls are the leading mechanism of injury regardless of the disability status and are even more common in those with moderate or severe disabilities. The setting for the injury differs with the disability status. Compared to individuals with moderate or no disabilities,…

  5. Aviation--An Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Fred F.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an individualized aviation course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of aviation, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal Aviation Administration regulations and…

  6. Individualized Motor-Perceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    This guide is being used in the Individualized Motor-Perceptual Study to determine whether working directly with kindergarten children to improve performance on motor-perceptual tasks will affect reading ability at the end of grades one, two, and three. The 5-year project involves six schools. In this guide, there are tips for teaching, suggested…

  7. The Computer and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, William W.; Glaser, Robert

    1969-01-01

    A prototype computer-based management and information system (MIS) was designed to assist teachers, developers and researchers involved in the Individually Prescribed Instruction Project. Objectives of the system were to collect and process information on each student and to supply this information to the student and/or teacher in a summarized…

  8. Individualized Degree Program Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Jan

    This student handbook describes the process and components of Whatcom Community College's Individualized Degree Program (IDP), which offers students the opportunity to design an associate degree or certificate plan to meet their educational goals. After introductory material presents a history of the IDP's development and the purpose of the…

  9. The Individual and the Organisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian

    1985-01-01

    Asserts that organizations do not have wills of their own but are only groups of individuals acting in concert. Argues that trying to run an organization by consensus results in the loss of accountability and merely relocates conflict without eliminating it. Urges adopting leadership by consent in educational organizations. (PGD)

  10. An Individualized Library Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappas, Bess

    This individualized program developed for students in grades 4-6 at Herman Hesse Elementary School in Georgia, is designed to provide the students with the basic library skills needed to make them independent learners in the media center. Activity sheets for student use comprise the major portion of the document. (Author/AWP)

  11. The stranded individualizer under compressed modernity: South Korean women in individualization without individualism.

    PubMed

    Kyung-Sup, Chang; Min-Young, Song

    2010-09-01

    South Korean families have functioned as a highly effective receptacle for the country's highly compressed conditions of modernity and late modernity. It is as much due to the success of South Korean families as an engine of compressed modernity as due to their failure that they have become functionally overloaded and socially risk-ridden. Such familial burdens and risks are particularly onerous to South Korean women because of the fundamentally gender-based structure of family relations and duties that has in part been recycled from the Confucian past and in part manufactured under industrial capitalism. Under these complicated conditions, South Korean women have had to dramatically restructure their family relations and duties as well as their individual life choices. Furthermore, under the most recent condition of what Beck calls second modernity, other institutions of modernity, such as the state, industrial economy, firms, unions, schools, and welfare systems, have become increasingly ineffective in helping to alleviate such (gender-based) familial burdens and dilemmas. As a result South Korean women have experienced dramatic changes in marriage patterns, fertility, family relations, etc. South Korean women's individualization has thereby taken place primarily as a matter of practicality rather than ideational change. A brief analysis of the situation in the neighbouring societies of Japan and Taiwan reinforces the conclusion that individualization without individualism, particularly among women, is a region-wide phenomenon in East Asia.

  12. Individual and Collective Protection Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-30

    food use sites: “as an additive during the manufacturing process of synthetic and non-woven textile materials used in aquarium filters, vacuum bags...development of the Triosyn Super HEPA (TSH) media as an enhanced filtration material to be included in individual protection and collective protection end...mature Triosyn Super HEPA filter material . A manufacturing process to incorporate Triosyn particles to glass fiber HEPA was developed to produce a

  13. Individual Differences in Hemispheric Specialization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Aphasia affecting the cerebral nemisphere on the same side as the preferred hand has also long been understood. Individual variation in degree...no LVF superiority for recognising dot patterns (Harcum and Dyer, 1962) and no differences between sides to a unilateral auditory stimulus...equal frequency after either left or right sides lesions, sinistrals with only dextral relatives tended to develop aphasia after only left sided

  14. The individual element test revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of the patch test for finite elements retains several unsettled aspects. In particular, the issue of one-element versus multielement tests needs clarification. Following a brief historical review, we present the individual element test (IET) of Bergan and Hanssen in an expanded context that encompasses several important classes of new elements. The relationship of the IET to the multielement forms A, B, and C of the patch test and to the single element test are clarified.

  15. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  16. Nutrigenomics, individualism and public health.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Ruth

    2004-02-01

    Issues arising in connection with genes and nutrition policy include both nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Nutrigenomics considers the relationship between specifc nutrients or diet and gene expression and, it is envisaged, will facilitate prevention of diet-related common diseases. Nutrigenetics is concerned with the effects of individual genetic variation (single nucleotide polymorphisms) on response to diet, and in the longer term may lead to personalised dietary recommendations. It is important also to consider the surrounding context of other issues such as novel and functional foods in so far as they are related to genetic modification. Ethical issues fall into a number of categories: (1) why nutrigenomics? Will it have important public health benefits? (2) questions about research, e.g. concerning the acquisition of information about individual genetic variation; (3) questions about who has access to this information, and its possible misuse; (4) the applications of this information in terms of public health policy, and the negotiation of the potential tension between the interests of the individual in relation to, for example, prevention of conditions such as obesity and allergy; (5) the appropriate ethical approach to the issues, e.g. the moral difference, if any, between therapy and enhancement in relation to individualised diets; whether the 'technological fix' is always appropriate, especially in the wider context of the purported lack of public confidence in science, which has special resonance in the sphere of nutrition.

  17. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  18. Rationale for individualizing haemophilia care.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Benny; Auerswald, Günter; Benson, Gary; Elezović, Ivo; Felder, Markus; Lambert, Thierry; Morfini, Massimo; Remor, Eduardo; Salaj, Peter; Santagostino, Elena; Šalek, Silva Z; Ljung, Rolf

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype of haemophilia A and B, it is now recognized that disease severity (based on factor VIII/IX activity) may no longer be the most appropriate guide for treatment and that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach is unlikely to achieve optimal therapy. Based on the present literature and consensus views of a group of experts in the field, this article highlights key gaps in the understanding of the diverse relationships between bleeding phenotype and factors such as joint health, genetic susceptibility, laboratory parameters, quality of life and management of pain. Early prophylaxis is a potential 'gold standard' therapy and issues surrounding inhibitor development, variations in its clinical use and long-term outcomes are discussed. Comprehensive treatment should be individualized for all patients (including those with mild or moderate haemophilia and carriers). Wherever possible all patients should be given prophylaxis. However, adult patients with a milder haemophilia phenotype may be candidates for ceasing prophylaxis and switching to on-demand treatment. Regardless, all treatment (on-demand and prophylaxis) should be tailored towards both the patient's personal needs and their clinical profile. In addition, as the associations between risk factors (psychosocial, condition-related and treatment-related) and clinical features are unique to each patient, an individualized approach is required to enable patients to alter their behaviour in response to them. The practical methodologies needed to reach this goal of individualized haemophilia care, and the health economic implications of this strategy, are ongoing topics for discussion.

  19. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., individuals with disabling mental disorders, individuals with serious and complex medical conditions, and individuals with physical and/or mental disabilities that significantly impair their ability to perform one...

  20. The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1992-01-01

    Traces historical development from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. Describes individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice. Discusses how individual differences psychology has influenced counseling…

  1. Individualism-collectivism and personality.

    PubMed

    Triandis, H C

    2001-12-01

    This paper provides a review of the main findings concerning the relationship between the cultural syndromes of individualism and collectivism and personality. People in collectivist cultures, compared to people in individualist cultures, are likely to define themselves as aspects of groups, to give priority to in-group goals, to focus on context more than the content in making attributions and in communicating, to pay less attention to internal than to external processes as determinants of social behavior, to define most relationships with ingroup members as communal, to make more situational attributions, and tend to be self-effacing.

  2. Imaging individual green fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Daniel W.; Hom-Booher, Nora; Vale, Ronald D.

    1997-07-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy techniques have allowed the video-time imaging of single molecules of fluorescent dyes covalently bound to proteins in aqueous environments. However, the techniques have not been exploited fully because proteins can be difficult to label, and dye modification may cause partial or complete loss of activity. These difficulties could be circumvented by fusing proteins to green fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Here we report that single S65T mutant GFP molecules can be imaged using total internal reflection microscopy, and that ATP-driven movement of an individual kinesin molecule (a microtubule motor protein) fused to GFP can be readily observed.

  3. The place for individual conscience.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    2001-10-01

    From a liberationist, feminist, and Catholic point of view, this article attempts to understand the decision of abortion. People are constantly testing their principles and values against the question of abortion. Advances in technology, the rise of communitarianism and the rejection of individualism, and the commodification of children are factors in the way in which the abortion debate is being constructed in society. The paper offers solutions to end the ugliness of the abortion debate by suggesting that we would be able to progress further on the issue of abortion if we looked for the good in the opposing viewpoint. The article continues with a discussion of Catholics For a Free Choice's position on abortion, and notes firstly that there is no firm position within the Catholic Church on when the fetus becomes a person; secondly that the principle of probablism in Roman Catholicism holds that where the church cannot speak definitively on a matter of fact (in this case, on the personhood of the fetus), the consciences of individual Catholics must be primary and respected, and thirdly that the absolute prohibition on abortion by the church is not infallible. In conclusion, only the woman herself can make the abortion decision.

  4. Engineering ethics, individuals, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael

    2006-04-01

    This article evaluates a family of criticism of how engineering ethics is now generally taught. The short version of the criticism might be put this way: Teachers of engineering ethics devote too much time to individual decisions and not enough time to social context. There are at least six version of this criticism, each corresponding to a specific subject omitted. Teachers of engineering ethics do not (it is said) teach enough about: 1) the culture of organizations; 2) the organization of organizations; 3) the legal environment of organizations; 4) the role of professions in organizations; 5) the role of organizations in professions; or 6) the political environment of organizations. My conclusion is that, while all six are worthy subjects, there is neither much reason to believe that any of them are now absent from courses in engineering ethics nor an obvious way to decide whether they (individually or in combination) are (or are not) now being given their due. What we have here is a dispute about how much is enough. Such disputes are not to be settled without agreement concerning how we are to tell we have enough of this or that. Right now we seem to lack that agreement and not to have much reason to expect it any time soon.

  5. Reese Sorenson's Individual Professional Page

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, Reese; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The subject document is a World Wide Web (WWW) page entitled, "Reese Sorenson's Individual Professional Page." Its can be accessed at "http://george.arc.nasa.gov/sorenson/personal/index.html". The purpose of this page is to make the reader aware of me, who I am, and what I do. It lists my work assignments, my computer experience, my place in the NASA hierarchy, publications by me, awards received by me, my education, and how to contact me. Writing this page was a learning experience, pursuant to an element in my Job Description which calls for me to be able to use the latest computers. This web page contains very little technical information, none of which is classified or sensitive.

  6. Consciousness: individuated information in action.

    PubMed

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness - the main aim of this article -into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself.

  7. Consciousness: individuated information in action

    PubMed Central

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself. PMID:26283987

  8. Individualized management of follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Huang, Hui-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent non-hodgkin lymphoma. Most patients with FL are diagnosed with advanced disease and are considered incurable. The classical prognostic index in FL is the FL international prognostic index (FLIPI). The management of FL is mainly determined by histologic grading, clinical stage, and tumor burden. For patients with stage I and II disease, an involved-site radiation therapy (ISRT) is recommended and may be potentially curative approach with 60% to 80% of 10-year overall survival (OS) rates, while patients with stage III and IV should be treated with systemic therapy. The watchful waiting is still an option for patients without symptoms or/and low tumor burden. Induction of immuno-chemotherapy combined with consolidation of rituximab maintenance (MR) is standard care for patients with symptomatic disease or with high tumor burden when treatment indicated. The major indication for systemic therapy is including candidate for clinical trials, threatened end organ function, cytopenia secondary to lymphoma bulky disease and steady progress etc. at present time. Routine baseline and regular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) testing is strongly recommended for all patients before the initiation of immuno-chemotherapy in order to minimize the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation which has been observed approximately 20% to 50% of patients with positive HBsAg and 3% to 45% of patients with positive HBcAb. Prophylactic antiviral treatment in patients who are HBsAg-positive or HBcAb-positive is indicated before immuno-chemotherapy. The management for elderly patients should be carefully selected to avoid overtreatment and severe toxicities. Individualized dose adjustment for chemotherapy and an adequate supportive treatment are essential for this special population. Novel agents such as lenalidomide, ibrutinib and idelalisib are promising. In conclusion, individualized management

  9. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance.

    PubMed

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners' ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns.

  10. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns. PMID:24605104

  11. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempt individuals. 440.315 Section 440.315 Public... Coverage § 440.315 Exempt individuals. Individuals within one (or more) of the following categories are exempt from mandatory enrollment in benchmark or benchmark-equivalent coverage. (a) The individual is...

  12. Report on Federal Individual Training Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Task Force on Federal Training Technology, Washington, DC.

    To explore options to establish Federal Individual Training Accounts (ITAs), a study reviewed Pennsylvania's Individual Learning Accounts, Cedar Company's Individual Learning Accounts, ITAs under the Workforce Investment Act, and the United Kingdom's Individual Learning Accounts. ITAs were defined as a base amount of resources--dollars or…

  13. Individual differences in cognitive arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Geary, D C; Widaman, K F

    1987-06-01

    Relations factor was found. Results of the structural modeling support the conclusion that information retrieval from a network of arithmetic facts and execution of the carry operation are elementary component processes involved uniquely in the mental solving of arithmetic problems. Furthermore, individual differences in the speed of executing these two elementary component processes appear to underlie individual differences on ability measures that traditionally span the Numerical Facility factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  14. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  15. Individual predictors of sensorimotor adaptability

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    There are large individual variations in strategies and rates of sensorimotor adaptation to spaceflight. This is seen in both the magnitude of performance disruptions when crewmembers are first exposed to microgravity, and in the rate of re-adaptation when they return to Earth’s gravitational environment. Understanding the sources of this variation can lead to a better understanding of the processes underlying adaptation, as well as provide insight into potential routes for facilitating performance of “slow adapters”. Here we review the literature on brain, behavioral, and genetic predictors of motor learning, recovery of motor function following neural insult, and sensorimotor adaptation. For example, recent studies have identified specific genetic polymorphisms that are associated with faster adaptation on manual joystick tasks and faster recovery of function following a stroke. Moreover, the extent of recruitment of specific brain regions during learning and adaptation has been shown to be predictive of the magnitude of subsequent learning. We close with suggestions for forward work aimed at identifying predictors of spaceflight adaptation success. Identification of “slow adapters” prior to spaceflight exposure would allow for more targeted preflight training and/or provision of booster training and adaptation adjuncts during spaceflight. PMID:26217197

  16. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  17. Excellence through High-Quality Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Richard W.; Klingstedt, Joe Lars

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a strategy employing challenge, functionalism, high-order learning, and originality to achieve high-quality individualization in course work. Asserts that individualized instruction better prepares students to solve problems, make decisions, and produce original ideas. (MM)

  18. Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional…

  19. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  20. Linking Individual Creativity to Organizational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Robert C.; Ford, Cameron M.; Gentry, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We draw on 146 employee-co-worker-supervisor triads from 146 organizations to examine the role of individual perspective-taking and team creative environment in the association between individual creativity and organizational innovation. Adopting an interactionist perspective, we find that the link between individual creativity and organizational…

  1. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... children in foster care and individuals with respect to whom adoption or foster care assistance is made... individual is terminally ill and is receiving benefits for hospice care under title XIX. (e) The individual is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally...

  2. 22 CFR 1509.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Individual. 1509.655 Section 1509.655 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  3. 22 CFR 1509.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individual. 1509.655 Section 1509.655 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  4. 24 CFR 21.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual. 21.655 Section 21.655 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.655 Individual. Individual means...

  5. 22 CFR 1509.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Individual. 1509.655 Section 1509.655 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  6. 22 CFR 1509.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Individual. 1509.655 Section 1509.655 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  7. 22 CFR 210.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual. 210.655 Section 210.655 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  8. Individual differences and evidence-based psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Belmaker, Rh; Bersudsky, Yuly; Agam, Galila

    2012-09-27

    Individual differences in response to pharmacologic treatment limits the usefulness of mean data obtained from randomized controlled trials. These individual differences exist even in genetically uniform inbred mouse strains. While stratification can be of value in large studies, the individual patient history is the most effective currently available guide for personalized medicine in psychopharmacology.

  9. Individualized Transition Plans (ITP): A National Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Jeanne B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Information concerning implementation of Individualized Transition Plans (ITP) was collected from 46 states and analyzed to determine documentation used in transition planning, relationship between the ITP and Individualized Education Programs, age for beginning transition planning, individuals involved in transition planning, and issues addressed…

  10. 22 CFR 1509.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 1509.655 Section 1509.655 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  11. 24 CFR 21.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 21.655 Section 21.655 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.655 Individual. Individual means...

  12. 22 CFR 210.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 210.655 Section 210.655 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  13. Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

  14. 22 CFR 312.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Individual. 312.655 Section 312.655 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  15. 22 CFR 312.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Individual. 312.655 Section 312.655 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  16. 22 CFR 312.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 312.655 Section 312.655 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  17. 28 CFR 83.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 83.655 Section 83.655 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  18. 10 CFR 607.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 607.655 Section 607.655 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  19. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  20. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  1. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  2. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  3. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  4. Individual differences in cognition among teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-01-23

    Individual differences in cognitive abilities have been thoroughly investigated in humans and to a lesser extent in other mammals. Despite the growing interest in studying cognition in other taxonomic groups, data on individual differences are scarce for non-mammalian species. Here, we review the literature on individual differences in cognitive abilities in teleost fishes. Relatively few studies have directly addressed this topic and have provided evidence of consistent and heritable individual variation in cognitive abilities in fish. We found much more evidence of individual cognitive differences in other research areas, namely sex differences, personality differences, cerebral lateralisation and comparison between populations. Altogether, these studies suggest that individual differences in cognition are as common in fish as in warm-blooded vertebrates. Based on the example of research on mammals, we suggest directions for future investigation in fish.

  5. Individual versus collective cognition in social insects

    PubMed Central

    Feinerman, Ofer; Korman, Amos

    2017-01-01

    The concerted responses of eusocial insects to environmental stimuli are often referred to as collective cognition on the level of the colony. To achieve collective cognition a group can draw on two different sources: individual cognition and the connectivity between individuals. Computation in neural-networks, for example, is attributed more to sophisticated communication schemes than to the complexity of individual neurons. The case of social insects, however, can be expected to differ. This is since individual insects are cognitively capable units that are often able to process information that is directly relevant at the level of the colony. Furthermore, involved communication patterns seem difficult to implement in a group of insects since these lack clear network structure. This review discusses links between the cognition of an individual insect and that of the colony. We provide examples for collective cognition whose sources span the full spectrum between amplification of individual insect cognition and emergent group-level processes. PMID:28057830

  6. 34 CFR 84.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 84.655 Section 84.655 Education Office of... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. (Authority: E.O.s 12549 and 12689; 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243 at 3327.)...

  7. Model-based estimation of individual fitness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation rate of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility rates. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these rates must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of rates requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a modelled relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical models describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility rates and allowing for associations between these rates at the individual level. We apply these models to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation based on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw and Caswell, 1996).

  8. Model-based estimation of individual fitness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation rate of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility rates. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these rates must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of rates requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a modelled relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical models describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility rates and allowing for associations between these rates at the individual level. We apply these models to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla ) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation based on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw & Caswell, 1996).

  9. Beyond Individual Leader Development: Cultivating Collective Capacities.

    PubMed

    Dugan, John P; Turman, Natasha T; Torrez, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the overemphasis on individual-leader development in leadership education, offering insights and pragmatic approaches for advancing collective leadership focused on social and political change.

  10. Personalized medicine for individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B

    2011-01-01

    As the cost of whole genome analysis decreases, we have the opportunity to explore the interactions of various gene changes in an individual that lead to their particular phenotype. This will provide the ability to move from the epidemiologic study of groups, in which, the individuals are treated collectively and homogenously, to personalized medicine, and a model in which the individual is recognized and treated as a distinct entity. We will be applying personalized medicine to individuals with Down syndrome in order to understand and develop biomarkers for increased risk of co-morbidities. Personalized medicine will change the "culture of intractability" of Down syndrome.

  11. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  12. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-12-09

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks.

  13. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-12-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks.

  14. Sleep Problems in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of severe sleep problems and its association with other variables were investigated with 109 individuals who have Angelman syndrome. Severe settling problems, frequent night waking, and early waking were found in 2%, 37%, and 10% of the individuals, respectively. Sleep problems were persistent in this sample. No statistically…

  15. Beware of Individualizing Your Social Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Shirley; La Rue, Sydney

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the dangers inherent in any attempt to use a totally individualized instruction approach in teaching social studies. The authors maintain that group work is more useful in developing students' thinking skills and should be combined with individualized instruction to create a balanced program. (Author/DB)

  16. Individualized Marriage and the Integration of Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Sean R.; Yodanis, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In individualized marriages, spouses maintain independence in their relationship. In individualized marriages, do married couples manage their money in pooled accounts or do they keep separate accounts? We answer this question with the 2002 International Social Survey Programme (N = 18,587;31 country contexts) and examine how variation in the…

  17. A Quasi Actuarial Prospect for Individual Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, William A.

    A conceptual model of individual assessment through the use of biodata responses with minimal input information is outlined. The process is considered especially applicable to industrial psychology. A scored autobiographical data form, which measures the individual's past behavior and experiences, provides for assignment to a specific subgroup…

  18. 19 CFR 113.35 - Individual sureties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... one surety is sufficient to protect the revenue and insure compliance with the law and regulations. (b... responsibility as the port director may require. (d) Determination of financial responsibility. An individual... responsibility of the individual. The port director may refer the matter to the special agent-in-charge...

  19. Ape Metaphysics: Object Individuation without Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some…

  20. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  1. Individualized Systems of Instruction in TAFE Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J.

