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Sample records for monitored porcine model

  1. Porcine models of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Selsby, Joshua T; Ross, Jason W; Nonneman, Dan; Hollinger, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive, fatal, X-linked disease caused by a failure to accumulate the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. This disease has been studied using a variety of animal models including fish, mice, rats, and dogs. While these models have contributed substantially to our mechanistic understanding of the disease and disease progression, limitations inherent to each model have slowed the clinical advancement of therapies, which necessitates the development of novel large-animal models. Several porcine dystrophin-deficient models have been identified, although disease severity may be so severe as to limit their potential contributions to the field. We have recently identified and completed the initial characterization of a natural porcine model of dystrophin insufficiency. Muscles from these animals display characteristic focal necrosis concomitant with decreased abundance and localization of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex components. These pigs recapitulate many of the cardinal features of muscular dystrophy, have elevated serum creatine kinase activity, and preliminarily appear to display altered locomotion. They also suffer from sudden death preceded by EKG abnormalities. Pig dystrophinopathy models could allow refinement of dosing strategies in human-sized animals in preparation for clinical trials. From an animal handling perspective, these pigs can generally be treated normally, with the understanding that acute stress can lead to sudden death. In summary, the ability to create genetically modified pig models and the serendipitous discovery of genetic disease in the swine industry has resulted in the emergence of new animal tools to facilitate the critical objective of improving the quality and length of life for boys afflicted with such a devastating disease.

  2. Tissue Sampling Guides for Porcine Biomedical Models.

    PubMed

    Albl, Barbara; Haesner, Serena; Braun-Reichhart, Christina; Streckel, Elisabeth; Renner, Simone; Seeliger, Frank; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Rüdiger; Blutke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    This article provides guidelines for organ and tissue sampling adapted to porcine animal models in translational medical research. Detailed protocols for the determination of sampling locations and numbers as well as recommendations on the orientation, size, and trimming direction of samples from ∼50 different porcine organs and tissues are provided in the Supplementary Material. The proposed sampling protocols include the generation of samples suitable for subsequent qualitative and quantitative analyses, including cryohistology, paraffin, and plastic histology; immunohistochemistry;in situhybridization; electron microscopy; and quantitative stereology as well as molecular analyses of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes. With regard to the planned extent of sampling efforts, time, and personnel expenses, and dependent upon the scheduled analyses, different protocols are provided. These protocols are adjusted for (I) routine screenings, as used in general toxicity studies or in analyses of gene expression patterns or histopathological organ alterations, (II) advanced analyses of single organs/tissues, and (III) large-scale sampling procedures to be applied in biobank projects. Providing a robust reference for studies of porcine models, the described protocols will ensure the efficiency of sampling, the systematic recovery of high-quality samples representing the entire organ or tissue as well as the intra-/interstudy comparability and reproducibility of results.

  3. Porcine models of muscular dystrophy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive, fatal, X-linked disease caused by a failure to accumulate the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. This disease is modeled by a variety of animal models including several fish models, mice, rats, and dogs. While these models have contributed substantially t...

  4. Porcine Models of Muscular Dystrophy1

    PubMed Central

    Selsby, Joshua T.; Ross, Jason W.; Nonneman, Dan; Hollinger, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive, fatal, X-linked disease caused by a failure to accumulate the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. This disease has been studied using a variety of animal models including fish, mice, rats, and dogs. While these models have contributed substantially to our mechanistic understanding of the disease and disease progression, limitations inherent to each model have slowed the clinical advancement of therapies, which necessitates the development of novel large-animal models. Several porcine dystrophin-deficient models have been identified, although disease severity may be so severe as to limit their potential contributions to the field. We have recently identified and completed the initial characterization of a natural porcine model of dystrophin insufficiency. Muscles from these animals display characteristic focal necrosis concomitant with decreased abundance and localization of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex components. These pigs recapitulate many of the cardinal features of muscular dystrophy, have elevated serum creatine kinase activity, and preliminarily appear to display altered locomotion. They also suffer from sudden death preceded by EKG abnormalities. Pig dystrophinopathy models could allow refinement of dosing strategies in human-sized animals in preparation for clinical trials. From an animal handling perspective, these pigs can generally be treated normally, with the understanding that acute stress can lead to sudden death. In summary, the ability to create genetically modified pig models and the serendipitous discovery of genetic disease in the swine industry has resulted in the emergence of new animal tools to facilitate the critical objective of improving the quality and length of life for boys afflicted with such a devastating disease. PMID:25991703

  5. A porcine model for acute ischaemic right ventricular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsen, Pernille; Lindstedt, Sandra; Metzsch, Carsten; Algotsson, Lars; Ingemansson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To establish an experimental model for acute ischaemic isolated right ventricular dysfunction and the subsequent haemodynamic changes. METHODS An open-chest porcine model with ischaemic dysfunction of the right ventricle induced by ligation of the three main branches supporting the right ventricular free wall. Invasive monitoring of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), left atrial pressure (LAP) and right ventricular pressure (RVP); ultrasonic measurement of cardiac output (CO) and calculation of haemodynamic parameters such as stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and right ventricular stroke work (RVSW) using standard formulae. RESULTS The ischaemic challenge to the right ventricle resulted in a significant (≥30%) reduction in RVSW associated with an increase (6–25%) in CVP and reduction (8–18%) in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) despite unchanged PVR, all reflecting the failing right ventricle. There was also a significant drop in CO (14–22%) despite unchanged LAP indicating lessened transpulmonary delivery of left ventricular preload due to the failing right ventricle causing the haemodynamic compromise rather than left ventricular failure. Supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias occurred in three and two out of seven pigs, respectively—all of which except one were successfully resuscitated with cardioversion and/or defibrillation. CONCLUSIONS This novel open-chest porcine model of induced ischaemia of the right ventricular free wall resulted in significant haemodynamic compromise confirmed using standard haemodynamic measurements making it useful for further research on acute, ischaemic isolated right ventricular failure. PMID:24092465

  6. A Genetic Porcine Model of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schook, Lawrence B.; Collares, Tiago V.; Hu, Wenping; Liang, Ying; Rodrigues, Fernanda M.; Rund, Laurie A.; Schachtschneider, Kyle M.; Seixas, Fabiana K.; Singh, Kuldeep; Wells, Kevin D.; Walters, Eric M.; Prather, Randall S.; Counter, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The large size of the pig and its similarity in anatomy, physiology, metabolism, and genetics to humans make it an ideal platform to develop a genetically defined, large animal model of cancer. To this end, we created a transgenic “oncopig” line encoding Cre recombinase inducible porcine transgenes encoding KRASG12D and TP53R167H, which represent a commonly mutated oncogene and tumor suppressor in human cancers, respectively. Treatment of cells derived from these oncopigs with the adenovirus encoding Cre (AdCre) led to KRASG12D and TP53R167H expression, which rendered the cells transformed in culture and tumorigenic when engrafted into immunocompromised mice. Finally, injection of AdCre directly into these oncopigs led to the rapid and reproducible tumor development of mesenchymal origin. Transgenic animals receiving AdGFP (green fluorescent protein) did not have any tumor mass formation or altered histopathology. This oncopig line could thus serve as a genetically malleable model for potentially a wide spectrum of cancers, while controlling for temporal or spatial genesis, which should prove invaluable to studies previously hampered by the lack of a large animal model of cancer. PMID:26132737

  7. Porcine survival model to simulate acute upper gastrointestinal bleedings.

    PubMed

    Prosst, Ruediger L; Schurr, Marc O; Schostek, Sebastian; Krautwald, Martina; Gottwald, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The existing animal models used for the simulation of acute gastrointestinal bleedings are usually non-survival models. We developed and evaluated a new porcine model (domestic pig, German Landrace) in which the animal remains alive and survives the artificial bleeding without any cardiovascular impairment. This consists of a bleeding catheter which is implanted into the stomach, then subcutaneously tunnelled from the abdomen to the neck where it is exteriorized and fixed with sutures. Using the injection of porcine blood, controllable and reproducible acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be simulated while maintaining normal gastrointestinal motility and physiology. Depending on the volume of blood applied through the gastric catheter, the bleeding intensity can be varied from traces of blood to a massive haemorrhage. This porcine model could be valuable, e.g. for testing the efficacy of new bleeding diagnostics in large animals before human use. PMID:26306615

  8. Porcine survival model to simulate acute upper gastrointestinal bleedings.

    PubMed

    Prosst, Ruediger L; Schurr, Marc O; Schostek, Sebastian; Krautwald, Martina; Gottwald, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The existing animal models used for the simulation of acute gastrointestinal bleedings are usually non-survival models. We developed and evaluated a new porcine model (domestic pig, German Landrace) in which the animal remains alive and survives the artificial bleeding without any cardiovascular impairment. This consists of a bleeding catheter which is implanted into the stomach, then subcutaneously tunnelled from the abdomen to the neck where it is exteriorized and fixed with sutures. Using the injection of porcine blood, controllable and reproducible acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be simulated while maintaining normal gastrointestinal motility and physiology. Depending on the volume of blood applied through the gastric catheter, the bleeding intensity can be varied from traces of blood to a massive haemorrhage. This porcine model could be valuable, e.g. for testing the efficacy of new bleeding diagnostics in large animals before human use.

  9. LUMOR: an app for standardized control and monitoring of a porcine lung and its nutrient cycle.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Gregor; Frohner, Matthias; Sauermann, Stefan; Forjan, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of the EU-funded project ElBik has been the lung simulator 'iLung', which imitates an actively breathing human lung with a porcine lung. In order to keep the explanted lung in a nearly physiological state during transportation from the slaughterhouse to the ventilation laboratory the tissue needs to be nourished and temperature controlled. The Project AlveoPic designs a mobile transport vehicle implementing an ISO/IEEE 11073-20601 compliant communication interface for the exchange of the physical parameters, alert messages and setpoint-values. An appropriate 11073 domain information model is designed and limitations of the defined services and attributes are identified. For monitoring purposes the Android App LUMOR is implemented providing a user with an easy-to-handle GUI. It was found, that alert capabilities and remote set features are not well supported in ISO/IEEE 11073-20601 at the moment and possible workarounds are discussed. PMID:24825688

  10. In vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Regelsberger, Jan; Eicker, Sven; Siasios, Ioannis; Hänggi, Daniel; Kirsch, Matthias; Horn, Peter; Winkler, Peter; Signoretti, Stefano; Fountas, Kostas; Dufour, Henry; Barcia, Juan A; Sakowitz, Oliver; Westermaier, Thomas; Sabel, Michael; Heese, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental education is desirable for neurosurgical training, and the use of human cadaver specimen and virtual reality models is routine. An in vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery was introduced in 2005, and our recent experience with this unique model is outlined here. For the first time, porcine anatomy is illustrated with particular respect to neurosurgical procedures. The pros and cons of this model are described. The aim of the course was to set up a laboratory scenery imitating an almost realistic operating room in which anatomy of the brain and neurosurgical techniques in a mentored environment free from time constraints could be trained. Learning objectives of the course were to learn about the microsurgical techniques in cranial neurosurgery and the management of complications. Participants were asked to evaluate the quality and utility of the programme via standardized questionnaires by a grading scale from A (best) to E (worst). In total, 154 residents have been trained on the porcine model to date. None of the participants regarded his own residency programme as structured. The bleeding and complication management (97%), the realistic laboratory set-up (89%) and the working environment (94%) were favoured by the vast majority of trainees and confirmed our previous findings. After finishing the course, the participants graded that their skills in bone drilling, dissecting the brain and preserving cerebral vessels under microscopic magnification had improved to level A and B. In vivo hands-on courses, fully equipped with microsurgical instruments, offer an outstanding training opportunity in which bleeding management on a pulsating, vital brain represents a unique training approach. Our results have shown that education programmes still lack practical training facilities in which in vivo models may act as a complementary approach in surgical training.

  11. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  12. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christine J; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  13. Porcine models of cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Max; Hocking, Anne; Gibran, Nicole S

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing in the pig is frequently used as a model for human cutaneous wound healing. In this review, we examine the appropriateness of this model for studying normal and pathological wound healing, and describe models for chronic nonhealing wounds, diabetic wounds, burns, and hypertrophic scars. In addition, we focus on studies that have used pigs to evaluate wound-healing therapies, and discuss genetic engineering technology in the pig that may advance our knowledge of wound healing. We conclude that, although not perfect, the pig offers a versatile model that can be adjusted to mimic a wide range of clinical scenarios.

  14. Biphasic Presence of Fibrocytes in a Porcine Hypertrophic Scar Model

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Taryn E.; Mino, Matthew J.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Mauskar, Neil A.; Prindeze, Nicholas J.; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Jordan, Marion H.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The duroc pig has been described as a promising animal model for use in the study of human wound healing and scar formation. However little is known about the presence and chronology of the fibrocyte cell population in the healing process of these animals. Methods Wounds known to form scar were created on red duroc swine (3“ × 3”) with a dermatome to a total depth of either 0.06“ or 0.09”. These wounds were allowed to heal completely and were biopsied at scheduled time points during the healing process. Biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemical analysis. Porcine-reactive antibodies to CD-45 and procollagen-1 and a human-reactive antibody to LSP-1 were used to detect the presence of fibrocytes in immunohistochemistry an immunocytochemistry. Results Initial immunohistochemical studies showed evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes. Pigs with 0.06“ deep wounds showed positive staining for CD-45 and LSP-1 within highly cellular areas at days 2 and 4 after wounding. Additional animals with 0.09” deep wounds showed positive staining within similar areas at days 56, 70, and 113 after wounding. There was no immunohistochemical evidence of fibrocytes in skin biopsies taken at days 14, 28, or 42. Procollagen-1 staining was diffuse in all samples. Cultured cells stained for CD-45, LSP-1, and procollagen-1 by immunocytochemistry. Conclusions These data confirm that fibrocytes are indeed present in this porcine model. We conclude that these cells are present after initial wounding and later during scar formation and remodeling. We believe that this is evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes, first as an acute response to skin wounding followed by later involvement in the remodeling process, prompted by continued inflammation in a deep partial thickness wound. PMID:25051518

  15. Emerging Technologies to Create Inducible and Genetically Defined Porcine Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    Schook, Lawrence B; Rund, Laurie; Begnini, Karine R; Remião, Mariana H; Seixas, Fabiana K; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    There is an emerging need for new animal models that address unmet translational cancer research requirements. Transgenic porcine models provide an exceptional opportunity due to their genetic, anatomic, and physiological similarities with humans. Due to recent advances in the sequencing of domestic animal genomes and the development of new organism cloning technologies, it is now very feasible to utilize pigs as a malleable species, with similar anatomic and physiological features with humans, in which to develop cancer models. In this review, we discuss genetic modification technologies successfully used to produce porcine biomedical models, in particular the Cre-loxP System as well as major advances and perspectives the CRISPR/Cas9 System. Recent advancements in porcine tumor modeling and genome editing will bring porcine models to the forefront of translational cancer research. PMID:26973698

  16. Nanomedicine and mammalian sperm: Lessons from the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Barkalina, Natalia; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical nanotechnology allows us to engineer versatile nanosized platforms that are comparable in size to biological molecules and intracellular organelles. These platforms can be loaded with large amounts of biological cargo, administered systemically and act at a distance, target specific cell populations, undergo intracellular internalization via endogenous uptake mechanisms, and act as contrast agents or release cargo for therapeutic purposes. Over recent years, nanomaterials have been increasingly viewed as favorable candidates for intragamete delivery. Particularly in the case of sperm, nanomaterial-based approaches have been shown to improve the efficacy of existing techniques such as sperm-mediated gene transfer, loading sperm with exogenous proteins, and tagging sperm for subsequent sex- or function-based sorting. In this short review, we provide an outline of the current state of nanotechnology for biomedical applications in reproductive biology and present highlights from a series of our studies evaluating the use of specialized silica nanoparticles in boar sperm as a potential delivery vehicle into mammalian gametes. The encouraging data obtained already from the porcine model in our laboratory have formed the basis for ethical approval of similar experiments in human sperm, thereby bringing us a step closer toward the potential use of this novel technology in the clinical environment.

  17. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin.

    PubMed

    Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2015-03-21

    Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265 kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5 MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40 MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure-PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40 MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery. PMID:25716689

  18. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265 kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5 MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40 MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure—PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40 MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery.

  19. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of insulin in agar and porcine models of human skin.

    PubMed

    Feiszthuber, Helga; Bhatnagar, Sunali; Gyöngy, Miklós; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2015-03-21

    Ultrasound-assisted transdermal insulin delivery offers a less painful and less invasive alternative to subcutaneous insulin injections. However, ultrasound-based drug delivery, otherwise known as sonophoresis, is a highly variable phenomenon, in part dependent on cavitation. The aim of the current work is to investigate the role of cavitation in transdermal insulin delivery. Fluorescently stained, soluble Actrapid insulin was placed on the surface of human skin-mimicking materials subjected to 265 kHz, 10% duty cycle focused ultrasound. A confocally and coaxially aligned 5 MHz broadband ultrasound transducer was used to detect cavitation. Two different skin models were used. The first model, 3% agar hydrogel, was insonated with a range of pressures (0.25-1.40 MPa peak rarefactional focal pressure-PRFP), with and without cavitation nuclei embedded within the agar at a concentration of 0.05% w/v. The second, porcine skin was insonated at 1.00 and 1.40 MPa PRFP. In both models, fluorescence measurements were used to determine penetration depth and concentration of delivered insulin. Results show that in agar gel, both insulin penetration depth and concentration only increased significantly in the presence of inertial cavitation, with up to a 40% enhancement. In porcine skin the amount of fluorescent insulin was higher in the epidermis of those samples that were exposed to ultrasound compared to the control samples, but there was no significant increase in penetration distance. The results underline the importance of instigating and monitoring inertial cavitation during transdermal insulin delivery.

  20. Thermal epiphysiodesis performed with radio frequency in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Shiguetomi-Medina, Juan M; Rahbek, Ole; Abood, Ahmed Abdul-Hussein; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Møller-Madsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Current techniques for epiphysiodesis involve opening of cortical windows; use of staples, screws, and tension devices; and fusion with curettes or drills. Complications may have serious consequences. There is a need for a more reliable, precise, and less traumatic procedure that overcomes the known complications from existing techniques. We analyzed a new epiphysiodesis technique using radio-frequency ablation (RFA) in a porcine model. Methods Six 35-kg and two 25-kg immature pigs were used. 1 hind leg of each animal was randomly selected and the proximal tibia growth plate was ablated laterally and medially. The contralateral leg was used as a control. MR images were obtained immediately after the ablation and 12 weeks later for 6 animals, and 24 weeks later for the other 2 animals. CT was done for the 2 animals that were followed for 24 weeks for proof of bone bridges. Results Both tibias were equal in length initially. At the 12-week follow-up, there was an average leg length discrepancy of 3.9 mm (95% CI: 3.0–4.8), and at 24 weeks the difference was 8.4 mm and 7.5 mm. No damage to the adjacent tissue was found. Bone bridges and physeal closure were found after 24 weeks. The pigs showed no discomfort after the intervention. Interpretation We found RFA to be feasible for epiphysiodesis in a pig model. The method is minimally invasive and recovery may be quick compared to conventional methods. We recommend that the method should be tested in larger-scale safety studies before clinical application. PMID:25036720

  1. Dynamic and Volumetric Variables Reliably Predict Fluid Responsiveness in a Porcine Model with Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Broch, Ole; Gruenewald, Matthias; Renner, Jochen; Meybohm, Patrick; Schöttler, Jan; Heß, Katharina; Steinfath, Markus; Bein, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability of stroke volume variation (SVV), pulse pressure variation (PPV) and global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) for prediction of fluid responsiveness in presence of pleural effusion is unknown. The aim of the present study was to challenge the ability of SVV, PPV and GEDV to predict fluid responsiveness in a porcine model with pleural effusions. Methods Pigs were studied at baseline and after fluid loading with 8 ml kg−1 6% hydroxyethyl starch. After withdrawal of 8 ml kg−1 blood and induction of pleural effusion up to 50 ml kg−1 on either side, measurements at baseline and after fluid loading were repeated. Cardiac output, stroke volume, central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary occlusion pressure (PAOP) were obtained by pulmonary thermodilution, whereas GEDV was determined by transpulmonary thermodilution. SVV and PPV were monitored continuously by pulse contour analysis. Results Pleural effusion was associated with significant changes in lung compliance, peak airway pressure and stroke volume in both responders and non-responders. At baseline, SVV, PPV and GEDV reliably predicted fluid responsiveness (area under the curve 0.85 (p<0.001), 0.88 (p<0.001), 0.77 (p = 0.007). After induction of pleural effusion the ability of SVV, PPV and GEDV to predict fluid responsiveness was well preserved and also PAOP was predictive. Threshold values for SVV and PPV increased in presence of pleural effusion. Conclusions In this porcine model, bilateral pleural effusion did not affect the ability of SVV, PPV and GEDV to predict fluid responsiveness. PMID:23418546

  2. In vivo perfusion assessment of an anastomosis surgery on porcine intestinal model (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Hanh N. D.; Opferman, Justin; Decker, Ryan; Cheon, Gyeong W.; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Anastomosis, the connection of two structures, is a critical procedure for reconstructive surgery with over 1 million cases/year for visceral indication alone. However, complication rates such as strictures and leakage affect up to 19% of cases for colorectal anastomoses and up to 30% for visceral transplantation anastomoses. Local ischemia plays a critical role in anastomotic complications, making blood perfusion an important indicator for tissue health and predictor for healing following anastomosis. In this work, we apply a real time multispectral imaging technique to monitor impact on tissue perfusion due to varying interrupted suture spacing and suture tensions. Multispectral tissue images at 470, 540, 560, 580, 670 and 760 nm are analyzed in conjunction with an empirical model based on diffuse reflectance process to quantify the hemoglobin oxygen saturation within the suture site. The investigated tissues for anastomoses include porcine small (jejunum and ileum) and large (transverse colon) intestines. Two experiments using interrupted suturing with suture spacing of 1, 2, and 3 mm and tension levels from 0 N to 2.5 N are conducted. Tissue perfusion at 5, 10, 20 and 30 min after suturing are recorded and compared with the initial normal state. The result indicates the contrast between healthy and ischemic tissue areas and assists the determination of suturing spacing and tension. Therefore, the assessment of tissue perfusion will permit the development and intra-surgical monitoring of an optimal suture protocol during anastomosis with less complications and improved functional outcome.

  3. Improved Cell Line IPEC-J2, Characterized as a Model for Porcine Jejunal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewski, Silke S.; Richter, Jan F.; Krug, Susanne M.; Jebautzke, Britta; Lee, In-Fah M.; Rieger, Juliane; Sachtleben, Monika; Bondzio, Angelika; Schulzke, Jörg D.; Fromm, Michael; Günzel, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Cell lines matching the source epithelium are indispensable for investigating porcine intestinal transport and barrier properties on a subcellular or molecular level and furthermore help to reduce animal usage. The porcine jejunal cell line IPEC-J2 is established as an in vitro model for porcine infection studies but exhibits atypically high transepithelial resistances (TER) and only low active transport rates so that the effect of nutritional factors cannot be reliably investigated. This study aimed to properly remodel IPEC-J2 and then to re-characterize these cells regarding epithelial architecture, expression of barrier-relevant tight junction (TJ) proteins, adequate TER and transport function, and reaction to secretagogues. For this, IPEC-J2 monolayers were cultured on permeable supports, either under conventional (fetal bovine serum, FBS) or species-specific (porcine serum, PS) conditions. Porcine jejunal mucosa was analyzed for comparison. Main results were that under PS conditions (IPEC-J2/PS), compared to conventional FBS culture (IPEC-J2/FBS), the cell height increased 6-fold while the cell diameter was reduced by 50%. The apical cell membrane of IPEC-J2/PS exhibited typical microvilli. Most importantly, PS caused a one order of magnitude reduction of TER and of trans- and paracellular resistance, and a 2-fold increase in secretory response to forskolin when compared to FBS condition. TJ ultrastructure and appearance of TJ proteins changed dramatically in IPEC-J2/PS. Most parameters measured under PS conditions were much closer to those of typical pig jejunocytes than ever reported since the cell line’s initial establishment in 1989. In conclusion, IPEC-J2, if cultured under defined species-specific conditions, forms a suitable model for investigating porcine paracellular intestinal barrier function. PMID:24260272

  4. Met-myoglobin formation, accumulation, degradation, and myoglobin oxygenation monitoring based on multiwavelength attenuance measurement in porcine meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thien; Phan, Kien Nguyen; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple, rapid, and nondestructive method to investigate formation, accumulation, and degradation of met-myoglobin (met-Mb) and myoglobin oxygenation from the interior of porcine meat. For the experiment, color photos and attenuance spectra of porcine meat (well-bled muscle, fat, and mixed) were collected daily to perform colorimetric analysis and to obtain the differences of attenuance between 578 and 567 nm (A578-A567) and between 615 and 630 nm (A630-A615), respectively. Oxy-, deoxy-, and met-myoglobin concentration changes over storage time were also calculated using Beer-Lamberts' law with reflectance intensities at 557, 582, and 630 nm. The change of A578-A567 was well matched with the change of myoglobin oxygenation, and the change of A630-A615 corresponded well with the formation and degradation of met-Mb. In addition, attenuation differences, A578-A567 and A630-A615, were able to show the formation of met-Mb earlier than colorimetric analysis. Therefore, the attenuance differences between wavelengths can be indicators for estimating myoglobin oxygenation and met-Mb formation, accumulation, and degradation, which enable us to design a simple device to monitor myoglobin activities in porcine meat.

  5. Met-myoglobin formation, accumulation, degradation, and myoglobin oxygenation monitoring based on multiwavelength attenuance measurement in porcine meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thien; Phan, Kien Nguyen; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple, rapid, and nondestructive method to investigate formation, accumulation, and degradation of met-myoglobin (met-Mb) and myoglobin oxygenation from the interior of porcine meat. For the experiment, color photos and attenuance spectra of porcine meat (well-bled muscle, fat, and mixed) were collected daily to perform colorimetric analysis and to obtain the differences of attenuance between 578 and 567 nm (A578-A567) and between 615 and 630 nm (A630-A615), respectively. Oxy-, deoxy-, and met-myoglobin concentration changes over storage time were also calculated using Beer-Lamberts' law with reflectance intensities at 557, 582, and 630 nm. The change of A578-A567 was well matched with the change of myoglobin oxygenation, and the change of A630-A615 corresponded well with the formation and degradation of met-Mb. In addition, attenuation differences, A578-A567 and A630-A615, were able to show the formation of met-Mb earlier than colorimetric analysis. Therefore, the attenuance differences between wavelengths can be indicators for estimating myoglobin oxygenation and met-Mb formation, accumulation, and degradation, which enable us to design a simple device to monitor myoglobin activities in porcine meat.

  6. Evaluation of hands-on seminar for reduced port surgery using fresh porcine cadaver model

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Saseem; Kurashima, Yo; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kitashiro, Shuji; Kanehira, Eiji; Hirano, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of various biological and non-biological simulators is playing an important role in training modern surgeons with laparoscopic skills. However, there have been few reports of the use of a fresh porcine cadaver model for training in laparoscopic surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical training seminar on reduced port surgery using a fresh cadaver porcine model and to assess its feasibility and efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hands-on seminar had 10 fresh porcine cadaver models and two dry boxes. Each table was provided with a unique access port and devices used in reduced port surgery. Each group of 2 surgeons spent 30 min at each station, performing different tasks assisted by the instructor. The questionnaire survey was done immediately after the seminar and 8 months after the seminar. RESULTS: All the tasks were completed as planned. Both instructors and participants were highly satisfied with the seminar. There was a concern about the time allocated for the seminar. In the post-seminar survey, the participants felt that the number of reduced port surgeries performed by them had increased. CONCLUSION: The fresh cadaver porcine model requires no special animal facility and can be used for training in laparoscopic procedures. PMID:27279391

  7. Study of Cardiac Arrest Caused by Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism and Thrombolytic Resuscitation in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lian-Xing; Li, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Jun; Tong, Nan; Xiao, Hong-Li; An, Le

    2016-01-01

    Background: The success rate of resuscitation in cardiac arrest (CA) caused by pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is low. Furthermore, there are no large animal models that simulate clinical CA. The aim of this study was to establish a porcine CA model caused by PTE and to investigate the pathophysiology of CA and postresuscitation. Methods: This model was induced in castrated male pigs (30 ± 2 kg; n = 21) by injecting thrombi (10–15 ml) via the left external jugular vein. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) was performed at baseline, CA, and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). After CTPA during CA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with thrombolysis (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator 50 mg) was initiated. Hemodynamic, respiratory, and blood gas data were monitored. Cardiac troponins T, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase-MB, myoglobin, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were compared between baseline and CA with paired-sample t-test and compared among different time points for survival animals with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Seventeen animals achieved CA after emboli injection, while four achieved CA after 5–8 ml more thrombi. Nine animals survived 6 h after CPR. CTPA showed obstruction of the pulmonary arteries. Mean aortic pressure data showed occurrence of CA caused by PTE (Z = −2.803, P = 0.002). The maximal rate of mean increase of left ventricular pressure (dp/dtmax) was statistically decreased (t = 6.315, P = 0.000, variation coefficient = 0.25), and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2) decreased to the lowest value (t = 27.240, P = 0.000). After ROSC (n = 9), heart rate (HR) and mean right ventricular pressure (MRVP) remained different versus baseline until 2 h after ROSC (HR, P = 0.036; MRVP, P = 0.027). Myoglobin was statistically increased from CA to 1 h after ROSC (P = 0.036, 0.026, 0.009, respectively), and BNP was increased

  8. Validation of subject-specific cardiovascular system models from porcine measurements.

    PubMed

    Revie, James A; Stevenson, David J; Chase, J Geoffrey; Hann, Christopher E; Lambermont, Bernard C; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Kolh, Philippe; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Heldmann, Stefan; Desaive, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    A previously validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) is made subject-specific using an iterative, proportional gain-based identification method. Prior works utilised a complete set of experimentally measured data that is not clinically typical or applicable. In this paper, parameters are identified using proportional gain-based control and a minimal, clinically available set of measurements. The new method makes use of several intermediary steps through identification of smaller compartmental models of CVS to reduce the number of parameters identified simultaneously and increase the convergence stability of the method. This new, clinically relevant, minimal measurement approach is validated using a porcine model of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Trials were performed on five pigs, each inserted with three autologous blood clots of decreasing size over a period of four to five hours. All experiments were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty at the University of Liege, Belgium. Continuous aortic and pulmonary artery pressures (P(ao), P(pa)) were measured along with left and right ventricle pressure and volume waveforms. Subject-specific CVS models were identified from global end diastolic volume (GEDV), stroke volume (SV), P(ao), and P(pa) measurements, with the mean volumes and maximum pressures of the left and right ventricles used to verify the accuracy of the fitted models. The inputs (GEDV, SV, P(ao), P(pa)) used in the identification process were matched by the CVS model to errors <0.5%. Prediction of the mean ventricular volumes and maximum ventricular pressures not used to fit the model compared experimental measurements to median absolute errors of 4.3% and 4.4%, which are equivalent to the measurement errors of currently used monitoring devices in the ICU (∼5-10%). These results validate the potential for implementing this approach in the intensive care unit.

  9. In vivo hyperspectral imaging of traumatic skin injuries in a porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Winnem, Andreas M.; Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Haaverstad, Rune; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2007-02-01

    Studies of immediate skin reactions are important to understand the underlying biological mechanisms involved in traumatic or chemical damage to the skin. In this study the spatial and spectral information provided by hyperspectral images was used to identify and characterize non-penetrating skin injuries in a porcine model. A hyperspectral imaging system (Hyspex, Norsk Elektro Optikk AS) was used to monitor the temporal development of minor skin injuries in an anesthetized Norwegian domestic pig. Hyperspectral data were collected in the wavelength range 400-1000 nm (VNIR), with a spectral sampling interval of 3.7 nm. The measurements were initiated immediately after inflicting the injury, and were repeated at least five times at each site with irregular frequency. The last measurement was performed 4 hours after injury. Punch biopsies (5 mm), were collected from adjacent normal skin, and at the center and the margin of each injury. The study was approved by the national animal research authority. The hyperspectral data were analyzed with respect to oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, and erythema index. The skin biopsies were examined to determine the extent of skin damage in the bruised zones. Preliminary results show that hyperspectral imaging allows discrimination between traumatized skin and normal skin in an early phase. The extent and location of the hemorrhages can be determined from hyperspectral images. These findings might contribute to a better understanding of immediate skin reactions to minor trauma, and thereby the development of a better diagnostic modality for non-penetrating skin injuries in forensic medicine.

  10. Noncontact imaging of burn depth and extent in a porcine model using spatial frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, Amaan; Saggese, Steve; Pollins, Alonda C.; Cardwell, Nancy L.; Nanney, Lillian; Cuccia, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The standard of care for clinical assessment of burn severity and extent lacks a quantitative measurement. In this work, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) was used to measure 48 thermal burns of graded severity (superficial partial, deep partial, and full thickness) in a porcine model. Functional (total hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation) and structural parameters (tissue scattering) derived from the SFDI measurements were monitored over 72 h for each burn type and compared to gold standard histological measurements of burn depth. Tissue oxygen saturation (stO2) and total hemoglobin (ctHbT) differentiated superficial partial thickness burns from more severe burn types after 2 and 72 h, respectively (p<0.01), but were unable to differentiate deep partial from full thickness wounds in the first 72 h. Tissue scattering parameters separated superficial burns from all burn types immediately after injury (p<0.01), and separated all three burn types from each other after 24 h (p<0.01). Tissue scattering parameters also showed a strong negative correlation to histological burn depth as measured by vimentin immunostain (r2>0.89). These results show promise for the use of SFDI-derived tissue scattering as a correlation to burn depth and the potential to assess burn depth via a combination of SFDI functional and structural parameters. PMID:25147961

  11. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2a or 2b on infection kinetics and pathogenicity of two genetically divergent strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the conventional pig model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the infection dynamics and pathogenicity of two heterologous type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in a conventional pig model under the influence of concurrent porcine circovirus (PCV) subtype 2a or 2b infection. ...

  12. A Zebrafish Larval Model to Assess Virulence of Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Zaccaria, Edoardo; Cao, Rui; Wells, Jerry M.; van Baarlen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an encapsulated Gram-positive bacterium, and the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young pigs resulting in considerable economic losses in the porcine industry. It is also considered an emerging zoonotic agent. In the environment, both avirulent and virulent strains occur in pigs, and virulent strains appear to cause disease in both humans and pigs. There is a need for a convenient, reliable and standardized animal model to assess S. suis virulence. A zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae infection model has several advantages, including transparency of larvae, low cost, ease of use and exemption from ethical legislation up to 6 days post fertilization, but has not been previously established as a model for S. suis. Microinjection of different porcine strains of S. suis in zebrafish larvae resulted in highly reproducible dose- and strain-dependent larval death, strongly correlating with presence of the S. suis capsule and to the original virulence of the strain in pigs. Additionally we compared the virulence of the two-component system mutant of ciaRH, which is attenuated for virulence in both mice and pigs in vivo. Infection of larvae with the ΔciaRH strain resulted in significantly higher survival rate compared to infection with the S10 wild-type strain. Our data demonstrate that zebrafish larvae are a rapid and reliable model to assess the virulence of clinical porcine S. suis isolates. PMID:26999052

  13. Porcine gonadogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five images submitted for teaching purposes related to porcine gonadogenesis (2), porcine fetal testicular development (2), and porcine fetal ovarian development. Key words include: Egg cell nests, Embryo, GATA4, Genital ridge, Gonad, Leydig cell, Mesonephros, MIS, Ovary, P450c17, Porcine, Sertoli ...

  14. Cell Sheet Transplantation for Esophageal Stricture Prevention after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Pidial, Laetitia; Camilleri, Sophie; Bellucci, Alexandre; Casanova, Amaury; Viel, Thomas; Tavitian, Bertrand; Cellier, Christophe; Clement, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Extended esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is highly responsible for esophageal stricture. We conducted a comparative study in a porcine model to evaluate the effectiveness of adipose tissue-derived stromal cell (ADSC) double cell sheet transplantation. Methods Twelve female pigs were treated with 5 cm long hemi-circumferential ESD and randomized in two groups. ADSC group (n = 6) received 4 double cell sheets of allogenic ADSC on a paper support membrane and control group (n = 6) received 4 paper support membranes. ADSC were labelled with PKH-67 fluorophore to allow probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopie (pCLE) monitoring. After 28 days follow-up, animals were sacrificed. At days 3, 14 and 28, endoscopic evaluation with pCLE and esophagography were performed. Results One animal from the control group was excluded (anesthetic complication). Animals from ADSC group showed less frequent alimentary trouble (17% vs 80%; P = 0.08) and higher gain weight on day 28. pCLE demonstrated a compatible cell signal in 4 animals of the ADSC group at day 3. In ADSC group, endoscopy showed that 1 out of 6(17%) animals developed a severe esophageal stricture comparatively to 100% (5/5) in the control group; P = 0.015. Esophagography demonstrated a decreased degree of stricture in the ADSC group on day 14 (44% vs 81%; P = 0.017) and day 28 (46% vs 90%; P = 0.035). Histological analysis showed a decreased fibrosis development in the ADSC group, in terms of surface (9.7 vs 26.1 mm²; P = 0.017) and maximal depth (1.6 vs 3.2 mm; P = 0.052). Conclusion In this model, transplantation of allogenic ADSC organized in double cell sheets after extended esophegeal ESD is strongly associated with a lower esophageal stricture’s rate. PMID:26930409

  15. Short Duration Combined Mild Hypothermia Improves Resuscitation Outcomes in a Porcine Model of Prolonged Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tao; Yang, Zhengfei; Li, Heng; Ding, Youde; Huang, Zitong; Li, Yongqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effects of combined hypothermia with short duration maintenance on the resuscitation outcomes in a porcine model of ventricular fibrillation (VF). Methods. Fourteen porcine models were electrically induced with VF and untreated for 11 mins. All animals were successfully resuscitated manually and then randomized into two groups: combined mild hypothermia (CH group) and normothermia group (NT group). A combined hypothermia of ice cold saline infusion and surface cooling was implemented in the animals of the CH group and maintained for 4 hours. The survival outcomes and neurological function were evaluated every 24 hours until a maximum of 96 hours. Neuron apoptosis in hippocampus was analyzed. Results. There were no significant differences in baseline physiologies and primary resuscitation outcomes between both groups. Obvious improvements of cardiac output were observed in the CH group at 120, 180, and 240 mins following resuscitation. The animals demonstrated better survival at 96 hours in the CH group when compared to the NT group. In comparison with the NT group, favorable neurological functions were observed in the CH group. Conclusion. Short duration combined cooling initiated after resuscitation improves survival and neurological outcomes in a porcine model of prolonged VF. PMID:26558261

  16. A novel coculture model of porcine central neuroretina explants and retinal pigment epithelium cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Lauro, Salvatore; Rodriguez-Crespo, David; Gayoso, Manuel J.; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria T.; Pastor, J. Carlos; Srivastava, Girish K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop and standardize a novel organ culture model using porcine central neuroretina explants and RPE cells separated by a cell culture membrane. Methods RPE cells were isolated from porcine eyes, expanded, and seeded on the bottom of cell culture inserts. Neuroretina explants were obtained from the area centralis and cultured alone (controls) on cell culture membranes or supplemented with RPE cells in the same wells but physically separated by the culture membrane. Finally, cellular and tissue specimens were processed for phase contrast, cyto-/histological, and immunochemical evaluation. Neuroretina thickness was also determined. Results Compared to the neuroretinas cultured alone, the neuroretinas cocultured with RPE cells maintained better tissue structure and cellular organization, displayed better preservation of photoreceptors containing rhodopsin, lower levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoexpression, and preservation of cellular retinaldehyde binding protein both markers of reactive gliosis. Neuroretina thickness was significantly greater in the cocultures. Conclusions A coculture model of central porcine neuroretina and RPE cells was successfully developed and standardized. This model mimics a subretinal space and will be useful in studying interactions between the RPE and the neuroretina and to preclinically test potential therapies. PMID:27081295

  17. Aortic Implantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Aneurysm Injury in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Irene C.; Hadri, Lahouaria; Rapti, Kleopatra; Sadek, Mikel; Liang, Lifan; Shin, Hyun J.; Costa, Kevin D.; Marin, Michael L.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Faries, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cell based therapies are being evaluated in the setting of degenerative pathophysiological conditions. The search for the ideal method of delivery and improvement in cell engraftment continue to pose a challenge. This study explores the feasibility of introducing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) following aortic injury in a porcine model. Methods Bone marrow derived MSC were obtained from 8 pigs, characterized for the MSC markers CD13 and CD 29, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), and collected for autologous injection in a porcine model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The pigs were euthanized (1–7 days) after the procedure to assess the histological characteristics and presence of MSC in the aortic tissue. Negative controls included non-injured aorta. Tracking of the MSC was conducted by the identification of the GFP labeled cells using immunofluorescence. Results AAA sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed disorganization of the aortic tissue; collagen-muscle-elastin stain demonstrated fragmentation of elastin fibers. The presence of the implanted MSC in the aortic wall was evidenced by fluorescent microscopy showing GFP labeled cells. Engraftment of MSC up to 7 days after introduction was observed. Conclusion . Autologous implantation of bone marrow derived MSC following aortic injury in a porcine model may be successfully accomplished. The long term impact and therapeutic value of such cell-based therapy will require further investigation. PMID:21764076

  18. Shear mechanical properties of the porcine pancreas: experiment and analytical modelling.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, S; Noguer, L; Palierne, J-F

    2013-10-01

    We provide the first account of the shear mechanical properties of porcine pancreas using a rheometer both in linear oscillatory tests and in constant strain-rate tests reaching the non-linear sub-failure regime. Our results show that pancreas has a low and weakly frequency-dependent dynamic modulus and experiences a noticeable strain-hardening beyond 20% strain. In both linear and non-linear regime, the viscoelastic behaviour of porcine pancreas follows a four-parameter bi-power model that has been validated on kidney, liver and spleen. Among the four solid organs of the abdomen, pancreas proves to be the most compliant and the most viscous one. PMID:23820244

  19. Structural investigation of porcine stomach mucin by X-ray fiber diffraction and homology modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Veluraja, K.; Vennila, K.N.; Umamakeshvari, K.; Jasmine, A.; Velmurugan, D.

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Techniques to get oriented mucin fibre. {yields} X-ray fibre diffraction pattern for mucin. {yields} Molecular modeling of mucin based on X-ray fibre diffraction pattern. -- Abstract: The basic understanding of the three dimensional structure of mucin is essential to understand its physiological function. Technology has been developed to achieve orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules. X-ray fiber diffraction of partially orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules show d-spacing signals at 2.99, 4.06, 4.22, 4.7, 5.37 and 6.5 A. The high intense d-spacing signal at 4.22 A is attributed to the antiparallel {beta}-sheet structure identified in the fraction of the homology modeled mucin molecule (amino acid residues 800-980) using Nidogen-Laminin complex structure as a template. The X-ray fiber diffraction signal at 6.5 A reveals partial organization of oligosaccharides in porcine stomach mucin. This partial structure of mucin will be helpful in establishing a three dimensional structure for the whole mucin molecule.

  20. Small-Incision Laparoscopy-Assisted Surgery Under Abdominal Cavity Irrigation in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Takuro; Aoe, Tomohiko; Yu, Wen-Wei; Ebihara, Yuma; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Isono, Shiro; Naya, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgeries are performed under carbon dioxide insufflation. Switching from gas to an isotonic irrigant introduces several benefits and avoids some adverse effects of gas insufflation. We developed an irrigating device and apparatus designed for single-incision laparoscopic surgery and tested its advantages and drawbacks during surgery in a porcine model. Materials and Methods: Six pigs underwent surgical procedures under general anesthesia. A 30-cm extracorporeal cistern was placed over a 5–6-cm abdominal incision. The abdomen was irrigated with warm saline that was drained via a suction tube placed near the surgical field and continuously recirculated through a closed circuit equipped with a hemodialyzer as a filter. Irrigant samples from two pigs were cultured to check for bacterial and fungal contamination. Body weight was measured before and after surgery in four pigs that had not received treatments affecting hemodynamics or causing diuresis. Results: One-way flow of irrigant ensured laparoscopic vision by rinsing blood from the surgical field. Through a retroperitoneal approach, cystoprostatectomy was successfully performed in three pigs, nephrectomy in two, renal excision in two, and partial nephrectomy in one, under simultaneous ultrasonographic monitoring. Through a transperitoneal approach, liver excision and hemostasis with a bipolar sealing device were performed in three pigs, and bladder pedicle excision was performed in one pig. Bacterial and fungal contamination of the irrigant was observed on the draining side of the circuit, but the filter captured the contaminants. Body weight increased by a median of 2.1% (range, 1.2–4.4%) of initial weight after 3–5 hours of irrigation. Conclusions: Surgery under irrigation is feasible and practical when performed via a cistern through a small abdominal incision. This method is advantageous, especially in the enabling of continuous and free

  1. A novel porcine model of ataxia telangiectasia reproduces neurological features and motor deficits of human disease.

    PubMed

    Beraldi, Rosanna; Chan, Chun-Hung; Rogers, Christopher S; Kovács, Attila D; Meyerholz, David K; Trantzas, Constantin; Lambertz, Allyn M; Darbro, Benjamin W; Weber, Krystal L; White, Katherine A M; Rheeden, Richard V; Kruer, Michael C; Dacken, Brian A; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Davis, Bryan T; Rohret, Judy A; Struzynski, Jason T; Rohret, Frank A; Weimer, Jill M; Pearce, David A

    2015-11-15

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene. AT is a neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by cerebellar degeneration in children leading to motor impairment. The disease progresses with other clinical manifestations including oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immune disorders, increased susceptibly to cancer and respiratory infections. Although genetic investigations and physiological models have established the linkage of ATM with AT onset, the mechanisms linking ATM to neurodegeneration remain undetermined, hindering therapeutic development. Several murine models of AT have been successfully generated showing some of the clinical manifestations of the disease, however they do not fully recapitulate the hallmark neurological phenotype, thus highlighting the need for a more suitable animal model. We engineered a novel porcine model of AT to better phenocopy the disease and bridge the gap between human and current animal models. The initial characterization of AT pigs revealed early cerebellar lesions including loss of Purkinje cells (PCs) and altered cytoarchitecture suggesting a developmental etiology for AT and could advocate for early therapies for AT patients. In addition, similar to patients, AT pigs show growth retardation and develop motor deficit phenotypes. By using the porcine system to model human AT, we established the first animal model showing PC loss and motor features of the human disease. The novel AT pig provides new opportunities to unmask functions and roles of ATM in AT disease and in physiological conditions.

  2. A model of security monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1989-01-01

    A model of security monitoring is presented that distinguishes between two types of logging and auditing. Implications for the design and use of security monitoring mechanisms are drawn from this model. The usefulness of the model is then demonstrated by analyzing several different monitoring mechanisms.

  3. A model of security monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1990-01-01

    A model of security monitoring is presented that distinguishes between two types of logging and auditing. Implications for the design and use of security monitoring mechanisms are drawn from this model. The usefulness of the model is then demonstrated by analyzing several different monitoring mechanisms.

  4. A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Michael E; Houdek, Pia; Gorissen, Sascha; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Wladykowski, Ewa; Volksdorf, Thomas; Grzybowski, Stephan; Kolios, Georgios; Willers, Christoph; Mallwitz, Henning; Moll, Ingrid; Brandner, Johanna M

    2015-09-01

    Reliable models for the determination of skin penetration and permeation are important for the development of new drugs and formulations. The intention of our study was to develop a skin penetration model which (1) is viable and well supplied with nutrients during the period of the experiment (2) is mimicking human skin as far as possible, but still is independent from the problems of supply and heterogeneity, (3) can give information about the penetration into different compartments of the skin and (4) considers specific inter-individual differences in skin thickness. In addition, it should be quick and inexpensive (5) and without ethical implications (6). Using a chemically divers set of four topically approved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely diclofenac, metronidazole, tazarotene, and terbinafine, we demonstrated that the model allows reliable determination of drug concentrations in different layers of the viable epidermis and dermis. For APIs susceptible for skin metabolism, the extent of metabolic transformation in epidermis and dermis can be monitored. Furthermore, a high degree of accordance in the ability for discrimination of skin concentrations of the substances in different layers was found in models derived from porcine and human skin. Viability, proliferation, differentiation and markers for skin barrier function were surveyed in the model. This model, which we call 'Hamburg model of skin penetration' is particularly suited to support a rational ranking and selection of dermatological formulations within drug development projects.

  5. Material Properties and Constitutive Modeling of Infant Porcine Cerebellum Tissue in Tension at High Strain Rate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kui; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Wenjun; Yin, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanical characterization of infant porcine cerebellum tissue in tension at high strain rate is crucial for modeling traumatic cerebellum injury, which is in turn helpful for understanding the biomechanics of such injuries suffered in traffic accidents. Material and Method In this study, the infant porcine cerebellum tissue was given three loading velocities, ie, 2s-1, 20s-1 and 100s-1 with up to 30% strain to investigate the tensile properties. At least six tensile tests for each strain rate were validly performed. Fung, Gent, Ogden and exponential models were applied to fit the constitutive equations, so as to obtain material parameters from the experimental data. Results The Lagrange stress of infant porcine cerebellum tissue in tension appeared to be no more than 3000Pa at each loading velocity. More specifically, the Lagrange stress at 30% strain was (393.7±84.4)Pa, (928.3±56.3)Pa and (2582.4±282.2)Pa at strain rates of 2s-1, 20s-1 and 100s-1, respectively. Fung (0.833≤R2≤0.924), Gent (0.797≤R2≤0.875), Ogden (0.859≤R2≤0.944) and exponential (0.930≤R2≤0.972) models provided excellent fitting to experimental data up to 30% strain. Conclusions The infant cerebellum tissue shows a stiffer response with increase of the loading speed, indicating a strong strain-rate sensitivity. This study will enrich the knowledge on the material properties of infant brain tissue, which may augment the biofidelity of finite element model of human pediatric cerebellum. PMID:25830545

  6. Porcine models of digestive disease: the future of large animal translational research

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J.; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in non-rodent translational models for the study of human disease. The pig, in particular, serves as a useful animal model for the study of pathophysiological conditions relevant to the human intestine. This review assesses currently used porcine models of gastrointestinal physiology and disease and provides a rationale for the use of these models for future translational studies. The pig has proven its utility for the study of fundamental disease conditions such as ischemia/ reperfusion injury, stress-induced intestinal dysfunction, and short bowel syndrome. Pigs have also shown great promise for the study of intestinal barrier function, surgical tissue manipulation and intervention, as well as biomaterial implantation and tissue transplantation. Advantages of pig models highlighted by these studies include the physiological similarity to human intestine as well as to mechanisms of human disease. Emerging future directions for porcine models of human disease include the fields of transgenics and stem cell biology, with exciting implications for regenerative medicine. PMID:25655839

  7. A Porcine Anterior Segment Perfusion and Transduction Model With Direct Visualization of the Trabecular Meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Ralitsa T.; Roy, Pritha; Park, Daniel B.; Jensen, Adrianna; Scott, Gordon; Cohen-Karni, Devora; Fautsch, Michael P.; Schuman, Joel S.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To establish a consistent and affordable, high quality porcine anterior segment perfusion and transduction model that allows direct visualization of the trabecular meshwork. Methods Porcine anterior segments were cultured within 2 hours of death by removing lens and uvea and securing in a specially designed petri dish with a thin bottom to allow direct visualization of the trabecular meshwork with minimal distortion. Twenty-two control eyes (CO) with a constant flow rate were compared to eight gravity perfused eyes (COgr, 15 mm Hg). We established gene delivery to the TM using eGFP expressing feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vector GINSIN at 108 transducing units (TU) per eye (GINSIN_8, n = 8) and 107 TU (GINSIN_7, n = 8). Expression was assessed for 14 days before histology was obtained. Results Pig eyes were a reliable source for consistent and high quality anterior segment cultures with a low failure rate of 12%. Control eyes had an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15.8 ± 1.9 mm Hg at fixed pump perfusion with 3 μL/min compared to gravity perfused COgr with imputed 3.7 ± 1.6 μL/min. Vector GINSIN_8 eyes experienced a transient posttransduction IOP increase of 44% that resolved at 48 hours; this was not observed in GINSIN_7 eyes. Expression was higher in GINSIN_8 than in GINSIN_7 eyes. Trabecular meshwork architecture was well preserved. Conclusions Compared with previously used human donor eyes, this inexpensive porcine anterior segment perfusion model is of sufficient, repeatable high quality to develop strategies of TM bioengineering. Trabecular meshwork could be observed directly. Despite significant anatomic differences, effects of transduction replicate the main aspects of previously explored human, feline and rodent models. PMID:27002293

  8. Robot-Assisted Pterygium Surgery: Feasibility Study in a Nonliving Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Bourcier, Tristan; Nardin, Mathieu; Sauer, Arnaud; Gaucher, David; Speeg, Claude; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the feasibility of pterygium surgery using the DaVinci Si HD robotic surgical system, and to describe a porcine model for pterygium surgery and evaluate its usefulness. Methods The pterygium models were constructed using enucleated pig eyes and cold cuts. Robotically-assisted pterygium surgeries in nonliving biological pterygium models were performed using the DaVinci Si HD robotic surgical system. Twelve models were prepared, and 12 pterygium excision and conjunctival autografts were performed. Results The DaVinci system provided the necessary dexterity to perform delicate ocular surface surgery and robotic tools were safe for the tissues. The mean duration of the surgical procedures was 36 minutes. There were no intraoperative complications and no unexpected events. Conclusions Robotic-assisted pterygium surgery is technically feasible for porcine eyes using the DaVinci Si HD robotic surgical system. The pterygium model that we describe could be of interest for surgical training. Translational Relevance Little research has been done in robotic microsurgery. Animal experimentation will allow the advantages of robotic-assisted microsurgery to be identified, while underlining the improvements and innovations necessary for clinical use. PMID:25722953

  9. Constitutive Modeling of Porcine Liver in Indentation Using 3D Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, P.; Socrate, S.; Zickler, T.E.; Howe, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present an inverse finite-element modeling framework for constitutive modeling and parameter estimation of soft tissues using full-field volumetric deformation data obtained from 3D ultrasound. The finite-element model is coupled to full-field visual measurements by regularization springs attached at nodal locations. The free ends of the springs are displaced according to the locally estimated tissue motion and the normalized potential energy stored in all springs serves as a measure of model-experiment agreement for material parameter optimization. We demonstrate good accuracy of estimated parameters and consistent convergence properties on synthetically generated data. We present constitutive model selection and parameter estimation for perfused porcine liver in indentation and demonstrate that a quasilinear viscoelastic model with shear modulus relaxation offers good model-experiment agreement in terms of indenter displacement (0.19 mm RMS error) and tissue displacement field (0.97 mm RMS error). PMID:19627823

  10. In vivo porcine left atrial wall stress: Computational model.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Elena S; Bellini, Chiara; Schwartzman, David S

    2011-10-13

    Most computational models of the heart have so far concentrated on the study of the left ventricle, mainly using simplified geometries. The same approach cannot be adopted to model the left atrium, whose irregular shape does not allow morphological simplifications. In addition, the deformation of the left atrium during the cardiac cycle strongly depends on the interaction with its surrounding structures. We present a procedure to generate a comprehensive computational model of the left atrium, including physiological loads (blood pressure), boundary conditions (pericardium, pulmonary veins and mitral valve annulus movement) and mechanical properties based on planar biaxial experiments. The model was able to accurately reproduce the in vivo dynamics of the left atrium during the passive portion of the cardiac cycle. A shift in time between the peak pressure and the maximum displacement of the mitral valve annulus allows the appendage to inflate and bend towards the ventricle before the pulling effect associated with the ventricle contraction takes place. The ventricular systole creates room for further expansion of the appendage, which gets in close contact with the pericardium. The temporal evolution of the volume in the atrial cavity as predicted by the finite element simulation matches the volume changes obtained from CT scans. The stress field computed at each time point shows remarkable spatial heterogeneity. In particular, high stress concentration occurs along the appendage rim and in the region surrounding the pulmonary veins. PMID:21907340

  11. [The isolated normothermic hemoperfused porcine leg as model for pharmacological and toxicological investigations

    PubMed

    Nogueira; Wagner; Riebeling; Klug

    1999-01-01

    In this short communication we present the isolated normothermic hemoperfused porcine leg as an alternative model for pharmacological and toxicological investigations. Both legs and blood were obtained at a slaughter house. Legs were connected to the perfusion apparatus Mediport Biotechnik and provided with room air and nutrients via a dialysis module over a seven hour period. The perfusion pressure, the perfusion flow, the response to noradrenergic stimuli, the glucose consumption influenced by insulin dosage and the absorption of estradiol were investigated. Once noradrenalin was given perfusion pressure increased as expected and dropped back to normal only a few minutes after administration. Moreover, in the legs treated with insulin, a glucose consumption was detected. Only the legs treated with estradiol showed an increasing concentration of estradiol in plasma throughout the experiment. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the isolated normothermic hemoperfused porcine leg seems to be a suitable alternative model for the testing of transdermal absorption as well as for the investigation of acute vasoactive substances. Further studies will be performed in our laboratory in order to determine the metabolic condition of this system as well as to ascertain other possibilities of this model in pharmacological and toxicological investigations. PMID:11107313

  12. Extrusion properties of porcine intestines and surrogate materials for ventral hernia modelling.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Mathew; Winter, Des C; Simms, Ciaran K

    2013-02-01

    A physical model of the abdomen can be a clean and cheap surrogate environment to assess new and existing closure solutions for post-laparoscopic wound closure, but a particular challenge is finding a surrogate material to replicate intestines which may protrude through a hernia. The literature shows no focus on this topic, and this paper therefore presents an investigation of the extrusion properties of fresh porcine intestines compared to a number of potential surrogate materials: silicone, edible gelatine, dough and reconstituted powdered potatoes (RPP). An extrusion rig was developed to simulate the mechanical environment of a post-operative hernia formation. Displacement controlled extrusion tests were performed, and the force-extrusion relationships at different extrusion velocities were compared for the intestines and the surrogate materials. The intestines showed a peak extrusion force ranging from 9 N to 14.8 N when pushed through a 13 mm hole, and similar extrusion properties between cleaned and uncleaned fresh porcine intestines were observed. The tests on surrogate materials showed that the surface tension properties of silicone gel resulted in high friction, that edible gelatine extruded like a liquid and that dough is very stiff, rendering all three materials unsuitable for use as surrogates. However, the RPP mix showed very similar force-extrusion properties compared to both the cleaned and uncleaned intestines. Viscoelastic testing (7.5 mm/min, 15 mm/min and 30 mm/min) showed little rate dependency in the extrusion properties for either the porcine intestines or the RPP. Despite the complexity of intestinal tissue and the obvious physical differences between intestine and RPP, it was found that there is no statistical difference between the yield strength of intestines and RPP (P values ranged between 0.14 and 0.3) at the rates tested.

  13. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  14. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J.; S. de Aluja, Aline; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments. PMID:26252878

  15. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  16. A novel device to create consistent deep dermal burns in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Seema; Chan, Queenie; Bertinetti, Monique; Harvey, John G; Hei, Erik R La; Holland, Andrew JA

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate a novel device to create a consistent and reproducible deep partial thickness burn in a porcine model. A thermostatically controlled, heated aluminium disc device was fashioned by the Biomedical Department of our institution. Contact burns were made on the flank of two Great White pigs by applying the device heated to 92°C at intervals of 5, 10, 15 and 20 seconds to four separate test areas area of skin. Biopsies for histological analysis of burn depth were taken on day 0 at 10 minutes post burn and on day 8. Biopsies taken at day 0 revealed superficial to mid-dermal burns, with minimal dermal edema and necrosis. Those from day 8 showed mid to deep dermal edema and necrosis in all four test areas following a 20 second contact duration burn. The new contact burn device was able to create a consistent deep dermal burn after 20 seconds of contact. We anticipate that this new device could be used to investigate the development of hypertrophic scarring in a porcine model. PMID:27335694

  17. Induced Hypothermia Does Not Harm Hemodynamics after Polytrauma: A Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Weuster, Matthias; Mommsen, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Mohr, Juliane; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Flohé, Sascha; Fröhlich, Matthias; Keibl, Claudia; Seekamp, Andreas; van Griensven, Martijn; Witte, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The deterioration of hemodynamics instantly endangers the patients' life after polytrauma. As accidental hypothermia frequently occurs in polytrauma, therapeutic hypothermia still displays an ambivalent role as the impact on the cardiopulmonary function is not yet fully understood. Methods. We have previously established a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, penetrating abdominal trauma, and hemorrhagic shock. Therapeutic hypothermia (34°C) was induced for 3 hours. We documented cardiovascular parameters and basic respiratory parameters. Pigs were euthanized after 15.5 hours. Results. Our polytrauma porcine model displayed sufficient trauma impact. Resuscitation showed adequate restoration of hemodynamics. Induced hypothermia had neither harmful nor major positive effects on the animals' hemodynamics. Though heart rate significantly decreased and mixed venous oxygen saturation significantly increased during therapeutic hypothermia. Mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and wedge pressure showed no significant differences comparing normothermic trauma and hypothermic trauma pigs during hypothermia. Conclusions. Induced hypothermia after polytrauma is feasible. No major harmful effects on hemodynamics were observed. Therapeutic hypothermia revealed hints for tissue protective impact. But the chosen length for therapeutic hypothermia was too short. Nevertheless, therapeutic hypothermia might be a useful tool for intensive care after polytrauma. Future studies should extend therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:26170533

  18. Porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 and Chlamydia suis to modelize ocular chlamydiosis.

    PubMed

    Käser, Tobias; Cnudde, Thomas; Hamonic, Glenn; Rieder, Meghanne; Pasternak, J Alex; Lai, Ken; Tikoo, Suresh K; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, François

    2015-08-15

    Human ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections can lead to trachoma, the major cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Trachoma control strategies are very helpful but logistically challenging, and a trachoma vaccine is needed but not available. Pigs are a valuable large animal model for various immunological questions and could facilitate the study of human ocular chlamydial infections. In addition, a recent study identified the zoonotic potential of Chlamydia suis, the natural pathogen of pigs. In terms of the One Health Initiative, understanding the host-pathogen-interactions and finding a vaccine for porcine chlamydia infections would also benefit human health. Thus, we infected the porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 with C. suis and analyzed the chlamydial life cycle and the innate immune response of the infected cells. Our results indicate that C. suis completes its life cycle in VIDO R1 cells within 48 h, comparable to C. trachomatis in humans. C. suis infection of VIDO R1 cells led to increased levels of various innate immune mediators like pathogen recognition receptors, cytokines and chemokines including IL6, TNFα, and MMP9, also most relevant in human C. trachomatis infections. These results illustrate the first steps in the host-pathogen-interactions of ocular C. suis infections in pigs and show their similarity to C. trachomatis infections in humans, justifying further testing of pigs as an animal model for human trachoma. PMID:26103808

  19. An Ex Vivo Porcine Nasal Mucosa Explants Model to Study MRSA Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Tulinski, Pawel; Fluit, Ad C.; van Putten, Jos P. M.; de Bruin, Alain; Glorieux, Sarah; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the upper respiratory tract and skin surfaces in mammals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. However, the mechanism of successful pig colonization by MRSA ST398 is poorly understood. To study MRSA colonization in pigs, an ex vivo model consisting of porcine nasal mucosa explants cultured at an air-liquid interface was evaluated. In cultured mucosa explants from the surfaces of the ventral turbinates and septum of the pig nose no changes in cell morphology and viability were observed up to 72 h. MRSA colonization on the explants was evaluated followed for three MRSA ST398 isolates for 180 minutes. The explants were incubated with 3×108 CFU/ml in PBS for 2 h to allow bacteria to adhere to the explants surface. Next the explants were washed and in the first 30 minutes post adhering time, a decline in the number of CFU was observed for all MRSA. Subsequently, the isolates showed either: bacterial growth, no growth, or a further reduction in bacterial numbers. The MRSA were either localized as clusters between the cilia or as single bacteria on the cilia surface. No morphological changes in the epithelium layer were observed during the incubation with MRSA. We conclude that porcine nasal mucosa explants are a valuable ex vivo model to unravel the interaction of MRSA with nasal tissue. PMID:23326505

  20. Ventricular Arrhythmias and Mortality Associated with Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in a Porcine Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Regueiro-Purriños, Marta; Fernández-Vázquez, Felipe; de Prado, Armando Perez; Altónaga, Jose R; Cuellas-Ramón, Carlos; Ajenjo-Silverio, Jose M; Orden, Asuncion; Gonzalo-Orden, Jose M

    2011-01-01

    Ischemia of the myocardium can lead to reversible or irreversible injury depending on the severity and duration of the preceding ischemia. Here we compared sevoflurane and isoflurane with particular reference to their hemodynamic effects and ability to modify the effects of acute severe myocardial ischemia and reperfusion on ventricular arrhythmias and mortality in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Female Large White pigs were premedicated with ketamine, midazolam, and atropine. Propofol was given intravenously for the anesthetic induction, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane. Endovascular, fluoroscopy-guided, coronary procedures were performed to occlude the midleft anterior descending artery by using a coronary angioplasty balloon. After 75 min, the balloon catheter system was withdrawn and the presence of adequate reperfusion flow was verified. The pigs were followed for 2 mo, and overall mortality rate was calculated. The isoflurane group showed lower arterial pressure throughout the procedure, with the difference reaching statistical significance after induction of myocardial ischemia. The ventricular fibrillation rate was higher in isoflurane group (81.3%) than the sevoflurane group (51.7%; relative risk, 1.57 [1.03 to 2.4]). Overall survival was lower in the isoflurane group (75%) than the sevoflurane group (96.4%). In conclusion, in this porcine model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, sevoflurane was associated with higher hemodynamic stability and fewer ventricular arrhythmias and mortality than was isoflurane. PMID:21333167

  1. Porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 and Chlamydia suis to modelize ocular chlamydiosis.

    PubMed

    Käser, Tobias; Cnudde, Thomas; Hamonic, Glenn; Rieder, Meghanne; Pasternak, J Alex; Lai, Ken; Tikoo, Suresh K; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, François

    2015-08-15

    Human ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections can lead to trachoma, the major cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Trachoma control strategies are very helpful but logistically challenging, and a trachoma vaccine is needed but not available. Pigs are a valuable large animal model for various immunological questions and could facilitate the study of human ocular chlamydial infections. In addition, a recent study identified the zoonotic potential of Chlamydia suis, the natural pathogen of pigs. In terms of the One Health Initiative, understanding the host-pathogen-interactions and finding a vaccine for porcine chlamydia infections would also benefit human health. Thus, we infected the porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 with C. suis and analyzed the chlamydial life cycle and the innate immune response of the infected cells. Our results indicate that C. suis completes its life cycle in VIDO R1 cells within 48 h, comparable to C. trachomatis in humans. C. suis infection of VIDO R1 cells led to increased levels of various innate immune mediators like pathogen recognition receptors, cytokines and chemokines including IL6, TNFα, and MMP9, also most relevant in human C. trachomatis infections. These results illustrate the first steps in the host-pathogen-interactions of ocular C. suis infections in pigs and show their similarity to C. trachomatis infections in humans, justifying further testing of pigs as an animal model for human trachoma.