    This report is intended to assist curriculum developers, administrators, and teachers in the Technical and Further Education (TAFE) system in deciding if and when it is appropriate to introduce individualized systems of instruction in their programs. The first section explains what individualized instruction is and examines the reasons for the…

  2. Postsecondary Education for Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains several articles on postsecondary education for individuals with disabilities. "Supported Education for People with Psychiatric Disabilities...Issues and Implications" (Karen V. Unger) describes three prototypes for postsecondary education of individuals with psychiatric disabilities--the self-contained…

  3. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  4. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  5. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  6. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  7. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  8. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  9. Accountable Individual Assessment for Cooperative Performance Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper aims to make the techniques of cooperative learning more attractive to teachers by presenting a method of assessment that avoids the drawbacks associated with trying to extract valid and reliable individual marks from cooperative performances. The paper presents an easy-to-use method of assessing an individual's contribution to a…

  10. INDIVIDUALIZED READING IN THE LITERATURE PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPLEBY, BRUCE C.

    AS ONE MEANS OF TEACHING LITERATURE, INDIVIDUALIZED READING HAS PROVEN PARTICULARLY EFFECTIVE IN STIMULATING STUDENTS TO READ ON THEIR OWN--AS AN EXPERIENCE RATHER THAN AS AN EXERCISE. INDIVIDUALIZED READING IS A TEACHER-GUIDED PROGRAM IN THE READING OF FICTION WHICH ALLOWS THE STUDENT TO CHOOSE WHAT HE READS OVER A CONTINUOUS PERIOD OF TIME.…

  11. Marriage Rights of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Erin E.

    2009-01-01

    Trying to understand marriage laws for individuals with disabilities can be frustrating. People looking for a clear-cut answer may turn to the Constitution. Different states address marriage laws differently. Most states consider the nature and severity of the individual's disability and the role of his or her guardian in the decision to marry.…

  12. Methodological Individualism, Educational Administration, and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.; Lakomski, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    There are two major categories of explanation for organisational performance: structural and individual. With the shift away from systems-theoretic accounts that occurred in the 1980s, structural explanations have been replaced increasingly by the individualism of leadership and leader-centric explanations, especially when it comes to schools. In…

  13. Lifelong Career Development for Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brolin, Donn E.; Carver, James T.

    Designed for individuals interested in implementing career development programs for disabled adults, this report presents information on the Lifelong Career Development (LCD) project and its potential for implementation in the community college. Chapter 1 examines lifelong learning and the career development needs of disabled individuals, presents…

  14. Language Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary E.; Klusek, Jessica; Estigarribia, Bruno; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    On average, language and communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome (the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability) follow a consistent profile. Despite considerable individual variability, receptive language is typically stronger than expressive language, with particular challenges in phonology and syntax. We…

  15. Disturbance of sleep by noise: Individual differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The literature on the effects of noise on sleep is searched for evidence on individual differences along the dimensions of age, sex, occupation, personality, neuroticism, and mental health. With the exception of age, little firm evidence is found. Thus there remains a need to establish at better than the anecdotal level whether or not real individual differences exist.

  16. The Biological Basis of Learning and Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Eric R.; Hawkins, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the biological basis of learning and individuality. Presents an overview of recent discoveries that suggest learning engages a simple set of rules that modify the strength of connection between neurons in the brain. The changes are cited as playing an important role in making each individual unique. (MCO)

  17. 42 CFR 436.1005 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are... for mental diseases. (c) An individual on conditional release or convalescent leave from an institution for mental diseases is not considered to be a patient in that institution. However, such...

  18. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  19. Paddling with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Teri; Medina, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a variety of literature that offers adaptations and teaching suggestions for paddling with individuals who have physical disabilities, only a few address the needs of individuals with developmental disabilities (Gullion, 2009; Zeller, 2009). Developmental disabilities refer to a diverse group of severe chronic conditions that are…

  20. Inventory of Individually Perceived Group Cohesiveness (IIPGC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David L.

    The Inventory of Individually Perceived Group Cohesiveness (IIPGC) is a self-report measure of an individual's perception of group cohesiveness, which is defined as the perceived degree, extent, or strength of mutual attention given by the membership to processes of cooperation, control, and task communication. The IIPGC provides a reliable…

  1. Hospitalization Burden among Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokhandwala, Tasneem; Khanna, Rahul; West-Strum, Donna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the inpatient care burden among individuals with autism using the 2007 Health Care Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample [HCUP NIS]). There were approximately 26,000 hospitalizations among individuals with autism in 2007, with an overall rate of 65.6/100,000 admissions. Rates of hospitalizations…

  2. Counselor Intentions in Individual and Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Kivlighan, Mary Clayton

    2004-01-01

    Despite equivalent outcomes, group and individual treatments appear to differ in the therapeutic processes, specifically therapist activity and client impacts. Building on this literature, the authors examined differences in therapist-identified intentions in group and individual treatments. On the basis of I. D. Yalom's (1995) writings,…

  3. Parcellating cortical functional networks in individuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L; Fox, Michael D; Holt, Daphne J; Holmes, Avram J; Stoecklein, Sophia; Langs, Georg; Pan, Ruiqi; Qian, Tianyi; Li, Kuncheng; Baker, Justin T; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-12-01

    The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual's brain is a crucial step toward personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variation in human cognition and behavior. Here we developed a cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A population-based functional atlas and a map of inter-individual variability were employed to guide the iterative search for functional networks in individual subjects. Functional networks mapped by this approach were highly reproducible within subjects and effectively captured the variability across subjects, including individual differences in brain lateralization. The algorithm performed well across different subject populations and data types, including task fMRI data. The approach was then validated by invasive cortical stimulation mapping in surgical patients, suggesting potential for use in clinical applications.

  4. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Angel, Thomas E.; Chavkin, Charles; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-03-20

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the central nervous system. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying central nervous system injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through non-terminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. Utilizing stringent protein inclusion criteria that required the identification of at least two unique peptides (1% false discovery rate at the peptide level) we identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis.

  5. Evolving perspectives on individual psychotherapy for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fenton, W S

    2000-01-01

    Some form of individual psychotherapy, in combination with the prescription of antipsychotic medications, is likely the most common treatment for patients with schizophrenia. In the absence of empirical data supporting the efficacy of a particular approach, psychotherapy has often been guided by ideology and deference to authority. In recent years, a reformulation of schizophrenia as a disorder requiring individualized, comprehensive treatment has allowed the development and empirical testing of new targeted and illness-phase-specific individual psychotherapies. This report reviews randomized clinical trials that have evaluated individual psychotherapy of schizophrenia in the context of changing contemporaneous beliefs about the disorder's etiology and treatment. A general approach to individual treatment, termed "flexible psychotherapy," derived from historical approaches but consistent with available clinical and research perspectives, is outlined.

  6. Rett syndrome. Guidelines for individual intervention.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Meir

    2006-12-06

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurological disorder affecting mainly females. RS is considered the second most frequent cause for severe and complex neurological dysfunction in females after Down syndrome. Patients with RS are characterized by an array of neurological and orthopedic difficulties that mandate an intensive therapeutic intervention program for the duration of the individual's life. Many aspects of the client's well-being and functional status depend on the therapeutic intervention she receives and on her compliance to it. This article will briefly review common intervention approaches for individuals with RS and their present day's application. Due to the notion that individual intervention is the foundation on which progress and development of the functional gains rests, the present article will place basic guidelines for individual intervention with clients with RS. The article is mainly based on the clinical experience of the author and others working with individuals with RS.

  7. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Edward; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin; Lau, John; Beckmann, Jens F.; Cripps, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine whether the patterns of within-person responses on a 12-trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999). ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiraling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of processes at the level of the individual, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques. PMID:27486415

  8. An ontogenetic perspective on individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Senner, Nathan R.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals can arise during any stage of life. Although several distinct processes underlying individual differences have been defined and studied (e.g. parental effects, senescence), we lack an explicit, unified perspective for understanding how these processes contribute separately and synergistically to observed variation in functional traits. We propose a conceptual framework based on a developmental view of life-history variation, linking each ontogenetic stage with the types of individual differences originating during that period. In our view, the salient differences among these types are encapsulated by three key criteria: timing of onset, when fitness consequences are realized, and potential for reversibility. To fill a critical gap in this framework, we formulate a new term to refer to individual differences generated during adulthood—reversible state effects. We define these as ‘reversible changes in a functional trait resulting from life-history trade-offs during adulthood that affect fitness’, highlighting how the adult phenotype can be repeatedly altered in response to environmental variation. Defining individual differences in terms of trade-offs allows explicit predictions regarding when and where fitness consequences should be expected. Moreover, viewing individual differences in a developmental context highlights how different processes can work in concert to shape phenotype and fitness, and lays a foundation for research linking individual differences to ecological and evolutionary theory. PMID:26336173

  9. Strength Training in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying the inability to generate force in individuals with stroke and summarizes the effects of strength training in these individuals. In addition, a systematic review of studies that have incorporated progressive strengthening interventions in individuals with stroke is presented. Summary of Key Points Central (e.g., motor recruitment) and peripheral (e.g., muscle atrophy) sources may alter muscle strength in individuals with stroke and further investigations are needed to partition and quantify their effects. As to the effect of strength training interventions in individuals with stroke, the majority of studies (albeit with small samples) that evaluated muscle strength as an outcome demonstrated improvements. With regard to the effect of strength training on functional outcomes in individuals with stroke, positive outcomes were found in less rigorous pre-test/post-test studies, but more conflicting results with controlled trials. Conclusions Although there is some suggestion that strength training alone can improve muscle strength, further research is required to optimize strength training and the transfer of these strength gains to functional tasks in individuals with stroke. PMID:23255839

  10. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

  11. Life on Earth is an individual.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Life is a self-maintaining process based on metabolism. Something is said to be alive when it exhibits organization and is actively involved in its own continued existence through carrying out metabolic processes. A life is a spatio-temporally restricted event, which continues while the life processes are occurring in a particular chunk of matter (or, arguably, when they are temporally suspended, but can be restarted at any moment), even though there is continuous replacement of parts. Life is organized in discrete packages, particular cells and multicellular organisms with differing degrees of individuality. Biological species, too, have been shown to be individuals, and not classes, as these collections of organisms are spatio-temporally localized, restricted, continuous, and somewhat cohesive entities, with a definite beginning and end. Assuming that all life on Earth has a common origin, all living organisms, cells, and tissues descending from this origin exhibit continuity of the life processes at the cellular level, as well as many of the features that define the individual character of species: spatio-temporal localization and restriction, continuity, historicity, and cohesiveness. Therefore, life on Earth is an ontological individual. Independent origins of life will have produced other such individuals. These provisionally called 'life-individuals' constitute a category of organization of life which has seldom been recognized. The discovery of at least one independent life-individual would go a long way toward the project of the universality of biology.

  12. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Andrew MR; Peake, Tom M; McGregor, Peter K

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either logistically or ethically problematic. Many studies have suggested that vocal individuality can be used to count and monitor populations over time; however, few have explicitly tested the method in this role. In this review we discuss methods for extracting individuality information from vocalisations and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals. PMID:15960848

  13. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection.

  14. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual. Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall...

  15. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual. Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall...

  16. Separation-individuation phenomena in adulthood: general concepts and the fifth individuation.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, C A

    2000-01-01

    The elaboration of separation-individuation theory in the years beyond childhood has been a psychoanalytic focus for several decades. In this paper, the nature of separation-individuation phenomena in adulthood and the terminology and controversy surrounding the use of the terms third, fourth, and fifth individuation are considered first; a detailed elaboration of the concept of the fifth individuation in late adulthood follows.

  17. Parcellating Cortical Functional Networks in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.; Fox, Michael D.; Holt, Daphne J.; Holmes, Avram J.; Stoecklein, Sophia; Langs, Georg; Pan, Ruiqi; Qian, Tianyi; Li, Kuncheng; Baker, Justin T.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual’s brain is a critical step towards personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variations in human cognition and behavior. Here, we developed a novel cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state fMRI. A population-based functional atlas and a map of inter-individual variability were employed to guide the iterative search for functional networks in individual subjects. Functional networks mapped by this approach were highly reproducible within subjects and effectively captured the variability across subjects, including individual differences in brain lateralization. The algorithm performed well across different subject populations and data types including task fMRI data. The approach was then validated by invasive cortical stimulation mapping in surgical patients, suggesting great potential for use in clinical applications. PMID:26551545

  18. Dream content: Individual and generic aspects.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Allan; Kahn, David

    2007-12-01

    Dream reports were collected from normal subjects in an effort to determine the degree to which dream reports can be used to identify individual dreamers. Judges were asked to group the reports by their authors. The judges scored the reports correctly at chance levels. This finding indicated that dreams may be at least as much like each other as they are the signature of individual dreamers. Our results suggest that dream reports cannot be used to identify the individuals who produced them when identifiers like names and gender of friends and family members are removed from the dream report. In addition to using dreams to learn about an individual, we must look at dreams as telling us about important common or generic aspects of human consciousness.

  19. Pharmacotherapeutic Considerations for Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Erik; Blanco, Javier G

    2017-02-01

    Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) is the most common survivable disorder due to aneuploidy. Individuals with DS may experience multiple comorbid health problems including congenital heart defects, endocrine abnormalities, skin and dental problems, seizure disorders, leukemia, dementia, and obesity. These associated conditions may necessitate pharmacotherapeutic management with various drugs. The complex pathobiology of DS may alter drug disposition and drug response in some individuals. For example, reports have documented increased rates of adverse drug reactions in patients with DS treated for leukemia and dementia. Intellectual disability resulting from DS may impact adherence to medication regimens. In this review, we highlight literature focused on pharmacotherapy for individuals with DS. We discuss reports of altered drug disposition or response in patients with DS and explore social factors that may impact medication adherence in the DS setting. Enhanced monitoring during drug therapy in individuals with DS is justified based on reports of altered drug disposition, drug response, and other characteristics present in this population.

  20. Poisson's ratio of individual metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Eoin K; Bellew, Allen T; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

    2014-07-07

    The measurement of Poisson's ratio of nanomaterials is extremely challenging. Here we report a lateral atomic force microscope experimental method to electromechanically measure the Poisson's ratio and gauge factor of individual nanowires. Under elastic loading conditions we monitor the four-point resistance of individual metallic nanowires as a function of strain and different levels of electrical stress. We determine the gauge factor of individual wires and directly measure the Poisson's ratio using a model that is independently validated for macroscopic wires. For macroscopic wires and nickel nanowires we find Poisson's ratios that closely correspond to bulk values, whereas for silver nanowires significant deviations from the bulk silver value are observed. Moreover, repeated measurements on individual silver nanowires at different levels of mechanical and electrical stress yield a small spread in Poisson ratio, with a range of mean values for different wires, all of which are distinct from the bulk value.

  1. Relating individual behaviour to population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sumpter, D J; Broomhead, D S

    2001-05-07

    How do the behavioural interactions between individuals in an ecological system produce the global population dynamics of that system? We present a stochastic individual-based model of the reproductive cycle of the mite Varroa jacobsoni, a parasite of honeybees. The model has the interesting property in that its population level behaviour is approximated extremely accurately by the exponential logistic equation or Ricker map. We demonstrated how this approximation is obtained mathematically and how the parameters of the exponential logistic equation can be written in terms of the parameters of the individual-based model. Our procedure demonstrates, in at least one case, how study of animal ecology at an individual level can be used to derive global models which predict population change over time.

  2. New Generation IGRA in Immunocompromised Individuals

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-05

    Monitoring, Immunologic; Active Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients; Tuberculosis in Marrow Transplant Recipients; Tuberculosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis; Tuberculosis in Chronic Renal Failure; Tuberculosis in HIV-infected Individuals

  3. Individual foraging strategies of kleptoparasitic Roseate Terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shealer, D.A.; Spendelow, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the kleptoparasitic behavior of ten adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) breeding at a colony at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA between 1995 and 1998. These birds were considered habitual kleptoparasites because they stole fish repeatedly from other terns in every year they were observed at the site. No other breeding individuals were observed attempting to steal fish during our study. Kleptoparasitic techniques included aerial piracy, ground-based attacks, and deceptive behavior, but with one exception, each individual used one method exclusively. Success varied among individuals, but overall, kleptoparasites obtained prey at a significantly higher rate than did 'honest' foragers. Eight of the ten kleptoparasites were females, suggesting a sex-biased tendency in Roseate Terns to engage in this behavior. Our observations indicate that kleptoparasitism by Roseate Terns is a specialized behavior, used regularly by only a few individuals at this breeding colony. This conclusion is consistent with a recent theoretical prediction regarding kleptoparasitism in birds.

  4. A Modest Proposal: The Individual Tuition Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Roger H.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative, interinstitutional plan offering individual tuition accounts based on lump-sum payments as a means of saving for college expenses is proposed as an alternative to loan options, savings bonds, and tuition futures. (MSE)

  5. Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Research Great Expectations Post navigation ← Previous Next → Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia Posted on November ... related duties? 3. Do you have questions about exercise? Do you exercise regularly? Are you involved in ...

  6. An Individualized Approach to Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigden, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Explains individualization of a physics course in terms of organization, testing, and philosophy. Organization of laboratory and lecture is focused on two topics, classical mechanics and relativity theory. The testing consists of quantitative and qualitative questions. (DS)

  7. Preparing Teachers for Individualized Teaching of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Phyllis Zweig

    1975-01-01

    A mathematics methods course for pre-service elementary teachers is described. The course is designed to prepare teachers for individualizing instruction and for flexibility in a period of rapid curriculum change. (SD)

  8. Semiotic individuation and Ernst Cassirer's challenge.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2015-12-01

    The concept of individuation has suffered from its being mostly connected with Jungian psychology or nominalist philosophy. In this paper, "individuation" will be understood rather as a process; and in particular, as a series of stages (morphological and/or cognitive) that an organism passes through during its lifespan. In most species, individuation is restricted to a short period in early life, as when birds acquire their species specific songs; while in humans - and a few other species of birds or mammals (although to a much lesser degree) - individuation is a life-long, open-ended process. In this understanding, individuation becomes narrowly connected to learning. And since learning necessarily depends on what is already learned, the trajectory of learning-based individuation is necessarily indefinite and dependent on the concrete chance events and steps whereby the process has proceeded. Semiotic individuation is a historical process, and this fact explains why systems biology, as established by Ludwig van Bertalanffy, has not been capable of meeting the hope, expressed long ago by Ernst Cassirer, of bridging the mechanicist-vitalist gap in biology. Instead, a semiotic approach is called for. Human individuation, moreover, is special in a very important sense: language use implies that humans from earliest childhood inescapably become entangled in an 'as-if-world', a virtual reality, a story about who we are and how our life 'here and now' belongs within our own life-history, as well as within the greater pattern of the world around us. Human individuation is thus a double-tracked process, consisting in an incessant reconciliation or negotiation between the virtual reality that we have constructed in our minds and mind-independent reality as it impresses itself upon our lives. Human life cannot therefore be defined by its uniqueness as a particular genetic combination, but must be instead be defined by its uniqueness as a temporal outcome of semiotic

  9. [Progress in individual identification of burned bones].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-dong; Ren, Fu; Xing, Rui-xian; Pei, Lin-guo

    2009-02-01

    The burned bone DNA test have became more and more important in identifying the individuals and paternity involved in the fire, explosion disasters as well as burn corpse crimes. As an important genetic marker system, STR has been widely used in forensic individual identification, paternity test and other fields. In this article, the influence of burned temperature and time to STR typing was reviewed, the choice of STR locus and DNA extraction methods were discussed about burned bones.

  10. Quality versus quantity: assessing individual research performance

    PubMed Central

    Sahel, José-Alain

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating individual research performance is a complex task that ideally examines productivity, scientific impact, and research quality––a task that metrics alone have been unable to achieve. In January 2011, the French Academy of Sciences published a report on current bibliometric (citation metric) methods for evaluating individual researchers, as well as recommendations for the integration of quality assessment. Here, we draw on key issues raised by this report and comment on the suggestions for improving existing research evaluation practices. PMID:21613620

  11. Spectral correlations of individual quantum graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Altland, Alexander

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the spectral properties of chaotic quantum graphs. We demonstrate that the energy-average over the spectrum of individual graphs can be traded for the functional average over a supersymmetric nonlinear {sigma}-model action. This proves that spectral correlations of individual quantum graphs behave according to the predictions of Wigner-Dyson random matrix theory. We explore the stability of the universal random matrix behavior with regard to perturbations, and discuss the crossover between different types of symmetries.

  12. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  13. Myers-Briggs typology and Jungian individuation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Myers-Briggs typology is widely seen as equivalent to and representative of Jungian theory by the users of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and similar questionnaires. However, the omission of the transcendent function from the theory, and the use of typological functions as its foundation, has resulted in an inadvertent reframing of the process of individuation. This is despite some attempts to integrate individuation and typology, and reintroduce the transcendent function into Myers-Briggs theory. This paper examines the differing views of individuation in Myers-Briggs and Jungian theory, and some of the challenges of reconciling those differences, particularly in the context of normality. It proposes eight principles, drawn mainly from Jungian and classical post-Jungian work, that show how individuation as a process can be integrated with contemporary Myers-Briggs typology. These principles show individuation as being a natural process that can be encouraged outside of the analytic process. They make use of a wide range of opposites as well as typological functions, whilst being centred on the transcendent function. Central to the process is the alchemical image of the caduceus and a practical interpretation of the axiom of Maria, both of which Jung used to illustrate the process of individuation.