  2. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions.

  3. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions. PMID:22444086

  4. Percutaneous transgastric endoscopic tube ileostomy in a porcine survival model

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong; Chen, Su-Yu; Wang, Yong-Guang; Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Cai, He-Li; Lin, Kai; Xie, Zhao-Fei; Dong, Fen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To introduce natural orifice transgastric endoscopic surgery (NOTES) tube ileostomy using pelvis-directed submucosal tunneling endoscopic gastrostomy and endoscopic tube ileostomy. METHODS Six live pigs (three each in the non-survival and survival groups) were used. A double-channeled therapeutic endoscope was introduced perorally into the stomach. A gastrostomy was made using a 2-cm transversal mucosal incision following the creation of a 5-cm longitudinal pelvis-directed submucosal tunnel. The pneumoperitoneum was established via the endoscope. In the initial three operations of the series, a laparoscope was transumbilically inserted for guiding the tunnel direction, intraperitoneal spatial orientation and distal ileum identification. Endoscopic tube ileostomy was conducted by adopting an introducer method and using a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Catheter Kit equipped with the Loop Fixture. The distal tip of the 15 Fr catheter was placed toward the proximal limb of the ileum to optimize intestinal content drainage. Finally, the tunnel entrance of the gastrostomy was closed using nylon endoloops with the aid of a twin grasper. The gross and histopathological integrity of gastrostomy closure and the abdominal wall-ileum stoma tract formation were assessed 1 wk after the operation. RESULTS Transgastric endoscopic tube ileostomy was successful in all six pigs, without major bleeding. The mean operating time was 71 min (range: 60-110 min). There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. The post-mortem, which was conducted 1-wk postoperatively, showed complete healing of the gastrostomy and adequate stoma tract formation of ileostomy. CONCLUSION Transgastric endoscopic tube ileostomy is technically feasible and reproducible in an animal model, and this technique is worthy of further improvement. PMID:27729743

  5. Novel A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits carotid artery restenosis in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen-hua; Peng, Jing; Meng, Zhao-you; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jia-Lu; Huang, He-qing; Li, Li; Zeng, Wen; Wei, Yong; Zhu, Chu-Hong; Chen, Kang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although carotid angioplasty and stenting using an embolic protection device has been introduced as a less invasive carotid revascularization approach, in-stent restenosis limits its long-term efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to test the anti-restenosis effects of local stent-mediated delivery of the A20 gene in a porcine carotid artery model. Materials and methods The pCDNA3.1EHA20 was firmly attached onto stents that had been collagen coated and treated with N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol)propionate solution and anti-DNA immunoglobulin fixation. Anti-restenosis effects of modified vs control (the bare-metal stent and pCDNA3.1 void vector) stents were assessed by Western blot and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by morphological and inflammatory reaction analyses. Results Stent-delivered A20 gene was locally expressed in porcine carotids in association with significantly greater extent of re-endothelialization at day 14 and of neointimal hyperplasia inhibition at 3 months than stenting without A20 gene expression. Conclusion The A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits neointimal hyperplasia while promoting re-endothelialization and therefore constitutes a novel potential alternative to prevent restenosis while minimizing complications. PMID:27540277

  6. An Immunomodulatory Device Improves Insulin Resistance in Obese Porcine Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Westover, Angela J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with tissue inflammation which is a crucial etiology of insulin resistance. This inflammation centers around circulating monocytes which form proinflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATM). Specific approaches targeting monocytes/ATM may improve insulin resistance without the adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression. In this regard, a biomimetic membrane leukocyte processing device, called the selective cytopheretic device (SCD), was evaluated in an Ossabaw miniature swine model of insulin resistance with metabolic syndrome. Treatment with the SCD in this porcine model demonstrated a decline in circulating neutrophil activation parameters and monocyte counts. These changes were associated with improvements in insulin resistance as determined with intravenous glucose tolerance testing. These improvements were also reflected in lowering of homeostatic model assessment- (HOMA-) insulin resistant (IR) scores for up to 2 weeks after SCD therapy. These results allow for the planning of first-in-man studies in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

  7. Heterotopic Renal Autotransplantation in a Porcine Model: A Step-by-Step Protocol.

    PubMed

    Kaths, J Moritz; Echeverri, Juan; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Louis, Kristine S; Yip, Paul; John, Rohan; Mucsi, Istvan; Ghanekar, Anand; Bagli, Darius; Selzner, Markus; Robinson, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It offers better life expectancy and higher quality of life when compared to dialysis. Although the last few decades have seen major improvements in patient outcomes following kidney transplantation, the increasing shortage of available organs represents a severe problem worldwide. To expand the donor pool, marginal kidney grafts recovered from extended criteria donors (ECD) or donated after circulatory death (DCD) are now accepted for transplantation. To further improve the postoperative outcome of these marginal grafts, research must focus on new therapeutic approaches such as alternative preservation techniques, immunomodulation, gene transfer, and stem cell administration. Experimental studies in animal models are the final step before newly developed techniques can be translated into clinical practice. Porcine kidney transplantation is an excellent model of human transplantation and allows investigation of novel approaches. The major advantage of the porcine model is its anatomical and physiological similarity to the human body, which facilitates the rapid translation of new findings to clinical trials. This article offers a surgical step-by-step protocol for an autotransplantation model and highlights key factors to ensure experimental success. Adequate pre- and postoperative housing, attentive anesthesia, and consistent surgical techniques result in favorable postoperative outcomes. Resection of the contralateral native kidney provides the opportunity to assess post-transplant graft function. The placement of venous and urinary catheters and the use of metabolic cages allow further detailed evaluation. For long-term follow-up studies and investigation of alternative graft preservation techniques, autotransplantation models are superior to allotransplantation models, as they avoid the confounding bias posed by rejection and immunosuppressive medication. PMID

  8. Heterotopic Renal Autotransplantation in a Porcine Model: A Step-by-Step Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaths, J. Moritz; Echeverri, Juan; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Louis, Kristine S.; Yip, Paul; John, Rohan; Mucsi, Istvan; Ghanekar, Anand; Bagli, Darius; Selzner, Markus; Robinson, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It offers better life expectancy and higher quality of life when compared to dialysis. Although the last few decades have seen major improvements in patient outcomes following kidney transplantation, the increasing shortage of available organs represents a severe problem worldwide. To expand the donor pool, marginal kidney grafts recovered from extended criteria donors (ECD) or donated after circulatory death (DCD) are now accepted for transplantation. To further improve the postoperative outcome of these marginal grafts, research must focus on new therapeutic approaches such as alternative preservation techniques, immunomodulation, gene transfer, and stem cell administration. Experimental studies in animal models are the final step before newly developed techniques can be translated into clinical practice. Porcine kidney transplantation is an excellent model of human transplantation and allows investigation of novel approaches. The major advantage of the porcine model is its anatomical and physiological similarity to the human body, which facilitates the rapid translation of new findings to clinical trials. This article offers a surgical step-by-step protocol for an autotransplantation model and highlights key factors to ensure experimental success. Adequate pre- and postoperative housing, attentive anesthesia, and consistent surgical techniques result in favorable postoperative outcomes. Resection of the contralateral native kidney provides the opportunity to assess post-transplant graft function. The placement of venous and urinary catheters and the use of metabolic cages allow further detailed evaluation. For long-term follow-up studies and investigation of alternative graft preservation techniques, autotransplantation models are superior to allotransplantation models, as they avoid the confounding bias posed by rejection and immunosuppressive medication. PMID

  9. Snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs as a model for swine infectious disease research.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyun; Haines, Deborah M; Harding, John C S

    2013-04-01

    The current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (The Saskatoon Colostrum Company, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs. In experiment 1, 12 SF-pCD pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (COL), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (RPL) until weaning. In experiment 2, 12 SF-pCD pigs were fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning; after weaning, 6 were fed a starter diet containing 20% (w/w) bovine colostrum powder (STARTER-COL), and the other 6 were fed a starter diet without any bovine colostrum (STARTER-CTRL) until termination (day 42 or day 49). In experiment 1 the COL pigs had significantly fewer fever-days than did the RPL pigs. In experiment 2 diarrhea, typhlocolitis, and pancreatic degeneration developed in 4 of the STARTER-COL pigs after weaning. In both experiments all the pigs fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning survived until termination. All pigs tested free of swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine parvovirus. In experiment 2 all the pigs tested free of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but some in both groups tested positive for Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2. In conclusion, with the use of snatch-farrowing and bovine colostrum, pigs can be raised in the absence of porcine maternal antibodies with 100% survival and freedom from most porcine pathogens of biologic relevance. This model is potentially suitable for animal disease research.

  10. Snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs as a model for swine infectious disease research

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanyun; Haines, Deborah M.; Harding, John C.S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (The Saskatoon Colostrum Company, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs. In experiment 1, 12 SF-pCD pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (COL), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (RPL) until weaning. In experiment 2, 12 SF-pCD pigs were fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning; after weaning, 6 were fed a starter diet containing 20% (w/w) bovine colostrum powder (STARTER-COL), and the other 6 were fed a starter diet without any bovine colostrum (STARTER-CTRL) until termination (day 42 or day 49). In experiment 1 the COL pigs had significantly fewer fever-days than did the RPL pigs. In experiment 2 diarrhea, typhlocolitis, and pancreatic degeneration developed in 4 of the STARTER-COL pigs after weaning. In both experiments all the pigs fed mainly bovine colostrum before weaning survived until termination. All pigs tested free of swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Porcine parvovirus. In experiment 2 all the pigs tested free of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), but some in both groups tested positive for Torque teno virus genogroups 1 and 2. In conclusion, with the use of snatch-farrowing and bovine colostrum, pigs can be raised in the absence of porcine maternal antibodies with 100% survival and freedom from most porcine pathogens of biologic relevance. This model is potentially suitable for animal disease research. PMID:24082397

  11. A porcine model of early atrial fibrillation using a custom-built, radio transmission-controlled pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Schwarzl, Michael; Alogna, Alessio; Zweiker, David; Verderber, Jochen; Huber, Stefan; Manninger, Martin; Scherr, Daniel; Antoons, Gudrun; Pieske, Burkert M; Post, Heiner; Lueger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying atrial remodeling toward atrial fibrillation (AF) are incompletely understood. We induced AF in 16 pigs by 6weeks of rapid atrial pacing (RAP, 600bpm) using a custom-built, telemetrically controlled pacemaker. AF evolution was monitored three times per week telemetrically in unstressed, conscious animals. We established a dose-response relationship between RAP duration and occurrence of sustained AF >60minutes. Left atrial (LA) dilatation was present already at 2weeks of RAP. There was no evidence of left ventricular heart failure after 6weeks of RAP. As a proof-of-principle, arterial hypertension was induced in 5/16 animals by implanting desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA, an aldosterone-analog) subcutaneously to accelerate atrial remodeling. RAP+DOCA resulted in increased AF stability with earlier onset of sustained AF and accelerated anatomical atrial remodeling with more pronounced LA dilatation. This novel porcine model can serve to characterize effects of maladaptive stimuli or protective interventions specifically during early AF. PMID:26803554

  12. Microparticulate ICE slurry for renal hypothermia: laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanov, S; Wille, M; Large, M; Razmaria, A; Lifshitz, D; Chang, A; Wu, Y; Kasza, K; Shalhav, A

    2010-10-01

    Previously, we described the feasibility of renal hypothermia using microparticulate ice slurry during laparoscopy. In the present study, we compared surface cooling with the ice slurry versus near-frozen saline or warm ischemia (WI) during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a porcine model. We used a single-kidney porcine model. Animals in 5 equal groups (n = 6 each) underwent right laparoscopic complete nephrectomy. In Phase I, left LPN was performed under 90 minutes of ischemia and 90-minute renal cooling with either slurry (Slurry group 1) or saline (Saline group 1). No cooling was applied in the WI group. In Phase II, to simulate more extreme condition, ischemia time was extended to 120 minutes and cooling shortened to 10 minutes (Slurry group 2 and Saline group 2). The study endpoints were renal and core temperature during the surgery and serum creatinine at baseline and days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure. The ice slurry was easily produced and delivered. Nadir renal temperature (mean {+-} SD) was 8 {+-} 4 C in Slurry group 1 vs. 22.5 {+-} 3 C in Saline group 1 (P < .0001). Renal rewarming to 30 C occurred after 61 {+-} 7 minutes in Slurry group 2 vs. 24 {+-} 6 minutes in Saline group 2 (P < .0001). Core temperature decreased on average to 35 C in the Saline groups compared with 37 C in the Slurry groups (P < .0001). Serum creatinine did not differ between the Saline and Slurry groups in Phases I and II at any time point. Ice slurry provides superior renal cooling compared with near-frozen saline during LPN without associated core hypothermia.

  13. Bovine Serum Albumin Glutaraldehyde for Completely Sutureless Laparoscopic Heminephrectomy in a Survival Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa, Aldrin Joseph R.; Kaplan, Adam G.; Khosravi, Amanda; Truong, Hung; Andrade, Lorena; Lin, Rachelle; Alipanah, Reza; Ortiz, Cervando; McCormick, David; Box, Geoffrey N.; Lee, Hak J.; Deane, Leslie A.; Edwards, Robert A.; McDougall, Elspeth M.; Clayman, Ralph V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has not received widespread clinical application because of its technical challenge. Bovine serum albumin glutaraldehyde (BSAG) is a hemostatic agent that is independent of the clotting cascade. We evaluated the use of BSAG as the sole agent for parenchymal and collecting system closure during LPN in a survival porcine model. Methods Eighteen pigs underwent hilar clamping and LPN by longitudinal excision of the lateral one-third of the right kidney. The opened collecting system was covered with oxidized cellulose to prevent BSAG seepage into the urinary tract. BSAG was allowed to set for 10 or 5 minutes. Twelve animals underwent survival LPN BSAG only closure; six control pigs were acutely studied using saline. Urinary extravasation was evaluated by injection of furosemide and indigo carmine, and then evaluating the renal surface and bladder catheter drainage for dye. A subjective bleeding score was assigned after hilum unclamping. At 6 weeks, BSAG kidneys were harvested for burst pressure testing and histopathological analysis. Results All 12 pigs survived for 6 weeks. No pigs had urinary extravasation. Mean percentage of kidney removed by weight was 19%. Mean warm ischemia time was 29 minutes. Five pigs required a second BSAG application to achieve a bleeding score of 0. Mean arterial and collecting system burst pressures were 301.8 and 322.4 mm Hg, respectively. Mean postoperative creatinine increase was 0.07 mg/dL. Conclusion BSAG for completely sutureless LPN in a survival porcine model was feasible. PMID:20059350

  14. The effect of whole-body resonance vibration in a porcine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Chak, Jason; Dressler, Dan; Manouchehri, Neda; Okon, Elena B; Anderson, Lisa M; Melnyk, Angela D; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K

    2015-06-15

    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a potential stressor to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during pre-hospital transportation. However, the effect that such vibration has on the acutely injured spinal cord is largely unknown, particularly in the frequency domain of 5 Hz in which resonance of the spine occurs. The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences of resonance vibration on the injured spinal cord. Using our previously characterized porcine model of SCI, we subjected animals to resonance vibration (5.7±0.46 Hz) or no vibration for a period of 1.5 or 3.0 h. Locomotor function was assessed weekly and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to assess different inflammatory and injury severity markers. Spinal cords were evaluated histologically to quantify preserved white and gray matter. No significant differences were found between groups for CSF levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lL-8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were lower in the resonance vibration group, compared with the non-vibrated control group. Spared white matter tissue was increased within the vibrated group at 7 d post-injury but this difference was not apparent at the 12-week time-point. No significant difference was observed in locomotor recovery following resonance vibration of the spine. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to resonance vibration for 1.5 or 3 h following SCI in our porcine model is not detrimental to the functional or histological outcomes. Our observation that a 3.0-h period of vibration at resonance frequency induces modest histological improvement at one week post-injury warrants further study.

  15. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy for genitourinary malignancies: safety and efficacy in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Power, Nicholas E.; Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Tarin, Tatum; Au, Joyce; Thorner, Daniel; Ezell, Paula; Monette, Sébastien; Fong, Yuman; Rusch, Valerie; Finley, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects and safety of using endoscopic spray cryotherapy (ESC) on bladder, ureteral, and renal pelvis urothelium in a live porcine model. Subjects and methods: ESC treatments were systematically applied to urothelial sites in the bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis of eight female Yorkshire swine in a prospective trial. Freeze–thaw cycles ranged from 5 to 60 s/cycle for one to six cycles using a 7 French cryotherapy catheter. Tissue was evaluated histologically for treatment-related effects. Acute physiologic effects were evaluated with pulse oximetry, Doppler sonography, and postmortem findings. Results: In bladder, treatment depth was inconsistent regardless of dose, demonstrating urothelial necrosis in one, muscularis propria depth necrosis in two, and full thickness necrosis in all remaining samples. In ureter, full thickness necrosis was seen in all samples, even with the shortest spray duration (5 s/cycle for six cycles or 30 s/cycle for one cycle). Treatment to the renal pelvis was complicated by adiabatic gas expansion of liquid nitrogen to its gaseous state, resulting in high intraluminal pressures requiring venting to avoid organ perforation, even at the lowest treatment settings. At a planned dose of 5 s/cycle for six cycles of the first renal pelvis animal, treatment was interrupted by sudden and unrecoverable cardiopulmonary failure after three cycles. Repeated studies replicated this event. Ultrasound and immediate necropsy confirmed the creation of a large gaseous embolism and reproducible cardiopulmonary effects. Conclusion: ESC in a porcine urothelial treatment model results in full-thickness tissue necrosis in bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis at a minimal treatment settings of 5 s/cycle for six cycles. Adiabatic gas expansion may result in fatal pyelovenous gas embolism and collateral organ injury, as seen in both animals receiving treatment to the renal pelvis in this study. These results raise safety concerns for use

  16. Comparison between cryopreserved and glycerol-preserved allografts in a partial-thickness porcine wound model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Cheonjae; Lim, Kihwan; Lee, Sungjun; Choi, Yanghwan; Choi, Youngwhan; Lee, Jungsuk

    2016-03-01

    Human skin allografts are one of the best temporary biological coverings for severely burned patients. Cryopreserved (CPA) and glycerol-preserved (GPA) allografts are the most widely used types. This study compared the allograft efficiency of both preservation methods under the same conditions. To simulate actual clinical conditions, we used a porcine wound model. In addition, we evaluated the macroscopic and microscopic scoring of graft performance for each method. Porcine cadaver skin 1 mm thick was obtained from one pig. Cryopreserved skin cell viability was 20.8 %, glycerol-preserved skin was 9.08 %, and fresh skin was 58.6 %. We made ten partial-thickness wounds each in two pigs. The take rates on day 2 were 96.23 and 82.65 % in the GPA and CPA group (both n = 9), respectively. After 1 week, the take rates of both groups were nearly equal. The removal rate at week 5 was 98.87 and 94.41 % in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. On microscopic findings at week 2, inflammation was greater in the CPA group. Other findings such as fibroblast hyperplasia and neovascularization were not significantly different between both groups. At week 5, the score of collagen fiber synthesis was 2.67 ± 0.47 and 2.33 ± 0.47 in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. The epidermal-dermal junction was 2.22 ± 0.79 and 2.00 ± 0.47 in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. These findings suggest that wound healing takes longer in the CPA group. The preservation method of allografts is not a absolute factor in the wound healing process in this wound model.

  17. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS)

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Hein M.; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America’s swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS. PMID:27014197

  18. Experimental validation of a new biphasic model of the contact mechanics of the porcine hip

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianqian; Jin, Zhongmin; Williams, Sophie; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth K

    2014-01-01

    Hip models that incorporate the biphasic behaviour of articular cartilage can improve understanding of the joint function, pathology of joint degeneration and effect of potential interventions. The aim of this study was to develop a specimen-specific biphasic finite element model of a porcine acetabulum incorporating a biphasic representation of the articular cartilage and to validate the model predictions against direct experimental measurements of the contact area in the same specimen. Additionally, the effect of using a different tension–compression behaviour for the solid phase of the articular cartilage was investigated. The model represented different radial clearances and load magnitudes. The comparison of the finite element predictions and the experimental measurement showed good agreement in the location, size and shape of the contact area, and a similar trend in the relationship between contact area and load was observed. There was, however, a deviation of over 30% in the magnitude of the contact area, which might be due to experimental limitations or to simplifications in the material constitutive relationships used. In comparison with the isotropic solid phase model, the tension–compression solid phase model had better agreement with the experimental observations. The findings provide some confidence that the new biphasic methodology for modelling the cartilage is able to predict the contact mechanics of the hip joint. The validation provides a foundation for future subject-specific studies of the human hip using a biphasic cartilage model. PMID:24878736

  19. Three dimensional electromechanical model of porcine heart with penetrating wound injury.

    PubMed

    Usyk, Taras; Kerckhoffs, Roy

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is development a prototype computational model of the pig heart that can be used to predict physiological responses to a penetrating wound injury. The pig has been chosen for this model studies because it shares many anatomical similarities with humans. Three-dimensional cubic Hermite finite element meshes based on detailed measurements of porcine anatomy combined into an integrated anatomic model. The pig ventricular model includes detailed left and right ventricular geometry and myofiber and laminar sheet orientations throughout the mesh. The cardiac mesh was refined and monodomain equations for action potential propagation solved using well-established collocation-Galerkin finite element methods. The membrane kinetic equations for the action potential model was based on detailed cellular models of transmembrane ionic fluxes and intracellular calcium fluxes in canine ventricular myocytes and human atrial myocytes. We modified the anisotropic myocardial conductivity tensor on the endocardial surface of the ventricles by making use of a surface model fitted to measured of Purkinje fiber network anatomy. The mechanical model compute regional three-dimensional stress and strain distributions using anisotropic constitutive laws referred to local material coordinate axes defined by local myofiber and laminar sheet orientations. Passive myocardial mechanics modeled using exponential orthotropic strain energy functions. Active systolic myocardial stresses computed from a multi-scale model that uses crossbridge theory to predict calcium-activated sarcomere length- and velocity-dependent tension filament tension. Since the electrical and mechanical models use a common finite element mesh as the parent parametric framework and both models are solved within our custom finite element package, it is straightforward to couple these models, as we have recently done for a model of coupled ventricular electromechanics. We apply the coupled electromechanical

  20. A comprehensive computational model of sound transmission through the porcine lung.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Henry, Brian M; Mansy, Hansen A; Sandler, Richard H; Royston, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive computational simulation model of sound transmission through the porcine lung is introduced and experimentally evaluated. This "subject-specific" model utilizes parenchymal and major airway geometry derived from x-ray CT images. The lung parenchyma is modeled as a poroviscoelastic material using Biot theory. A finite element (FE) mesh of the lung that includes airway detail is created and used in comsol FE software to simulate the vibroacoustic response of the lung to sound input at the trachea. The FE simulation model is validated by comparing simulation results to experimental measurements using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry on the surface of an excised, preserved lung. The FE model can also be used to calculate and visualize vibroacoustic pressure and motion inside the lung and its airways caused by the acoustic input. The effect of diffuse lung fibrosis and of a local tumor on the lung acoustic response is simulated and visualized using the FE model. In the future, this type of visualization can be compared and matched with experimentally obtained elastographic images to better quantify regional lung material properties to noninvasively diagnose and stage disease and response to treatment. PMID:25190415

  1. A comprehensive computational model of sound transmission through the porcine lung

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Henry, Brian M.; Mansy, Hansen A.; Sandler, Richard H.; Royston, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive computational simulation model of sound transmission through the porcine lung is introduced and experimentally evaluated. This “subject-specific” model utilizes parenchymal and major airway geometry derived from x-ray CT images. The lung parenchyma is modeled as a poroviscoelastic material using Biot theory. A finite element (FE) mesh of the lung that includes airway detail is created and used in comsol FE software to simulate the vibroacoustic response of the lung to sound input at the trachea. The FE simulation model is validated by comparing simulation results to experimental measurements using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry on the surface of an excised, preserved lung. The FE model can also be used to calculate and visualize vibroacoustic pressure and motion inside the lung and its airways caused by the acoustic input. The effect of diffuse lung fibrosis and of a local tumor on the lung acoustic response is simulated and visualized using the FE model. In the future, this type of visualization can be compared and matched with experimentally obtained elastographic images to better quantify regional lung material properties to noninvasively diagnose and stage disease and response to treatment. PMID:25190415

  2. Endovascular Broad-Neck Aneurysm Creation in a Porcine Model Using a Vascular Plug

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlenbruch, Georg Nikoubashman, Omid; Steffen, Bjoern; Dadak, Mete; Palmowski, Moritz; Wiesmann, Martin

    2013-02-15

    Ruptured cerebral arterial aneurysms require prompt treatment by either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. Training for these sophisticated endovascular procedures is essential and ideally performed in animals before their use in humans. Simulators and established animal models have shown drawbacks with respect to degree of reality, size of the animal model and aneurysm, or time and effort needed for aneurysm creation. We therefore aimed to establish a realistic and readily available aneurysm model. Five anticoagulated domestic pigs underwent endovascular intervention through right femoral access. A total of 12 broad-neck aneurysms were created in the carotid, subclavian, and renal arteries using the Amplatzer vascular plug. With dedicated vessel selection, cubic, tubular, and side-branch aneurysms could be created. Three of the 12 implanted occluders, two of them implanted over a side branch of the main vessel, did not induce complete vessel occlusion. However, all aneurysms remained free of intraluminal thrombus formation and were available for embolization training during a surveillance period of 6 h. Two aneurysms underwent successful exemplary treatment: one was stent-assisted, and one was performed with conventional endovascular coil embolization. The new porcine aneurysm model proved to be a straightforward approach that offers a wide range of training and scientific applications that might help further improve endovascular coil embolization therapy in patients with cerebral aneurysms.

  3. Validation of a realistic, simple, and inexpensive EUS-FNA training model using isolated porcine stomach

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Imbe, Koh

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Trainees are required to learn EUS-FNA using a model before working with a patient. The aim of the current study was to validate a new training model developed for EUS-FNA. Patients and methods: Several fresh chicken tenderloins were embedded as target lesions in the submucosal layer of an isolated porcine stomach. The stomach was fixed to a plate with nails, and was placed in a tub filled with water. The primary endpoint was feasibility of the newly developed model for EUS-FNA training, evaluated as follows: 1) visualization of the target lesion with blinding for lesion location; 2) penetrability of the needle; 3) sampling rate of macroscopic specimen; and 4) ROSE capability. Secondary endpoints were its durability and utility for multiple EUS-FNA procedures during EUS-FNA training, and the ease and cost of preparing the model. Results: Six endoscopists (1 expert, 5 trainees) attempted EUS-FNA procedures using this model. The target lesion could be identified clearly, and EUS-FNA could be performed with realistic resistance felt. In addition, rapid on-site evaluation could be easily achieved. Based on 10 needlings by each endoscopist, adequate specimens for histology could be macroscopically taken with an average 85 % success rate. Visibility and maneuverability were maintained throughout all needlings. Preparation time for this model was less than 30 minutes with a total cost of $ 22. Conclusions: An easy-to-use and inexpensive training model with a realistic feel of needling was created. This model can potentially enable beginners to practice safe and effective EUS-FNA procedures. PMID:27652292

  4. Validation of a realistic, simple, and inexpensive EUS-FNA training model using isolated porcine stomach

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Imbe, Koh

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Trainees are required to learn EUS-FNA using a model before working with a patient. The aim of the current study was to validate a new training model developed for EUS-FNA. Patients and methods: Several fresh chicken tenderloins were embedded as target lesions in the submucosal layer of an isolated porcine stomach. The stomach was fixed to a plate with nails, and was placed in a tub filled with water. The primary endpoint was feasibility of the newly developed model for EUS-FNA training, evaluated as follows: 1) visualization of the target lesion with blinding for lesion location; 2) penetrability of the needle; 3) sampling rate of macroscopic specimen; and 4) ROSE capability. Secondary endpoints were its durability and utility for multiple EUS-FNA procedures during EUS-FNA training, and the ease and cost of preparing the model. Results: Six endoscopists (1 expert, 5 trainees) attempted EUS-FNA procedures using this model. The target lesion could be identified clearly, and EUS-FNA could be performed with realistic resistance felt. In addition, rapid on-site evaluation could be easily achieved. Based on 10 needlings by each endoscopist, adequate specimens for histology could be macroscopically taken with an average 85 % success rate. Visibility and maneuverability were maintained throughout all needlings. Preparation time for this model was less than 30 minutes with a total cost of $ 22. Conclusions: An easy-to-use and inexpensive training model with a realistic feel of needling was created. This model can potentially enable beginners to practice safe and effective EUS-FNA procedures.

  5. A Porcine Model of Traumatic Brain Injury via Head Rotational Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Cullen, D Kacy; Harris, James P; Browne, Kevin D; Wolf, John A; Duda, John E; Meaney, David F; Margulies, Susan S; Smith, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Unique from other brain disorders, traumatic brain injury (TBI) generally results from a discrete biomechanical event that induces rapid head movement. The large size and high organization of the human brain makes it particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury from rotational accelerations that can cause dynamic deformation of the brain tissue. Therefore, replicating the injury biomechanics of human TBI in animal models presents a substantial challenge, particularly with regard to addressing brain size and injury parameters. Here we present the historical development and use of a porcine model of head rotational acceleration. By scaling up the rotational forces to account for difference in brain mass between swine and humans, this model has been shown to produce the same tissue deformations and identical neuropathologies found in human TBI. The parameters of scaled rapid angular accelerations applied for the model reproduce inertial forces generated when the human head suddenly accelerates or decelerates in falls, collisions, or blunt impacts. The model uses custom-built linkage assemblies and a powerful linear actuator designed to produce purely impulsive non-impact head rotation in different angular planes at controlled rotational acceleration levels. Through a range of head rotational kinematics, this model can produce functional and neuropathological changes across the spectrum from concussion to severe TBI. Notably, however, the model is very difficult to employ, requiring a highly skilled team for medical management, biomechanics, neurological recovery, and specialized outcome measures including neuromonitoring, neurophysiology, neuroimaging, and neuropathology. Nonetheless, while challenging, this clinically relevant model has proven valuable for identifying mechanisms of acute and progressive neuropathologies as well as for the evaluation of noninvasive diagnostic techniques and potential neuroprotective treatments following TBI. PMID:27604725

  6. Intracoronary photodynamic therapy reduces neointimal growth without suppressing re‐endothelialisation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Waksman, R; Leitch, I M; Roessler, J; Yazdi, H; Seabron, R; Tio, F; Scott, R W; Grove, R I; Rychnovsky, S; Robinson, B; Pakala, R; Cheneau, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of intracoronary PhotoPoint photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a new photosensitiser, MV0611, in the overstretch balloon and stent porcine models of restenosis. Methods 28 pigs were injected with 3 mg/kg of MV0611 systemically 4 h before the procedure. Animals were divided into either the balloon overstretch injury (BI) group (n  =  19) or the stented group (n  =  9). After BI, a centred delivery catheter was positioned in the artery to cover the injured area, and light (532 nm, 125 J/cm2) was applied to activate the drug (n  =  10). Control arteries (n  =  9) were not activated by light. In the stented group, the drug was light activated before stent deployment. Serial sections of vessels were processed 14 days after treatment in the BI group and 30 days after treatment in the stented group for histomorphometric or immunohistochemical analysis. Results Intracoronary PDT significantly reduced intimal thickness in both BI and stented arteries (about 65%: 0.22 (SEM 0.05) mm v 0.62 (0.05) mm, p < 0.01; and about 26%: 0.40 (0.04) mm v 0.54 (0.04) mm, p < 0.01, respectively). PDT increased luminal area by ⩽ 60% and 50% within BI and stented arteries (3.43 (0.27) mm2v 5.51 (0.52) mm2, p < 0.05; 4.0 (0.02) mm2v 6.0 (0.16) mm2, p < 0.01), respectively. Complete re‐endothelialisation was observed by immunohistochemical and gross histological analyses in all PDT and control arteries. There were no cases of aneurysm formation or thrombosis. Conclusion Intracoronary PhotoPoint PDT with MV0611 reduces intimal proliferation without suppressing re‐endothelialisation in a porcine model of restenosis. PMID:16399853

  7. Acellular Hydrogels for Regenerative Burn Wound Healing: Translation from a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-I; Song, Hyun-Ho G; Papa, Arianne E; Burke, Jacqueline A; Volk, Susan W; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-10-01

    Currently available skin grafts and skin substitutes for healing following third-degree burn injuries are fraught with complications, often resulting in long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Synthetic treatment that can promote wound healing in a regenerative manner would provide an off-the-shelf, non-immunogenic strategy to improve clinical care of severe burn wounds. Here, we demonstrate the vulnerary efficacy and accelerated healing mechanism of a dextran-based hydrogel in a third-degree porcine burn model. The model was optimized to allow examination of the hydrogel treatment for clinical translation and its regenerative response mechanisms. Hydrogel treatment accelerated third-degree burn wound healing by rapid wound closure, improved re-epithelialization, enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling, and greater nerve reinnervation, compared with the dressing-treated group. These effects appear to be mediated through the ability of the hydrogel to facilitate a rapid but brief initial inflammatory response that coherently stimulates neovascularization within the granulation tissue during the first week of treatment, followed by an efficient vascular regression to promote a regenerative healing process. Our results suggest that the dextran-based hydrogels may substantially improve healing quality and reduce skin grafting incidents and thus pave the way for clinical studies to improve the care of severe burn injury patients. PMID:26358387

  8. Acellular Hydrogels for Regenerative Burn Wound Healing: Translation from a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-I; Song, Hyun-Ho G; Papa, Arianne E; Burke, Jacqueline A; Volk, Susan W; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-10-01

    Currently available skin grafts and skin substitutes for healing following third-degree burn injuries are fraught with complications, often resulting in long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Synthetic treatment that can promote wound healing in a regenerative manner would provide an off-the-shelf, non-immunogenic strategy to improve clinical care of severe burn wounds. Here, we demonstrate the vulnerary efficacy and accelerated healing mechanism of a dextran-based hydrogel in a third-degree porcine burn model. The model was optimized to allow examination of the hydrogel treatment for clinical translation and its regenerative response mechanisms. Hydrogel treatment accelerated third-degree burn wound healing by rapid wound closure, improved re-epithelialization, enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling, and greater nerve reinnervation, compared with the dressing-treated group. These effects appear to be mediated through the ability of the hydrogel to facilitate a rapid but brief initial inflammatory response that coherently stimulates neovascularization within the granulation tissue during the first week of treatment, followed by an efficient vascular regression to promote a regenerative healing process. Our results suggest that the dextran-based hydrogels may substantially improve healing quality and reduce skin grafting incidents and thus pave the way for clinical studies to improve the care of severe burn injury patients.

  9. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided placement of a transhepatic portal vein stent in a live porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Young; Seo, Dong Wan; Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Cho, Min Keun; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Percutaneous portal vein (PV) stent placement is used to manage PV occlusion or stenosis caused by malignancy. The use of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has expanded to include vascular interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the technical feasibility and safety of EUS-guided transhepatic PV stent placement in a live porcine model. Materials and Methods: EUS-guided transhepatic PV stent placement was performed in six male miniature pigs under general anesthesia using forward-viewing echoendoscope. Under EUS guidance, the left intrahepatic PV was punctured with a 19-gauge fine-needle aspiration (FNA) needle and a 0.025 inch guidewire inserted through the needle and into the main PV. The FNA needle was then withdrawn and a needle-knife inserted to dilate the tract. Under EUS and fluoroscopic guidance, a noncovered metal stent was inserted over the guidewire and released into the main PV. Results: A PV stent was placed successfully in all six pigs with no technical problems or complications. The patency of the stent in the main PV was confirmed using color Doppler EUS and transhepatic portal venography. Necropsy of the first three animals revealed no evidence of bleeding and damage to intra-abdominal organs or vessels. No complications occurred in the remaining three animals during the 8 weeks observation period. Conclusions: EUS-guided transhepatic PV stent placement can be both technically feasible and safe in a live animal model. PMID:27803904

  10. Towards the Establishment of a Porcine Model to Study Human Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Cognie, Juliette; Delgado-Ortega, Mario; Berthon, Patricia; Rossignol, Christelle; Larcher, Thibaut; Melo, Sandrine; Bruel, Timothée; Guibon, Roseline; Chérel, Yan; Sarradin, Pierre; Salmon, Henri; Guillén, Nancy; Meurens, François

    2011-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica is an important parasite of the human intestine. Its life cycle is monoxenous with two stages: (i) the trophozoite, growing in the intestine and (ii) the cyst corresponding to the dissemination stage. The trophozoite in the intestine can live as a commensal leading to asymptomatic infection or as a tissue invasive form producing mucosal ulcers and liver abscesses. There is no animal model mimicking the whole disease cycle. Most of the biological information on E. histolytica has been obtained from trophozoite adapted to axenic culture. The reproduction of intestinal amebiasis in an animal model is difficult while for liver amebiasis there are well-described rodent models. During this study, we worked on the assessment of pigs as a new potential model to study amebiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We first co-cultured trophozoites of E. histolytica with porcine colonic fragments and observed a disruption of the mucosal architecture. Then, we showed that outbred pigs can be used to reproduce some lesions associated with human amebiasis. A detailed analysis was performed using a washed closed-jejunal loops model. In loops inoculated with virulent amebas a severe acute ulcerative jejunitis was observed with large hemorrhagic lesions 14 days post-inoculation associated with the presence of the trophozoites in the depth of the mucosa in two out four animals. Furthermore, typical large sized hepatic abscesses were observed in the liver of one animal 7 days post-injection in the portal vein and the liver parenchyma. Conclusions The pig model could help with simultaneously studying intestinal and extraintestinal lesion development. PMID:22205970

  11. A Triple Culture Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Porcine Brain Endothelial cells, Astrocytes and Pericytes.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Burkhart, Annette; Moos, Torben

    2015-01-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on primary brain endothelial cells (BECs) cultured as monoculture or in co-culture with primary astrocytes and pericytes are useful for studying many properties of the BBB. The BECs retain their expression of tight junction proteins and efflux transporters leading to high trans-endothelial electric resistance (TEER) and low passive paracellular permeability. The BECs, astrocytes and pericytes are often isolated from small rodents. Larger species as cows and pigs however, reveal a higher yield, are readily available and have a closer resemblance to humans, which make them favorable high-throughput sources for cellular isolation. The aim of the present study has been to determine if the preferable combination of purely porcine cells isolated from the 6 months old domestic pigs, i.e. porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) in co-culture with porcine astrocytes and pericytes, would compare with PBECs co-cultured with astrocytes and pericytes isolated from newborn rats with respect to TEER value and low passive permeability. The astrocytes and pericytes were grown both as contact and non-contact co-cultures as well as in triple culture to examine their effects on the PBECs for barrier formation as revealed by TEER, passive permeability, and expression patterns of tight junction proteins, efflux transporters and the transferrin receptor. This syngenic porcine in vitro BBB model is comparable to triple cultures using PBECs, rat astrocytes and rat pericytes with respect to TEER formation, low passive permeability, and expression of hallmark proteins signifying the brain endothelium (tight junction proteins claudin 5 and occludin, the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (PgP) and breast cancer related protein (BCRP), and the transferrin receptor).

  12. Model based vibration monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, I.; Paya, B.; Badi, M.N.M.

    1996-11-01

    The principal source of vibratory excitation of gear system is the unsteady component of the relative angular motion of pair of meshing spur gears. This vibratory excitation is described by the transmission error. The transmission error present itself as a varying force at the contact point of the meshing gear teeth. The varying force is also influenced by the varying tooth stiffness due to change of orientation of teeth relative to each other, during the contact phase of each pair. Such a varying force produces both lateral and torsional excitation to the gear system. This paper presents analytical formulation of a simple two meshing spur gear system as a three mass system (18 DOF). The mathematical model also incorporates the analytical formulation of the tooth stiffness. The analytical results are compared with the experimental results. At this stage of analysis the procedure developed for handling the nonlinear influences of the tooth geometry is not fully implemented and the tooth stiffness taken as a constant value representing the average tooth stiffness. The comparison between the analytical and experimental results are encouraging as three main frequency obtained from FFT of the experimental results correlates very closely with the analytical results.

  13. Diet-induced increase in plasma oxidized LDL promotes early fibrosis in a renal porcine auto-transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In kidney transplantation, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia as a co-morbidity factor known to affect graft function, is rising due to the increased number of older donors in response to organ shortage as well as to the hyperlipidemic effects of immunosuppressors in recipient. This study aimed to characterize the effects of hypercholesterolemia on renal graft outcome, investigating the role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL). Methods In vivo, we used a porcine preclinical model of renal auto-transplantation modulated by two experimental diets: a normal (n = 6) or a hyperlipidemic diet (n = 5) maintained during the 3 month follow-up after the surgical procedure. Kidney function and OxLDL levels were monitored as well as fibrosis, LOX-1 and TGF beta signaling pathways. In vitro, we used human artery endothelial cells subjected to OxLDL to investigate the TGF beta profibrotic pathway and the role of the scavenger receptor LOX-1. Results Hyperlipidemic diet-induced increase in plasma OxLDL levels at the time of surgery correlated with an increase in proteinuria 3 months after transplantation, associated with an early graft fibrosis combined with an activation of renal TGF beta signaling. These data suggest a direct involvement of OxLDL in the hyperlipidemic diet-induced activation of the pro-fibrotic TGF beta pathway which seems to be activated by LOX-1 signaling. These results were supported by studies with endothelial cells incubated in culture medium containing OxLDL promoting TGF beta expression inhibited by LOX-1 antibody. Conclusions These results implicate OxLDL in the hyperlipidemic diet-promoted fibrosis in transplanted kidneys, suggesting LOX-1 as a potential therapeutic target and reinforce the need to control cholesterol levels in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:24655356

  14. Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging Detection of Microcirculatory Dysfunction in Small Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haifeng; Li, Ruokun; Qiang, Jinwei; Li, Ying; Wang, Li; Sun, Rongxun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate multi-slice computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging (CTPI) for identifying microcirculatory dysfunction in small intestinal ischemia−reperfusion (IR) injury in a porcine model. Materials and Methods Fifty-two pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) the IR group (n = 24), where intestinal ischemia was induced by separating and clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 2 h, followed by reperfusion for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h (IR-1h, IR-2h, IR-3h, and IR-4h; n = 6, respectively); (2) the sham-operated (SO) group (n = 20), where the SMA was separated without clamping and controlled at postoperative 3, 4, 5, and 6 h (SO-3h, SO-4h, SO-5h, and SO-6h; n = 5, respectively); (3) the ischemia group (n = 4), where the SMA was separated and clamped for 2 h, without reperfusion, and (4) baseline group (n = 4), an additional group that was not manipulated. Small intestinal CTPI was performed at corresponding time points and perfusion parameters were obtained. The distal ileum was resected to measure the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and for histopathological examination. Results The perfusion parameters of the IR groups showed significant differences compared with the corresponding SO groups and the baseline group (before ischemia). The blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and permeability surface (PS) among the 4 IR groups were significantly different. BF and BV were significantly negatively correlated with MDA, and significantly positively correlated with SOD in the IR groups. Histopathologically, the effects of the 2-h ischemic loops were not significantly exacerbated by reperfusion. Conclusion CTPI can be a valuable tool for detecting microcirculatory dysfunction and for dynamic monitoring of small intestinal IR injury. PMID:27458696

  15. Hepatotoxic effects of polidocanol in a model of autologously perfused porcine livers.

    PubMed

    Grosse-Siestrup, Christian; Unger, Volker; Pfeffer, Jeanette; Dinh, Q Thai; Nagel, Stefan; Springer, Jochen; Witt, Christian; Wussow, Anke; Groneberg, David A

    2004-12-01

    Polidocanol is an effective sclerosing agent that consists of 95% hydroxypolyethoxydodecane and 5% ethyl alcohol and is known to have a low risk of complications. However, since the compound has been proposed for the local treatment of liver diseases, the potential for topical hepatic side effects should be examined. Therefore, the new model of normothermic-hemoperfused isolated porcine slaughterhouse livers was used to examine polidocanol-hepatotoxicity encompassing the advantages of slaughterhouse organs to reduce animal experiments and autologous blood as an optimal perfusate. Polidocanol was administered via the hepatic artery and portal vein and the effects of the sclerosant on organ function parameters were compared with those in an untreated control group. In contrast to the untreated control organs, significant differences were found in the polidocanol group for parameters such as alanine aminotransferase or organ weight after perfusion. The most striking differences were found for hepatic bile flow, which dropped in the polidocanol group to 0.24+/-0.02 ml/min per 1000 g after administration of the compound compared with 3.80+/-1.08 ml/min per 1000 g in the control group. In summary, the present observations indicate a risk of hepatotoxic effects of polidocanol. Clinicians should be aware of this problem and the use of polidocanol for intrahepatic sclerosing should be restricted to specialized centers.

  16. Effects of Celox and TraumaDEX on hemorrhage control in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Gegel, Brian T; Burgert, James M; Lockhart, Cheryl; Austin, Robert; Davila, Alejandro; Deeds, Jacob; Hodges, Lonnie; Hover, Andrew; Roy, John; Simpson, Glenn; Weaver, Stephen; Wolfe, William; Johnson, Don

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 2 hemostatic agents, chitosan-based Celox and the biopolymeric, microporous particles TraumaDEX, with a control group in a porcine model of hemorrhage. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: Celox (n = 5), TraumaDEX (n = 5), or a standard pressure dressing alone (n = 5). To simulate a battlefield injury, the investigators generated a compound groin injury with transection of the femoral artery and vein in 15 pigs. After 1 minute of uncontrolled hemorrhage, Celox or TraumaDEX was poured into the wound, followed by standard wound packing. The control group underwent the same procedures with the exception of the hemostatic agents. In all groups, 5 minutes of direct manual pressure was applied to the wound, followed by a standard pressure dressing (3M Coban). After 30 minutes, dressings were removed, and the amount of bleeding was measured. There were statistically significant differences in bleeding between Celox and control (P = .01) and between TraumaDEX and control (P = .038), but no statistically significant difference in bleeding between Celox and TraumaDEX (P = .478). Celox and TraumaDEX may be effective hemostatic agents for use in civilian and military trauma.

  17. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging: detection of ischemia in a porcine model with FFR verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic cardiac CT perfusion (CTP) is a high resolution, non-invasive technique for assessing myocardial blood ow (MBF), which in concert with coronary CT angiography enable CT to provide a unique, comprehensive, fast analysis of both coronary anatomy and functional ow. We assessed perfusion in a porcine model with and without coronary occlusion. To induce occlusion, each animal underwent left anterior descending (LAD) stent implantation and angioplasty balloon insertion. Normal ow condition was obtained with balloon completely de ated. Partial occlusion was induced by balloon in ation against the stent with FFR used to assess the extent of occlusion. Prospective ECG-triggered partial scan images were acquired at end systole (45% R-R) using a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner. Images were reconstructed using FBP and a hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose4, Philips Healthcare). Processing included: beam hardening (BH) correction, registration of image volumes using 3D cubic B-spline normalized mutual-information, and spatio-temporal bilateral ltering to reduce partial scan artifacts and noise variation. Absolute blood ow was calculated with a deconvolutionbased approach using singular value decomposition (SVD). Arterial input function was estimated from the left ventricle (LV) cavity. Regions of interest (ROIs) were identi ed in healthy and ischemic myocardium and compared in normal and occluded conditions. Under-perfusion was detected in the correct LAD territory and ow reduction agreed well with FFR measurements. Flow was reduced, on average, in LAD territories by 54%.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal in a porcine model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Masahisa; Fukui, Kensuke; Kanatani, Hiroyuki; Mine, Yoshinori

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal (MNB), including β-1,4-mannobiose (67.8%), in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced porcine model of intestinal inflammation. In the DSS-positive control (POS) and MNB treatment (MCM) groups, DSS was first administered to piglets via intragastric catheter for 5 days, followed by 5 days administration of saline or MCM. A negative control group (NEG) received a saline alternative to DSS and MNB. Inflammation was assessed by clinical signs, morphological and histological measurements, gut permeability and neutrophil infiltration. Local production of TNF-α and IL-6 were analyzed by ELISA, colonic and ileal inflammatory gene expressions were assessed by real time RT-PCR, and CD4+CD25+ cell populations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Crypt elongation and muscle thickness, D-mannitol gut permeation, colonic expression of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-6 and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly lower in the MCM group than in that of POS group. The mRNA levels of ileal IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α were significantly lower following MCM treatment than with POS treatment.MNB exerts anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, suggesting that MNB is a novel therapeutic that may provide relief to human and animals suffering from intestinal inflammation.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal in a porcine model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Masahisa; Fukui, Kensuke; Kanatani, Hiroyuki; Mine, Yoshinori

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal (MNB), including β-1,4-mannobiose (67.8%), in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced porcine model of intestinal inflammation. In the DSS-positive control (POS) and MNB treatment (MCM) groups, DSS was first administered to piglets via intragastric catheter for 5 days, followed by 5 days administration of saline or MCM. A negative control group (NEG) received a saline alternative to DSS and MNB. Inflammation was assessed by clinical signs, morphological and histological measurements, gut permeability and neutrophil infiltration. Local production of TNF-α and IL-6 were analyzed by ELISA, colonic and ileal inflammatory gene expressions were assessed by real time RT-PCR, and CD4+CD25+ cell populations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Crypt elongation and muscle thickness, D-mannitol gut permeation, colonic expression of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-6 and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly lower in the MCM group than in that of POS group. The mRNA levels of ileal IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α were significantly lower following MCM treatment than with POS treatment.MNB exerts anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, suggesting that MNB is a novel therapeutic that may provide relief to human and animals suffering from intestinal inflammation. PMID:24430661

  20. Evaluation of ECHO PS Positioning System in a Porcine Model of Simulated Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Erin M; Voeller, Guy R; Roth, J Scott; Scott, Jeffrey R; Gagne, Darcy H; Iannitti, David A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Operative efficiency improvements for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) have focused on reducing operative time while maintaining overall repair efficacy. Our objective was to evaluate procedure time and positioning accuracy of an inflatable mesh positioning device (Echo PS Positioning System), as compared to a standard transfascial suture technique, using a porcine model of simulated LVHR. Methods. The study population consisted of seventeen general surgeons (n = 17) that performed simulated LVHR on seventeen (n = 17) female Yorkshire pigs using two implantation techniques: (1) Ventralight ST Mesh + Echo PS Positioning System (Echo PS) and (2) Ventralight ST Mesh + transfascial sutures (TSs). Procedure time and mesh centering accuracy overtop of a simulated surgical defect were evaluated. Results. Echo PS demonstrated a 38.9% reduction in the overall procedure time, as compared to TS. During mesh preparation and positioning, Echo PS demonstrated a 60.5% reduction in procedure time (P < 0.0001). Although a trend toward improved centering accuracy was observed for Echo PS (16.2%), this was not significantly different than TS. Conclusions. Echo PS demonstrated a significant reduction in overall simulated LVHR procedure time, particularly during mesh preparation/positioning. These operative time savings may translate into reduced operating room costs and improved surgeon/operating room efficiency.

  1. Antibody Responses to Sarcoptes scabiei Apolipoprotein in a Porcine Model: Relevance to Immunodiagnosis of Recent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rampton, Melanie; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.; Pasay, Cielo; Kelly, Andrew; Currie, Bart J.; McCarthy, James S.; Mounsey, Kate E.

    2013-01-01

    No commercial immunodiagnostic tests for human scabies are currently available, and existing animal tests are not sufficiently sensitive. The recombinant Sarcoptes scabiei apolipoprotein antigen Sar s 14.3 is a promising immunodiagnostic, eliciting high levels of IgE and IgG in infected people. Limited data are available regarding the temporal development of antibodies to Sar s 14.3, an issue of relevance in terms of immunodiagnosis. We utilised a porcine model to prospectively compare specific antibody responses to a primary infestation by ELISA, to Sar s 14.3 and to S. scabiei whole mite antigen extract (WMA). Differences in the antibody profile between antigens were apparent, with Sar s 14.3 responses detected earlier, and declining significantly after peak infestation compared to WMA. Both antigens resulted in >90% diagnostic sensitivity from weeks 8–16 post infestation. These data provide important information on the temporal development of humoral immune responses in scabies and further supports the development of recombinant antigen based immunodiagnostic tests for recent scabies infestations. PMID:23762351

  2. Evaluation of ECHO PS Positioning System in a Porcine Model of Simulated Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Erin M.; Voeller, Guy R.; Roth, J. Scott; Scott, Jeffrey R.; Gagne, Darcy H.; Iannitti, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Operative efficiency improvements for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) have focused on reducing operative time while maintaining overall repair efficacy. Our objective was to evaluate procedure time and positioning accuracy of an inflatable mesh positioning device (Echo PS Positioning System), as compared to a standard transfascial suture technique, using a porcine model of simulated LVHR. Methods. The study population consisted of seventeen general surgeons (n = 17) that performed simulated LVHR on seventeen (n = 17) female Yorkshire pigs using two implantation techniques: (1) Ventralight ST Mesh + Echo PS Positioning System (Echo PS) and (2) Ventralight ST Mesh + transfascial sutures (TSs). Procedure time and mesh centering accuracy overtop of a simulated surgical defect were evaluated. Results. Echo PS demonstrated a 38.9% reduction in the overall procedure time, as compared to TS. During mesh preparation and positioning, Echo PS demonstrated a 60.5% reduction in procedure time (P < 0.0001). Although a trend toward improved centering accuracy was observed for Echo PS (16.2%), this was not significantly different than TS. Conclusions. Echo PS demonstrated a significant reduction in overall simulated LVHR procedure time, particularly during mesh preparation/positioning. These operative time savings may translate into reduced operating room costs and improved surgeon/operating room efficiency. PMID:23762628

  3. Virtual Electrophysiologic Study in a Three-dimensional Cardiac MRI Model of Porcine Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jason; Jacobson, Jason T; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C.; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study sought to test the hypothesis that “virtual” electrophysiologic studies (EPS) on an anatomic platform generated by 3D MRI reconstruction of the left ventricle (LV) can reproduce the reentrant circuits of induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in a porcine model of myocardial infarction (MI). Background Delayed-enhancement MRI has been used to characterize MI and “gray zones”, which are thought to reflect heterogeneous regions of viable and non-viable myocytes. Methods MI by coronary artery occlusion was induced in eight pigs. After a recovery period, 3D cardiac MRIs were obtained from each pig in-vivo. Normal areas, gray zones, and infarct cores were classified based on voxel intensity. In the computer model, gray zones were assigned slower conduction and longer action potential durations than those for normal myocardium. Virtual EPS was performed and was compared to results of actual in vivo programmed stimulation and non-contact mapping. Results The LV volumes ranged from 97.8 to 166.2 cm3 with 4.9 to 17.5% of voxels classified as infarct zones. Six of the seven pigs that developed VT during actual EPS were also inducible with virtual EPS. Four of the six pigs that had simulated VT had reentrant circuits that approximated the circuits seen with non-contact mapping, while the remaining two had similar circuits but propagating in opposite directions. Conclusions This initial study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a mathematical model to MRI reconstructions of the LV to predict VT circuits. Virtual EPS may be helpful to plan catheter ablation strategies or to identify patients who are at risk for future episodes of VT. PMID:22633654

  4. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the monitoring and surveillance of antibodies to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus based on a recombinant membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Zhu; Shen, Xiao-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yuan; Di, Jing-Mei

    2015-12-01

    The recent dramatic increase in reported cases of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in pig farms is a potential threat to the global swine industry. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis, serological monitoring, and surveillance of specific antibodies in pigs resulting from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection or vaccination would be essential in helping to control the spread of PED. We developed and validated an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the recombinant membrane (M) protein of PEDV. To detect PEDV antibodies in eight herds, 382 serum samples were collected from sows that had been immunized with a PED vaccine, and screened using the developed ELISA in parallel with a serum neutralization (SN) assay. Of the tested samples, 276 were positive for the presence of PEDV antibodies according to both assays, while 98 were negative. An excellent agreement between the ELISA and the SN assay was observed (kappa=0.947; 95% confidence interval=0.910-0.984; McNemar's test, P=0.727). No cross-reaction was detected for the developed ELISA with other coronaviruses or other common pig pathogens. The developed ELISA could be used for serological evaluation and indirect diagnosis of PED infection.

  5. Feasibility of 68Ga-labeled Siglec-9 peptide for the imaging of acute lung inflammation: a pilot study in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Jaime; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Borges, João Batista; Feinstein, Ricardo; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Antoni, Gunnar; Hedenstierna, Göran; Roivainen, Anne; Larsson, Anders; Velikyan, Irina

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for noninvasive, specific and quantitative imaging of inherent inflammatory activity. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) translocates to the luminal surface of endothelial cells upon inflammatory challenge. We hypothesized that in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), positron emission tomography (PET) with sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) based imaging agent targeting VAP-1 would allow quantification of regional pulmonary inflammation. ARDS was induced by lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamics, respiratory system compliance (Crs) and blood gases were monitored. Dynamic examination using [15O]water PET-CT (10 min) was followed by dynamic (90 min) and whole-body examination using VAP-1 targeting 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraaza cyclododecane-1,4,7-tris-acetic acid-10-ethylene glycol-conjugated Siglec-9 motif peptide ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9). The animals received an anti-VAP-1 antibody for post-mortem immunohistochemistry assay of VAP-1 receptors. Tissue samples were collected post-mortem for the radioactivity uptake, histology and immunohistochemistry assessment. Marked reduction of oxygenation and Crs, and higher degree of inflammation were observed in ARDS animals. [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET showed significant uptake in lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. Normalization of the net uptake rate (Ki) for the tissue perfusion resulted in 4-fold higher uptake rate of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 in the ARDS lungs. Immunohistochemistry showed positive VAP-1 signal in the injured lungs. Detection of pulmonary inflammation associated with a porcine model of ARDS was possible with [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET when using kinetic modeling and normalization for tissue perfusion. PMID:27069763

  6. Feasibility of (68)Ga-labeled Siglec-9 peptide for the imaging of acute lung inflammation: a pilot study in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Jaime; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Borges, João Batista; Feinstein, Ricardo; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Antoni, Gunnar; Hedenstierna, Göran; Roivainen, Anne; Larsson, Anders; Velikyan, Irina

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for noninvasive, specific and quantitative imaging of inherent inflammatory activity. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) translocates to the luminal surface of endothelial cells upon inflammatory challenge. We hypothesized that in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), positron emission tomography (PET) with sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) based imaging agent targeting VAP-1 would allow quantification of regional pulmonary inflammation. ARDS was induced by lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamics, respiratory system compliance (Crs) and blood gases were monitored. Dynamic examination using [(15)O]water PET-CT (10 min) was followed by dynamic (90 min) and whole-body examination using VAP-1 targeting (68)Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraaza cyclododecane-1,4,7-tris-acetic acid-10-ethylene glycol-conjugated Siglec-9 motif peptide ([(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9). The animals received an anti-VAP-1 antibody for post-mortem immunohistochemistry assay of VAP-1 receptors. Tissue samples were collected post-mortem for the radioactivity uptake, histology and immunohistochemistry assessment. Marked reduction of oxygenation and Crs, and higher degree of inflammation were observed in ARDS animals. [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET showed significant uptake in lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. Normalization of the net uptake rate (Ki) for the tissue perfusion resulted in 4-fold higher uptake rate of [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 in the ARDS lungs. Immunohistochemistry showed positive VAP-1 signal in the injured lungs. Detection of pulmonary inflammation associated with a porcine model of ARDS was possible with [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET when using kinetic modeling and normalization for tissue perfusion. PMID:27069763

  7. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Reduces Cerebral Oxidative Stress Following Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Arvola, Oiva; Haapanen, Henri; Herajärvi, Johanna; Anttila, Tuomas; Puistola, Ulla; Karihtala, Peeter; Tuominen, Hannu; Anttila, Vesa; Juvonen, Tatu

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic precondition has become prominent as one of the most promising methods to mitigate neurological damage following ischemic insult. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning can be seen in the markers of oxidative stress or in redox-regulating enzymes in a porcine model. A total of 12 female piglets were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The study group underwent an intervention of 4 cycles of 5-minute ischemic preconditioning on the right hind leg. All piglets underwent 60-minute hypothermic circulatory arrest. Oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured from blood samples with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After 7 days of follow-up, samples from the brain, heart, kidney, and ovary were harvested for histopathologic examination. The immunohistochemical stainings of hypoxia marker hypoxia-inducible factor-1-α, oxidative stress marker 8-OHdG, DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine glycosylase, and antioxidant response regulators nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and protein deglycase were analyzed. The level of 8-OHdG referred to baseline was decreased in the sagittal sinus׳ blood samples in the study group after a prolonged deep hypothermic circulatory arrest at 360 minutes after reperfusion. Total histopathologic score was 3.8 (1.8-6.0) in the study group and was 4.4 (2.5-6.5) in the control group (P = 0.72), demonstrating no statistically significant difference in cerebral injury. Our findings demonstrate that the positive effects of remote ischemic preconditioning can be seen in cellular oxidative balance regulators in an animal model after 7 days of preconditioned ischemic insult. PMID:27568144

  8. The rolling-circle melting-pot model for porcine circovirus DNA replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stem-loop structure, formed by a pair of inverted repeats during DNA replication, is a conserved feature at the origin of DNA replication (Ori) among plant and animal viruses, bacteriophages and plasmids that replicate their genomes via the rolling-circle replication (RCR) mechanism. Porcine circo...

  9. Carbon dioxide laser ablation with immediate autografting in a full-thickness porcine burn model.

    PubMed Central

    Glatter, R D; Goldberg, J S; Schomacker, K T; Compton, C C; Flotte, T J; Bua, D P; Greaves, K W; Nishioka, N S; Sheridan, R L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term clinical and histologic outcome of immediate autografting of full-thickness burn wounds ablated with a high-power continuous-wave CO2 laser to sharply débrided wounds in a porcine model. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Continuous-wave CO2 lasers have performed poorly as tools for burn excision because the large amount of thermal damage to viable subeschar tissues precluded successful autografting. However, a new technique, in which a high-power laser is rapidly scanned over the eschar, results in eschar vaporization without significant damage to underlying viable tissues, allowing successful immediate autografting. METHODS: Full-thickness paravertebral burn wounds measuring 36 cm2 were created on 11 farm swine. Wounds were ablated to adipose tissue 48 hours later using either a surgical blade or a 150-Watt continuous-wave CO2 laser deflected by an x-y galvanometric scanner that translated the beam over the tissue surface, removing 200 microm of tissue per scan. Both sites were immediately autografted and serially evaluated clinically and histologically for 180 days. RESULTS: The laser-treated sites were nearly bloodless. The mean residual thermal damage was 0.18+/-0.05 mm. The mean graft take was 96+/-11% in manual sites and 93+/-8% in laser sites. On postoperative day 7, the thickness of granulation tissue at the graft-wound bed interface was greater in laser-debrided sites. By postoperative day 180, the manual and laser sites were histologically identical. Vancouver scar assessment revealed no differences in scarring at postoperative day 180. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term scarring, based on Vancouver scar assessments and histologic evaluation, was equivalent at 6 months in laser-ablated and sharply excised sites. Should this technology become practical, the potential clinical implications include a reduction in surgical blood loss without sacrifice of immediate engraftment rates or long-term outcome. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3

  10. Gene expression profiling in porcine maternal infanticide: a model for puerperal psychosis.

    PubMed

    Quilter, Claire R; Gilbert, Colin L; Oliver, Gina L; Jafer, Osman; Furlong, Robert A; Blott, Sarah C; Wilson, Anna E; Sargent, Carole A; Mileham, Alan; Affara, Nabeel A

    2008-10-01

    The etiology of mental disorders remains largely unclear. Complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors are key to the development of such disorders. Puerperal psychosis is the most extreme form of postnatal mood disorder in women. Similarly, parturition in the pig can trigger extreme behavioral disturbances, including maternal infanticide. In this study, we have used a targeted cDNA microarray approach using the pig as a model to understand the genes and genetic pathways that are involved in these processes. Two subtracted cDNA libraries from porcine hypothalamus were constructed, which were enriched for genes that were over-expressed and under-expressed in the aberrant behavioral phenotype, compared to the matched control. In addition to this, a normalized library was constructed from hypothalamus and pituitary samples taken from pigs in a variety of reproductive states. The libraries were partially sequenced and combined represented approximately 5,159 different genes. Microarray analysis determined differences in gene expression between hypothalamus samples from nine matched pairs of infanticidal versus control animals, using a common reference design. Microarray analysis of variance (MAANOVA) identified 52 clones as being differentially expressed (P

  11. Tracheal and bronchial polymeric immunoglobulin secretory immune system (PISIS) development in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Bautista, E R; Ramirez-Estudillo, M C; Rojas-Gomez, O I; Vega-Lopez, M A

    2015-12-01

    Polymeric immunoglobulins (pIgs) mucosal secretion is mediated by the pIg secretory immune system (PISIS), which is composed of J-chain (JC) and antibody (IgM/IgA) producing cells (JC-AbPC), pIg receptor (pIgR) epithelial cell expression and the efficient release of secretory Igs (SIgs) to the mucosal lumen. A poor development or disturbances in this system may cause higher infection susceptibility, as observed in young and elderly people. In spite of this system's importance, few detailed studies regarding its development have been described in the lower respiratory tract of humans. Because the porcine model has been reported as an option for translational medicine to humans, we studied the tracheal and bronchial PISIS development in healthy, non-vaccinated, SPF, miniature Vietnamese pigs from birth to adulthood using immunohistochemistry and ELISAs. Our results demonstrated that pIgR was present at birth, and its expression increased with age. In contrast, JC-AbPC were low in neonatal pigs; however, colostrum was a source of IgM, SIgA, total IgA and IgG in respiratory secretions (trachea and bronchoalveolar lavages, nasal secretion and saliva) in piglets. JC-AbPC steadily increased in post-weaned, young and adult pigs, correlating with considerable increases in secretory and total Igs in the trachea and bronchi. These data suggest a compensatory role of maternal Igs at the respiratory mucosa in the absence of a structured PISIS before weaning. Furthermore, monomeric Igs (IgG and IgA) may also play an important role in respiratory protection and deserves a more thorough study. PMID:26188097

  12. Assessment of Chronological Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Hilar Bile Ducts in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae Woong Lu, David S. K. Osuagwu, Ferdnand Raman, Steven; Lassman, Charles

    2013-11-07

    PurposeTo evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology.Materials and MethodsTwelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (≤2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ≤50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks.ResultsNonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts.ConclusionIn the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position.

  13. Efficacy of Trypsin in Treating Coral Snake Envenomation in the Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Parker-Cote, Jennifer L; O'Rourke, Dorcas P; Brewer, Kori L; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Punja, Mohan; Bush, Sean P; Miller, Susan N; Meggs, William J

    2015-12-01

    Antivenom is the definitive treatment for venomous snakebites. Alternative treatments warrant investigation because antivenom is sometimes unavailable, expensive, and can have deleterious side effects. This study assesses the efficacy of trypsin to treat coral snake envenomation in an in vivo porcine model. A randomized, blinded study was conducted. Subjects were 13 pigs injected subcutaneously with 1 mL of eastern coral snake venom (10 mg/mL) in the right distal hind limb. After 1 min, subjects were randomized to have the envenomation site injected with either 1 mL of saline or 1 mL of trypsin (100 mg/mL) by a blinded investigator. Clinical endpoint was survival for 72 h or respiratory depression defined as respiratory rate <15 breaths per minute, falling pulse oximetry, or agonal respirations. Fisher's exact t test was used for between group comparisons. Average time to toxicity for the saline control was 263 min (191-305 min). The development of respiratory depression occurred more frequently in control pigs than treated pigs (p = 0.009). Four of the six pigs that received trypsin survived to the end of the 3-day study. No control pigs survived. Two of the trypsin treatment pigs died with times to toxicity of 718 and 971 min. Survival to 12 and 24 h was significantly greater in the trypsin treatment group (p = 0.002, p = 0.009, respectively). Local injection of trypsin, a proteolytic enzyme, at the site of envenomation decreased the toxicity of eastern coral snake venom and increased survival significantly. Further investigation is required before these results can be extended to human snakebites.

  14. Laparoendoscopic single-site simple nephrectomy using a magnetic anchoring system in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Hyo; Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Seo Yeon; Han, Deok Hyun; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic anchoring devices may reduce the number of port sites needed in laparoscopic surgery. In this study, we prospectively assessed the feasibility of using a magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) in laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery performed by novices. Materials and Methods A total of 10 LESS simple nephrectomies were performed with or without MAGS in a nonsurvival porcine model by 6 operators with no previous LESS surgery experience. After installation of the homemade single port, an intra-abdominal magnet was fixed to the renal parenchyma with suturing and stabilized by an external magnet placed on the flank so that the position of the kidney could be easily changed by moving the external handheld magnet. The length of the procedure and any intraoperative complications were evaluated. Results Operative time (mean±standard deviation) was shorter in the group using the magnetic anchoring device (M-LESS-N) than in the group with conventional LESS nephrectomy (C-LESS-N) (63±20.8 minutes vs. 82±40.7 minutes, respectively). Although all nephrectomies were completed uneventfully in the M-LESS-N group, renal vein injury occurred during dissection of the renal hilum in two cases of C-LESS-N and was resolved by simultaneous transection of the renal artery and vein with an Endo-GIA stapler. Conclusions LESS-N using MAGS is a feasible technique for surgeons with no LESS surgery experience. Taking into account the 2 cases of renal vein injury in the C-LESS-N group, the application of MAGS may be beneficial for overcoming the learning curve of LESS surgery. PMID:27195320

  15. Comparison of solvents for removing pesticides from skin using an in vitro porcine model.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J L; Smith, M A; Eiteman, M A; Williams, P L; Boeniger, M F

    2000-01-01

    This study compared four solvents (1-propanol, polyethylene glycol [avg. MW 400], 10% Ivory Liquid and water, and D-TAM) for their ability to remove selected pesticides from an in vitro porcine skin model using a solvent-moistened wipe. Wipes were performed 90 min after pesticide was applied to the skin. The four pesticides selected (glyphosate, alachlor, methyl parathion, and trifluralin) were chosen because of their differences in water solubility. This study also determined whether pretreatment of skin with a solvent prior to pesticide application would either increase or decrease recovery of the pesticide. Recovery efficiencies for all solvents and pesticides were affected by the amount of contaminant on the skin. Although pesticide recoveries from all four solvents were similar (range: 45-57%), on average 1-propanol had significantly higher recoveries, followed by soap and water. There was no significant difference between polyethylene glycol, and D-TAM. When skin was pretreated with any of the four solvents before pesticide application, the recoveries of the more water soluble compounds, glyphosate and alachlor, decreased. When pretreatment with solvent preceded application of trifluralin, the pesticide with the lowest water solubility, recoveries increased. 1-Propanol or soap and water were more effective in removing pesticides from skin than polyethylene glycol or D-TAM, but the amount of pesticide recovered from skin was affected by the chemical characteristics of the pesticide (such as water solubility) and the amount of pesticide originally on the skin. This study provides information useful to the interpretation of skin wipe sample results collected in field studies.

  16. Low-shear modelled microgravity environment maintains morphology and differentiated functionality of primary porcine hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Leonard J; Walker, Simon W; Hayes, Peter C; Plevris, John N

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocytes cultured in conventional static culture rapidly lose polarity and differentiated function. This could be explained by gravity-induced sedimentation, which prevents formation of complete three-dimensional (3D) cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions and disrupts integrin-mediated signals (including the most abundant hepatic integrin alpha(5)beta(1)), important for cellular polarity and differentiation. Cell culture in a low fluid shear modelled microgravity (about 10(-2) g) environment promotes spatial colocation/self-aggregation of dissociated cells and induction of 3D differentiated liver morphology. Previously, we demonstrated the utility of a NASA rotary bioreactor in maintaining key metabolic functions and 3D aggregate formation of high-density primary porcine hepatocyte cultures over 21 days. Using serum-free chemically defined medium, without confounding interactions of exogenous bioscaffolding or bioenhancing surface materials, we investigated features of hepatic cellular polarity and differentiated functionality, including expression of hepatic integrin alpha(5), as markers of functional morphology. We report here that in the absence of exogenous biomatrix scaffolding, hepatocytes cultured in serum-free chemically defined medium in a microgravity environment rapidly (<24 h) form macroscopic (2-5 mm), compacted 3D hepatospheroid structures consisting of a shell of glycogen-positive viable cells circumscribing a core of eosinophilic cells. The spheroid shell layers exhibited ultrastructural, morphological and functional features of differentiated, polarized hepatic tissue including strong expression of the integrin alpha(5) subunit, functional bile canaliculi, albumin synthesis, and fine ultrastructure reminiscent of in vivo hepatic tissue. The low fluid shear microgravity environment may promote tissue-like self-organization of dissociated cells, and offer advantages over spheroids cultured in conventional formats to delineate optimal conditions for

  17. An innovative ex-vivo porcine upper gastrointestinal model for submucosal tunnelling endoscopic resection (STER)

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Baldwin; Chiu, Philip; Teoh, Anthony; Zheng, Linfu; Chan, Shannon; Lam, Kelvin; Tang, Raymond; Ng, Enders K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Submucosal tunnelling endoscopic resection (STER) is a novel endoscopic technique to remove submucosal tumour (SMT). We propose a novel, low cost simulator for training of techniques for STER. Patients and methods: The model consisted of an ex-planted porcine oesophagus, stomach and duodenum with marbles embedded surgically in the submucosal plane. Two expert endoscopists with experience in submucosal tunnelling and 5 board-certified endoscopists with no experience in submucosal tunnelling were recruited. Participants were asked to perform a diagnostic endoscopy and 2 STER procedures, 1 in the oesophagus and 1 in the stomach. They also answered a structured questionnaire. Factors including operative time, mucosal and muscular injury rate, injection volume and accuracy of endoscopic closure were assessed. Results: The median time for localization of all SMTs was 40.1 seconds for experts and 38.5 seconds for novices (P = 1.000). For esophageal STER, the length of mucosal incisions and tunnelling distances were comparable between the 2 groups. The median volume injected by the novice group was significantly lower than the experts (15 mL vs 42.5 mL (P = 0.05). The median tunnelling time per length was 25.9 seconds/mm for the experts and 40.8 seconds/mm for the novice group (P = 0.38). There was a higher rate of mucosal injury and muscular perforation in the novice group (8 vs 0; P = 0.05). For gastric STER, the length of mucosal incisions and tunnel distances were comparable between the 2 groups. The median tunnelling time per length for the experts was 23.3 seconds/mm and 34.6 seconds/mm for the novice group (P = 0.38). One mucosal injury was incurred by a novice. The rate of dissection in the stomach and the oesophagus was not statistically different (P = 0.620). All participants voted that the model provides a realistic simulation and recommended it for training. Conclusions: STER is an advanced endoscopic

  18. Protective effect of active perfusion in porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zanxiang; Mao, Zhifu; Dong, Shengjun; Liu, Baohui

    2016-10-01

    Mortality rates associated with off‑pump coronary artery bypass (CAB) are relatively high, as the majority of patients requiring CAB are at a high risk for cardiac events. The present study aimed to establish porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia, and evaluate the protective role of shunt and active perfusion. A total of 30 pigs were randomly assigned to five groups, as follows: i) Sham (control); ii) A1 (shunt; stenosis rate, 55%); iii) A2 (shunt; stenosis rate, 75%); iv) B1 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 55%); and v) B2 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 75%) groups. Aortic pressure (P0), left anterior descending coronary pressure (P1), and coronary effective perfusion pressure (P1/P0) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), cardiac troponin (cTnI), creatine kinase‑myocardial band (CK‑MB), interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑10, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), and caspase‑3 were detected using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis rate was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Ischemia models with stenosis rates of 55 and 75% were successfully constructed following suturing of the descending artery. Compared with the control, the 55 and 75% stenosis groups demonstrated significantly decreased P1/P0, increased expression levels of TNF‑α, cTnI, CK‑MB, IL‑6, IL‑10 and caspase‑3, an increased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and a decreased expression level of anti‑apoptotic protein, Bcl‑2. At 30 min following successful establishment of the model (ST segment elevation to 1 mm), group B demonstrated significantly increased P1/P0, decreased expression levels of TNF‑α, cTnI, CK‑MB, IL‑6, IL‑10 and caspase‑3, a decreased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and an increased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl‑2. Furthermore, the current study indicated that active perfusion was more efficacious

  19. Protective effect of active perfusion in porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zanxiang; Mao, Zhifu; Dong, Shengjun; Liu, Baohui

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates associated with off-pump coronary artery bypass (CAB) are relatively high, as the majority of patients requiring CAB are at a high risk for cardiac events. The present study aimed to establish porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia, and evaluate the protective role of shunt and active perfusion. A total of 30 pigs were randomly assigned to five groups, as follows: i) Sham (control); ii) A1 (shunt; stenosis rate, 55%); iii) A2 (shunt; stenosis rate, 75%); iv) B1 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 55%); and v) B2 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 75%) groups. Aortic pressure (P0), left anterior descending coronary pressure (P1), and coronary effective perfusion pressure (P1/P0) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cardiac troponin (cTnI), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and caspase-3 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis rate was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Ischemia models with stenosis rates of 55 and 75% were successfully constructed following suturing of the descending artery. Compared with the control, the 55 and 75% stenosis groups demonstrated significantly decreased P1/P0, increased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, an increased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and a decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. At 30 min following successful establishment of the model (ST segment elevation to 1 mm), group B demonstrated significantly increased P1/P0, decreased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, a decreased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and an increased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. Furthermore, the current study indicated that active perfusion was more efficacious in maintaining myocardial perfusion and alleviating

  20. Clot retraction affects the extent of ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis in an ex vivo porcine thrombosis model

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jonathan T.; Ivancevich, Nikolas M.; Perrin, Stephen R.; Vela, Deborah C.; Holland, Christy K.

    2013-01-01

    Using an FDA-approved contrast agent (Definity®) and thrombolytic drug (rt-PA), we investigated ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis in two whole-blood clot models. Porcine venous blood was collected from donor hogs and coagulated in two different materials. This method produced clots with differing compositional properties, as determined by routine scanning electron microscopy and histology. Clots were deployed in an ex vivo porcine thrombolysis model, while an intermittent ultrasound scheme previously developed to maximize stable cavitation was applied and acoustic emissions were detected. Exposure of clots to 3.15 μg/mL rt-PA promoted lysis in both clot models, compared to exposure to plasma alone. However, in the presence of rt-PA, Definity®, and ultrasound, only unretracted clots experienced significant enhancement of thrombolysis compared to treatment with rt-PA. In these clots, microscopy studies revealed loose erythrocyte aggregates, a significantly less extensive fibrin network, and a higher porosity, which may facilitate increase penetration of thrombolytics by cavitation. PMID:23453629

  1. Biodegradable lysine-derived polyurethane scaffolds promote healing in a porcine full-thickness excisional wound model

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Elizabeth J.; Pollins, Alonda C.; Cardwell, Nancy L.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Nanney, Lillian B.

    2014-01-01

    Lysine-derived polyurethane scaffolds (LTI-PUR) support cutaneous wound healing in loose-skinned small animal models. Due to the physiological and anatomical similarities of human and pig skin we investigated the capacity of LTI-PUR scaffolds to support wound healing in a porcine excisional wound model. Modifications to scaffold design included the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a porogen to increase interconnectivity and an additional plasma treatment (Plasma) to decrease surface hydrophobicity. All LTI-PUR scaffold and formulations supported cellular infiltration and were biodegradable. At 15 days, CMC and Plasma scaffolds simulated increased macrophages more so than LTI PUR or no treatment. This response was consistent with macrophage-mediated oxidative degradation of the lysine component of the scaffolds. Cell proliferation was similar in control and scaffold treated wounds at 8 and 15 days. Neither apoptosis nor blood vessel area density showed significant differences in the presence of any of the scaffold variations compared to untreated wounds, providing further evidence that these synthetic biomaterials had no adverse effects on those pivotal wound healing processes. During the critical phase of granulation tissue formation in full thickness porcine excisional wounds, LTI-PUR scaffolds supported tissue infiltration, while undergoing biodegradation. Modifications to scaffold fabrication modify the reparative process. This study emphasizes the biocompatibility and favorable cellular responses of PUR scaffolding formulations in a clinically relevant animal model. PMID:25290884

  2. Esophageal dilation with integrated balloon imaging: initial evaluation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Siersema, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: When treating achalasia, balloon dilation is often combined with fluoroscopy to allow the lower esophageal sphincter to be visualized as it is being dilated. We sought to evaluate a new balloon dilation technology, EsoFLIP, which allows the shape of the balloon to be visualized in a nonradiographic manner by using impedance planimetry electrodes located within the dilation balloon. Methods: Two pigs weighing 35 kg were used. The EsoFLIP balloon dilator was introduced under endoscopic visualization. Successive injections of 50, 60, 70 and 85 mL into the dilation balloon permitted dilations at increasing diameters to be achieved. Following each dilation fluid was withdrawn to leave 30 mL in the balloon and an EsoFLIP image was captured to track progressive dilation of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Results: The EsoFLIP catheter was safely deployed in the two pigs and no complications were noted. For pig 1, during dilation, the measured balloon diameter at the waist was 24.1, 28.9, 29.2 and 30.0 mm for balloon dilation volumes of 50, 60, 70 and 85 mL respectively. For pig 2 the corresponding diameter at the waist was 22.8, 27.1, 28.5 and 29.4 mm. The GEJ diameter increased from 12.5 and 12.4 mm to 17.4 and 17.5mm for pigs 1 and 2 respectively. Distensibility of the GEJ in pig 1 increased from 2.3 mm2/mmHg before to 4.4 mm2/mmHg after dilation and in pig 2 from 4.4 to 9.6 mm2/mmHg. The GEJ substantively achieved its final diameter after the dilation using just 50 mL in the balloon. Conclusions: We demonstrated technical feasibility and safety of the EsoFLIP dilator in a porcine model. Further studies in humans with achalasia remain to be conducted, which, besides demonstrating technical feasibility, should also evaluate the use of distensibility measurements taken during dilation to predict outcomes. PMID:23503681

  3. Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation in a Porcine Model of Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Joshua C.; Salcido, David D.; Sundermann, Matthew L.; Koller, Allison C.; Menegazzi, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Implementation barriers for extracorporeal life support in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) include initiation delay and candidate selection. We explored ischemia duration, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration, and physiologic variables that discriminated animals with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). We instrumented eight female swine (31.9 ± 9.8 kg) with femoral artery and external jugular vein cannula. After 8 (n = 4) or 15 (n = 4) minutes ventricular fibrillation (VF), animals received 30, 40, 50, or 60 minutes of CPR and then drugs (.6 U/kg vasopressin, .1 mg/kg epinephrine, .1 mg/kg propranolol, sodium bicarbonate as indicated) after 5 minutes of CPR. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) flow rate was 3 L/min ≤2 hours and then 1.5 L/min ≤2 hours before weaning. Animals were defibrillated (150 J biphasic) ≥15 minutes ECMO. Primary outcome for successful resuscitation was ROSC (organized rhythm with systolic blood pressure >80 mmHg). We measured arterial blood gas, electrolytes, mean arterial pressure (MAP), coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), and five quantitative VF waveform measures at key intervals. Continuous variables were compared with two-sample t test. All 8-minute VF animals were successfully resuscitated and had ROSC. MAP was higher at the beginning (27.0 ± 7.1 vs. 15.0 ± 4.4; p = .03) and end (31.3 ± 12.8 vs. 11.5 ± 7.3; p = .03) of CPR in animals successfully resuscitated. CPP was higher at the beginning of CPR (11.9 ± 4.6 vs. 3.3 ± 2.2; p = .01) and the end of CPR (18.5 ± 12.1 vs. .9 ± 1.4; p = .03) among animals with ROSC. Amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) was superior at the end of CPR (–2.0 ± 1.8 vs. –5.0 ± 1.4; p = .04) in animals successfully resuscitated. In a porcine OHCA model, MAP and CPP at the beginning and end of CPR were higher in animals successfully resuscitated. AMSA was superior at the end of CPR in animals successfully resuscitated. PMID:23691782

  4. Comparison of Two Gelatin and Thrombin Combination Hemostats in a Porcine Liver Abrasion Model

    PubMed Central

    Atlee, Holly D.; Mannone, Angela J.; Dwyer, Joseph; Lin, Lawrence; Goppelt, Andreas; Redl, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surgical hemostasis is achieved using adjunctive hemostats when conventional methods fail. Objective: This study compares the effectiveness of two adjunctive gelatin-thrombin hemostats. Hypothesis: To determine effectiveness, hemostats were compared in vivo, in vitro, and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: In vivo, a heparinized porcine liver abrasion model was used to compare hemostatic success, degree of bleeding, and blood loss at 2, 5, and 10 minutes post-treatment. In vitro, thrombin in the supernatant of each hemostat and Red Blood Cells (RBC'S) in the supernatant of clots formed by each was compared. Results: Ultrastructure of one gelatin was smooth and the other stellate. In vivo, smooth gelatin provided superior hemostatic success at 5 (85% vs. 60%; OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 1.66 to 17.9) and 10 mins (72.5% vs. 47.5%; OR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.55 to 16.1). Smooth gelatin had a statistically different degree of bleeding at 5 (0.58 ± 0.87 [Mean ± SD] vs. 1.03 ± 1.12; OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.34 to 8.41) and 10 mins (1.13 ± 1.14 vs. 1.65 ± 1.05; OR: 3.87; 95% CI: 1.62 to 9.21). Mean blood loss was less with smooth gelatin at 2 (0.07 ± 0.19 vs. 0.13 ± 0.63 ml/min), 5 (0.04 ± 0.13 vs. 0.23 ± 0.45 ml/min), and 10 mins (0.09 ± 0.24 vs. 0.21 ± 0.32 ml/min). In vitro, supernatant of smooth gelatin had significantly less thrombin (6.81 vs. 10.9 IU/ml, p = .001), and significantly less RBC's than stellate gelatin (0.07 vs. 0.09 × 106/ul, p = .0085). Conclusion: Smooth gelatin has an increased ability to retain thrombin and RBC's in vitro which may explain why it provides superior hemostatic effectiveness, superior control of bleeding, and greater reduced blood loss in vivo. PMID:23514063

  5. Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first

  6. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Thoracolumbar Fascia Injury and Movement Restriction in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, James H.; Fox, James R.; Maple, Rhonda; Loretan, Caitlin; Badger, Gary J.; Henry, Sharon M.; Vizzard, Margaret A.; Langevin, Helene M.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of back pain following acute back “sprains” is a serious public health problem with poorly understood pathophysiology. The recent finding that human subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP) have increased thickness and decreased mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia measured with ultrasound suggest that the fasciae of the back may be involved in LBP pathophysiology. This study used a porcine model to test the hypothesis that similar ultrasound findings can be produced experimentally in a porcine model by combining a local injury of fascia with movement restriction using a “hobble” device linking one foot to a chest harness for 8 weeks. Ultrasound measurements of thoracolumbar fascia thickness and shear plane mobility (shear strain) during passive hip flexion were made at the 8 week time point on the non-intervention side (injury and/or hobble). Injury alone caused both an increase in fascia thickness (p = .007) and a decrease in fascia shear strain on the non-injured side (p = .027). Movement restriction alone did not change fascia thickness but did decrease shear strain on the non-hobble side (p = .024). The combination of injury plus movement restriction had additive effects on reducing fascia mobility with a 52% reduction in shear strain compared with controls and a 28% reduction compared to movement restriction alone. These results suggest that a back injury involving fascia, even when healed, can affect the relative mobility of fascia layers away from the injured area, especially when movement is also restricted. PMID:26820883

  7. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2016-04-29

    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (Sec(PBMC)), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-Sec(PBMC)), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-Sec(PBMC) significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting.

  8. Evaluation of a minimally invasive renal cooling device using heat transfer analysis and an in vivo porcine model.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Thomas M; Summers, Edward K; Batzer, Rachel; Simpson, Christie; Lewis, Raymond; Dhanani, Nadeem N; Slocum, Alexander H

    2013-06-01

    Partial nephrectomy is the gold standard treatment for renal cell carcinoma. This procedure requires temporary occlusion of the renal artery, which can cause irreversible damage due to warm ischemia after 30 min. Open surgical procedures use crushed ice to induce a mild hypothermia of 20°C in the kidney, which can increase allowable ischemia time up to 2.5 h. The Kidney Cooler device was developed previously by the authors to achieve renal cooling using a minimally invasive approach. In the present study an analytical model of kidney cooling in situ was developed using heat transfer equations to determine the effect of kidney thickness on cooling time. In vivo porcine testing was conducted to evaluate the cooling performance of this device and to identify opportunities for improved surgical handling. Renal temperature was measured continuously at 6 points using probes placed orthogonally to each other within the kidney. Results showed that the device can cool the core of the kidney to 20°C in 10-20 min. Design enhancements were made based on surgeon feedback; it was determined that the addition of an insulating air layer below the device increased difficulty of positioning the device around the kidney and did not significantly enhance cooling performance. The Kidney Cooler has been shown to effectively induce mild renal hypothermia of 20°C in an in vivo porcine model.

  9. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (SecPBMC), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-SecPBMC), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-SecPBMC had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-SecPBMC had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-SecPBMC significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting. PMID:27125302

  10. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (Sec(PBMC)), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-Sec(PBMC)), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-Sec(PBMC) significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting. PMID:27125302

  11. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Thoracolumbar Fascia Injury and Movement Restriction in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Bishop, James H; Fox, James R; Maple, Rhonda; Loretan, Caitlin; Badger, Gary J; Henry, Sharon M; Vizzard, Margaret A; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of back pain following acute back "sprains" is a serious public health problem with poorly understood pathophysiology. The recent finding that human subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP) have increased thickness and decreased mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia measured with ultrasound suggest that the fasciae of the back may be involved in LBP pathophysiology. This study used a porcine model to test the hypothesis that similar ultrasound findings can be produced experimentally in a porcine model by combining a local injury of fascia with movement restriction using a "hobble" device linking one foot to a chest harness for 8 weeks. Ultrasound measurements of thoracolumbar fascia thickness and shear plane mobility (shear strain) during passive hip flexion were made at the 8 week time point on the non-intervention side (injury and/or hobble). Injury alone caused both an increase in fascia thickness (p = .007) and a decrease in fascia shear strain on the non-injured side (p = .027). Movement restriction alone did not change fascia thickness but did decrease shear strain on the non-hobble side (p = .024). The combination of injury plus movement restriction had additive effects on reducing fascia mobility with a 52% reduction in shear strain compared with controls and a 28% reduction compared to movement restriction alone. These results suggest that a back injury involving fascia, even when healed, can affect the relative mobility of fascia layers away from the injured area, especially when movement is also restricted. PMID:26820883

  12. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Thoracolumbar Fascia Injury and Movement Restriction in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Bishop, James H; Fox, James R; Maple, Rhonda; Loretan, Caitlin; Badger, Gary J; Henry, Sharon M; Vizzard, Margaret A; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of back pain following acute back "sprains" is a serious public health problem with poorly understood pathophysiology. The recent finding that human subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP) have increased thickness and decreased mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia measured with ultrasound suggest that the fasciae of the back may be involved in LBP pathophysiology. This study used a porcine model to test the hypothesis that similar ultrasound findings can be produced experimentally in a porcine model by combining a local injury of fascia with movement restriction using a "hobble" device linking one foot to a chest harness for 8 weeks. Ultrasound measurements of thoracolumbar fascia thickness and shear plane mobility (shear strain) during passive hip flexion were made at the 8 week time point on the non-intervention side (injury and/or hobble). Injury alone caused both an increase in fascia thickness (p = .007) and a decrease in fascia shear strain on the non-injured side (p = .027). Movement restriction alone did not change fascia thickness but did decrease shear strain on the non-hobble side (p = .024). The combination of injury plus movement restriction had additive effects on reducing fascia mobility with a 52% reduction in shear strain compared with controls and a 28% reduction compared to movement restriction alone. These results suggest that a back injury involving fascia, even when healed, can affect the relative mobility of fascia layers away from the injured area, especially when movement is also restricted.

  13. Geophysical Model Applications for Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Walter, W; Tkalcic, H; Franz, G; Gok, R; Rodgers, A

    2005-07-11

    Geophysical models constitute an important component of calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring. We will focus on four major topics and their applications: (1) surface wave models, (2) receiver function profiles, (3) regional tomography models, and (4) stochastic geophysical models. First, we continue to improve upon our surface wave model by adding more paths. This has allowed us to expand the region to all of Eurasia and into Africa, increase the resolution of our model, and extend results to even shorter periods (7 sec). High-resolution models exist for the Middle East and the YSKP region. The surface wave results can be inverted either alone, or in conjunction with other data, to derive models of the crust and upper mantle structure. One application of the group velocities is to construct phase-matched filters in combination with regional surface-wave magnitude formulas to improve the mb:Ms discriminant and extend it to smaller magnitude events. Next, we are using receiver functions, in joint inversions with the surface waves, to produce profiles directly under seismic stations throughout the region. In the past year, we have been focusing on deployments throughout the Middle East, including the Arabian Peninsula and Turkey. By assembling the results from many stations, we can see how regional seismic phases are affected by complicated upper mantle structure, including lithospheric thickness and anisotropy. The next geophysical model item, regional tomography models, can be used to predict regional travel times such as Pn and Sn. The times derived by the models can be used as a background model for empirical measurements or, where these don't exist, simply used as is. Finally, we have been exploring methodologies such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to generate data-driven stochastic models. We have applied this technique to the YSKP region using surface wave dispersion data, body wave travel time data, receiver functions, and gravity data. The models

  14. Vesicoureteral reflux in young children: a study of radiometric thermometry as detection modality using an ex vivo porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Svein; Klemetsen, Øystein; Birkelund, Yngve

    2012-09-01

    Microwave radiometry is evaluated for renal thermometry tailored to detect the pediatric condition of vesicoureteral urine reflux (VUR) from the bladder through the ureter into the kidney. Prior to a potential reflux event, the urine is heated within the bladder by an external body contacting a hyperthermia applicator to generate a fluidic contrast temperature relative to normal body temperature. A single band, miniaturized radiometer (operating at 3.5 GHz) is connected to an electromagnetic-interference-shielded and suction-coupled elliptical antenna to receive thermal radiation from an ex vivo porcine phantom model. Brightness (radiometric) and fiberoptic temperature data are recorded for varying urine phantom reflux volumes (20-40 mL) and contrast temperatures ranging from 2 to 10 °C within the kidney phantom. The kidney phantom itself is located at 40 mm depth (skin-to-kidney center distance) and surrounded by the porcine phantom. Radiometric step responses to injection of urine simulant by a syringe are shown to be highly correlated with in situ kidney temperatures measured by fiberoptic probes. Statistically, the performance of the VUR detecting scheme is evaluated by error probabilities of making a wrong decision. Laboratory testing of the radiometric system supports the feasibility of passive non-invasive kidney thermometry for the detection of VUR classified within the two highest grades

  15. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornblower, V. D. M.; Yu, E.; Fenster, A.; Battista, J. J.; Malthaner, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo.

  16. Evaluation of a novel laparoscopic camera for characterization of renal ischemia in a porcine model using digital light processing (DLP) hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olweny, Ephrem O.; Tan, Yung K.; Faddegon, Stephen; Jackson, Neil; Wehner, Eleanor F.; Best, Sara L.; Park, Samuel K.; Thapa, Abhas; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.; Zuzak, Karel J.

    2012-03-01

    Digital light processing hyperspectral imaging (DLP® HSI) was adapted for use during laparoscopic surgery by coupling a conventional laparoscopic light guide with a DLP-based Agile Light source (OL 490, Optronic Laboratories, Orlando, FL), incorporating a 0° laparoscope, and a customized digital CCD camera (DVC, Austin, TX). The system was used to characterize renal ischemia in a porcine model.

  17. Ischemic etiopathogenesis as the possible origin of post-double baloon enteroscopy pancreatitis. A porcine model study.

    PubMed

    Soria, Federico; Pérez-Cuadrado, Enrique; López-Albors, Octavio; Morcillo, Esther; Sarriá, Ricardo; Candanosa, Eugenia; Esteban, Pilar; Carballo, Luis Fernando; Navarro, Marc; Nacher, Víctor; Sánchez, Francisco Miguel; Latorre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the pancreatic vascular-ischemic effects related to double balloon enteroscopy in the porcine model as a possible etiopathogenesis of post-enteroscopic pancreatitis. For this reason we carry out two independent experiments in a porcine animal model. In the first arm protocol (group I), 10 animals underwent 90 minutes of oral enteroscopy with 7 days follow-up.The levels of amylase, lipase and C-reactive protein were measured at T0 basal-T1 -90 min, T2-24, T3-7 days. Also we perform upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a control group. At 7 days, the animals of experimental protocol-I had their pancreases removed for a pathological and immunohistochemical study to evaluate vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) expression.The second experimental protocol in this study aims to evaluate possible changes in vascular topography due to the double balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Group-II (10 animals) underwent oral enteroscopy and selective angiography of the cranial mesenteric artery and celiac trunk. None of the group I or control group animals presented pancreatitis, although the biochemical results for group-I showed increases in the levels of amylase, lipase and C reactive protein at 24 hours. The microscopic study for group-I showed pancreatic necrotic foci and positive VEGF expression, though these changes were not expressed in the control group.These foci were found in 50% of the group I animals and in relation to the total of the parenchyma were quantified at 6% of the pancreas. The results for group-II showed that the enteroscopy caused mobilization of the mesenteric vascular axis, with signs of both intestinal and pancreatic hypoperfusion. The conclusions of this study are that, after enteroscopy in the porcine model, pancreatic necrotic foci are produced, in addition to ischemic phenomena causing VEGF expression. This could be related to episodes of visceral hypoperfusion caused by vascular alterations on a topographic level. This can be

  18. Blocking porcine sialoadhesin improves extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion with human blood

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Joshua P.; Vogel, Thomas; Burlak, Christopher; Coussios, Constantin; Dominguez, Javier; Friend, Peter; Rees, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Patients in fulminant hepatic failure currently do not have a temporary means of support while awaiting liver transplantation. A potential therapeutic approach for such patients is the use of extracorporeal perfusion with porcine livers as a form of “liver dialysis”. During a 72-hour extracorporeal perfusion of porcine livers with human blood, porcine Kupffer cells bind to and phagocytose human red blood cells (hRBC) causing the hematocrit to decrease to 2.5% of the original value. Our laboratory has identified porcine sialoadhesin expressed on Kupffer cells as the lectin responsible for binding N-acetylneuraminic acid on the surface of the hRBC. We evaluated whether blocking porcine sialoadhesin prevents the recognition and subsequent destruction of hRBCs seen during extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion. Ex vivo studies were performed using wild type pig livers perfused with isolated hRBCs for 72-hours in the presence of an anti-porcine sialoadhesin antibody or isotype control. The addition of an anti-porcine sialoadhesin antibody to an extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion model reduces the loss of hRBC over a 72 hour period. Sustained liver function was demonstrated throughout the perfusion. This study illustrates the role of sialoadhesin in mediating the destruction of hRBCs in an extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion model. PMID:23822217

  19. Testing Danegaptide Effects on Kidney Function after Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a New Porcine Two Week Model

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Anna K.; Hansen, Rie Schultz; Nørregaard, Rikke; Krag, Søren Palmelund; Møldrup, Ulla; Pedersen, Michael; Jespersen, Bente; Birn, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R-I) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with increased mortality. Danegaptide is a selective modifier of the gap junction protein connexion 43. It has cytoprotective as well as anti-arrhythmic properties and has been shown to reduce the size of myocardial infarct in pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the ischemia-protective effect of Danegaptide in a porcine renal I/R-I model with two weeks follow up. Methods Unilateral renal I/R-I was induced in pigs by clamping the left renal artery over a two hour period. The model allowed examination of renal blood flow by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the measurement of single kidney GFR two weeks after injury. Eleven animals were randomized to Danegaptide-infusion while nine animals received placebo. Kidney histology and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) excretion were included as markers of AKI. Results Unilateral kidney I/R-I resulted in an immediate ~50% GFR reduction, associated with a four-fold increase in urinary NGAL-excretion. Fourteen days after I/R-I, the total GFR was ~75% of baseline with a significantly lower GFR in the injured left kidney compared to the right kidney. No differences in GFR were observed between the treated and non-treated animals immediately after I/R-I or at Day 14. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the urinary excretion of NGAL, renal blood flow or other markers of renal function. Conclusions As expected this porcine renal I/R-I model was associated with reduced GFR two weeks after injury. Danegaptide did not improve renal function after I/R-I. PMID:27760220

  20. Methods to monitor distribution and metabolic activity of mesenchymal stem cells following in vivo injection into nucleotomized porcine intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Omlor, G W; Bertram, H; Kleinschmidt, K; Fischer, J; Brohm, K; Guehring, T; Anton, M; Richter, Wiltrud

    2010-04-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration involves a series of biochemical and morphological changes leading to loss of spinal stability and flexibility. Cell therapy is promising to reconstitute IVDs with new cells, however, sustained metabolic activity seems crucial for an active contribution to regeneration. The aim of the present study was to establish methods for separate follow up of persistence and activity of autologous porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSC) after implantation into IVDs of Goettingen minipigs in vivo in order to conclude about the potential of such an intervention strategy. For quantitative follow up, the transfer matrix was supplemented with Al(2)O(3) particles and pMSC which were retrovirally labeled with firefly luciferase (pMSC-Luc). Six mature Goettingen minipigs underwent matrix based cell transfer after partial nucleotomy of lumbar IVDs (n = 24). Day 0 and day 3 segments were analyzed for retained volume of Al(2)O(3) particles by micro-computed-tomography (muCT) and for cell activity by luciferase enzyme assessment. Three days after injection a reduction of Al(2)O(3) particles (P = 0.028) to about 9% and of pMSC-Luc activity to about 7% of initial values (P = 0.003) was detected, which suggests loss of 90% of the implant material under in vivo conditions without evidence for reduced pMSC-Luc metabolic activity (P = 0.887). In conclusion, separate follow up of implant material and cell activity was possible and unravels problems with in vivo implant persistence after annular puncture rather than quick loss of cell activity. Therefore, IVD-regeneration-strategies should increasingly focus on annulus reconstruction in order to reduce implant loss due to annular failure.

  1. Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on ischemia-reperfusion injury in a porcine total hepatic vascular exclusion model

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Katsumi; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Muraoka, Masato; Akao, Takahiko; Totsuka, Osamu; Shimizu, Hisashi; Sato, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Kazumi; Konno, Kenjiro; Matsumoto, Koshi; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of ANP on warm I/R injury in a porcine THVE model. METHODS: Miniature pigs (mini-pigs) weighing 16-24 kg were observed for 120 min after reperfusion following 120 min of THVE. The animals were divided into two groups. ANP (0.1 μg/kg per min) was administered to the ANP group (n = 7), and vehicle was administered to the control group (n = 7). Either vehicle or ANP was intravenously administered from 30 min before the THVE to the end of the experiment. Arterial blood was collected to measure AST, LDH, and TNF-α. Hepatic tissue blood flow (HTBF) was also measured. Liver specimens were harvested for p38 MAPK analysis and histological study. Those results were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The AST and LDH levels were lower in the ANP group than in the control group; the AST levels were significantly different between the two groups (60 min: 568.7 ± 113.3 vs 321.6 ± 60.1, P = 0.038 < 0.05, 120 min: 673.6 ± 148.2 vs 281.1 ± 44.8, P = 0.004 < 0.01). No significant difference was observed in the TNF-α levels between the two groups. HTBF was higher in the ANP group, but the difference was not significant. A significantly higher level of phosphorylated p38 MAPK was observed in the ANP group compared to the control group (0 min: 2.92 ± 1.1 vs 6.38 ± 1.1, P = 0.011 < 0.05). Histological tissue damage was milder in the ANP group than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results show that ANP has a protective role in I/R injury with p38 MAPK activation in a porcine THVE model. PMID:17659696

  2. Decolonisation of MRSA, S. aureus and E. coli by Cold-Atmospheric Plasma Using a Porcine Skin Model In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Maisch, Tim; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Li, Yang-Fang; Heinlin, Julia; Karrer, Sigrid; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia L.

    2012-01-01

    In the last twenty years new antibacterial agents approved by the U.S. FDA decreased whereas in parallel the resistance situation of multi-resistant bacteria increased. Thus, community and nosocomial acquired infections of resistant bacteria led to a decrease in the efficacy of standard therapy, prolonging treatment time and increasing healthcare costs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of cold atmospheric plasma for decolonisation of Gram-positive (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) using an ex vivo pig skin model. Freshly excised skin samples were taken from six month old female pigs (breed: Pietrain). After application of pure bacteria on the surface of the explants these were treated with cold atmospheric plasma for up to 15 min. Two different plasma devices were evaluated. A decolonisation efficacy of 3 log10 steps was achieved already after 6 min of plasma treatment. Longer plasma treatment times achieved a killing rate of 5 log10 steps independently from the applied bacteria strains. Histological evaluations of untreated and treated skin areas upon cold atmospheric plasma treatment within 24 h showed no morphological changes as well as no significant degree of necrosis or apoptosis determined by the TUNEL-assay indicating that the porcine skin is still vital. This study demonstrates for the first time that cold atmospheric plasma is able to very efficiently kill bacteria applied to an intact skin surface using an ex vivo porcine skin model. The results emphasize the potential of cold atmospheric plasma as a new possible treatment option for decolonisation of human skin from bacteria in patients in the future without harming the surrounding tissue. PMID:22558091

  3. Intracoronary Poloxamer 188 Prevents Reperfusion Injury in a Porcine Model of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bartos, Jason A.; Matsuura, Timothy R.; Tsangaris, Adamantios; Olson, Matthew; McKnite, Scott H.; Rees, Jennifer N.; Haman, Karen; Shekar, Kadambari Chandra; Riess, Matthias L.; Bates, Frank S.; Metzger, Joseph M.; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poloxamer 188 (P188) is a nonionic triblock copolymer believed to prevent cellular injury after ischemia and reperfusion. OBJECTIVES This study compared intracoronary infusion of P188 immediately after reperfusion with delayed infusion through a peripheral intravenous catheter in a porcine model of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Cellular and mitochondrial injury were assessed. METHODS STEMI was induced in 55 pigs using 45 minutes of endovascular coronary artery occlusion. Pigs were then randomized to four groups: control, immediate intracoronary (IC) P188, delayed peripheral P188, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) infusion. Heart tissue was collected after 4 hours of reperfusion. Assessment of mitochondrial function or infarct size was performed. RESULTS Mitochondrial yield improved significantly with IC P188 treatment compared to control animals (0.25% vs. 0.13%) suggesting improved mitochondrial morphology and survival. Mitochondrial respiration and calcium retention were also significantly improved with immediate IC P188 compared to controls (complex I RCI: 7.4 vs. 3.7 and calcium retention (nmol): 1152 vs. 386). This benefit was only observed with activation of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain suggesting a specific impact of ischemia and reperfusion on this complex. Infarct size and serum troponin I were significantly reduced by immediate IC P188 infusion (infarct size: 13.9% vs. 41.1% and troponin I (μg/L): 19.2 vs. 77.4 μg/L). Delayed P188 and PEG infusion did not provide a significant benefit. CONCLUSIONS Intracoronary infusion of P188 immediately upon reperfusion significantly reduces cellular and mitochondrial injury after ischemia and reperfusion in this clinically relevant porcine model of STEMI. The timing and route of delivery were critical to achieve the benefit.

  4. Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma as a shielding technique after endoscopic mucosal resection in rat and porcine models

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Zúñiga, Vicente; Boix, Jaume; Moreno de Vega, Vicente; Bon, Ignacio; Marín, Ingrid; Bartolí, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: The aims were to assess the efficacy of endoscopic application of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to prevent delayed perforation and to induce mucosal healing after endoscopic resections. Patients and methods: Colonic induced lesions were performed in rats (n = 16) and pigs (n = 4). Animals were randomized to receive onto the lesions saline (control) or PRP. Animals underwent endoscopic follow-up. Thermal injury was assessed with a 1 – 4 scale: (1) mucosal necrosis; (2) submucosal necrosis; (3) muscularis propria necrosis; and (4) serosal necrosis Results: Saline treatment showed 50 % of mortality in rats (P = 0.02). Mean ulcerated area after 48 hours and 7 days was significantly smaller with PRP than with saline (0.27 ± 0.02 cm2 and 0.08 ± 0.01 cm2 vs. 0.56 ± 0.1 cm2 and 0.40 ± 0.06 cm2; P < 0.001). The incidence of thermal injury was significantly lower with PRP (1.25 ± 0.46) than in controls (2.25 ± 0.50); P = 0.006. The porcine model showed a trend toward higher mucosal restoration in animals treated with PRP than with saline at weeks 1 and 2 (Median area in cm2: 0.55 and 0.40 vs. 1.32 and 0.79) Conclusions: Application of PRP to colonic mucosal lesions showed strong healing properties in rat and porcine models. PMID:27540573

  5. Effects of Intracoronary Administration of Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Bo Won; Ahn, Jinhee; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Sup; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Sang-Pil; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Mi Hwa; Jung, Jin Sup

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are known to be potentially effective in regeneration of damaged tissue. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of intracoronary administration of ADSCs in reducing the infarction area and improving function after acute transmural myocardial infarction (MI) in a porcine model. Materials and Methods ADSCs were obtained from each pig's abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue by simple liposuction. After 3 passages of 14-days culture, 2 million ADSCs were injected into the coronary artery 30 min after acute transmural MI. At baseline and 4 weeks after the ADSC injection, 99mTc methoxyisobutylisonitrile-single photon emission computed tomography (MIBI-SPECT) was performed to evaluate the left ventricular volume, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; %), and perfusion defects as well as the myocardial salvage (%) and salvage index. At 4 weeks, each pig was sacrificed, and the heart was extracted and dissected. Gross and microscopic analyses with specific immunohistochemistry staining were then performed. Results Analysis showed improvement in the perfusion defect, but not in the LVEF in the ADSC group (n=14), compared with the control group (n=14) (perfusion defect, -13.0±10.0 vs. -2.6±12.0, p=0.019; LVEF, -8.0±15.4 vs. -15.9±14.8, p=0.181). There was a tendency of reducing left ventricular volume in ADSC group. The ADSCs identified by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) staining were well co-localized by von Willebrand factor and Troponin T staining. Conclusion Intracoronary injection of cultured ADSCs improved myocardial perfusion in this porcine acute transmural MI model. PMID:26446632

  6. Renal artery nerve distribution and density in the porcine model: biologic implications for the development of radiofrequency ablation therapies.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Armando; Rousselle, Serge; Palmieri, Taylor; Rate, William R; Wicks, Joan; Degrange, Ashley; Hyon, Chelsea M; Gongora, Carlos A; Hart, Randy; Grundy, Will; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F

    2013-12-01

    Catheter-based renal artery denervation has demonstrated to be effective in decreasing blood pressure among patients with refractory hypertension. The anatomic distribution of renal artery nerves may influence the safety and efficacy profile of this procedure. We aimed to describe the anatomic distribution and density of periarterial renal nerves in the porcine model. Thirty arterial renal sections were included in the analysis by harvesting a tissue block containing the renal arteries and perirenal tissue from each animal. Each artery was divided into 3 segments (proximal, mid, and distal) and assessed for total number, size, and depth of the nerves according to the location. Nerve counts were greatest proximally (45.62% of the total nerves) and decreased gradually distally (mid, 24.58%; distal, 29.79%). The distribution in nerve size was similar across all 3 sections (∼40% of the nerves, 50-100 μm; ∼30%, 0-50 μm; ∼20%, 100-200 μm; and ∼10%, 200-500 μm). In the arterial segments ∼45% of the nerves were located within 2 mm from the arterial wall whereas ∼52% of all nerves were located within 2.5 mm from the arterial wall. Sympathetic efferent fibers outnumbered sensory afferent fibers overwhelmingly, intermixed within the nerve bundle. In the porcine model, renal artery nerves are seen more frequently in the proximal segment of the artery. Nerve size distribution appears to be homogeneous throughout the artery length. Nerve bundles progress closer to the arterial wall in the distal segments of the artery. This anatomic distribution may have implications for the future development of renal denervation therapies.

  7. Real-time monitoring of cAMP response element binding protein signaling in porcine granulosa cells modulated by ovarian factors.

    PubMed

    He, Pei Jian; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Masa-Aki

    2006-10-01

    The present study was performed to establish a real-time monitoring of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signalling using granulosa cells, and to assess the modulation of CREB activity by potential ovarian autocrine/paracrine and oocyte-derived factors. Granulosa cells were isolated from porcine follicles and cultured for 2 days, and then transfected with CRE-containing pGL3. The cells were directly stimulated or cultured with FSH, LH, forskolin, or a permeable cAMP analog, and/or IGF-I, EGF, bFGF, TGF-beta2 or TNF-alpha, or cumulus-oocyte complex (COCs) for the real-time monitoring of CREB signaling. The activation pattern of CREB signaling consisted of three distinct phases, i.e., burst, attenuation and refractory. In contrast to FSH, LH, and forskolin, a cAMP analog induced the prolonged activation, although three distinct phases were observed at its high concentration. Of all the autocrine/paracrine factors, only IGF-I slightly induced CREB activity. On the other hand, TGF-beta2 and TNF-alpha significantly repressed FSH-stimulated transcriptional activation of CREB by 30% (P < 0.05) and 45% (P < 0.05), respectively. Additionally, coculture with COCs caused a significant suppression of transcriptional activation of CREB signaling stimulated by FSH. These results indicate that ovarian autocrine/paracrine factors such as IGF-I, TGF-beta2, TNF-alpha and oocyte-derived factors modulate the CREB signaling. The present study provides a new approach for direct signaling study on transcription factors under the influences of potential factors.

  8. A Multimodality Imaging Approach for Serial Assessment of Regional Changes in Lower Extremity Arteriogenesis and Tissue Perfusion in a Porcine Model of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Mitchel R.; Yu, Da Yu; Maxfield, Mark W.; Jaba, Irina M.; Jozwik, Bartosz P.; Zhuang, Zhen W.; Lin, Ben A.; Hawley, Christi L.; Caracciolo, Christopher M.; Pal, Prasanta; Tirziu, Daniela; Sampath, Smita; Sinusas, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background A standard quantitative imaging approach to evaluate peripheral arterial disease (PAD) does not exist. Quantitative tools for evaluating arteriogenesis in vivo are not readily available and the feasibility of monitoring serial regional changes in lower extremity perfusion has not been examined. Methods and Results Serial changes in lower extremity arteriogenesis and muscle perfusion were evaluated following femoral artery occlusion in a porcine model using SPECT/CT imaging with post-mortem validation of in vivo findings using gamma counting, post-mortem imaging, and histological analysis. Hybrid thallium-201 (201Tl) SPECT/CT imaging was performed in pigs (n=8) at baseline, immediately post-occlusion, and at 1 and 4 weeks post-occlusion. CT imaging was used to identify muscle regions of interest in the ischemic (I) and non-ischemic (NI) hindlimbs for quantification of regional changes in CT defined arteriogenesis and quantification of 201Tl perfusion. Four weeks post-occlusion, post-mortem tissue 201Tl activity was measured by gamma counting and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess capillary density. Relative 201Tl retention (I/NI) was reduced immediately post-occlusion in distal and proximal muscles and remained lower in calf and gluteus muscles 4 weeks later. Analysis of CT angiography revealed collateralization at 4 weeks within proximal muscles (p<0.05). SPECT perfusion correlated with tissue gamma counting at 4 weeks (p=0.01). Increased capillary density was seen within the ischemic calf at 4 weeks (p=0.004). Conclusions 201Tl SPECT/CT imaging permits serial, regional quantification of arteriogenesis and resting tissue perfusion following limb ischemia. This approach may be effective for detection of disease and monitoring therapy in PAD. PMID:24170237

  9. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulation Improves Cerebral Perfusion and Cerebral Blood Flow in a Porcine Model of Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Anja; Rees, Jennifer; Kwon, Young; Matsuura, Timothy; McKnite, Scott; Lurie, Keith G

    2015-08-01

    Brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in children and adults in their most productive years. Use of intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR) to generate negative intrathoracic pressure during the expiratory phase of positive pressure ventilation improves mean arterial pressure and 24-h survival in porcine models of hemorrhagic shock and cardiac arrest and has been demonstrated to decrease intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in these models. Application of IPR for 240 min in a porcine model of intracranial hypertension (ICH) will increase CPP when compared with controls. Twenty-three female pigs were subjected to focal brain injury by insertion of an epidural Foley catheter inflated with 3 mL of saline. Animals were randomized to treatment for 240 min with IPR set to a negative expiratory phase pressure of -12 cmH2O or no IPR therapy. Intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure, CPP, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were evaluated. Intrathoracic pressure regulation significantly improved mean CPP and CBF. Specifically, mean CPP after 90, 120, 180, and 240 min of IPR use was 43.7 ± 2.8 mmHg, 44.0 ± 2.7 mmHg, 44.5 ± 2.8 mmHg, and 43.1 ± 1.9 mmHg, respectively; a significant increase from ICH study baseline (39.5 ± 1.7 mmHg) compared with control animals in which mean CPP was 36.7 ± 1.4 mmHg (ICH study baseline) and then 35.9 ± 2.1 mmHg, 33.7 ± 2.8 mmHg, 33.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, and 36.0 ± 2.7 mmHg at 90, 120, 180, and 240 min, respectively (P < 0.05 for all time points). Cerebral blood flow, as measured by an invasive CBF probe, increased in the IPR group (34 ± 4 mL/100 g-min to 49 ± 7 mL/100 g-min at 90 min) but not in controls (27 ± 1 mL/100 g-min to 25 ± 5 mL/100 g-min at 90 min) (P = 0.01). Arterial pH remained unchanged during the entire period of IPR compared with baseline values and control values. In this anesthetized pig model of ICH, treatment with IPR significantly improved CPP and CBF. This therapy may be

  10. Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation Lung Ablation: Preliminary Results in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Deodhar, Ajita; Monette, Sebastien; Single, Gordon W.; Hamilton, William C.; Thornton, Raymond H.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Maybody, Majid; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2011-12-15

    Objective: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) uses direct electrical pulses to create permanent 'pores' in cell membranes to cause cell death. In contrast to conventional modalities, IRE has a nonthermal mechanism of action. Our objective was to study the histopathological and imaging features of IRE in normal swine lung. Materials and Methods: Eleven female swine were studied for hyperacute (8 h), acute (24 h), subacute (96 h), and chronic (3 week) effects of IRE ablation in lung. Paired unipolar IRE applicators were placed under computed tomography (CT) guidance. Some applicators were deliberately positioned near bronchovascular structures. IRE pulse delivery was synchronized with the cardiac rhythm only when ablation was performed within 2 cm of the heart. Contrast-enhanced CT scan was performed immediately before and after IRE and at 1 and 3 weeks after IRE ablation. Representative tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathology. Results: Twenty-five ablations were created: ten hyperacute, four acute, and three subacute ablations showed alveolar edema and necrosis with necrosis of bronchial, bronchiolar, and vascular epithelium. Bronchovascular architecture was maintained. Chronic ablations showed bronchiolitis obliterans and alveolar interstitial fibrosis. Immediate post-procedure CT images showed linear or patchy density along the applicator tract. At 1 week, there was consolidation that resolved partially or completely by 3 weeks. Pneumothorax requiring chest tube developed in two animals; no significant cardiac arrhythmias were noted. Conclusion: Our preliminary porcine study demonstrates the nonthermal and extracellular matrix sparing mechanism of action of IRE. IRE is a potential alternative to thermal ablative modalities.

  11. Using heterogeneity in the population structure of U.S. swine farms to compare transmission models for porcine epidemic diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    O’Dea, Eamon B.; Snelson, Harry; Bansal, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. swine producers were confronted with the disruptive emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED). Movement of animals among farms is hypothesised to have played a role in the spread of PED among farms. Via this or other mechanisms, the rate of spread may also depend on the geographic density of farms and climate. To evaluate such effects on a large scale, we analyse state-level counts of outbreaks with variables describing the distribution of farm sizes and types, aggregate flows of animals among farms, and an index of climate. Our first main finding is that it is possible for a correlation analysis to be sensitive to transmission model parameters. This finding is based on a global sensitivity analysis of correlations on simulated data that included a biased and noisy observation model based on the available PED data. Our second main finding is that flows are significantly associated with the reports of PED outbreaks. This finding is based on correlations of pairwise relationships and regression modeling of total and weekly outbreak counts. These findings illustrate how variation in population structure may be employed along with observational data to improve understanding of disease spread. PMID:26947420

  12. Fed state prior to hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma in a porcine model results in altered liver transcriptomic response.

    PubMed

    Determan, Charles; Anderson, Rebecca; Becker, Aaron; Witowski, Nancy; Lusczek, Elizabeth; Mulier, Kristine; Beilman, Greg J

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of trauma-related mortality in both civilian and military settings. Resuscitation often results in reperfusion injury and survivors are susceptible to developing multiple organ failure (MOF). The impact of fed state on the overall response to shock and resuscitation has been explored in some murine models but few clinically relevant large animal models. We have previously used metabolomics to establish that the fed state results in a different metabolic response in the porcine liver following hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. In this study, we used our clinically relevant model of hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma and the Illumina HiSeq platform to determine if the liver transcriptomic response is also altered with respect to fed state. Functional analysis of the response to shock and resuscitation confirmed several typical responses including carbohydrate metabolism, cytokine inflammation, decreased cholesterol synthesis, and apoptosis. Our findings also suggest that the fasting state, relative to a carbohydrate prefed state, displays decreased carbohydrate metabolism, increased cytoskeleton reorganization and decreased inflammation in response to hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion. Evidence suggests that this is a consequence of a shrunken, catabolic state of the liver cells which provides an anti-inflammatory condition that partially mitigates hepatocellar damage.

  13. Development of a novel ex vivo porcine skin explant model for the assessment of mature bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingping; Phillips, Priscilla L; Sampson, Edith M; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Jin, Shouguang; Antonelli, Patrick; Schultz, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms have been proposed to be a major factor contributing to the failure of chronic wounds to heal because of their increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents and the prolonged inflammation they cause. Phenotypic characteristics of bacterial biofilms vary depending on the substratum to which they attach, the nutritional environment, and the microorganisms within the biofilm community. To develop an ex vivo biofilm model that more closely mimics biofilms in chronic skin wounds, we developed an optimal procedure to grow mature biofilms on a central partial-thickness wound in 12-mm porcine skin explants. Chlorine gas produced optimal sterilization of explants while preserving histological properties of the epidermis and dermis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus developed mature biofilms after 3 days that had dramatically increased tolerance to gentamicin and oxacillin (∼100× and 8,000× minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively) and to sodium hypochlorite (0.6% active chlorine). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy verified extensive exopolymeric biofilm structures on the explants. Despite a significant delay, a ΔlasI quorum-sensing mutant of P. aeruginosa developed biofilm as antibiotic-tolerant as wild-type after 3 days. This ex vivo model simulates growth of biofilms on skin wounds and provides an accurate model to assess effects of antimicrobial agents on mature biofilms.

  14. A fiber reinforced poroelastic model of nanoindentation of porcine costal cartilage: a combined experimental and finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Lin, Jeremy; Ashby, Paul; Pruitt, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Nanoindentation has shown promise as a mechanical characterization tool for orthopaedic biomaterials since it can probe the properties of small, heterogeneous, irregularly shaped tissue volumes in physiological environments. However, the majority of nanoindentation analyses have been limited to the determination of linear elastic and viscoelastic properties. Since biomaterials possess complex nonlinear, hydrated, time-dependent constitutive behavior, the objective of the present study is to explore the ability of nanoindentation to determine physiologically relevant material properties using a fibril reinforced poroelastic (FRPE) model. A further goal is to ascertain the sensitivity of nanoindentation load-displacement curves to different FRPE parameters, including the elastic properties of the nonfibrillar matrix, the composition and distribution of fibers, and nonlinearity in the fluid permeability. Porcine costal cartilage specimens are experimentally tested with nanoindentation load relaxation experiments at two different loading depths and loading rates. The FRPE material properties are extracted from comparisons to finite element simulations. The study demonstrates the behavior of the model in nanoindentation is distinct from bulk indentation; the static response of the nanoindentation is determined almost exclusively by the elastic properties of the nonfibrillar matrix and the volume fraction of fibers, while the transient response is dominated by the fluid permeability of the tissue. The FRPE model can accurately describe the time-dependent mechanical behavior of costal cartilage in nanoindentation, with good agreement between experimental and numerical curve fits (R(2)=0.98+/-0.01) at multiple indentation depths and indentation rates.