  14. Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hizen, Yoichi; Kamijo, Yoshio; Okano, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess preemptive striking by and towards individuals or groups. In the framework of a preemptive strike game, we set the following four conditions: one person faced another person, one person faced a three-person group, a three-person group faced an individual, and a three-person group faced another three-person group. Previous studies have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviors in the preemptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of our experiment, however, rejected this hypothesis. Among the four conditions, the attack rate was highest when a three-person group faced an individual. As possible reasons for our observation, we discuss the potential threat stemming from the imbalance in the effectiveness of attack between individuals and groups, and the (incorrect) belief by groups that single individuals would be more likely to attack out of fear. PMID:27148871

  15. Olfactory Learning in Individually Assayed Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Sabine; Stocker, Reinhard F.; Gerber, Bertram

    2003-01-01

    Insect and mammalian olfactory systems are strikingly similar. Therefore, Drosophila can be used as a simple model for olfaction and olfactory learning. The brain of adult Drosophila, however, is still complex. We therefore chose to work on the larva with its yet simpler but adult-like olfactory system and provide evidence for olfactory learning in individually assayed Drosophila larvae. We developed a differential conditioning paradigm in which odorants are paired with positive (“+” fructose) or negative (“-” quinine or sodium chloride) gustatory reinforcers. Test performance of individuals from two treatment conditions is compared—one received odorant A with the positive reinforcer and odorant B with a negative reinforcer (A+/B-); animals from the other treatment condition were trained reciprocally (A-/B+). During test, differences in choice between A and B of individuals having undergone either A+/B- or A-/B+ training therefore indicate associative learning. We provide such evidence for both combinations of reinforcers; this was replicable across repetitions, laboratories, and experimenters. We further show that breaks improve performance, in accord with basic principles of associative learning. The present individual assay will facilitate electrophysiological studies, which necessarily use individuals. As such approaches are established for the larval neuromuscular synapse, but not in adults, an individual larval learning paradigm will serve to link behavioral levels of analysis to synaptic physiology. PMID:12773586

  16. The development of individuation in autism

    PubMed Central

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Franconeri, Steven; Wright, Catherine; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that people with autism use holistic information differently than typical adults. The current studies examine this possibility by investigating how core visual processes that contribute to holistic processing – individuation and element grouping – develop in participants with autism and typically developing (TD) participants matched for age, IQ and gender. Individuation refers to the ability to `see' up to 4 elements simultaneously; grouping these elements can change the number of elements that are rapidly apprehended. We examined these core processes using two well-established paradigms, rapid enumeration and multiple object tracking (MOT). In both tasks, a performance limit of about 4 elements in adulthood is thought to reflect individuation capacity. Participants with autism has a smaller individuation capacity than TD controls, regardless of whether they were enumerating static elements or tracking moving ones. To manipulate holistic information and individuation performance, we grouped the elements into a design or had elements move together. Participants with autism were affected to a similar degree as TD participants by the holistic information, whether the manipulation helped or hurt performance, consistent with evidence that some types of gestalt/grouping information are processed typically in autism. There was substantial development in autism from childhood to adolescence, but not from adolescence to adulthood, a pattern distinct from TD participants. These results provide important information about core visual processes in autism, as well as insight into the architecture of vision (e.g., individuation appears distinct from visual strengths in autism, such as visual search, despite similarities). PMID:22963232

  17. Ape metaphysics: object individuation without language.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-02-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some have speculated whether it might be essentially language dependent and therefore uniquely human. Existing studies with non-human primates seem to speak against this hypothesis, but fail to present conclusive evidence due to methodological shortcomings. In the present experiments we set out to test non-linguistic object individuation in three great ape species with a refined manual search methodology. Experiment 1 tested for spatiotemporal object individuation: Subjects saw 1 or 2 objects simultaneously being placed inside a box in which they could reach, and then in both conditions only found 1 object. After retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often when they had seen 2 than when they had seen 1 object. Experiment 2 tested for object individuation according to property/kind information only: Subjects saw 1 object being placed inside the box, and then either found that object (expected) or an object of a different kind (unexpected). Analogously to Experiment 1, after retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often in the unexpected than in the expected condition. These results thus confirm previous findings suggesting that individuating objects according to their property/kind is neither uniquely human nor essentially language dependent. It remains to be seen, however, whether this kind of object individuation requires sortal concepts as human linguistic thinkers use them, or whether some simpler form of tracking properties is sufficient.

  18. Piecewise power laws in individual learning curves.

    PubMed

    Donner, Yoni; Hardy, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    The notion that human learning follows a smooth power law (PL) of diminishing gains is well-established in psychology. This characteristic is observed when multiple curves are averaged, potentially masking more complex dynamics underpinning the curves of individual learners. Here, we analyzed 25,280 individual learning curves, each comprising 500 measurements of cognitive performance taken from four cognitive tasks. A piecewise PL (PPL) model explained the individual learning curves significantly better than a single PL, controlling for model complexity. The PPL model allows for multiple PLs connected at different points in the learning process. We also explored the transition dynamics between PL curve component pieces. Performance in later pieces typically surpassed that in earlier pieces, after a brief drop in performance at the transition point. The transition rate was negatively associated with age, even after controlling for overall performance. Our results suggest at least two processes at work in individual learning curves: locally, a gradual, smooth improvement, with diminishing gains within a specific strategy, which is modeled well as a PL; and globally, a discrete sequence of strategy shifts, in which each strategy is better in the long term than the ones preceding it. The piecewise extension of the classic PL of practice has implications for both individual skill acquisition and theories of learning.

  19. Read-based phasing of related individuals

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Martin, Marcel; Marschall, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Read-based phasing deduces the haplotypes of an individual from sequencing reads that cover multiple variants, while genetic phasing takes only genotypes as input and applies the rules of Mendelian inheritance to infer haplotypes within a pedigree of individuals. Combining both into an approach that uses these two independent sources of information—reads and pedigree—has the potential to deliver results better than each individually. Results: We provide a theoretical framework combining read-based phasing with genetic haplotyping, and describe a fixed-parameter algorithm and its implementation for finding an optimal solution. We show that leveraging reads of related individuals jointly in this way yields more phased variants and at a higher accuracy than when phased separately, both in simulated and real data. Coverages as low as 2× for each member of a trio yield haplotypes that are as accurate as when analyzed separately at 15× coverage per individual. Availability and Implementation: https://bitbucket.org/whatshap/whatshap Contact: t.marschall@mpi-inf.mpg.de PMID:27307622

  20. Individual-specific antibody identification methods

    DOEpatents

    Francoeur, Ann -Michele

    1989-11-14

    An identification method, applicable to the identification of animals or inanimate objects, is described. The method takes advantage of a hithertofore unknown set of individual-specific, or IS antibodies, that are part of the unique antibody repertoire present in animals, by reacting an effective amount of IS antibodies with a particular panel, or n-dimensional array (where n is typically one or two) consisting of an effective amount of many different antigens (typically greater than one thousand), to give antibody-antigen complexes. The profile or pattern formed by the antigen-antibody complexes, termed an antibody fingerprint, when revealed by an effective amount of an appropriate detector molecule, is uniquely representative of a particular individual. The method can similarly by used to distinguish genetically, or otherwise similar individuals, or their body parts containing IS antibodies. Identification of inanimate objects, particularly security documents, is similarly affected by associating with the documents, an effective amount of a particular individual's IS antibodies, or conversely, a particular panel of antigens, and forming antibody-antigen complexes with a particular panel of antigens, or a particular individual's IS antibodies, respectively. One embodiment of the instant identification method, termed the blocked fingerprint assay, has applications in the area of allergy testing, autoimmune diagnostics and therapeutics, and the detection of environmental antigens such as pathogens, chemicals, and toxins.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of individual plasmon resonant nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Jack J.; Smith, David R.; Barbic, Mladen; Oldenburg, Steven J.; Schultz, David A.; Schultz, Sheldon

    2003-11-01

    We present a detailed description of the apparatus and techniques that we have utilized in our experimental study of individual plas on resonant nanoparticles,along with a brief description of some major results. The apparatus consists of a spectroscopic system combined with a modified darkfield microscope, which enables the user to sequentially select individual resonant nanostructures in the microscopic field of view for spectroscopic study. Plasmon resonant nanostructures scatter light elastically,and typically have very large scattering cross-sections at their resonant optical wavelengths. In general, spectra can be obtained with acquisition times between .1 to 30 seconds,and color images can be captured using consumer digital color cameras. Spheres,tetrahedrons,and pentagonal platelets were fabricated using colloidal chemistry techniques. To produce highly anisotropic structures such as nanorods and "barbells", templates were used. Many of these nanostructures have been individually spectroscopically characterized,and their spectra correlated with their shape and size as determined by transmission electron icroscope (TEM). The unique shape,size, composition,and dielectric surroundings of the individual plasmon resonant nanostructures determine their plasmon resonant behavior. We will show how the composition of the substrate on which the particles are immobilized and the dielectric of the surrounding medium have a significant effect on the plasmon resonance of the individual particles.

  2. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Individual variation behind the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Barta, Zoltán

    2016-02-05

    Life on Earth has two remarkable properties. The first is variation: even apart from the vast number of extant species, there are considerable differences between individuals within a single species. The second property is cooperation. It is surprising that until recently the interactions between these two properties have rarely been addressed from an evolutionary point of view. Here, I concentrate on how inter-individual differences influence the evolution of cooperation. First, I deal with cases where individuality is maintained by random processes like mutation or phenotypic noise. Second, I examine when differences in state cause differences in behaviour. Finally, I investigate the effects of individual role specialization. Variation can be important in several ways. Increased random variation can change the expectation about cooperativeness of future partners, altering behaviour in a current relationship. Differences in state may serve as a book-keeping mechanism that is necessary for the evolution of reciprocity. If the cost of cooperation can depend on state then strategic regulation of state makes it possible to coerce partners to cooperate. If conditions force individuals to specialize, cooperation becomes more valuable. My review of theoretical models suggests that variation plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation.

  4. Auditory Spatial Recalibration in Congenital Blind Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Finocchietti, Sara; Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Blind individuals show impairments for auditory spatial skills that require complex spatial representation of the environment. We suggest that this is partially due to the egocentric frame of reference used by blind individuals. Here we investigate the possibility of reducing the mentioned auditory spatial impairments with an audio-motor training. Our hypothesis is that the association between a motor command and the corresponding movement's sensory feedback can provide an allocentric frame of reference and consequently help blind individuals in understanding complex spatial relationships. Subjects were required to localize the end point of a moving sound before and after either 2-min of audio-motor training or a complete rest. During the training, subjects were asked to move their hand, and consequently the sound source, to freely explore the space around the setup and the body. Both congenital blind (N = 20) and blindfolded healthy controls (N = 28) participated in the study. Results suggest that the audio-motor training was effective in improving space perception of blind individuals. The improvement was not observed in those subjects that did not perform the training. This study demonstrates that it is possible to recalibrate the auditory spatial representation in congenital blind individuals with a short audio-motor training and provides new insights for rehabilitation protocols in blind people. PMID:28261053

  5. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  6. Inter occasion variability in individual optimal design.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersson, Anders N; Friberg, Lena E; Nyberg, Joakim

    2015-12-01

    Inter occasion variability (IOV) is of importance to consider in the development of a design where individual pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic parameters are of interest. IOV may adversely affect the precision of maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimated individual parameters, yet the influence of inclusion of IOV in optimal design for estimation of individual parameters has not been investigated. In this work two methods of including IOV in the maximum a posteriori Fisher information matrix (FIMMAP) are evaluated: (i) MAP occ-the IOV is included as a fixed effect deviation per occasion and individual, and (ii) POP occ-the IOV is included as an occasion random effect. Sparse sampling schedules were designed for two test models and compared to a scenario where IOV is ignored, either by omitting known IOV (Omit) or by mimicking a situation where unknown IOV has inflated the IIV (Inflate). Accounting for IOV in the FIMMAP markedly affected the designs compared to ignoring IOV and, as evaluated by stochastic simulation and estimation, resulted in superior precision in the individual parameters. In addition MAPocc and POP occ accurately predicted precision and shrinkage. For the investigated designs, the MAP occ method was on average slightly superior to POP occ and was less computationally intensive.

  7. Substance abuse among individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substance abusers without ID, ID substance abusers are less likely to receive substance abuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID.

  8. Predicting individual fusional range from optometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrikhovski, Serguei; Jin, Elaine; Miller, Michael E.; Ford, Robert W.

    2005-03-01

    A model was developed to predict the range of disparities that can be fused by an individual user from optometric measurements. This model uses parameters, such as dissociated phoria and fusional reserves, to calculate an individual user"s fusional range (i.e., the disparities that can be fused on stereoscopic displays) when the user views a stereoscopic stimulus from various distances. This model is validated by comparing its output with data from a study in which the individual fusional range of a group of users was quantified while they viewed a stereoscopic display from distances of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 meters. Overall, the model provides good data predictions for the majority of the subjects and can be generalized for other viewing conditions. The model may, therefore, be used within a customized stereoscopic system, which would render stereoscopic information in a way that accounts for the individual differences in fusional range. Because the comfort of an individual user also depends on the user"s ability to fuse stereo images, such a system may, consequently, improve the comfort level and viewing experience for people with different stereoscopic fusional capabilities.

  9. Individual variation behind the evolution of cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth has two remarkable properties. The first is variation: even apart from the vast number of extant species, there are considerable differences between individuals within a single species. The second property is cooperation. It is surprising that until recently the interactions between these two properties have rarely been addressed from an evolutionary point of view. Here, I concentrate on how inter-individual differences influence the evolution of cooperation. First, I deal with cases where individuality is maintained by random processes like mutation or phenotypic noise. Second, I examine when differences in state cause differences in behaviour. Finally, I investigate the effects of individual role specialization. Variation can be important in several ways. Increased random variation can change the expectation about cooperativeness of future partners, altering behaviour in a current relationship. Differences in state may serve as a book-keeping mechanism that is necessary for the evolution of reciprocity. If the cost of cooperation can depend on state then strategic regulation of state makes it possible to coerce partners to cooperate. If conditions force individuals to specialize, cooperation becomes more valuable. My review of theoretical models suggests that variation plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation. PMID:26729927

  10. Autoantibodies in nonautoimmune individuals during infections.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Tatiana; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Blank, Miri; Matthias, Torsten; Pfeiffer, Sascha; Weis, Ingrid; Toubi, Elias; Singh, Sham; Asherson, Ronald; Fraser, Abigail; Gilburd, Boris; Sapir, Tal; Levy, Yair; Lukac, Janja; Rozman, Blaz; Kveder, Tanja; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2007-06-01

    Infections can act as environmental triggers inducing or promoting autoimmune disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Identification of microbial peptides similar to self-tissues may by molecular mimicry, provide the inducing mechanism for an immune response. The aim of this study was to identify autoantibodies (autoAbs) in nonautoimmune individuals during acute bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections. Specific Abs or specific infections with an increased autoAb load may shed insight into the mechanisms of autoimmune disease. Sera from 88 patients with acute infections (41 bacterial, 23 viral, 17 parasitic, and 7 rickettsial) were tested by the ELISA method for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) 8 Pro, and Abs to thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin, phospholipids, annexin-V, laminin, anti-Saccharomyces cervisiae (ASCA), and prothrombin, along with 80 normal controls. Elevated titers of Abs to annexin-V and prothrombin were the most prevalent in viral, parasitic, and rickettsial infections and to laminin in viral and parasitic infections. Elevated titers of ASCA and ANA were found in viral and bacterial infections. Antiphospholipid Abs were found in parasitic and Q-fever infections. Thirty-four individuals harbored elevated titers of at least two Abs. An autoAb burden was detected in individuals with hepatitis A, hepatitis B, toxoplasma or Q-fever infections. In nonautoimmune individuals with various (bacterial, viral, parasitic, and rickettsial) infections, elevated titers of Abs to annexin-V, prothrombin, laminin, ASCA, ANA, and phospholipids were most frequently detected.

  11. The individual, social justice and public health.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical reflection on public health from a standpoint of social justice, which does not overlook the individual, is presented. Based on a conceptualization of social justice, human rights and health in the framework of an epistemological analysis, a particular perspective on social justice and its implications for public health praxis, using a public health program as an example, is revealed. Some routes are identified in order to orient and put into practice the actions developed in public health programs. This requires a different way of understanding the scenarios and interchanges among people in the field of clinical practice. It is understood that these fields can also be seen as a suitable opportunity for the establishment of individuals and individualities committed to the political struggle for human rights, equity in health and recognition of a life worthy of human dignity.

  12. Children monitor individuals' expertise for word learning.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M; Corriveau, Kathleen H

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to learn novel words using others' expertise about objects' nonobvious properties. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds (n = 24) endorsed individuals' labels for objects based on their differing causal knowledge about those objects. Experiment 2 examined the robustness of this inference and its development. Four-year-olds (n = 40) endorsed labels from confederates who accurately predicted objects' nonobvious internal properties but not nonobvious external properties. Three-year-olds (n = 40) performed at chance levels in both cases and were less likely to recognize the informants' expertise, suggesting that they might be unable to monitor individuals' expertise. These data suggest that children's ability to learn from testimony is necessary for their understanding of the relevance of an individual's expertise.

  13. Osteoarthritis in Young, Active, and Athletic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Amoako, Adae O; Pujalte, George Guntur A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affect people around the world. Although the usual population associated with the condition is the elderly, who are mostly inactive, athletes and younger individuals are also susceptible. Depending on the population, the etiology may differ; injuries, occupational activities, and obesity appear to be the most common causes of OA in young and athletic populations. Diagnosing OA in athletes and young individuals is sometimes challenging because of their increased pain tolerance. However, the treatment of OA in these populations does not differ from its management in the general population. Several considerations need to be taken into account when choosing a treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to address OA in athletes and younger individuals and to discuss its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24899825

  14. What distinguishes individual stocks from the index?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.; Milaković, M.; Alfarano, S.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic volatility models decompose the time series of financial returns into the product of a volatility factor and an iid noise factor. Assuming a slow dynamic for the volatility factor, we show via nonparametric tests that both the index as well as its individual stocks share a common volatility factor. While the noise component is Gaussian for the index, individual stock returns turn out to require a leptokurtic noise. Thus we propose a two-component model for stocks, given by the sum of Gaussian noise, which reflects market-wide fluctuations, and Laplacian noise, which incorporates firm-specific factors such as firm profitability or growth performance, both of which are known to be Laplacian distributed. In the case of purely Gaussian noise, the chi-squared probability for the density of individual stock returns is typically on the order of 10-20, while it increases to values of O(1) by adding the Laplace component.

  15. Routing of individual polymers in designed patterns.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Liu, Lei; Bank Kodal, Anne Louise; Madsen, Mikael; Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Wickham, Shelley F J; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Vinther, Jesper; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Gudnason, Daniel; Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Zelikin, Alexander N; Besenbacher, Flemming; Birkedal, Victoria; Yin, Peng; Shih, William M; Jungmann, Ralf; Dong, Mingdong; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in the modern world, but our ability to exert control over the molecular conformation of individual polymers is very limited. In particular, although the programmable self-assembly of oligonucleotides and proteins into artificial nanostructures has been demonstrated, we currently lack the tools to handle other types of synthetic polymers individually and thus the ability to utilize and study their single-molecule properties. Here we show that synthetic polymer wires containing short oligonucleotides that extend from each repeat can be made to assemble into arbitrary routings. The wires, which can be more than 200 nm in length, are soft and bendable, and the DNA strands allow individual polymers to self-assemble into predesigned routings on both two- and three-dimensional DNA origami templates. The polymers are conjugated and potentially conducting, and could therefore be used to create molecular-scale electronic or optical wires in arbitrary geometries.

  16. Ballistic electron spectroscopy of individual buried molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirczenow, George

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the ballistic electron emission spectra (BEES) of individual insulating and conducting organic molecules chemisorbed on a silicon substrate and buried under a thin gold film. It is predicted that ballistic electrons injected into the gold film from a scanning tunneling microscope tip should be transmitted so weakly to the silicon substrate by alkane molecules of moderate length (decane, hexane) and their thiolates that individual buried molecules of this type will be difficult to detect in BEES experiments. However, resonant transmission by molecules containing unsaturated C-C bonds or aromatic rings is predicted to be strong enough for BEES spectra of individual buried molecules of these types to be measured. Calculated BEES spectra of molecules of both types are presented and the effects of some simple interstitial and substitutional gold defects that may occur in molecular films are also briefly discussed.

  17. Individualism/collectivism and organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Dávila de León, María Celeste; Finkelstein, Marcia A

    2011-08-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) are workplace activities that exceed an employee's formal job requirements and contribute to the effective functioning of the organization. We explored the roles of the dispositional traits of individualism and collectivism in the prediction of OCB. The relationship was examined in the context of other constructs known to influence OCB, specifically, motives and identity as an organizational citizen. A total of 367 employees in 24 organizations completed surveys measuring individualism/collectivism, OCB motives, strength of organizational citizen role identity, and amount of OCB. The results showed collectivism to be a significant predictor of Organizational Concern and Prosocial Values motives, role identity, and OCB. Individualism predicted Impression Management motives and was a significant negative predictor of a role identity as one who helps others. The findings are discussed with regard to previous research in OCB.

  18. Effects of family connection and family individuation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda G; Bell, David C

    2009-09-01

    This prospective longitudinal study explores the differential effects of family connection and family individuation measured during adolescence on later midlife well-being. Home interviews were held in the 1970s with 99 families of 245 adolescents. Connection and individuation in the family system were measured by self-report, a projective exercise, and coding of taped family interactions. Twenty-five years later, telephone interviews were conducted with 54 men and 120 women (representing 82 families) who had been adolescents in the 1970s interviews. Family connection (measured during adolescence) was associated with self-acceptance and positive relationships at midlife partially mediated by marriage. Family individuation (measured during adolescence) was associated with personal autonomy at midlife.

  19. Automatic identification of individual killer whales.

    PubMed

    Brown, Judith C; Smaragdis, Paris; Nousek-McGregor, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Following the successful use of HMM and GMM models for classification of a set of 75 calls of northern resident killer whales into call types [Brown, J. C., and Smaragdis, P., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 221-224 (2009)], the use of these same methods has been explored for the identification of vocalizations from the same call type N2 of four individual killer whales. With an average of 20 vocalizations from each of the individuals the pairwise comparisons have an extremely high success rate of 80 to 100% and the identifications within the entire group yield around 78%.

  20. Linguistic resources of individuals with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Sarah C; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Roberts, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the available literature on the communication skills of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) is reviewed. Current issues regarding diagnosing and understanding disorders with a core social deficit are examined as well as the potential application of sociolinguistic analyses to the study of Asperger Syndrome, such as that provided from within a Systemic Functional Linguistic framework. The need for investigations that address a broader view of "language" and its use in social situations by individuals with AS as opposed to their mastery of syntactic aspects of language, will be discussed.

  1. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  2. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and individualized drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Naveen L.; Weinshilboum, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of individualized drug therapy requires physicians to be able to accurately predict an individual’s response to a drug. Both genetic and environmental factors are known to influence drug response. ‘Pharmacogenetics’ is the study of the role of inheritance in variation in drug response phenotypes. Pharmacogenetics is now moving genome-wide to become ‘pharmacogenomics’, resulting in the recognition of novel biomarkers for individual variation in drug response. This article reviews the development, promise and challenges facing pharmacogenomics, using examples of drugs used to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:19707183

  3. Alternative Models for Individualized Armor Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    1aFHW4L TECHNOLOGY :)FC (H) *I PU-’I0UE UNIV DEP’T (OF PSYCHULOGTLAL SCIENCFS I oSi MONILITY EUIIMENT W AND U LtJMMANJ ATTN: URImqE-IC, .1 E-2 (:t I DA...for Personnel Department of the Army March 1980 Army Project Number Individual Training Technology 20162722A777 SbAoProved for oublic rijem...environments. This research was responsivo to Army Project 2QI62722A777, Individual Training Technolov, and will provide part of the technology base from

  4. Mammalian social odours: attraction and individual recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Peter A; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian social systems rely on signals passed between individuals conveying information including sex, reproductive status, individual identity, ownership, competitive ability and health status. Many of these signals take the form of complex mixtures of molecules sensed by chemosensory systems and have important influences on a variety of behaviours that are vital for reproductive success, such as parent–offspring attachment, mate choice and territorial marking. This article aims to review the nature of these chemosensory cues and the neural pathways mediating their physiological and behavioural effects. Despite the complexities of mammalian societies, there are instances where single molecules can act as classical pheromones attracting interest and approach behaviour. Chemosignals with relatively high volatility can be used to signal at a distance and are sensed by the main olfactory system. Most mammals also possess a vomeronasal system, which is specialized to detect relatively non-volatile chemosensory cues following direct contact. Single attractant molecules are sensed by highly specific receptors using a labelled line pathway. These act alongside more complex mixtures of signals that are required to signal individual identity. There are multiple sources of such individuality chemosignals, based on the highly polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or lipocalins such as the mouse major urinary proteins. The individual profile of volatile components that make up an individual odour signature can be sensed by the main olfactory system, as the pattern of activity across an array of broadly tuned receptor types. In addition, the vomeronasal system can respond highly selectively to non-volatile peptide ligands associated with the MHC, acting at the V2r class of vomeronasal receptor. The ability to recognize individuals or their genetic relatedness plays an important role in mammalian social behaviour. Thus robust systems for olfactory

  5. Effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home.

    PubMed

    Park, Heeok; Pringle Specht, Janet K

    2009-08-01

    This pilot study investigated the effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home. Fifteen individuals listened to their preferred music for 30 minutes prior to peak agitation time, two times per week for 2 weeks, followed by no music intervention for 2 weeks. The process was repeated once. The findings showed that mean agitation levels were significantly lower while listening to music than before listening to the music. The findings of this pilot study suggest the importance of music intervention for individuals with dementia who live at home.

  6. Student Communities and Individualism in American Cinema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…

  7. Localization of individual area neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Hironaga, N; Ioannides, A A

    2007-02-15

    A family of methods, collectively known as independent component analysis (ICA), has recently been added to the array of methods designed to decompose a multi-channel signal into components. ICA methods have been applied to raw magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) signals to remove artifacts, especially when sources such as power line or cardiac activity generate strong components that dominate the signal. More recently, successful ICA extraction of stimulus-evoked responses has been reported from single-trial raw MEG and EEG signals. The extraction of weak components has often been erratic, depending on which ICA method is employed and even on what parameters are used. In this work, we show that if the emphasis is placed on individual "independent components," as is usually the case with standard ICA applications, differences in the results obtained for different components are exaggerated. We propose instead the reconstruction of regional brain activations by combining tomographic estimates of individual independent components that have been selected by appropriate spatial and temporal criteria. Such localization of individual area neuronal activity (LIANA) allows reliable semi-automatic extraction of single-trial regional activations from raw MEG data. We demonstrate the new method with three different ICA algorithms applied to both computer-generated signals and real data. We show that LIANA provides almost identical results with each ICA method despite the fact that each method yields different individual components.

  8. Women's Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses, and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Highlights trends and…

  9. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  10. INDIVIDUALIZED READING PROGRAM FOR ELEMENTARY GRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NICHOLS, MARGUERITE; AND OTHERS

    AN INDIVIDUALIZED READING PROGRAM FOR GRADES 2, 4, AND 5 WAS INITIATED AT PLATEAU VALLEY SCHOOL IN COLLBRAN, COLORADO, IN AN EFFORT TO RAISE THE ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS. THE PROGRAM AT EACH GRADE LEVEL IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF THE METHODS USED TO GATHER PRELIMINARY DATA, IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF…

  11. [Individual differences in analgesic effects of narcotics].

    PubMed

    Ide, Soichiro; Kasai, Shinya; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2008-02-01

    Narcotic analgesics have been widely used for management of severe pain, especially for cancer pain. Most of these drugs are opioids, and they show their analgesic effects by acting through opioid receptors. Significant individual differences in opioid sensitivity can hamper effective pain treatments and increase side effects, which is associated with decreased quality of life. It is thought that genetic factors may affect individual differences in opioid sensitivity. Recent studies using various inbred and knockout mice have revealed that the mu-opioid receptor (MOP) plays a mandatory role in the analgesic properties of opioids. There is also increasing evidence that differences in the sequence of the MOP gene might significantly affect the amount of MOP gene mRNA expression and sensitivity to opioids. Furthermore, it can be thought that individual differences in opioid sensitivity are caused by genetic differences in not only MOP but other biomolecules, such as endogenous opioid peptides, molecules related with metabolic process and second messenger systems. Rapid advances in this research field are leading to a better understanding of relationships between gene polymorphisms and opioid sensitivities, which, in turn, will allow us to more accurately predict opioid sensitivity and opioid requirements in individual patients.

  12. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  13. Reactions to Termination of Individual Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Anne E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Queried 69 social workers about termination reactions in most recently terminated individual cases. Clients' strongest reactions were positive affect, evaluation of success, evaluation of therapeutic experience, and positive flight. Least strong client reactions were nihilistic flight, regression, denial, recapitulation, and expression of need for…

  14. Tandem mass spectrometry of individual airborne microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.A.; Yang, M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for real-time MS/MS analysis of individual airborne microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap is described. The performance has been demonstrated by the detection of tributyl phosphate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate on silicon carbide and kaolin microparticles. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Individual Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, John L.; Dodd, Louise; Rose, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the efficacy of programs to reduce inappropriate aggression in people with intellectual disabilities. These have been provided in groups and for individuals in forensic settings. People with intellectual disability and inappropriately expressed anger who were referred to a community psychology service were assigned to…

  16. Standards for Services for Developmentally Disabled Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Provided are standards for agencies and hospitals serving developmentally disabled persons with emphasis on planning and implementing individual programs. The introduction provides information on the establishment of the Accreditation Council for Services for Mentally Retarded and Other Developmentally Disabled Persons and the Joint Commission on…

  17. Individual joblessness, contextual unemployment, and mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Tapia Granados, José A; House, James S; Ionides, Edward L; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S

    2014-08-01

    Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979-1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals-the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population.

  18. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  19. Individual Innovativeness Levels of Educational Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coklar, Ahmet Naci

    2012-01-01

    In the present study carried out with 190 educational administrators, the individual innovativeness of educational administrators was examined. As a result of the study, it was found out that the educational administrators considered themselves as early adaptors. It was also revealed that professional seniority was not important in terms of…

  20. Individual Differences in Dyadic Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Elizabeth M.; Collier, William G.; Oxford, Julie A.; Bond, Charles F., Jr.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of individual differences on the performance of roles of learner and learning facilitator was studied during dyadic cooperative learning with 80 college students in same-sex groups of 4. The learner role accounted for more than 70% of the variance in total recall. The influence of cognitive and rapport factors is discussed. (SLD)

  1. 42 CFR 406.21 - Individual enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.21 Individual enrollment... premium hospital insurance only during his or her “initial enrollment period”, a “general...

  2. Individual Psychotherapy for the Sexually Abused Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David P. H.

    1986-01-01

    One approach to individual psychotherapy includes a five-part conceptualization of the traumatic experience: trauma, threat to ontogeny, neglect and emotional unavailability by the caregiver, child's feeling of exploitation, and the child's adaptation. Some common problems which occur are guilt, loss and anger, as well as alterations in the…

  3. Conscious Cooperation with the Individuating Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to the process of Jungian individuation is the integration of ego consciousness and unconsciousness. For this to occur, the ego must be willing to consciously cooperate with the unconscious, acknowledging and nonjudgmentally accepting the imaginal communications that flow from it. The ego's decision to cooperate with the unconscious is…

  4. Individualized Career Plan (ICP): Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsche, Catherine; And Others

    This implementation manual was designed to assist local education agency personnel implement the individualized career plan (ICP) concept in high schools. Questions commonly asked about the ICP are answered. Guidelines are then provided for implementing the four stages of the process: planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating/refining.…

  5. Individual Differences in Exploration Using Desktop VR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modjeska, David; Chignell, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information visualization and computer graphics focuses on a study that contrasted performance in three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional zooming interactively (2.5D) virtual worlds for people with differing levels of spatial and structure learning ability. Suggests implications of individual differences for the usability and…

  6. Individualization: An Emergent Concept in Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford; Appel, Marilyn

    These proceedings include abstracts of the formal papers presented during a conference in Philadelphia on December 8 and 9, 1967. The conference, sponsored by Research for Better Schools, Inc., was concerned with individualization of science instruction, particularly in elementary schools. Thirty-three scientists and science educators from various…

  7. The Development of Individuation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Franconeri, Steven; Wright, Catherine; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that people with autism rely less on holistic visual information than typical adults. The current studies examine this by investigating core visual processes that contribute to holistic processing--namely, individuation and element grouping--and how they develop in participants with autism and typically developing (TD)…

  8. Academic Optimism: An Individual Teacher Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngidi, David P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, academic optimism as an individual teacher belief was investigated. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs were measured using the short form of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale. One subtest from the Omnibus T-Scale, the faculty trust in clients subtest, was used to measure teachers' trust in students and parents. One subtest from the…

  9. Structured Optionality: Individualization Without a Nervous Breakdown!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, Jeanine

    For the past several years, the secondary-level literature section of the Hawaii English Project has been working towards an approach to classroom management and materials selection that will allow both structure and individualization. This paper provides guidelines for instituting a system in which the class works in groups of three to five…

  10. Continuing professional education: individual responsibility, collective consciousness.

    PubMed

    Palmer, A

    1994-01-01

    Continuing professional education in the United Kingdom is discussed and the influences examined. Within a framework of national, nursing, and local perspectives, the issues and implications for the various individual agencies and personnel are identified. An overview is provided to include agendas for action.

  11. Individual Effects of Agenda-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ahern, Thomas J.

    The agenda setting hypothesis of mass media effects, which maintains that the mass media set the agenda of public discussion and determine which items are to be discussed and which ignored, was tested. Agenda was defined as an attribute of individual respondents to be compared with those of various media. In a preliminary study, a group of 59…

  12. Spontaneity of Communication in Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or…

  13. Wh- Questions and Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the comprehension of questions beginning with different wh- question words presented in two referential conditions to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thirty-nine school-age participants completed a battery of who, what, where, when, why, and how questions with and without a picture…

  14. How to Individualize Learning. Fastback 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Alan; Riessman, Frank

    This article addresses the problem of achieving a successful program of individualized learning. Two major points are raised. First, the teacher should realize the importance of diagnosing and understanding the different learning style of each pupil. Some children learn more readily by reading, others by hearing. Some learn faster when they can be…

  15. The Individual Basic Facts Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi; Drake, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an identified and growing need for a levelled diagnostic basic facts assessment tool that provides teachers with formative information about students' mastery of a broad range of basic fact sets. The Individual Basic Facts Assessment tool has been iteratively and cumulatively developed, trialled, and refined with input from teachers and…

  16. A Sociological Critique of Individualism in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, David H.

    1980-01-01

    The author argues that our educational system and our teachers are so obsessed with the "cult of individualism" that education's social functions have been trivialized. He espouses the views of Emile Durkheim, who saw the chief aim of schooling to be moral education that fosters pupils' collective and corporate experience. (Author/SJL)

  17. Basically, Graduate Students Need Individual Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobler, J. F.

    Graduate students do need and can benefit from instruction in the basis of composition, but the definition of what each student basically needs will vary so greatly that individual instruction is the only meaningful way to meet those needs. The demand for such instruction spurred the development of a graduate course at North Texas State University…

  18. Individualized Cooperative Education (First Year). Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for competencies to be taught to all Oklahoma first-year cooperative education students. Teachers of general cooperative programs (such as individualized cooperative education) may want to use the document as their basic text, but teachers in other vocational areas may prefer to use it as a supplement.…

  19. Tying Individual Dreams to Organizational Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossop, Catherine

    Most people want to learn, grow and achieve their career dreams. Linking individuals' career aspirations to organizational goals can be challenging, yet it is the foundation for personal and organizational success. This chapter discusses how to use learning objectives to link career learning or development to organizational strategy. Using a…

  20. A Successful Individualized Writing Lab Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the effectiveness of an individualized Writing Lab module, developed to prepare students enrolled in Savannah State College's Developmental Studies English Fundamentals classes for the post-Collegiate Placement Examination. The module uses instructor-authored, computer-assisted instruction to provide immediate feedback on…

  1. Modifying Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Deaf Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Amanda; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Therapies that rely on written materials, information, or procedures involving familiarity with the dominant culture (e.g., colloquialisms, history) often pose barriers to people who use another language, have low English literacy, or are less familiar with the dominant culture. All this applies deaf individuals. One of the most well-validated…

  2. Testing for Impaired, Disabled, and Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Intended for individuals working with the handicapped, the guide provides information about physical fitness tests, perceptual-motor scales, and developmental profiles. Covered in an introductory section are the rationale and relevance of testing, basic concepts about tests, interpretation of test results, adapted physical education programs, and…

  3. Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huanqing; Wang, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Qiuling; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yan

    2005-03-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high-order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software-ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  4. Plumber's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, Charles R.

    This individualized, competency-based study guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for plumber's helpers in providing students with general information for immediate reinforcement on the job and developing an understanding of the job prior to employment. A progress chart is provided to allow the…

  5. Communication Interaction and Implications for Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Karen M.; Albritton, Evelyn G.

    The paper reviews normal communication skills in infants, young children, and adults from the perspective of barriers to communication interaction and implications for handicapped individuals. The communicative competence construct is described, noting the complex relationship between verbal and nonverbal behavior. Parental response to a child's…

  6. Individualizing Study Programs for Overseas Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanojevic, Patricia S. B.

    The Internal Bureau of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) has provided educational development services for Third World countries since 1978. The majority of the individuals who come to Canada to participate in the International Bureau's training programs are faculty members who wish to upgrade their technical and pedagogical…

  7. Food Service Worker. Supplemental Individualized Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Liswa E.; Bridwell, Terry B.

    Developed to supplement the food service worker modules published in 1977, this handbook provides fourteen additional individualized student modules. The topics included are as follow: (1) personal grooming; (2) safe handling of food and eating utensils; (3) setting up tables; (4) handling customers; (5) menus; (6) taking and placing the order;…

  8. A Teacher's Guide to Individualizing Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah System Approach to Individualized Learning Project.

    The objective of this teaching guide is to provide a comprehensive system for individualizing reading instruction through planning, organization, management, and skillful teaching. The planning stage involves establishing goals, reality bases, work bases and flows, and review, evaluation, and revision. The organization of program content involves…

  9. Executive Functions in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, D.; Addona, F.; Costanzo, F.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed at investigating working memory (WM) and executive functions capacities in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) as compared with mental-age matched typically developing (TD) children. Method: In order to serve the study goal, a sizeable battery of tasks tapping WM as well as attention, memory, planning,…

  10. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101 Section 300.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  11. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101 Section 300.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  12. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101 Section 300.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  13. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101 Section 300.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  14. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101 Section 300.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  15. Posture Support Improves Object Individuation in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants' ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2000; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants' sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e.,…

  16. Motivation Through Individual Projects in Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skellings, Louise Noah

    In order to determine whether an alternative teaching strategy would improve student motivation in freshman composition, two sections of freshman composition were studied. The experimental group spent the majority of a term concentrating on individualized projects which were chosen, planned, carried out, and presented by each student. Students…

  17. Individualized Instruction at Levels I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Gisela

    An experimental approach to individualized instruction in German 1 and 2, based on the A-LM series revised edition, is described. The program neither prescribes behavioral objectives nor requires contracting for work to be performed for specific grades. Procedures followed in the preparation of instructional materials are reviewed. Results of the…

  18. Individualized Cooperative Education (Second Year). Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide is designed to direct and support instruction for advanced business and office, home economics, and agriculture and marketing education students across Oklahoma who are in their second year of individualized cooperative education programs. The following topics are covered in the 12 competency-based instructional units…

  19. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  20. Communication Skills and Learning in Impaired Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliöz, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…

  1. Team-Based Testing Improves Individual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Jane S.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, 90 undergraduates took six tests as part of an educational psychology course. Using a crossover design, students took three tests individually without feedback and then took the same test again, following the process of team-based testing (TBT), in teams in which the members reached consensus for each question and answered…

  2. Annotated Bibliography: Perspectives on Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Yang, Hannah; Anderson, Christian K.

    2009-01-01

    During their three-year research project, the authors found that most practitioners, researchers, and policymakers in the education field were not familiar with Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) or the existing research on IDAs. Therefore, in this paper the authors compiled a list of some of the references that they found useful and that they…

  3. Categories Influence Predictions about Individual Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting how people will behave in the future is a critical social-cognitive task. In four studies (N = 150, ages preschool to adult), young children (ages 4-5) used category information to guide their expectations about individual consistency. They predicted that psychological properties (preferences and fears) would remain consistent over time…

  4. Study of Problems of Individual's Social Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duisenbayev, Abay K.; Baltymova, Mira R.; Akzholova, Aktoty T.; Bazargaliyev, Gabit B.; Zhumagaziyev, Arman Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the study of social education of the individual as an integral process covering all stages of human development, supported by factors of modern development of children, adolescents, youth in the conditions of reforming education. Currently, the scientific literature has accumulated a sufficient fund of theoretical knowledge,…

  5. Mindfulness in the Treatment of Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luoma, Jason B.; Villatte, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is exhibited by a diverse population of individuals and spans many diagnostic categories. In order to develop effective prevention and treatment programs, it is important to identify transdiagnostic processes that impact the many pathways to suicidality, are amenable to intervention, and affect clinical outcomes when modified. A…

  6. Individualized Healthcare Plans for the School Nurse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Health Association (NJ3), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This resource sets the standard for school nurses concerning the formulation of individualized healthcare plans designed to fit the unique health needs of students. Eighteen chapters focus on special issues and school nursing concepts. Computer software, which accompanies the manual, assists in the development and creation of individualized…

  7. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  8. Individualized Instruction Programs and Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Joan P.

    With focus on improving the effectiveness of the Mathematics Laboratory at Somerset County College, this paper provides background information on individualized instruction programs and learning centers, assesses the current status of the Math Lab, and offers a series of recommendations for immediate implementation. The first sections set forth a…

  9. Remote identification of individual volunteer cotton plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although airborne multispectral remote sensing can identify fields of small cotton plants, improvements to detection sensitivity are needed to identify individual or small clusters of plants that can similarly provide habitat for boll weevils. However, when consumer-grade cameras are used, each pix...

  10. [The sick individual as a concept].

    PubMed

    Tejerizo López, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We start from the premise, shared by some current philosophical movements and by the author, which states that philosophy is not contemplation, or reflection, or introspection or communication. Philosophy is the art of shaping, inventing and creating concepts. It is an explicit way of introducing new differences in life, a different reading level, a specific jargon, which may imply revealing the flip side of the coin, or a dissimilar view of the side facing us. The philosopher is the friend of the concept, he holds it in his power, which means, basically and in all honesty, that philosophy is the discipline of creating concepts. Let us remember the brilliant idea of the Russian director Tarkovsky, who announced his greatest ambition as an artist: "To capture time". At the same time, we must recall one of the sayings of this director: "Every film I have directed and I intend to direct is always tied to characters who have something to overcome". The healthy individual lives in a specific time, with precise coordinates, aware that his life consists only of living that time. That is, living as defined by Josep María Esquirol: "Then we could also see that the best way of living the present is not to run after the fleeing time, but to see and live the opportunity that appears before us". One of the many circumstances that can intercept the way we see and live the opportunity that appears before us is sickness, one of those inescapable experiences we have not been taught how to pay an adequate attention to, and the meaning of which can, in a way, go unnoticed. As "time" goes by, the circumstance that we consider to be the basis on which existence is founded, sickness can appear, thus introducing a new dimension in the time of the healthy individual. For this reason we, as doctors and professionals, know that sickness "is tied to characters who have something to overcome". In view of the fact that a sickness invades a healthy individual and transforms him into a sick one

  11. 42 CFR 435.1009 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving... inmate of a public institution or a patient in an institution for tuberculosis or mental diseases. (c) An individual on conditional release or convalescent leave from an institution for mental diseases is...

  12. Individualized Instruction in Sociology: Myth and Fact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jioia, Joseph

    This study attempts to determine the value of individualized instruction used in three sociology classes at Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois). The classes incorporated a programed learning textbook, measurable behavioral objectives, instructor-student conferences, self-paced learning, and immediate student gratification. A questionnaire…

  13. National Science Foundation Support of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee, Robert W.

    1981-01-01

    Presents numerical data related to federal support for grants involving individualized instruction (II). Tables provide detailed information on supply for II by these programs: Comprehensive Assistance to Undergraduate Education (CAUSE), Local Course Improvement (LOCI), Science Education Development and Research (SEDR), and NSF support of…

  14. Alleviation of Communication Apprehension: An Individualized Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.

    Communication apprehension (CA) affects from 15% to 20% of the college population, indicating inherent problems of negative cognitive appraisal, conditioned anxiety, or skills deficits. Use of an individualized approach to the alleviation of CA has been shown to increase students' class interaction and to improve their verbal skills. During an…

  15. Behaviorist EE Research: Environmentalism as Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian; Hart, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This article continues a dialogue about the nature of environmental education research by establishing the behaviorist nature of the dominant approach to environmental education research and exploring implications for environmentalism of one aspect of the politics of methods of this dominant behaviorist approach--the tendency to individualize the…

  16. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.508...

  17. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.508...

  18. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.508...

  19. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.508...

  20. 12 CFR 268.105 - Individual complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Board Program To Promote Equal Opportunity § 268.105 Individual... receipt of a complaint or an amendment to a complaint in writing and inform the complainant of the date on which the complaint or amendment was filed. The Board shall advise the complainant in the...

  1. 12 CFR 268.105 - Individual complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Board Program To Promote Equal Opportunity § 268.105 Individual... receipt of a complaint or an amendment to a complaint in writing and inform the complainant of the date on which the complaint or amendment was filed. The Board shall advise the complainant in the...

  2. 29 CFR 1614.106 - Individual complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Agency Program To Promote Equal Employment Opportunity § 1614.106 Individual... acknowledge receipt of a complaint or an amendment to a complaint in writing and inform the complainant of...

  3. 29 CFR 1614.106 - Individual complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Agency Program To Promote Equal Employment Opportunity § 1614.106 Individual... acknowledge receipt of a complaint or an amendment to a complaint in writing and inform the complainant of...

  4. 12 CFR 268.105 - Individual complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Board Program To Promote Equal Opportunity § 268.105 Individual... receipt of a complaint or an amendment to a complaint in writing and inform the complainant of the date on which the complaint or amendment was filed. The Board shall advise the complainant in the...