  15. Candidate chemosensory cells in the porcine stomach.

    PubMed

    Widmayer, Patricia; Breer, Heinz; Hass, Nicole

    2011-07-01

    A continuous chemosensory monitoring of the ingested food is of vital importance for adjusting digestive processes according to diet composition. Although any dysfunction of this surveillance system may be the cause of severe gastrointestinal disorders, information about the cellular and molecular basis of chemosensation in the gastrointestinal tract is limited. The porcine alimentary canal is considered as an appropriate model for the human gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the gastric mucosa of swine for cells which express gustatory transduction elements such as TRPM5 or PLCβ2, and thus may represent candidate "chemosensors". It was found that the porcine stomach indeed contains cells expressing gustatory marker molecules; however, the morphology and topographic distribution of putative chemosensory cells varied significantly from that in mice. Whereas in the murine stomach these cells were clustered at a distinct region near the gastric entrance, no such compact cell cluster was found in the pig stomach. These results indicate substantial differences regarding the phenotype of candidate chemosensory cells of mice and swine and underline the importance of choosing the most suitable model organisms. PMID:21667283

  16. Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in a Porcine Model: Effects of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension. A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Margallo, F. M.; Latorre, R.; López-Albors, O.; Wise, R.; Malbrain, M. L. N. G.; Castellanos, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical intestinal obstruction is a disorder associated with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. As the large intestine intraluminal and intra-abdominal pressures are increased, so the patient’s risk for intestinal ischaemia. Previous studies have focused on hypoperfusion and bacterial translocation without considering the concomitant effect of intra-abdominal hypertension. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a mechanical intestinal obstruction model in pigs similar to the human pathophysiology. Materials and Methods Fifteen pigs were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 5) and two groups of 5 pigs with intra-abdominal hypertension induced by mechanical intestinal obstruction. The intra-abdominal pressures of 20 mmHg were maintained for 2 and 5 hours respectively. Hemodynamic, respiratory and gastric intramucosal pH values, as well as blood tests were recorded every 30 min. Results Significant differences between the control and mechanical intestinal obstruction groups were noted. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, dynamic pulmonary compliance and abdominal perfusion pressure decreased. The systemic vascular resistance index, central venous pressure, pulse pressure variation, airway resistance and lactate increased within 2 hours from starting intra-abdominal hypertension (p<0.05). In addition, we observed increased values for the peak and plateau airway pressures, and low values of gastric intramucosal pH in the mechanical intestinal obstruction groups that were significant after 3 hours. Conclusion The mechanical intestinal obstruction model appears to adequately simulate the pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction that occurs in humans. Monitoring abdominal perfusion pressure, dynamic pulmonary compliance, gastric intramucosal pH and lactate values may provide insight in predicting the effects on endorgan function in patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction. PMID

  17. In-vivo regional myocardial perfusion measurements in a porcine model by ECG-gated multislice computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Meyer, Cristopher A.; Teague, Shawn; Stecker, Michael; Hutchins, Gary; McLennan, Gordon; Persohn, Scott

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether functional multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) can identify regional areas of normally perfused and ischemic myocardium in a porcine model. Material and Methods: Three out bred pigs, two of which had ameroids surgically implanted to constrict flow within the LAD and LCx coronary arteries, were injected with 25 mL of iopromide (Isovue) at a rate of 5 mL/second via the femoral or jugular vein. Sixty axial scans along the short axis of the heart was acquired on a 16-slice CT scanner (Philips MX8000-IDT) triggered at end-diastole of the cardiac cycle and acquiring an image within 270 msec. A second series of scans were taken after an intravenous injection of a vasodilator, 150 μg/kg/min of adenosine. ROIs were drawn around the myocardial tissue and the resulting time-density curves were used to extract perfusion values. Results: Determination of the myocardial perfusion and fractional blood volume implementing three different perfusion models. A 5-point averaging or 'smoothing' algorithm was employed to effectively filter the data due to its noisy nature. The (preliminary) average perfusion and fractional blood volume values over selected axial slices for the pig without an artificially induced stenosis were measured to be 84 +/- 22 mL/min/100g-tissue and 0.17 +/- 0.04 mL/g-tissue, the former is consistent with PET scan and EBCT results. The pig with a stenosis in the left LAD coronary artery showed a reduced global perfusion value -- 45 mL/min/100g-tissue. Correlations in regional perfusion values relative to the stenosis were weak. During the infusion of adenosine, averaged perfusion values for the three subjects increased by 46 (+/-45) percent, comparable to increases measured with PET. Conclusion: Quantifying global perfusion values using MDCT appear encouraging. Future work will focus resolving the systematic effects from noise due to signal fluctuation from the porcine tachyardia (80-93 BPM) and provide a more robust measurement

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Inflammation in a Porcine Acute Terminal Ileitis Model: US with a Molecularly Targeted Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaijun; Felt, Stephen A.; Machtaler, Steven; Guracar, Ismayil; Luong, Richard; Bettinger, Thierry; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of ultrasonography (US) performed with dual-selectin–targeted contrast agent microbubbles (MBs) for assessment of inflammation in a porcine acute terminal ileitis model, with histologic findings as a reference standard. Materials and Methods The study had institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval. Acute terminal ileitis was established in 19 pigs; four pigs served as control pigs. The ileum was imaged with clinical-grade dual P- and E-selectin–targeted MBs (MBSelectin) at increasing doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 × 108 MB per kilogram of body weight) and with control nontargeted MBs (MBControl). For reproducibility testing, examinations were repeated twice after the MBSelectin and MBControl injections. After imaging, scanned ileal segments were analyzed ex vivo both for inflammation grade (by using hematoxylin-eosin staining) and for expression of selectins (by using quantitative immunofluorescence analysis). Statistical analysis was performed by using the t test, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Spearman correlation analysis. Results Imaging signal increased linearly (P < .001) between a dose of 0.5 and a dose of 5.0 × 108 MB/kg and plateaued between a dose of 10 and a dose of 20 × 108 MB/kg. Imaging signals were reproducible (ICC = 0.70), and administration of MBSelectin in acute ileitis resulted in a significantly higher (P < .001) imaging signal compared with that in control ileum and MBControl. Ex vivo histologic grades of inflammation correlated well with in vivo US signal (ρ = 0.79), and expression levels of both P-selectin (37.4% ± 14.7 [standard deviation] of vessels positive; P < .001) and E-selectin (31.2% ± 25.7) in vessels in the bowel wall of segments with ileitis were higher than in control ileum (5.1% ± 3.7 for P-selectin and 4.8% ± 2.3 for E-selectin). Conclusion Quantitative measurements of inflammation obtained by using dual-selectin–targeted US

  19. Penile enhancement using a porcine small intestinal submucosa graft in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Leungwattanakij, S; Pummangura, N; Ratana-Olarn, K

    2006-01-01

    Several biodegradable materials have been experimented for penile enhancement, but none show the potential for clinical use. This study was designed to use porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) augmenting the normal tunica albuginea to increase the functional girth of the rat penis. In all, 20 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats constituted the study population. The animals were divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of the control (n=10) and group 2 (n=10) consisted of rats that underwent penile enhancement by a longitudinal I-shaped incision of the tunica albuginea on both sides, and the dissection of the plane between tunica albuginea and cavernosal tissue was carried out (n=10). The incision was then patched with a 3 x 10 mm2 piece of SIS, using a 6/0 nylon suture material. The penile length and mid-circumference were then measured using a Vernier Caliper before and 2 months after surgery. All rat penises underwent histological examination using Masson's trichome and Verhoff's van Giesen's stain for collagen and elastic fibers. The penile length, mid-circumference and degree of fibrosis score were expressed as mean+/-s.e. (standard error) and analyzed using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. A statistical significance was accepted at P-value < or =0.05. Our results showed similar preoperative penile length and circumference in both groups. However, 2 months after the surgery, the mean penile circumference of the SIS group has grown significantly larger than the control group, while the mean penile length remained unchanged. The histological study of the rat penises revealed minimal amounts of fibrosis under the graft, and the elastic fibers of the graft showed orientation in a circular manner. In conclusion, SIS appears promising for material use in a penile enhancement. PMID:16049525

  20. Inhibition of early AAA formation by aortic intraluminal pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) infusion in a novel porcine AAA model

    PubMed Central

    Kloster, Brian O.; Lund, Lars; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The vast majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms found in screening programs are small, and as no effective treatment exits, many will expand until surgery is indicated. Therefore, it remains intriguing to develop a safe and low cost treatment of these small aneurysms, that is able to prevent or delay their expansion. In this study, we investigated whether intraluminal delivered pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) can impair the early AAA development in a porcine model. Methods The infrarenal aorta was exposed in thirty pigs. Twenty underwent an elastase based AAA inducing procedure and ten of these received an additional intraluminal PGG infusion. The final 10 were sham operated and served as controls. Results All pigs who only had an elastase infusion developed macroscopically expanding AAAs. In pigs treated with an additional PGG infusion the growth rate of the AP-diameter rapidly returned to physiological values as seen in the control group. In the elastase group, histology revealed more or less complete resolution of the elastic lamellae in the media while they were more abundant, coherent and structurally organized in the PGG group. The control group displayed normal physiological growth and histology. Conclusion In our model, intraluminal delivered PGG is able to penetrate the aortic wall from the inside and impair the early AAA development by stabilizing the elastic lamellae and preserving their integrity. The principle holds a high clinical potential if it can be translated to human conditions, since it, if so, potentially could represent a new drug for stabilizing small abdominal aneurysms. PMID:27144001

  1. Increasing the presence of biofilm and healing delay in a porcine model of MRSA-infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Roche, Eric D; Renick, Paul J; Tetens, Shannon P; Ramsay, Sarah J; Daniels, Egeenee Q; Carson, Dennis L

    2012-01-01

    Data supporting the concept that microbial biofilms are a major cause of non-healing ulcers remain limited. A porcine model was established where delayed healing resulted from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in full-thickness wounds. At the end of one study a wound remaining open was sampled and a MRSA strain was isolated. This pig-passaged strain was used as the inoculating strain in several subsequent studies. The resulting MRSA wound infections exhibited a greater, more stable tissue bioburden than seen in studies using the parent strain. Furthermore, wounds infected with the passaged strain experienced a greater delay in healing. To understand whether these changes corresponded to an increased biofilm character of the wound infection, wound biopsy samples from studies using either the parent or passaged MRSA strains were examined microscopically. Evidence of biofilm was observed for both strains, as most samples at a minimum had multiple isolated, dense microcolonies of bacteria. However, the passaged MRSA resulted in bacterial colonies of greater frequency and size that occurred more often in concatenated fashion to generate extended sections of biofilm. These results provide a model case in which increasing biofilm character of a wound infection corresponded with a greater delay in wound healing.

  2. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  3. Porcine intestinal epithelial cell lines as a new in vitro model for studying adherence and pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Koh, Seung Y; George, Sajan; Brözel, Volker; Moxley, Rodney; Francis, David; Kaushik, Radhey S

    2008-07-27

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections result in large economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The organism causes diarrhea by adhering to and colonizing enterocytes in the small intestines. While much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ETEC, no homologous intestinal epithelial cultures suitable for studying porcine ETEC pathogenesis have been described prior to this report. In the current study, we investigated the adherence of various porcine ETEC strains to two porcine (IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2) and one human (INT-407) small intestinal epithelial cell lines. Each cell line was assessed for its ability to support the adherence of E. coli expressing fimbrial adhesins K88ab, K88ac, K88ad, K99, F41, 987P, and F18. Wild-type ETEC expressing K88ab, K88ac, and K88ad efficiently bound to both IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 cells. An ETEC strain expressing both K99 and F41 bound heavily to both porcine cell lines but an E. coli strain expressing only K99 bound very poorly to these cells. E. coli expressing F18 adhesin strongly bound to IPEC-1 cells but did not adhere to IPEC-J2 cells. The E. coli strains G58-1 and 711 which express no fimbrial adhesins and those that express 987P fimbriae failed to bind to either porcine cell line. Only strains B41 and K12:K99 bound in abundance to INT-407 cells. The binding of porcine ETEC to IPEC-J2, IPEC-1 and INT-407 with varying affinities, together with lack of binding of 987P ETEC and non-fimbriated E. coli strains, suggests strain-specific E. coli binding to these cell lines. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of porcine intestinal cell lines for studying ETEC pathogenesis.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Induced Hypothermia on Local and Systemic Inflammation - Results from a Porcine Long-Term Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Horst, K.; Eschbach, D.; Pfeifer, R.; Relja, B.; Sassen, M.; Steinfeldt, T.; Wulf, H.; Vogt, N.; Frink, M.; Ruchholtz, S.; Pape, H. C.; Hildebrand, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypothermia has been discussed as playing a role in improving the early phase of systemic inflammation. However, information on the impact of hypothermia on the local inflammatory response is sparse. We therefore investigated the kinetics of local and systemic inflammation in the late posttraumatic phase after induction of hypothermia in an established porcine long-term model of combined trauma. Materials & Methods Male pigs (35 ± 5kg) were mechanically ventilated and monitored over the study period of 48 h. Combined trauma included tibia fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration and pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock (MAP < 30 ± 5 mmHg for 90 min). After resuscitation, hypothermia (33°C) was induced for a period of 12 h (HT-T group) with subsequent re-warming over a period of 10 h. The NT-T group was kept normothermic. Systemic and local (fracture hematoma) cytokine levels (IL-6, -8, -10) and alarmins (HMGB1, HSP70) were measured via ELISA. Results Severe signs of shock as well as systemic and local increases of pro-inflammatory mediators were observed in both trauma groups. In general the local increase of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediator levels was significantly higher and prolonged compared to systemic concentrations. Induction of hypothermia resulted in a significantly prolonged elevation of both systemic and local HMGB1 levels at 48 h compared to the NT-T group. Correspondingly, local IL-6 levels demonstrated a significantly prolonged increase in the HT-T group at 48 h. Conclusion A prolonged inflammatory response might reduce the well-described protective effects on organ and immune function observed in the early phase after hypothermia induction. Furthermore, local immune response also seems to be affected. Future studies should aim to investigate the use of therapeutic hypothermia at different degrees and duration of application. PMID:27144532

  5. Relationship between retrograde coronary blood flow and the extent of no-reflow and infarct size in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    Stavrakis, Stavros; Terrovitis, John; Tsolakis, Elias; Drakos, Stavros; Dalianis, Argirios; Bonios, Michael; Koudoumas, Dimitrios; Malliaras, Konstantinos; Nanas, John

    2011-02-01

    Recanalization of an infarct-related artery does not predictably reflect tissue reperfusion. We examined the relationship between coronary blood flow (CBF) pattern during reperfusion and infarcted (IA) and no-reflow (NR) area in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model. The mid-left anterior descending artery of 18 pigs was occluded for 1 h and reperfused for 2 h. CBF during reperfusion was measured with a transit-time ultrasound flowmeter, while systemic arterial and left atrial pressures were monitored. IA and NR were measured with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and thioflavin staining, respectively. In 13 pigs, early systolic retrograde CBF developed within the first 30 min and persisted throughout reperfusion. No retrograde CBF was observed in five pigs. Mean retrograde CBF at 2 h of reperfusion predicted a larger IA (r = 0.71; p = 0.001). Time-to-development of retrograde CBF was inversely related to IA (r = -0.55; p = 0.019) and NR (r = -0.62; p = 0.006). A larger IA (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24, p = 0.037) and NR (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.18, p = 0.037) predicted the presence of retrograde CBF. Retrograde CBF during recanalization of the infarct-related artery predicts IA and NR and might be used as an index of successful reperfusion at the tissue level. PMID:21153063

  6. A detailed method for preparation of a functional and flexible blood-brain barrier model using porcine brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Patabendige, Adjanie; Skinner, Robert A; Morgan, Louise; Abbott, N Joan

    2013-07-12

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by the endothelial cells of cerebral microvessels and forms the critical interface regulating molecular flux between blood and brain. It contributes to homoeostasis of the microenvironment of the central nervous system and protection from pathogens and toxins. Key features of the BBB phenotype are presence of complex intercellular tight junctions giving a high transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), and strongly polarised (apical:basal) localisation of transporters and receptors. In vitro BBB models have been developed from primary culture of brain endothelial cells of several mammalian species, but most require exposure to astrocytic factors to maintain the BBB phenotype. Other limitations include complicated procedures for isolation, poor yield and batch-to-batch variability. Some immortalised brain endothelial cell models have proved useful for transport studies but most lack certain BBB features and have low TEER. We have developed an in vitro BBB model using primary cultured porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) which is relatively simple to prepare, robust, and reliably gives high TEER (mean~800 Ω cm(2)); it also shows good functional expression of key tight junction proteins, transporters, receptors and enzymes. The model can be used either in monoculture, for studies of molecular flux including permeability screening, or in co-culture with astrocytes when certain specialised features (e.g. receptor-mediated transcytosis) need to be maximally expressed. It is also suitable for a range of studies of cell:cell interaction in normal physiology and in pathology. The method for isolating and growing the PBECs is given in detail to facilitate adoption of the model. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Companion Paper. PMID:23603406

  7. Effect of age and maternal antibodies on the systemic and mucosal immune response after neonatal immunization in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Bautista, Edgar R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carlos E; Gama-Espinosa, Alicia L; Ramirez-Estudillo, Carmen; Rojas-Gomez, Oscar I; Vega-Lopez, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Newborn mammals are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Although maternal antibodies (MatAb) offer them some protection, they may also interfere with their systemic immune response to vaccination. However, the impact of MatAb on the neonatal mucosal immune response remains incompletely described. This study was performed to determine the effect of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific MatAb on the anti-OVA antibody response in sera, nasal secretions and saliva from specific pathogen-free Vietnamese miniature piglets immunized at 7 or 14 days of age. Our results demonstrated that MatAb increased antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in sera, and transiently enhanced an early secretory IgA response in nasal secretions of piglets immunized at 7 days of age. In contrast, we detected a lower mucosal (nasal secretion and saliva) anti-OVA IgG response in piglets with MatAb immunized at 14 days of age, compared with piglets with no MatAb, suggesting a modulatory effect of antigen-specific maternal factors on the isotype transfer to the mucosal immune exclusion system. In our porcine model, we demonstrated that passive maternal immunity positively modulated the systemic and nasal immune responses of animals immunized early in life. Our results, therefore, open the possibility of inducing systemic and respiratory mucosal immunity in the presence of MatAb through early vaccination. PMID:24754050

  8. Synthesis and anti-staphylococcal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires in ex vivo porcine skin model.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Namrata; Anjusree, G S; Madhavan, Asha Anish; Priyanka, P; Sankar, Deepthi; Nisha, N; Lakshmi, S V; Jayakumar, R; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Biswas, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of skin and soft tissue infections. In this study we compared the antimicrobial activity of two different TiO2 nanoformulations against Staphylococcus aureus. We synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles of approximately 80 nm diameter and TiO2 nanowires of approximately 100 nm diameter. Both nanoformulations possess anti-microbial activity; were non-hemolytic and cytocompatible. However, the anti-staphylococcal activity of TiO2 nanowires was better than the nanoparticles. In broth culture, growth of S. aureus was only partially inhibited by 2% and 4 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles and completely inhibited by TiO2 nanowires till 24 h. TiO2 nanowires treated S. aureus cells exhibits diminished membrane potential than nanoparticle treated cells. The anti-microbial properties of both TiO2 nanoformulations were validated using ex vivo porcine skin model which supplements the in vitro assays. Anti-bacterial activity of the TiO2 nanowires were also validated against multi drug resistant pathogenic strains of S. aureus, showing the clinical potency of the TiO2 nanowires compared to its nanoparticles.

  9. Monitoring the influence of compression therapy on pathophysiology and structure of a swine scar model using multispectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Travis, Taryn E.; Shuppa, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Ramella-Romana, Jessica C.

    2014-03-01

    Scar contractures can lead to significant reduction in function and inhibit patients from returning to work, participating in leisure activities and even render them unable to provide care for themselves. Compression therapy has long been a standard treatment for scar prevention but due to the lack of quantifiable metrics of scar formation scant evidence exists of its efficacy. We have recently introduced a multispectral imaging system to quantify pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, melanin, etc) and structural features (roughness and collagen matrix) of scar. In this study, hypertrophic scars are monitored in-vivo in a porcine model using the imaging system to investigate influence of compression therapy on its quality.

  10. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  11. Efficacy of a bio-electric dressing in healing deep, partial-thickness wounds using a porcine model .

    PubMed

    Harding, Andrew C; Gil, Joel; Valdes, Jose; Solis, Michael; Davis, Stephen C

    2012-09-01

    Numerous physical modalities have been used in attempts to augment the healing process, including ultrasound, low- energy light therapy, and electrical stimulation (ES). ES has been shown to benefit tissue repair in a variety of wound types, but variations in study designs, administration, and parameters render its application in clinical practice somewhat unconventional. A dressing was designed to generate an electric potential of 0.6 V to 0.7 V in the presence of moisture, thereby delivering a sustained micro-current without the need for an external power source. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of this bio-electric dressing (BED) on deep, partial-thickness wounds using six female specific pathogen-free animals and a well established porcine model for wound healing. Wounds (10 mm x 7 mm x 0.5 mm) were created in paravertebral and thoracic areas of these animals using a specialized electrokeratome and covered with the active polyester BED and a polyurethane film dressing (n = 30) (treatment) or an inactive polyester and film dressing (n = 30). Using an epidermal migration assay, wounds were assessed daily from day 4 through day 8 post-wounding. Differences in the proportion of wounds healed were statistically significant (P <0.001) on days 5 and 6 post-wounding. These results show BED is more effective than a control dressing treatment with moisture-retentive dressings in this animal model. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to elucidate the potential clinical implications of this treatment modality.

  12. An In Vivo Comparison of Hemostatic Gelatin Matrix Products in a Porcine Spleen Biopsy-punch Model.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Richard W; Werrlein, Stephanie; Johns, Douglas B; Zhang, Gary; Clymer, Jeffrey W; Kocharian, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Flowable gelatin matrix products have established themselves as effective, easy-to-use hemostatic agents useful in a variety of surgical situations. A recently reformulated gelatin matrix, Surgiflo® (Ethicon Inc., Somerville, NJ), can be prepared quickly and provides consistent flow over an 8-hr. period. No in vivo studies have yet been reported comparing hemostasis with the new Surgiflo to other currently marketed flowable gelatin matrix products. This study was conducted to determine whether Surgiflo in actual use has hemostatic qualities different from another commercial gelatin matrix. An in vivo model based on porcine spleen biopsy punch-induced bleeding was used to compare Surgiflo and Floseal™ (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Hayward, CA), both with thrombin. Time required to achieve hemostasis and proportion of sites achieving hemostasis within 30 s were determined for both hemostatic agents and a control of saline-soaked gauze. Results were stratified by the degree of initial bleeding (mild, moderate, severe). Hemostasis was achieved within 3 minutes at all sites for both test products regardless of level of initial bleeding, and control sites continued bleeding past 10 minutes. There were no statistically significant differences between Surgiflo and Floseal for either mean time to hemostasis or proportion of sites hemostatic within 30 s. In this realistic in vivo model both gelatin matrix products were effective, and there were no significant differences observed in hemostatic efficacy between Surgiflo and Floseal. Other factors, such as ease of preparation and application, in-use stability, and economic considerations may affect a surgeon's decision in selection of a desirable hemostatic product.

  13. Resuscitation with Valproic Acid Alters Inflammatory Genes in a Porcine Model of Combined Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Bambakidis, Ted; Dekker, Simone E; Sillesen, Martin; Liu, Baoling; Johnson, Craig N; Jin, Guang; de Vries, Helga E; Li, Yongqing; Alam, Hasan B

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock (TBI+HS) elicit a complex inflammatory response that contributes to secondary brain injury. There is currently no proven pharmacologic treatment for TBI+HS, but modulation of the epigenome has been shown to be a promising strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates the expression of cerebral inflammatory gene profiles in a large animal model of TBI+HS. Ten Yorkshire swine were subjected to computer-controlled TBI+HS (40% blood volume). After 2 h of shock, animals were resuscitated with Hextend (HEX) or HEX+VPA (300 mg/kg, n = 5/group). Six hours after resuscitation, brains were harvested, RNA was isolated, and gene expression profiles were measured using a porcine microarray. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® (IPA), gene ontology (GO), Parametric Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (PGSEA), and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) were used for pathway analysis. Key microarray findings were verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IPA analysis revealed that VPA significantly down-regulated the complement system (p < 0.001), natural killer cell communication (p < 0.001), and dendritic cell maturation (p < 0.001). DAVID analysis indicated that a cluster of inflammatory pathways held the highest rank and gene enrichment score. Real-time PCR data confirmed that VPA significantly down-expressed genes that ultimately regulate nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB)-mediated production of cytokines, such as TYROBP, TREM2, CCR1, and IL-1β. This high-throughput analysis of cerebral gene expression shows that addition of VPA to the resuscitation protocol significantly modulates the expression of inflammatory pathways in a clinically realistic model of TBI+HS. PMID:26905959

  14. Succinobucol-Eluting Stents Increase Neointimal Thickening and Peri-Strut Inflammation in a Porcine Coronary Model

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Jonathan; Kennedy, Simon; McCormick, Christopher; Agbani, Ejaife O; McPhaden, Allan; Mullen, Alexander; Czudaj, Peter; Behnisch, Boris; Wadsworth, Roger M; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of stent-based delivery of succinobucol alone and in combination with rapamycin in a porcine coronary model. Background: Current drugs and polymers used to coat coronary stents remain suboptimal in terms of long term efficacy and safety. Succinobucol is a novel derivative of probucol with improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Methods Polymer-free Yukon stents were coated with 1% succinobucol (SucES), 2% rapamycin (RES), or 1% succinobucol plus 2% rapamycin solutions (SucRES) and compared with a bare metal stent (BMS). Results The in vivo release profile of SucES indicated drug release up to 28 days (60% drug released at 7 days); 41 stents (BMS, n = 11; SucES, n =10; RES, n = 10; SucRES, n = 10) were implanted in the coronary arteries of 17 pigs. After 28 days, mean neointimal thickness was 0.31 ± 0.14 mm for BMS, 0.51 ± 0.14 mm for SucES, 0.19 ± 0.11 mm for RES, and 0.36 ± 0.17 mm for SucRES (P < 0.05 for SucES vs. BMS). SucES increased inflammation and fibrin deposition compared with BMS (P < 0.05), whereas RES reduced inflammation compared with BMS (P < 0.05). Conclusion In this model, stent-based delivery of 1% succinobucol using a polymer-free stent platform increased neointimal formation and inflammation following coronary stenting. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22581717

  15. Monitoring Microcirculatory Blood Flow with a New Sublingual Tonometer in a Porcine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Palágyi, Péter; Kaszaki, József; Rostás, Andrea; Érces, Dániel; Németh, Márton; Boros, Mihály; Molnár, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Tissue capnometry may be suitable for the indirect evaluation of regional hypoperfusion. We tested the performance of a new sublingual capillary tonometer in experimental hemorrhage. Thirty-six anesthetized, ventilated mini pigs were divided into sham-operated (n = 9) and shock groups (n = 27). Hemorrhagic shock was induced by reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 40 mmHg for 60 min, after which fluid resuscitation started aiming to increase MAP to 75% of the baseline value (60-180 min). Sublingual carbon-dioxide partial pressure was measured by tonometry, using a specially coiled silicone rubber tube. Mucosal red blood cell velocity (RBCV) and capillary perfusion rate (CPR) were assessed by orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging. In the 60 min shock phase a significant drop in cardiac index was accompanied by reduction in sublingual RBCV and CPR and significant increase in the sublingual mucosal-to-arterial PCO2 gap (PSLCO2 gap), which significantly improved during the 120 min resuscitation phase. There was significant correlation between PSLCO2 gap and sublingual RBCV (r = -0.65, p < 0.0001), CPR (r = -0.64, p < 0.0001), central venous oxygen saturation (r = -0.50, p < 0.0001), and central venous-to-arterial PCO2 difference (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001). This new sublingual tonometer may be an appropriate tool for the indirect evaluation of circulatory changes in shock. PMID:26504837

  16. Monitoring Microcirculatory Blood Flow with a New Sublingual Tonometer in a Porcine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Palágyi, Péter; Kaszaki, József; Rostás, Andrea; Érces, Dániel; Németh, Márton; Boros, Mihály; Molnár, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Tissue capnometry may be suitable for the indirect evaluation of regional hypoperfusion. We tested the performance of a new sublingual capillary tonometer in experimental hemorrhage. Thirty-six anesthetized, ventilated mini pigs were divided into sham-operated (n = 9) and shock groups (n = 27). Hemorrhagic shock was induced by reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 40 mmHg for 60 min, after which fluid resuscitation started aiming to increase MAP to 75% of the baseline value (60–180 min). Sublingual carbon-dioxide partial pressure was measured by tonometry, using a specially coiled silicone rubber tube. Mucosal red blood cell velocity (RBCV) and capillary perfusion rate (CPR) were assessed by orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging. In the 60 min shock phase a significant drop in cardiac index was accompanied by reduction in sublingual RBCV and CPR and significant increase in the sublingual mucosal-to-arterial PCO2 gap (PSLCO2 gap), which significantly improved during the 120 min resuscitation phase. There was significant correlation between PSLCO2 gap and sublingual RBCV (r = −0.65, p < 0.0001), CPR (r = −0.64, p < 0.0001), central venous oxygen saturation (r = −0.50, p < 0.0001), and central venous-to-arterial PCO2 difference (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001). This new sublingual tonometer may be an appropriate tool for the indirect evaluation of circulatory changes in shock. PMID:26504837

  17. Comparison of cold crystalloid and colloid infusions for induction of therapeutic hypothermia in a porcine model of cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Large-volume cold intravenous infusion of crystalloids has been used for induction of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. However, the effectiveness of cold colloids has not been evaluated. Therefore, we performed an experimental study to investigate the cooling effect of cold normal saline compared to colloid solution in a porcine model of ventricular fibrillation. Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced for 15 minutes in 22 anesthetized domestic pigs. After spontaneous circulation was restored, the animals were randomized to receive either 45 ml/kg of 1°C cold normal saline (Group A, 9 animals); or 45 ml/kg of 1°C cold colloid solution (Voluven®, 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 in 0.9% NaCl) during 20 minutes (Group B, 9 animals); or to undergo no cooling intervention (Group C, 4 animals). Then, the animals were observed for 90 minutes. Cerebral, rectal, intramuscular, pulmonary artery, and subcutaneous fat body temperatures (BT) were recorded. In the mechanical ex-vivo sub study we added a same amount of cold normal saline or colloid into the bath of normal saline and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) for induced temperature changes. Results Animals treated with cold fluids achieved a significant decrease of BT at all measurement sites, whereas there was a consistent significant spontaneous increase in group C. At the time of completion of infusion, greater decrease in pulmonary artery BT and cerebral BT in group A compared to group B was detected (−2.1 ± 0.3 vs. -1.6 ± 0.2°C, and −1.7 ± 0.4 vs. -1.1 ± 0.3°C, p < 0.05, respectively). AUC analysis of the decrease of cerebral BT revealed a more vigorous cooling effect in group A compared to group B (−91 ± 22 vs. -68 ± 23°C/min, p = 0.046). In the mechanical sub study, AUC analysis of the induced temperature decrease of cooled solution revealed that addition of normal saline led to more intense cooling than colloid solution (

  18. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection. PMID:26411309

  19. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  20. Effects of Fibrinogen Concentrate on Thrombin Generation, Thromboelastometry Parameters, and Laboratory Coagulation Testing in a 24-Hour Porcine Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Zentai, Christian; Solomon, Cristina; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Schnabel, Jonas; Rossaint, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In a 24-hour porcine model of liver injury, we showed that fibrinogen supplementation does not downregulate endogenous fibrinogen synthesis. Here we report data from the same study showing the impact of fibrinogen on coagulation variables. Materials and Methods: Coagulopathy was induced in 20 German land race pigs by hemodilution and blunt liver injury. Animals randomly received fibrinogen concentrate (100 mg/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters were assessed and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. Results: Fibrinogen concentrate significantly reduced the prolongations of EXTEM clotting time, EXTEM clot formation time, and prothrombin time induced by hemodilution and liver injury. A decrease in clot strength was also ameliorated. Endogenous thrombin potential was significantly higher in the fibrinogen group than in the control group, 20 minutes (353 ± 24 vs 289 ± 22 nmol/L·min; P < .05) and 100 minutes (315 ± 40 vs 263 ± 38 nmol/L·min; P < .05) after the start of infusion. However, no significant between-group differences were seen in other thrombin generation parameters or in d-dimer or thrombin–antithrombin levels. Fibrinogen–platelet binding was reduced following liver injury, with no significant differences between groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in any parameter at ∼12 and ∼24 hours. Conclusion: This study suggests that, in trauma, fibrinogen supplementation may shorten some measurements of the speed of coagulation initiation and produce a short-lived increase in endogenous thrombin potential, potentially through increased clotting substrate availability. Approximately 12 and 24 hours after starting fibrinogen concentrate/saline infusion, all parameters measured in this study were comparable in the 2 study groups. PMID:25948634

  1. Directed differentiation into neural lineages and therapeutic potential of porcine embryonic stem cells in rat Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jenn-Rong; Liao, Chia-Hsin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Chen, Lih-Ren

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to direct porcine embryonic stem (pES) cells differentiating into neural lineages and to investigate therapeutic potential of GFP-expressing pES (pES/GFP(+)) in the rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Directed differentiation of pES into neural lineages was induced by suspension culture in medium containing RA, SHH, and FGF combinations without going through embryoid body formation. A high yield of nestin-expressing neural precursors was found in all treatments on day 2 after the 12-day induction. On day 6 after replating, more than 86.2 and 83.4% of the differentiated cells stained positively for NFL and MAP2, respectively. The expression of TH, ChAT, and GABA specific markers were also observed in these NFL-positive neural cells. The undifferentiated pES/GFP(+) cells and their neuronal differentiation derivatives were transplanted into the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat's brain, and their survival and development was determined by using live animal fluorescence optical imaging system every 15 days. The results showed that fluorescent signals from the injection site of SD rats' brain could be detected through the experimental period of 3 months. The level of fluorescent signal detected in the treatment group was twofold that of the control group. The results of behavior analysis showed that PD rats exhibited stably decreased asymmetric rotations after transplantation with pES/GFP(+)-derived D18 neuronal progenitors. The dopaminergic differentiation of grafted cells in the brain was further confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-TH, anti-DA, and anti-DAT antibodies. These results suggested that the differentiation approach we developed would direct pES cells to differentiate into neural lineages and benefit the development of novel therapeutics involving stem cell transplantation.

  2. Assessment of Novel Anti-thrombotic Fusion Proteins for Inhibition of Stenosis in a Porcine Model of Arteriovenous Graft

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Christi M.; Zhuplatov, Ilya; He, Yuxia; Wun, Tze-Chein; Kim, Seong-Eun; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis arteriovenous synthetic grafts (AVG) provide high volumetric blood flow rates shortly after surgical placement. However, stenosis often develops at the vein-graft anastomosis contributing to thrombosis and early graft failure. Two novel fusion proteins, ANV-6L15 and TAP-ANV, inhibit the tissue factor/factor VIIa coagulation complex and the factor Xa/factor Va complex, respectively. Each inhibitor domain is fused to an annexin V domain that targets the inhibitor activity to sites of vascular injury to locally inhibit thrombosis. This study’s objective was to determine if these antithrombotic proteins are safe and effective in inhibiting AVG stenosis. Methods A bolus of either TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 fusion protein was administered intravenously immediately prior to surgical placement of a synthetic graft between the external jugular vein and common carotid artery in a porcine model. At surgery, the vein and artery were irrigated with the anti-thrombotic fusion protein. Control animals received intravenous heparin. At 4 weeks, MRI was performed to evaluate graft patency, the pigs were then euthanized and grafts and attached vessels were explanted for histomorphometric assessment of neointimal hyperplasia at the vein-graft anastomosis. Blood was collected at surgery, immediately after surgery and at euthanasia for serum metabolic panels and coagulation chemistries. Results No acute thrombosis occurred in the control group or in either experimental group. No abnormal serum chemistries, activated clotting times or PT, PTT values were observed after treatment in experimental or control animals. However, at the vein-graft anastomosis, there was no difference between the control and experimental groups in cross-sectional lumen areas, as measured on MRI, and no difference in hyperplasia areas as determined by histomorphometry. These results suggest that local irrigation of TAP-ANV or ANV-6L15 intra-operatively was as effective in inhibiting acute graft

  3. System monitoring and diagnosis with qualitative models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    A substantial foundation of tools for model-based reasoning with incomplete knowledge was developed: QSIM (a qualitative simulation program) and its extensions for qualitative simulation; Q2, Q3 and their successors for quantitative reasoning on a qualitative framework; and the CC (component-connection) and QPC (Qualitative Process Theory) model compilers for building QSIM QDE (qualitative differential equation) models starting from different ontological assumptions. Other model-compilers for QDE's, e.g., using bond graphs or compartmental models, have been developed elsewhere. These model-building tools will support automatic construction of qualitative models from physical specifications, and further research into selection of appropriate modeling viewpoints. For monitoring and diagnosis, plausible hypotheses are unified against observations to strengthen or refute the predicted behaviors. In MIMIC (Model Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), multiple hypothesized models of the system are tracked in parallel in order to reduce the 'missing model' problem. Each model begins as a qualitative model, and is unified with a priori quantitative knowledge and with the stream of incoming observational data. When the model/data unification yields a contradiction, the model is refuted. When there is no contradiction, the predictions of the model are progressively strengthened, for use in procedure planning and differential diagnosis. Only under a qualitative level of description can a finite set of models guarantee the complete coverage necessary for this performance. The results of this research are presented in several publications. Abstracts of these published papers are presented along with abtracts of papers representing work that was synergistic with the NASA grant but funded otherwise. These 28 papers include but are not limited to: 'Combined qualitative and numerical simulation with Q3'; 'Comparative analysis and qualitative integral representations

  4. GULF OF MEXICO HYPOXIA MONITORING AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greene, Richard M. and Russell G. Kreis. In press. Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Monitoring and Modeling (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington, DC. 1 p. (ERL,GB R990).

    Oxygen-depleted or hypoxic bottom...

  5. Purinergic P2X3 heteroreceptors enhance parasympathetic motor drive in isolated porcine detrusor, a reliable model for development of P2X selective blockers for detrusor hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Gianluigi; Condino, Anna Maria; Calvi, Valentina; Boschi, Federica; Gioglio, Luciana; Barbieri, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Various forms of low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) seem dependant upon dysregulation of the purinergic pathway which produces sensory- or motor-activated incontinence. A body of evidence in human urinary bladders supports a link between up-regulation of purinergic activity and the pathogenesis of detrusor instability. This study investigated the potential role of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the control of detrusor motor drive in a model of porcine urinary bladder. The involvement of ATP on excitatory activity was assessed by measuring neurally-evoked [(3)H]-acetylcholine (ACh) release and smooth muscle contraction in detrusor strips. Epithelium-deprived preparations were used to minimize the influence of non-neural sources of ACh and ATP on parasympathetic neurotransmission. ACh release and smooth muscle contractility were not significantly affected by neural ATP in normal detrusor, but markedly enhanced when ATP hydrolysis was reduced by ectoATPase inhibitors, as well as by α,β-methylene-ATP (ABMA), agonist resistant to ecto-enzymes degradation. Prejunctional P2X receptors located on cholinergic nerves are involved in such potentiating effect. These purinergic heteroreceptors were characterized as P2X(3) subunits by means of the putative antagonists: NF449 (P2X(1,3) selective), NF023 (P2X(1,3) selective), PPNDS (P2X(1) selective) and A-317491 (P2X(3) selective). In porcine detrusor, P2X(3) receptors are functionally expressed at neural site facilitating neurogenic ACh release. When purine breakdown is experimentally down-regulated to mimicking the impaired purinergic pathway observed in pathological human bladders, endogenous ATP can markedly enhance detrusor contractility through activation of these receptors. Since P2X(3) blockade represents a potential therapeutic approach for diseases of the urinary tract, isolated porcine detrusor represents a reliable model for development of novel selective P2X(3) antagonists beneficial in the treatment of detrusor

  6. A mathematical model of detection and dynamics of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Hone, J.

    1994-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) is a viral disease causing dehydration, diarrhoea and death in pigs. The disease is widespread in pig-producing areas of the world but does not occur in Australia. A mathematical model of TGE spread within a pig herd is proposed and calibrated by reference to published data. The model is then applied to two situations of special interest; first to estimate the delay before detection of TGE (6 to over 30 days) when infection is first introduced into a herd of domestic or feral pigs, and second the effect of the disease in a population of feral pigs (could become endemic if transmission is high). PMID:8062875

  7. Evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation in a porcine model following radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krigsfeld, G. S.; Shah, J. B.; Sanzari, J. K.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) plays an integral role in death at the LD50 dose of either gamma or solar particle event (SPE)-like proton radiation in ferrets. In these studies, Yucatan minipigs were evaluated to determine whether they were susceptible to the development of radiation induced DIC. Yucatan minipigs were exposed to a dose of 2.5 Gray (Gy) with X-rays and monitored over the course of 30 days. Evidence of DIC was evaluated by way of thromboelastometry parameters, platelet counts, fibrinogen concentration, and the d-dimer assay. Pigs exposed to X-rays developed signs of DIC within 2 days' post-irradiation. The development of DIC was exacerbated over the course of the studies, and one of the pigs died at day 14 and another had to be euthanized on day 16 post-irradiation. For both of these pigs, DIC was evident at the time of death. The following observations were indicated or were suggestive of DIC: whole blood clotting was impaired (as evidenced by thromboelastometry alterations), there were decreased platelet counts, elevated d-dimer concentrations in the blood, and/or hemorrhaging and the presence of fibrin in tissues observed during post-mortem examination. The extrapolation of data from these studies, in combination with other published data, have led to the hypothesis that there could be a correlation between the propensity to develop DIC, as indicated by hemorrhaging at death at relatively low doses of radiation, and the LD50 for a particular species. Our data suggest that the development of DIC may contribute to death at the LD50 dose in large mammals.

  8. Evidence of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in a Porcine Model Following Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Krigsfeld, G.S.; Shah, J.B.; Sanzari, J.K.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) plays an integral role in death at the LD50 dose of either gamma or solar particle event (SPE)-like proton radiation in ferrets. In these studies, Yucatan minipigs were evaluated to determine whether they were susceptible to the development of radiation induced DIC. Yucatan minipigs were exposed to a dose of 2.5 Gray (Gy) with x-rays and monitored over the course of 30 days. Evidence of DIC was evaluated by way of thromboelastometry parameters, platelet counts, fibrinogen concentration, and the d-dimer assay. Pigs exposed to x-rays developed signs of DIC within 2 days post-irradiation. The development of DIC was exacerbated over the course of the studies, and one of the pigs died at day 14 and another had to be euthanized on day 16 post-irradiation. For both of these pigs, DIC was evident at the time of death. The following observations were indicated or were suggestive of DIC: whole blood clotting was impaired (as evidenced by thromboelastometry alterations), there were decreased platelet counts, elevated d-dimer concentrations in the blood, and/or hemorrhaging and the presence of fibrin in tissues observed during post-mortem examination. The extrapolation of data from these studies, in combination with other published data, have led to the hypothesis that there could be a correlation between the propensity to develop DIC, as indicated by hemorrhaging at death at relatively low doses of radiation, and the LD50 for a particular species. Our data suggest that the development of DIC may contribute to death at the LD50 dose in large mammals. PMID:25197627

  9. Generating a Natural Porcine Model of Gastrointestinal Food Allergy to Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an extremely potent allergen and is one of the most life-threatening food sensitivities known. Peanuts cause the majority of food-related anaphylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults. There is no good animal model currently in place to study peanut allergies. Exp...

  10. In Vivo Evaluation of Lung Microwave Ablation in a Porcine Tumor Mimic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Planche, Olivier; Teriitehau, Christophe; Boudabous, Sana; Robinson, Joey Marie; Rao, Pramod; Deschamps, Frederic; Farouil, Geoffroy; Baere, Thierry de

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the microwave ablation of created tumor mimics in the lung of a large animal model (pigs), with examination of the ablative synergy of multiple antennas. Fifty-six tumor-mimic models of various sizes were created in 15 pigs by using barium-enriched minced collected thigh muscle injected into the lung of the same animal. Tumors were ablated under fluoroscopic guidance by single-antenna and multiple-antenna microwaves. Thirty-five tumor models were treated in 11 pigs with a single antenna at 75 W for 15 min, with 15 measuring 20 mm in diameter, 10 measuring 30 mm, and 10 measuring 40 mm. Mean circularity of the single-antenna ablation zones measured 0.64 {+-} 0.12, with a diameter of 35.7 {+-} 8.7 mm along the axis of the antenna and 32.7 {+-} 12.8 mm perpendicular to the feeding point. Multiple-antenna delivery of 75 W for 15 min caused intraprocedural death of 2 animals; modified protocol to 60 W for 10 min resulted in an ablation zone with a diameter of 43.0 {+-} 7.7 along the axis of the antenna and 54.8 {+-} 8.5 mm perpendicular to the feeding point; circularity was 0.70 {+-} 0.10. A single microwave antenna can create ablation zones large enough to cover lung tumor mimic models of {<=}4 cm with no heat sink effect from vessels of {<=}6 mm. Synergic use of 3 antennas allows ablation of larger volumes than single-antenna or radiofrequency ablation, but great caution must be taken when 3 antennas are used simultaneously in the lung in clinical practice.

  11. Establishment of a novel, eco-friendly transgenic pig model using porcine pancreatic amylase promoter-driven fungal cellulase transgenes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y S; Yang, C C; Hsu, C C; Hsu, J T; Wu, S C; Lin, C J; Cheng, W T K

    2015-02-01

    Competition between humans and livestock for cereal and legume grains makes it challenging to provide economical feeds to livestock animals. Recent increases in corn and soybean prices have had a significant impact on the cost of feed for pig producers. The utilization of byproducts and alternative ingredients in pig diets has the potential to reduce feed costs. Moreover, unlike ruminants, pigs have limited ability to utilize diets with high fiber content because they lack endogenous enzymes capable of breaking down nonstarch polysaccharides into simple sugars. Here, we investigated the feasibility of a transgenic strategy in which expression of the fungal cellulase transgene was driven by the porcine pancreatic amylase promoter in pigs. A 2,488 bp 5'-flanking region of the porcine pancreatic amylase gene was cloned by the genomic walking technique, and its structural features were characterized. Using GFP as a reporter, we found that this region contained promoter activity and had the potential to control heterologous gene expression. Transgenic pigs were generated by pronuclear microinjection. Founders and offspring were identified by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Cellulase mRNA and protein showed tissue-specific expression in the pancreas of F1 generation pigs. Cellulolytic enzyme activity was also identified in the pancreas of transgenic pigs. These results demonstrated the establishment of a tissue-specific promoter of the porcine pancreatic amylase gene. Transgenic pigs expressing exogenous cellulase may represent a way to increase the intake of low-cost, fiber-rich feeds.

  12. A study of the anatomy and repair strengths of porcine flexor and extensor tendons: are they appropriate experimental models?

    PubMed

    Mao, W F; Wu, Y F; Zhou, Y L; Tang, J B

    2011-10-01

    Although both porcine flexor and extensor tendons have been used in tendon repair research, no studies have specifically studied the anatomical differences and repair strengths in both types of tendons. We used 12 pig trotters to observe the anatomy of these tendons and compared the 2 mm gap and ultimate strengths of flexor and extensor tendons. There were four annular (A1, A2, A3, and A4) pulleys and one oblique pulley, which form a fibro-osseous tunnel for the flexor tendons, but the anatomy of the porcine extensor tendons was markedly different from the human flexor or extensor tendons. The diameter of flexor tendons was significantly greater than that of the extensors. The 2 mm gap and ultimate strengths of the flexor tendon with either two-strand or four-strand repairs were significantly greater than those of the extensor tendon. We conclude that the porcine flexor tendon systems are similar to those in the human, but the extensor tendons are not similar to either the flexor or extensor tendons in humans. Flexor and extensor tendons have different repair strengths which should be taken into account when interpreting findings from investigations using these tendons.

  13. Degradation Modelling for Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, R.; Witczak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Condition-monitoring plays an increasingly important role for technical processes in order to improve reliability, availability, maintenance and lifetime of equipment. With increasing demands for efficiency and product quality, plus progress in the integration of automatic control systems in high-cost mechatronic and critical safety processes, the field of health monitoring is gaining interest. A similar research field is concerned with an estimation of the remaining useful life. A central question in these fields is the modelling of degradation; degradation is a process of a gradual and irreversible accumulation of damage which will finally result in a failure of the system. This paper is based on a current research project and explores various degradation modelling techniques. These results are explained on the basis of an industrial product - a system for the generation of health status information for pump systems. The result of this fuzzy-logic based system is a single number indicating the current health of a pump system.

  14. Porcine Sialoadhesin: A Newly Identified Xenogeneic Innate Immune Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Linda G.; Delputte, Peter L.; Waldman, Joshua P.; Nauwynck, Hans J.; Rees, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal porcine liver perfusion is being developed as a bridge to liver allotransplantation for patients with fulminant hepatic failure. This strategy is limited by porcine Kupffer cell destruction of human erythrocytes, mediated by lectin binding of a sialic acid motif in the absence of antibody and complement. Sialoadhesin, a macrophage restricted lectin that binds sialic acid, was originally described as a sheep erythrocyte binding receptor. Given similarities between sialoadhesin and the unidentified macrophage lectin in our model, we hypothesized porcine sialoadhesin contributed to recognition of human erythrocytes. Two additional types of macrophages were identified to bind human erythrocytes - spleen and alveolar. Expression of sialoadhesin was confirmed by immunofluorescence in porcine tissues and by flow cytometry on primary macrophages. A stable transgenic cell line expressing porcine sialoadhesin (pSn CHO) bound human erythrocytes, while a sialoadhesin mutant cell line did not. Porcine macrophage and pSn CHO recognition of human erythrocytes was inhibited approximately 90% by an anti-porcine sialoadhesin monoclonal antibody and by human erythrocyte glycoproteins. Furthermore, this binding was substantially reduced by sialidase treatment of erythrocytes. These data support the hypothesis that porcine sialoadhesin is a xenogeneic receptor that mediates porcine macrophage binding of human erythrocytes in a sialic acid-dependent manner. PMID:22958948

  15. Scaffold-Based Delivery of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis: Preliminary Studies in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zongyang; Tee, Boon Ching; Kennedy, Kelly S.; Kennedy, Patrick M.; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Mallery, Susan R.; Fields, Henry W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Bone regeneration through distraction osteogenesis (DO) is promising but remarkably slow. To accelerate it, autologous mesenchymal stem cells have been directly injected to the distraction site in a few recent studies. Compared to direct injection, a scaffold-based method can provide earlier cell delivery with potentially better controlled cell distribution and retention. This pilot project investigated a scaffold-based cell-delivery approach in a porcine mandibular DO model. Materials and Methods Eleven adolescent domestic pigs were used for two major sets of studies. The in-vitro set established methodologies to: aspirate bone marrow from the tibia; isolate, characterize and expand bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs); enhance BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation using FGF-2; and confirm cell integration with a gelatin-based Gelfoam scaffold. The in-vivo set transplanted autologous stem cells into the mandibular distraction sites using Gelfoam scaffolds; completed a standard DO-course and assessed bone regeneration by macroscopic, radiographic and histological methods. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and t-tests were used for statistical analyses. Results From aspirated bone marrow, multi-potent, heterogeneous BM-MSCs purified from hematopoietic stem cell contamination were obtained. FGF-2 significantly enhanced pig BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation and proliferation, with 5 ng/ml determined as the optimal dosage. Pig BM-MSCs integrated readily with Gelfoam and maintained viability and proliferative ability. After integration with Gelfoam scaffolds, 2.4–5.8×107 autologous BM-MSCs (undifferentiated or differentiated) were transplanted to each experimental DO site. Among 8 evaluable DO sites included in the final analyses, the experimental DO sites demonstrated less interfragmentary mobility, more advanced gap obliteration, higher mineral content and faster mineral apposition than the control sites, and all transplanted scaffolds were completely

  16. Magnetic sentinel lymph node biopsy and localization properties of a magnetic tracer in an in vivo porcine model.

    PubMed

    Anninga, Bauke; Ahmed, Muneer; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Pouw, Joost; Westbroek, David; Pinder, Sarah; Ten Haken, Bennie; Pankhurst, Quentin; Douek, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The standard for the treatment of early non-palpable breast cancers is wide local excision directed by wire-guided localization and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). This has drawbacks technically and due to reliance upon radioisotopes. We evaluated the use of a magnetic tracer for its localization capabilities and concurrent performance of SLNB using a handheld magnetometer in a porcine model as a novel alternative to the current standard. Ethical approval by the IRCAD Ethics Review Board, Strasbourg (France) was received. A magnetic tracer was injected in varying volumes (0.1-5 mL) subcutaneously into the areolar of the left and right 3rd inguinal mammary glands in 16 mini-pigs. After 4 h magnetometer counts were taken at the injection sites and in the groins. The magnetometer was used to localize any in vivo signal from the draining inguinal lymph nodes. Magnetic SLNB followed by excision of the injection site was performed. The iron content of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were graded and quantified. All excised specimens were weighed and volumes were calculated. Univariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlation. Magnetic SLNB was successful in all mini-pigs. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.86; p < 0.01) between magnetometer counts and iron content of SLNs. Grading of SLNs on both H&E and Perl's staining correlated significantly with the iron content (p = 0.001; p = 0.003) and magnetometer counts (p < 0.001; p = 0.004). The peak counts corresponded to the original magnetic tracer injection sites 4 h after injection in all cases. The mean volume and weight of excised injection site specimens was 2.9 cm(3) (SD 0.81) and 3.1 g (SD 0.85), respectively. Injection of ≥0.5 mL magnetic tracer was associated with significantly greater volume (p = 0.05) and weight of excision specimens (p = 0.01). SLNB and localization can be performed in vivo using a magnetic tracer. This could provide a viable alternative for lesion localization and concurrent SLNB

  17. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Induces Angiogenesis and Ameliorates Left Ventricular Dysfunction in a Porcine Model of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Hanawa, Kenichiro; Ito, Kenta; Aizawa, Kentaro; Shindo, Tomohiko; Nishimiya, Kensuke; Hasebe, Yuhi; Tuburaya, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kanai, Hiroshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a significant progress has been made in the management of ischemic heart disease (IHD), the number of severe IHD patients is increasing. Thus, it is crucial to develop new, non-invasive therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we aimed to develop low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) therapy for the treatment of IHD. Methods and Results We first confirmed that in cultured human endothelial cells, LIPUS significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with a peak at 32-cycle (P<0.05). Then, we examined the in vivo effects of LIPUS in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (n = 28). The heart was treated with either sham (n = 14) or LIPUS (32-cycle with 193 mW/cm2 for 20 min, n = 14) at 3 different short axis levels. Four weeks after the treatment, LVEF was significantly improved in the LIPUS group (46±4 to 57±5%, P<0.05) without any adverse effects, whereas it remained unchanged in the sham group (46±5 to 47±6%, P = 0.33). Capillary density in the ischemic region was significantly increased in the LIPUS group compared with the control group (1084±175 vs. 858±151/mm2, P<0.05). Regional myocardial blood flow was also significantly improved in the LIPUS group (0.78±0.2 to 1.39±0.4 ml/min/g, P<0.05), but not in the control group (0.84±0.3 to 0.97±0.4 ml/min/g). Western blot analysis showed that VEGF, eNOS and bFGF were all significantly up-regulated only in the LIPUS group. Conclusions These results suggest that the LIPUS therapy is promising as a new, non-invasive therapy for IHD. PMID:25111309

  18. Epicardial shock-wave therapy improves ventricular function in a porcine model of ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Holfeld, Johannes; Zimpfer, Daniel; Albrecht-Schgoer, Karin; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Paulus, Patrick; Dumfarth, Julia; Thomas, Anita; Lobenwein, Daniela; Tepeköylü, Can; Rosenhek, Raphael; Schaden, Wolfgang; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein; Grimm, Michael

    2014-05-19

    Previously we have shown that epicardial shock-wave therapy improves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a rat model of myocardial infarction. In the present experiments we aimed to address the safety and efficacy of epicardial shock-wave therapy in a preclinical large animal model and to further evaluate mechanisms of action of this novel therapy. Four weeks after left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation in pigs, the animals underwent re-thoracotomy with (shock-wave group, n = 6) or without (control group, n = 5) epicardial shock waves (300 impulses at 0.38 mJ/mm(2) ) applied to the infarcted anterior wall. Efficacy endpoints were improvement of LVEF and induction of angiogenesis 6 weeks after shock-wave therapy. Safety endpoints were haemodynamic stability during treatment and myocardial damage. Four weeks after LAD ligation, LVEF decreased in both the shock-wave (43 ± 3%, p < 0.001) and control (41 ± 4%, p = 0.012) groups. LVEF markedly improved in shock-wave animals 6 weeks after treatment (62 ± 9%, p = 0.006); no improvement was observed in controls (41 ± 4%, p = 0.36), yielding a significant difference. Quantitative histology revealed significant angiogenesis 6 weeks after treatment (controls 2 ± 0.4 arterioles/high-power field vs treatment group 9 ± 3; p = 0.004). No acute or chronic adverse effects were observed. As a potential mechanism of action in vitro experiments showed stimulation of VEGF receptors after shock-wave treatment in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Epicardial shock-wave treatment in a large animal model of ischaemic heart failure exerted a positive effect on LVEF improvement and did not show any adverse effects. Angiogenesis was induced by stimulation of VEGF receptors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Fibrosis and Preserve Renal Function in a Preclinical Porcine Model of Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Baulier, Edouard; Favreau, Frederic; Le Corf, Amélie; Jayle, Christophe; Schneider, Fabrice; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Feraud, Olivier; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Turhan, Ali G.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that ischemia/reperfusion injuries strongly affect the success of human organ transplantation. Development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy is the main deleterious phenomenon involved. Stem cells are a promising therapeutic tool already validated in various ischemic diseases. Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (af-MSCs), a subpopulation of multipotent cells identified in amniotic fluid, are known to secrete growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, these cells are easy to collect, present higher proliferation and self-renewal rates compared with other adult stem cells (ASCs), and are suitable for banking. Consequently, af-MSCs represent a promising source of stem cells for regenerative therapies in humans. To determine the efficiency and the safety of af-MSC infusion in a preclinical porcine model of renal autotransplantation, we injected autologous af-MSCs in the renal artery 6 days after transplantation. The af-MSC injection improved glomerular and tubular functions, leading to full renal function recovery and abrogated fibrosis development at 3 months. The strong proof of concept generated by this translational porcine model is a first step toward evaluation of af-MSC-based therapies in human kidney transplantation. PMID:24797827

  20. Primary in vitro culture of porcine tracheal epithelial cells in an air-liquid interface as a model to study airway epithelium and Aspergillus fumigatus interactions.

    PubMed

    Khoufache, Khaled; Cabaret, Odile; Farrugia, Cécile; Rivollet, Danièle; Alliot, Annie; Allaire, Eric; Cordonnier, Catherine; Bretagne, Stéphane; Botterel, Françoise

    2010-12-01

    Since the airway epithelium is the first tissue encountered by airborne fungal spores, specific models are needed to study this interaction. We developed such a model using primary porcine tracheal epithelial cells (PTEC) as a possible alternative to the use of primary human cells. PTEC were obtained from pigs and were cultivated in an air-liquid interface. Fluorescent brightener was employed to quantify the internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Potential differences (Vt) and transepithelial resistances (Rt) after challenge with the mycotoxin, verruculogen, were studied. Primers for porcine inflammatory mediator genes IL-8, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF were designed for a quantitative real-time PCR procedure to study cellular responses to challenges with A. fumigatus conidia. TEM showed the differentiation of ciliated cells and the PTEC ability to internalize conidia. The internalization rate was 21.9 ± 1.4% after 8 h of incubation. Verruculogen (10(-6) M) significantly increased Vt without having an effect on the Rt. Exposure of PTEC to live A. fumigatus conidia for 24 h induced a 10- to 40-fold increase in the mRNA levels of inflammatory mediator genes. PTEC behave similarly to human cells and are therefore a suitable alternative to human cells for studying interaction between airway epithelium and A. fumigatus. PMID:20608777

  1. Evolving Earth Models and Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most important problems in nuclear explosion monitoring is accurate seismic event location. Traditional location methods rely on estimating travel times in a known Earth model and accounting for heterogeneity through various empirical corrections. The history of location accuracy and precision is closely coupled to evolving theories of the nature of the Earth's interior. LONG SHOT was a 80 Kt explosion conducted on Amchitka Island on October 29, 1965. The travel times recorded from LONG SHOT deviated strongly from a radially symmetric Earth, and in fact showed a pattern consistent a tabular body of relatively high seismic velocity (the subducting North American Plate) validating certain concepts of the then new theory of plate tectonics. Each subsequent advance in conceptual models for the dynamics of the Earth's interior has impacted explosion monitoring. Many of the advances in the theory of the Earth's interior have been spurred by the ideas and work of Don Anderson. These include anelasticity, anisotropy, tomography, the Lehmann discontinuity, and mantle plumes (or lack of). The present state-of-the-art monitoring paradigm incorporates a dynamic Earth model, and the synergy between verification research and basic research on the Earth's interior is quite important.

  2. Inflammation in response to n3 fatty acids in a porcine obesity model.

    PubMed

    Faris, Richard J; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Li, Jenny; Jones, Douglas E; Spurlock, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Fatty acids have distinct cellular effects related to inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Dietary saturated fat activates toll-like receptor 4, which in turn can lead to chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. Conversely, n3 fatty acids are generally antiinflammatory and promote insulin sensitivity, in part via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Ossabaw swine are a useful biomedical model of obesity. We fed Ossabaw pigs either a low-fat control diet or a diet containing high-fat palm oil with or without additional n3 fatty acids for 30 wk to investigate the effect of saturated fats and n3 fatty acids on obesity-linked inflammatory markers. The diet did not influence the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, TNFα, IL6, or IL12. In addition, n3 fatty acids attenuated the increase in inflammatory adipose tissue CD16(-)CD14(+) macrophages induced by high palm oil. High-fat diets with and without n3 fatty acids both induced hyperglycemia without hyperinsulinemia. The high-fat only group but not the high-fat group with n3 fatty acids showed reduced insulin sensitivity in response to insulin challenge. This effect was not mediated by decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B. Therefore, in obese Ossabaw swine, n3 fatty acids partially attenuate insulin resistance but only marginally change inflammatory status and macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue.

  3. The impact of force on the timing of bruises evaluated in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2016-05-01

    In animal models developed in order to estimate the age of bruises, focus has been on the changes over time and not considering the force used to inflict the trauma. In the present study, gross and histological changes in 2, 4, 6 and 8 h old bruises which were inflicted with a low, moderate and high force were compared. Twelve experimental pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of force (low, moderate and high force). All pigs were anesthetized, and on each animal four blunt traumas were inflicted on the back with the low, moderate or high force according to the groups. The pigs were kept in anesthesia for 2, 4, 6 or 8 h, after which they were euthanized, and skin and muscle tissues were sampled for histology. As control, two pigs were included. The gross appearance of bruises developed similarly until 0.5 h after infliction at which time the visibility of the bruises depended on the force. The infiltration of subcutaneous neutrophils depended on the time and force used which was confirmed by both manual evaluation and image analysis of immunostained skin sections. In the muscle tissue, the number of macrophages was found useful for age determination in bruises inflicted with the highest force. Therefore, when evaluating forensic cases of bruises in both human and veterinary pathology the impact of force and not only the timing should be taken into consideration.

  4. Feasibility of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Hemar, Julie; Hasirci, Vasif; Breton, Pierre; Damour, Odile

    2012-08-01

    Oral tissue engineering aims to treat and fill tissue deficits caused by congenital defects, facial trauma, or malignant lesion surgery, as well as to study the biology of oral mucosa. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) require a large animal model to evaluate cell-based devices, including tissue-engineered oral mucosa, prior to initiating human clinical studies. Porcine oral mucosa is non-keratinized and resembles that of humans more closely than any other animal in terms of structure and composition; however, there have not been any reports on the reconstruction of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent, probably due to the difficulty to culture porcine fibroblasts. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a 3D porcine oral mucosa equivalent based on a collagen-GAG-chitosan scaffold, as well as reconstructed porcine epithelium by using an amniotic membrane as support, or without any support in form of epithelial cell sheets by using thermoresponsive culture plates. Explants technique was used for the isolation of the porcine fibroblasts and a modified fibroblast medium containing 20% fetal calf serum was used for their culture. The histological and transmission electron microscopic analyses of the resulting porcine oral mucosa models showed the presence of non-keratinized epithelia expressing keratin 13, the major differentiation marker of non-keratinized oral mucosa, in all models, and the presence of newly synthesized collagen fibers in the lamina propria equivalent of the full-thickness model, indicating the functionality of porcine fibroblasts. PMID:22309108

  5. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C.; Gridley, Daila S.; Seykora, John T.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the dermis upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. PMID:26256624

  6. Biomechanical investigation of impact induced rib fractures of a porcine infant surrogate model.

    PubMed

    Blackburne, William B; Waddell, J Neil; Swain, Michael V; Alves de Sousa, Ricardo J; Kieser, Jules A

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the structural, biomechanical and fractographic features of rib fractures in a piglet model, to test the hypothesis that fist impact, apart from thoracic squeezing, may result in lateral costal fractures as observed in abused infants. A mechanical fist with an accelerometer was constructed and fixed to a custom jig. Twenty stillborn piglets in the supine position were impacted on the thoracic cage. The resultant force versus time curves from the accelerometer data showed a number of steps indicative of rib fracture. The correlation between impact force and number of fractures was statistically significant (Pearson׳s r=0.528). Of the fractures visualized, 15 completely pierced the parietal pleura of the thoracic wall, and 5 had butterfly fracture patterning. Scanning electron microscopy showed complete bone fractures, at the zone of impact, were normal to the axis of the ribs. Incomplete vertical fractures, with bifurcation, occurred on the periphery of the contact zone. This work suggests the mechanism of rib failure during a fist impact is typical of the transverse fracture pattern in the anterolateral region associated with cases of non-accidental rib injury. The impact events investigated have a velocity of ~2-3m/s, approximately 2×10(4) times faster than previous quasi-static axial and bending tests. While squeezing the infantile may induce buckle fractures in the anterior as well as posterior region of the highly flexible bones, a fist punch impact event may result in anterolateral transverse fractures. Hence, these findings suggest that the presence of anterolateral rib fractures may result from impact rather than manual compression.