  5. 29 CFR 1614.106 - Individual complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Agency Program To Promote Equal Employment Opportunity § 1614.106 Individual... acknowledge receipt of a complaint or an amendment to a complaint in writing and inform the complainant of...

  6. Substance Abuse among Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform…

  7. Stress Process Model for Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Menne, Heather L.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with dementia (IWDs) face particular challenges in managing and coping with their illness. The experience of dementia may be affected by the etiology, stage, and severity of symptoms, preexisting and related chronic conditions, and available informal and formal supportive services. Although several studies have examined…

  8. Individual alerting efficiency modulates time perception

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiduo; Yang, Wenjing; Yuan, Xiangyong; Bi, Cuihua; Chen, Antao; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Time perception plays a fundamental role in human perceptual and motor activities, and can be influenced by various factors, such as selective attention and arousal. However, little is known about the influence of individual alerting efficiency on perceived duration. In this study, we explored this question by running two experiments. The Attentional Networks Test was used to evaluate individual differences in alerting efficiency in each experiment. Temporal bisection (Experiment 1) and time generalization task (Experiment 2) were used to explore the participants’ perception of duration. The results indicated that subjects in the high alerting efficiency group overestimated interval durations and estimated durations more accurately compared with subjects in the low alerting efficiency group. The two experiments showed that the sensitivity of time was not influenced by individual alerting efficiency. Based on previous studies and current findings, we infer that individual differences in alerting efficiency may influence time perception through modulating the latency of the attention-controlled switch and the speed of the peacemaker within the framework of the internal clock model. PMID:25904881

  9. Linguistic Resources of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Sarah C.; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Roberts, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the available literature on the communication skills of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) is reviewed. Current issues regarding diagnosing and understanding disorders with a core social deficit are examined as well as the potential application of sociolinguistic analyses to the study of Asperger Syndrome, such as that provided…

  10. Bivalves: From individual to population modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.; Ruardij, P.

    2014-11-01

    An individual based population model for bivalves was designed, built and tested in a 0D approach, to simulate the population dynamics of a mussel bed located in an intertidal area. The processes at the individual level were simulated following the dynamic energy budget theory, whereas initial egg mortality, background mortality, food competition, and predation (including cannibalism) were additional population processes. Model properties were studied through the analysis of theoretical scenarios and by simulation of different mortality parameter combinations in a realistic setup, imposing environmental measurements. Realistic criteria were applied to narrow down the possible combination of parameter values. Field observations obtained in the long-term and multi-station monitoring program were compared with the model scenarios. The realistically selected modeling scenarios were able to reproduce reasonably the timing of some peaks in the individual abundances in the mussel bed and its size distribution but the number of individuals was not well predicted. The results suggest that the mortality in the early life stages (egg and larvae) plays an important role in population dynamics, either by initial egg mortality, larvae dispersion, settlement failure or shrimp predation. Future steps include the coupling of the population model with a hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model to improve the simulation of egg/larvae dispersion, settlement probability, food transport and also to simulate the feedback of the organisms' activity on the water column properties, which will result in an improvement of the food quantity and quality characterization.

  11. Individual Differences in Online Personalized Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samah, Norazrena Abu; Yahaya, Noraffandy; Ali, Mohamad Bilal

    2011-01-01

    The need has arise for the consideration of individual differences, to include their learning styles, learning orientations, preferences and needs in learning to allow learners engage and be responsible for their own learning, retain information longer, apply the knowledge more effectively, have positive attitudes towards the subject, have more…

  12. Goffman, the individual, institutions and stigmatisation.

    PubMed

    Alaszewski, A; Manthorpe, J

    In the fifth part of our series about sociology, the sociology of Erving Goffman is discussed, particularly in relation to his work on institutions. In contrast with earlier prominent sociological figures, Goffman's emphasis was on the individual rather than on grand-scale theories about social systems.

  13. Temporal resolution in individuals with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo, Camila Maia; Weihing, Jeffrey A; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Temporal processing refers to the ability of the central auditory nervous system to encode and detect subtle changes in acoustic signals. This study aims to investigate the temporal resolution ability of individuals with mesial temporal sclerosis and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the gaps-in-noise test in identifying this type of lesion. METHOD: This prospective study investigated differences in temporal resolution between 30 individuals with normal hearing and without neurological lesions (G1) and 16 individuals with both normal hearing and mesial temporal sclerosis (G2). Test performances were compared, and the sensitivity and specificity were calculated. RESULTS: There was no difference in gap detection thresholds between the two groups, although G1 revealed better average thresholds than G2 did. The sensitivity and specificity of the gaps-in-noise test for neurological lesions were 68% and 98%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Temporal resolution ability is compromised in individuals with neurological lesions caused by mesial temporal sclerosis. The gaps-in-noise test was shown to be a sensitive and specific measure of central auditory dysfunction in these patients. PMID:26375561

  14. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  15. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  16. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  17. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  18. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Dosimetry. (c) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to internal radiation, internal dosimetry... accordance with the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry; or (2) Determined by the... percent of the limit stated at § 835.208 from all radionuclide intakes in a year. (d) Internal...

  19. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  20. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  1. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  2. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  3. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  4. Consumer Information Use: Individual Vs. Social Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    A study of women's information-seeking behavior with regard to the purchase of cosmetics was conducted to determine the effects on their behavior of six individual variables (ambiguity about cosmetic products, price consciousness, income, amount of money spent on cosmetics, age, and education) and six social variables (perceived social utility of…

  5. Consumer Information Use: Individual Versus Social Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschis, George P.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a study which attempts to link current theory to practical problems of applied communication. The power of coorientational variables is tested and compared with the power of commonly used individual characteristics in predicting the amounts and types of information sought by buyers of cosmetics. (JMF)

  6. Legal Liability of Individual School Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leverett, E. Freeman

    Federal court decisions and federal statutes have established a number of new rights for individuals in recent years, and the Supreme Court decided in 1975 that school board members have only limited immunity from liability for the possible denial of those rights by school board actions. These two developments have drastically increased the amount…

  7. Teacher Aide Individually Prescribed Instructional Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston Univ., AL. Coll. of Education.

    This document contains 59 individually prescribed instructional modules for use in teacher aide education programs. Each module has six sections: 1) Behavioral objectives, 2) purpose, 3) performance criteria, 4) experiences, 5) resources, and 6) taxonomy. The subjects covered include the use of instructional equipment such as language master,…

  8. Accreditation's Benefits for Individuals and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Participation in accreditation processes, on visiting teams as well as through institutional self-study, is an excellent opportunity for individual academics to augment their professional expertise in a range of higher education issues: strategic planning and assessment, resource management and capital investments, curriculum planning and program…

  9. The Stability of Individual Response Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijters, Bert; Geuens, Maggie; Schillewaert, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Modeling capabilities for longitudinal data have progressed considerably, but questions remain on the extent to which method bias may negatively affect the validity of longitudinal survey data. The current study addresses the stability of individual response styles. We set up a longitudinal data collection in which the same respondents filled out…

  10. Children Monitor Individuals' Expertise for Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to learn novel words using others' expertise about objects' nonobvious properties. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds (n = 24) endorsed individuals' labels for objects based on their differing causal knowledge about those objects. Experiment 2 examined the robustness of this inference and its development.…

  11. Mapping individual logical processes in information searching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    An interactive dialog with a computerized information collection was recorded and plotted in the form of a flow chart. The process permits one to identify the logical processes employed in considerable detail and is therefore suggested as a tool for measuring individual thought processes in a variety of situations. A sample of an actual test case is given.

  12. Risk factors for atherosclerosis in young individuals.

    PubMed

    Misra, A

    2000-06-01

    Atherosclerosis starts in childhood, and is accelerated in some individuals. A cluster of clinical and biochemical factors constitute the risk profile for many of them, perhaps most important being metabolic insulin resistance syndrome. Insulin resistance and its components for children and adolescents, especially obesity and dyslipidemia, are generators of hypertension, glucose intolerance and complications of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Some individuals are genetically predisposed, particularly those with the family history of such disorders. For many subjects, there is 'tracking' of metabolic and lifestyle factors from early age to adulthood. Several new risk factors of atherosclerosis (e.g. level of lipoprotein (a), procoagulant state, hyperhomocysteinemia, low birth weight and adverse in-utero environment, and possibly inflammatory markers) are current and potentially future areas of research concerning children and young individuals. Definition of and research on new and hitherto not investigated factors and formulation of strategies to neutralize the known factors are of paramount importance for primary prevention of atherosclerosis. Simple and effective measures for prevention include increasing awareness of the diseases, maintenance of ideal body weight, regular physical exercise, avoidance of smoking and chewing of tobacco, eating a balanced diet, and early periodic monitoring of blood pressure and metabolic status. These measures, starting from childhood, should be applied to all and in particular to the susceptible offspring, predisposed individuals, and populations.

  13. Optimal Search Available to an Individual User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frants, Valery I.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach to the design and implementation of an information retrieval system capable of providing an optimal search for each individual user based on the properties of information need. An algorithm is proposed for organizing optimal search in the systems realizing SDI (selective dissemination of information). (Author/LRW)

  14. Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwill Industries of North Central Pennsylvania, Inc., DuBois.

    The manual describes the vocational rehabilitation program and services for handicapped individuals that are provided by Goodwill Industries of North Central Pennsylvania, Inc., which services an eight-county outreach area. An introductory section provides general background information regarding program objectives, philosophy, and organizational…

  15. An Individual Difference Perspective on Student Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler-Brenstein, E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 325 university students explored relationships between personality and learning styles in students with high or low self-esteem. Ways that personality and learning theory can combine to help define individual differences in learning, their origins, manifestation, and amenability to change are examined. Implications for achievement,…

  16. Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-15

    conducted by Sir Francis Galton . Galton’s view of intelligence was that it distinguished those individuals who had genius (e.g., demonstrated by making...genius must have more refined sensory and motor faculties. Thus, Galton argued, intelligence could be measured by assessing constructs such as visual

  17. Electrician's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, Danny

    This guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for electrician's helpers in helping students complete a set of individualized, competency-based training activities dealing with electricity and electrical circuits and equipment. The first part of the manual includes a progress chart, a study guide…

  18. Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dörnyei, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the early days of its existence, the field of psychology has been trying to achieve two different and somewhat contradictory objectives: to understand the "general principles" of the human mind and to explore the "uniqueness" of the individual mind. The latter direction has formed an independent subdiscipline within…

  19. Cancer care for individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Kelly E; Henderson, David C; Knight, Helen P; Pirl, William F

    2014-02-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia are a vulnerable population that has been relatively neglected in health disparities research. Despite having an equivalent risk of developing most cancers, patients with schizophrenia are more likely to die of cancer than the general population. Cancer care disparities are likely the result of patient-, provider-, and systems-level factors and influenced by the pervasive stigma of mental illness. Individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of health behaviors linked with cancer mortality including cigarette smoking. They also have significant medical comorbidity, are less likely to have up-to-date cancer screening, and may present at more advanced stages of illness. Patients with schizophrenia may be less likely to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, have more postoperative complications, and have less access to palliative care. However, opportunities exist for the interdisciplinary team, including medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists; psychiatrists; and primary care physicians, to intervene throughout the continuum of cancer care to promote survival and quality of life. This review summarizes data on overall and cancer-specific mortality for individuals with schizophrenia and reviews specific disparities across the cancer care continuum of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and end-of-life care. Using a case, the authors illustrate clinical challenges for this population including communication, informed consent, and risk of suicide, and provide suggestions for care. Finally, recommendations for research to address the disparities in cancer care for individuals with schizophrenia are discussed. Despite significant challenges, with collaboration between oncology and mental health teams, individuals with schizophrenia can receive high-quality cancer care.

  20. Posture support improves object individuation in infants.

    PubMed

    Woods, Rebecca J; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants' ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2000; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants' sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e., visuohaptic) exploration of objects (Wilcox, Woods, Chapa, & McCurry, 2007). Three studies were conducted to investigate the effect of multisensory experience on infants' sensitivity to pattern information. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that 5.5- and 6.5-month-olds do not spontaneously use pattern differences to individuate objects and revealed that 6.5- but not 5.5-month-olds can be primed to attend to pattern differences if allowed multisensory experience with the objects prior to the individuation task. However, the 5.5-month-olds also had greater difficulty maintaining a self-sitting posture during the multisensory priming experience. In Experiment 3, 4.5- and 5.5-month-olds were given full postural support during the multisensory exploration period. In this situation, the 5.5-month-olds successfully individuated the objects, but even with full postural support, 4.5-month-old infants did not use the pattern differences to individuate the objects. These results demonstrate that multisensory priming is effective with infants as young as 5.5 months and extends multisensory priming to another surface feature, pattern. Furthermore, these results indicate that constraints are placed on the multisensory experience by the physical and motor development of the infant.

  1. Posture Support Improves Object Individuation in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants’ ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2001; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants’ sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e., visuo-haptic) exploration of objects (Wilcox, Woods, Chapa, & McCurry, 2007). Three studies were conducted to investigate the effect of multisensory experience on infants’ sensitivity to pattern information. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that 5.5- and 6.5-month-olds do not spontaneously use pattern differences to individuate objects and revealed that 6.5- but not 5.5-month-olds can be primed to attend to pattern differences if allowed multisensory experience with the objects prior to the individuation task. However, the 5.5-month-olds also had greater difficulty maintaining a self-sitting posture during the multisensory priming experience. In Experiment 3, 4.5- and 5.5-month-olds were given full postural support during the multisensory exploration period. In this situation, the 5.5-month-olds successfully individuated the objects, but even with full postural support, 4.5-month-old infants did not use the pattern differences to individuate the objects. These results demonstrate that multisensory priming is effective with infants as young as 5.5 months and extends multisensory priming to another surface feature, pattern. Furthermore, these results indicate that constraints are placed on the multisensory experience by the physical and motor development of the infant. PMID:23046431

  2. Individual Needs (Part I of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on meeting individual needs in second language instruction are included: (1) "Sprachenlernen: Beduerfnisse des Individuums in verschiedenen Leben- und Lernsituationen (Language Learning: Individual Needs in Various Life and Learning Situations)," by Eugen Egger; (2) "Peut-on accorder les besoins de l'etudiant et ceux de son…

  3. An Attitude Scale on Individual Instrument and Individual Instrument Course: Validity-Reliability Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuçukosmanoglu, Hayrettin Onur

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine students' attitude levels on individual instruments and individual instrument courses in instrument training, which is an important dimension of music education, and to conduct a validity-reliability research of the scale that has been developed. The scale consists of 16 items. The…

  4. Group versus Individual Training in Establishing Generalization of Language Skills with Severely Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Peter R.; Scott, Teri L.

    1981-01-01

    Eight severely mentally handicapped adults were taught two adjective concepts--one adjective using group training and one adjective using individual instruction. Although group and individual training were equally effective in terms of rates of acquisition, generalization was 45 percent greater when exemplars of each adjective concept were taught…

  5. Individuals in food webs: the relationships between trophic position, omnivory and among-individual diet variation.

    PubMed

    Svanbäck, Richard; Quevedo, Mario; Olsson, Jens; Eklöv, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Among-individual diet variation is common in natural populations and may occur at any trophic level within a food web. Yet, little is known about its variation among trophic levels and how such variation could affect phenotypic divergence within populations. In this study we investigate the relationships between trophic position (the population's range and average) and among-individual diet variation. We test for diet variation among individuals and across size classes of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), a widespread predatory freshwater fish that undergoes ontogenetic niche shifts. Second, we investigate among-individual diet variation within fish and invertebrate populations in two different lake communities using stable isotopes. Third, we test potential evolutionary implications of population trophic position by assessing the relationship between the proportion of piscivorous perch (populations of higher trophic position) and the degree of phenotypic divergence between littoral and pelagic perch sub-populations. We show that among-individual diet variation is highest at intermediate trophic positions, and that this high degree of among-individual variation likely causes an increase in the range of trophic positions among individuals. We also found that phenotypic divergence was negatively related to trophic position in a population. This study thus shows that trophic position is related to and may be important for among-individual diet variation as well as to phenotypic divergence within populations.

  6. Individualized Education Program Team Manual. Includes: Individualized Education Program, Evaluation Review, Manifestation Determination Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Office of Special Education and Early Intervention Services.

    This manual is designed to assist members of Michigan Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams to be in compliance with state and federal laws relating to programs and services for students with disabilities. It begins by briefly explaining changes in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act relating to the IEP and parent participation.…

  7. Mathematics Achievement Effects of Three Levels of Individualization: Whole Class, Ability Grouped, and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Karweit, Nancy L.

    This research evaluated mathematics achievement and attitudinal effects of three instructional methods directed in varying degrees toward accommodating diversity in students' prior achievement. Two randomized field experiments of 16 and 18 weeks' duration, respectively, compared an individualized model, Team Assisted Individualization (TAI); an…

  8. The Role of Individualism-Collectivism in the Individual Creative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Xiang; Wang, Shuhong; Dang, Junhua; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    This study is among the first to examine how individuals' cultural value orientations impact 2 separate stages of creativity: idea generation and idea implementation. A total of 247 Chinese employees completed questionnaires including individualism-collectivism culture orientation and their idea generation behavior. Supervisor ratings of idea…

  9. A Comparison of Work Value Preferences of Individuals with Disabilities and Individuals without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Zanskas, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the work value preferences of individuals with disabilities with the work value preferences for a sample of individuals without disabilities. Methods: The preferred work values of a sample of vocational rehabilitation consumers were compared to workers employed in a Southeastern university.…

  10. Parents' Goals for Children: The Dynamic Coexistence of Individualism and Collectivism in Cultures and Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kalman, Ronit Kahana; Niwa, Erika Y.

    2008-01-01

    Current scholarship on the cultural value systems of individualism and collectivism, and the associated developmental goals of autonomy and relatedness, has moved beyond grand divide theories to emphasize variation within individuals and cultures. We present a theoretical model on the dynamic coexistence of cultural value systems (at the macro…

  11. Working It Out: Workplace Experiences of Individuals with HIV and Individuals with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-two individuals with cancer or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) were interviewed concerning their employment related experiences and concerns. Findings indicated that the decision to tell their supervisor and/or co-workers about their health status varied substantially between individuals with HIV and those with cancer. All study…

  12. Individual privacy in an information dependent society

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, B.P.

    1994-12-31

    The extraordinary technologies and capabilities of the Information Age have vastly improved communication, while allowing executives to have ultra-current information about their companies, subsidiaries, staff, clients, and practically any individual in the world. These advances, however, have stripped the individual of his privacy. Although invasions of privacy do not require a computer, computers have made it much easier to gather and select informatin, which means that it is also much easier to invade privacy. The increased value of information to policy makers leads them to covet information, even when acquiring it invades someone`s pricacy; not only do managers of private companies gather personal data, almost every citizen has files about him in Federal agencies and administrations.

  13. Petroleum and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    1995-01-01

    Abridged summary: In general, petroleum negatively affects living organisms through physical contact, toxic action, and habitat modification, whereas individual PAHs have toxic effects. Partially metabolized PAHs can induce genetic damage and developmental abnormalities and can induce cancerous and noncancerous tumors. Evidence linking environmental concentrations of PAHs to the induction of cancer in wild animals is limited. Although concentrations of individual PAHs in aquatic environments are usually much lower than concentrations that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms, sublethal effects can be produced. Population changes caused by petroleum spills are easier to document for macrophytes and animals with limited mobility than for mobile animals (fish, birds, mammals, reptiles). Effects of spills on populations of mobile species have been difficult to determine beyond immediate losses in local populations.

  14. Tunable resistivity of individual magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Franken, J H; Hoeijmakers, M; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B

    2012-01-20

    Despite the relevance of current-induced magnetic domain wall (DW) motion for new spintronics applications, the exact details of the current-domain wall interaction are not yet understood. A property intimately related to this interaction is the intrinsic DW resistivity. Here, we investigate experimentally how the resistivity inside a DW depends on the wall width Δ, which is tuned using focused ion beam irradiation of Pt/Co/Pt strips. We observe the nucleation of individual DWs with Kerr microscopy, and measure resistance changes in real time. A 1/Δ(2) dependence of DW resistivity is found, compatible with Levy-Zhang theory. Also quantitative agreement with theory is found by taking full account of the current flowing through each individual layer inside the multilayer stack.

  15. Chemical analysis of individual mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.; Yeung, E.S.

    1994-12-31

    The extremely small size of mammalian cells creates an unusual challenge for the analytical chemist, both in terms of separation and detection. Under a microscope, it is possible to confirm the injection of individual cells such as erythrocyte into capillaries with 10-{mu}m i.d. by hydrostatic pressure. The ionic contents can then be separated by capillary electrophoresis after the cell lyses. Enzymes at the zeptomole level can be monitored by on-column fluorescence enzyme assay. On-column particle-counting immunoassay can be applied to a broad range of analytes (antigens), also at the zeptomole level. The authors report here the simultaneous determination of the amounts of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and their activities in individual erythrocytes by using a combination of the two detection schemes. Insights into the degradation of proteins as a function of cell age can be derived.

  16. Microwell Arrays for Studying Many Individual Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folch, Albert; Kosar, Turgut Fettah

    2009-01-01

    "Laboratory-on-a-chip" devices that enable the simultaneous culturing and interrogation of many individual living cells have been invented. Each such device includes a silicon nitride-coated silicon chip containing an array of micromachined wells sized so that each well can contain one cell in contact or proximity with a patch clamp or other suitable single-cell-interrogating device. At the bottom of each well is a hole, typically 0.5 m wide, that connects the well with one of many channels in a microfluidic network formed in a layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) on the underside of the chip. The microfluidic network makes it possible to address wells (and, thus, cells) individually to supply them with selected biochemicals. The microfluidic channels also provide electrical contact to the bottoms of the wells.

  17. Divorce and Health: Beyond Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Bourassa, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what is known about the association between marital dissolution and health outcomes in adults. Two of the major empirical findings in the literature—that most people do well following marital separation and that this life event increases risk for poor outcomes—appear to be in contrast. This paper provides an individual differences framework for reconciling these competing perspectives and suggests that the bulk of the risk for poor outcomes following marital dissolution is carried by a minority of people. Research focusing on at-risk populations is beginning to shed light on mechanisms of action, the processes that explain why and how marital separation and divorce are associated with ill health. The paper outlines a series of future directions that go beyond individual differences to study these mechanisms. PMID:25892857

  18. Survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains.

    PubMed

    Dueholm, Morten S; Marques, Irina G; Karst, Søren M; D'Imperio, Seth; Tale, Vaibhav P; Lewis, Derrick; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2015-06-01

    Successful application of bioaugmentation for enhanced degradation of environmental pollutants is often limited by the lack of methods to monitor the survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains. However, recent advancements in sequencing technologies and molecular techniques now allow us to address these limitations. Here a complementing set of general applicable molecular methods are presented that provides detailed information on the performance of individual bioaugmentation strains under in situ conditions. The approach involves genome sequencing to establish highly specific qPCR and RT-qPCR tools for cell enumerations and expression of involved genes, stable isotope probing to follow growth on the target compounds and GFP-tagging to visualize the bioaugmentation strains directly in samples, all in combination with removal studies of the target compounds. The concept of the approach is demonstrated through a case study involving degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in activated sludge augmented with the bioaugmentation strain Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078.