  7. Biomechanical investigation of impact induced rib fractures of a porcine infant surrogate model.

    PubMed

    Blackburne, William B; Waddell, J Neil; Swain, Michael V; Alves de Sousa, Ricardo J; Kieser, Jules A

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the structural, biomechanical and fractographic features of rib fractures in a piglet model, to test the hypothesis that fist impact, apart from thoracic squeezing, may result in lateral costal fractures as observed in abused infants. A mechanical fist with an accelerometer was constructed and fixed to a custom jig. Twenty stillborn piglets in the supine position were impacted on the thoracic cage. The resultant force versus time curves from the accelerometer data showed a number of steps indicative of rib fracture. The correlation between impact force and number of fractures was statistically significant (Pearson׳s r=0.528). Of the fractures visualized, 15 completely pierced the parietal pleura of the thoracic wall, and 5 had butterfly fracture patterning. Scanning electron microscopy showed complete bone fractures, at the zone of impact, were normal to the axis of the ribs. Incomplete vertical fractures, with bifurcation, occurred on the periphery of the contact zone. This work suggests the mechanism of rib failure during a fist impact is typical of the transverse fracture pattern in the anterolateral region associated with cases of non-accidental rib injury. The impact events investigated have a velocity of ~2-3m/s, approximately 2×10(4) times faster than previous quasi-static axial and bending tests. While squeezing the infantile may induce buckle fractures in the anterior as well as posterior region of the highly flexible bones, a fist punch impact event may result in anterolateral transverse fractures. Hence, these findings suggest that the presence of anterolateral rib fractures may result from impact rather than manual compression. PMID:27310573

  8. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C; Gridley, Daila S; Seykora, John T; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed.

  9. Laparoscopic Mesh Fixation Using Laser-Assisted Tissue Soldering in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Soltz, Barbara A.; Stadler, Istvan; Soltz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective: Animal studies using open surgical models indicate that collagen solder is capable of fixation of surgical meshes without interfering with tissue integration, increasing adhesions, or increasing inflammation intraperitoneally. This study describes development of instrumentation and techniques for laparoscopic herniorrhaphy using laser-assisted soldering technology. Study Design and Methods: Anesthetized 20 kg to 25 kg female Yorkshire pigs underwent laparoscopy with a 3-trocar technique. Parietex TET, Parietex TEC, and Prolene mesh segments (5 × 5 cm) were embedded in 55% collagen solder. Segments were inserted by using a specially designed introducer and affixed to the peritoneum by using prototype laser devices (1.45 µ, 4.5 W continuous wave, 5-mm spot, 55° C set temperature) and a custom laparoscopic handpiece (IPOM). Parietex PCO mesh was inserted and affixed using the Endo-hernia stapler (Control). Animals were recovered and underwent second-look laparoscopy at 6 weeks. Mesh sites were harvested after animals were euthanized. Results: The mesh-solder constructs were easily inserted and affixed in an IPOM approach. Prolene mesh tended to curl at its edges as the solder was melted. Postoperative healing was similar to that in Control segments in all cases. Discussion and Conclusion: Collagen-based tissue soldering permits normal wound healing and may mitigate or reduce the use of staples or other foreign bodies for laparoscopic mesh fixation, prevent tissue ischemia and possibly nerve entrapment, which result in severe postoperative pain and morbidity. Laser-assisted mesh fixation is a promising alternative for laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Further development of this strategy is warranted. PMID:19793465

  10. Acute hematological effects of solar particle event proton radiation in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, J K; Wan, X S; Wroe, A J; Rightnar, S; Cengel, K A; Diffenderfer, E S; Krigsfeld, G S; Gridley, D S; Kennedy, A R

    2013-07-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) is expected to occur in astronauts during large solar particle events (SPEs). One parameter associated with ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which can result from decreased numbers of circulating blood cells in those exposed to radiation. The peripheral blood cells are critical for an adequate immune response, and low blood cell counts can result in an increased susceptibility to infection. In this study, Yucatan minipigs were exposed to proton radiation within a range of skin dose levels expected for an SPE (estimated from previous SPEs). The proton-radiation exposure resulted in significant decreases in total white blood cell count (WBC) within 1 day of exposure, 60% below baseline control value or preirradiation values. At the lowest level of the blood cell counts, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were decreased up to 89.5%, 60.4%, 73.2% and 75.5%, respectively, from the preirradiation values. Monocytes and lymphocytes were decreased by an average of 70% (compared to preirradiation values) as early as 4 h after radiation exposure. Skin doses greater than 5 Gy resulted in decreased blood cell counts up to 90 days after exposure. The results reported here are similar to studies of ARS using the nonhuman primate model, supporting the use of the Yucatan minipig as an alternative. In addition, the high prevalence of hematologic abnormalities resulting from exposure to acute, whole-body SPE-like proton radiation warrants the development of appropriate countermeasures to prevent or treat ARS occurring in astronauts during space travel.

  11. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C; Gridley, Daila S; Seykora, John T; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. PMID:26256624

  12. Autologous Graft Thickness Affects Scar Contraction and Quality in a Porcine Excisional Wound Model

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lloyd F.; Wu, Jesse C.; Tucker, David I.; Chan, Maren M.; Christy, Robert J.; Hale, Robert G.; Leung, Kai P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Texture, color, and durability are important characteristics to consider for skin replacement in conspicuous and/or mobile regions of the body such as the face, neck, and hands. Although autograft thickness is a known determinant of skin quality, few studies have correlated the subjective and objective characters of skin graft healing with their associated morphologic and cellular profiles. Defining these relationships may help guide development and evaluation of future skin replacement strategies. Methods: Six-centimeter-diameter full-thickness wounds were created on the back of female Yorkshire pigs and covered by autografts of variable thicknesses. Skin quality was assessed on day 120 using an observer scar assessment score and objective determinations for scar contraction, erythema, pigmentation, and surface irregularities. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical assessments were performed. Results: Thick grafts demonstrated lower observer scar assessment score (better quality) and decreased erythema, pigmentation, and surface irregularities. Histologically, thin grafts resulted in scar-like collagen proliferation while thick grafts preserves the dermal architecture. Increased vascularity and prolonged and increased cellular infiltration were observed among thin grafts. In addition, thin grafts contained predominately dense collagen fibers, whereas thick grafts had loosely arranged collagen. α-Smooth muscle actin staining for myofibroblasts was observed earlier and persisted longer among thinner grafts. Conclusions: Graft thickness is an important determinant of skin quality. High-quality skin replacements are associated with preserved collagen architecture, decreased neovascularization, and decreased inflammatory cellular infiltration. This model, using autologous skin as a metric of quality, may give a more informative analysis of emerging skin replacement strategies. PMID:26301157

  13. Characterization of ventricular depolarization and repolarization changes in a porcine model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniel; Ringborn, Michael; Demidova, Marina; Koul, Sasha; Laguna, Pablo; Platonov, Pyotr G; Pueyo, Esther

    2012-12-01

    In this study, several electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived indices corresponding to both ventricular depolarization and repolarization were evaluated during acute myocardial ischemia in an experimental model of myocardial infarction produced by 40 min coronary balloon inflation in 13 pigs. Significant changes were rapidly observed from minute 4 after the start of coronary occlusion, achieving their maximum values between 11 and 22 min for depolarization and between 9 and 12 min for repolarization indices, respectively. Subsequently, these maximum changes started to decrease during the latter part of the occlusion. Depolarization changes associated with the second half of the QRS complex showed a significant but inverse correlation with the myocardium at risk (MaR) estimated by scintigraphic images. The correlation between MaR and changes of the downward slope of the QRS complex, [Formula: see text], evaluated at the two more relevant peaks observed during the occlusion, was r = -0.75, p < 0.01 and r = -0.79, p < 0.01 for the positive and negative deflections observed in [Formula: see text], temporal evolution, respectively. Repolarization changes, analyzed by evaluation of ST segment elevation at the main observed positive peak, also showed negative, however non-significant correlation with MaR: r = -0.34, p = 0.28. Our results suggest that changes evaluated in the latter part of the depolarization, such as those described by [Formula: see text], which are influenced by R-wave amplitude, QRS width and ST level variations simultaneously, correlate better with the amount of ischemia than other indices evaluated in the earlier part of depolarization or during the ST segment.

  14. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C.; Gridley, Daila S.; Seykora, John T.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed.

  15. Prothrombin complex concentrate mitigates diffuse bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Kaspereit, F.; Hoffmann, S.; Pragst, I.; Dickneite, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal circuit priming and intravascular volume expansion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may lead to dilutional coagulopathy and excessive diffuse postoperative bleeding. Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) containing clotting factors II (FII), VII (FVII), IX (FIX), and X (FX) could be of potential value in correcting dilutional coagulopathy and reducing blood loss. Methods Anaesthetized pigs underwent CPB with hypothermia for 2 h at 25°C followed by 1 h of normothermia. Approximately 1 h after CPB, animals randomly received either isotonic saline 1 ml kg−1 or PCC 30 IU kg−1 in a volume of 1 ml kg−1. Diffuse coagulopathic bleeding was assessed as suture hole blood loss from a Gore-Tex patch placed over a full-thickness incision in the left carotid artery. Results After CPB, levels of FII, FVII, FIX, and FX declined from baseline by 32% to 48%, and PCC fully or partially reversed those deficits. Median suture hole blood loss after administration of saline placebo was 74 ml. PCC reduced suture hole bleeding by a median of 54 ml with a 95% confidence interval of 6–112 ml (P=0.026) compared with saline. PCC, but not saline, normalized skin bleeding time. Peak thrombin generation markedly decreased after CPB, but then returned in PCC-treated animals to a level higher than baseline by 28.7 nM (14.5–41.1 nM; P=0.031). Conclusions PCC was effective in correcting dilutional coagulopathy and reducing diffuse bleeding in an in vivo large-animal CPB model. Further research is warranted on PCC as a haemostatic agent in CPB. PMID:20716565

  16. Size dependent skin penetration of nanoparticles in murine and porcine dermatitis models.

    PubMed

    Try, Céline; Moulari, Brice; Béduneau, Arnaud; Fantini, Oscar; Pin, Didier; Pellequer, Yann; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-03-01

    A major limitation in the current topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases is the inability to selectively deliver the drug to the inflammation site. Recently, smart drug delivery systems such as nanocarriers are being investigated to enhance the selective deposition of anti-inflammatory drugs in inflamed areas of the skin to achieve higher therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Of such systems, polymeric nanoparticles are considered very efficient carriers for the topical drug delivery. In the current work, poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles of nominal sizes of 70nm (NP70) and 300nm (NP300) were studied for their intra-epidermal distribution in murine and pig atopic dermatitis models over time against the respective healthy controls. Confocal laser scanning microscopical examination of skin biopsies was utilized for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of nanoparticles skin deposition and penetration depth. While no skin penetration was found for any of the particles in healthy skin, the accumulation of NP70 was significantly higher than NP300 in inflamed skin (15-fold in mice, 5-fold in pigs). Penetration depth of NP70 decreased over time in mice from 55±3μm to 20±2μm and similar tendencies were observed for the other formulations. In inflamed pig skin, a similar trend was found for the penetration depth (NP70: 46±12μm versus NP300: 23±3μm); however, the NP amount remained constant for the whole analyzed period. Their ability to penetrate specifically into inflamed skin combined with minimal effects on healthy skin underlines small polymeric nanoparticles' potential as selective drug carriers in future treatment of chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis.

  17. Hepatic differentiation of porcine embryonic stem cells for translational research of hepatocyte transplantation.

    PubMed

    Park, K M; Hussein, K H; Ghim, J H; Ahn, C; Cha, S H; Lee, G S; Hong, S H; Yang, S; Woo, H M

    2015-04-01

    Porcine embryonic stem cells (ES) are considered attractive preclinical research tools for human liver diseases. Although several studies previously reported generation of porcine ES, none of these studies has described hepatic differentiation from porcine ES. The aim of this study was to generate hepatocytes from porcine ES and analyze their characteristics. We optimized conditions for definitive endoderm induction and developed a 4-step hepatic differentiation protocol. A brief serum-free condition with activin A efficiently induced definitive endoderm differentiation from porcine ES. The porcine ES-derived hepatocyte-like cells highly expressed hepatic markers including albumin and α-fetoprotein, and displayed liver characteristics such as glycogen storage, lipid production, and low-density lipoprotein uptake. For the first time, we describe a highly efficient protocol for hepatic differentiation from porcine ES. Our findings provide valuable information for translational liver research using porcine models, including hepatic regeneration and transplant studies, drug screening, and toxicology.

  18. Quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging in a porcine ischemia model using a prototype spectral detector CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Levi, Jacob; Fares, Anas; Dhanantwari, Amar; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    We optimized and evaluated dynamic myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging on a prototype spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner. Simultaneous acquisition of energy sensitive projections on the SDCT system enabled projection-based material decomposition, which typically performs better than image-based decomposition required by some other system designs. In addition to virtual monoenergetic, or keV images, the SDCT provided conventional (kVp) images, allowing us to compare and contrast results. Physical phantom measurements demonstrated linearity of keV images, a requirement for quantitative perfusion. Comparisons of kVp to keV images demonstrated very significant reductions in tell-tale beam hardening (BH) artifacts in both phantom and pig images. In phantom images, consideration of iodine contrast to noise ratio and small residual BH artifacts suggested optimum processing at 70 keV. The processing pipeline for dynamic CTP measurements included 4D image registration, spatio-temporal noise filtering, and model-independent singular value decomposition deconvolution, automatically regularized using the L-curve criterion. In normal pig CTP, 70 keV perfusion estimates were homogeneous throughout the myocardium. At 120 kVp, flow was reduced by more than 20% on the BH-hypo-enhanced myocardium, a range that might falsely indicate actionable ischemia, considering the 0.8 threshold for actionable FFR. With partial occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery (FFR  <  0.8), perfusion defects at 70 keV were correctly identified in the LAD territory. At 120 kVp, BH affected the size and flow in the ischemic area; e.g. with FFR ≈ 0.65, the anterior-to-lateral flow ratio was 0.29  ±  0.01, over-estimating stenosis severity as compared to 0.42  ±  0.01 (p  <  0.05) at 70 keV. On the non-ischemic inferior wall (not a LAD territory), the flow ratio was 0.50  ±  0.04 falsely indicating an actionable ischemic condition in a healthy

  19. Quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging in a porcine ischemia model using a prototype spectral detector CT system.

    PubMed

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L; Levi, Jacob; Fares, Anas; Dhanantwari, Amar; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G; Wilson, David L

    2016-03-21

    We optimized and evaluated dynamic myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging on a prototype spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner. Simultaneous acquisition of energy sensitive projections on the SDCT system enabled projection-based material decomposition, which typically performs better than image-based decomposition required by some other system designs. In addition to virtual monoenergetic, or keV images, the SDCT provided conventional (kVp) images, allowing us to compare and contrast results. Physical phantom measurements demonstrated linearity of keV images, a requirement for quantitative perfusion. Comparisons of kVp to keV images demonstrated very significant reductions in tell-tale beam hardening (BH) artifacts in both phantom and pig images. In phantom images, consideration of iodine contrast to noise ratio and small residual BH artifacts suggested optimum processing at 70 keV. The processing pipeline for dynamic CTP measurements included 4D image registration, spatio-temporal noise filtering, and model-independent singular value decomposition deconvolution, automatically regularized using the L-curve criterion. In normal pig CTP, 70 keV perfusion estimates were homogeneous throughout the myocardium. At 120 kVp, flow was reduced by more than 20% on the BH-hypo-enhanced myocardium, a range that might falsely indicate actionable ischemia, considering the 0.8 threshold for actionable FFR. With partial occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery (FFR < 0.8), perfusion defects at 70 keV were correctly identified in the LAD territory. At 120 kVp, BH affected the size and flow in the ischemic area; e.g. with FFR ≈ 0.65, the anterior-to-lateral flow ratio was 0.29 ± 0.01, over-estimating stenosis severity as compared to 0.42 ± 0.01 (p < 0.05) at 70 keV. On the non-ischemic inferior wall (not a LAD territory), the flow ratio was 0.50 ± 0.04 falsely indicating an actionable ischemic condition in a healthy territory. This ratio was 1.00 ± 0.08 at 70 ke

  20. Evaluation of a Novel Laser-assisted Coronary Anastomotic Connector - the Trinity Clip - in a Porcine Off-pump Bypass Model

    PubMed Central

    Stecher, David; Bronkers, Glenn; Noest, Jappe O.T.; Tulleken, Cornelis A.F.; Hoefer, Imo E.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Buijsrogge, Marc P.

    2014-01-01

    To simplify and facilitate beating heart (i.e., off-pump), minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery, a new coronary anastomotic connector, the Trinity Clip, is developed based on the excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis technique. The Trinity Clip connector enables simplified, sutureless, and nonocclusive connection of the graft to the coronary artery, and an excimer laser catheter laser-punches the opening of the anastomosis. Consequently, owing to the complete nonocclusive anastomosis construction, coronary conditioning (i.e., occluding or shunting) is not necessary, in contrast to the conventional anastomotic technique, hence simplifying the off-pump bypass procedure. Prior to clinical application in coronary artery bypass grafting, the safety and quality of this novel connector will be evaluated in a long-term experimental porcine off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) study. In this paper, we describe how to evaluate the coronary anastomosis in the porcine OPCAB model using various techniques to assess its quality. Representative results are summarized and visually demonstrated. PMID:25490000

  1. A Comparison of a Fully Covered and an Uncovered Segmented Biodegradable Esophageal Stent in a Porcine Model: Preclinical Evaluation of Degradation, Complications, and Tissue Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yadong; Jiao, Chunhua; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Ye; Chen, Yanfang; Fang, Lin; Shi, Ruihua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study was to compare the degradation, complications, and tissue reactions of two segmented biodegradable esophageal stents in a porcine model. Methods. Uncovered biodegradable segmented stents and fully covered biodegradable segmented stents (FCBDS) were transplanted into the porcine esophagus lumen. Data on biodegradation, complications, and tissue reactions were collected and compared. Results. All animals kept good general conditions. No severe complications and stents migration occurred. Stents degradation commenced at week 3. Compared with uncovered stents, stents structure breakage and complete stents absorption in FCBDS were postponed for 1-2 weeks. Hyperplasia was prominent at early stage and ameliorated at late stage after stents insertion. Tissue reactions in FCBDS were milder than those in uncovered stents in the early stage. A longer degradation period was present in FCBDS than in uncovered stents, while FCBDS induced tissue reaction at late stage was mild. Conclusions. Biodegradable esophageal stents with a segmented trunk may be further evaluated in refractory benign esophagus strictures. This FCBDS may be advantageous compared with uncovered stents for a longer degradation period. PMID:27022391

  2. Interactive real-time mapping and catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus guided by magnetic resonance imaging in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Boris A.; Koops, Andreas; Rostock, Thomas; Müllerleile, Kai; Steven, Daniel; Karst, Roman; Steinke, Mark U.; Drewitz, Imke; Lund, Gunnar; Koops, Susan; Adam, Gerhard; Willems, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Aims We investigated the feasibility of real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RTMRI) guided ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) by using a MRI-compatible ablation catheter. Methods and results Cavotricuspid isthmus ablation was performed in an interventional RTMRI suite by using a novel 7 French, steerable, non-ferromagnetic ablation catheter in a porcine in vivo model (n = 20). The catheter was introduced and navigated by RTMRI visualization only. Catheter position and movement during manipulation were continuously visualized during the entire intervention. Two porcine prematurely died due to VT/VF. Anatomical completion of the CTI ablation line could be achieved after a mean of 6.3±3 RF pulses (RF energy: 1807±1016.4 Ws/RF pulse, temperature: 55.9±5.9°C) in n = 18 animals. In 15 of 18 procedures (83.3%) a complete CTI block was proven by conventional mapping in the electrophysiological (EP) lab. Conclusion Completely non-fluoroscopic ablation guided by RTMRI using a steerable and non-ferromagnetic catheter is a promising novel technology in interventional electrophysiology. PMID:19897495

  3. Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Christopher

    Stimulating work in many areas of environmental science has led to a growing awareness of and concern for the global environment. The subject of global change itself can be expressed narrowly, in terms of anthropogenic impacts on climate, or offered in the broadest sense, to include all changes occurring in the Earth-ocean-atmosphere system, either naturally, or as a result of human-induced interactions. Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring chooses the latter expression, and the authors ambitiously propose a unified global modeling system to study and monitor all such changes and provide real-time assessments to assist policymakers.Although the text is divided into 11 chapters, it conceptually splits into four sections. The introduction frames the need for a centralized, international monitoring organization by predicting the catastrophic trajectory of unsustainable development of the present Earth system based on a range of environmental and societal indicators; for example, enhanced atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, tropical forest destruction, unchecked fossil fuel consumption, and increases in human disease. The second section presents an overall structure of a system designed to chart this trajectory: a global observational data base linked to a vast model—or really a collection of interconnected modeling units—spanning ocean, atmospheric and terrestrial hydrodynamics, chemistry, and biology. The third section, which represents the bulk of the text, considers specific applications of the model as explored by the authors. The final two chapters describe some recent developments in microwave remote sensing capabilities and some theory into hypothesis testing and decision-making.

  4. Georeferenced model simulations efficiently support targeted monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlekamp, Jürgen; Klasmeier, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands the good ecological and chemical status of surface waters. To meet the definition of good chemical status of the WFD surface water concentrations of priority pollutants must not exceed established environmental quality standards (EQS). Surveillance of the concentrations of numerous chemical pollutants in whole river basins by monitoring is laborious and time-consuming. Moreover, measured data do often not allow for immediate source apportionment which is a prerequisite for defining promising reduction strategies to be implemented within the programme of measures. In this context, spatially explicit model approaches are highly advantageous because they provide a direct link between local point emissions (e.g. treated wastewater) or diffuse non-point emissions (e.g. agricultural runoff) and resulting surface water concentrations. Scenario analyses with such models allow for a priori investigation of potential positive effects of reduction measures such as optimization of wastewater treatment. The geo-referenced model GREAT-ER (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) has been designed to calculate spatially resolved averaged concentrations for different flow conditions (e.g. mean or low flow) based on emission estimations for local point source emissions such as treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The methodology was applied to selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, sotalol, metoprolol, carbamazepin) in the Main river basin in Germany (approx. 27,290 km²). Average concentrations of the compounds were calculated for each river reach in the whole catchment. Simulation results were evaluated by comparison with available data from orienting monitoring and used to develop an optimal monitoring strategy for the assessment of water quality regarding micropollutants at the catchment scale.

  5. Identification of co-expression gene networks, regulatory genes and pathways for obesity based on adipose tissue RNA Sequencing in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a complex metabolic condition in strong association with various diseases, like type 2 diabetes, resulting in major public health and economic implications. Obesity is the result of environmental and genetic factors and their interactions, including genome-wide genetic interactions. Identification of co-expressed and regulatory genes in RNA extracted from relevant tissues representing lean and obese individuals provides an entry point for the identification of genes and pathways of importance to the development of obesity. The pig, an omnivorous animal, is an excellent model for human obesity, offering the possibility to study in-depth organ-level transcriptomic regulations of obesity, unfeasible in humans. Our aim was to reveal adipose tissue co-expression networks, pathways and transcriptional regulations of obesity using RNA Sequencing based systems biology approaches in a porcine model. Methods We selected 36 animals for RNA Sequencing from a previously created F2 pig population representing three extreme groups based on their predicted genetic risks for obesity. We applied Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to detect clusters of highly co-expressed genes (modules). Additionally, regulator genes were detected using Lemon-Tree algorithms. Results WGCNA revealed five modules which were strongly correlated with at least one obesity-related phenotype (correlations ranging from -0.54 to 0.72, P < 0.001). Functional annotation identified pathways enlightening the association between obesity and other diseases, like osteoporosis (osteoclast differentiation, P = 1.4E-7), and immune-related complications (e.g. Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxity, P = 3.8E-5; B cell receptor signaling pathway, P = 7.2E-5). Lemon-Tree identified three potential regulator genes, using confident scores, for the WGCNA module which was associated with osteoclast differentiation: CCR1, MSR1 and SI1 (probability scores respectively 95.30, 62.28, and

  6. Use of porcine vaginal tissue ex-vivo to model environmental effects on vaginal mucosa to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Catherine C.; Baccam, Mekhine; Mantz, Mary J.; Osborn, Thomas W.; Hill, Donna R.; Squier, Christopher A.

    2014-01-15

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS) is a rare, recognizable, and treatable disease that has been associated with tampon use epidemiologically. It involves a confluence of microbial risk factors (Staphylococcus aureus strains that produce the superantigen—TSST-1), as well as environmental characteristics of the vaginal ecosystem during menstruation and host susceptibility factors. This paper describes a series of experiments using the well-characterized model of porcine vaginal mucosa ex-vivo to assess the effect of these factors associated with tampon use on the permeability of the mucosa. The flux of radiolabeled TSST-1 and tritiated water ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O) through porcine vaginal mucosa was determined at various temperatures, after mechanical disruption of the epithelial surface by tape stripping, after treatment with surfactants or other compounds, and in the presence of microbial virulence factors. Elevated temperatures (42, 47 and 52 °C) did not significantly increase flux of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O. Stripping of the epithelial layers significantly increased the flux of labeled toxin in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of benzalkonium chloride (0.1 and 0.5%) and glycerol (4%) significantly increased the flux of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O but sodium lauryl sulfate at any concentration tested did not. The flux of the labeled toxin was significantly increased in the presence of benzalkonium chloride but not Pluronic® L92 and Tween 20 and significantly increased with addition of α-hemolysin but not endotoxin. These results show that the permeability of porcine vagina ex-vivo to labeled toxin or water can be used to evaluate changes to the vaginal environment and modifications in tampon materials, and thus aid in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Model assessed local effects of tampon use on vaginal mucosa. • Risks were evaluated using two tracers to assess permeability in an ex vivo model. • Mechanical damage to the epithelial surface increased tracer penetration.

  7. Effect of Splenic Regulatory T-cell Apoptosis on the Postresuscitation Immune Dysfunction in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Li, Chun-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postresuscitation immune dysfunction contributes to the low survival rate after successful resuscitation, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether splenic regulatory T-cell (Treg) apoptosis was involved in the postresuscitation immune dysfunction. Methods: Thirty-eight pigs were randomly divided into sham-operated group (SHAM group, n = 8), 12 h post return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) group, 24 h post-ROSC group, and 48 h post-ROSC group (n = 10 per group). A Wuzhishan miniature porcine model of 8-min ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (CA) was established. The apoptosis rates of Treg in the spleen were tested by flow cytometry; the expressions of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3) of Treg in the spleen were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction; and the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) of Treg in the spleen were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The apoptosis rates of Treg in all post-ROSC groups were significantly lower than that of SHAM group (7.7% ± 1.9%, 7.1% ± 1.8%, 6.2% ± 0.4% vs. 13.1% ± 1.6%; P < 0.05); the expression levels of Foxp3 and IL-10 were also decreased with the increase of apoptosis rates of Treg. Helper T-cells CD4+ lymphocyte subsets were significantly lower in the post-ROSC groups compared with SHAM group (29.1% ± 2.2%, 24.3% ± 2.2%, 24.1% ± 2.5% vs. 43.8% ± 4.5%; P < 0.01) at 12, 24, and 48 h after ROSC. Compared with SHAM group, the levels of IFN-γ (161.0 ± 12.9, 167.7 ± 10.5, 191.2 ± 7.7 vs. 7.6 ± 0.9 ng/L) and IL-4 (27.7 ± 6.2, 35.9 ± 3.5, 50.6 ± 6.1 vs. 13.3 ± 2.3 ng/L) and the ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 (8.6 ± 2.3, 4.9 ± 0.4, 4.5 ± 0.9 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2) were all greatly elevated in all post-ROSC groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Apoptosis rate of Treg was significantly decreased after CA, and thus the proportion of Treg was increased and the inhibitory effects were

  8. Suspended Sediment Monitoring Strategies Reduce Model Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eads, R.; O'Connor, M.

    2007-12-01

    Regulatory agencies require development and implementation of Total Maximum Daily Loads for watersheds listed under section 303d of the Clean Water Act. For rivers identified as sediment impaired, methods are required to identify sediment sources and to estimate loading capacities, and models, such as sediment budgets, are often employed. Models can be tested and improved when stream monitoring provides accurate estimates of sediment loads. Motivated by proposed vineyard development on forested ridges in a sediment-listed watershed in the Coast Range of northern California, four tributaries to Gualala River ranging in size from 300 to 800 ha2 were monitored over two winter seasons. More than 1850 samples were analyzed for suspended sediment concentration. Inter- annual variability of sediment loads from wet and dry years is compared. Traditional methods for estimating suspended sediment loads often rely on measurements, such as water discharge, that are not well correlated to sediment concentration due to the highly variable routing of sediment to the channel from hillslopes, roads, and landslides. A method, such as Turbidity Threshold Sampling, that employs a parameter well correlated to suspended sediment concentration can improve sampling efficiency by collecting samples that are distributed over a range of rising and falling concentrations. The resulting set of samples can be used to estimate sediment loads by establishing a relationship between concentration and turbidity for any sampled period and applying it to the continuous turbidity record.

  9. Lentiviral Vector Gene Transfer to Porcine Airways

    PubMed Central

    Sinn, Patrick L; Cooney, Ashley L; Oakland, Mayumi; Dylla, Douglas E; Wallen, Tanner J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Chang, Eugene H; McCray, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE) and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE). Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1–based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF). PMID:23187455

  10. The Effects of Negative Pressure by External Tissue Expansion Device on Epithelial Cell Proliferation, Neo-Vascularization and Hair Growth in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hui-Yi; Liu, Jia-Wei; Brey, Eric M.; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2016-01-01

    While pre-treating a fat transplant recipient site with negative pressure has shown promise for increasing the fat survival rate, the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated, partly due to challenges related to immobilization of vacuum domes on large animal subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of negative pressure treatment by External Tissue Expansion Device (ETED) on fat grating recipient sites in a porcine model. The ETED was designed to provide negative pressure on the dorsum of swine. Pressure treatment (-70 mmHg) was applied for 1 or 3 hours every other day for 10 and 20 treatments. The treated areas (3.5 cm in diameter) were harvested and examined for histological changes, vessel density, cell proliferation (Ki67) and growth factor expression (FGF-1, VEGF and PDGB-bb). The application of the ETED increased epidermis thickness even after 1-hour treatments repeated 10 times. The results of Ki67 analysis suggested that the increasing thickness was due to cell proliferation in the epidermis. There was a more than two-fold increase in the vessel density, indicating that the ETED promotes vascularization. Unexpectedly, the treatment also increased the number of hair follicles. Negative pressure provided by the ETED increases the thickness of epidermis section of tissue, cell proliferation and vessel density. The porcine model provides a better representation of the effect of the ETED on skin tissue compared to small animal models and provides an environment for studying the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of negative pressure treatment. PMID:27128731

  11. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) of rotavirus infection as a new model for the study of innate immune responses to rotaviruses and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangning; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Cao, Dianjun; Zhang, Yanming; Yuan, Lijuan

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies of epithelial immune responses to rotavirus infection have been conducted in transformed cell lines. In this study, we evaluated a non-transformed porcine jejunum epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) as an in-vitro model of rotavirus infection and probiotic treatment. Cell-culture-adapted porcine rotavirus (PRV) OSU strain, or human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain, along with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were used to inoculate IPEC-J2 cells. LA or LGG treatment was applied pre- or post-rotavirus infection. We demonstrated that IPEC-J2 cells were productively infected by PRV. LA or LGG treatment of the cells did not reduce virus replication. PRV infection increased MUC3 mucin secretion. LGG treatment post-rotavirus infection reduced the mucin secretion response induced by PRV; LGG alone increased the production of membrane-associated MUC3 mucin. LA treatment prior to rotavirus infection significantly increased PRV replication and the IL-6 response to PRV infection, which is consistent with the adjuvant effect of LA. LGG treatment post-rotavirus infection downregulated the IL-6 response, confirming the anti-inflammatory effect of LGG. IPEC-J2 cells expressed toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR3, and TLR9 constitutively. TLR2 expression was upregulated by LGG and peptidoglycan, corresponding to the decreased IL-6 response, indicating that the protective effect of LGG is associated with upregulation of TLR2 expression on intestinal epithelial cells. The IPEC-J2 cell model of PRV infection is a completely homologous system. It is a valuable model for studying the interactions among rotavirus-host-probiotics, and the mechanisms behind the immunomodulating effect of probiotic bacteria on innate immune responses.

  12. The topical administration of rhEGF-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (rhEGF-NLC) improves healing in a porcine full-thickness excisional wound model.

    PubMed

    Gainza, Garazi; Bonafonte, Diego Celdran; Moreno, Beatriz; Aguirre, José Javier; Gutierrez, Francisco Borja; Villullas, Silvia; Pedraz, José Luis; Igartua, Manoli; Hernandez, Rosa Maria

    2015-01-10

    The development of an effective treatment able to reduce the healing time of chronic wounds is a major health care need. In this regard, our research group has recently demonstrated the in vivo effectiveness of the topical administration of rhEGF-loaded lipid nanoparticles in healing-impaired db/db mice. Here we report the effectiveness of rhEGF-NLC (rhEGF loaded nanostructured lipid carriers) in a more relevant preclinical model of wound healing, the porcine full-thickness excisional wound model. The rhEGF-NLC showed a particle size of around 335nm, negative surface charge (-27mV) and a high encapsulation efficiency of 94%. rhEGF plasma levels were almost undetectable, suggesting that no systemic absorption occurred, which may minimise potential side effects and improve treatment safety. In vivo healing experiments carried out in large white pigs demonstrated that 20μg of rhEGF-NLC topically administered twice a week increased the wound closure and percentage of healed wounds by day 25, compared with the same number of intralesional administrations of 75μg free rhEGF and empty NLC. Moreover, rhEGF-NLC improved the wound healing quality expressed in terms of number of arranged microvasculature, fibroblast migration and proliferation, collagen deposition and evolution of the inflammatory response. Overall, these findings demonstrated that topically administered rhEGF-NLC may generate de novo intact skin after full thickness injury in a porcine model, thereby confirming their potential clinical application for the treatment of chronic wounds.

  13. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo-Jiang; Li, Ping-Hua; Huang, Rui-Hua; Sun, Wen-Xing; Wang, Han; Li, Qi-Fa; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wang-Jun; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse) have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells.

  14. Revelation of the IFNα, IL-10, IL-8 and IL-1β as promising biomarkers reflecting immuno-pathological mechanisms in porcine Huntington's disease model.

    PubMed

    Valekova, Ivona; Jarkovska, Karla; Kotrcova, Eva; Bucci, John; Ellederova, Zdenka; Juhas, Stefan; Motlik, Jan; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-04-15

    Studies on Huntington's disease (HD) demonstrated altered immune response in HD gene carriers. Using multiplexing immunoassay, we simultaneously investigated seven cytokines in secretomes of microglia and blood monocytes, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum collected from transgenic HD minipigs at pre-symptomatic disease stage. Decline in IFNα and IL-10 was observed in CSF and secretome of microglia whilst elevated IL-8 and IL-1β levels were secreted by microglia. Additionally, IL-8 was increased in serum. The proportion of mutant huntingtin in microglia may have causative impact on cytokine production. IFNα, IL-10, IL-8 and IL-1β represent promising biomarkers reflecting immuno-pathological mechanisms in porcine HD model. PMID:27049565

  15. An Ultrasound Image-Based Dynamic Fusion Modeling Method for Predicting the Quantitative Impact of In Vivo Liver Motion on Intraoperative HIFU Therapies: Investigations in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Melodelima, David

    2015-01-01

    Organ motion is a key component in the treatment of abdominal tumors by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU), since it may influence the safety, efficacy and treatment time. Here we report the development in a porcine model of an Ultrasound (US) image-based dynamic fusion modeling method for predicting the effect of in vivo motion on intraoperative HIFU treatments performed in the liver in conjunction with surgery. A speckle tracking method was used on US images to quantify in vivo liver motions occurring intraoperatively during breathing and apnea. A fusion modeling of HIFU treatments was implemented by merging dynamic in vivo motion data in a numerical modeling of HIFU treatments. Two HIFU strategies were studied: a spherical focusing delivering 49 juxtapositions of 5-second HIFU exposures and a toroidal focusing using 1 single 40-second HIFU exposure. Liver motions during breathing were spatially homogenous and could be approximated to a rigid motion mainly encountered in the cranial-caudal direction (f = 0.20Hz, magnitude >13mm). Elastic liver motions due to cardiovascular activity, although negligible, were detectable near millimeter-wide sus-hepatic veins (f = 0.96Hz, magnitude <1mm). The fusion modeling quantified the deleterious effects of respiratory motions on the size and homogeneity of a standard “cigar-shaped” millimetric lesion usually predicted after a 5-second single spherical HIFU exposure in stationary tissues (Dice Similarity Coefficient: DSC<45%). This method assessed the ability to enlarge HIFU ablations during respiration, either by juxtaposing “cigar-shaped” lesions with spherical HIFU exposures, or by generating one large single lesion with toroidal HIFU exposures (DSC>75%). Fusion modeling predictions were preliminarily validated in vivo and showed the potential of using a long-duration toroidal HIFU exposure to accelerate the ablation process during breathing (from 0.5 to 6 cm3·min-1). To improve HIFU treatment control

  16. Histological analysis of cobalt-chromium stents with and without Camouflage® polymer coating: experimental porcine carotid artery model.

    PubMed

    Grudtner, Marco Aurélio; de Lara Elesbão, Joao Luiz; Gutierrez, Paulo Sérgio; Meyer, Fabíola Schons; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the arterial response to cobalt-chromium stents with and without polymer coating (Camouflage®, Hemoteq AG, Wuerselen, Germany) implanted in pigs. Cobalt-chromium balloon-expandable stents (4 × 16 mm) were implanted in the common carotid arteries of nine pigs. Histological analysis of endothelialization, inflammation and injury was performed one month later. All stents were successfully deployed, and all but one animal survived the 30 study days. All arteries were patent. Endothelialization was nearly complete in most sections of all carotid stents in both groups. There were mild inflammatory infiltrate and mild-to-moderate injury, which were associated with the stent shafts and not significantly different between groups. Our findings suggest that, in porcine carotid arteries, the histological response to balloon-expandable cobalt-chromium stents coated with polymer (Camouflage®, Hemoteq AG) is similar to the response to non-coated cobalt-chromium stents.

  17. A wound healing model with sonographic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Winkler, K; el-Gammal, S; Altmeyer, P

    1993-05-01

    The methods used hitherto for quantification of skin repair processes only allow an examiner a two-dimensional assessment of superficial wound healing. With the recent advent of high frequency B-scan ultrasonography in dermatology it has become possible to follow the course of healing and evaluate the healing processes in deeper layers of the skin. In this investigation 80 patients received cryosurgery for treatment of basal cell carcinomas on the face or neck region. As the size of cryosurgical defects can be precisely controlled they are potentially useful as standardized wound healing models. The course of wound healing after cryosurgery using a digital ultrasound scanner (DUB 20, Taberna pro medicum, Lüneburg, Germany) was monitored. The usable depth of penetration of the echo signal is approximately 7 mm. The lateral resolution is approximately 200 microns, the axial resolution approximately 80 microns. The cryolesion and the repair processes were examined ultrasonographically and clinically over a period of at least 3 weeks or until the wound had completely healed. The depth of invasion and lateral extent of the basal cell carcinoma as well as the size of the induced cryolesion can be determined by ultrasound. The exudative phase after cryosurgery, with developing oedema and necrosis, can be quantified on the basis of the reduced reflectivity in the corium. The repair processes taking place in the region of necrosis can be visualized in the ultrasound scan. The ultrasonically monitored wound healing model which we have demonstrated is particularly suitable for investigating the efficacy of drugs which promote healing.

  18. Safety of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Modified Live Virus (MLV) vaccine strains in a young pig infection model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the safety of all modified live virus vaccines commercially available in Europe against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) under the same experimental conditions. For this purpose, one hundred and twenty three-week-old piglets, divided into five groups, were used. On day 0 of the experiment, nine pigs per group were removed and the remaining fifteen were vaccinated with the commercial vaccines Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Amervac PRRS, Pyrsvac-183 and Porcilis PRRS by the IM route or were mock vaccinated and used as controls. On day 3, the nine unvaccinated pigs were re-introduced into their respective groups and served as sentinel pigs. Clinical signs were recorded daily and lung lesions were determined on days 7, 14 and 21, when 5 vaccinated pigs per group were euthanized. Blood samples and swabs were taken every three days and different organs were collected at necropsy to determine the presence of PRRSV. None of the vaccines studied caused detectable clinical signs in vaccinated pigs although lung lesions were found. Altogether, these results indicate that all vaccines can be considered clinically safe. However, some differences were found in virological parameters. Thus, neither Pyrsvac-183 nor Porcilis PRRS could be detected in porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cultures or in lung sections used to determine PRRSV by immunohistochemistry, indicating that these viruses might have lost their ability to replicate in PAM. This inability to replicate in PAM might be related to the lower transmission rate and the delay in the onset of viremia observed in these groups PMID:24308693

  19. Monitoring volcano activity through Hidden Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, C.; Montalto, P.; Prestifilippo, M.; Aliotta, M.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.

    2013-12-01

    During 2011-2013, Mt. Etna was mainly characterized by cyclic occurrences of lava fountains, totaling to 38 episodes. During this time interval Etna volcano's states (QUIET, PRE-FOUNTAIN, FOUNTAIN, POST-FOUNTAIN), whose automatic recognition is very useful for monitoring purposes, turned out to be strongly related to the trend of RMS (Root Mean Square) of the seismic signal recorded by stations close to the summit area. Since RMS time series behavior is considered to be stochastic, we can try to model the system generating its values, assuming to be a Markov process, by using Hidden Markov models (HMMs). HMMs are a powerful tool in modeling any time-varying series. HMMs analysis seeks to recover the sequence of hidden states from the observed emissions. In our framework, observed emissions are characters generated by the SAX (Symbolic Aggregate approXimation) technique, which maps RMS time series values with discrete literal emissions. The experiments show how it is possible to guess volcano states by means of HMMs and SAX.

  20. Biodegradable elastic patch plasty ameliorates left ventricular adverse remodeling after ischemia–reperfusion injury: A preclinical study of a porous polyurethane material in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Hashizume, Ryotaro; Fujimoto, Kazuro L.; Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Toma, Catalin; Tobita, Kimimasa; Wagner, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Myocardial infarction (MI) can lead to irreversible adverse left ventricular remodeling resulting in subsequent severe dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential for biodegradable, elastomeric patch implantation to positively alter the remodeling process after MI in a porcine model. Methods Yorkshire pigs underwent a 60-minute catheter balloon occlusion of the left circumflex artery. Two weeks after MI animals underwent epicardial placement of a biodegradable, porous polyurethane (poly(ester urethane)urea; PEUU) patch (MI+PEUU, n = 7) or sham surgery (MI+sham, n = 8). Echocardiography before surgery and at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery measured the end-diastolic area (EDA) and fractional area change (% FAC). All animals were humanely killed 8 weeks after surgery and hearts were histologically assessed. Results At 8 weeks, echocardiography revealed greater EDA values in the MI+sham group (23.6 ± 6.6 cm2 , mean ± standard deviaation) than in the MI+PEUU group (15.9 ± 2.5 cm2) (P < .05) and a lower %FAC in the MI+sham group (24.8 ± 7.6) than in the MI+PEUU group (35.9 ± 7.8) (P < .05). The infarcted ventricular wall was thicker in the MI+PEUU group (1.56 ± 0.5 cm) than in the MI+sham group (0.91 ± 0.24 cm) (P < .01). Conclusions Biodegradable elastomeric PEUU patch implantation onto the porcine heart 2 weeks post-MI attenuated left ventricular adverse remodeling and functional deterioration and was accompanied by increased neovascularization. These findings, although limited to a 2-month follow-up, may suggest an attractive clinical option to moderate post-MI cardiac failure. PMID:23219497

  1. Corneal-Protective Effects of an Artificial Tear Containing Sodium Hyaluronate and Castor Oil on a Porcine Short-Term Dry Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, Takashi; AMAKO, Hideki; YAMAMOTO, Takeshi; TAZAWA, Mariko; SAKAMOTO, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate (SH) and castor oil (CO) were evaluated on a porcine short-term dry eye model. Fresh porcine eyes with an intact cornea were treated with an artificial tear of saline, SH solution (0.1%, 0.5% or 1%), CO solution (0.5%, 1% or 5%) or a mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO and then desiccated for 60, 90 or 180 min. To assess corneal damage, the eyes were stained with methylene blue (MB) or lissamine green (LG). The staining score of MB, absorbance of MB extracted from the cornea and staining density of LG increased significantly with increasing desiccation time in untreated and all artificial tear-treated eyes, although there were no significant differences in staining scores and absorbance of MB between eyes treated continuously with saline and 1% SH-treated ones at 60 and 90 min of desiccation or the mixture-treated eyes at 60 min of desiccation. No significant differences in the staining density of LG were also found between continuous saline-treated eyes and ones desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. Mild cytoplasmic vacuolations were histopathologically observed in the basal and wing cells in eyes desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. The mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO has protective effects against corneal desiccation similar to those of 1% SH and would be helpful as an artificial tear. PMID:24881653

  2. Corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate and castor oil on a porcine short-term dry eye model.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Amako, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tazawa, Mariko; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    The corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate (SH) and castor oil (CO) were evaluated on a porcine short-term dry eye model. Fresh porcine eyes with an intact cornea were treated with an artificial tear of saline, SH solution (0.1%, 0.5% or 1%), CO solution (0.5%, 1% or 5%) or a mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO and then desiccated for 60, 90 or 180 min. To assess corneal damage, the eyes were stained with methylene blue (MB) or lissamine green (LG). The staining score of MB, absorbance of MB extracted from the cornea and staining density of LG increased significantly with increasing desiccation time in untreated and all artificial tear-treated eyes, although there were no significant differences in staining scores and absorbance of MB between eyes treated continuously with saline and 1% SH-treated ones at 60 and 90 min of desiccation or the mixture-treated eyes at 60 min of desiccation. No significant differences in the staining density of LG were also found between continuous saline-treated eyes and ones desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. Mild cytoplasmic vacuolations were histopathologically observed in the basal and wing cells in eyes desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. The mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO has protective effects against corneal desiccation similar to those of 1% SH and would be helpful as an artificial tear.

  3. In vitro porcine blood-brain barrier model for permeability studies: pCEL-X software pKa(FLUX) method for aqueous boundary layer correction and detailed data analysis.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Siti R; Avdeef, Alex; Abbott, N Joan

    2014-12-18

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models from primary brain endothelial cells can closely resemble the in vivo BBB, offering valuable models to assay BBB functions and to screen potential central nervous system drugs. We have recently developed an in vitro BBB model using primary porcine brain endothelial cells. The model shows expression of tight junction proteins and high transendothelial electrical resistance, evidence for a restrictive paracellular pathway. Validation studies using small drug-like compounds demonstrated functional uptake and efflux transporters, showing the suitability of the model to assay drug permeability. However, one limitation of in vitro model permeability measurement is the presence of the aqueous boundary layer (ABL) resulting from inefficient stirring during the permeability assay. The ABL can be a rate-limiting step in permeation, particularly for lipophilic compounds, causing underestimation of the permeability. If the ABL effect is ignored, the permeability measured in vitro will not reflect the permeability in vivo. To address the issue, we explored the combination of in vitro permeability measurement using our porcine model with the pKa(FLUX) method in pCEL-X software to correct for the ABL effect and allow a detailed analysis of in vitro (transendothelial) permeability data, Papp. Published Papp using porcine models generated by our group and other groups are also analyzed. From the Papp, intrinsic transcellular permeability (P0) is derived by simultaneous refinement using a weighted nonlinear regression, taking into account permeability through the ABL, paracellular permeability and filter restrictions on permeation. The in vitro P0 derived for 22 compounds (35 measurements) showed good correlation with P0 derived from in situ brain perfusion data (r(2)=0.61). The analysis also gave evidence for carrier-mediated uptake of naloxone, propranolol and vinblastine. The combination of the in vitro porcine model and the software

  4. Physicochemical Selectivity of the BBB Microenvironment Governing Passive Diffusion—Matching with a Porcine Brain Lipid Extract Artificial Membrane Permeability Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsinman, Oksana; Tsinman, Konstantin; Sun, Na; Avdeef, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To mimic the physicochemical selectivity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to predict its passive permeability using a PAMPA model based on porcine brain lipid extract (PBLE 10%w/v in alkane). Methods Three PAMPA (BD pre-coated and PBLE with 2 different lipid volumes) models were tested with 108 drugs. Abraham solvation descriptors were used to interpret the in vitro-in vivo correlation with 282 in situ brain perfusion measurements, spanning over 5 orders of magnitude. An in combo PAMPA model was developed from combining measured PAMPA permeability with one H-bond descriptor. Results The in combo PAMPA predicted 93% of the variance of 197 largely efflux-inhibited insitu permeability training set. The model was cross-validated by the “leave-many-out” procedure, with q2=0.92±0.03. The PAMPA models indicated the presence of paramembrane water channels. Only the PBLE-based PAMPA-BBB model with sufficient lipid to fill all the internal pore space of the filter showed a wide dynamic range window, selectivity coefficient near 1, and was suitable for predicting BBB permeability. Conclusion BBB permeability can be predicted by in combo PAMPA. Its speed and substantially lower cost, compared to in vivo measurements, make it an attractive first-pass screening method for BBB passive permeability. PMID:20945153

  5. The pig as a model for translational research: overview of porcine animal models at Jichi Medical University.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Hishikawa, Shuji; Teratani, Takumi; Lefor, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    To improve the welfare of experimental animals, investigators seek to respect the 3R principle (Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement). Even when large animal studies are essential before moving to clinical trials, it is important to look for ways to reduce the number of experimental animals used. At the Center for the Development of Advanced Medical Technology, we consider 'medical' pigs to be ideal preclinical model systems.We have been using both wild-type and genetically modified pigs. We began using this approach about 10 years ago with a 'total pig system' to model human health and disease for the purposes of both medical skill education and the development of new devices and therapeutic strategies.At our Center, medical students and residents use pigs to gain experience with surgical skills and train for emergency procedures after appropriate simulation training. Senior clinicians have also used these models to advance the development of innovative tools for endo- and laparoscopic procedures. The Center focuses on translational research for organ transplantation and stem cell therapy. Several pig models have been established for liver, intestine, kidney, pancreas, and lung transplantation. Mesenchymal stromal cells have been established in green fluorescent protein- and red fluorescent protein-transgenic pigs and tested to trans-differentiate organogenesis. A program to establish induced pluripotent stem cells in the pig is ongoing at our Center.Here, we review our 10 years of activity in this field. Based on our experience in surgical education and research, experimental pigs are valuable models in translational research.

  6. Hydrometeorological network for flood monitoring and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koussis, Antonis D.; Lykoudis, Spyros; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Christofides, Antonis; Karavokiros, George; Kappos, Nikos; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-08-01

    Due to its highly fragmented geomorphology, Greece comprises hundreds of small- to medium-size hydrological basins, in which often the terrain is fairly steep and the streamflow regime ephemeral. These are typically affected by flash floods, occasionally causing severe damages. Yet, the vast majority of them lack flow-gauging infrastructure providing systematic hydrometric data at fine time scales. This has obvious impacts on the quality and reliability of flood studies, which typically use simplistic approaches for ungauged basins that do not consider local peculiarities in sufficient detail. In order to provide a consistent framework for flood design and to ensure realistic predictions of the flood risk -a key issue of the 2007/60/EC Directive- it is essential to improve the monitoring infrastructures by taking advantage of modern technologies for remote control and data management. In this context and in the research project DEUCALION, we have recently installed and are operating, in four pilot river basins, a telemetry-based hydro-meteorological network that comprises automatic stations and is linked to and supported by relevant software. The hydrometric stations measure stage, using 50-kHz ultrasonic pulses or piezometric sensors, or both stage (piezometric) and velocity via acoustic Doppler radar; all measurements are being temperature-corrected. The meteorological stations record air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. Data transfer is made via GPRS or mobile telephony modems. The monitoring network is supported by a web-based application for storage, visualization and management of geographical and hydro-meteorological data (ENHYDRIS), a software tool for data analysis and processing (HYDROGNOMON), as well as an advanced model for flood simulation (HYDROGEIOS). The recorded hydro-meteorological observations are accessible over the Internet through the www-application. The system is operational and its

  7. Novel Sensor-Enabled Ex Vivo Bioreactor: A New Approach towards Physiological Parameters and Porcine Artery Viability

    PubMed Central

    Mundargi, Raghavendra; Venkataraman, Divya; Kumar, Saranya; Mogal, Vishal; Ortiz, Raphael; Loo, Joachim; Venkatraman, Subbu; Steele, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to design and construct an ex vivo bioreactor system to assess the real time viability of vascular tissue. Porcine carotid artery as a model tissue was used in the ex vivo bioreactor setup to monitor its viability under physiological conditions such as oxygen, pressure, temperature, and flow. The real time tissue viability was evaluated by monitoring tissue metabolism through a fluorescent indicator “resorufin.” Our ex vivo bioreactor allows real time monitoring of tissue responses along with physiological conditions. These ex vivo parameters were vital in determining the tissue viability in sensor-enabled bioreactor and our initial investigations suggest that, porcine tissue viability is considerably affected by high shear forces and low oxygen levels. Histological evaluations with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining show intact endothelium with fresh porcine tissue whereas tissues after incubation in ex vivo bioreactor studies indicate denuded endothelium supporting the viability results from real time measurements. Hence, this novel viability sensor-enabled ex vivo bioreactor acts as model to mimic in vivo system and record vascular responses to biopharmaceutical molecules and biomedical devices. PMID:26609536

  8. Absolute Cerebral Blood Flow Infarction Threshold for 3-Hour Ischemia Time Determined with CT Perfusion and 18F-FFMZ-PET Imaging in a Porcine Model of Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, Neil; Kovacs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    CT Perfusion (CTP) derived cerebral blood flow (CBF) thresholds have been proposed as the optimal parameter for distinguishing the infarct core prior to reperfusion. Previous threshold-derivation studies have been limited by uncertainties introduced by infarct expansion between the acute phase of stroke and follow-up imaging, or DWI lesion reversibility. In this study a model is proposed for determining infarction CBF thresholds at 3hr ischemia time by comparing contemporaneously acquired CTP derived CBF maps to 18F-FFMZ-PET imaging, with the objective of deriving a CBF threshold for infarction after 3 hours of ischemia. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was injected into the brain of Duroc-Cross pigs (n = 11) through a burr hole in the skull. CTP images were acquired 10 and 30 minutes post ET-1 injection and then every 30 minutes for 150 minutes. 370 MBq of 18F-FFMZ was injected ~120 minutes post ET-1 injection and PET images were acquired for 25 minutes starting ~155–180 minutes post ET-1 injection. CBF maps from each CTP acquisition were co-registered and converted into a median CBF map. The median CBF map was co-registered to blood volume maps for vessel exclusion, an average CT image for grey/white matter segmentation, and 18F-FFMZ-PET images for infarct delineation. Logistic regression and ROC analysis were performed on infarcted and non-infarcted pixel CBF values for each animal that developed infarct. Six of the eleven animals developed infarction. The mean CBF value corresponding to the optimal operating point of the ROC curves for the 6 animals was 12.6 ± 2.8 mL·min-1·100g-1 for infarction after 3 hours of ischemia. The porcine ET-1 model of cerebral ischemia is easier to implement then other large animal models of stroke, and performs similarly as long as CBF is monitored using CTP to prevent reperfusion. PMID:27347877

  9. Absolute Cerebral Blood Flow Infarction Threshold for 3-Hour Ischemia Time Determined with CT Perfusion and 18F-FFMZ-PET Imaging in a Porcine Model of Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Eric A; d'Esterre, Christopher D; Morrison, Laura B; Cockburn, Neil; Kovacs, Michael; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2016-01-01

    CT Perfusion (CTP) derived cerebral blood flow (CBF) thresholds have been proposed as the optimal parameter for distinguishing the infarct core prior to reperfusion. Previous threshold-derivation studies have been limited by uncertainties introduced by infarct expansion between the acute phase of stroke and follow-up imaging, or DWI lesion reversibility. In this study a model is proposed for determining infarction CBF thresholds at 3hr ischemia time by comparing contemporaneously acquired CTP derived CBF maps to 18F-FFMZ-PET imaging, with the objective of deriving a CBF threshold for infarction after 3 hours of ischemia. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) was injected into the brain of Duroc-Cross pigs (n = 11) through a burr hole in the skull. CTP images were acquired 10 and 30 minutes post ET-1 injection and then every 30 minutes for 150 minutes. 370 MBq of 18F-FFMZ was injected ~120 minutes post ET-1 injection and PET images were acquired for 25 minutes starting ~155-180 minutes post ET-1 injection. CBF maps from each CTP acquisition were co-registered and converted into a median CBF map. The median CBF map was co-registered to blood volume maps for vessel exclusion, an average CT image for grey/white matter segmentation, and 18F-FFMZ-PET images for infarct delineation. Logistic regression and ROC analysis were performed on infarcted and non-infarcted pixel CBF values for each animal that developed infarct. Six of the eleven animals developed infarction. The mean CBF value corresponding to the optimal operating point of the ROC curves for the 6 animals was 12.6 ± 2.8 mL·min-1·100g-1 for infarction after 3 hours of ischemia. The porcine ET-1 model of cerebral ischemia is easier to implement then other large animal models of stroke, and performs similarly as long as CBF is monitored using CTP to prevent reperfusion. PMID:27347877

  10. Interactions of porcine circovirus 2 with its hosts.

    PubMed

    Ren, Linzhu; Chen, Xinrong; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2016-08-01

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) can cause porcine circovirus diseases and porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVD/PCVAD), which are widely presented in swine-producing countries. Since the discovery of this virus, considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding this pathogen and its interactions with its host. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on interactions between host cell factors and PCV2 with respect to viral proliferation, virus-induced cell apoptosis and autophagy, and host antiviral defenses during PCV2 infection. We also review mouse model systems for PCV2 infection. PMID:27016220

  11. Monitoring in a Lotka-Volterra model.

    PubMed

    López, I; Gámez, M; Garay, J; Varga, Z

    2007-01-01

    The problem of monitoring arises when in an ecosystem, in particular in a system of several populations, observing some components, we want to recover the state of the whole system as a function of time. Due to the difficulty to construct exactly this state process, we look for an auxiliary system called an observer. This system reproduces this process with a certain approximation. This means that the solution of the observer tends to that of the original system. An important concept for this work is observability. This means that from the observation it is possible to recover uniquely the state process, however, without determining a constructive method to obtain it. If observability holds for the original system, it guarantees the existence of an auxiliary matrix that makes it possible to construct an observer of the system. The considered system of populations is described by the classical Lotka-Volterra model with one predator and two preys and the construction of its observer is illustrated with a numerical example. Finally, it is shown how the observer can be used for the estimation of the level of an abiotic effect on the population system.

  12. A proteomic approach to porcine saliva.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal.

  13. A Porcine Animal Model for Early Meniscal Degeneration – Analysis of Histology, Gene Expression and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Six Months after Resection of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Kreinest, Michael; Reisig, Gregor; Ströbel, Philipp; Dinter, Dietmar; Attenberger, Ulrike; Lipp, Peter; Schwarz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective The menisci of the mammalian knee joint balance the incongruence between femoral condyle and tibial plateau and thus menisci absorb and distribute high loads. Degeneration processes of the menisci lead to pain syndromes in the knee joint. The origin of such degenerative processes on meniscal tissue is rarely understood and may be described best as an imbalance of anabolic and catabolic metabolism. A standardized animal model of meniscal degeneration is needed for further studies. The aim of the current study was to develop a porcine animal model with early meniscal degeneration. Material and Methods Resection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) was performed on the left knee joints of eight Göttingen minipigs. A sham operation was carried out on the right knee joint. The grade of degeneration was determined 26 weeks after the operation using histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, the expression of 14 genes which code for extracellular matrix proteins, catabolic matrix metalloproteinases and inflammation mediators were analyzed. Results Degenerative changes were detected by a histological analysis of the medial meniscus after ACLR. These changes were not detected by MRI. In terms of their gene expression profile, these degenerated medial menisci showed a significantly increased expression of COL1A1. Conclusion This paper describes a new animal model for early secondary meniscal degeneration in the Göttingen minipig. Histopathological evidence of the degenerative changes could be described. This early degenerative changes could not be seen by NMR imaging. PMID:27434644

  14. Sildenafil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Following Cardiac Arrest in a Porcine Model: Possible Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoxing; Zhang, Qian; Yuan, Wei; Wu, Junyuan; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-11-12

    Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sold as Viagra, is a cardioprotector against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our study explored whether sildenafil protects against I/R-induced damage in a porcine cardiac arrest and resuscitation (CAR) model via modulating the renin-angiotensin system. Male pigs were randomly divided to three groups: Sham group, Saline group, and sildenafil (0.5 mg/kg) group. Thirty min after drug infusion, ventricular fibrillation (8 min) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (up to 30 min) was conducted in these animals. We found that sildenafil ameliorated the reduced cardiac function and improved the 24-h survival rate in this model. Sildenafil partly attenuated the increases of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang (1-7) levels after CAR. Sildenafil also decreased apoptosis and Ang II expression in myocardium. The increases of expression of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE), ACE2, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and the Ang (1-7) receptor Mas in myocardial tissue were enhanced after CAR. Sildenafil suppressed AT1R up-regulation, but had no effect on ACE, ACE2, and Mas expression. Sildenafil further boosted the upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS). Collectively, our results suggest that cardioprotection of sildenafil in CAR model is accompanied by an inhibition of Ang II-AT1R axis activation.

  15. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila; Bendixen, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), idiopathic and familial, is characterized by degradation of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies (LB) in the substantia nigra. LBs contain aggregated proteins of which α-synuclein is the major component. The protein synphilin-1 interacts and colocalizes with α-synuclein in LBs. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize porcine synphilin-1 and isoforms hereof with the future perspective to use the pig as a model for Parkinson's disease. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR. The spatial expression of SNCAIP mRNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90%) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation. PMID:26101749

  16. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2 = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  17. Plasma levels of liver-specific miR-122 is massively increased in a porcine cardiogenic shock model and attenuated by hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Patrik; Gidlöf, Olof; Braun, Oscar O; Götberg, Matthias; van der Pals, Jesper; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David

    2012-02-01

    Tissue-specific circulating micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are released into the blood after organ injury. In an ischemic porcine cardiogenic shock model, we investigated the release pattern of cardiac-specific miR-208b and liver-specific miR-122 and assessed the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on their respective plasma levels. Pigs were anesthetized, and cardiogenic shock was induced by inflation of a percutaneous coronary intervention balloon in the proximal left anterior descending artery for 40 min followed by reperfusion. After fulfillment of the predefined shock criteria, the pigs were randomized to hypothermia (33°C, n = 6) or normothermia (38°C, n = 6). Circulating miRNAs were extracted from plasma and measured with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tissue specificity was assessed by miRNA extraction from porcine tissues followed by quantitative real-time PCR. In vitro, the release of miR-122 from a cultured hepatocyte cell line exposed to either hypoxia or acidosis was assessed by real-time PCR. miR-122 was found to be highly liver specific, whereas miR-208b was expressed exclusively in the heart. In the control group, ischemic cardiogenic shock induced a 460,000-fold and a 63,000-fold increase in plasma levels of miR-122 (P < 0.05) and miR-208b (P < 0.05), respectively. Therapeutic hypothermia significantly diminished the increase in miR-122 compared with the normothermic group (P < 0.005). In our model, hypothermia was initiated after coronary reperfusion and did not affect either myocardial damage as previously assessed by magnetic resonance imaging or the plasma level of miR-208b. Our results indicate that liver-specific miR-122 is released into the circulation in the setting of cardiogenic shock and that therapeutic hypothermia significantly reduces the levels of miR-122.

  18. Time-dependent image changes after ethanol injection into the pancreas: an experimental study using a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Fushimi, Soichiro; Iwamuro, Masaya; Oda, Shinsuke; Mizukawa, Sho; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanol, a commonly available agent, has been used to successfully ablate cystic and solid lesions in the pancreas. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an ethanol injection into the porcine pancreas and observe the time-dependent image changes in the pancreatic parenchyma. Methods Pure ethanol was injected into the pancreatic tail using a 25-gauge EUS needle with direct ultrasound guidance under celiotomy: 1 mL and 2 mL were injected, respectively. The abdomen was closed after the injection. MRI was performed before the procedure, immediately after, and on postoperative day (POD) seven. Blood samples were taken before the procedure and on PODs one, three, five, and seven. The pigs were euthanised on POD seven. Results Immediately after the injection, linear high signal areas in the pancreatic tail on T2 and rounded speckled high signal areas on DWI images were detected in both animals, measuring 35 × 32 mm in the 1 mL injected pig and 42 × 38mm in the 2 mL injected pig. After POD seven, rounded high signal areas were noted on T2 images, measuring 22 × 18 mm and 36 × 28 mm respectively. On POD one, the 1 mL injected animal had a 53% elevation in serum amylase while the 2 mL injected animal had a 66% elevation. Histologically, cystic and necrotic changes in the parenchyma were observed, measuring 23 × 22 mm and 40 × 35 mm respectively. Conclusions Our results, which are limited to normal pancreas, suggested that a 1 mL injection caused localised changes within the pancreas while a 2 mL injection induced more widespread changes beyond the pancreas. The effective area of ethanol was widespread immediately after injection, and then the area was reduced with cystic and necrosis changes. PMID:27594908

  19. Time-dependent image changes after ethanol injection into the pancreas: an experimental study using a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Fushimi, Soichiro; Iwamuro, Masaya; Oda, Shinsuke; Mizukawa, Sho; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanol, a commonly available agent, has been used to successfully ablate cystic and solid lesions in the pancreas. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an ethanol injection into the porcine pancreas and observe the time-dependent image changes in the pancreatic parenchyma. Methods Pure ethanol was injected into the pancreatic tail using a 25-gauge EUS needle with direct ultrasound guidance under celiotomy: 1 mL and 2 mL were injected, respectively. The abdomen was closed after the injection. MRI was performed before the procedure, immediately after, and on postoperative day (POD) seven. Blood samples were taken before the procedure and on PODs one, three, five, and seven. The pigs were euthanised on POD seven. Results Immediately after the injection, linear high signal areas in the pancreatic tail on T2 and rounded speckled high signal areas on DWI images were detected in both animals, measuring 35 × 32 mm in the 1 mL injected pig and 42 × 38mm in the 2 mL injected pig. After POD seven, rounded high signal areas were noted on T2 images, measuring 22 × 18 mm and 36 × 28 mm respectively. On POD one, the 1 mL injected animal had a 53% elevation in serum amylase while the 2 mL injected animal had a 66% elevation. Histologically, cystic and necrotic changes in the parenchyma were observed, measuring 23 × 22 mm and 40 × 35 mm respectively. Conclusions Our results, which are limited to normal pancreas, suggested that a 1 mL injection caused localised changes within the pancreas while a 2 mL injection induced more widespread changes beyond the pancreas. The effective area of ethanol was widespread immediately after injection, and then the area was reduced with cystic and necrosis changes.

  20. Novel Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog Delivered Orally Reduces Postprandial Glucose Excursions in Porcine and Canine Models

    PubMed Central

    Eldor, Roy; Kidron, Miriam; Greenberg-Shushlav, Yael; Arbit, Ehud

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are associated with a gamut of physiological processes, including induction of insulin release, support of normoglycemia, β-cell function preservation, improved lipid profiles, and increased insulin sensitivity. Thus, GLP-1 harbors significant therapeutic potential for regulating type 2 diabetes mellitus, where its physiological impact is markedly impaired. To date, GLP-1 analogs are only available as injectable dosage forms, and its oral delivery is expected to provide physiological portal/peripheral concentration ratios while fostering patient compliance and adherence. Methods Healthy, fasting, enterically cannulated pigs and beagle canines were administered a single dose of the exenatide-based ORMD-0901 formulation 30 min before oral glucose challenges. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for evaluation of ORMD-0901 safety and efficacy in regulating postchallenge glucose excursions. Results Enterically delivered ORMD-0901 was well tolerated by all animals. ORMD-0901 formulations RG3 and AG2 led to reduced glucose excursions in pigs when delivered prior to a 5 g/kg glucose challenge, where area under the curve (AUC)0–120 values were up to 43% lower than in control sessions. All canines challenged with a glucose load with no prior exposure to exenatide, demonstrated higher AUC0–150 values than in their exenatide-treated sessions. Subcutaneous exenatide delivery amounted to a 51% reduction in mean glucose AUC0–150, while formulations AG4 and AG3 prompted 43% and 29% reductions, respectively. Conclusions When delivered enterically, GLP-1 (ORMD-0901) is absorbed from the canine and porcine gastrointestinal tracts and retains its biological activity. Further development of this drug class in an oral dosage form is expected to enhance diabetes control and patient compliance. PMID:21129350

  1. Trolox and ascorbic acid reduce direct and indirect oxidative stress in the IPEC-J2 cells, an in vitro model for the porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Hans; Tambuyzer, Bart; Jennes, Karen; Degroote, Jeroen; Wang, Wei; De Smet, Stefaan; Michiels, Joris; Van Ginneken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the small intestinal epithelium is a major cause of barrier malfunction and failure to regenerate. This study presents a functional in vitro model using the porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 to examine the effects of oxidative stress and to estimate the antioxidant and regenerative potential of Trolox, ascorbic acid and glutathione monoethyl ester. Hydrogen peroxide and diethyl maleate affected the tight junction (zona occludens-1) distribution, significantly increased intracellular oxidative stress (CM-H2DCFDA) and decreased the monolayer integrity (transepithelial electrical resistance and FD-4 permeability), viability (neutral red) and wound healing capacity (scratch assay). Trolox (2 mM) and 1 mM ascorbic acid pre-treatment significantly reduced intracellular oxidative stress, increased wound healing capacity and reduced FD-4 permeability in oxidatively stressed IPEC-J2 cell monolayers. All antioxidant pre-treatments increased transepithelial electrical resistance and viability only in diethyl maleate-treated cells. Glutathione monoethyl ester (10 mM) pre-treatment significantly decreased intracellular oxidative stress and monolayer permeability only in diethyl maleate-treated cells. These data demonstrate that the IPEC-J2 oxidative stress model is a valuable tool to screen antioxidants before validation in piglets. PMID:25745867

  2. Comparison of Sarns 3M heparin bonded to Duraflo II and control circuits in a porcine model: macro- and microanalysis of thrombi accumulation in circuit arterial filters.

    PubMed

    Larson, D F; Arzouman, D; Kleinert, L; Patula, V; Williams, S

    2000-01-01

    Heparin-bonded perfusion circuits have been reported to reduce the thrombus formation during various levels of systemic heparinization. The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of thrombo-resistance of the Sarns 3M heparin-bonded circuit to Baxter Duraflo II and untreated control in a porcine model. Fifteen Yorkshire pigs (60-65 kg) were anesthetized, heparinized with 3000 IU, intravenously (i.v.) and surgically cannulated with an internal jugular outflow and a femoral vein inflow. All circuits consisted of a 22-Fr venous cannula, centrifugal pump, arterial filter, an 18-Fr cannula for return and connected with equal lengths of 3/8" polyvinyl chloride tubing. The flows were maintained at 2.0 l/min for 4 h. Thrombus formation in filter samples were morphometrically analyzed through macro-densitometry, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our findings revealed that the 3M circuit had significantly less gross thrombus (p < 0.001), 66% and 84% less microscopic thrombi and fivefold less SEM-measured aggregates (p = 0.03) compared to the Duraflo II and uncoated groups. This study demonstrated that the 3M heparin-bonded circuit had significantly reduced the formation of micro- and macro-thrombi in the minimally heparinized pig model compared to the Duraflo II and untreated control circuits.

  3. Palindrome regeneration by template strand-switching mechanism at the origin of DNA replication of porcine circovirus via the rolling-circle melting-pot replication model.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Andrew K

    2004-09-01

    Palindromic sequences (inverted repeats) flanking the origin of DNA replication with the potential of forming single-stranded stem-loop cruciform structures have been reported to be essential for replication of the circular genomes of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. In this study, mutant genomes of porcine circovirus with deletions in the origin-flanking palindrome and incapable of forming any cruciform structures invariably yielded progeny viruses containing longer and more stable palindromes. These results suggest that origin-flanking palindromes are essential for termination but not for initiation of DNA replication. Detection of template strand switching in the middle of an inverted repeat strand among the progeny viruses demonstrated that both the minus genome and a corresponding palindromic strand served as templates simultaneously during DNA biosynthesis and supports the recently proposed rolling-circle "melting-pot" replication model. The genome configuration presented by this model, a four-stranded tertiary structure, provides insights into the mechanisms of DNA replication, inverted repeat correction (or conversion), and illegitimate recombination of any circular DNA molecule with an origin-flanking palindrome.

  4. Improved arterial oxygenation with biologically variable or fractal ventilation using low tidal volumes in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boker, Abdulaziz; Graham, M Ruth; Walley, Keith R; McManus, Bruce M; Girling, Linda G; Walker, Elizabeth; Lefevre, Gerald R; Mutch, W Alan C

    2002-02-15

    We compared biologically variable ventilation (V (bv); n = 9) with control mode ventilation (V (c); n = 8) at low tidal volume (VT)--initial 6 ml/kg--in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hemodynamics, respiratory gases, airway pressures, and VT data were measured. Static P-V curves were generated at 5 h. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 were measured in serum and tracheal aspirate. By 5 h, higher Pa(O(2)) (173 +/- 30 mm Hg versus 119 +/- 23 mm Hg; mean +/- SD; p < 0.0001 group x time interaction [G x T]), lower shunt fraction (6 +/- 1% versus 9 +/- 3%; p = 0.0026, G x T) at lower peak airway pressure (21 +/- 2 versus 24 +/- 1 cm H(2)O; p = 0.0342; G x T) occurred with V (bv). IL-8 concentrations in tracheal aspirate and wet:dry weight ratios were inversely related; p = 0.011. With V (c), IL-8 concentrations were 3.75-fold greater at wet:dry weight ratio of 10. IL-10 concentrations did not differ between groups. In both groups, ventilation was on the linear portion of the P-V curve. With V (bv), VT variability demonstrated an inverse power law indicating fractal behavior. In this model of ARDS, V (bv) improved Pa(O(2)) at lower peak airway pressure and IL-8 levels compared with V (c).

  5. A novel silk-based artificial ligament and tricalcium phosphate/polyether ether ketone anchor for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - safety and efficacy in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; He, Jiankang; Bian, Weiguo; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Wenyou; Li, Dichen; Snedeker, Jess G

    2014-08-01

    Loss of ligament graft tension in early postoperative stages following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can come from a variety of factors, with slow graft integration to bone being widely viewed as a chief culprit. Toward an off-the-shelf ACL graft that can rapidly integrate to host tissue, we have developed a silk-based ACL graft combined with a tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/polyether ether ketone anchor. In the present study we tested the safety and efficacy of this concept in a porcine model, with postoperative assessments at 3months (n=10) and 6months (n=4). Biomechanical tests were performed after euthanization, with ultimate tensile strengths at 3months of ∼370N and at 6months of ∼566N - comparable to autograft and allograft performance in this animal model. Comprehensive histological observations revealed that TCP substantially enhanced silk graft to bone attachment. Interdigitation of soft and hard tissues was observed, with regenerated fibrocartilage characterizing a transitional zone from silk graft to bone that was similar to native ligament bone attachments. We conclude that both initial stability and robust long-term biological attachment were consistently achieved using the tested construct, supporting a large potential for silk-TCP combinations in the repair of the torn ACL.

  6. Comparison of Achilles tendon repair techniques in a sheep model using a cross-linked acellular porcine dermal patch and platelet-rich plasma fibrin matrix for augmentation.

    PubMed

    Sarrafian, Tiffany L; Wang, Hali; Hackett, Eileen S; Yao, Jian Q; Shih, Mei-Shu; Ramsay, Heather L; Turner, A Simon

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate a cross-linked acellular porcine dermal patch (APD), as well as platelet-rich plasma fibrin matrix (PRPFM), for repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture in a sheep model. The 2 surgically transected tendon ends were reapproximated in groups 1 and 2, whereas a gap was left between the tendon ends in group 3. APD was used to reinforce the repair in group 2, and autologous PRPFM was used to fill the gap, which was also reinforced with APD, in group 3. All sheep were humanely euthanized at 24 weeks after the repair, and biomechanical and histological testing were performed. Tensile strength testing showed a statistically significant difference in elongation between the operated limb and the unoperated contralateral limb in groups 1 and 3, but not in group 2. All operated tendons appeared healed with no apparent fibrosis under light and polarized microscopy. In group 1, all surgical separation sites were identifiable, and healing occurred via increasing tendon thickness. In group 2, healing occurred with new tendon fibers across the separation, without increasing tendon thickness in 2 out of 6 animals. Group 3 showed complete bridging of the gap, with no change in tendon thickness in 2 out of 6 animals. In groups 2 and 3, peripheral integration of the APD to tendon fibers was observed. These findings support the use of APD, alone or with PRPFM, to augment Achilles tendon repair in a sheep model.

  7. Xenotransplantation and porcine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Porcine microorganisms may be transmitted to the human recipient when xenotransplantation with pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Most of such microorganisms can be eliminated from the donor pig by specified or designated pathogen-free production of the animals. As human cytomegalovirus causes severe transplant rejection in allotransplantation, considerable concern is warranted on the potential pathogenicity of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in the setting of xenotransplantation. On the other hand, despite having a similar name, PCMV is different from HCMV. The impact of PCMV infection on pigs is known; however, the influence of PCMV on the human transplant recipient is unclear. However, first transplantations of pig organs infected with PCMV into non-human primates were associated with a significant reduction of the survival time of the transplants. Sensitive detection methods and strategies for elimination of PCMV from donor herds are required.

  8. Modeling Behavioral Measures of Error Detection in Choice Tasks: Response Monitoring versus Conflict Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Marco; Maier, Martin; Hubner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying error detection in the error signaling response. The authors tested between a response monitoring account and a conflict monitoring account. By implementing each account within the neural network model of N. Yeung, M. M. Botvinick, and J. D. Cohen (2004), they demonstrated that both accounts…

  9. Development of a network based model to simulate the between-farm transmission of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Krishna K; Sanchez, Javier; Hurnik, Daniel; Poljak, Zvonimir; Opps, Sheldon; Revie, Crawford W

    2015-11-18

    Contact structure within a population can significantly affect the outcomes of infectious disease spread models. The objective of this study was to develop a network based simulation model for the between-farm spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to assess the impact of contact structure on between-farm transmission of PRRS virus. For these farm level models, a hypothetical population of 500 swine farms following a multistage production system was used. The contact rates between farms were based on a study analyzing movement of pigs in Canada, while disease spread parameters were extracted from published literature. Eighteen distinct scenarios were designed and simulated by varying the mode of transmission (direct versus direct and indirect contact), type of index herd (farrowing, nursery and finishing), and the presumed network structures among swine farms (random, scale-free and small-world). PRRS virus was seeded in a randomly selected farm and 500 iterations of each scenario were simulated for 52 weeks. The median epidemic size by the end of the simulated period and percentage die-out for each scenario, were the key outcomes captured. Scenarios with scale-free network models resulted in the largest epidemic sizes, while scenarios with random and small-world network models resulted in smaller and similar epidemic sizes. Similarly, stochastic die-out percentage was least for scenarios with scale-free networks followed by random and small-world networks. Findings of the study indicated that incorporating network structures among the swine farms had a considerable impact on the spread of PRRS virus, highlighting the importance of understanding and incorporating realistic contact structures when developing infectious disease spread models for similar populations.

  10. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis. PMID:16971182

  11. Peritoneal Albumin Dialysis as a Novel Approach for Liver Support: Study in a Porcine Model of Acute Hepatic Failure.

    PubMed

    Defterevos, Georgios; Nastos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Margelos, Vassileios; Fragulidis, George; Pafiti, Agathi; Mikrovas, Aggeliki; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Smyrniotis, Vassilios; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-08-01

    Artificial liver support gained considerable interest in recent years due to the development of various albumin dialysis systems, which prolong survival of some patients with acute liver failure (ALF). Τhis study aims to examine the role of peritoneal albumin dialysis in a postoperative ALF model. ALF was induced in 14 female Landrace pigs by a combination of major liver resection (70-75% of total parenchyma) and ischemic-reperfusion injury on the liver remnant. Animals were randomly divided in two groups (n = 7 each). Both were monitored for 12 h of reperfusion and received peritoneal dialysis for 6 h, beginning 6 h after reperfusion. The albumin group received an albumin-rich solution and the control group received albumin-free solution. The control group gradually developed intracranial hypertension, whereas, in the albumin group, rise in the intracranial pressure was substantially attenuated (P < 0.01, t = 12 h). Albumin-treated animals had significantly lower levels of ammonia (P < 0.01), total bile acids (P < 0.01), free fatty acids (P < 0.05), lactate (P < 0.01), and total bilirubin (P < 0.05). Liver malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl were significantly reduced (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001 at t = 12 h) after albumin dialysis. Results suggest that this method may become a useful adjunct in the management of ALF, thus, justifying further study. PMID:27094211

  12. Functional Genomics Unique to Week 20 Post Wounding in the Deep Cone/Fat Dome of the Duroc/Yorkshire Porcine Model of Fibroproliferative Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Engrav, Loren H.; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Zhu, Kathy Q.; Numhom, Surawej; Couture, Oliver P.; Beyer, Richard P.; Hocking, Anne M.; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Ramos, Maria Luiza C.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scar was first described over 100 years ago; PubMed has more than 1,000 references on the topic. Nevertheless prevention and treatment remains poor, because 1) there has been no validated animal model; 2) human scar tissue, which is impossible to obtain in a controlled manner, has been the only source for study; 3) tissues typically have been homogenized, mixing cell populations; and 4) gene-by-gene studies are incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings We have assembled a system that overcomes these barriers and permits the study of genome-wide gene expression in microanatomical locations, in shallow and deep partial-thickness wounds, and pigmented and non-pigmented skin, using the Duroc(pigmented fibroproliferative)/Yorkshire(non-pigmented non-fibroproliferative) porcine model. We used this system to obtain the differential transcriptome at 1, 2, 3, 12 and 20 weeks post wounding. It is not clear when fibroproliferation begins, but it is fully developed in humans and the Duroc breed at 20 weeks. Therefore we obtained the derivative functional genomics unique to 20 weeks post wounding. We also obtained long-term, forty-six week follow-up with the model. Conclusions/Significance 1) The scars are still thick at forty-six weeks post wounding further validating the model. 2) The differential transcriptome provides new insights into the fibroproliferative process as several genes thought fundamental to fibroproliferation are absent and others differentially expressed are newly implicated. 3) The findings in the derivative functional genomics support old concepts, which further validates the model, and suggests new avenues for reductionist exploration. In the future, these findings will be searched for directed networks likely involved in cutaneous fibroproliferation. These clues may lead to a better understanding of the systems biology of cutaneous fibroproliferation, and ultimately prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:21533106

  13. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design.

  14. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design. PMID:26737430

  15. Vascular replacement using a layered elastin-collagen vascular graft in a porcine model: one week patency versus one month occlusion.

    PubMed

    Koens, M J W; Krasznai, A G; Hanssen, A E J; Hendriks, T; Praster, R; Daamen, W F; van der Vliet, J A; van Kuppevelt, T H

    2015-01-01

    A persistent clinical demand exists for a suitable arterial prosthesis. In this study, a vascular conduit mimicking the native 3-layered artery, and constructed from the extracellular matrix proteins type I collagen and elastin, was evaluated for its performance as a blood vessel equivalent. A tubular 3-layered graft (elastin-collagen-collagen) was prepared using highly purified type I collagen fibrils and elastin fibers, resembling the 3-layered native blood vessel architecture. The vascular graft was crosslinked and heparinised (37 ± 4 μg heparin/mg graft), and evaluated as a vascular graft using a porcine bilateral iliac artery model. An intra-animal comparison with clinically-used heparinised ePTFE (Propaten®) was made. Analyses included biochemical characterization, duplex scanning, (immuno)histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The tubular graft was easy to handle with adequate suturability. Implantation resulted in pulsating grafts without leakage. One week after implantation, both ePTFE and the natural acellular graft had 100% patencies on duplex scanning. Grafts were partially endothelialised (Von Willebrand-positive endothelium with a laminin-positive basal membrane layer). After one month, layered thrombi were found in the natural (4/4) and ePTFE graft (1/4), resulting in occlusion which in case of the natural graft is likely due to the porosity of the inner elastin layer. In vivo application of a molecularly-defined tubular graft, based on nature's matrix proteins, for vascular surgery is feasible.

  16. Vascular replacement using a layered elastin-collagen vascular graft in a porcine model: one week patency versus one month occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Koens, M J W; Krasznai, A G; Hanssen, A E J; Hendriks, T; Praster, R; Daamen, W F; van der Vliet, J A; van Kuppevelt, T H

    2015-01-01

    abstract A persistent clinical demand exists for a suitable arterial prosthesis. In this study, a vascular conduit mimicking the native 3-layered artery, and constructed from the extracellular matrix proteins type I collagen and elastin, was evaluated for its performance as a blood vessel equivalent. A tubular 3-layered graft (elastin-collagen-collagen) was prepared using highly purified type I collagen fibrils and elastin fibers, resembling the 3-layered native blood vessel architecture. The vascular graft was crosslinked and heparinised (37 ± 4 μg heparin/mg graft), and evaluated as a vascular graft using a porcine bilateral iliac artery model. An intra-animal comparison with clinically-used heparinised ePTFE (Propaten®) was made. Analyses included biochemical characterization, duplex scanning, (immuno)histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The tubular graft was easy to handle with adequate suturability. Implantation resulted in pulsating grafts without leakage. One week after implantation, both ePTFE and the natural acellular graft had 100% patencies on duplex scanning. Grafts were partially endothelialised (Von Willebrand-positive endothelium with a laminin-positive basal membrane layer). After one month, layered thrombi were found in the natural (4/4) and ePTFE graft (1/4), resulting in occlusion which in case of the natural graft is likely due to the porosity of the inner elastin layer. In vivo application of a molecularly-defined tubular graft, based on nature's matrix proteins, for vascular surgery is feasible. PMID:26060888

  17. Vascular replacement using a layered elastin-collagen vascular graft in a porcine model: one week patency versus one month occlusion.

    PubMed

    Koens, M J W; Krasznai, A G; Hanssen, A E J; Hendriks, T; Praster, R; Daamen, W F; van der Vliet, J A; van Kuppevelt, T H

    2015-01-01

    A persistent clinical demand exists for a suitable arterial prosthesis. In this study, a vascular conduit mimicking the native 3-layered artery, and constructed from the extracellular matrix proteins type I collagen and elastin, was evaluated for its performance as a blood vessel equivalent. A tubular 3-layered graft (elastin-collagen-collagen) was prepared using highly purified type I collagen fibrils and elastin fibers, resembling the 3-layered native blood vessel architecture. The vascular graft was crosslinked and heparinised (37 ± 4 μg heparin/mg graft), and evaluated as a vascular graft using a porcine bilateral iliac artery model. An intra-animal comparison with clinically-used heparinised ePTFE (Propaten®) was made. Analyses included biochemical characterization, duplex scanning, (immuno)histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The tubular graft was easy to handle with adequate suturability. Implantation resulted in pulsating grafts without leakage. One week after implantation, both ePTFE and the natural acellular graft had 100% patencies on duplex scanning. Grafts were partially endothelialised (Von Willebrand-positive endothelium with a laminin-positive basal membrane layer). After one month, layered thrombi were found in the natural (4/4) and ePTFE graft (1/4), resulting in occlusion which in case of the natural graft is likely due to the porosity of the inner elastin layer. In vivo application of a molecularly-defined tubular graft, based on nature's matrix proteins, for vascular surgery is feasible. PMID:26060888

  18. The effect of long-term amiodarone administration on myocardial fibrosis and evolution of left ventricular remodeling in a porcine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Zagorianou, Anastasia; Marougkas, Meletios; Drakos, Stavros G; Diakos, Nikolaos; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Perrea, Despina N; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria; Malliaras, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is effective in suppressing arrhythmias in heart failure patients. We investigated the effect of long-term amiodarone administration on myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular (LV) remodeling in a porcine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Eighteen infarcted farm pigs were randomized to receive long-term amiodarone administration for 3 months (n = 9) or conventional follow-up (n = 9). Evolution of LV remodeling over 3 months post-myocardial infarction was examined at tissue level (myocyte size, myocardial fibrosis and vascular density assessed by whole-field digital histopathology), organ level (LV structure and function assessed by echocardiography), and systemic level (BNP and MMP-9 levels). Long-term administration of the standard anti-arrhythmic doses of amiodarone was not associated with adverse effects on myocardial fibrosis and other features of adverse cardiac remodeling. This favorable safety profile suggests that long-term anti-arrhythmic therapy with amiodarone warrants further clinical investigation in the subpopulation of heart failure patients with significantly increased burden of arrhythmias. PMID:27652141

  19. A mathematical model for analyzing the elasticity, viscosity, and failure of soft tissue: comparison of native and decellularized porcine cardiac extracellular matrix for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bronshtein, Tomer; Au-Yeung, Gigi Chi Ting; Sarig, Udi; Nguyen, Evelyne Bao-Vi; Mhaisalkar, Priyadarshini S; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Machluf, Marcelle

    2013-08-01

    The clinical success of tissue-engineered constructs commonly requires mechanical properties that closely mimic those of the human tissue. Determining the viscoelastic properties of such biomaterials and the factors governing their failure profiles, however, has proven challenging, although collecting extensive data regarding their tensile behavior is straightforward. The easily calculated Young's modulus remains the most reported mechanical measure, regardless of its limitations, even though single-relaxation-time (SRT) models can provide much more information, which remain scarce due to a lack of manageable tools for implementing these models. We developed an easy-to-use algorithm for applying the Zener SRT model and determining the elastic moduli, viscosity, and failure profiles of materials under different mechanical tests in a user-independent manner. The algorithm was validated on the data resulting from tensile tests on native and decellularized porcine cardiac tissue, previously suggested as a promising scaffold material for cardiac tissue engineering. This analysis yields new and more accurate measurements such as the elastic moduli and viscosity, the model's relaxation time, and information on the factors governing the materials' failure profiles. These measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity and strength of the decellularized acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) are similar to those of native tissue, although its elasticity and apparent viscosity are higher. Nonetheless, reseeding and culturing the ECM with mesenchymal stem cells was shown to partially restore the mechanical properties lost after decellularization. We propose this algorithm as a platform for soft-tissue analysis that can provide comparable and unbiased measures for characterizing viscoelastic biomaterials commonly used in tissue engineering.

  20. Susceptibility of porcine preimplantation embryos to viruses associated with reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haijing; Zhao, Guangyuan; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-10-15

    In the modern biological area, the applications of pig as a laboratory model have extensive prospects, such as gene transfer, IVF, SCNT, and xenotransplantation. However, the risk of pathogen transmission by porcine embryos is always a topic to be investigated, especially the viruses related to reproductive failure, for instance, pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine parvovirus, and porcine circovirus type 2. It should be mentioned that the zona pellucida (ZP) of porcine embryos can be a barrier against the viruses, but certain pathogens may stick to or even pass through the ZP. With intact, free, and damaged ZP, porcine preimplantation embryos are susceptible to these viruses in varying degrees, which may be associated with the virus-specific receptor on embryonic cell membrane. These topics are discussed in the present review. PMID:27423729

  1. Self-calibrating models for dynamic monitoring and diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1996-01-01

    A method for automatically building qualitative and semi-quantitative models of dynamic systems, and using them for monitoring and fault diagnosis, is developed and demonstrated. The qualitative approach and semi-quantitative method are applied to monitoring observation streams, and to design of non-linear control systems.

  2. Intrinsic Monitoring Using Behaviour Models in IPv6 Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfig, Edzard; Coşkun, Hakan

    In conventional networks, correlating path information to resource utilisation on the granularity of packets is a hard problem when using policy-based traffic handling schemes. We introduce a new approach termed ‘intrinsic monitoring’ which relies on the use of IPv6 extension headers in combination with formal behaviour models to gather resource information along a path. This allows a network monitoring system to delegate monitoring functionality to the network devices themselves, with the result of a drastic reduction in management traffic due to the increased autonomy of the monitoring system. As monitoring information travels in-band with the network traffic, path information remains perfectly accurate.

  3. Local delivery of allogeneic bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for cutaneous wound healing in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Summer E; Kleinbeck, Kyle R; Cantu, David; Kim, Jaeyhup; Bentz, Michael L; Faucher, Lee D; Kao, W John; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-02-01

    Wound healing remains a major challenge in modern medicine. Bone marrow- (BM) and adipose tissue- (AT) derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are of great interest for tissue reconstruction due to their unique immunological properties and regenerative potential. The purpose of this study was to characterize BM and AT-MSCs and evaluate their effect when administered in a porcine wound model. MSCs were derived from male Göttingen Minipigs and characterized according to established criteria. Allogeneic BM- or AT-MSCs were administered intradermally (1 x 10(6) cells) into partial-thickness wounds created on female animals, and covered with Vaseline® gauze or fibrin in a randomized pattern. Animals were euthanized at 7, 10, 14 and 21 days. Tissues were analyzed visually for healing and by microscopic examination for epidermal development and remodelling. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of male DNA in the specimens. All wounds were healed by 14 days. MSC-injected wounds were associated with improved appearance and faster re-epithelialization compared to saline controls. Evaluation of rete ridge depth and architecture showed that MSC treatment promoted a faster rate of epidermal maturation. Male DNA was detected in all samples at days 7 and 10, suggesting the presence of MSCs. We showed the safety, feasibility and potential efficacy of local injection of allogeneic BM- and AT-MSCs for treatment of wounds in a preclinical model. Our data in this large animal model support the potential use of BM- and AT-MSC for treatment of cutaneous wounds through modulation of healing and epithelialization.

  4. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jansen of Lorkeers, Sanne J.; Gho, Johannes M. I. H.; Koudstaal, Stefan; van Hout, Gerardus P. J.; Zwetsloot, Peter Paul M.; van Oorschot, Joep W. M.; van Eeuwijk, Esther C. M.; Leiner, Tim; Hoefer, Imo E.; Goumans, Marie-José; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs) were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs) in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls. Aim Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes. Methods & Results We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg) received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA). Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-)loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals. Conclusion Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction. PMID:26678993

  5. Service models for remote healthcare monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Bridget A

    2010-01-01

    These scenarios reflect where the future is heading for remote health monitoring technology and service expectations. Being able to manage a "system of systems" with timely service hand-off over seams of responsibility and system interfaces will become very important for a BMET or clinical engineer. These interfaces will include patient homes, clinician homes, commercial/civilian infrastructure, public utilities, vendor infrastructure as well as internal departmental domains. Concurrently, technology is changing rapidly resulting in newer software delivery modes and hardware appliances as well as infrastructure changes. Those who are able to de-construct the complex systems and identify infrastructure assumptions and seams of servicing responsibility will be able to better understand and communicate the expectations for service of these systems. Moreover, as identified in Case 1, prodigious use of underlying system monitoring tools (managing the "meta-data") could move servicing of these remote systems from a reactive approach to a proactive approach. A prepared healthcare organization will identify their current and proposed future service combination use cases and design service philosophies and expectations for those use cases, while understanding the infrastructure assumptions and seams of responsibility. This is the future of technical service to the healthcare clinicians and patients. PMID:22049611

  6. Porcine myelomonocytic markers and cell populations.

    PubMed

    Ezquerra, A; Revilla, C; Alvarez, B; Pérez, C; Alonso, F; Domínguez, J

    2009-03-01

    This review focuses in what is currently known about swine myeloid markers, the expression and function of these receptors in the biology of porcine myelomonocytic cells, the regulation of their expression along the different developmental stages of these cells and their utility to investigate the heterogeneity of monocyte and macrophage populations. Although the number of monoclonal antibodies recognizing surface antigens expressed on either swine granulocytes or monocytes is low compared with those available for human or mouse, they have contributed significantly to study the members of myeloid lineages in this species, allowing to discriminate different maturation stages of these cells in bone marrow and to reveal the heterogeneity of blood monocytes and tissue macrophages. Porcine myeloid cells share many similarities with humans, highlighting the relevance of the pig as a biomedical model.

  7. Smart health monitoring systems: an overview of design and modeling.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Health monitoring systems have rapidly evolved during the past two decades and have the potential to change the way health care is currently delivered. Although smart health monitoring systems automate patient monitoring tasks and, thereby improve the patient workflow management, their efficiency in clinical settings is still debatable. This paper presents a review of smart health monitoring systems and an overview of their design and modeling. Furthermore, a critical analysis of the efficiency, clinical acceptability, strategies and recommendations on improving current health monitoring systems will be presented. The main aim is to review current state of the art monitoring systems and to perform extensive and an in-depth analysis of the findings in the area of smart health monitoring systems. In order to achieve this, over fifty different monitoring systems have been selected, categorized, classified and compared. Finally, major advances in the system design level have been discussed, current issues facing health care providers, as well as the potential challenges to health monitoring field will be identified and compared to other similar systems.

  8. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  9. Porcine prion protein amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  10. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  11. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    PubMed

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho

  12. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    PubMed

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho

  13. Import risk assessment incorporating a dose-response model: introduction of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome into Australia via illegally imported raw pork.

    PubMed

    Brookes, V J; Hernández-Jover, M; Holyoake, P; Ward, M P

    2014-03-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has spread through parts of south-east Asia, posing a risk to Australia. The objective of this study was to assess the probability of infection of a feral or domestic pig in Australia with highly pathogenic PRRS following ingestion of illegally imported raw pork. A conservative scenario was considered in which 500 g of raw pork was imported from the Philippines into Australia without being detected by border security, then discarded from a household and potentially accessed by a pig. Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional, stochastic model was used to estimate the probability of entry and exposure, and the probability of infection was assessed by incorporating a virus-decay and mechanistic dose-response model. Results indicated that the probability of infection of a feral pig after ingestion of raw meat was higher than the probability of infection of a domestic pig. Sensitivity analysis was used to assess the influence of input parameters on model output probability estimates, and extension of the virus-decay and dose-response model was used to explore the impact of different temperatures and time from slaughter to ingestion of the meat, different weights of meat, and the level of viraemia at slaughter on the infectivity of meat. Parameters with the highest influence on the model output were the level of viraemia of a pig prior to slaughter and the probability of access by a feral pig to food-waste discarded on property surrounding a household. Extension of the decay and dose-response model showed that small pieces of meat (10 g) from a highly pathogenic PRRS viraemic pig could contain enough virus to have a high probability of infection of a pig, and that routes to Australia by sea or air from all highly pathogenic PRRS virus endemic countries were of interest dependent on the temperature of the raw meat during transport. This study highlighted the importance of mitigation strategies such

  14. Latent porcine circovirus type 2-infected domestic pigs: A potential infection model for the effective development of vaccines against latent or chronic virus induced diseases.

    PubMed

    Sydler, Titus; Brägger, Stefanie; Handke, Martin; Hartnack, Sonja; Lewis, Fraser I; Sidler, Xaver; Brugnera, Enrico

    2016-02-17

    Until recently, knowledge of the pathogenicity of Circoviridae and Anelloviridae family members was limited. Our previous discoveries provided clues toward resolving this issue based on studies of the latent nature of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genotype group members. We developed a conventional pig infection model that indicated that weaners already harbored latent PCV2 infection in the thymus, which enabled the viruses to specifically modulate the maturation of T-helper cells. This finding raised the possibility that the thymi of normal fetuses were already infected with PCV2. The present findings further substantiate our hypothesis that PCV2 masquerades as the host by infecting fetuses before they acquire immune-competence. We provide the first demonstration that all domestic pig fetuses preferentially harbor latent PCV2-infected cells in their thymi. These PCV2-infected cells are different from thymocytes and are located in the medulla of the fetal thymus. These latent PCV2-infected cells in fetuses are found at the same location and share characteristics with the infected cells observed in adolescent pigs. Moreover, fetuses also harbor these infected cells in other lymph system organs. We provide the first demonstration that the fetal thymus virus pools are minimally affected by sow vaccination, highlighting the immune-privileged character of this organ. Furthermore, we found a striking reduction in virus-infected cells in the fetal spleen and an increase in PCV2-infected cells in the fetal intestine of anti-PCV2-vaccinated mothers. These data indicate that specific immune response interactions occur between mothers and their progeny that are not dependent on the humoral immunity of the mother and cannot be attributed to the rudimentary humoral responses of the fetuses because these pig fetuses do not have any PCV2-specific antibodies. These shifts in our understanding of the PCV2-infected cell pool will lead to different avenues in the search for

  15. Xenotransplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Attenuates Left Ventricular Remodeling in a Porcine Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Model

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Masashi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Atsuhiro; Toda, Koichi; Daimon, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bone marrow-derived autologous human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising cell sources for cell therapy to treat heart failure. The cell sheet technique has allowed transplantation of a large number of cells and enhanced the efficacy of cell therapy. We hypothesized that the transplantation of MSC sheets may be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Methods and Results: Human MSCs acquired from bone marrow were positive for CD73, CD90, and CD105 and negative for CD11b and CD45 by flow cytometry. Ten MSC sheets were created from a total cell number of 1×108 MSCs using temperature-responsive culture dishes. These were successfully transplanted over the infarct myocardium of porcine ICM models induced by placing an ameroid constrictor on the left anterior descending coronary artery without any procedural-related complications (MSC group=6: sheet transplantation; sham group=6, oral intake of tacrolimus in both groups). Premature ventricular contractions were rarely detected by Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) in the MSC group in the first week after transplantation. On echocardiography, the cardiac performance of the MSC group was significantly better than that of the sham group at 8 weeks after transplantation. On histological examination 8 weeks after transplantation, left ventricular (LV) remodeling was significantly attenuated compared with the sham group (cardiomyocyte size and interstitial fibrosis were measured). Immunohistochemistry of the von Willebrand factor showed that the vascular density in the infarct border area was significantly greater in the MSC group than the sham group. Expression of angiogenesis-related factors in the infarct border area of the MSC group was significantly greater than that of the sham group, as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived MSC sheets improved cardiac function and attenuated LV remodeling in ICM without

  16. Comparative analysis of in situ versus ex situ perfusion on flow and microcirculation in kidney procurement: research on a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The first crucial step in transplantation appears to be the effective rinsing of the graft during organ procurement. Even though there is strong suspicion that ex situ perfusion results in better rinsing of the graft, there is no proof for this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences of in situ and ex situ kidney perfusion in a porcine model. Methods Standardised multiorgan procurement was performed in 15 German landrace pigs. Perfusion was carried out using histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate solution (HTK) under the application of pressure. In one kidney, in situ perfusion via the aorta was carried out while the second kidney received ex situ perfusion via the renal artery (RA). Perfusate flow inside the aorta and the RA was recorded at different pressure steps. In order to visualise the effect on the microcirculation, different coloured microparticles (MPs; 10 μm) were administered via the aorta or RA. Subsequently, frozen sections of the explanted kidneys were analysed histologically and MPs were evaluated quantitatively. Results Ex situ kidney perfusion resulted in significantly improved flow rates (P<0.0001) compared with in situ perfusion. By applying ex situ perfusion it was even possible to attain physiological flow levels on the RA under the application of external pressure of 150 to 200 mmHg. The amount of MPs was able to highlight the positive impact of ex situ perfusion on microcirculation of the kidney graft (P<0.0001). Conclusions The use of MPs represents a valuable tool for quantitative investigation and illustration of kidney perfusion in experimental setups. Additional ex situ perfusion is able to improve the quality of kidney perfusion. PMID:23837545

  17. Beneficial Antimicrobial Effect of the Addition of an Aminoglycoside to a β-Lactam Antibiotic in an E. coli Porcine Intensive Care Severe Sepsis Model

    PubMed Central

    Skorup, Paul; Maudsdotter, Lisa; Lipcsey, Miklós; Castegren, Markus; Larsson, Anders; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Sjölin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the addition of an aminoglycoside to a ß-lactam antibiotic increases the antimicrobial effect during the early phase of Gram-negative severe sepsis/septic shock. A porcine model was selected that considered each animal’s individual blood bactericidal capacity. Escherichia coli, susceptible to both antibiotics, was given to healthy pigs intravenously during 3 h. At 2 h, the animals were randomized to a 20-min infusion with either cefuroxime alone (n = 9), a combination of cefuroxime+tobramycin (n = 9), or saline (control, n = 9). Blood samples were collected hourly for cultures and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial growth in the organs after 6 h was chosen as the primary endpoint. A blood sample was obtained at baseline before start of bacterial infusion for ex vivo investigation of the blood bactericidal capacity. At 1 h after the administration of the antibiotics, a second blood sample was taken for ex vivo investigation of the antibiotic-induced blood killing activity. All animals developed severe sepsis/septic shock. Blood cultures and PCR rapidly became negative after completed bacterial infusion. Antibiotic-induced blood killing activity was significantly greater in the combination group than in the cefuroxime group (p<0.001). Growth of bacteria in the spleen was reduced in the two antibiotic groups compared with the controls (p<0.01); no difference was noted between the two antibiotic groups. Bacterial growth in the liver was significantly less in the combination group than in the cefuroxime group (p<0.05). High blood bactericidal capacity at baseline was associated with decreased growth in the blood and spleen (p<0.05). The addition of tobramycin to cefuroxime results in increased antibiotic-induced blood killing activity and less bacteria in the liver than cefuroxime alone. Individual blood bactericidal capacity may have a significant effect on antimicrobial outcome. PMID:24587365

  18. Preclinical Study of Single-Dose Moxidectin, a New Oral Treatment for Scabies: Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics Compared to Two-Dose Ivermectin in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Bernigaud, Charlotte; Aho, Ludwig Serge; Dreau, Dominique; Kelly, Andrew; Sutra, Jean-François; Moreau, Francis; Lilin, Thomas; Botterel, Françoise; Guillot, Jacques; Chosidow, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Scabies is one of the commonest dermatological conditions globally; however it is a largely underexplored and truly neglected infectious disease. Foremost, improvement in the management of this public health burden is imperative. Current treatments with topical agents and/or oral ivermectin (IVM) are insufficient and drug resistance is emerging. Moxidectin (MOX), with more advantageous pharmacological profiles may be a promising alternative. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a porcine scabies model, 12 pigs were randomly assigned to receive orally either MOX (0.3 mg/kg once), IVM (0.2 mg/kg twice) or no treatment. We evaluated treatment efficacies by assessing mite count, clinical lesions, pruritus and ELISA-determined anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies reductions. Plasma and skin pharmacokinetic profiles were determined. At day 14 post-treatment, all four MOX-treated but only two IVM-treated pigs were mite-free. MOX efficacy was 100% and remained unchanged until study-end (D47), compared to 62% (range 26–100%) for IVM, with one IVM-treated pig remaining infected until D47. Clinical scabies lesions, pruritus and anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies had completely disappeared in all MOX-treated but only 75% of IVM-treated pigs. MOX persisted ~9 times longer than IVM in plasma and skin, thereby covering the mite’s entire life cycle and enabling long-lasting efficacy. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that oral single-dose MOX was more effective than two consecutive IVM-doses, supporting MOX as potential therapeutic approach for scabies. PMID:27732588

  19. On the monitoring model of reference point of VLBI antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Li, J.

    2013-08-01

    By parameterizing the rotation of VLBI antenna and modeling in local control network the coordinates of targets fixed on the antenna, it is expected to perform fully automatic monitoring of antenna parameters without any interference to normal operations of the telescope. Some insights and analysis are presented concerning the mathematical monitoring model, the setting of parameters and selection of constraints to the observation equation, which are verified via data simulation analysis to be rational and effective. Some factors which may affect the estimation precision of antenna parameters are analyzed in order to design and develop monitoring procedure, data analysis software and to make necessary preparation to practical application of the new monitoring concept of VLBI antenna.

  20. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION MODELING AND MONITORING OF NUTRIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk presents an overview of the capabilities and roles that regional atmospheric deposition models can play with respect to multi-media environmental problems. The focus is on nutrient deposition (nitrogen). Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen is an important contributor to...

  1. Screening and Characterization of Spontaneous Porcine Congenital Heart Defects for Gene Identification and Models of Human Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rodent models of human congenital birth defects have been instrumental for gene discovery and investigation of mechanisms of disease. However, these models are limited by their small size making practiced intervention or detailed anatomic evaluation difficult. Swine have similar anato...

  2. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    Progress and results in the development of an integrated air quality modeling, monitoring, fault detection, and isolation system are presented. The focus was on development of distributed models of the air contaminants transport, the study of air quality monitoring techniques based on the model of transport process and on-line contaminant concentration measurements, and sensor placement. Different approaches to the modeling of spacecraft air contamination are discussed, and a three-dimensional distributed parameter air contaminant dispersion model applicable to both laminar and turbulent transport is proposed. A two-dimensional approximation of a full scale transport model is also proposed based on the spatial averaging of the three dimensional model over the least important space coordinate. A computer implementation of the transport model is considered and a detailed development of two- and three-dimensional models illustrated by contaminant transport simulation results is presented. The use of a well established Kalman filtering approach is suggested as a method for generating on-line contaminant concentration estimates based on both real time measurements and the model of contaminant transport process. It is shown that high computational requirements of the traditional Kalman filter can render difficult its real-time implementation for high-dimensional transport model and a novel implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is proposed which is shown to lead to an order of magnitude faster computer implementation in the case of air quality monitoring.

  3. An experimental model to evaluate the role of transport vehicles as a source of transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to susceptible pigs.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott A; Deen, John; Otake, Satoshi; Pijoan, Carlos

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in a scale-model trailer that was required to infect susceptible pigs, evaluate the potential of PRRSV-contaminated transport vehicles to infect naïve pigs and assess 4 sanitation programs for the prevention of virus spread. To maximize study power, scale models (1:150) of weaned-pig trailers were constructed that provided an animal density equal to that of an actual weaned-pig trailer capable of transporting 300 pigs. The 1st aim involved contaminating the interior of the model trailers with various concentrations (10(1) to 10(4) TCID50/mL) of PRRSV MN 30-100, then housing sentinel pigs in the trailers for 2 h. Pigs exposed to trailers contaminated with > or = 10(3) TCID50/mL became infected. The 2nd aim involved housing experimentally infected seeder pigs in trailers for 2 h, then directly introducing sentinel pigs for 2 h. Infection of sentinels was demonstrated in 3 of 4 replicates. The 3rd aim involved applying 1 of 4 sanitation procedures (treatments) to contaminated trailers. Treatment 1 consisted of manual scraping of the interior to remove soiled bedding (wood chips). Treatment 2 consisted of bedding removal, washing (80 degrees C, 20,500 kPa), and disinfecting (with 1:256 phenol; 10-min contact time). Treatment 3 consisted of treatment 2, followed by freezing and thawing. Treatment 4 consisted of bedding removal, washing, disinfecting, and drying. Ten replicates were conducted per treatment. Pretreatment swabs from all trailers tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Post-treatment swabs were PCR-positive for all trailers except those that were washed, disinfected, and dried. Infection of sentinel pigs by PRRSV was also detected by PCR after all treatments except washing, disinfecting, and drying. Under the conditions of this study, drying appeared to be an important component of a sanitation program for ensuring

  4. Hydrogeological modeling for improving groundwater monitoring network and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna

    2016-09-01

    The research aimed to investigate a new approach for spatiotemporal groundwater monitoring network optimization using hydrogeological modeling to improve monitoring strategies. Unmonitored concentrations were incorporated at different potential monitoring locations into the groundwater monitoring optimization method. The proposed method was applied in the contaminated megasite, Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Based on an existing 3-D geological model, 3-D groundwater flow was obtained from flow velocity simulation using initial and boundary conditions. The 3-D groundwater transport model was used to simulate transport of α-HCH with an initial ideal concentration of 100 mg/L injected at various hydrogeological layers in the model. Particle tracking for contaminant and groundwater flow velocity realizations were made. The spatial optimization result suggested that 30 out of 462 wells in the Quaternary aquifer (6.49 %) and 14 out of 357 wells in the Tertiary aquifer (3.92 %) were redundant. With a gradual increase in the width of the particle track path line, from 0 to 100 m, the number of redundant wells remarkably increased, in both aquifers. The results of temporal optimization showed different sampling frequencies for monitoring wells. The groundwater and contaminant flow direction resulting from particle tracks obtained from hydrogeological modeling was verified by the variogram modeling through α-HCH data from 2003 to 2009. Groundwater monitoring strategies can be substantially improved by removing the existing spatio-temporal redundancy as well as incorporating unmonitored network along with sampling at recommended interval of time. However, the use of this model-based method is only recommended in the areas along with site-specific experts' knowledge.

  5. Desert Dust Properties, Modelling, and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaskaoutis, Dimitris G.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Gupta, Pawan; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Bartzokas, Aristides

    2013-01-01

    This paper is just the three-page introduction to a Special Issue of Advances in Meteorology focusing on desert dust. It provides a paragraph each on 13 accepted papers, most relating to the used of satellite data to assess attributes or distribution of airborne desert dust. As guest Associate Editors of this issue, we organized the papers into a systematic whole, beginning with large-scale transport and seasonal behavior, then to regional dust transport, transport history, and climate impacts, first in the Mediterranean region, then India and central Asia, and finally focusing on transport model assessment and the use of lidar as a technique to constrain dust spatial-temporal distribution.

  6. Development of an Ex Vivo Porcine Lung Model for Studying Growth, Virulence, and Signaling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Muruli, Aneesha; Higgins, Steven; Diggle, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Research into chronic infection by bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses various in vitro and live host models. While these have increased our understanding of pathogen growth, virulence, and evolution, each model has certain limitations. In vitro models cannot recapitulate the complex spatial structure of host organs, while experiments on live hosts are limited in terms of sample size and infection duration for ethical reasons; live mammal models also require specialized facilities which are costly to run. To address this, we have developed an ex vivo pig lung (EVPL) model for quantifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, quorum sensing (QS), virulence factor production, and tissue damage in an environment that mimics a chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. In a first test of our model, we show that lasR mutants, which do not respond to 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL)-mediated QS, exhibit reduced virulence factor production in EVPL. We also show that lasR mutants grow as well as or better than a corresponding wild-type strain in EVPL. lasR mutants frequently and repeatedly arise during chronic CF lung infection, but the evolutionary forces governing their appearance and spread are not clear. Our data are not consistent with the hypothesis that lasR mutants act as social “cheats” in the lung; rather, our results support the hypothesis that lasR mutants are more adapted to the lung environment. More generally, this model will facilitate improved studies of microbial disease, especially studies of how cells of the same and different species interact in polymicrobial infections in a spatially structured environment. PMID:24866798

  7. A low protein diet during pregnancy provokes a lasting shift of hepatic expression of genes related to cell cycle throughout ontogenesis in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. Adverse environmental conditions during fetal development provoke an intrauterine adaptive response termed 'fetal programming', which may lead to both persistently biased responsiveness to extrinsic factors and permanent consequences for the organismal phenotype. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome exhibits short-term and long-term changes, depending on the maternal diet. In order to contribute to a comprehensive inventory of genes and functional networks that are targets of nutritional programming initiated during fetal life, we applied whole-genome microarrays for expression profiling in a longitudinal experimental design covering prenatal, perinatal, juvenile, and adult ontogenetic stages in a porcine model. Pregnant sows were fed either a gestational low protein diet (LP, 6% CP) or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP). All offspring was nursed by foster sows receiving standard diets. After weaning, all offspring was fed standard diets ad libitum. Results Analyses of the hepatic gene expression of the offspring at prenatal (94 dies post conceptionem, dpc) and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dies post natum, dpn) included comparisons between dietary groups within stages as well as comparisons between ontogenetic stages within diets to separate diet-specific transcriptional changes and maturation processes. We observed differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (e.g. Fatty acid metabolism, Biosynthesis of steroids, Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, FA elongation in mitochondria, Bile acid synthesis) and cell cycle regulation (e.g. Mitotic roles of PLK, G1/S checkpoint regulation, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation). Notably, at stage 1 dpn no regulation of a distinct pathway was found in LP offspring. Conclusions The transcriptomic modulations point to

  8. Identification of porcine polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) gene: molecular cloning, expression profile, and implication in disease model.

    PubMed

    He, Jin; Wang, Qingsong; Ye, Jianhua; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2011-12-15

    The polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) gene, which accounts for ~85% of human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) cases, has been extensively studied in human and mouse. Much information about the pathogenesis of and treatments for ADPKD has been gained from the use of mouse models. However, because mouse models pose some limitations, further studies in other model systems are needed to investigate the biological basis of ADPKD. The pig is regarded as an important biomedical model. Thus, we isolated a pig PKD1 homolog and characterized its cDNA sequence, genomic structure, expression profile, alternative splicing, methylation status, protein characteristics, and immunohistochemical features in both neonatal and adult pigs. The pig PKD1 cDNA is 14,209bp long and encodes a 4305-residue polypeptide. The genomic sequence of PKD1 is ~50kb with 46 exons. An alternative splice acceptor site was identified in intron 9. PKD1 is expressed in all tissues tested in both neonatal and adult pigs and exhibits a developmentally regulated expression pattern. Western blotting revealed that the molecular mass of polycystin-1 is ~460kDa, but its expression level is relatively low. Immunohistochemical study of the kidneys shows that polycystin-1 is mainly expressed in the tubular epithelia. Bisulfite methylation analysis of CpG islands in the promoter region does not show a direct correlation between methylation status and expression level among different tissues/cells. The cloning and characterization of pig PKD1 indicates that the pig and human genes are highly similar in length of genomic and cDNA sequences, genomic structure and context, expression patterns, conserved transcription factor binding sites, and the molecular mass of the encoded polycystin-1. These data support our current understanding of PKD1, and suggest that the pig is an ideal candidate for development of an ADPKD disease model. PMID:21945688

  9. A global, real-time flood monitoring model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2014-07-01

    Floods kill thousands of people and cause billions of dollars in damage each year, and many floods occur in areas of the world that lack resources for flood monitoring and forecasting systems. Wu et al. report on an experimental real-time global flood monitoring system that employs a widely used land surface model coupled with a hierarchical dominant river tracing-based runoff routing model and satellite-based precipitation data to provide streamflow and flood detection/estimation information over most of the globe every 3 hours.

  10. Fluid resuscitation guided by sublingual partial pressure of carbon dioxide during hemorrhagic shock in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiefeng; Ma, Linhao; Sun, Shijie; Lu, Xiaoye; Wu, Xiaobo; Li, Zilong; Tang, Wanchun

    2013-04-01

    To avoid aggressive fluid resuscitation during hemorrhagic shock, fluid resuscitation is best guided by a specific measurement of tissue perfusion. We investigated whether fluid resuscitation guided by sublingual PCO2 would reduce the amount of resuscitation fluid without compromising the outcomes of hemorrhagic shock. Ten male domestic pigs weighing between 34 and 37 kg were used. Forty-five percent of estimated blood volume was removed during an interval of 1 h. The animals were then randomized to receive fluid resuscitation based on either sublingual PCO2 or blood pressure (BP). In the sublingual PCO2-guided group, resuscitation was initiated when sublingual PCO2 exceeded 70 Torr and stopped when it decreased to 50 Torr. In the BP-guided group, resuscitation was initiated when mean aortic pressure decreased to 60 mmHg and stopped when it increased to 90 mmHg. First, Ringer's lactate solution (RLS) of 30 mL kg was administered; subsequently, the shed blood was transfused if sublingual PCO2 remained greater than 50 Torr in the sublingual PCO2-guided group or mean aortic pressure was less than 90 mmHg in the BP-guided group. All the animals were monitored for 4 h and observed for an additional 68 h. In the sublingual PCO2-guided group, fluid resuscitation was required in only 40% of the animals. In addition, a significantly lower volume of RLS (170 ± 239 mL, P = 0.005 vs. BP-guided group) was administered without the need for blood infusion in this group. However, in the BP-guided group, all the animals required a significantly larger volume of fluid (955 ± 381 mL), including both RLS and blood. There were no differences in postresuscitation tissue microcirculation, myocardial and neurologic function, and 72-h survival between groups. During hemorrhagic shock, fluid resuscitation guided by sublingual PCO2 significantly reduced the amount of resuscitation fluid without compromising the outcomes of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:23364438

  11. The large shear strain dynamic behaviour of in-vitro porcine brain tissue and a silicone gel model material.

    PubMed

    Brands, D W; Bovendeerd, P H; Peters, G W; Wismans, J S

    2000-11-01

    The large strain dynamic behaviour of brain tissue and silicone gel, a brain substitute material used in mechanical head models, was compared. The non-linear shear strain behaviour was characterised using stress relaxation experiments. Brain tissue showed significant shear softening for strains above 1% (approximately 30% softening for shear strains up to 20%) while the time relaxation behaviour was nearly strain independent. Silicone gel behaved as a linear viscoelastic solid for all strains tested (up to 50%) and frequencies up to 461 Hz. As a result, the large strain time dependent behaviour of both materials could be derived for frequencies up to 1000 Hz from small strain oscillatory experiments and application of Time Temperature Superpositioning. It was concluded that silicone gel material parameters are in the same range as those of brain tissue. Nevertheless the brain tissue response will not be captured exactly due to increased viscous damping at high frequencies and the absence of shear softening in the silicone gel. For trend studies and benchmarking of numerical models the gel can be a good model material.

  12. Development of a Porcine Delayed Wound-Healing Model and Its Use in Testing a Novel Cell-Based Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hadad, Ivan; Johnstone, Brian H.; Brabham, Jeffrey G.; Blanton, Matthew W.; Rogers, Pamela I.; Fellers, Cory; Solomon, James L.; Merfeld-Clauss, Stephanie; DesRosiers, Colleen M.; Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Coleman, John J.; March, Keith L.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: A delayed full-thickness wound-healing model was developed and used for examining the capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), either alone or in platelet-rich fibrin gels, to promote healing. Methods and Materials: Four pigs received electron beam radiation to the dorsal skin surface. Five weeks after radiation, subcutaneous fat was harvested from nonirradiated areas and processed to yield ASCs. Two weeks later, 28 to 30 full-thickness 1.5-cm{sup 2} wounds were made in irradiated and nonirradiated skin. Wounds were treated with either saline solution, ASCs in saline solution, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) fibrin gel, ASCs in PRP, or non-autologous green fluorescence protein-labeled ASCs. Results: The single radiation dose produced a significant loss of dermal microvasculature density (75%) by 7 weeks. There was a significant difference in the rate of healing between irradiated and nonirradiated skin treated with saline solution. The ASCs in PRP-treated wounds exhibited a significant 11.2% improvement in wound healing compared with saline solution. Enhancement was dependent on the combination of ASCs and PRP, because neither ASCs nor PRP alone had an effect. Conclusions: We have created a model that simulates the clinically relevant late radiation effects of delayed wound healing. Using this model, we showed that a combination of ASCs and PRP improves the healing rates of perfusion-depleted tissues, possibly through enhancing local levels of growth factors.

  13. In vivo tracking and immunological properties of pulsed porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Elisa; Fraile, Lorenzo; Novellas, Rosa; Espada, Yvonne; Cabezón, Raquel; Martínez, Jorge; Cordoba, Lorena; Bárcena, Juan; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; Montoya, María

    2015-02-01

    Cellular therapies using immune cells and in particular dendritic cells (DCs) are being increasingly applied in clinical trials and vaccines. Their success partially depends on accurate delivery of cells to target organs or migration to lymph nodes. Delivery and subsequent migration of cells to regional lymph nodes is essential for effective stimulation of the immune system. Thus, the design of an optimal DC therapy would be improved by optimizing technologies for monitoring DC trafficking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a powerful tool for non-invasive imaging of DC migration in vivo. Domestic pigs share similarities with humans and represent an excellent animal model for immunological studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility using pigs as models for DC tracking in vivo. Porcine monocyte derived DC (MoDC) culture with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles was standardized on the basis of SPIO concentration and culture viability. Phenotype, cytokine production and mixed lymphocyte reaction assay confirmed that porcine SPIO-MoDC culture were similar to mock MoDCs and fully functional in vivo. Alike, similar patterns were obtained in human MoDCs. After subcutaneous inoculation in pigs, porcine SPIO-MoDC migration to regional lymph nodes was detected by MRI and confirmed by Perls staining of draining lymph nodes. Moreover, after one dose of virus-like particles-pulsed MoDCs specific local and systemic responses were confirmed using ELISPOT IFN-γ in pigs. In summary, the results in this work showed that after one single subcutaneous dose of pulsed MoDCs, pigs were able to elicit specific local and systemic immune responses. Additionally, the dynamic imaging of MRI-based DC tracking was shown using SPIO particles. This proof-of-principle study shows the potential of using pigs as a suitable animal model to test DC trafficking with the aim of improving cellular therapies.

  14. In vitro culturing of porcine tracheal mucosa as an ideal model for investigating the influence of drugs on human respiratory mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Siefer, Oliver; Zheng, Meihua; Walger, Martin; Mickenhagen, Axel

    2008-01-01

    It has been previously shown that fresh mucosa from different mammals could serve as raw material for in vitro culturing with the differentiation of cilia, which are the most important morphological structures for the function of the mucociliary system. Increasing legal restrictions on the removal of human tissue and changing surgical techniques have led to a lack of fresh human mucosa for culturing. Most of the animals that have been used as donors up to now are genetically not very close to human beings and must all be sacrificed for such studies. We, therefore, established a modified system of culturing mucosa cells from the trachea of pigs, which is available as a regular by-product after slaughtering. With respect to the possibility of developing “beating” cilia, it could be shown that the speed of cell proliferation until adhesion to the coated culture dishes, the formation of conjunctions of cell clusters and the proliferation of cilia were comparable for porcine and human mucosa. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the porcine cilia beat frequency of 7.57 ± 1.39 Hz was comparable to the human mucosa cells beat frequency of 7.3 ± 1.4 Hz and that this beat frequency was absolutely constant over the investigation time of 360 min. In order to prove whether the reaction to different drugs is comparable between the porcine and human cilia, we initially tested benzalkonium chloride, which is known to be toxic for human cells, followed by naphazoline, which we found in previous studies on human mucosa to be non-toxic. The results clearly showed that the functional and morphological reactions of the porcine ciliated cells to these substances were similar to the reaction we found in the in vitro cultured human mucosa. PMID:18458926

  15. Can we properly model the neutron monitor count rate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Agnieszka; Usoskin, Ilya G.; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.; Mishev, Alexander L.; Corti, Claudio; Bindi, Veronica

    2015-09-01

    Neutron monitors provide continuous measurements of secondary nucleonic particles produced in the atmosphere by the primary cosmic rays and form the main tool to study the heliospheric modulation of cosmic rays. In order to study cosmic rays using the world network of neutron monitor and needs to be able to model the neutron monitor count rate. Earlier it was difficult because of the poorly known yield function, which has been essentially revisited recently. We have presented a verification of the new yield function of the standard neutron monitor (NM) using a recently released data on the direct in situ measurements of the galactic cosmic rays energy spectrum during 2006-2009 (the period of the record high cosmic ray flux) by Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics spaceborne spectrometer, and on NM latitude surveys performed during the period of 1994-2007, including periods of high solar activity. We found a very good agreement between the measured count rates of sea level NMs and the modeled ones in very different conditions: from low to high solar activity and from polar to tropical regions. This implies that the count rate of a sea level neutron monitor can be properly modeled in all conditions, using the new yield function.

  16. Model-aware Monitoring of SOAs for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Ta'id; Mulo, Emmanuel; Zdun, Uwe; Dustdar, Schahram

    Business processes today are supported by process-driven service oriented architectures. Due to the increasing importance of compliance of an organization with regulatory requirements and internal policies, there is a need for appropriate techniques to monitor organizational information systems as they execute business processes. Event-based monitoring of processes is one of the ways to provide runtime process-state information. This type of monitoring, however, has limitations mostly related to the type and amount of information available in events and process engines. We propose a novel approach - model-aware monitoring of business processes - to address these limitations. Emitted events contain unique identifiers of models that can be retrieved dynamically during runtime from a model-aware repository and service environment (MORSE). The size of the events is kept small and patterns of events that signify interesting occurrences are identified through complex event processing and are signaled to interesting components such as a business intelligence. To illustrate our approach we present an industry case study where we have applied this generic infrastructure for the compliance monitoring of business processes.