  19. Visualizing Individual Nitrogen Dopants in Monolayer Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    L Zhao; R He; K Rim; T Schiros; K Kim; H Zhou; C Gutierrez; S Chockalingam; C Arguello; et al.

    2011-12-31

    In monolayer graphene, substitutional doping during growth can be used to alter its electronic properties. We used scanning tunneling microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, and first principles calculations to characterize individual nitrogen dopants in monolayer graphene grown on a copper substrate. Individual nitrogen atoms were incorporated as graphitic dopants, and a fraction of the extra electron on each nitrogen atom was delocalized into the graphene lattice. The electronic structure of nitrogen-doped graphene was strongly modified only within a few lattice spacings of the site of the nitrogen dopant. These findings show that chemical doping is a promising route to achieving high-quality graphene films with a large carrier concentration.

  20. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  1. Imaging the dynamics of individual electropores

    PubMed Central

    Sengel, Jason T.

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation is a widely used technique to permeabilize cell membranes. Despite its prevalence, our understanding of the mechanism of voltage-mediated pore formation is incomplete; methods capable of visualizing the time-dependent behavior of individual electropores would help improve our understanding of this process. Here, using optical single-channel recording, we track multiple isolated electropores in real time in planar droplet interface bilayers. We observe individual, mobile defects that fluctuate in size, exhibiting a range of dynamic behaviors. We observe fast (25 s−1) and slow (2 s−1) components in the gating of small electropores, with no apparent dependence on the applied potential. Furthermore, we find that electropores form preferentially in the liquid disordered phase. Our observations are in general supportive of the hydrophilic toroidal pore model of electroporation, but also reveal additional complexity in the interactions, dynamics, and energetics of electropores. PMID:27114528

  2. [Evaluating individual occupational risk in teachers].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, E G; Ishmukhametov, I B

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyzed work conditions of comprehensive school teachers according to workplace assessment. Additional studies covered opportunistic pathogens content of air in classrooms. Auxiliary medical examination evaluated health state of the teachers. Individual occupational risk was calculated with consideration of actual work conditions and health state. Comprehensive school teacher's work is characterized by constant or transitory influence by complex of occupational and work hazards that are mostly (according to to workplace assessment) increased work intensity, noise and inadequate illumination parameters. Ambient air of classrooms constantly contains high number of opportunistic pathogens, that could decrease immune system parameters and cause more droplet infections. Individual occupational risk of teachers, calculated with consideration of work conditions and health state parameters, appears to be high and proves high possibility of teachers' health damage at work. Recommendations cover evaluation of biologic factors within the workplace assessment, obligatory preliminary (before employment) and periodic medical examinations for comprehensive school teachers as for workers exposed to occupational hazards.

  3. [Individual biomass of natural Pinus densiflora].

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Liu, J; Jin, Y

    2000-02-01

    The aboveground biomass of individuals with different growth potentials in natural Pinus densiflora forest with different stand densities was measured in Yanbian, Jilin Province. The variation of individual biomass affected by densities was in order of dominant tree < intermediate tree < suppressed tree, while the distribution proportion of biomass in different organs affected by densities was: in order of trunk > branch > needle > bark. The biomass components of P. densifliora with different growth potentials varied markedly with the approaching of density class III, and the change of intermediate trees was similar to the whole stand. The vertical distributions of biomass of different trees were different from each other, but all showed that the biomass of trunks and barks was mainly distributed below 6 m high from ground, that of branches was within 6-10 m high, that of needles was uniform in the upper, middle and lower layers, and that of branches and needles in upper layer was least affected by density.

  4. Octopuses (Enteroctopus dofleini) recognize individual humans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Roland C; Mather, Jennifer A; Monette, Mathieu Q; Zimsen, Stephanie R M

    2010-01-01

    This study exposed 8 Enteroctopus dofleini separately to 2 unfamiliar individual humans over a 2-week period under differing circumstances. One person consistently fed the octopuses and the other touched them with a bristly stick. Each human recorded octopus body patterns, behaviors, and respiration rates directly after each treatment. At the end of 2 weeks, a body pattern (a dark Eyebar) and 2 behaviors (reaching arms toward or away from the tester and funnel direction) were significantly different in response to the 2 humans. The respiration rate of the 4 larger octopuses changed significantly in response to the 2 treatments; however, there was no significant difference in the 4 smaller octopuses' respiration. Octopuses' ability to recognize humans enlarges our knowledge of the perceptual ability of this nonhuman animal, which depends heavily on learning in response to visual information. Any training paradigm should take such individual recognition into consideration as it could significantly alter the octopuses' responses.

  5. On the theory of individual health

    PubMed Central

    Danzer, G; Rose, M; Walter, M; Klapp, B

    2002-01-01

    On top of elaborate methods and approaches in research, diagnostics, and therapy, medicine is in need of a theory of its own thought and action; without theoretical reflection and referentiality, action becomes blind (and thus costly) and thought takes on a monotonous and circular character. Take the concept of health. The field of medicine, more and more taking its cues from evidence-based medicine (EBM), is onesidedly oriented to concepts of health which are based on notions of standard values for large populations or—in the shadow of the genome project—see health as the outcome of an intact genome, often turning a blind eye to the individual aspects of health. With an eye in particular to Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy, the present paper looks into some continental European theories of individual health, seeking to determine to what extent they can contribute to reducing medicine's theory deficit and what consequences this may have for research, diagnostics, and therapy. PMID:11834753

  6. Individual differences in response conflict adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Keye, Doris; Wilhelm, Oliver; Oberauer, Klaus; Stürmer, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for conflicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive control to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect), and a modulation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect) have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157) investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in a horizontal and a vertical Simon task, and their correlation with working memory capacity (WMC). Strength of conflict was varied by proportion of congruent trials. Coherent factors could be formed representing individual differences in speeded performance, conflict adaptation, and context adaptation. Conflict and context factors were not associated with each other. Contrary to theories assuming a close relation between working memory and cognitive control, WMC showed no relation with any factors representing adaptation to conflict. PMID:24385971

  7. Genetic Network Programming with Reconstructed Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fengming; Mabu, Shingo; Wang, Lutao; Eto, Shinji; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    A lot of research on evolutionary computation has been done and some significant classical methods such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Genetic Programming (GP), Evolutionary Programming (EP), and Evolution Strategies (ES) have been studied. Recently, a new approach named Genetic Network Programming (GNP) has been proposed. GNP can evolve itself and find the optimal solution. It is based on the idea of Genetic Algorithm and uses the data structure of directed graphs. Many papers have demonstrated that GNP can deal with complex problems in the dynamic environments very efficiently and effectively. As a result, recently, GNP is getting more and more attentions and is used in many different areas such as data mining, extracting trading rules of stock markets, elevator supervised control systems, etc., and GNP has obtained some outstanding results. Focusing on the GNP's distinguished expression ability of the graph structure, this paper proposes a method named Genetic Network Programming with Reconstructed Individuals (GNP-RI). The aim of GNP-RI is to balance the exploitation and exploration of GNP, that is, to strengthen the exploitation ability by using the exploited information extensively during the evolution process of GNP and finally obtain better performances than that of GNP. In the proposed method, the worse individuals are reconstructed and enhanced by the elite information before undergoing genetic operations (mutation and crossover). The enhancement of worse individuals mimics the maturing phenomenon in nature, where bad individuals can become smarter after receiving a good education. In this paper, GNP-RI is applied to the tile-world problem which is an excellent bench mark for evaluating the proposed architecture. The performance of GNP-RI is compared with that of the conventional GNP. The simulation results show some advantages of GNP-RI demonstrating its superiority over the conventional GNPs.

  8. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity.

  9. INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELLING APPROACH TO THERMAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Diadromous fish populations in the Pacific Northwest face challenges along their migratory routes from declining habitat quality, harvest, and barriers to longitudinal connectivity. Changes in river temperature regimes are producing an additional challenge for upstream migrating adult salmon and steelhead, species that are sensitive to absolute and cumulative thermal exposure. Adult salmon populations have been shown to utilize cold water patches along migration routes when mainstem river temperatures exceed thermal optimums. We are employing an individual based model (IBM) to explore the costs and benefits of spatially-distributed cold water refugia for adult migrating salmon. Our model, developed in the HexSim platform, is built around a mechanistic behavioral decision tree that drives individual interactions with their spatially explicit simulated environment. Population-scale responses to dynamic thermal regimes, coupled with other stressors such as disease and harvest, become emergent properties of the spatial IBM. Other model outputs include arrival times, species-specific survival rates, body energetic content, and reproductive fitness levels. Here, we discuss the challenges associated with parameterizing an individual based model of salmon and steelhead in a section of the Columbia River. Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are currently listed as impaired under the Clean Water Act as a result of high summer water temperatures. Adverse effec

  10. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences.

  11. Entropic measures of individual mobility patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Bazzani, Armando; Degli Esposti, Mirko; Rambaldi, Sandro

    2013-10-01

    Understanding human mobility from a microscopic point of view may represent a fundamental breakthrough for the development of a statistical physics for cognitive systems and it can shed light on the applicability of macroscopic statistical laws for social systems. Even if the complexity of individual behaviors prevents a true microscopic approach, the introduction of mesoscopic models allows the study of the dynamical properties for the non-stationary states of the considered system. We propose to compute various entropy measures of the individual mobility patterns obtained from GPS data that record the movements of private vehicles in the Florence district, in order to point out new features of human mobility related to the use of time and space and to define the dynamical properties of a stochastic model that could generate similar patterns. Moreover, we can relate the predictability properties of human mobility to the distribution of time passed between two successive trips. Our analysis suggests the existence of a hierarchical structure in the mobility patterns which divides the performed activities into three different categories, according to the time cost, with different information contents. We show that a Markov process defined by using the individual mobility network is not able to reproduce this hierarchy, which seems the consequence of different strategies in the activity choice. Our results could contribute to the development of governance policies for a sustainable mobility in modern cities.

  12. Individuality and Togetherness in Joint Improvised Motion

    PubMed Central

    Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Mayo, Avraham E.; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Actors, dancers and musicians that improvise together report special moments of togetherness: high performance and synchrony, seemingly without a leader and a follower. Togetherness seems to conflict with individuality- the idiosyncratic character of each person's performance. To understand the relation of individuality and togetherness, we employed the mirror game paradigm in which two players are asked to mirror each other and create interesting synchronized motion, with and without a designated leader. The mirror game enables quantitative characterization of moments of togetherness in which complex motion is generated with high synchrony. We find that each person as a leader does basic strokes of motion with a characteristic signature, in terms of the shape of their velocity profile between two stopping events. In moments of togetherness both players change their signature to a universal stroke shape. This universal velocity profile resembles a half-period of a sine wave, and is therefore symmetric and maximally smooth. Thus, instead of converging to an intermediate motion signature, or having one player dominate, players seem to shift their basic motion signatures to a shape that is altogether different from their individually preferred shapes; the resulting motion may be easier to predict and to agree on. The players then build complex motion by using such smooth elementary strokes. PMID:24533054

  13. Cognitive world: Neuropsychology of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-09-20

    It is proposed that depending upon the specific pattern of cognitive abilities, each individual lives in an idiosyncratic "cognitive world." Brain pathology can be associated with some disturbed abilities, and frequently experiential changes (i.e., how the world is understood) are observed. Because these patients often are aware of their intellectual changes, they may represent excellent models to illustrate the diversity of cognitive interpretations an individual can have about the surrounding environmental conditions. Four neuropsychology cases are presented to illustrate this point: (a) prosopagnosia associated with spatial agnosia; (b) Gerstmann's syndrome; (c) dysexecutive syndrome due to a head injury; and, (d) patient with Capgras' syndrome associated with a left temporal cyst. It is further emphasized that non-brain damaged people present an enormous-but usually overlooked-dispersion in different cognitive domains, resulting in specific and idiosyncratic patterns of cognitive abilities. It is concluded that the concept of "cognitive world" in neuropsychology can parallel the concept of "perceptual world" introduced by von Uexküll in biology, which assumes that different animal species live in idiosyncratic perceptual worlds, available and knowable by the differences in their sensory system abilities. That is, different individuals live in idiosyncratic cognitive worlds, owing to their differences in cognitive abilities.

  14. Guided bone regeneration using individualized ceramic sheets.

    PubMed

    Malmström, J; Anderud, J; Abrahamsson, P; Wälivaara, D-Å; Isaksson, S G; Adolfsson, E

    2016-10-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) describes the use of membranes to regenerate bony defects. A membrane for GBR needs to be biocompatible, cell-occlusive, non-toxic, and mouldable, and possess space-maintaining properties including stability. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe a new method of GBR using individualized ceramic sheets to perfect bone regeneration prior to implant placement; bone regeneration was assessed using traditional histology and three-dimensional (3D) volumetric changes in the bone and soft tissue. Three patients were included. After full-thickness flap reflection, the individualized ceramic sheets were fixed. The sites were left to heal for 7 months. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 7 months postoperative using cone beam computed tomography and 3D optical equipment. Samples of the regenerated bone and soft tissue were collected and analyzed. The bone regenerated in the entire interior volume of all sheets. Bone biopsies revealed newly formed trabecular bone with a lamellar structure. Soft tissue biopsies showed connective tissue with no signs of an inflammatory response. This was considered to be newly formed periosteum. Thus ceramic individualized sheets can be used to regenerate large volumes of bone in both vertical and horizontal directions independent of the bone defect and with good biological acceptance of the material.

  15. Barriers to Health Care for Transgender Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.; Coleman, Eli; Feldman, Jamie; Garofalo, Robert; Hembree, Wylie; Radix, Asa; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Transgender persons suffer significant health disparities and may require medical intervention as part of their care. The purpose of this manuscript is to briefly review the literature characterizing barriers to health care for transgender individuals and to propose research priorities to understand mechanisms of those barriers and interventions to overcome them. Recent Findings Current research emphasizes sexual minorities’ self report of barriers, rather than using direct methods. The biggest barrier to health care reported by transgender individuals is lack of access due to lack of providers who are sufficiently knowledgeable on the topic. Other barriers include: financial barriers, discrimination, lack of cultural competence by providers, health systems barriers and socioeconomic barriers. Summary National research priorities should include rigorous determination of the capacity of the United States health care system to provide adequate care for transgender individuals. Studies should determine knowledge and biases of the medical work force across the spectrum of medical training with regard to transgender medical care; adequacy of sufficient providers for the care required, larger social structural barriers and status of a framework to pay for appropriate care. As well, studies should propose and validate potential solutions to address identified gaps. PMID:26910276

  16. Neural Variability Quenching Predicts Individual Perceptual Abilities.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Ayelet; Censor, Nitzan; Dinstein, Ilan

    2017-01-04

    Neural activity during repeated presentations of a sensory stimulus exhibits considerable trial-by-trial variability. Previous studies have reported that trial-by-trial neural variability is reduced (quenched) by the presentation of a stimulus. However, the functional significance and behavioral relevance of variability quenching and the potential physiological mechanisms that may drive it have been studied only rarely. Here, we recorded neural activity with EEG as subjects performed a two-interval forced-choice contrast discrimination task. Trial-by-trial neural variability was quenched by ∼40% after the presentation of the stimulus relative to the variability apparent before stimulus presentation, yet there were large differences in the magnitude of variability quenching across subjects. Individual magnitudes of quenching predicted individual discrimination capabilities such that subjects who exhibited larger quenching had smaller contrast discrimination thresholds and steeper psychometric function slopes. Furthermore, the magnitude of variability quenching was strongly correlated with a reduction in broadband EEG power after stimulus presentation. Our results suggest that neural variability quenching is achieved by reducing the amplitude of broadband neural oscillations after sensory input, which yields relatively more reproducible cortical activity across trials and enables superior perceptual abilities in individuals who quench more.

  17. Grepafloxacin pharmacokinetics in individuals with hepatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A; Flaherty, J F; Wolfe, E; Bass, N; Somberg, K

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin, a new broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, were studied in 2 trials involving 14 healthy volunteers, 10 individuals with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) impairment of liver function, and 12 with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B or C) hepatic impairment. All participants received an oral dose of grepafloxacin 400 mg, daily for 7 days, and plasma and urine grepafloxacin concentrations were measured over 7 days. The pooled data from participants with impaired liver function showed that, compared with healthy individuals, peak plasma grepafloxacin concentrations, area under the plasma concentration-time curve and proportion of the dose excreted in the urine were increased. In addition, apparent total clearance was reduced in the presence of hepatic dysfunction. Peak concentrations were increased by 36% and 48% in individuals with Class A and B disease, respectively; the corresponding reductions in clearance were 33% and 55%, respectively. Child-Pugh scores and components of the scores showed no correlation with any pharmacokinetic variables. Based on these findings, we recommend a daily grepafloxacin dose of 400 mg in patients with mild hepatic impairment, irrespective of the severity of infection. Grepafloxacin should not be used in patients with moderate or severe liver disease.

  18. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies.

  19. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  20. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  1. Using and Explaining Individual Dosimetry Data.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    Measurement of individual radiation dose is crucial for planning protective measures after nuclear accidents. The purpose of this article is to explain the various initiatives taken after the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, including the D-shuttle project wherein residents from affected areas wore a personal dosimeter to measure their own external exposure. The experience in Fukushima revealed several issues such as gaining residents' trust and ensuring appropriate communication of the measured data. The D-shuttle project also revealed that obtaining individual dose measurement data had 2 purposes, as the information obtained was to be utilized by the residents for self-protection and by the authorities for deriving the dose distribution of the population to aid in designing large-scale protection measures. The lessons learned are that both the residents and the authorities need to understand and share the meaning of individual dose measurements and the measurement results must be used with due respect for the residents' privacy and other concerns.

  2. Impact of committed individuals on vaccination behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2012-11-01

    We study how the presence of committed vaccinators, a small fraction of individuals who consistently hold the vaccinating strategy and are immune to influence, impact the vaccination dynamics in well-mixed and spatially structured populations. For this purpose, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of a flu-like vaccination by integrating an epidemiological process into a simple agent-based model of adaptive learning, where individuals (except for those committed ones) use anecdotal evidence to estimate costs and benefits of vaccination. We show that the committed vaccinators, acting as “steadfast role models” in the populations, can efficiently avoid the clustering of susceptible individuals and stimulate other imitators to take vaccination, hence contributing to the promotion of vaccine uptake. We substantiate our findings by making comparative studies of our model on a full lattice and on a randomly diluted one. Our work is expected to provide valuable information for decision-making and design more effective disease-control strategy.

  3. On the individual calibration of hailpads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palencia, Covadonga; Berthet, Claude; Massot, Marta; Castro, Amaya; Dessens, Jean; Fraile, Roberto

    2007-02-01

    This paper is a comparative study between the two most common hailpad calibration systems: one annual calibration of a whole consignment of material, and the individual calibration of each plate after a hailfall. Individual calibration attempts to minimize errors due to differences in sensitivity to the impact of hailstones between plates from the same consignment, or due to differences in the inking process before the actual measurement. The comparison was carried out using calibration data from the past few years in the hailpad network in south-western France, and data from an individual calibration process on material provided by the hailpad network in Lleida (Spain). The same type of material was used in the two cases. The results confirm that the error in measuring hailstone sizes is smaller in the case of an individual calibration of hailpads than when one single calibration process was carried out for a whole consignment. The former is approximately 80% of the latter. However, this error could have been higher if it had not been the same person carrying out the single calibration process and the measuring of the dents: it has been found that differences in the inking process may account for up to 20% of the error in the case of small hailstones. Calibration errors affecting other variables, e.g. energy or parameter λ of the exponential size distribution are generally higher (5% and 18%, respectively) than errors due to the spatial variability of the hailstones. However, the calibration method does not influence the maximum size, since the relative error attributed to the spatial variability is about 8 times the calibration error. In conclusion, if errors in determining energy or parameter λ are to be reduced to a minimum, it is highly advisable to be consistent in applying the measuring procedure (if possible with the same person carrying out the measurements all the time), and even to use individual calibration on each plate, always bearing in mind that

  4. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( P<0.05). Energy budget of the animals showed that the food energy spent on respiration was much greater (about four folds) but energy deposited for growth was much less for (initially) smaller than for larger A. japonicus. The present result implies that there are obvious genetic differences among the sea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  5. 42 CFR 435.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Aged individuals (65 years of age of older); (2) Blind individuals (as defined in § 435.530); (3) Disabled individuals (as defined in § 435.541); (4) Individuals under age 21 (or, at State option, under age 20, 19, or 18) or reasonable classifications of these individuals; (5) Specified relatives...

  6. 42 CFR 435.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Aged individuals (65 years of age of older); (2) Blind individuals (as defined in § 435.530); (3) Disabled individuals (as defined in § 435.541); (4) Individuals under age 21 (or, at State option, under age 20, 19, or 18) or reasonable classifications of these individuals; (5) Specified relatives...

  7. Individual differences in individualism and collectivism predict ratings of virtual cities' liveability and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mark; Morrison, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated individual differences in individualism and collectivism as predictors of people's reactions to cities. Psychology undergraduate students (N = 148) took virtual guided tours around historical cities. They then evaluated the cities' liveability and environmental quality and completed measures of individualism and collectivism. Mediation analyses showed that people who scored high in self-responsibility (individualism) rated the cities as more liveable because they perceived them to be richer and better resourced. In contrast, people who scored high in collectivism rated the cities as having a better environmental quality because they perceived them to (1) provide a greater potential for community and social life and (2) allow people to express themselves. These results indicate that people's evaluations of virtual cities are based on the degree to which certain aspects of the cities are perceived to be consistent with individualist and collectivist values.

  8. 33 CFR 155.1026 - Qualified individual and alternate qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must be available on a 24-hour basis. (b) The qualified individual and alternate must— (1) Speak fluent English; (2) Except as set out in paragraph (c) of this section, be located in the United States; (3)...

  9. 33 CFR 155.1026 - Qualified individual and alternate qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must be available on a 24-hour basis. (b) The qualified individual and alternate must— (1) Speak fluent English; (2) Except as set out in paragraph (c) of this section, be located in the United States; (3)...

  10. 33 CFR 155.1026 - Qualified individual and alternate qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must be available on a 24-hour basis. (b) The qualified individual and alternate must— (1) Speak fluent English; (2) Except as set out in paragraph (c) of this section, be located in the United States; (3)...

  11. 33 CFR 155.1026 - Qualified individual and alternate qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must be available on a 24-hour basis. (b) The qualified individual and alternate must— (1) Speak fluent English; (2) Except as set out in paragraph (c) of this section, be located in the United States; (3)...

  12. 33 CFR 155.1026 - Qualified individual and alternate qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must be available on a 24-hour basis. (b) The qualified individual and alternate must— (1) Speak fluent English; (2) Except as set out in paragraph (c) of this section, be located in the United States; (3)...

  13. Individual dispersal, landscape connectivity and ecological networks.

    PubMed

    Baguette, Michel; Blanchet, Simon; Legrand, Delphine; Stevens, Virginie M; Turlure, Camille

    2013-05-01

    Connectivity is classically considered an emergent property of landscapes encapsulating individuals' flows across space. However, its operational use requires a precise understanding of why and how organisms disperse. Such movements, and hence landscape connectivity, will obviously vary according to both organism properties and landscape features. We review whether landscape connectivity estimates could gain in both precision and generality by incorporating three fundamental outcomes of dispersal theory. Firstly, dispersal is a multi-causal process; its restriction to an 'escape reaction' to environmental unsuitability is an oversimplification, as dispersing individuals can leave excellent quality habitat patches or stay in poor-quality habitats according to the relative costs and benefits of dispersal and philopatry. Secondly, species, populations and individuals do not always react similarly to those cues that trigger dispersal, which sometimes results in contrasting dispersal strategies. Finally, dispersal is a major component of fitness and is thus under strong selective pressures, which could generate rapid adaptations of dispersal strategies. Such evolutionary responses will entail spatiotemporal variation in landscape connectivity. We thus strongly recommend the use of genetic tools to: (i) assess gene flow intensity and direction among populations in a given landscape; and (ii) accurately estimate landscape features impacting gene flow, and hence landscape connectivity. Such approaches will provide the basic data for planning corridors or stepping stones aiming at (re)connecting local populations of a given species in a given landscape. This strategy is clearly species- and landscape-specific. But we suggest that the ecological network in a given landscape could be designed by stacking up such linkages designed for several species living in different ecosystems. This procedure relies on the use of umbrella species that are representative of other species

  14. Clutter Management for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there is substantial anecdotal evidence that clutter is common among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), the literature contains no reports of studies on the actual prevalence of the problem or its impact on functional performance in this population. Clutter promotes confusion and places individuals in potentially dangerous situations by increasing their risks of falling, losing medications, and misplacing important documents. In addition, it may negatively affect activities of daily living (ADLs). Many common MS symptoms such as decreased mobility, visual or cognitive changes, fatigue, and depression can exacerbate clutter accumulation, which in turn can have detrimental effects on physical, financial, emotional, cognitive, and social functioning. It is critical for MS clinicians to address clutter management in order to improve patients' overall functional independence and participation. Methods: A clutter reduction protocol was developed and implemented at our institution for individuals with MS. Our group program addresses psychosocial issues preventing organization and offers practical strategies for clutter removal and management to improve performance in ADLs. A clutter questionnaire is administered to individuals before and after their participation in the group program. Results: Anecdotal reports indicate that the intervention helped to reduce clutter, promote a more realistic attitude toward “possessions,” and establish a sense of accomplishment in controlling one's environment. Participants also reported fewer falls, feeling less isolated, increased ease in finding their medications, and a general sense of cognitive clarity in accomplishing ADLs. Outcome assessments are now being developed to objectively measure these effects as well as the prevalence of clutter within the MS population. Conclusions: Clutter management is an important area for MS clinicians to address because it can significantly affect patients' functioning

  15. The third individuation. The effect of biological parenthood on separation-individuation processes in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, C A

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the Third Individuation, the continuous process of elaboration of the self and differentiation from objects which occurs in the developmental phases of early (20 to 40) and middle (40 to 60) adulthood. Although it is influenced by all important adult object ties, at its core are involvements with children, spouse, and parents, i.e., the family, the same psychological constellation that shaped the first (Mahler) and second (Blos) individuations.

  16. Revitalization - an organizational program for the individual

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    Progressive devitalization is a malady that afflicts many workers resulting in tremendous costs to organizations. This malady has long been recognized by management but little has been done to treat it. A new approach to the problem has been insitituted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in the form of a group program called Revitalization. Early results have been very encouraging. The program will continue to be designed and improved in the hope of bringing more productivity to the organization and self-esteem to the individual.

  17. Bacterial Ventures into Multicellularity: Collectivism through Individuality.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Simon; Ackermann, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes can perform functions that exceed the possibilities of an individual cell. These functions emerge through interactions between differentiated cells that are precisely arranged in space. Bacteria also form multicellular collectives that consist of differentiated but genetically identical cells. How does the functionality of these collectives depend on the spatial arrangement of the differentiated bacteria? In a previous issue of PLOS Biology, van Gestel and colleagues reported an elegant example of how the spatial arrangement of differentiated cells gives rise to collective behavior in Bacillus subtilus colonies, further demonstrating the similarity of bacterial collectives to higher multicellular organisms.

  18. Multifocal Cutaneous Tuberculosis in Immunocompetent Individual

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Malay; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Rathod, Kirti

    2015-01-01

    Most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is lupus vulgaris, which usually occurs in previously sensitized individuals who have a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. We are reporting a case of a young female, who presented with 6 well defined erythematous scaly plaques involving both arms and a puckered scar on right forearm and right breast. Clinically, it was looking like lupus vulgaris with cold abscess, few lesions mimicking scrofuloderma, but skin biopsy from both the types of lesions revealed lupus vulgaris. Patient improved with Anti Tuberculous Therapy and surgical drainage of underlying cold abscess. PMID:26816978

  19. Multifocal Cutaneous Tuberculosis in Immunocompetent Individual.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Malay; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Rathod, Kirti; Vora, Rita V

    2015-12-01

    Most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is lupus vulgaris, which usually occurs in previously sensitized individuals who have a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. We are reporting a case of a young female, who presented with 6 well defined erythematous scaly plaques involving both arms and a puckered scar on right forearm and right breast. Clinically, it was looking like lupus vulgaris with cold abscess, few lesions mimicking scrofuloderma, but skin biopsy from both the types of lesions revealed lupus vulgaris. Patient improved with Anti Tuberculous Therapy and surgical drainage of underlying cold abscess.

  20. Analysis of individual lipoproteins and liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.L.; Keller, R.A.; Nolan, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    We describe the application of single molecule detection (SMD) technologies for the analysis of natural (serum lipoproteins) and synthetic (liposomes) transport systems. The need for advanced analytical procedures of these complex and important systems is presented with the specific enhancements afforded by SMD with flowing sample streams. In contrast to bulk measurements which yield only average values, measurement of individual species allows creation of population histograms from heterogeneous samples. The data are acquired in minutes and the analysis requires relatively small sample quantities. Preliminary data are presented from the analysis of low density lipoprotein, and multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles.

  1. Luck Egalitarianism, Individual Responsibility and Health

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Luck Egalitarianism has frequently been discussed in the recent literature because of the potential impact of this theory on health financing. Luck Egalitarianism puts forth a theory of distributive justice which says that the fundamental aim of equality is to compensate people for undeserved bad luck such as being born with poor native endowments, having difficult family circumstances or suffering from accidents and illness. On the other hand, if individuals face ill health because of faults of their own, then society has no duty to supply health services to them. Many arguments for and against this theory have been raised since it was first introduced. The proponents of Luck Egalitarianism focus on the concepts that free choice and respecting the autonomy of the individual determine whether health services are deserved. The criticisms against the concept of Luck Egalitarianism are that it is harsh to the needy and abandons the wretched, discriminates against the disabled, is against basic humanitarian principles, is incompatible with human dignity, and is in dissonance with real life. We agree with the basic proposition of Luck Egalitarian theory, which states that “inequalities deriving from unchosen features of people’s circumstances are unjust and therefore should be compensated for”. Our agreement leads us to an opposite conclusion. We propose that the “unchosen features of people’s circumstances” include more than personal disadvantages. The social features to be included in the context of inequalities deriving from unchosen features of peoples circumstances are, socioeconomic status (SES), access to social determinants of health, and the ethnic, cultural and religious identity of individuals. Our other propositions are the mutable character of choices which makes individual responsibility of preferences implausible; the problematic causal relationship between responsibility and ill-health; the disregard of the motives behind decisions; problems

  2. Individualized Treatment Guidelines for Postpubertal Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a well-known congenital anomaly in children. However, its diagnosis is often delayed for reasons including patient unawareness or denial of abnormal findings in the testis. Moreover, it has been difficult to establish an optimal treatment strategy for postpubertal cryptorchidism, given the small number of patients. Unlike cryptorchidism in children, postpubertal cryptorchidism is associated with an increased probability of neoplasms, which has led orchiectomy to be the recommended treatment. However, routine orchiectomy should be avoided in some cases due to quality-of-life issues and the potential risk of perioperative mortality. Based on a literature review, this study proposes individualized treatment guidelines for postpubertal cryptorchidism. PMID:26770935

  3. Artificial cybernetic living individuals based on supramolecular-level organization as dispersed individuals.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    One of the most characteristic features of spontaneously originating biological systems is that their most fundamental structure and especially functioning is based on molecular-level organization. This property is particularly important when natural living individuals composed of organic compounds of carbon are compared with (hypothetical) artificial living individuals based on metals, plastic, glass, silicon, and so on, whose most basic structural and functional units appear at the supramolecular level. The cybernetic definition of a living individual I proposed previously is used in the present work. I argue that artificial, supramolecular living individuals existing self-dependently in the environment of some distant planet must have the form of dispersed individuals composed of several separate subindividuals that are integrated functionally, but not structurally. These subindividuals would be analogous to such modules of human technical civilization as machines, robots, steelworks, chemical plants, electronic factories, power stations, and mines. Such dispersed individuals would resemble colonies of social insects and moles, which are also composed of separate subindividuals (particular insects and moles) carrying out different specialized functions.

  4. Lifestyle chemistries from phones for individual profiling.

    PubMed

    Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V; Xu, Zhenjiang; Amir, Amnon; da Silva, Ricardo R; Wang, Mingxun; Bandeira, Nuno; Alexandrov, Theodore; Knight, Rob; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2016-11-29

    Imagine a scenario where personal belongings such as pens, keys, phones, or handbags are found at an investigative site. It is often valuable to the investigative team that is trying to trace back the belongings to an individual to understand their personal habits, even when DNA evidence is also available. Here, we develop an approach to translate chemistries recovered from personal objects such as phones into a lifestyle sketch of the owner, using mass spectrometry and informatics approaches. Our results show that phones' chemistries reflect a personalized lifestyle profile. The collective repertoire of molecules found on these objects provides a sketch of the lifestyle of an individual by highlighting the type of hygiene/beauty products the person uses, diet, medical status, and even the location where this person may have been. These findings introduce an additional form of trace evidence from skin-associated lifestyle chemicals found on personal belongings. Such information could help a criminal investigator narrowing down the owner of an object found at a crime scene, such as a suspect or missing person.

  5. Individual histories and selection in heterogeneous populations

    PubMed Central

    Leibler, Stanislas; Kussell, Edo

    2010-01-01

    The strength of selection in populations has traditionally been inferred by measuring changes in bulk population parameters, such as mean reproductive rates. Untangling the effect of selection from other factors, such as specific responses to environmental fluctuations, poses a significant problem both in microbiology and in other fields, including cancer biology and immunology, where selection occurs within phenotypically heterogeneous populations of cells. Using “individual histories”—temporal sequences of all reproduction events and phenotypic changes of individuals and their ancestors—we present an alternative approach to quantifying selection in diverse experimental settings. Selection is viewed as a process that acts on histories, and a measure of selection that employs the distribution of histories is introduced. We apply this measure to phenotypically structured populations in fluctuating environments across different evolutionary regimes. Additionally, we show that reproduction events alone, recorded in the population’s tree of cell divisions, may be sufficient to accurately measure selection. The measure is thus applicable in a wide range of biological systems, from microorganisms—including species for which genetic tools do not yet exist—to cellular populations, such as tumors and stem cells, where detailed temporal data are becoming available. PMID:20616073

  6. Waveguiding properties of individual electrospun polymer nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yuya; Kaminose, Ryohei; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2013-09-01

    Optical circuits are needed to achieve high-speed, high-capacity information processing. An optical waveguide is an essential element in optical circuits. Electrospun polymer fibers have diameters in the nanometer range and high aspect ratios, so they are prime candidates for small waveguides. In this work, we fabricate uniform electrospun polymer nanofibers and characterize their optical waveguiding properties. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions of different concentration that contain a small amount of Nile Blue A perchlorate (NBA) are electrospun. Uniform PMMA/NBA nanofibers are obtained from the 10 wt% solution. The fibers are covered with transparent cladding and their ends cut vertically. A laser beam with a wavelength of 533 nm is irradiated onto the fiber from the direction vertical to the fiber axis so that it scans along the fiber. Photoluminescence (PL) at the end face of individual fibers is then measured. The PL intensity decreases with increasing distance (d) between the end face of a fiber and irradiating point of the laser beam as ~exp(-αd) with a loss coefficient (α). Measurements of five individual fibers reveal α is in the range of 17-75 cm-1.

  7. [The rights of criminally insane individuals].

    PubMed

    Correia, Ludmila Cerqueira; Lima, Isabel Maria Sampaio Oliveira; Alves, Vânia Sampaio

    2007-09-01

    The Psychiatric Reform Movement has supported proposals to reorient the hegemonic mental health care model. In Brazil, a facility for the criminally insane was created, called the Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Hospital (CPTH). The maintenance of such a structure, known as total institutionalization, has reinforced individual exclusion, limiting the patients' social rehabilitation. This article discusses the right to health in the CPTH from a human rights perspective. The advances achieved in Brazil under the National Mental Health Policy have failed to include reorientation of the care provided in such facilities for the criminally insane. The institution has remained an isolationist asylum, reflecting a historical denial of human rights. Progress in policy, per se, does not guarantee the materialization of recent strides gained through the Psychiatric Reform, particularly in relation to criminals with mental disorders. The state, through shared responsibility with society, should promote the effective reorientation of the health care model for these individuals, whose criminal responsibility should be acknowledged, while providing simultaneously for specialized care. Respect for human rights is not synonymous with impunity.

  8. Lifestyle chemistries from phones for individual profiling

    PubMed Central

    Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V.; Xu, Zhenjiang; Amir, Amnon; da Silva, Ricardo R.; Wang, Mingxun; Bandeira, Nuno; Alexandrov, Theodore; Knight, Rob; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine a scenario where personal belongings such as pens, keys, phones, or handbags are found at an investigative site. It is often valuable to the investigative team that is trying to trace back the belongings to an individual to understand their personal habits, even when DNA evidence is also available. Here, we develop an approach to translate chemistries recovered from personal objects such as phones into a lifestyle sketch of the owner, using mass spectrometry and informatics approaches. Our results show that phones’ chemistries reflect a personalized lifestyle profile. The collective repertoire of molecules found on these objects provides a sketch of the lifestyle of an individual by highlighting the type of hygiene/beauty products the person uses, diet, medical status, and even the location where this person may have been. These findings introduce an additional form of trace evidence from skin-associated lifestyle chemicals found on personal belongings. Such information could help a criminal investigator narrowing down the owner of an object found at a crime scene, such as a suspect or missing person. PMID:27849584

  9. Health Law 2015: Individuals and Populations.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Peter D; Dahlen, Rachel

    2016-08-16

    In this article, we assess two particular trends in judicial doctrine that are likely to emerge in the post-ACA era. The first trend is the inevitable emergence of enterprise medical liability (EML) that will supplant tort law's unstable attempt to apportion liability between physicians and institutions. Arguments favoring EML in health law date back to the early 1980s. But health care's ongoing consolidation suggests that the time has arrived for courts or state legislatures to develop legal doctrine that more closely resembles the ways in which health care is now delivered. This would result in a more appropriate allocation of liability to the institutional level. The second judicial trend will be the convergence of health law and public health law concepts. Because the ACA arguably stimulates closer engagement between health systems and public health departments, health systems will have greater responsibility for keeping their communities healthy along with obligations for individual patient care (i.e., individuals and populations). If so, courts will need to incorporate elements from health law and public health law in resolving disputes.

  10. Wetting and spreading of individual latex particles

    SciTech Connect

    Unertl, W.N.; Luo, Y.; Woodland, D.; Bediwi, A.B.E.; Kamal, M.; El Farrash, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The wetting and spreading of individual latex particles is an important factor in controlling the mechanical properties of coatings such as those used on paper. The interactions between latex particles that lead to coalescence and film formation has been extensively studied and the basic mechanisms have been identified. Surface aspects of the coalescence and film formation for bulk films and dense monolayers have also been studied including the effects of surfactants. However, in many practical applications, including most paper coatings, latex is present in concentrations that are too small for latex-latex interactions to be important. In these applications, the wetting, spreading, and adhesion of individual latex particles on surfaces of the other constituents of the coating are most important. In spite of its importance, this topic has received little attention. This paper describes measurements of the contact angle {theta} and determination of the work of adhesion W of styrene-butadiene latex particles on calcite, mica, cellophane, and polystyrene surfaces. The effects of humidity and latex glass transition temperature on the wetting and spreading are also described. Some implications for the strength of coatings containing low levels of latex binders are also discussed.

  11. Attitudes of deaf individuals towards genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Patricia Rubal; Pandya, Arti; Foley, Debra L; Nicely, Lauren Vanner; Arnos, Kathleen S

    2004-09-15

    Recent advances have made molecular genetic testing for several forms of deafness more widely available. Previous studies have examined the attitudes of the deaf towards genetic testing, including prenatal diagnosis. This study examines the attitudes of deaf college students towards universal newborn hearing screening, including molecular testing for specific forms of deafness, as well as the utilization of genetic test results for mate selection. We found that there may be differences in the attitudes of deaf individuals who associate closely with the deaf community (DC), and those who have equal involvement with both the deaf and hearing communities (EIC). The majority perceived newborn hearing screening for deafness to be helpful. However, more members of the EIC than the DC groups support newborn testing for genes for deafness. While there was reported interest in using genetic testing for partner selection, most participants reported they would not be interested in selecting a partner to have children with a specific hearing status. The results of this study point out important differences that genetic professionals should be aware of when counseling deaf individuals.

  12. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE)

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.; Brick, Timothy R.; Pritikin, Joshua N.; Wang, Yang; von Oertzen, Timo; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D.; Maes, Hermine H.; Neale, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly-impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participants’ personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual’s data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  13. Individual Susceptibility to Hypobaric Environments: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Watkins, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts are at risk for developing decompression sickness (DCS) while exposed to the hypobaric environment of the extravehicular suit in space, in terrestrial hypobaric chambers, and during ascent from neutral buoyancy training dives. There is increasing recognition that DCS risk is different between diving and altitude exposures, with many individual parameters and environmental factors implicated as risk factors for development of DCS in divers but are not recognized as risk factors in altitude exposures. Much of the literature to date has focused on patent foramen ovale (PFO), which has long been considered a major risk factor for DCS in diving exposures, but its link to serious DCS in altitude exposures remains unclear. Knowledge of those risk factors specific to hypobaric DCS may help identify susceptible individuals and aid in astronaut selection, crew assignment, and mission planning. This paper reviews the current literature pertaining to these risk factors, including PFO, anthropometric parameters, gender, menstrual cycle, lifetime diving experience, physical fitness, biochemical levels, complement activation, cigarette smoking, fluid balance, and ambient temperature. Further research to evaluate pertinent risk factors for DCS in altitude exposures is recommended.

  14. Targeting individual excited states in DMRG.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorando, Jonathan; Hachmann, Johannes; Kin-Lic Chan, Garnet

    2007-03-01

    The low-lying excited states of π-conjugated molecules are important for the development of novel devices such as lasers, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells, and field-effect transistors [1,2]. The ab-intio Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) provides a powerful way to explore the electronic structure of quasi-one-dimensional systems such as conjugated organic oligomers. However, DMRG is limited to targeting only low-lying excited states through state-averaged DMRG (SDMRG). There are several drawbacks; state-averaging degrades the accuracy of the excited states and is limited to at most a few of the low-lying states [3]. In this study, we present a new method for targeting higher individual excited states. Due to progress in the field of numerical analysis presented by Van Der Horst and others [4], we are able to target individual excited states of the Hamiltonian. This is accomplished by modifying the Jacobi-Davidson algorithm via a ``Harmonic Ritz'' procedure. We will present studies of oligoacenes and polyenes that compare the accuracy of SDMRG and Harmonic Davidson DMRG. [1] Burroughes, et al. , Nature 347, 539 (1990). [2] Shirota, J. Mater. Chem. 10, 1, (2000). [3] Ramasesha, Pati, Krishnamurthy, Shuai, Bredas, Phys. Rev. B. 54, 7598, (1997). [4] Bai, Demmel, Dongarra, Ruhe, Van Der Horst, Templates for the Solution of Algebraic Eigenvalue Problems, SIAM, 2000.

  15. Effects of methamphetamine abuse beyond individual users.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Ryan, Steve; Hansen, Katherine; Hullsiek, Brad; Muli, Victoria; Malone, A Cate

    2009-09-01

    Since 1997, the use of methamphetamine as a drug of abuse has been widespread in the United States. While several forms of amphetamine are useful in some areas of medicine, methamphetamine as an abused substance is associated with severe and multifaceted consequences. Problems associated with the abuse of amphetamine and its derivatives such as methamphetamine have been well documented. As the manufacture and use of methamphetamine across the United States has increased, the impact of methamphetamine abuse has been felt beyond individual users; families as well as communities can be seriously affected. An increase in child neglect and violence as well as a lack of resources for health care, social services, and law enforcement because of methamphetamine abuse have been reported by many communities. This study examines the historical spread of methamphetamine misuse in the United States and the resulting individual, social, and environmental consequences. A public health perspective on family, community, and social aspects is offered, and ideas for future research and policy changes are explored.