  17. Monitoring and modeling human interactions with ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, Cristina

    With rapidly increasing consumption rates and global population, there is a growing interest in understanding how to balance human activities with the other components of the Earth system. Humans alter ecosystem functioning with land cover changes, greenhouse gas emissions and overexploitation of natural resources. On the other side, climate and its inherent interannual variability drive global Net Primary Productivity (NPP), the base of energy for all trophic levels, shaping humans' distribution on the land surface and their sensitivity to natural and accelerated patterns of variation in ecosystem processes. In this thesis, I analyzed anthropogenic influences on ecosystems and ecosystems impacts on humans through a multi-scale approach. Anthropogenic influences were analyzed with a special focus on urban ecosystems, the living environment of nearly half of the global population and almost 90% of the population in the industrialized countries. A poorly quantified aspect of urban ecosystems is the biogeochemistry of urban vegetation, intensively managed through fertilization and irrigation. In chapter 1, adapting the ecosystem model Biome-BGC, I simulated the growth of turf grasses across the United States, and estimated their potential impact on the continental water and carbon budget. Using a remote sensing-based approach, I also developed a methodology to estimate the impact of land cover changes due to urbanization on the regional photosynthetic capacity (chapter 2), finding that low-density urbanization can retain high levels of net primary productivity, although at the expense of inefficient sprawl. One of the feedbacks of urbanization is the urban heat island effect, which I analyzed in conjunction with a remote sensing based estimate of fractional impervious surface area, showing how this is related to increases in land surface temperatures, independently from geographic location and population density (chapter 3). Finally, in chapter 4, I described the

  18. Model-based monitoring of stormwater runoff quality.

    PubMed

    Birch, Heidi; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of micropollutants (MP) in stormwater is essential to evaluate the impacts of stormwater on the receiving aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to investigate how different strategies for monitoring of stormwater quality (combining a model with field sampling) affect the information obtained about MP discharged from the monitored system. A dynamic stormwater quality model was calibrated using MP data collected by automatic volume-proportional sampling and passive sampling in a storm drainage system on the outskirts of Copenhagen (Denmark) and a 10-year rain series was used to find annual average (AA) and maximum event mean concentrations. Use of this model reduced the uncertainty of predicted AA concentrations compared to a simple stochastic method based solely on data. The predicted AA concentration, obtained by using passive sampler measurements (1 month installation) for calibration of the model, resulted in the same predicted level but with narrower model prediction bounds than by using volume-proportional samples for calibration. This shows that passive sampling allows for a better exploitation of the resources allocated for stormwater quality monitoring. PMID:24037157

  19. Self-, other-, and joint monitoring using forward models

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Martin J.; Garrod, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In the psychology of language, most accounts of self-monitoring assume that it is based on comprehension. Here we outline and develop the alternative account proposed by Pickering and Garrod (2013), in which speakers construct forward models of their upcoming utterances and compare them with the utterance as they produce them. We propose that speakers compute inverse models derived from the discrepancy (error) between the utterance and the predicted utterance and use that to modify their production command or (occasionally) begin anew. We then propose that comprehenders monitor other people’s speech by simulating their utterances using covert imitation and forward models, and then comparing those forward models with what they hear. They use the discrepancy to compute inverse models and modify their representation of the speaker’s production command, or realize that their representation is incorrect and may develop a new production command. We then discuss monitoring in dialogue, paying attention to sequential contributions, concurrent feedback, and the relationship between monitoring and alignment. PMID:24723869

  20. Model Selection for Monitoring CO2 Plume during Sequestration

    2014-12-31

    The model selection method developed as part of this project mainly includes four steps: (1) assessing the connectivity/dynamic characteristics of a large prior ensemble of models, (2) model clustering using multidimensional scaling coupled with k-mean clustering, (3) model selection using the Bayes' rule in the reduced model space, (4) model expansion using iterative resampling of the posterior models. The fourth step expresses one of the advantages of the method: it provides a built-in means ofmore » quantifying the uncertainty in predictions made with the selected models. In our application to plume monitoring, by expanding the posterior space of models, the final ensemble of representations of geological model can be used to assess the uncertainty in predicting the future displacement of the CO2 plume. The software implementation of this approach is attached here.« less

  1. Effect of Negative Pressure Therapy on the Inflammatory Response of the Intestinal Microenvironment in a Porcine Septic Model

    PubMed Central

    Norbury, Kenneth C.; Moyer, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    In a swine model of ischemia/reperfusion injury coupled with sepsis, we have previously shown attenuation of secondary organ injury and decreased mortality with negative pressure therapy (NPT). We hypothesized that NPT modulates the intestinal microenvironment by mediating the innate immune system. Sepsis was induced in 12 anesthetized female pigs. Group 1 (n = 6) was decompressed at 12 hrs after injury (T12) and treated with standard of care (SOC), and group 2 (n = 6) with NPT for up to T48. Immunoparalysis was evident as lymphocytopenia at T24 in both groups; however, survival was improved in the NPT group versus SOC (Odds ratio = 4.0). The SOC group showed significant reduction in lymphocyte numbers compared to NPT group by T48 (p < 0.05). The capacity of peritoneal fluid to stimulate a robust reactive oxygen species response in vitro was greater for the NPT group, peaking at T24 for both M1 (p = 0.0197) and M2 macrophages (p = 0.085). Plasma elicited little if any effect which was confirmed by microarray analysis. In this septic swine model NPT appeared to modulate the intestinal microenvironment, facilitating an early robust, yet transient, host defense mediated by M1 and M2 macrophages. NPT may help overcome immunoparalysis that occurs during inflammatory response to septic injury. PMID:26294849

  2. Evaluation of a dynamic in vitro model to simulate the porcine ileal digestion of diets differing in carbohydrate composition.

    PubMed

    Meunier, J P; Manzanilla, E G; Anguita, M; Denis, S; Pérez, J F; Gasa, J; Cardot, J-M; Garcia, F; Moll, X; Alric, M

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of a dynamic in vitro model to determine the digestibility of OM, CP, and starch compared with a validated, static, in vitro method and in vivo ileal digestibility obtained from growing pigs fitted with a T-cannula. Five experimental diets with different carbohydrate types and level were assessed: a standard corn-based diet (ST) or the same diet with coarse ground corn (CC), 8% sugar beet pulp (BP), 10% wheat bran (WB), or 8% sugar beet pulp and 10% wheat bran (HF). In the in vivo experiment, diets CC and HF reduced (P = 0.015) ileal digestibility of OM compared with the ST diet. The inclusion of sugar beet pulp reduced (P = 0.049) ileal CP digestibility of the BP diet. This reduction was not statistically significant when sugar beet pulp was combined with the wheat bran in the HF diet. No differences were shown for in vivo starch digestibility among diets. With the static in vitro method, the OM disappearance was greater than that observed in the in vivo experiment. In this static method, the BP and HF diets reduced (P = 0.004 and < 0.001, respectively) the disappearance of the OM compared with the ST diet. The coarse grinding of corn did not alter OM digestibility but decreased (P = 0.005) the starch digestibility. The R(2) between the in vivo results and the static in vitro methods for OM and starch digestibility was 0.99 when the CC diet was not considered. The dynamic in vitro model yielded OM and CP digestibility coefficients comparable with those obtained in vivo for the ST and CC diets. However, the values were considerably affected by the incorporation of the fibrous ingredients. Diets BP, WB, and HF had decreased (P = 0.009, 0.058, and 0.004, respectively) OM digestibility compared with the ST diet. Protein digestibility was also decreased (P < 0.001, P = 0.019, and P = 0.003, respectively) with the BP, WB, and HF diets compared with the ST diet. However, digestibility was decreased to a greater extent in the

  3. The feasibility of imaging myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury using 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Feng; Fang, Wei; Johnson, Steven E.; Audi, Said; Zimmer, Michael; Holly, Thomas A; Lee, Daniel; Zhu, Bao; Zhu, Haibo; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    When pathologically externalized, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a potential surrogate marker for detecting tissue injuries. 99mTc-labeled duramycin is a peptide-based imaging agent that binds PE with high affinity and specificity. The goal of the current study was to investigate the clearance kinetics of 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a large animal model (normal pigs) and to assess its uptake in the heart using a pig model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The clearance and distribution of intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin were characterized in sham-operated animals (n = 5). In a closed chest model of myocardial ischemia, coronary occlusion was induced by balloon angioplasty (n = 9). 99mTc-duramycin (10-15 mCi) was injected intravenously at 1 hour after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 1 and 3 hours after injection. Cardiac tissues were analyzed for changes associated with acute cellular injuries. Autoradiography and gamma counting was used to determine radioactivity uptake. For the remaining animals, 99mTc-tetrafosamin scan was performed on the second day to identify the infarct site. Results Intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin cleared from circulation predominantly via the renal/urinary tract with an α-phase half-life of 3.6 ± 0.3 minutes and β-phase half-life of 179.9 ± 64.7 minutes. In control animals, the ratios between normal heart and lung were 1.76 ± 0.21, 1.66 ± 0.22, 1.50 ± 0.20 and 1.75 ± 0.31 at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. The ratios between normal heart and liver were 0.88 ± 0.13, 0.80 ± 0.13, 0.82 ± 0.19 and 0.88 ± 0.14. In vivo visualization of focal radioactivity uptake in the ischemic heart was attainable as early as 30 min post injection. The in vivo ischemic-to-normal uptake ratios were 3.57 ± 0.74 and 3.69 ± 0.91 at 1 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. Ischemic-to-lung ratios were 4.89 ± 0.85 and 4.93 ± 0.57; and ischemic-to-liver ratios were 2.05 ± 0.30 to 3.23 ± 0

  4. Sustained release nitrite therapy results in myocardial protection in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome with peripheral vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jessica M.; Islam, Kazi N.; Polhemus, David J.; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P.; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Goodchild, Traci T.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) reduces endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and exacerbates vascular dysfunction in patients with preexisting vascular diseases. Nitrite, a storage form of NO, can mediate vascular function during pathological conditions when endogenous NO is reduced. The aims of the present study were to characterize the effects of severe MetS and obesity on dyslipidemia, myocardial oxidative stress, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) regulation in the obese Ossabaw swine (OS) model and to examine the effects of a novel, sustained-release formulation of sodium nitrite (SR-nitrite) on coronary vascular reactivity and myocardial redox status in obese OS subjected to critical limb ischemia (CLI). After 6 mo of an atherogenic diet, obese OS displayed a MetS phenotype. Obese OS had decreased eNOS functionality and NO bioavailability. In addition, obese OS exhibited increased oxidative stress and a significant reduction in antioxidant enzymes. The efficacy of SR-nitrite therapy was examined in obese OS subjected to CLI. After 3 wk of treatment, SR-nitrite (80 mg·kg−1·day−1 bid po) increased myocardial nitrite levels and eNOS function. Treatment with SR-nitrite reduced myocardial oxidative stress while increasing myocardial antioxidant capacity. Ex vivo assessment of vascular reactivity of left anterior descending coronary artery segments demonstrated marked improvement in vasoreactivity to sodium nitroprusside but not to substance P and bradykinin in SR-nitrite-treated animals compared with placebo-treated animals. In conclusion, in a clinically relevant, large-animal model of MetS and CLI, treatment with SR-nitrite enhanced myocardial NO bioavailability, attenuated oxidative stress, and improved ex vivo coronary artery vasorelaxation. PMID:25957218

  5. Laparo- and thoracoscopic aortic aneurysm neck optimization and treatment of potential endoleaks type IA and II in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Kloster, Brian O.; Lund, Lars; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms has a higher incidence of late complications, and open conversion (OC) associated with high mortality may be required. As alternatives to OCs, we propose minimal invasive laparo-/thoracoscopic approaches, either to control endoleaks after endovascular repair, or to convert non-endovascular treatable cases due to a hostile neck anatomy by inserting a peri-aortic PTFE collar before endovascular repair. Such interventions may reduce complications and the necessity for OCs in the future. Methods In twelve pigs, were 10 had infra-/juxtrarenal AAAs, externally placed collars/aneuwraps around the proximal AAA neck and just below the left subclavian artery and division of the aortic side branches were carried out laparo-and thoracoscopically. Results For the laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures respectively, mean operative time was 143 ± 41 min and 86 ± 51 min and a mean of 2.6 and 2.25 aortic side branches were ligated/divided. For both procedures, the last half in the series were carried out significantly faster (p < 0.05) indicating a learning curve. Blood loss was minimal and no procedure related complications were seen. Conclusion Using these minimal invasive endoscopic approaches, it seems feasible to externally band aneurysm necks and ligate aortic side branches in a pig model. These procedures could potentially be considered as alternatives to OCs in controlling endoleaks and in improving the safety of endovascular interventions. As endoscopic aortic surgery is challenging a learning curve is expected. Practicing the described procedures using this model, can be used as a learning tool prior to similar interventions on humans. PMID:26793311

  6. Sustained release nitrite therapy results in myocardial protection in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome with peripheral vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jessica M; Islam, Kazi N; Polhemus, David J; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Goodchild, Traci T; Lefer, David J

    2015-07-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) reduces endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and exacerbates vascular dysfunction in patients with preexisting vascular diseases. Nitrite, a storage form of NO, can mediate vascular function during pathological conditions when endogenous NO is reduced. The aims of the present study were to characterize the effects of severe MetS and obesity on dyslipidemia, myocardial oxidative stress, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) regulation in the obese Ossabaw swine (OS) model and to examine the effects of a novel, sustained-release formulation of sodium nitrite (SR-nitrite) on coronary vascular reactivity and myocardial redox status in obese OS subjected to critical limb ischemia (CLI). After 6 mo of an atherogenic diet, obese OS displayed a MetS phenotype. Obese OS had decreased eNOS functionality and NO bioavailability. In addition, obese OS exhibited increased oxidative stress and a significant reduction in antioxidant enzymes. The efficacy of SR-nitrite therapy was examined in obese OS subjected to CLI. After 3 wk of treatment, SR-nitrite (80 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1) bid po) increased myocardial nitrite levels and eNOS function. Treatment with SR-nitrite reduced myocardial oxidative stress while increasing myocardial antioxidant capacity. Ex vivo assessment of vascular reactivity of left anterior descending coronary artery segments demonstrated marked improvement in vasoreactivity to sodium nitroprusside but not to substance P and bradykinin in SR-nitrite-treated animals compared with placebo-treated animals. In conclusion, in a clinically relevant, large-animal model of MetS and CLI, treatment with SR-nitrite enhanced myocardial NO bioavailability, attenuated oxidative stress, and improved ex vivo coronary artery vasorelaxation.

  7. Model-free execution monitoring in behavior-based robotics.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Ola; Karlsson, Lars; Saffiotti, Alessandro

    2007-08-01

    In the near future, autonomous mobile robots are expected to help humans by performing service tasks in many different areas, including personal assistance, transportation, cleaning, mining, or agriculture. In order to manage these tasks in a changing and partially unpredictable environment without the aid of humans, the robot must have the ability to plan its actions and to execute them robustly and safely. The robot must also have the ability to detect when the execution does not proceed as planned and to correctly identify the causes of the failure. An execution monitoring system allows the robot to detect and classify these failures. Most current approaches to execution monitoring in robotics are based on the idea of predicting the outcomes of the robot's actions by using some sort of predictive model and comparing the predicted outcomes with the observed ones. In contrary, this paper explores the use of model-free approaches to execution monitoring, that is, approaches that do not use predictive models. In this paper, we show that pattern recognition techniques can be applied to realize model-free execution monitoring by classifying observed behavioral patterns into normal or faulty execution. We investigate the use of several such techniques and verify their utility in a number of experiments involving the navigation of a mobile robot in indoor environments.

  8. A bio-inspired memory model for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Yong

    2009-04-01

    Long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) systems need intelligent management of the monitoring data. By analogy with the way the human brain processes memories, we present a bio-inspired memory model (BIMM) that does not require prior knowledge of the structure parameters. The model contains three time-domain areas: a sensory memory area, a short-term memory area and a long-term memory area. First, the initial parameters of the structural state are specified to establish safety criteria. Then the large amount of monitoring data that falls within the safety limits is filtered while the data outside the safety limits are captured instantly in the sensory memory area. Second, disturbance signals are distinguished from danger signals in the short-term memory area. Finally, the stable data of the structural balance state are preserved in the long-term memory area. A strategy for priority scheduling via fuzzy c-means for the proposed model is then introduced. An experiment on bridge tower deformation demonstrates that the proposed model can be applied for real-time acquisition, limited-space storage and intelligent mining of the monitoring data in a long-term SHM system.

  9. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  10. The development of a multiorgan ex vivo perfused model: results with the porcine liver-kidney circuit over 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen Yuan; Gravante, Gianpiero; Al-Leswas, Dhya; Arshad, Ali; Sorge, Roberto; Watson, Chris C; Pollard, Cristina; Metcalfe, Matthew S; Dennison, Ashley R

    2013-05-01

    We already developed an ex vivo liver-kidney model perfused for 6 h in which the kidney acted as a homeostatic organ to improve the circuit milieu compared to liver alone. In the current study, we extended the multiorgan perfusions to 24 h to evaluate the results and eventual pitfalls manifesting with longer durations. Five livers and kidneys were harvested from female pigs and perfused over 24 h. The extracorporeal circuit included a centrifugal pump, heat exchanger, and oxygenator. The primary end point of the study was the evaluation of the organ functions as gathered from biochemical and acid-base parameters. In the combined liver-kidney circuit, the organs survived and maintained an acceptable homeostasis for different lengths of time, longer for the liver (up to 19-23 h of perfusions) than the kidney (9-13 h of perfusions). Furthermore, glucose and creatinine values decreased significantly over time (from the 5th and 9th hour of perfusion onward). The addition of a kidney to the perfusion circuit improved the biochemical environment by removing excess products from ongoing metabolic processes. The consequence is a more physiological milieu that could improve results from future experimental studies. However, it is likely that long perfusions require some nutritional support over the hours to maintain the organ's vitality and functionality throughout the experiments. PMID:23489088

  11. Edaravone, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, ameliorates the severity of pulmonary hypertension in a porcine model of neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Daoud, Ghada AbdEl-Hamid; Goto, Tatenobu; Kato, Shin; Kakita, Hiroki; Mizuno, Haruo; Ito, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Sumio; Kato, Ineko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Togari, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Systemic infection in the newborn (neonatal sepsis) is the most common cause of neonatal mortality. Neonatal sepsis is complicated by pulmonary hypertension. In this study, we analyzed the effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is known to reduce the production of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), on pulmonary hypertension. Experimental and sham groups were drawn from 19 three-day-old piglets; 5 underwent a modified procedure of cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) (CLP group), 8 underwent CLP followed 30 min later by edaravone intravenous administration (edaravone group), and 6 did not undergo CLP and did not receive edaravone (sham group). To evaluate the pulmonary blood pressure despite the sepsis-induced low cardiac output, mean arterial blood pressure (mABP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), and comparative pulmonary hypertension ratio (mPAP/mABP) were determined. Serum TNFα levels were measured before the procedure and at 1, 3, and 6 h after. The mPAP levels were higher in the CLP group at 9 h compared to the edaravone group. The mPAP/mABP ratio was lower in the edaravone and sham groups compared to the CLP group at 6 and 9 h. TNFα in the edaravone and sham groups were lower at 1 and 3 h compared to that in the CLP group. In all animals, mPAP/mABP at 6 h correlated with serum levels of TNFα at 1, 3, and 6 h. These findings suggest that edaravone ameliorates the severity of pulmonary hypertension in a neonatal sepsis model by reducing serum TNFα levels.

  12. Recovery of fibrinogen concentrate after intraosseous application is equivalent to the intravenous route in a porcine model of hemodilution

    PubMed Central

    Schlimp, Christoph J.; Solomon, Cristina; Keibl, Claudia; Zipperle, Johannes; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Öhlinger, Wolfgang; Redl, Heinz; Schöchl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    be time consuming. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Prospective, randomized, therapeutic feasibility study in an animal model, level V. PMID:24747454

  13. A High Protein Diet during Pregnancy Affects Hepatic Gene Expression of Energy Sensing Pathways along Ontogenesis in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Michael; Murani, Eduard; Metges, Cornelia C.; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP) or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP) throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc) and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn). Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages. PMID:21789176

  14. Cost of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome and porcine circovirus type-2 subclinical infection in England – An economic disease model

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Pablo; Rushton, Jonathan; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a multi-factorial disease with major economic implications for the pig industry worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the economic impact of PMWS and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infections (PCV2SI) for farrow-to-finish farms and to estimate the resulting cost to the English pig industry. A disease model was built to simulate the varying proportions of pigs in a batch that get infected with PCV2 and develop either PMWS, subclinical disease (reduce growth without evident clinical signs) or remain healthy (normal growth and no clinical signs), depending on the farm level PMWS severity. This PMWS severity measure accounted for the level of post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity and proportion of PCV2 infected pigs observed on farms. The model generated six outcomes: infected pigs with PMWS that die (PMWS-D); infected pigs with PMWS that recover (PMWS-R); subclinical pigs that die (Sub-D); subclinical pigs that reach slaughter age (Sub-S); healthy pigs sold (H-S); and pigs, infected or non-infected by PCV2, that die due to non-PCV2 related causes (nonPCV2-D). Enterprise and partial budget analyses were used to assess the deficit/profits and the extra costs/extra benefits of a change in disease status, respectively. Results from the economic analysis at pig level were combined with the disease model's estimates of the proportion of different pigs produced at different severity scores to assess the cost of PMWS and subclinical disease at farm level, and these were then extrapolated to estimate costs at national level. The net profit for a H-S pig was £19.2. The mean loss for a PMWS-D pig was £84.1 (90% CI: 79.6–89.1), £24.5 (90% CI: 15.1–35.4) for a PMWS-R pig, £82.3 (90% CI: 78.1–87.5) for a Sub-D pig, and £8.1 (90% CI: 2.18–15.1) for a Sub-S pig. At farm level, the greatest proportion of negative economic impact was attributed to PCV2 subclinical pigs. The economic impact for the

  15. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  17. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  18. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  20. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  1. Myocardial function after polarizing versus depolarizing cardiac arrest with blood cardioplegia in a porcine model of cardiopulmonary bypass†

    PubMed Central

    Aass, Terje; Stangeland, Lodve; Moen, Christian Arvei; Salminen, Pirjo-Riitta; Dahle, Geir Olav; Chambers, David J.; Markou, Thomais; Eliassen, Finn; Urban, Malte; Haaverstad, Rune; Matre, Knut; Grong, Ketil

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Potassium-based depolarizing St Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution No 2 administered as intermittent, oxygenated blood is considered as a gold standard for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. However, the alternative concept of polarizing arrest may have beneficial protective effects. We hypothesize that polarized arrest with esmolol/adenosine/magnesium (St Thomas' Hospital Polarizing cardioplegic solution) in cold, intermittent oxygenated blood offers comparable myocardial protection in a clinically relevant animal model. METHODS Twenty anaesthetized young pigs, 42 ± 2 (standard deviation) kg on standardized tepid cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomized (10 per group) to depolarizing or polarizing cardiac arrest for 60 min with cardioplegia administered in the aortic root every 20 min as freshly mixed cold, intermittent, oxygenated blood. Global and local baseline and postoperative cardiac function 60, 120 and 180 min after myocardial reperfusion was evaluated with pressure–conductance catheter and strain by Tissue Doppler Imaging. Regional tissue blood flow, cleaved caspase-3 activity, GRK2 phosphorylation and mitochondrial function and ultrastructure were evaluated in myocardial tissue samples. RESULTS Left ventricular function and general haemodynamics did not differ between groups before CPB. Cardiac asystole was obtained and maintained during aortic cross-clamping. Compared with baseline, heart rate was increased and left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic pressures decreased in both groups after weaning. Cardiac index, systolic pressure and radial peak systolic strain did not differ between groups. Contractility, evaluated as dP/dtmax, gradually increased from 120 to 180 min after declamping in animals with polarizing cardioplegia and was significantly higher, 1871 ± 160 (standard error) mmHg/s, compared with standard potassium-based cardioplegic arrest, 1351 ± 70 mmHg/s, after 180 min of reperfusion (P = 0

  2. Towards Comprehensive Variation Models for Designing Vehicle Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdams, Daniel A.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    When designing vehicle vibration monitoring systems for aerospace devices, it is common to use well-established models of vibration features to determine whether failures or defects exist. Most of the algorithms used for failure detection rely on these models to detect significant changes in a flight environment. In actual practice, however, most vehicle vibration monitoring systems are corrupted by high rates of false alarms and missed detections. This crucial roadblock makes their implementation in real vehicles (e.g., helicopter transmissions and aircraft engines) difficult, making their operation costly and unreliable. Research conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center has determined that a major reason for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections is the numerous sources of statistical variations that are not taken into account in the modeling assumptions. In this paper, we address one such source of variations, namely, those caused during the design and manufacturing of rotating machinery components that make up aerospace systems. We present a novel way of modeling the vibration response by including design variations via probabilistic methods. Using such models, we develop a methodology to account for design and manufacturing variations, and explore the changes in the vibration response to determine its stochastic nature. We explore the potential of the methodology using a nonlinear cam-follower model, where the spring stiffness values are assumed to follow a normal distribution. The results demonstrate initial feasibility of the method, showing great promise in developing a general methodology for designing more accurate aerospace vehicle monitoring systems.

  3. Hydrogeologic Modeling for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Geologic Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolian, M.; De Figueiredo, M.; Lisa, B.

    2011-12-01

    In December 2010, EPA finalized Subpart RR of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Program, which requires facilities that conduct geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) to report GHG data to EPA annually. The GHG Reporting Program requires reporting of GHGs and other relevant information from certain source categories in the United States, and information obtained through Subpart RR will inform Agency decisions under the Clean Air Act related to the use of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration for mitigating GHGs. This paper examines hydrogeologic modeling necessities and opportunities in the context of Subpart RR. Under Subpart RR, facilities that conduct GS by injecting CO2 for long-term containment in subsurface geologic formations are required to develop and implement an EPA-approved site-specific monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan; and report basic information on CO2 received for injection, annual monitoring activities and the amount of CO2 geologically sequestered using a mass balance approach. The major components of the MRV plan include: identification of potential surface leakage pathways for CO2 and the likelihood, magnitude, and timing, of surface leakage of CO2 through these pathways; delineation of the monitoring areas; strategy for detecting and quantifying any surface leakage of CO2; and the strategy for establishing the expected baselines for monitoring CO2 surface leakage. Hydrogeologic modeling is an integral aspect of the design of an MRV plan. In order to prepare an adequate monitoring program that addresses site specific risks over the full life of the project the MRV plan must reflect the full spatial extent of the free phase CO2 over time. Facilities delineate the maximum area that the CO2 plume is predicted to cover and how monitoring can be phased in over this area. The Maximum Monitoring Area (MMA) includes the extent of the free phase CO2 plume over the lifetime of the project plus a buffer zone of one

  4. A truncated diphtheria toxin based recombinant porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin.

    PubMed

    Peraino, Jaclyn Stromp; Schenk, Marian; Zhang, Huiping; Li, Guoying; Hermanrud, Christina E; Neville, David M; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Wang, Zhirui

    2013-05-31

    Targeted cell therapies are possible through the generation of recombinant fusion proteins that combine a toxin, such as diphtheria toxin (DT), with an antibody or other molecule that confers specificity. Upon binding of the fusion protein to the cell of interest, the diphtheria toxin is internalized which results in protein synthesis inhibition and subsequent cell death. We have recently expressed and purified the recombinant soluble porcine CTLA-4 both with and without N-glycosylation in yeast Pichia pastoris for in vivo use in our preclinical swine model. The glycosylated and non-N-glycosylated versions of this recombinant protein each bind to a porcine CD80 expressing B-cell lymphoma line (LCL13271) with equal affinity (K(D)=13 nM). In this study we have linked each of the glycosylated and non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 proteins to the truncated diphtheria toxin DT390 through genetic engineering yielding three versions of the porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxins: 1) monovalent glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin; 2) monovalent non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin and 3) bivalent non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin. Protein synthesis inhibition analysis demonstrated that while all three fusion toxins are capable of inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro, the non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 isoforms function most efficiently. Binding analysis using flow cytometry of the porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxins to LCL13271 cells also demonstrated that the non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 isoforms bind to these cells with higher affinity compared to the glycosylated fusion toxin. The monovalent non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin was tested in vivo. NSG (NOD/SCID IL-2 receptor γ(-)/(-)) mice were injected with porcine CD80(+) LCL13271 tumor cells. All animals succumbed to tumors and those treated with the monovalent non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin survived longer based on a symptomatic scoring

  5. Using models for the optimization of hydrologic monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.; Doherty, John E.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologists are often asked what kind of monitoring network can most effectively support science-based water-resources management decisions. Currently (2011), hydrologic monitoring locations often are selected by addressing observation gaps in the existing network or non-science issues such as site access. A model might then be calibrated to available data and applied to a prediction of interest (regardless of how well-suited that model is for the prediction). However, modeling tools are available that can inform which locations and types of data provide the most 'bang for the buck' for a specified prediction. Put another way, the hydrologist can determine which observation data most reduce the model uncertainty around a specified prediction. An advantage of such an approach is the maximization of limited monitoring resources because it focuses on the difference in prediction uncertainty with or without additional collection of field data. Data worth can be calculated either through the addition of new data or subtraction of existing information by reducing monitoring efforts (Beven, 1993). The latter generally is not widely requested as there is explicit recognition that the worth calculated is fundamentally dependent on the prediction specified. If a water manager needs a new prediction, the benefits of reducing the scope of a monitoring effort, based on an old prediction, may be erased by the loss of information important for the new prediction. This fact sheet focuses on the worth or value of new data collection by quantifying the reduction in prediction uncertainty achieved be adding a monitoring observation. This calculation of worth can be performed for multiple potential locations (and types) of observations, which then can be ranked for their effectiveness for reducing uncertainty around the specified prediction. This is implemented using a Bayesian approach with the PREDUNC utility in the parameter estimation software suite PEST (Doherty, 2010). The

  6. An in-depth comparison of the porcine, murine and human inflammasomes; lessons from the porcine genome and transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that swine are a scientifically acceptable intermediate species between rodents and humans to model immune function relevant to humans. The swine genome has recently been sequenced and several preliminary structural and functional analysis of the porcine immunome have been...

  7. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  8. Mapping, Monitoring and Modeling Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Species and Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartis, Brett Michael

    Aquatic macrophyte communities are critically important habitat species in aquatic systems worldwide. None are more important than those found beneath the water's surface, commonly referred to as submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although vital to such systems, many native submersed plants have shown near irreversible declines in recent decades as water quality impairment, habitat destruction, and encroachment by invasive species have increased. In the past, aquatic plant science has emphasized the restoration and protection of native species and the management of invasive species. Comparatively little emphasis has been directed toward adequately mapping and monitoring these resources to track their viability over time. Modeling the potential intrusion of certain invasive plant species has also been given little attention, likely because aquatic systems in general can be difficult to assess. In recent years, scientists and resource managers alike have begun paying more attention to mapping SAV communities and to address the spread of invasive species across various regions. This research attempts to provide new, cutting-edge techniques to improve SAV mapping and monitoring efforts in coastal regions, at both community and individual species levels, while also providing insights about the establishment potential of Hydrilla verticillata, a noxious, highly invasive submersed plant. Technological advances in satellite remote sensing, interpolation and spatial analysis in geographic information systems, and state-of-the-art climate envelope modeling techniques were used to further assess the dynamic nature of SAV on various scales. This work contributes to the growing science of mapping, monitoring, and modeling of SAV

  9. Histologic and biomechanical evaluation of a novel macroporous polytetrafluoroethylene knit mesh compared to lightweight and heavyweight polypropylene mesh in a porcine model of ventral incisional hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Melman, L.; Jenkins, E. D.; Hamilton, N. A.; Bender, L. C.; Brodt, M. D.; Deeken, C. R.; Greco, S. C.; Frisella, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the biocompatibility of heavyweight polypropylene (HWPP), lightweight polypropylene (LWPP), and monofilament knit polytetrafluoroethylene (mkPTFE) mesh by comparing biomechanics and histologic response at 1, 3, and 5 months in a porcine model of incisional hernia repair. Methods Bilateral full-thickness abdominal wall defects measuring 4 cm in length were created in 27 Yucatan minipigs. Twenty-one days after hernia creation, animals underwent bilateral preperitoneal ventral hernia repair with 8 × 10 cm pieces of mesh. Repairs were randomized to Bard®Mesh (HWPP, Bard/Davol, http://www.davol.com), ULTRAPRO® (LWPP, Ethicon, http://www.ethicon.com), and GORE®INFINIT Mesh (mkPTFE, Gore & Associates, http://www.gore.com). Nine animals were sacrificed at each timepoint (1, 3, and 5 months). At harvest, a 3 × 4 cm sample of mesh and incorporated tissue was taken from the center of the implant site and subjected to uniaxial tensile testing at a rate of 0.42 mm/s. The maximum force (N) and tensile strength (N/cm) were measured with a tensiometer, and stiffness (N/mm) was calculated from the slope of the force-versus-displacement curve. Adjacent sections of tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and analyzed for inflammation, fibrosis, and tissue ingrowth. Data are reported as mean ± SEM. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) was determined using a two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-test. Results No significant difference in maximum force was detected between meshes at any of the time points (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). However, for each mesh type, the maximum strength at 5 months was significantly lower than that at 1 month (P < 0.05). No significant difference in stiffness was detected between the mesh types or between timepoints (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). No significant differences with regard to inflammation, fibrosis, or tissue ingrowth were detected between mesh types at any time point (P > 0.09 for all comparisons). However

  10. Peculiarity of Porcine Amniotic Membrane and Its Derived Cells: A Contribution to the Study of Cell Therapy from a Large Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Corradetti, Bruna; Bertani, Sabrina; Notarstefano, Valentina; Perrini, Claudia; Marini, Maria Giovanna; Arrighi, Silvana; Bosi, Giampaolo; Belloli, Angelo; Pravettoni, Davide; Locatelli, Valentina; Cremonesi, Fausto; Bizzaro, Davide

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to provide, for the first time, a protocol for isolation and characterization of stem cells from porcine amniotic membrane in view of their potential uses in regenerative medicine. From three samples of allanto-amnion recovered at delivery, the amniotic membrane was stripped from overlying allantois and digested with trypsin and collagenase to isolate epithelial (amniotic epithelial cells [AECs]) and mesenchymal cells, respectively. Proliferation, differentiation, and characterization studies by molecular biology and flow cytometry were performed. Histological examination revealed very few mesenchymal cells in the stromal layer, and a cellular yield of AECs of 10 × 10(6)/gram of digested tissue was achieved. AECs readily attached to plastic culture dishes displaying typical cuboidal morphology and, although their proliferative capacity decreased to the fifth passage, AECs showed a mean doubling time of 24.77 ± 6 h and a mean frequency of one fibroblast colony-forming unit (CFU-F) for every 116.75 plated cells. AECs expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) mRNA markers (CD29, CD166, CD90, CD73, CD117) and pluripotent markers (Nanog and Oct 4), whereas they were negative for CD34 and MHCII. Mesodermic, ectodermic, and endodermic differentiation was confirmed by staining and expression of specific markers. We conclude that porcine amniotic membrane can provide an attractive source of stem cells that may be a useful tool for biomedical research.

  11. Peculiarity of Porcine Amniotic Membrane and Its Derived Cells: A Contribution to the Study of Cell Therapy from a Large Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Corradetti, Bruna; Bertani, Sabrina; Notarstefano, Valentina; Perrini, Claudia; Marini, Maria Giovanna; Arrighi, Silvana; Bosi, Giampaolo; Belloli, Angelo; Pravettoni, Davide; Locatelli, Valentina; Cremonesi, Fausto; Bizzaro, Davide

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to provide, for the first time, a protocol for isolation and characterization of stem cells from porcine amniotic membrane in view of their potential uses in regenerative medicine. From three samples of allanto-amnion recovered at delivery, the amniotic membrane was stripped from overlying allantois and digested with trypsin and collagenase to isolate epithelial (amniotic epithelial cells [AECs]) and mesenchymal cells, respectively. Proliferation, differentiation, and characterization studies by molecular biology and flow cytometry were performed. Histological examination revealed very few mesenchymal cells in the stromal layer, and a cellular yield of AECs of 10 × 10(6)/gram of digested tissue was achieved. AECs readily attached to plastic culture dishes displaying typical cuboidal morphology and, although their proliferative capacity decreased to the fifth passage, AECs showed a mean doubling time of 24.77 ± 6 h and a mean frequency of one fibroblast colony-forming unit (CFU-F) for every 116.75 plated cells. AECs expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) mRNA markers (CD29, CD166, CD90, CD73, CD117) and pluripotent markers (Nanog and Oct 4), whereas they were negative for CD34 and MHCII. Mesodermic, ectodermic, and endodermic differentiation was confirmed by staining and expression of specific markers. We conclude that porcine amniotic membrane can provide an attractive source of stem cells that may be a useful tool for biomedical research. PMID:26540004

  12. Self-calibrating models for dynamic monitoring and diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    The present goal in qualitative reasoning is to develop methods for automatically building qualitative and semiquantitative models of dynamic systems and to use them for monitoring and fault diagnosis. The qualitative approach to modeling provides a guarantee of coverage while our semiquantitative methods support convergence toward a numerical model as observations are accumulated. We have developed and applied methods for automatic creation of qualitative models, developed two methods for obtaining tractable results on problems that were previously intractable for qualitative simulation, and developed more powerful methods for learning semiquantitative models from observations and deriving semiquantitative predictions from them. With these advances, qualitative reasoning comes significantly closer to realizing its aims as a practical engineering method.

  13. The porcine innate immune system: an update.

    PubMed

    Mair, K H; Sedlak, C; Käser, T; Pasternak, A; Levast, B; Gerner, W; Saalmüller, A; Summerfield, A; Gerdts, V; Wilson, H L; Meurens, F

    2014-08-01

    Over the last few years, we have seen an increasing interest and demand for pigs in biomedical research. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) are closely related to humans in terms of their anatomy, genetics, and physiology, and often are the model of choice for the assessment of novel vaccines and therapeutics in a preclinical stage. However, the pig as a model has much more to offer, and can serve as a model for many biomedical applications including aging research, medical imaging, and pharmaceutical studies to name a few. In this review, we will provide an overview of the innate immune system in pigs, describe its anatomical and physiological key features, and discuss the key players involved. In particular, we compare the porcine innate immune system to that of humans, and emphasize on the importance of the pig as model for human disease.

  14. Monitoring Network Design for Discriminating and Reducing Models in Bayesian Model Averaging Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F. T.; Pham, H. V.

    2013-12-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is often adopted to quantify model prediction and uncertainty using multiple models generated from various sources of uncertainty. Due to the lack of data and knowledge, the number of models with non-dominant posterior model probabilities can be overwhelming. Conducting prediction and uncertainty analysis using a great deal of computationally intensive simulation models (e.g., groundwater models) can become intractable under the BMA framework. Moreover, prediction results using the BMA can be useless when prediction uncertainty is very high. This study implements a monitoring network design under the BMA framework to discriminate groundwater models and in turn reduce the number of models. The posterior model probabilities are re-evaluated by using BMA prediction as 'future observation data' and historical data. Given a design criterion of posterior model probability (e.g. 85%), the monitoring network design aims to find the optimal number and location of monitoring wells at existing wells for continuous observation. If using existing wells cannot achieve the design criterion, then exploration of new monitoring well location is necessary. Once the design criterion is met, other models will be discriminated from the best model. Between-model variance will be significantly reduced. We use the monitoring network design to discriminate 18 complex groundwater models that include the '1,200-foot', '1,500-foot', and '1,700-foot' sands in the Baton Rouge area, southeastern Louisiana. The sources of uncertainty that creates the groundwater models are from hydrostratigraphic architecture, fault permeability architecture, and boundary conditions. To speed up model calibration, we develop a parallel version of CMA-ES and implement it to SuperMike II cluster at Louisiana State University. Results show that in the model calibration period from 1975 to 2010, eleven models have posterior model probabilities ranging from 3.5% to 17.4%. The purpose of

  15. Osteogenic and adipogenic potential of porcine adipose mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guo-hua; Zhang, Li-jie; Yang, Gong-she

    2007-02-01

    Human, rat, and mouse studies have demonstrated the existence of a population of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) that can undergo multilineage differentiation in vitro. Understanding the clinical potential of AMSCs may require their use in preclinical large-animal models such as pigs. Thus, the objectives of this study were to establish a protocol for the isolation of porcine AMSCs from adipose tissue and to examine their ex vivo differentiation potential to adipocytes and osteoblast. The porcine AMSCs from passage 4 were selected for differentiation analysis. The adipocytes were identified morphologically by staining with Oil Red O, and the adipogenic marker genes were examined by RT-PCR technique. Osteogenic lineage was documented by deposition of calcium stained with Alzarin Red S, visualization of alkaline phosphatase activity, and expression of marker gene. Our result indicates that porcine AMSCs have been successfully isolated and induced differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts. This study suggested that porcine AMSCs are also a valuable model system for the study on the mesenchymal lineages for basic research and tissue engineering. PMID:17570023

  16. Osteogenic and adipogenic potential of porcine adipose mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guo-hua; Zhang, Li-jie; Yang, Gong-she

    2007-02-01

    Human, rat, and mouse studies have demonstrated the existence of a population of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) that can undergo multilineage differentiation in vitro. Understanding the clinical potential of AMSCs may require their use in preclinical large-animal models such as pigs. Thus, the objectives of this study were to establish a protocol for the isolation of porcine AMSCs from adipose tissue and to examine their ex vivo differentiation potential to adipocytes and osteoblast. The porcine AMSCs from passage 4 were selected for differentiation analysis. The adipocytes were identified morphologically by staining with Oil Red O, and the adipogenic marker genes were examined by RT-PCR technique. Osteogenic lineage was documented by deposition of calcium stained with Alzarin Red S, visualization of alkaline phosphatase activity, and expression of marker gene. Our result indicates that porcine AMSCs have been successfully isolated and induced differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts. This study suggested that porcine AMSCs are also a valuable model system for the study on the mesenchymal lineages for basic research and tissue engineering.

  17. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  18. A model of adversary characteristics for designing employee monitoring programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A.; Smith, G.

    1990-07-16

    Employee screening and monitoring programs are an important component of the defense in depth at nuclear facilities. Ideally, such programs should maximize the probability of detecting an adversary and minimize the probability of falsely detecting'' a nonadversary by taking into account the characteristics of potential adversaries. This paper presents a model for identifying patterns of characteristics, or indicators, that may be more prevalent among adversaries than among non-adversaries and, therefore, can be used for detecting adversaries. It assumes that adversaries are detected when a background check or other monitoring program recognizes suspect patterns of indicators such as drug abuse, unexplained income, financial problems, abnormal scores on psychological tests, etc. The model quantifies the probabilities that adversaries will manifest various patterns of indicators. The analyses presented in the paper identify sets of patterns that are most likely to be manifested by several types of adversaries. Monitoring programs that can recognize these patterns should be more likely to detect adversaries. We have also estimated the probability that a normal employee might manifest the same patterns and be incorrectly detected as an adversary. The likelihoods use subjective probability judgements, however, statistical measures can be incorporated should they become available. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Monitoring Mediterranean marine pollution using remote sensing and hydrodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Loggia, Goffredo; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Drago, Aldo; Maltese, Antonino

    2011-11-01

    Human activities contaminate both coastal areas and open seas, even though impacts are different in terms of pollutants, ecosystems and recovery time. In particular, Mediterranean offshore pollution is mainly related to maritime transport of oil, accounting for 25% of the global maritime traffic and, during the last 25 years, for nearly 7% of the world oil accidents, thus causing serious biological impacts on both open sea and coastal zone habitats. This paper provides a general review of maritime pollution monitoring using integrated approaches of remote sensing and hydrodynamic modeling; focusing on the main results of the MAPRES (Marine pollution monitoring and detection by aerial surveillance and satellite images) research project on the synergistic use of remote sensing, forecasting, cleanup measures and environmental consequences. The paper also investigates techniques of oil spill detection using SAR images, presenting the first results of "Monitoring of marine pollution due to oil slick", a COSMO-SkyMed funded research project where X-band SAR constellation images provided by the Italian Space Agency are used. Finally, the prospect of using real time observations of marine surface conditions is presented through CALYPSO project (CALYPSO-HF Radar Monitoring System and Response against Marine Oil Spills in the Malta Channel), partly financed by the EU under the Operational Programme Italia-Malta 2007-2013. The project concerns the setting up of a permanent and fully operational HF radar observing system, capable of recording surface currents (in real-time with hourly updates) in the stretch of sea between Malta and Sicily. A combined use of collected data and numerical models, aims to optimize intervention and response in the case of marine oil spills.

  20. Unilateral Partial Nephrectomy with Warm Ischemia Results in Acute Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-Alpha (HIF-1α) and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Overexpression in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Haimovich, Beatrice; Kwon, Young Suk; Lu, Tyler; Fyfe-Kirschner, Billie; Olweny, Ephrem Odoy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) during partial nephrectomy (PN) contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI), which is inaccurately assessed using existent clinical markers of renal function. We evaluated I/R-related changes in expression in hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), within kidney tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) in a porcine model of PN. Materials and Methods Three adult pigs each underwent unilateral renal hilar cross clamping for 180 min followed by a 15 min reperfusion. The contralateral kidney served as control. Biopsies of clamped kidneys were obtained at baseline (time 0), every 60 min during the hypoxic phase, and post-reperfusion. Control kidneys were biopsied once at 180 min. Peripheral blood was sampled at time 0, every 30 min during the hypoxic phase, and post-reperfusion. HIF-1α and TLR4 expression in kidney tissue and PBL were analyzed by Western blotting. I/R-related histological changes were assessed. Results Expression of HIF-1α in clamped kidneys and PBL was below detection level at baseline, rising to detectable levels after 60 min of hypoxia, and continuing to rise throughout the hypoxic and reperfusion phases. Expression of TLR-4 in clamped kidneys followed a similar trend with initial detection after 30–60 min of hypoxia. Control kidneys exhibited no change in HIF-1α or TLR-4 expression. I/R-related histologic changes were minimal, primarily mild tubular dilatation. Conclusions In a porcine model of PN, HIF-1α and TLR4 exhibited robust, I/R-related increases in expression in kidney tissue and PBL. Further studies investigating these molecules as potential markers of AKI are warranted. PMID:27149666

  1. Conceptual models as hypotheses in monitoring urban landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lookingbill, Todd R; Gardner, Robert H; Townsend, Philip A; Carter, Shawn L

    2007-08-01

    Many problems and challenges of ecosystem management currently are driven by the rapid pace and spatial extent of landscape change. Parks and reserves within areas of high human population density are especially challenged to meet the recreational needs of local populations and to preserve valued environmental resources. The complex problem of managing multiple objectives and multiple resources requires an enormous quantity of information, and conceptual models have been proposed as tools for organizing and interpreting this information. Academics generally prefer a bottom-up approach to model construction that emphasizes ecologic theory and process, whereas managers often use a top-down approach that takes advantage of existing information to address more pragmatic objectives. The authors propose a formal process for developing, applying, and testing conceptual models to be used in landscape monitoring that reconciles these seemingly opposing perspectives. The four-step process embraces the role of hypothesis testing in the development of models and evaluation of their utility. An example application of the process to a network of national parks in and around Washington, DC illustrates the ability of the approach to systematically identify monitoring data that would both advance ecologic theory and inform management decisions.

  2. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring of Voids: Results of Dynamic Modeling Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.

    2006-05-01

    Remote, non-invasive detection of voids is a challenging problem for environmental and engineering investigations in karst terrain. Many geophysical methods including gravity, electrical, electromagnetic, magnetic, and seismic have potential to detect voids in the subsurface; lithologic heterogeneity and method- specific sources of noise, however, can mask the geophysical signatures of voids. New developments in automated, autonomous geophysical monitoring technology now allow for void detection using differential geophysics. We propose automated collection of electrical resistivity measurements over time. This dynamic approach exploits changes in subsurface electrical properties related to void growth or water-table fluctuation in order to detect voids that would be difficult or impossible to detect using static imaging approaches. We use a series of synthetic modeling experiments to demonstrate the potential of difference electrical resistivity tomography for finding (1) voids that develop vertically upward under a survey line (e.g., an incipient sinkhole); (2) voids that develop horizontally toward a survey line (e.g., a tunnel); and (3) voids that are influenced by changing hydrologic conditions (e.g., void saturation and draining). Synthetic datasets are simulated with a 3D finite-element model, but the inversion assumes a 2D forward model to mimic conventional practice. The results of the synthetic modeling experiments provide insights useful for planning and implementing field-scale monitoring experiments using electrical methods.

  3. Conceptual models as hypotheses in monitoring urban landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lookingbill, Todd R; Gardner, Robert H; Townsend, Philip A; Carter, Shawn L

    2007-08-01

    Many problems and challenges of ecosystem management currently are driven by the rapid pace and spatial extent of landscape change. Parks and reserves within areas of high human population density are especially challenged to meet the recreational needs of local populations and to preserve valued environmental resources. The complex problem of managing multiple objectives and multiple resources requires an enormous quantity of information, and conceptual models have been proposed as tools for organizing and interpreting this information. Academics generally prefer a bottom-up approach to model construction that emphasizes ecologic theory and process, whereas managers often use a top-down approach that takes advantage of existing information to address more pragmatic objectives. The authors propose a formal process for developing, applying, and testing conceptual models to be used in landscape monitoring that reconciles these seemingly opposing perspectives. The four-step process embraces the role of hypothesis testing in the development of models and evaluation of their utility. An example application of the process to a network of national parks in and around Washington, DC illustrates the ability of the approach to systematically identify monitoring data that would both advance ecologic theory and inform management decisions. PMID:17562105

  4. Conceptual Models as Hypotheses in Monitoring Urban Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lookingbill, Todd R.; Gardner, Robert H.; Townsend, Philip A.; Carter, Shawn L.

    2007-08-01

    Many problems and challenges of ecosystem management currently are driven by the rapid pace and spatial extent of landscape change. Parks and reserves within areas of high human population density are especially challenged to meet the recreational needs of local populations and to preserve valued environmental resources. The complex problem of managing multiple objectives and multiple resources requires an enormous quantity of information, and conceptual models have been proposed as tools for organizing and interpreting this information. Academics generally prefer a bottom-up approach to model construction that emphasizes ecologic theory and process, whereas managers often use a top-down approach that takes advantage of existing information to address more pragmatic objectives. The authors propose a formal process for developing, applying, and testing conceptual models to be used in landscape monitoring that reconciles these seemingly opposing perspectives. The four-step process embraces the role of hypothesis testing in the development of models and evaluation of their utility. An example application of the process to a network of national parks in and around Washington, DC illustrates the ability of the approach to systematically identify monitoring data that would both advance ecologic theory and inform management decisions.

  5. Kangaroo vs. porcine aortic valves: calcification potential after glutaraldehyde fixation.

    PubMed

    Narine, K; Chéry, Cyrille C; Goetghebeur, Els; Forsyth, R; Claeys, E; Cornelissen, Maria; Moens, L; Van Nooten, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the calcification potential of kangaroo and porcine aortic valves after glutaraldehyde fixation at both low (0.6%) and high (2.0%) concentrations of glutaraldehyde in the rat subcutaneous model. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing the time-related, progressive calcification of these two species in the rat subcutaneous model. Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were each implanted with two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 0.6% glutaraldehyde and two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h and thereafter weekly for up to 10 weeks after implantation. Calcium content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and confirmed histologically. Mean calcium content per milligram of tissue (dry weight) treated with 0.6 and 2% glutaraldehyde was 116.2 and 110.4 microg/mg tissue for kangaroo and 95.0 and 106.8 microg/mg tissue for porcine valves. Calcium content increased significantly over time (8.8 microg/mg tissue per week) and was not significantly different between groups. Regression analysis of calcification over time showed no significant difference in calcification of valves treated with 0.6 or 2% glutaraldehyde within and between the two species. Using the subcutaneous model, we did not detect a difference in calcification potential between kangaroo and porcine aortic valves treated with either high or low concentrations of glutaraldehyde.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF CONCURRENT MONITORING AND MODELING FOR UNDERSTANDING MERCURY EXPOSURE IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the cycling processes governing mercury exposure in the environment requires sufficient process-based modeling and monitoring data. Monitoring provides ambient concentration data for specific sample times and locations. Modeling provides a tool for investigating the...

  7. A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A.; Hiscox, Julian A.

    2008-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.

  8. Molecular interactions of a model bile salt and porcine bile with (1,3:1,4)-β-glucans and arabinoxylans probed by (13)C NMR and SAXS.

    PubMed

    Gunness, Purnima; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Mata, Jitendra P; Gilbert, Elliot P; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-04-15

    Two main classes of interaction between soluble dietary fibres (SDFs), such as (1,3:1,4)-β-D-glucan (βG) and arabinoxylan (AX) and bile salt (BS) or diluted porcine bile, were identified by (13)C NMR and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Small chemical shift differences of BS NMR resonances were consistent with effective local concentration or dilution of BS micelles mostly by βG, suggesting dynamic interactions; whilst the reduced line widths/intensities observed were mostly caused by wheat AX and the highest molecular size and concentrations of βG. SAXS showed evidence of changes in βG but not AX in the presence of BS micelles, at >13 nm length scale consistent with molecular level interactions. Thus intermolecular interactions between SDF and BS depend on both SDF source and its molecular weight and may occur alone or in combination. PMID:26617003

  9. Polarimetric SAR Models for Oil Fields Monitoring in China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, A.; Nunziata, F.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.; Ding, X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, physical-based models for polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) oil fields monitoring are proposed. They all share a physical rationale relying on the different scattering mechanisms that characterize a free sea surface, an oil slick-covered sea surface, and a metallic target. In fact, sea surface scattering is well modeled by a Bragg-like behaviour, while a strong departure from Bragg scattering is in place when dealing with oil slicks and targets. Furthermore, the proposed polarimetric models aim at addressing simultaneously target and oil slick detection, providing useful extra information with respect to single-pol SAR data in order to approach oil discrimination and classification. Experiments undertaken over East and South China Sea from actual C-band RadarSAT-2 full-pol SAR data witness the soundness of the proposed rationale.

  10. Monitoring and modeling agricultural drought for famine early warning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdin, J. P.; Funk, C.; Budde, M. E.; Lietzow, R.; Senay, G. B.; Smith, R.; Pedreros, D.; Rowland, J.; Artan, G. A.; Husak, G. J.; Michaelsen, J.; Adoum, A.; Galu, G.; Magadzire, T.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) makes quantitative estimates of food insecure populations, and identifies the places and periods during which action must be taken to assist them. Subsistence agriculture and pastoralism are the predominant livelihood systems being monitored, and they are especially drought-sensitive. At the same time, conventional climate observation networks in developing countries are often sparse and late in reporting. Consequently, remote sensing has played a significant role since FEWS NET began in 1985. Initially there was heavy reliance on vegetation index imagery from AVHRR to identify anomalies in landscape greenness indicative of drought. In the latter part of the 1990s, satellite rainfall estimates added a second, independent basis for identification of drought. They are used to force crop water balance models for the principal rainfed staple crops in twenty FEWS NET countries. Such models reveal seasonal moisture deficits associated with yield reduction on a spatially continuous basis. In 2002, irrigated crops in southwest Asia became a concern, and prompted the implementation of a gridded energy balance model to simulate the seasonal mountain snow pack, the main source of irrigation water. MODIS land surface temperature data are also applied in these areas to directly estimate actual seasonal evapotranspiration on the irrigated lands. The approach reveals situations of reduced irrigation water supply and crop production due to drought. The availability of MODIS data after 2000 also brought renewed interest in vegetation index imagery. MODIS NDVI data have proven to be of high quality, thanks to significant spectral and spatial resolution improvements over AVHRR. They are vital to producing rapid harvest assessments for drought-impacted countries in Africa and Asia. The global food crisis that emerged in 2008 has led to expansion of FEWS NET monitoring to over 50 additional countries. Unlike previous practice, these

  11. Comparison of autologous 111In-leukocytes, 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate for diagnostic nuclear imaging in a juvenile porcine haematogenous staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis model

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Ole L; Afzelius, Pia; Bender, Dirk; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Leifsson, Páll S; Nielsen, Karin M; Larsen, Jytte O; Jensen, Svend B; Alstrup, Aage KO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 111In-labeled leukocyte single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve detection of osteomyelitis. We chose 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate and validated their diagnostic utility in a porcine haematogenous osteomyelitis model. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus using a sequential scan protocol with 18F-FDG, 68Ga-citrate, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, 99mTc-Nanocoll and 111In-labelled autologous leukocytes. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross pathology, histopathology and microbial examination. The pigs developed a total of five osteomyelitis lesions, five lesions characterized as abscesses/cellulitis, arthritis in three joints and five enlarged lymph nodes. None of the tracers accumulated in joints with arthritis. By comparing the 10 infectious lesions, 18F-FDG accumulated in nine, 111In-leukocytes in eight, 11C-methionine in six, 68Ga-citrate in four and 11C-PK11195 accumulated in only one lesion. Overall, 18F-FDG PET was superior to 111In-leukocyte SPECT in marking infectious and proliferative, i.e. hyperplastic, lesions. However, leukocyte SPECT was performed as early scans, approximately 6 h after injection of the leukocytes, to match the requirements of the 18 h long scan protocol. 11C-methionine and possibly 68Ga-citrate may be useful for diagnosis of soft issue lesions. PMID:25973338

  12. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  13. BRDF model for new leaves on tea leaves and new leaves monitoring through BRDF monitoring with Web cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei

    In order to monitor size of new leaves, BRDF model is created with Minnaert function based on Monte Carlo model. New leaves grow up on semi-parmanent old leaves, in general, for tea leaves. It is difficult to monitor size of new leaves by measuring spectral reflectance from nadir view only. BRDF would help to estimate size of new leaves. BRDF, meanwhile, can not be measured easely. BRDF model is needed for estimation of size of new leaves. Through theoretical and simulation studies, BRDF model is created. In order to estimate size of new leaves, the most significant observation angle as well as the most effective wavelength regions for spectral reflectance measurement are estimated through simulation and experiments. Visible and near infrared cameras monitoring tea fields from 45 degrees of zenith angle of observation allows monitor size of tea leaves so that the most appropriate time for pick tea leaves up can be determined.

  14. Monitoring and modelling terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine in groundwater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fait, G.; Balderacchi, M.; Ferrari, F.; Capri, E.; Trevisan, M.

    2009-04-01

    the future. Therefore, after the monitoring study the leaching of terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine in groundwater was simulated with the aim to: 1) to verify a possible dilution effect due to lateral recharge; 2) to verify that the sampling time during the monitoring study was appropriate; 3) to verify the leaching of the metabolites in time. The model MACRO (version 5.1) was used. MACRO is a physically based one-dimensional model, which considers preferential flow (i.e. 'micropores' and 'macropores') to describe the transport of water and solutes in soils. Using the data coming from the monitoring (i.e.: soil, climatic, geology and hydrological data) a scenario was set in each of the eleven Italian sites monitored from 2005 to 2007. A maize monoculture was simulated for 20 years in each site, with a pre-emergence treatment every year. Daily measurements of groundwater table depth were available for each site, and then these data were used in order to reach a good calibration of the soil hydrology. Two sets of soil data were used: soil data acquired from the analysis of the soil core sampled in each site and soil data of the corresponding reference profile obtained from the regional soil maps. Furthermore, in order to estimate soil hydraulic parameters, two sets of pedotransfer functions were used: one developed for the northern Europe soils and one developed for the Po Valley soils. The results showed that the groundwater table depth simulated fitted quite well with the measured data, and then it was demonstrated that the groundwater recharge was constant in time. Only in one site measured and simulated groundwater table depth did not match to each other. This case suggested that hydrological equilibrium was not given only by precipitation/irrigation and evapotranspiration, then lateral or bottom recharge and a consequent dilution effect were assumed. Furthermore, in order to estimate the lateral recharge "Darcy's Law" was applied and it was demonstrated

  15. Structural and functional annotation of the porcine immunome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The domestic pig is known as an excellent model for human immunology and the two species share many pathogens. Susceptibility to infectious disease is one of the major constraints on swine performance, yet the structure and function of genes comprising the pig immunome are not well-characterized. The completion of the pig genome provides the opportunity to annotate the pig immunome, and compare and contrast pig and human immune systems. Results The Immune Response Annotation Group (IRAG) used computational curation and manual annotation of the swine genome assembly 10.2 (Sscrofa10.2) to refine the currently available automated annotation of 1,369 immunity-related genes through sequence-based comparison to genes in other species. Within these genes, we annotated 3,472 transcripts. Annotation provided evidence for gene expansions in several immune response families, and identified artiodactyl-specific expansions in the cathelicidin and type 1 Interferon families. We found gene duplications for 18 genes, including 13 immune response genes and five non-immune response genes discovered in the annotation process. Manual annotation provided evidence for many new alternative splice variants and 8 gene duplications. Over 1,100 transcripts without porcine sequence evidence were detected using cross-species annotation. We used a functional approach to discover and accurately annotate porcine immune response genes. A co-expression clustering analysis of transcriptomic data from selected experimental infections or immune stimulations of blood, macrophages or lymph nodes identified a large cluster of genes that exhibited a correlated positive response upon infection across multiple pathogens or immune stimuli. Interestingly, this gene cluster (cluster 4) is enriched for known general human immune response genes, yet contains many un-annotated porcine genes. A phylogenetic analysis of the encoded proteins of cluster 4 genes showed that 15% exhibited an accelerated

  16. Extracorporeal immune therapy with immobilized agonistic anti-Fas antibodies leads to transient reduction of circulating neutrophil numbers and limits tissue damage after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation is associated with aberrant neutrophil activation and organ failure. This experimental porcine study was done to evaluate the effects of Fas-directed extracorporeal immune therapy with a leukocyte inhibition module (LIM) on hemodynamics, neutrophil tissue infiltration, and tissue damage after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. Methods In a prospective controlled double-armed animal trial 24 Munich Mini Pigs (30.3 ± 3.3 kg) were rapidly haemorrhaged to reach a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 ± 5 mmHg, maintained hypotensive for 45 minutes, and then were resuscitated with Ringer' solution to baseline MAP. With beginning of resuscitation 12 pigs underwent extracorporeal immune therapy for 3 hours (LIM group) and 12 pigs were resuscitated according to standard medical care (SMC). Haemodynamics, haematologic, metabolic, and organ specific damage parameters were monitored. Neutrophil infiltration was analyzed histologically after 48 and 72 hours. Lipid peroxidation and apoptosis were specifically determined in lung, bowel, and liver. Results In the LIM group, neutrophil counts were reduced versus SMC during extracorporeal immune therapy. After 72 hours, the haemodynamic parameters MAP and cardiac output (CO) were significantly better in the LIM group. Histological analyses showed reduction of shock-related neutrophil tissue infiltration in the LIM group, especially in the lungs. Lower amounts of apoptotic cells and lipid peroxidation were found in organs after LIM treatment. Conclusions Transient Fas-directed extracorporeal immune therapy may protect from posthemorrhagic neutrophil tissue infiltration and tissue damage. PMID:20406470

  17. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  18. Porcine acellular lung matrix for wound healing and abdominal wall reconstruction: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Rhudy, Jessica R; Cabrera, Fernando J; Acharya, Ghanashyam S; Tasciotti, Ennio; Sakamoto, Jason; Nichols, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical wound healing applications require bioprosthetics that promote cellular infiltration and vessel formation, metrics associated with increased mechanical strength and resistance to infection. Porcine acellular lung matrix is a novel tissue scaffold known to promote cell adherence while minimizing inflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of porcine acellular lung matrix to sustain cellularization and neovascularization in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation and chronic hernia repair. We hypothesize that, compared to human acellular dermal matrix, porcine acellular lung matrix would promote greater cell infiltration and vessel formation. Following pneumonectomy, porcine lungs were processed and characterized histologically and by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate efficacy of the decellularization. Using a rat model of subcutaneou implantation, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 8) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 8) were incubated in vivo for 6 weeks. To evaluate performance under mechanically stressed conditions, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 7) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 7) were implanted in a rat model of chronic ventral incisional hernia repair for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, tissues were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining to quantify cell infiltration and vessel formation. Porcine acellular lung matrices were shown to be successfully decellularized. Following subcutaneous implantation, macroscopic vessel formation was evident. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated sufficient incorporation and showed no evidence of mechanical failure after ventral hernia repair. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated significantly greater cellular density and vessel formation when compared to human acellular dermal matrix. Vessel sizes were similar across all groups. Cell infiltration and vessel formation are well-characterized metrics of incorporation

  19. Porcine acellular lung matrix for wound healing and abdominal wall reconstruction: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Rhudy, Jessica R; Cabrera, Fernando J; Acharya, Ghanashyam S; Tasciotti, Ennio; Sakamoto, Jason; Nichols, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical wound healing applications require bioprosthetics that promote cellular infiltration and vessel formation, metrics associated with increased mechanical strength and resistance to infection. Porcine acellular lung matrix is a novel tissue scaffold known to promote cell adherence while minimizing inflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of porcine acellular lung matrix to sustain cellularization and neovascularization in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation and chronic hernia repair. We hypothesize that, compared to human acellular dermal matrix, porcine acellular lung matrix would promote greater cell infiltration and vessel formation. Following pneumonectomy, porcine lungs were processed and characterized histologically and by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate efficacy of the decellularization. Using a rat model of subcutaneou implantation, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 8) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 8) were incubated in vivo for 6 weeks. To evaluate performance under mechanically stressed conditions, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 7) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 7) were implanted in a rat model of chronic ventral incisional hernia repair for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, tissues were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining to quantify cell infiltration and vessel formation. Porcine acellular lung matrices were shown to be successfully decellularized. Following subcutaneous implantation, macroscopic vessel formation was evident. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated sufficient incorporation and showed no evidence of mechanical failure after ventral hernia repair. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated significantly greater cellular density and vessel formation when compared to human acellular dermal matrix. Vessel sizes were similar across all groups. Cell infiltration and vessel formation are well-characterized metrics of incorporation

  20. Renal Artery Embolization Combined With Radiofrequency Ablation in a Porcine Kidney Model: Effect of Small and Narrowly Calibrated Microparticles as Embolization Material on Coagulation Diameter, Volume, and Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C. M. Kortes, N.; Zelzer, S.; Arnegger, F. U.; Stampfl, U.; Bellemann, N.; Gehrig, T.; Nickel, F.; Kenngott, H. G.; Mogler, C.; Longerich, T.; Meinzer, H. P.; Richter, G. M.; Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A.

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of renal artery embolization with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles on the coagulation diameter, volume, and shape of radiofrequency ablations (RFAs) in porcine kidneys. Forty-eight RFAs were performed in 24 kidneys of 12 pigs. In 6 animals, bilateral renal artery embolization was performed with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles. Upper and lower kidney poles were ablated with identical system parameters. Applying three-dimensional segmentation software, RFAs were segmented on registered 2 mm-thin macroscopic slices. Length, depth, width, volume{sub s}egmented, and volume{sub c}alculated were determined to describe the size of the RFAs. To evaluate the shape of the RFAs, depth-to-width ratio (perfect symmetry-to-lesion length was indicated by a ratio of 1), sphericity ratio (perfect sphere was indicated by a sphericity ratio of 1), eccentricity (perfect sphere was indicated by an eccentricity of 0), and circularity (perfect circle was indicated by a circularity of 1) were determined. Embolized compared with nonembolized RFAs showed significantly greater depth (23.4 {+-} 3.6 vs. 17.2 {+-} 1.8 mm; p < 0.001) and width (20.1 {+-} 2.9 vs. 12.6 {+-} 3.7 mm; p < 0.001); significantly larger volume{sub s}egmented (8.6 {+-} 3.2 vs. 3.0 {+-} 0.7 ml; p < 0.001) and volume{sub c}alculated (8.4 {+-} 3.0 ml vs. 3.3 {+-} 1.1 ml; p < 0.001); significantly lower depth-to-width (1.17 {+-} 0.10 vs. 1.48 {+-} 0.44; p < 0.05), sphericity (1.55 {+-} 0.44 vs. 1.96 {+-} 0.43; p < 0.01), and eccentricity (0.84 {+-} 0.61 vs. 1.73 {+-} 0.91; p < 0.01) ratios; and significantly greater circularity (0.62 {+-} 0.14 vs. 0.45 {+-} 0.16; p < 0.01). Renal artery embolization with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles affected the coagulation diameter, volume, and shape of RFAs in porcine kidneys. Embolized RFAs were significantly larger and more spherical compared with nonembolized RFAs.

  1. Immunodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: identification of candidate antigens through immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J

    2013-12-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis. PMID:24161749

  2. Immunodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: identification of candidate antigens through immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J

    2013-12-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis.

  3. Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Chemometric Modeling for Bioprocess Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Faassen, Saskia M.; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    On-line sensors for the detection of crucial process parameters are desirable for the monitoring, control and automation of processes in the biotechnology, food and pharma industry. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a highly developed and non-invasive technique that enables the on-line measurements of substrate and product concentrations or the identification of characteristic process states. During a cultivation process significant changes occur in the fluorescence spectra. By means of chemometric modeling, prediction models can be calculated and applied for process supervision and control to provide increased quality and the productivity of bioprocesses. A range of applications for different microorganisms and analytes has been proposed during the last years. This contribution provides an overview of different analysis methods for the measured fluorescence spectra and the model-building chemometric methods used for various microbial cultivations. Most of these processes are observed using the BioView® Sensor, thanks to its robustness and insensitivity to adverse process conditions. Beyond that, the PLS-method is the most frequently used chemometric method for the calculation of process models and prediction of process variables. PMID:25942644

  4. Fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric modeling for bioprocess monitoring.

    PubMed

    Faassen, Saskia M; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    On-line sensors for the detection of crucial process parameters are desirable for the monitoring, control and automation of processes in the biotechnology, food and pharma industry. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a highly developed and non-invasive technique that enables the on-line measurements of substrate and product concentrations or the identification of characteristic process states. During a cultivation process significant changes occur in the fluorescence spectra. By means of chemometric modeling, prediction models can be calculated and applied for process supervision and control to provide increased quality and the productivity of bioprocesses. A range of applications for different microorganisms and analytes has been proposed during the last years. This contribution provides an overview of different analysis methods for the measured fluorescence spectra and the model-building chemometric methods used for various microbial cultivations. Most of these processes are observed using the BioView® Sensor, thanks to its robustness and insensitivity to adverse process conditions. Beyond that, the PLS-method is the most frequently used chemometric method for the calculation of process models and prediction of process variables.

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric modeling for bioprocess monitoring.

    PubMed

    Faassen, Saskia M; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    On-line sensors for the detection of crucial process parameters are desirable for the monitoring, control and automation of processes in the biotechnology, food and pharma industry. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a highly developed and non-invasive technique that enables the on-line measurements of substrate and product concentrations or the identification of characteristic process states. During a cultivation process significant changes occur in the fluorescence spectra. By means of chemometric modeling, prediction models can be calculated and applied for process supervision and control to provide increased quality and the productivity of bioprocesses. A range of applications for different microorganisms and analytes has been proposed during the last years. This contribution provides an overview of different analysis methods for the measured fluorescence spectra and the model-building chemometric methods used for various microbial cultivations. Most of these processes are observed using the BioView® Sensor, thanks to its robustness and insensitivity to adverse process conditions. Beyond that, the PLS-method is the most frequently used chemometric method for the calculation of process models and prediction of process variables. PMID:25942644

  6. In-vessel activation monitors in JET: Progress in modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, Georges; Lengar, I.; Syme, B.; Popovichev, S.; Arnold, Dirk; Laubenstein, Matthias

    2008-10-15

    Activation studies were performed in JET with new in-vessel activation monitors. Though primarily dedicated to R and D in the challenging issue of lost {alpha} diagnostics for ITER, which is being addressed at JET with several techniques, these monitors provide for both neutron and charged particle fluences. A set of samples with different orientation with respect to the magnetic field is transported inside the torus by means of a manipulator arm (in contrast with the conventional JET activation system with pneumatic transport system). In this case, radionuclides with longer half-life were selected and ultralow background gamma-ray measurements were needed. The irradiation was closer to the plasma and this potentially reduces the neutron scattering problem. This approach could also be of interest for ITER, where the calibration methods have yet to be developed. The MCNP neutron transport model for JET was modified to include the activation probe and so provide calculations to help assess the new data. The neutron induced activity on the samples are well reproduced by the calculations.

  7. Watershed monitoring and modelling and USA regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Turner, B G; Boner, M C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the Columbus program was to implement a comprehensive watershed monitoring-network including water chemistry, aquatic biology and alternative sensors to establish water environment health and methods for determining future restoration progress and early warning for protection of drinking water supplies. The program was implemented to comply with USA regulatory requirements including Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) rules of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Source Water Assessment and Protection (SWAP) rules under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The USEPA Office of Research and Development and the Water Environment Research Foundation provided quality assurance oversight. The results obtained demonstrated that significant wet weather data is necessary to establish relationships between land use, water chemistry, aquatic biology and sensor data. These measurements and relationships formed the basis for calibrating the US EPA BASINS Model, prioritizing watershed health and determination of compliance with water quality standards. Conclusions specify priorities of cost-effective drainage system controls that attenuate stormwater flows and capture flushed pollutants. A network of permanent long-term real-time monitoring using combination of continuous sensor measurements, water column sampling and aquatic biology surveys and a regional organization is prescribed to protect drinking water supplies and measure progress towards water quality targets. PMID:15685974

  8. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  9. [Research Advances in the Porcine Deltacoronavirus].

    PubMed

    Fang, Puxian; Fang, Liurong; Dong, Nan; Xiao, Shaobo

    2016-03-01

    The deltacoronavirus is a new member of the subfamily Coronaviridae of the family Coronaviridae. Deltacoronaviruses can infect birds and mammals. Deltacoronaviruses were detected in early 2007 in Asian leopard cats and Chinese ferret badgers. In 2014, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection spread rapidly in the USA. Moreover, cell culture-adapted PDCoV has been obtained from infected piglets. Animal experiments have confirmed that the isolated PDCoV is highly pathogenic and causes severe diarrhea in piglets. Thus, the PDCoV can be considered to be a good model to study the deltacoronavirus. In this review, we discuss the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenicity, culture, and diagnostic methods of the PDCoV. PMID:27396171

  10. Time-resolved DPIV analysis of vortex dynamics in a left ventricular model through bileaflet mechanical and porcine heart valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Pierrakos, Olga; Vlachos, Pavios P; Telionis, Demetri P

    2004-12-01

    The performance of the heart after a mitral valve replacement operation greatly depends on the flow character downstream of the valve. The design and implanting orientation of valves may considerably affect the flow development. A study of the hemodynamics of two orientations, anatomical and anti-anatomical, of the St. Jude Medical (SJM) bileaflet valve are presented and compared with those of the SJM Biocor porcine valve, which served also to represent the natural valve. We document the velocity field in a flexible, transparent (LV) using time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TRDPIV). Vortex formation and vortex interaction are two important physical phenomena that dominate the filling and emptying of the ventricle. For the three configurations, the following effects were examined: mitral valve inlet jet asymmetry, survival of vortical structures upstream of the aortic valve, vortex-induced velocities and redirection of theflow in abidance of the Biot-Savart law, domain segmentation, resonant times of vortical structures, and regions of stagnantflow. The presence of three distinct flow patterns, for the three configurations, was identified by the location of vortical structures and level of coherence corresponding to a significant variation in the turbulence level distribution inside the LV. The adverse effect of these observations could potentially compromise the efficiency of the LV and result in flow patterns that deviate from those in the natural heart. PMID:15796330

  11. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  13. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  15. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  16. Monitoring with Trackers Based on Semi-Quantitative Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In three years of NASA-sponsored research preceding this project, we successfully developed a technology for: (1) building qualitative and semi-quantitative models from libraries of model-fragments, (2) simulating these models to predict future behaviors with the guarantee that all possible behaviors are covered, (3) assimilating observations into behaviors, shrinking uncertainty so that incorrect models are eventually refuted and correct models make stronger predictions for the future. In our object-oriented framework, a tracker is an object which embodies the hypothesis that the available observation stream is consistent with a particular behavior of a particular model. The tracker maintains its own status (consistent, superceded, or refuted), and answers questions about its explanation for past observations and its predictions for the future. In the MIMIC approach to monitoring of continuous systems, a number of trackers are active in parallel, representing alternate hypotheses about the behavior of a system. This approach is motivated by the need to avoid 'system accidents' [Perrow, 1985] due to operator fixation on a single hypothesis, as for example at Three Mile Island. As we began to address these issues, we focused on three major research directions that we planned to pursue over a three-year project: (1) tractable qualitative simulation, (2) semiquantitative inference, and (3) tracking set management. Unfortunately, funding limitations made it impossible to continue past year one. Nonetheless, we made major progress in the first two of these areas. Progress in the third area as slower because the graduate student working on that aspect of the project decided to leave school and take a job in industry. I enclosed a set of abstract of selected papers on the work describe below. Several papers that draw on the research supported during this period appeared in print after the grant period ended.

  17. NE Ohio Urban Growth Monitoring and Modeling Prototype. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebert, Loren; Klosterman, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    At the University of Akron, Dr. Loren Siebert, Dr. Richard Klosterman, and their graduate research assistants (Jung-Wook Kim, Mohammed Hoque, Aziza Parveen, and Ben Stabler) worked on the integration of remote sensing and GIs-based planning support systems. The primary goal of the project was to develop methods that use remote sensing land cover mapping and GIs-based modeling to monitor and project urban growth and farmland loss in northeast Ohio. Another research goal has been to use only GIS data that are accessible via the World Wide Web, to determine whether Ohio's small counties and townships that do not currently have parcel-level GIS systems can apply these techniques. The project was jointly funded by NASA and USGS OhioView grants during the 2000-2001 academic year; the work is now being continued under a USGS grant.

  18. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

  19. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  20. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule. PMID:27254279

  1. Monitored and modeled coral population dynamics and the refuge concept.

    PubMed

    Riegl, B; Purkis, S J; Keck, J; Rowlands, G P

    2009-01-01

    With large-scale impacts on coral reefs due to global climatic change projected to increase dramatically, and suitability of many areas for reef growth projected to decrease, the question arises whether particular settings might serve as refugia that can maintain higher coral populations than surrounding areas. We examine this hypothesis on a small, local scale in Honduras, western Caribbean. Dense coral thickets containing high numbers of the endangered coral Acropora cervicornis occur on offshore banks while being rare on the fringing reef on nearby Roatán. Geomorphological setting and community dynamics were evaluated and monitored from 1996 to 2005. A model of population dynamics was developed to test assumptions derived from monitoring. Coral cover on the fringing reef declined in 1998 from >30% to <20%, but the banks maintained areas of very dense coral cover (32% cover by A. cervicornis on the banks but <1% on the fringing reef). Bathymetry from satellite images showed the banks to be well-separated from the fringing reef, making asexual connectivity between banks and fringing reef impossible but protecting the banks from direct land-runoff during storms. Exposure to SE tradewinds also causes good flushing. Only four A. cervicornis recruits were recorded on the fringing reef over 6 years. Runoff associated with hurricanes caused greater mortality than did bleaching in 1998 and 2005 on the fringing reef, but not on the banks. Since 1870, our analysis suggests that corals on the banks may have been favored during 17 runoff events associated with tropical depressions and storms and potentially also during five bleaching events, but this is more uncertain. Our model suggests that under this disturbance regime, the banks will indeed maintain higher coral populations than the fringing reef and supports the assumption that offshore banks could serve as refugia with the capacity to subsidize depleted mainland populations. PMID:19100585

  2. Monitored and modeled coral population dynamics and the refuge concept.

    PubMed

    Riegl, B; Purkis, S J; Keck, J; Rowlands, G P

    2009-01-01

    With large-scale impacts on coral reefs due to global climatic change projected to increase dramatically, and suitability of many areas for reef growth projected to decrease, the question arises whether particular settings might serve as refugia that can maintain higher coral populations than surrounding areas. We examine this hypothesis on a small, local scale in Honduras, western Caribbean. Dense coral thickets containing high numbers of the endangered coral Acropora cervicornis occur on offshore banks while being rare on the fringing reef on nearby Roatán. Geomorphological setting and community dynamics were evaluated and monitored from 1996 to 2005. A model of population dynamics was developed to test assumptions derived from monitoring. Coral cover on the fringing reef declined in 1998 from >30% to <20%, but the banks maintained areas of very dense coral cover (32% cover by A. cervicornis on the banks but <1% on the fringing reef). Bathymetry from satellite images showed the banks to be well-separated from the fringing reef, making asexual connectivity between banks and fringing reef impossible but protecting the banks from direct land-runoff during storms. Exposure to SE tradewinds also causes good flushing. Only four A. cervicornis recruits were recorded on the fringing reef over 6 years. Runoff associated with hurricanes caused greater mortality than did bleaching in 1998 and 2005 on the fringing reef, but not on the banks. Since 1870, our analysis suggests that corals on the banks may have been favored during 17 runoff events associated with tropical depressions and storms and potentially also during five bleaching events, but this is more uncertain. Our model suggests that under this disturbance regime, the banks will indeed maintain higher coral populations than the fringing reef and supports the assumption that offshore banks could serve as refugia with the capacity to subsidize depleted mainland populations.

  3. Feature and Statistical Model Development in Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inho

    All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development. The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally. Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering. The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network

  4. Monitoring and modelling terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine in groundwater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fait, G.; Balderacchi, M.; Ferrari, F.; Capri, E.; Trevisan, M.

    2009-04-01

    the future. Therefore, after the monitoring study the leaching of terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine in groundwater was simulated with the aim to: 1) to verify a possible dilution effect due to lateral recharge; 2) to verify that the sampling time during the monitoring study was appropriate; 3) to verify the leaching of the metabolites in time. The model MACRO (version 5.1) was used. MACRO is a physically based one-dimensional model, which considers preferential flow (i.e. 'micropores' and 'macropores') to describe the transport of water and solutes in soils. Using the data coming from the monitoring (i.e.: soil, climatic, geology and hydrological data) a scenario was set in each of the eleven Italian sites monitored from 2005 to 2007. A maize monoculture was simulated for 20 years in each site, with a pre-emergence treatment every year. Daily measurements of groundwater table depth were available for each site, and then these data were used in order to reach a good calibration of the soil hydrology. Two sets of soil data were used: soil data acquired from the analysis of the soil core sampled in each site and soil data of the corresponding reference profile obtained from the regional soil maps. Furthermore, in order to estimate soil hydraulic parameters, two sets of pedotransfer functions were used: one developed for the northern Europe soils and one developed for the Po Valley soils. The results showed that the groundwater table depth simulated fitted quite well with the measured data, and then it was demonstrated that the groundwater recharge was constant in time. Only in one site measured and simulated groundwater table depth did not match to each other. This case suggested that hydrological equilibrium was not given only by precipitation/irrigation and evapotranspiration, then lateral or bottom recharge and a consequent dilution effect were assumed. Furthermore, in order to estimate the lateral recharge "Darcy's Law" was applied and it was demonstrated

  5. Prospective Study in a Porcine Model of Sarcoptes scabiei Indicates the Association of Th2 and Th17 Pathways with the Clinical Severity of Scabies

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, Kate E.; Murray, Hugh C.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Pasay, Cielo; Holt, Deborah C.; Currie, Bart J.; Walton, Shelley F.; McCarthy, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding of scabies immunopathology has been hampered by the inability to undertake longitudinal studies in humans. Pigs are a useful animal model for scabies, and show clinical and immunologic changes similar to those in humans. Crusted scabies can be readily established in pigs by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). Methodology/ Principal Findings Prospective study of 24 pigs in four groups: a) Scabies+/Dex+, b) Scabies+/Dex-, c) Scabies-/Dex+ and d) Scabies-/Dex-. Clinical symptoms were monitored. Histological profiling and transcriptional analysis of skin biopsies was undertaken to compare changes in cell infiltrates and representative cytokines. A range of clinical responses to Sarcoptes scabiei were observed in Dex treated and non-immunosuppressed pigs. An association was confirmed between disease severity and transcription of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, and up-regulation of the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-23 in pigs with crusted scabies. Immunohistochemistry revealed marked infiltration of lymphocytes and mast cells, and strong staining for IL-17. Conclusions/ Significance While an allergic Th2 type response to scabies has been previously described, these results suggest that IL-17 related pathways may also contribute to immunopathology of crusted scabies. This may lead to new strategies to protect vulnerable subjects from contracting recurrent crusted scabies. PMID:25730203

  6. An ecohydraulic model to identify and monitor Moapa dace habitat.

    PubMed

    Hatten, James R; Batt, Thomas R; Scoppettone, Gary G; Dixon, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Moapa dace (Moapa coriacea) is a critically endangered thermophilic minnow native to the Muddy River ecosystem in southeastern Nevada, USA. Restricted to temperatures between 26.0 and 32.0 °C, these fish are constrained to the upper two km of the Muddy River and several small tributaries fed by warm springs. Habitat alterations, nonnative species invasion, and water withdrawals during the 20th century resulted in a drastic decline in the dace population and in 1979 the Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was created to protect them. The goal of our study was to determine the potential effects of reduced surface flows that might result from groundwater pumping or water diversions on Moapa dace habitat inside the Refuge. We accomplished our goal in several steps. First, we conducted snorkel surveys to determine the locations of Moapa dace on three warm-spring tributaries of the Muddy River. Second, we conducted hydraulic simulations over a range of flows with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Third, we developed a set of Moapa dace habitat models with logistic regression and a geographic information system. Fourth, we estimated Moapa dace habitat over a range of flows (plus or minus 30% of base flow). Our spatially explicit habitat models achieved classification accuracies between 85% and 91%, depending on the snorkel survey and creek. Water depth was the most significant covariate in our models, followed by substrate, Froude number, velocity, and water temperature. Hydraulic simulations showed 2-11% gains in dace habitat when flows were increased by 30%, and 8-32% losses when flows were reduced by 30%. To ensure the health and survival of Moapa dace and the Muddy River ecosystem, groundwater and surface-water withdrawals and diversions need to be carefully monitored, while fully implementing a proactive conservation strategy.

  7. An ecohydraulic model to identify and monitor moapa dace habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Scoppettone, Gayton G.; Dixon, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Moapa dace (Moapa coriacea) is a critically endangered thermophilic minnow native to the Muddy River ecosystem in southeastern Nevada, USA. Restricted to temperatures between 26.0 and 32.0°C, these fish are constrained to the upper two km of the Muddy River and several small tributaries fed by warm springs. Habitat alterations, nonnative species invasion, and water withdrawals during the 20th century resulted in a drastic decline in the dace population and in 1979 the Moapa Valley National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was created to protect them. The goal of our study was to determine the potential effects of reduced surface flows that might result from groundwater pumping or water diversions on Moapa dace habitat inside the Refuge. We accomplished our goal in several steps. First, we conducted snorkel surveys to determine the locations of Moapa dace on three warm-spring tributaries of the Muddy River. Second, we conducted hydraulic simulations over a range of flows with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Third, we developed a set of Moapa dace habitat models with logistic regression and a geographic information system. Fourth, we estimated Moapa dace habitat over a range of flows (plus or minus 30% of base flow). Our spatially explicit habitat models achieved classification accuracies between 85% and 91%, depending on the snorkel survey and creek. Water depth was the most significant covariate in our models, followed by substrate, Froude number, velocity, and water temperature. Hydraulic simulations showed 2-11% gains in dace habitat when flows were increased by 30%, and 8-32% losses when flows were reduced by 30%. To ensure the health and survival of Moapa dace and the Muddy River ecosystem, groundwater and surface-water withdrawals and diversions need to be carefully monitored, while fully implementing a proactive conservation strategy.

  8. Pulsed ultrasound enhances the delivery of nitric oxide from bubble liposomes to ex vivo porcine carotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Sutton, J T; Raymond, J L; Verleye, M C; Pyne-Geithman, G J; Holland, C K

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery is a novel technique for enhancing the penetration of drugs into diseased tissue beds noninvasively. By encapsulating drugs into microsized and nanosized liposomes, the therapeutic can be shielded from degradation within the vasculature until delivery to a target site by ultrasound exposure. Traditional in vitro or ex vivo techniques to quantify this delivery profile include optical approaches, cell culture, and electrophysiology. Here, we demonstrate an approach to characterize the degree of nitric oxide (NO) delivery to porcine carotid tissue by direct measurement of ex vivo vascular tone. An ex vivo perfusion model was adapted to assess ultrasound-mediated delivery of NO. This potent vasodilator was coencapsulated with inert octafluoropropane gas to produce acoustically active bubble liposomes. Porcine carotid arteries were excised post mortem and mounted in a physiologic buffer solution. Vascular tone was assessed in real time by coupling the artery to an isometric force transducer. NO-loaded bubble liposomes were infused into the lumen of the artery, which was exposed to 1 MHz pulsed ultrasound at a peak-to-peak acoustic pressure amplitude of 0.34 MPa. Acoustic cavitation emissions were monitored passively. Changes in vascular tone were measured and compared with control and sham NO bubble liposome exposures. Our results demonstrate that ultrasound-triggered NO release from bubble liposomes induces potent vasorelaxation within porcine carotid arteries (maximal relaxation 31%± 8%), which was significantly stronger than vasorelaxation due to NO release from bubble liposomes in the absence of ultrasound (maximal relaxation 7%± 3%), and comparable with relaxation due to 12 μM sodium nitroprusside infusions (maximal relaxation 32%± 3%). This approach is a valuable mechanistic tool for assessing the extent of drug release and delivery to the vasculature caused by ultrasound.

  9. Effects of Lugol staining on stenosis formation induced by radiofrequency ablation of esophageal squamous epithelium: a study in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Schölvinck, D W; Alvarez Herrero, L; Visser, M; Bergman, J J G H M; Weusten, B L A M

    2015-10-01

    Preliminary data show higher stricture rates after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early esophageal squamous neoplasia compared with Barrett's esophagus. We studied the effects of Lugol stain (LS) directly prior to RFA on stricture formation in squamous epithelium. Of 16 pigs, the distal half of the esophagus was LS, followed by circumferential RFA (single application 12 J/cm(2) ) in the unstained and stained esophagus. Pigs were euthanized at day 0 (n = 4), 3 (n = 4), or 28 (n = 8). Histology was evaluated in four areas: blank-control (no RFA, no LS), blank-RFA (no LS), LS+RFA, and LS-control (no RFA). Stenosis severity in LS+RFA and blank-RFA at 28 days was assessed by the ratio of the mucosal diameter at the RFA area to the diameter 2 cm proximal of this zone. Histology showed submucosal edema in 50% of LS+RFA versus 0% in blank-RFA. Severity and depth of inflammation (day 3) was equal in LS+RFA and blank-RFA. Severity and depth of fibrosis (day 28) appeared more severe in LS+RFA. Consequently, stenosis was present in 100% (LS+RFA) versus 12.5% (blank-RFA). The stenosis-severity ratio was 0.40 (interquartile range 0.29-0.45) in LS+RFA versus 0.73 (interquartile range 0.64-0.78) in blank-RFA (P = 0.012). Limitations of this study were the difference in uptake of LS between pigs and humans, the difference in esophageal anatomy between pigs and humans, and between the proximal and distal esophagus within pigs. In conclusion, in the porcine squamous esophagus, stenosis rate and severity after RFA increased when preceded by LS. LS may be contributing in the altered response of squamous epithelium to RFA as compared with Barrett's esophagus.

  10. Porous Gelatin Particles for Uterine Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study of Intra-Arterial Distribution, Uterine Necrosis, and Inflammation in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sone, Miyuki; Osuga, Keigo; Shimazu, Kohki; Higashihara, Hiroki; Nakazawa, Tetsuro; Kato, Kenichi; Tomabechi, Makiko; Ehara, Shigeru; Nakamura, Hironobu; Morii, Eiichi; Aozasa, Katsuyuki

    2010-10-15

    PurposeWe evaluated the location of porous gelatin particles (GP; Gelpart; Nippon Kayaku/Astellas, Tokyo, Japan) within the arterial vasculature and their acute effects on uterine necrosis and inflammation after uterine artery embolization (UAE) in swine.Materials and MethodsAdult nonpregnant pigs (n = 6) were allocated to either 1- (n = 3) or 2-mm GP (n = 3). Superselective and bilateral embolization of the uterine arteries was performed. All animals were killed 1 week after UAE. Macroscopic and microscopic findings, including the level of arterial occlusion and their effect on uterine necrosis and inflammation, were analyzed.ResultsAll UAE procedures were completed without severe complications. The macroscopic necrosis was seen in two animals in the 2-mm group with an extent of <50%. The location of the occluded arteries did not differ significantly between groups. The median diameters of the occluded arteries were 449 {mu}m (95% confidence interval [CI] 417-538 {mu}m) in the 1-mm GP group and 484 {mu}m (95% CI 370-560 {mu}m) in the 2-mm GP group. As for microscopic necrosis, no statistically significant difference was observed. The qualitative inflammatory reaction was significantly greater in the 2-mm GP group than in the 1-mm group (p < 0.001).ConclusionsBoth 1- and 2-mm GP occluded the arteries relevant to the target diameter for UAE in porcine uterus, presumably due to the plastic deformity. Both sizes of GP were associated with limited areas of necrosis; however, evaluation of inflammatory reaction was preliminary. Further study with adequate evaluation of inflammatory reactions is suggested.

  11. Characterization of a Pathogenic Full-Length cDNA Clone and Transmission Model for Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain PC22A

    PubMed Central

    Beall, Anne; Yount, Boyd; Lin, Chun-Ming; Hou, Yixuan; Wang, Qiuhong; Saif, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly pathogenic alphacoronavirus. In the United States, highly virulent PEDV strains cause between 80 and 100% mortality in suckling piglets and are rapidly transmitted between animals and farms. To study the genetic factors that regulate pathogenesis and transmission, we developed a molecular clone of PEDV strain PC22A. The infectious-clone-derived PEDV (icPEDV) replicated as efficiently as the parental virus in cell culture and in pigs, resulting in lethal disease in vivo. Importantly, recombinant PEDV was rapidly transmitted to uninoculated pigs via indirect contact, demonstrating virulence and efficient transmission while replicating phenotypes seen in the wild-type virus. Using reverse genetics, we removed open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and replaced this region with a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene to generate icPEDV-ΔORF3-RFP. icPEDV-ΔORF3-RFP replicated efficiently in vitro and in vivo, was efficiently transmitted among pigs, and produced lethal disease outcomes. However, the diarrheic scores in icPEDV-ΔORF3-RFP-infected pigs were lower than those in wild-type-virus- or icPEDV-infected pigs, and the virus formed smaller plaques than those of PC22A. Together, these data describe the development of a robust reverse-genetics platform for identifying genetic factors that regulate pathogenic outcomes and transmission efficiency in vivo, providing key infrastructural developments for developing and evaluating the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines and therapeutics in a clinical setting. PMID:26733065

  12. Cell surface glycoengineering improves selectin-mediated adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs): Pilot validation in porcine ischemia-reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi Y; Weil, Brian R; Palka, Beth A; Momeni, Arezoo; Canty, John M; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Promising results are emerging in clinical trials focused on stem cell therapy for cardiology applications. However, the low homing and engraftment of the injected cells to target tissue continues to be a problem. Cellular glycoengineering can address this limitation by enabling the targeting of stem cells to sites of vascular injury/inflammation. Two such glycoengineering methods are presented here: i. The non-covalent incorporation of a P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) mimetic 19Fc[FUT7(+)] via lipid-protein G fusion intermediates that intercalate onto the cell surface, and ii. Over-expression of the α(1,3)fucosyltransferse FUT7 in cells. Results demonstrate the efficient coupling of 19Fc[FUT7(+)] onto both cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with coupling being more efficient when using protein G fused to single-tailed palmitic acid rather than double-tailed DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). This non-covalent cellular modification was mild since cell proliferation and stem-cell marker expression was unaltered. Whereas coupling using 19Fc[FUT7(+)] enhanced cell capture on recombinant P-selectin or CHO-P cell surfaces, α(1,3)fucosylation was necessary for robust binding to E-selectin and inflamed endothelial cells under shear. Pilot studies confirm the safety and homing efficacy of the modified stem cells to sites of ischemia-reperfusion in the porcine heart. Overall, glycoengineering with physiological selectin-ligands may enhance stem cell engraftment.

  13. Monitoring SERS-based contrast agents in atherosclerosis experimental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machtoub, Lina H.

    2011-03-01

    There have been enormous progresses in developing a class of multimodal contrast agents, which combine MRI with optical imaging. Contrast agent targeting can provide enhanced diagnostic information, allowing differentiation between variable and stable atherosclerotic plaques. Recently an intensive efforts have been working on the development of contrast agents that can improve the ability to detect and characterize atherosclerosis in clinical and preclinical applications. Earlier studies on hyperlipidemic rabbits using in vivo MRI have shown accumulation of USPIOs in plaques with a high macrophage content that induces magnetic resonance (MR) signal changes correlated to the absolute iron content in the aortic arch. A potent new class of nanoparticles contrast agents have recently drawn much attention for its wide diverse diagnostic and potential therapeutic applications particularly in monitoring the inflammatory responses. In our previous studies we have investigated SPIO contrast agents uptakes in hepatic and spleen tissues taken from NZW rabbits. The scope of this work encompasses application of an emerging hybrid imaging modality, SERSbased nonlinear optical microscopy, in investigating atherosclerosis experimental models. In this work experiments are performed on contrast treated tissue sections taken from aortic arch of atherosclerotic animal model. Marked contrast enhancement has been observed in the treated aortic sections compared with the untreated control. The obtained images are compared with immunohistochemistry .The work presented can be promising for future studies on in vivo detection of macrophages in human plaques and early detection of atherosclerotic diseases.

  14. A model for monitoring of Hsp90-buffered genetic variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla

    Genetic material of terrestrial organisms can be considerably injured by cosmic rays and UV-radiation in the space environment. Organisms onboard are also exposed to the entire complex of negative physical factors which can generate genetic variations and affect morphogenesis. However, species phenotypes must be robust to genetic variation, requiring "buffering" systems to ensure normal development. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 can serve as such "a buffer". It is important in the maturation and conformational regulation of a diverse set of signal transducers. The requirement of many principal regulatory proteins for Hsp90 renders entire metabolic pathways sensitive to impairment of its function. So inhibition of Hsp90 function can open cryptic genetic variations and produce morphological changes. In this paper, we present a model for monitoring of cryptic Hsp90-buffered genetic variations arising during exposure to space and spaceflight factors. This model has been developed with Arabidopsis thaliana seeds gathered in natural habitats with high anthropogenic pressure and wild type (Col-0) seeds subjected to negative influences (UV, heavy metals) experimentally. The phenotypic traits of early seedlings grown under reduction of Hsp90 activity were characterized to estimate Hsp90-buffered genetic variations. Geldanamycin was used as an inhibitor of Hsp90 function.

  15. Automated EEG monitoring in defining a chronic epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Mascott, C R; Gotman, J; Beaudet, A

    1994-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in chronic animal models of epilepsy. Proper assessment of these models requires documentation of spontaneous seizures by EEG, observation, or both in each individual animal to confirm the presumed epileptic condition. We used the same automatic seizure detection system as that currently used for patients in our institution and many others. Electrodes were implanted in 43 rats before intraamygdalar administration of kainic acid (KA). Animals were monitored intermittently for 3 months. Nine of the rats were protected by anticonvulsants [pentobarbital (PB) and diazepam (DZP)] at the time of KA injection. Between 1 and 3 months after KA injection, spontaneous seizures were detected in 20 of the 34 unprotected animals (59%). Surprisingly, spontaneous seizures were also detected during the same period in 2 of the 9 protected animals that were intended to serve as nonepileptic controls. Although the absence of confirmed spontaneous seizures in the remaining animals cannot exclude their occurrence, it indicates that, if present, they are at least rare. On the other hand, definitive proof of epilepsy is invaluable in the attempt to interpret pathologic data from experimental brains.

  16. Regional Mapping, Modelling, and Monitoring of Tree Aboveground Biomass Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Airborne lidar collections are preferred for mapping aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC), while historical Landsat imagery are preferred for monitoring decadal scale forest cover change. Our modelling approach tracks AGBC change regionally using Landsat time series metrics; training areas are defined by airborne lidar extents within which AGBC is accurately mapped with high confidence. Geospatial topographic and climate layers are also included in the predictive model. Validation is accomplished using systematically sampled Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data that have been independently collected, processed and summarized at the county level. Our goal is to demonstrate that spatially and temporally aggregated annual AGBC map predictions show no bias when compared to annual county-level summaries across the Northwest USA. A prominent source of bias is trees outside forest; much of the more arid portions of our study area meet the FIA definition of non-forest because the tree cover does not exceed their minimum tree cover threshold. We employ detailed tree cover maps derived from high-resolution aerial imagery to extend our AGBC predictions into non-forest areas. We also employ Landsat-derived annual disturbance maps into our mapped AGBC predictions prior to aggregation and validation.

  17. Distribution of esterase activity in porcine ear skin, and the effects of freezing and heat separation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wing Man; Ng, Keng Wooi; Sakenyte, Kristina; Heard, Charles M

    2012-08-20

    Porcine ear skin is widely used to study skin permeation and absorption of ester compounds, whose permeation and absorption profiles may be directly influenced by in situ skin esterase activity. Importantly, esterase distribution and activity in porcine ear skin following common protocols of skin handling and storage have not been characterised. Thus, we have compared the distribution and hydrolytic activity of esterases in freshly excised, frozen, heated and explanted porcine ear skin. Using an esterase staining kit, esterase activity was found to be localised in the stratum corneum and viable epidermis. Under frozen storage and a common heating protocol of epidermal sheet separation, esterase staining in the skin visibly diminished. This was confirmed by a quantitative assay using HPLC to monitor the hydrolysis of aspirin, in freshly excised, frozen or heated porcine ear skin. Compared to vehicle-only control, the rate of aspirin hydrolysis was approximately three-fold higher in the presence of freshly excised skin, but no different in the presence of frozen or heated skin. Therefore, frozen and heat-separated porcine ear skin should not be used to study the permeation of ester-containing permeants, in particular co-drugs and pro-drugs, whose hydrolysis or degradation can be modulated by skin esterases.

  18. A Comparative Anatomic and Physiologic Overview of the Porcine Heart

    PubMed Central

    Lelovas, Pavlos P; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos G; Xanthos, Theodoros T

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances during the last 2 decades in every aspect of cardiovascular research (interventional cardiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and so forth), Western societies still are plagued by the consequences of cardiovascular disease. Consequently the discovery of new regimens and therapeutic interventions is of utmost importance. Research using human subjects is associated with substantial methodologic and ethical considerations, and the quest for an appropriate animal model for the human cardiovascular system has led to swine. The porcine heart bears a close resemblance to the human heart in terms of its coronary circulation and hemodynamic similarities and offers ease of implementation of methods and devices from human healthcare facilities. A thorough comprehension of the anatomy and physiology of the porcine cardiovascular system should focus on differences between swine and humans as well as similarities. Understanding these differences and similarities is essential to extrapolating data appropriately and to addressing the social demand for the ethical use of animals in biomedical research. PMID:25255064

  19. Optofluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Ruiqi; King, Travis; Akl, Tony; Ericson, Milton Nance; Wilson, Mark A.; Cote, Gerard L.; McShane, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    One strategy for assessing efficacy of a liver transplant is to monitor perfusion and oxygenation after transplantation. An implantable optical sensor is being developed to overcome inadequacies of current monitoring approaches. To facilitate sensor design while minimizing animal use, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based liver phantom was developed to mimic the optical properties of porcine liver in the 630-1000 nm wavelength range and the anatomical geometry of liver parenchyma. Using soft lithography to construct microfluidic channels in pigmented elastomer enabled the 2D approximation of hexagonal liver lobules with 15mm sinusoidal channels, which will allow perfusion with blood-mimicking fluids to facilitate the development of the liver perfusion and oxygenation monitoring system.

  20. Optofluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ruiqi; King, Travis; Akl, Tony; Ericson, M. Nance; Wilson, Mark; Coté, Gerard L.; McShane, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    One strategy for assessing efficacy of a liver transplant is to monitor perfusion and oxygenation after transplantation. An implantable optical sensor is being developed to overcome inadequacies of current monitoring approaches. To facilitate sensor design while minimizing animal use, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based liver phantom was developed to mimic the optical properties of porcine liver in the 630-1000 nm wavelength range and the anatomical geometry of liver parenchyma. Using soft lithography to construct microfluidic channels in pigmented elastomer enabled the 2D approximation of hexagonal liver lobules with 15mm sinusoidal channels, which will allow perfusion with blood-mimicking fluids to facilitate the development of the liver perfusion and oxygenation monitoring system. PMID:21750766

  1. Measurement of the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the porcine cornea.

    PubMed

    Barton, Michael D; Trembly, B Stuart

    2013-10-01

    Accurate thermal models for the cornea of the eye support the development of thermal techniques for reshaping the cornea and other scientific purposes. Heat transfer in the cornea must be quantified accurately so that a thermal treatment does not destroy the endothelial layer, which cannot regenerate, and yet is responsible for maintaining corneal transparency. We developed a custom apparatus to measure the thermal conductivity of ex vivo porcine corneas perpendicular to the surface and applied a commercial apparatus to measure thermal conductivity parallel to the surface. We found that corneal thermal conductivity is 14% anisotropic at the normal state of corneal hydration. Small numbers of ex vivo feline and human corneas had a thermal conductivity perpendicular to the surface that was indistinguishable from the porcine corneas. Aqueous humor from ex vivo porcine, feline, and human eyes had a thermal conductivity nearly equal to that of water. Including the anisotropy of corneal thermal conductivity will improve the predictive power of thermal models of the eye.

  2. Comparison of modified Kessler tendon suture at different levels in the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon and porcine flexors and porcine extensors: an experimental biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Havulinna, J; Leppänen, O V; Järvinen, T L N; Göransson, H

    2011-10-01

    This study compared the biomechanical behaviour of repairs in the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon in zones I, II and III with repairs of different segments of the porcine flexor tendon of the second digit and the extensor digiti quarti proprius tendon, in order to assess the validity of porcine tendons as models for human flexor tendon repairs. These porcine tendons were selected after comparing their size with the human flexor digitorum profundus tendon. The tendon repairs were done in three segments of each porcine tendon and repairs in the human tendons were done in zones I,II and III. Ten tendons in each group yielded a total of 90 specimens. A modified Kessler repair was done with 3-0 coated braided polyester suture and subjected to uniaxial tensile testing. In human flexor tendons, the ultimate force was higher in zones I and II than in zone III. The porcine flexor digitorum profundus tendon from the second digit and the proximal segment of the extensor digiti quarti proprius tendon behaved similarly to the human flexor tendon in zone III and can be considered as surrogates for the human flexor tendon. PMID:21816887

  3. Hydrological modelling of slopes from field monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comegna, Luca; Damiano, Emilia; Greco, Roberto; Guida, Andrea; Olivares, Lucio; Picarelli, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    A simplified hydrological model of a steep slope covered with loose granular pyroclastic deposits is presented. The slope is located in the mountains northern of Naples, and the soil cover, constituted by layers of loose volcanic ashes and pumices with a total thickness of 2.5m, lays upon a fractured limestone bedrock. At the interface between the bedrock and the soil cover, a layer of weathered ashes, with significant clay fraction, is sometimes observed. The slope has a fairly regular inclination of 40°, and is covered by chestnut woods and thick brushwood growing in late spring. The inclination of the slope is comparable with the internal friction angle of the ashes, thus the equilibrium is possible thanks to the contribution offered to the shear strength by the soil suction in unsaturated conditions. Indeed, in December 1999, a landslide was triggered by prolonged and intense precipitations. As it frequently happens with similar pyroclastic covers, the triggered slide exhibited a flow-like behavior, covering 2km in few minutes, heavily hitting the nearby town of Cervinara (AV). Since then, the slope has been constantly monitored, and during the last two years an automated station with seven TDR probes for the measurement of soil water content, eight tensiometers for the measurement of soil suction, and a rain gauge, has been operating. The data, collected every two hours, allowed getting more insight of the hydrological behavior of the slope and building up an effective hydrological model. In the model, the layered soil profile has been replaced with a single homogeneous layer, with water retention curve estimated by coupling the values of water content and suction measured at various depths. A seasonal top boundary condition has been introduced, related to the annual cycle of the vegetation: the observed precipitations quickly caused changes of soil suction at the depth of -50cm during the entire year, with the exception of the period between the end of May

  4. Forward and Inverse Modeling of GPS Multipath for Snow Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nievinski, Felipe Geremia

    Snowpacks provide reservoirs of freshwater, storing solid precipitation and delaying runoff to be released later in the spring and summer when it is most needed. The goal of this dissertation is to develop the technique of GPS multipath reflectometry (GPS-MR) for ground-based measurement of snow depth. The phenomenon of multipath in GPS constitutes the reception of reflected signals in conjunction with the direct signal from a satellite. As these coherent direct and reflected signals go in and out of phase, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exhibits peaks and troughs that can be related to land surface characteristics. In contrast to other GPS reflectometry modes, in GPS-MR the poorly separated composite signal is collected utilizing a single antenna and correlated against a single replica. SNR observations derived from the newer L2-frequency civilian GPS signal (L2C) are used, as recorded by commercial off-the-shelf receivers and geodetic-quality antennas in existing GPS sites. I developed a forward/inverse approach for modeling GPS multipath present in SNR observations. The model here is unique in that it capitalizes on known information about the antenna response and the physics of surface scattering to aid in retrieving the unknown snow conditions in the antenna surroundings. This physically-based forward model is utilized to simulate the surface and antenna coupling. The statistically-rigorous inverse model is considered in two parts. Part I (theory) explains how the snow characteristics are parameterized; the observation/parameter sensitivity; inversion errors; and parameter uncertainty, which serves to indicate the sensing footprint where the reflection originates. Part II (practice) applies the multipath model to SNR observations and validates the resulting GPS retrievals against independent in situ measurements during a 1-3 year period in three different environments---grasslands, alpine, and forested. The assessment yields a correlation of 0.98 and an RMS error

  5. Expression of human CD46 has no effect on porcine circovirus type 2 infection and shedding in the experimental pig model.

    PubMed

    Hemann, Michelle; Shen, Hui-Gang; Beach, Nathan M; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2012-09-01

    Xenotransplantation of tissues from transgenic pigs with desired genetic modifications such as CD46 expression help minimize xenograft rejections. However, CD46 is a known receptor for some viruses. In this study, pigs transgenic for human CD46 (CD46-TG) and appropriate non-transgenic (non-TG) control pigs were utilized to determine possible differences in the level of replication and shedding of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Non-TG and CD46-TG were blocked by transgenic status and randomly divided into three groups: Non-TG negative controls (n = 3), non-TG-PCV2 (n = 10; PCV2a = 5, PCV2b = 5), and CD46-TG-PCV2 (n = 6; PCV2a = 3, PCV2b = 3). Blood, oral, nasal and fecal swabs were collected at regular intervals from the day of arrival until 70 days post inoculation (DPI). All samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR for the presence of PCV2 DNA and serum was tested for presence of PCV2 antibodies by ELISA. Overall, the main effects "transgenic status" and "PCV2 subtype" had no influence on degree of PCV2 viremia and shedding or the anti-PCV2 humoral immune response in CD46-TG-PCV2 pigs compared to non-TG-PCV2 pigs. Differences in PCV2 concentrations between non-TG-PCV2 and CD46-TG-PCV2 pigs were minimal and limited to DPI 35 in sera, DPI 7 in fecal swabs and DPI 5 in nasal swabs when CD46-TG-PCV2 pigs had significantly higher concentrations of PCV2 DNA. At DPI 1, CD46-TG-PCV2 pigs had significantly lower concentrations of PCV2 DNA in oral swabs. Under the study conditions, the presence of human CD46 in transgenic pigs had no effect on PCV2 infection in otherwise healthy pigs capable of a normal immune response. PMID:22388862

  6. A Structural and Functional Model of Teachers' Monitoring Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalimova, Alfiya R.; Barinova, Nataliya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused by a strong need to conduct monitoring processes in all types of teaching processes and a poor development of theoretical, content and technological, scientific and methodological material for teachers' monitoring skills development during their teaching practice. The aim of the article is to create and…

  7. Modeling and monitoring the hydrological effects of the Sand Engine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaars, Frans; Hoogmoed, Merel; van Vliet, Frank; Stuyfzand, Pieter; Groen, Michel; van der Made, Kees-Jan; Caljé, Ruben; Auken, Esben; Bergsted Pedersen, Jesper

    2013-04-01

    Since 1887, Dunea Water Company produces high quality drinking water using the dune area at Monster (Province of South Holland, the Netherlands). Annually, 8 billion liters of water is produced here using artificial recharge and recovery with shallow wells and infiltration lakes. The dunes are an important step in producing drinking water serving as an underground buffer, leveling fluctuating in temperature and quality and removing bacteria and viruses from the infiltrated water in a natural way. Since space is limited in the Netherlands, the drinking water production of Dunea is closely matched with surrounding land uses and natural constraints. This prevents groundwater nuisance, upconing and intrusion of salt water and, in this case, movement of a nearby groundwater pollution. This is especially true in the Monster area where the dunes are fairly low and small; the coast is less than 350 meters from the recovery wells. The coast of Monster was identified as a weak link in the coastal defense of The Netherlands. Because of this, two coastal defense projects were carried out between 2009 and 2011. The first project involved creating an extra dune ridge in front of existing dunes which leads to intrusion of a large volume of seawater. Directly after completion, the Sand Engine was constructed. This hook shaped sand peninsula will supply the coast with sand for the coming decades due to erosion and deposition along the coast. These two large coastal defense projects would obviously influence the tightly balanced hydrological system of Monster. Without hydrological intervention, the drinking water production would no longer be sustainable in this area. To study the effects of these projects and to find a solution to combine coastal defense and drinking water supply, field research and effect (geochemical) modeling were used interactively. To prevent negative effects it was decided to construct interception wells on top of the new dune ridge (28 in total). A

  8. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Characterization of the Porcine Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Shetye, Snehal; Troyer, Kevin; Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H. T.; Kwon, Brian K.; Cripton, Peter; Puttlitz, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Although quasi-static and quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of the spinal cord have been reported previously, there are no published studies that have investigated the fully (strain-dependent) nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the spinal cord. In this study, stress relaxation experiments and dynamic cycling were performed on six fresh porcine lumbar cord specimens to examine their viscoelastic mechanical properties. The stress relaxation data were fitted to a modified superposition formulation and a novel finite ramp time correction technique was applied. The parameters obtained from this fitting methodology were used to predict the average dynamic cyclic viscoelastic behavior of the porcine cord. The data indicate that the porcine spinal cord exhibited fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. The average weighted RMSE for a Heaviside ramp fit was 2.8kPa, which was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that of the nonlinear (comprehensive viscoelastic characterization (CVC) method) fit (0.365kPa). Further, the nonlinear mechanical parameters obtained were able to accurately predict the dynamic behavior, thus exemplifying the reliability of the obtained nonlinear parameters. These parameters will be important for future studies investigating various damage mechanisms of the spinal cord and studies developing high resolution finite elements models of the spine. PMID:24211612

  9. Sirtuin Inhibition Adversely Affects Porcine Oocyte Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ma, Rujun; Hu, Jin; Ding, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins have been implicated in diverse biological processes, including oxidative stress, energy metabolism, cell migration, and aging. Here, we employed Sirtuin inhibitors, nicotinamide (NAM) and Sirtinol, to investigate their effects on porcine oocyte maturation respectively. The rate of polar body extrusion in porcine oocytes decreased after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol, accompanied with the failure of cumulus cell expansion. We further found that NAM and Sirtinol significantly disrupted oocyte polarity, and inhibited the formation of actin cap and cortical granule-free domain (CGFD). Moreover, the abnormal spindles and misaligned chromosomes were readily detected during porcine oocyte maturation after treatment with NAM and Sirtinol. Together, these results suggest that Sirtuins are involved in cortical polarity and spindle organization in porcine oocytes. PMID:26176547

  10. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase. This enzyme is associated with the degradation of lung tissue in people suffering from emphysema. It is useful in studying causes of this disease. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Charles Bugg.

  11. A model-based reasoning approach to sensor placement for monitorability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doyle, Richard; Homemdemello, Luiz

    1992-01-01

    An approach is presented to evaluating sensor placements to maximize monitorability of the target system while minimizing the number of sensors. The approach uses a model of the monitored system to score potential sensor placements on the basis of four monitorability criteria. The scores can then be analyzed to produce a recommended sensor set. An example from our NASA application domain is used to illustrate our model-based approach to sensor placement.

  12. Landslide risk mitigation through integrated monitoring and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Oreste Giuseppe; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Iovine, Giulio G. R.

    2014-05-01

    In winter 2008-09, exceptional prolonged rains triggered numerous landslides in Calabria (southern Italy). Among these, a large rock slide was triggered on 28 January 2009 in weathered metamorphic rocks at San Benedetto Ullano (CS), involving fractured and altered migmatitic gneiss and biotitic schist. A detailed geomorphological survey was carried out during the entire phase of mobilization, allowing to recognize the evolution of the phenomenon. A series of benchmarks was promptly placed in correspondence of fractures on the body and along the sides of the landslide, allowing for frequent measurements of surface movements. In addition, a network of real-time monitoring extensometers were implemented at the surface of the landslide, combined with a meteorological station. The survey site and the data of the monitoring system allowed, from the early stages of activation of the phenomenon, to implement a support system to handle the emergency. In the following months, a clear retrogressive distribution could be identified, coupled with a tendency towards the enlargement of the flanks. In early May, the first crisis ended up. After the arrest of the phenomenon, a geological-technical scheme of the slope could be drawn, also based on data collected through a set of 5 exploratory wells (equipped with 4 inclinometers and 1 piezometer). The landslide mobilized a thickness from 15 to 35 meters along the longitudinal profile. To examine the stability of the slope affected by the landslide, and to quantify the role of fluctuations of the water table in destabilizing the slope, a parametric limit equilibrium analysis was conducted. The analysis confirmed the first interpretation of the process: the first activation of the landslide was expected, in fact, in the central portion of the slope in case, in the same area, the groundwater levels are close to ground level. Between 31 January 31 and 1 February 2010, following a further period of exceptional rainfall, the network of

  13. Microindentation of the young porcine ocular lens.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew; Ravi, Nathan

    2009-04-01

    Debate regarding the mechanisms of how the eye changes focus (accommodation) and why this ability is lost with age (presbyopia) has recently been rejoined due to the advent of surgical procedures for the correction of presbyopia. Due to inherent confounding factors in both in vivo and in vitro measurement techniques, mechanical modeling of the behavior of the ocular lens in accommodation has been attempted to settle the debate. However, a paucity of reliable mechanical property measurements has proven problematic in the development of a successful mechanical model of accommodation. Instrumented microindentation was utilized to directly measure the local elastic modulus and dynamic response at various locations in the lens. The young porcine lens exhibits a large modulus gradient with the highest modulus appearing at the center of the nucleus and exponentially decreasing with distance. The loss tangent was significantly higher in the decapsulated lens and the force waveform amplitude decreased significantly upon removal of the lens capsule. The findings indicate that localized measurements of the lens' mechanical properties are necessary to achieve accurate quantitative parameters suitable for mechanical modeling efforts. The results also indicate that the lens behaves as a crosslinked gel rather than as a collection of individual arched fiber cells.

  14. Structural model of porcine factor VIII and factor VIIIa molecules based on scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images and STEM mass analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Mosesson, M W; Fass, D N; Lollar, P; DiOrio, J P; Parker, C G; Knutson, G J; Hainfeld, J F; Wall, J S

    1990-01-01

    Porcine plasma factor VIII (fVIII) molecules are heterodimers composed of a 76,000-mol wt light chain (-A3-C1-C2) and a heavy chain ranging in molecular weight from 82,000 (A1-A2) to 166,000 (A1-A2-B). Proteolytic activation of fVIII by thrombin results in fVIIIa heterotrimers lacking B domains (A1, A2, A3-C1-C2). In this study, immunoaffinity purified fVIII was further fractionated by mono S or mono Q chromatography to prepare heterodimers containing a light chain and an A1-A2-B heavy chain (fVIII 166/76) or an A1-A2 heavy chain (fVIII 82/76). Mass analysis of scanning transmission electron microscopic (STEM) images of fVIII 166/76 indicated that heterodimers (mass 237 +/- 20 kD) had irregularly globular core structures 10-12 nm across, and frequently displayed a diffuse, occasionally globular to ovoid satellite structure extending 5-14 nm from the core, and attached to it by a thin stalk. Factor VIII 82/76 molecules (mass 176 +/- 20 kD) had the same core structures as fVIII 166/76 molecules, but lacked the satellite structure. These findings indicate that A1-A2 domains of heavy chains and the light chains of the fVIII procofactor molecule are closely associated and constitute the globular core structure, whereas the B domainal portion of heavy chains comprises the peripheral satellite appendage. Factor VIII core structures commonly displayed a finger-like projection near the origin of the B domainal stalk that was also a consistent feature of the free heavy chains (mass 128-162 kD) found in fVIII 166/76 preparations. Factor VIII light chain monomers (mass, 76 +/- 16 kD) were globular to c-shaped particles 6-8 nm across. These chains commonly possessed a v-shaped projection originating from its middle region, that could also be observed at the periphery of fVIII core molecules. Factor VIIIa preparations contained heterotrimers (mass 162 +/- 13 kD) that had the same dimensions as fVIII core structures, lacked the B domainal appendage, and sometimes possessed the

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Seeding of Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosal Extracellular Matrix for Cardiovascular Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia Wei; Petrie, Tye; Clark, Alycia; Lin, Xin; Sondergaard, Claus S.; Griffiths, Leigh G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the translational potential of a novel combined construct using an FDA-approved decellularized porcine small intestinal submucosa extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM) seeded with human or porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cardiovascular indications. With the emerging success of individual component in various clinical applications, the combination of SIS-ECM with MSCs could provide additional therapeutic potential compared to individual components alone for cardiovascular repair. We tested the in vitro effects of MSC-seeding on SIS-ECM on resultant construct structure/function properties and MSC phenotypes. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of porcine MSCs to modulate recipient graft-specific response towards SIS-ECM in a porcine cardiac patch in vivo model. Specifically, we determined: 1) in vitro loading-capacity of human MSCs on SIS-ECM, 2) effect of cell seeding on SIS-ECM structure, compositions and mechanical properties, 3) effect of SIS-ECM seeding on human MSC phenotypes and differentiation potential, and 4) optimal orientation and dose of porcine MSCs seeded SIS-ECM for an in vivo cardiac application. In this study, histological structure, biochemical compositions and mechanical properties of the FDA-approved SIS-ECM biomaterial were retained following MSCs repopulation in vitro. Similarly, the cellular phenotypes and differentiation potential of MSCs were preserved following seeding on SIS-ECM. In a porcine in vivo patch study, the presence of porcine MSCs on SIS-ECM significantly reduced adaptive T cell response regardless of cell dose and orientation compared to SIS-ECM alone. These findings substantiate the clinical translational potential of combined SIS-ECM seeded with MSCs as a promising therapeutic candidate for cardiac applications. PMID:27070546

  16. Radiation sensitivity of bacteria and virus in porcine xenoskin for dressing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Eu-Ri; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In this study, gamma irradiation sensitivities of bacteria and viruses in porcine skin were evaluated to establish the optimum sterilization condition for the dressing material and a xenoskin graft. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were used as model pathogens and inoculated at 106-107 log CFU/g. As model viruses, porcine parvovirus (PPV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and poliovirus were used and inoculated at 105-106 TCID50/g into porcine skin. The D10 value of E. coli was found to be 0.25±0.1 kGy. B. subtilis endospores produced under stressful environmental conditions showed lower radiation sensitivity as D10 was 3.88±0.3 kGy in porcine skin. The D10 values of PPV, BVDV, and poliovirus were found to be 1.73±0.2, 3.81±0.2, and 6.88±0.3 kGy, respectively. These results can offer the basic information required for inactivating pathogens by gamma irradiation and achieving dressing material and porcine skin grafts.

  17. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings. PMID:27080155

  18. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-04-15

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings.

  19. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings. PMID:27080155

  20. Simulations of Porcine Eye Exposure to Primary Blast Insult

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Richard; Gray, Walt; Sponsel, William E.; Lund, Brian J.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Groth, Sylvia L.; Reilly, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A computational model of the porcine eye was developed to simulate primary blast exposure. This model facilitates understanding of blast-induced injury mechanisms. Methods A computational model of the porcine eye was used to simulate the effects of primary blast loading for comparison with experimental findings from shock tube experiments. The eye model was exposed to overpressure-time histories measured during physical experiments. Deformations and mechanical stresses within various ocular tissues were then examined for correlation with pathological findings in the experiments. Results Stresses and strains experienced in the eye during a primary blast event increase as the severity of the blast exposure increases. Peak stresses in the model occurred in locations in which damage was most often observed in the physical experiments. Conclusions Blast injuries to the anterior chamber may be due to inertial displacement of the lens and ciliary body while posterior damage may arise due to contrecoup interactions of the vitreous and retina. Correlation of modeling predictions with physical experiments lends confidence that the model accurately represents the conditions found in the physical experiments. Translational Relevance This computational model offers insights into the mechanisms of ocular injuries arising due to primary blast and may be used to simulate the effects of new protective eyewear designs. PMID:26336633

  1. The community environmental monitoring program: a model for stakeholder involvement in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, William T.; Shafer, David S.

    2007-07-01

    Since 1981, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has involved stakeholders directly in its daily operation and data collection, as well as in dissemination of information on radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the primary location where the United States (US) conducted nuclear testing until 1992. The CEMP is funded by the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, and is administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. The CEMP provides training workshops for stakeholders involved in the program, and educational outreach to address public concerns about health risk and environmental impacts from past and ongoing NTS activities. The network includes 29 monitoring stations located across an approximately 160,000 km{sup 2} area of Nevada, Utah and California in the southwestern US. The principal radiological instruments are pressurized ion chambers for measuring gamma radiation, and particulate air samplers, primarily for alpha/beta detection. Stations also employ a full suite of meteorological instruments, allowing for improved interpretation of the effects of meteorological events on background radiation levels. Station sensors are wired to state-of-the-art data-loggers that are capable of several weeks of on-site data storage, and that work in tandem with a communications system that integrates DSL and wireless internet, land line and cellular phone, and satellite technologies for data transfer. Data are managed through a platform maintained by the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) that DRI operates for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The WRCC platform allows for near real-time upload and display of current monitoring information in tabular and graphical formats on a public web site. Archival data for each station are also available on-line, providing the ability to perform trending analyses or calculate

  2. Efficacy of the porcine species in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Karina; Dicks, Naomi; Glanzner, Werner G.; Agellon, Luis B.; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2015-01-01

    Since domestication, pigs have been used extensively in agriculture and kept as companion animals. More recently they have been used in biomedical research, given they share many physiological and anatomical similarities with humans. Recent technological advances in assisted reproduction, somatic cell cloning, stem cell culture, genome editing, and transgenesis now enable the creation of unique porcine models of human diseases. Here, we highlight the potential applications and advantages of using pigs, particularly minipigs, as indispensable large animal models in fundamental and clinical research, including the development of therapeutics for inherited and chronic disorders, and cancers. PMID:26442109

  3. Efficacy of the porcine species in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Karina; Dicks, Naomi; Glanzner, Werner G; Agellon, Luis B; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2015-01-01

    Since domestication, pigs have been used extensively in agriculture and kept as companion animals. More recently they have been used in biomedical research, given they share many physiological and anatomical similarities with humans. Recent technological advances in assisted reproduction, somatic cell cloning, stem cell culture, genome editing, and transgenesis now enable the creation of unique porcine models of human diseases. Here, we highlight the potential applications and advantages of using pigs, particularly minipigs, as indispensable large animal models in fundamental and clinical research, including the development of therapeutics for inherited and chronic disorders, and cancers. PMID:26442109

  4. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies.

  5. Quantification of α-Gal Antigen Removal in the Porcine Dermal Tissue by α-Galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Su-Bo; Sun, Wendell Q; Yun, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xue; Song, Jin-Wen; Zhang, Shi-Kun; Leng, Ling; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Gong, Feng

    2015-11-01

    The α-Gal (Galα1,3-Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R) epitope, the major xenoantigen, is the first barrier in a porcine-to-man tissue and organ xenotransplantation. The elimination or reduction of the α-Gal epitopes is therefore an important step for a successful xenotransplantation. The present study is to evaluate the α-Gal elimination in the porcine skin with α-galactosidase treatment, and to assess two methods (immunohistochemistry and inhibition ELISA) that may be used in quality control for quantifying the extent of the α-Gal elimination. Enzymatic cleavage in a single-step process is extremely efficient and affordable at eliminating the α-Gal epitope even in a tissue as dense as the porcine dermis. The cost of enzymatic cleavage is found to be less than US$7 for a 10 × 10 cm piece of porcine skin (0.5 mm thick) or about US$140 for 100 g of 3-dimensional soft tissues. After enzymatic cleavage, the α-Gal-positive immunostaining was essentially undetectable in enzyme-treated porcine skin. The inhibition rate constant of the monoclonal anti-Gal antibody M86 binding to α-Gal-bovine serum albumin in ELISA was reduced from 15.0 ± 4.3 (n = 10) to 6.1 ± 2.6 (n = 7) after enzyme treatment, in comparison to 4.4 ± 1.8 (n = 9) background inhibition of decellularized human skin (the ultimate negative control), which demonstrates ∼ 84% elimination of α-Gal epitopes in treated porcine skin. To examine the suitability of two detection methods for the routine quality control application, comparative studies were made with control and enzyme-treated porcine skin, porcine skin from the α-Gal knockout animal, as well as decellularized human skin. The data show that the traditional immunohistochemistry and, to a less extent, the inhibition ELISA with further modifications can be used as quality control tools in the production and selection of biocompatible bioprosthetic devices. The biological evaluation of enzyme-treated porcine skin is ongoing with a small animal model and a

  6. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, E.; Hoversten, G.M.

    2008-07-15

    We examine the relative merits of gravity measurements as a monitoring tool for geological CO{sub 2} sequestration in three different modeling scenarios. The first is a combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the second is sequestration in a brine formation, and the third is for a coalbed methane formation. EOR/sequestration petroleum reservoirs have relativ