  16. Mutational load analysis of unrelated individuals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary genetic models predict that the cumulative effect of rare deleterious mutations across the genome—known as mutational load burden—increases the susceptibility to complex disease. To test the mutational load burden hypothesis, we adopted a two-tiered approach: assessing the impact of whole-exome minor allele load burden and then conducting individual-gene screening. For our primary analysis, we examined various minor allele frequency (MAF) thresholds and weighting schemes to examine the overall effect of minor allele load on affection status. We found a consistent association between minor allele load and affection status, but this effect did not markedly increase within rare and/or functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our follow-up analysis considered minor allele load in individual genes to see whether only one or a few genes were driving the overall effect. Examining our most significant result—minor allele load of nonsynonymous SNPs with MAF < 2.4%—we detected no significantly associated genes after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. After moderately significant genes (p < 0.05) were removed, the overall effect of rare nonsynonymous allele load remained significant. Overall, we did not find clear support for mutational load burden on affection status; however, these results are ultimately dependent on and limited by the nature of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 simulation. PMID:22373138

  17. [Precision Nursing: Individual-Based Knowledge Translation].

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Su, Sui-Lung

    2016-12-01

    U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine. Nursing science should follow and keep pace with this trend in order to develop empirical knowledge and expertise in the area of personalized nursing care. Nursing scientists must encourage, examine, and put into practice innovative research on precision nursing in order to provide evidence-based guidance to clinical practice. The applications in personalized precision nursing care include: explanations of personalized information such as the results of genetic testing; patient advocacy and support; anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for shared decision-making throughout the disease trajectory. Further, attention must focus on the family and the ethical implications of taking a personalized approach to care. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision nursing and work collaboratively across disciplines to provide the optimal personalized care to patients. If realized, the full potential of precision nursing will provide the best chance for good health for all.

  18. Prospective memory, personality, and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors.

  19. Contextualising eating problems in individual diet counselling.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Søren T; Køster, Allan

    2014-05-01

    Health professionals consider diet to be a vital component in managing weight, chronic diseases and the overall promotion of health. This article takes the position that the complexity and contextual nature of individual eating problems needs to be addressed in a more systematic and nuanced way than is usually the case in diet counselling, motivational interviewing and health coaching. We suggest the use of narrative practice as a critical and context-sensitive counselling approach to eating problems. Principles of externalisation and co-researching are combined within a counselling framework that employs logistic, social and discursive eating problems as analytic categories. Using cases from a health clinic situated at the Metropolitan University College in Copenhagen, we show that even if the structural conditions associated with eating problems may not be solvable through individual counselling sessions, exploration of the complex structures of food and eating with the client can provide agency by helping them navigate within the context of the problem. We also exemplify why a reflexive and critical approach to the way health is perceived by clients should be an integrated part of diet counselling.

  20. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary).

  1. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal system. The findings showed that variance in language abilities is associated with performance on different domains of procedural memory, including the motor domain (as shown in the pursuit rotor task), the cognitive domain (as shown in the weather prediction task), and the linguistic domain (as shown in the nonword repetition priming task). These results implicate the corticostriatal system in individual differences in language. PMID:26190949

  2. Textual Stylistic Variation: Choices, Genres and Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlgren, Jussi

    This chapter argues for more informed target metrics for the statistical processing of stylistic variation in text collections. Much as operationalized relevance proved a useful goal to strive for in information retrieval, research in textual stylistics, whether application oriented or philologically inclined, needs goals formulated in terms of pertinence, relevance, and utility—notions that agree with reader experience of text. Differences readers are aware of are mostly based on utility—not on textual characteristics per se. Mostly, readers report stylistic differences in terms of genres. Genres, while vague and undefined, are well-established and talked about: very early on, readers learn to distinguish genres. This chapter discusses variation given by genre, and contrasts it to variation occasioned by individual choice.

  3. Imaging Brain Development: Benefiting from Individual Variability

    PubMed Central

    Sharda, Megha; Foster, Nicholas E.V.; Hyde, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    Human brain development is a complex process that evolves from early childhood to young adulthood. Major advances in brain imaging are increasingly being used to characterize the developing brain. These advances have further helped to elucidate the dynamic maturational processes that lead to the emergence of complex cognitive abilities in both typical and atypical development. However, conventional approaches involve categorical group comparison models and tend to disregard the role of widespread interindividual variability in brain development. This review highlights how this variability can inform our understanding of developmental processes. The latest studies in the field of brain development are reviewed, with a particular focus on the role of individual variability and the consequent heterogeneity in brain structural and functional development. This review also highlights how such heterogeneity might be utilized to inform our understanding of complex neuropsychiatric disorders and recommends the use of more dimensional approaches to study brain development. PMID:26648753

  4. Mindfulness in the Treatment of Suicidal Individuals.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Jason B; Villatte, Jennifer L

    2012-01-05

    Suicidal behavior is exhibited by a diverse population of individuals and spans many diagnostic categories. In order to develop effective prevention and treatment programs, it is important to identify transdiagnostic processes that impact the many pathways to suicidality, are amenable to intervention, and affect clinical outcomes when modified. A growing body of data suggests that experiential avoidance, or the tendency to escape or avoid unwanted psychological experiences, even when such efforts cause harm, may represent one such universal process. This article reviews theory and evidence that support mindfulness and psychological acceptance as a means to target experiential avoidance in suicidal clients and thereby reduce the risk of suicide. The article also provides two case examples of the application of mindfulness to suicidality and discusses how mindfulness may help clinicians in managing the stress associated with treating suicidal clients.

  5. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts.

  6. Development of Individuality in Children's Handwriting.

    PubMed

    Srihari, Sargur N; Meng, Lu; Hanson, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    Handwriting of children in early grades is studied from the viewpoint of quantitatively measuring the development of handwriting individuality. Handwriting samples of children, in grades 2-4, writing a paragraph of text in both handprinted and cursive, collected over a period of 3 years, were analyzed using two different approaches: (i) characteristics of the word "and" and (ii) entire paragraphs using an automated system. In the first approach, word characteristics were analyzed using statistical measures. In the second approach, pairs of paragraphs were compared. Both types of analysis, single word and complete writing, led to the same conclusions: (i) handwriting of each child remains relatively similar when handwriting has been just learnt and becomes markedly different from grades 3 to 4 and (ii) handwriting of different children becomes progressively more different from grades 2 to 4. The results provide strong support that handwriting becomes more individualistic with child development.

  7. Energy efficiency: Perspectives on individual behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, W.; Neiman, M.

    1986-01-01

    A collection of research papers on the personal behavior and attitudes that affect residential energy use. Articles in the first section address the factors that affect decision-making by consumers; convenience and personal opinions often override rational economic choices. The research in the second section uses aggregate survey data to gain insight into energy behavior. Papers in the third section use detailed monitoring of individual households to analyze personal behavior and home energy management, and the fourth section includes papers on the interaction of building systems with occupants. These papers demonstrate that, to be successful, energy conservation programs must consider the ''human factor'' in addition to the conventional energy parameters (e.g. weather, insulation, and appliance efficiencies). Main emphasis was given to: energy conservation; consumers; personal behavior; economic decision-making; buildings; energy policy; hot water use; thermostats; attitudes; applied anthropology.

  8. Mediation and causality at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lars R

    2009-09-01

    Within a person-oriented research paradigm the focus is on individuals characterized by patterns of information that are regarded as indivisible wholes. It is then not sufficient to carry out standard variable-oriented mediation analysis. The procedure suggested by von Eye, Mun, and Mair (2009) for pattern-oriented mediation analysis is much better aligned to this person-oriented framework. An important new feature in their approach is that it can detect mediator configurations that prohibit predictor and outcome connections at a pattern level. Two extensions of their procedure are suggested, namely (1) the use of cluster analysis to arrive at the categories and (2) the use of other models for estimating the expected frequencies. It is pointed out that in their context a functional relations perspective might be more relevant than the standard causality perspective.

  9. Individual control charts in paperboard industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Silva, Daniela S.; Nogueira, Isabel M.; Grilo, Helena L.; Oliveira, Teresa A.

    2016-12-01

    The stiffness of paperboard is an important continuous variable measured in the labs of paperboard industry to evaluate the quality of the final product. The variable is approximately normal distributed, in this case study, and individual control charts to monitor the stiffness are obtained based on average moving range. Since the available sample size is small we decide to estimate robust control limits using a non-parametric method based on empirical quantiles (that performs also well under the normality of the observations), with the bootstrap procedure. The comparison of the control limits should be made based on the required accuracy. We also compare the output of the stable process (i.e., in statistical control) with the process specifications and we conclude that it is not a capable process.

  10. Dental management of HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Aldous, J A

    1990-11-01

    In 1981, a group of male homosexuals was found to have an immunological defect resulting in opportunistic infections. The pattern of symptoms became known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much time and expense have been invested to study the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), prevent its spread, and find a cure for HIV infection. Fear of HIV infection has resulted in implementation of stricter infection control practices. Intervention by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated procedures for infection control and waste disposal. Ethical questions and social problems have surfaced concerning the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Despite reports on infection control, literature concerning management of HIV-infected dental patients is limited. Misinformation has prevented the application of reliable information about the care of HIV-infected individuals. An accurate general knowledge of HIV infection is essential for optimal care of these patients.

  11. Individual Atoms in their Quantum Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Eyal; Sompet, Pimonpan; Fung, Yin Hsien; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2016-05-01

    An ultimate control of pure quantum states is an excellent platform for various quantum science and engineering. In this work, we perform quantum manipulation of individual Rubidium atoms in a tightly focus optical tweezer in order to cool them into their vibrational ground state via Raman sideband cooling. Our experimental scheme involves a combination of Raman sideband transitions and optical pumping of the atoms that couples two magnetic field sublevels indifferent to magnetic noise thus providing a much longer atomic coherence time compared to previous cooling schemes. By installing most of the atoms in their ground state, we managed to achieve two-dimensional cooling on the way to create a full nil entropy quantum state of single atoms and single molecules. We acknowledge the Marsden Fund, CORE and DWC for their support.

  12. Determinants of individual and group performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    A broad exploration of individual and group/organizational factors that influence performance in demanding environments such as space and air transport was undertaken. Primary efforts were directed toward defining critical issues, developing new methodologies for the assessment of performance in such environments, and developing new measures of personality and attitudes as predictors of performance. Substantial clarification of relevant issues for research and validation was achieved. A reliable instrument to assess crewmembers' attitudes regarding crew coordination and flightdeck management was validated. Major efforts in data collection to validate concepts were initiated. The results suggest that substantial improvements can be made in the prediction of performance and in the selection of crewmembers for aviation and space.

  13. Aneuploidy Causes Non-genetic Individuality.

    PubMed

    Beach, Rebecca R; Ricci-Tam, Chiara; Brennan, Christopher M; Moomau, Christine A; Hsu, Pei-Hsin; Hua, Bo; Silberman, Rebecca E; Springer, Michael; Amon, Angelika

    2017-04-06

    Phenotypic variability is a hallmark of diseases involving chromosome gains and losses, such as Down syndrome and cancer. Allelic variances have been thought to be the sole cause of this heterogeneity. Here, we systematically examine the consequences of gaining and losing single or multiple chromosomes to show that the aneuploid state causes non-genetic phenotypic variability. Yeast cell populations harboring the same defined aneuploidy exhibit heterogeneity in cell-cycle progression and response to environmental perturbations. Variability increases with degree of aneuploidy and is partly due to gene copy number imbalances, suggesting that subtle changes in gene expression impact the robustness of biological networks and cause alternate behaviors when they occur across many genes. As inbred trisomic mice also exhibit variable phenotypes, we further propose that non-genetic individuality is a universal characteristic of the aneuploid state that may contribute to variability in presentation and treatment responses of diseases caused by aneuploidy.

  14. Visualizing individual microtubules by bright field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Block, Steven M.

    2010-11-01

    Microtubules are slender (˜25 nm diameter), filamentous polymers involved in cellular structure and organization. Individual microtubules have been visualized via fluorescence imaging of dye-labeled tubulin subunits and by video-enhanced, differential interference-contrast microscopy of unlabeled polymers using sensitive CCD cameras. We demonstrate the imaging of unstained microtubules using a microscope with conventional bright field optics in conjunction with a webcam-type camera and a light-emitting diode illuminator. The light scattered by microtubules is image-processed to remove the background, reduce noise, and enhance contrast. The setup is based on a commercial microscope with a minimal set of inexpensive components, suitable for implementation in a student laboratory. We show how this approach can be used in a demonstration motility assay, tracking the gliding motions of microtubules driven by the motor protein kinesin.

  15. Measuring shear modulus of individual fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behlow, Herbert; Saini, Deepika; Oliviera, Luciana; Skove, Malcolm; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Fiber technology has advanced to new heights enabling tailored mechanical properties. For reliable fiber applications their mechanical properties must be well characterized at the individual fiber level. Unlike the tensile modulus, which can be well studied in a single fiber, the present indirect and dynamic methods of measuring the shear properties of fibers suffer from various disadvantages such as the interaction between fibers and the influence of damping. In this talk, we introduce a quasi-static method to directly measure the shear modulus of a single micron-sized fiber. Our simple and inexpensive setup yields a shear modulus of 16 and 2 GPa for a single IM7 carbon fiber and a Kevlar fiber, respectively. Furthermore, our setup is also capable of measuring the creep, hysteresis and the torsion coefficient, and examples of these will be presented.

  16. Optical Plasmons of Individual Gold Nanosponges

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The search for novel plasmonic nanostructures, which can act simultaneously as optical detectors and stimulators, is crucial for many applications in the fields of biosensing, electro- and photocatalysis, electrochemistry, and biofuel generation. In most of these areas, a large surface-to-volume ratio, as well as high density of active surface sites, is desirable. We investigate sponge-like, that is, fully porous, nanoparticles, called nanosponges, where both the gold and the air phase are fully percolated in three dimensions. We correlate, on a single nanoparticle basis, their optical scattering spectra (using dark field microscopy) with their individual morphology (using electron microscopy). We find that the scattering spectra of nanosponges depend only weakly on their size and outer shape, but are greatly influenced by their unique percolation, in qualitative agreement with numerical simulations. PMID:26523285

  17. Individual Decisions to Migrate During Civil Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bohra-Mishra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    The existing literature on forced migration limits our understanding of how violence affects migration to competing destinations. This article adds to the literature on forced migration by studying how armed violence during a period of civil conflict in south-central Nepal influenced the likelihood of local, internal, and international migration. We find that violence has a nonlinear effect on migration, such that low to moderate levels of violence reduce the odds of movement, but when violence reaches high levels, the odds of movement increase. We also find that the effect of violence on mobility increases as the distance of the move increases. When we consider the influence of violence on microlevel decision-making, we find that the effects of individual and household-level determinants were mostly consistent with hypotheses derived from contemporary theories of voluntary migration and that no predictor of migration influenced the decision to migrate differently in the presence of violence. PMID:21541805

  18. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy - Pharmacogenomic aspect

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Bhavik; Shankarkumar, Aruna; Ghosh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Combination therapy with three drug regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection significantly suppresses the viral replication. However, this therapeutic impact is restricted by adverse drug events and response in terms of short and long term efficacy. There are multiple factors involved in different responses to antiretrovirals (ARVs) such as age, body weight, disease status, diet and heredity. Pharmacogenomics deals with individual genetic make-up and its role in drug efficacy and toxicity. In depth genetic research has provided evidence to predict the risk of developing certain toxicities for which personalized screening and surveillance protocols may be developed to prevent side effects. Here we describe the use of pharmacogenomics for optimal use of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy). PMID:26831415

  19. Walking through Apertures in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Walking through a narrow aperture requires unique postural configurations, i.e., body rotation in the yaw dimension. Stroke individuals may have difficulty performing the body rotations due to motor paralysis on one side of their body. The present study was therefore designed to investigate how successfully such individuals walk through apertures and how they perform body rotation behavior. Method Stroke fallers (n = 10), stroke non-fallers (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 23) participated. In the main task, participants walked for 4 m and passed through apertures of various widths (0.9–1.3 times the participant’s shoulder width). Accidental contact with the frame of an aperture and kinematic characteristics at the moment of aperture crossing were measured. Participants also performed a perceptual judgment task to measure the accuracy of their perceived aperture passability. Results and Discussion Stroke fallers made frequent contacts on their paretic side; however, the contacts were not frequent when they penetrated apertures from their paretic side. Stroke fallers and non-fallers rotated their body with multiple steps, rather than a single step, to deal with their motor paralysis. Although the minimum passable width was greater for stroke fallers, the body rotation angle was comparable among groups. This suggests that frequent contact in stroke fallers was due to insufficient body rotation. The fact that there was no significant group difference in the perceived aperture passability suggested that contact occurred mainly due to locomotor factors rather than perceptual factors. Two possible explanations (availability of vision and/or attention) were provided as to why accidental contact on the paretic side did not occur frequently when stroke fallers penetrated the apertures from their paretic side. PMID:28103299

  20. Individual and Collective Behavior in Bacterial Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, John O.

    2003-03-01

    Speed, direction, and style of swimming are observable behaviors of individual bacterial cells. Measurements on dilute, nominally monodisperse populations yield distribution functions that provide biologically and/or physically determined means and spreads. Responses to asymmetries, e.g. directional swimming in gradients of chemical concentration, or suppression of directional isotropy and modification of speed distributions near boundaries are also measurable. At intermediate concentrations, e.g volume fractions of 10-3, equivalent to 10^9 cells/ml, collective consumption and directional environmental supply of metabolites can generate migration toward the source of metabolite molecules. For the case of the aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, migration toward the source of oxygen at the fluid-air interface leads to a (Rayleigh-Taylor) plume instability, eventually yielding bioconvection flows that enhance mixing. As the highest possible concentration (approximately close-packed) is approached, there arises a remarkable phase transition, from random orientation of the cells to long range order. Surging domains encompassing thousands of cells swimming at approximately the same speed develop, break up and re-form. The power law exponent for transport of passive scalars (microspheres) suspended in this system of chaotic yet coherently moving bacteria is similar to that observed for "2-d turbulence". Videos, data analyses and some preliminary theoretical approaches relating to the individual cells' hydrodynamic interactions, leading to behavior near boundaries and development of the ordered phase, will be included in the presentation. Application to formation of biofilms, the possible intervention of polymers exuded by the cells, and quorum sensing are "biological" aspects to be considered.

  1. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Zoe C.; Alibhai, Sky K.; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN1. It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor2. Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,9053 to 13,5204. The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique5 is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify free

  2. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments.

  3. Buckling behavior of individual and bundled microtubules.

    PubMed

    Soheilypour, Mohammad; Peyro, Mohaddeseh; Peter, Stephen J; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2015-04-07

    As the major structural constituent of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs) serve a variety of biological functions that range from facilitating organelle transport to maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cell. Neuronal MTs exhibit a distinct configuration, hexagonally packed bundles of MT filaments, interconnected by MT-associated protein (MAP) tau. Building on our previous work on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension, this study is focused on exploring the compression scenarios. Intracellular MTs carry a large fraction of the compressive loads sensed by the cell and therefore, like any other column-like structure, are prone to substantial bending and buckling. Various biological activities, e.g., actomyosin contractility and many pathological conditions are driven or followed by bending, looping, and buckling of MT filaments. The coarse-grained model previously developed in our lab has been used to study the mechanical behavior of individual and bundled in vivo MT filaments under uniaxial compression. Both configurations show tip-localized, decaying, and short-wavelength buckling. This behavior highlights the role of the surrounding cytoplasm and MAP tau on MT buckling behavior, which allows MT filaments to bear much larger compressive forces. It is observed that MAP tau interconnections improve this effect by a factor of two. The enhanced ability of MT bundles to damp buckling waves relative to individual MT filaments, may be interpreted as a self-defense mechanism because it helps axonal MTs to endure harsher environments while maintaining their function. The results indicate that MT filaments in a bundle do not buckle simultaneously implying that the applied stress is not equally shared among the MT filaments, that is a consequence of the nonuniform distribution of MAP tau proteins along the bundle length. Furthermore, from a pathological perspective, it is observed that axonal MT bundles are more vulnerable to failure in

  4. Buckling Behavior of Individual and Bundled Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Soheilypour, Mohammad; Peyro, Mohaddeseh; Peter, Stephen J.; Mofrad, Mohammad R.K.

    2015-01-01

    As the major structural constituent of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs) serve a variety of biological functions that range from facilitating organelle transport to maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cell. Neuronal MTs exhibit a distinct configuration, hexagonally packed bundles of MT filaments, interconnected by MT-associated protein (MAP) tau. Building on our previous work on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension, this study is focused on exploring the compression scenarios. Intracellular MTs carry a large fraction of the compressive loads sensed by the cell and therefore, like any other column-like structure, are prone to substantial bending and buckling. Various biological activities, e.g., actomyosin contractility and many pathological conditions are driven or followed by bending, looping, and buckling of MT filaments. The coarse-grained model previously developed in our lab has been used to study the mechanical behavior of individual and bundled in vivo MT filaments under uniaxial compression. Both configurations show tip-localized, decaying, and short-wavelength buckling. This behavior highlights the role of the surrounding cytoplasm and MAP tau on MT buckling behavior, which allows MT filaments to bear much larger compressive forces. It is observed that MAP tau interconnections improve this effect by a factor of two. The enhanced ability of MT bundles to damp buckling waves relative to individual MT filaments, may be interpreted as a self-defense mechanism because it helps axonal MTs to endure harsher environments while maintaining their function. The results indicate that MT filaments in a bundle do not buckle simultaneously implying that the applied stress is not equally shared among the MT filaments, that is a consequence of the nonuniform distribution of MAP tau proteins along the bundle length. Furthermore, from a pathological perspective, it is observed that axonal MT bundles are more vulnerable to failure in

  5. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness

    PubMed Central

    Ogihara, Yuji; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB). Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being. PMID:24634663

  6. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Yuji; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB). Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being.

  7. 38 CFR 21.84 - Individualized written rehabilitation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individualized written.... Chapter 31 Individualized Written Rehabilitation Plan § 21.84 Individualized written rehabilitation plan. (a) Purpose. The purposes of the IWRP (Individualized Written Rehabilitation Plan) are to:...

  8. 38 CFR 21.84 - Individualized written rehabilitation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individualized written.... Chapter 31 Individualized Written Rehabilitation Plan § 21.84 Individualized written rehabilitation plan. (a) Purpose. The purposes of the IWRP (Individualized Written Rehabilitation Plan) are to:...

  9. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  10. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  11. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  12. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  13. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  14. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  15. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  16. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  17. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  18. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section... Penalties § 1.6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is... the gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section....6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is required to... gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...