Science.gov

Sample records for monitoring biological activity

  1. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  2. Biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.H.; Dillon, H.K.

    1986-02-01

    Biological monitoring is defined as the measurement and assessment of workplace agents or their metabolites in tissues, secreta, excreta, expired air, or any combination of these to evaluate exposure and health risk compared to an appropriate reference. Biological monitoring offers several advantages: it takes into account individual variability in biological activity resulting from a chemical insult. It takes into account the effects of personal physical activity and individual life styles. It is a valuable adjunct to ambient monitoring and health surveillance. The importance of chemical speciation in the toxicity of pollutants is discussed. Basic protocols for lead, aluminum, cadmium, mercury, selenium, and nickel are presented. Basic criteria for biological monitoring methods are presented. 11 references, 1 table.

  3. INDIRECT MEASUREMENT OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY TO MONITOR NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The remediation of ground water contamination by natural attenuation, specifically biodegradation, requires continual monitoring. This research is aimed at improving methods for evaluating the long-term performance of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), specifically changes in ...

  4. INDIRECT MEASUREMENT OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY TO MONITOR NATURAL ATTENUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The remediation of ground water contamination by natural attenuation, specifically biodegradation, requires continual monitoring. This research is aimed at improving methods for evaluating the long-term performance of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), specifically changes in ...

  5. Smart interactive electronic system for monitoring the electromagnetic activities of biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Sorin G.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-08-01

    A novel electronic device capable of sensing and monitoring the myoelectric, polarization wave and electromagnetic activities of the biological systems and in particular the human body is presented. It is known that all the physical and chemical processes within biological systems are associated with polarization, depolarization waves from the brain, neural signals and myoelectric processes that manifest themselves in ionic and dipole motion. The technology developed in our laboratory is based on certain charge motion sensitive electronics. The electronic system developed is capable of sensing the electromagnetic activities of biological systems. The information obtained is then processed by specialized software in order to interpret it from physical and chemical point of view.

  6. Passive acoustic monitoring of biological activity on coral reefs and in nearby waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Mooney, T. Aran; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2005-09-01

    Monitoring the changing state of coral reef habitats is a challenging task that is exacerbated when the reefs in question are in remote locations. Physical sensors provide a wide range of measurements of local environmental variables, but do not give an indication of biological activity. The preliminary findings of an effort to use the ambient sound field as a means of characterizing and monitoring biological activity on coral reefs and surrounding waters are reported. Moored recording systems were developed to sample the sound field of reefs on Oahu, Hawaii for 1-min periods, at 30-min intervals, for 10 days at a time. Snapping shrimp produce the dominant acoustic energy on the reefs examined and exhibit clear diel acoustic trends. Peaks in activity consistently occur during crepuscular periods. At frequencies below 2 kHz, many fish sounds occur, which also exhibit distinct temporal variability. Cetacean sounds are also common, indicating the occurrence of an apex predator in the area. Many sounds can be detected automatically, making the examination of the sound field an efficient means of tracking acoustically active species. The results indicate that acoustic monitoring may be an effective means of tracking biological activity at locations where traditional surveys are impractical.

  7. Biological monitors of pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, M.

    1990-02-01

    This article discusses the use of biological monitors to assess the biological consequences of toxicants in the environment, such as bioavailability, synergism, and bioaccumulation through the food web. Among the organisms discussed are fly larvae, worms, bees, shellfish, fishes, birds (starlings, owls, hawks, songbirds) and mammals (rabbits, field mice, shrews).

  8. Field and Laboratory GPR Monitoring of Biological Activity in Saturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoflias, Georgios; Schillig, Peter; McGlashan, Michael; Roberts, Jennifer; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of "biogeophysics". The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present a field study and a laboratory experiment that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Three competing mechanisms are postulated to cause the changes observed in the radar data: 1) biogenic gas production, 2) mineral dissolution, and 3) biomass growth. However, due to the inherent complexity and uncertainties associated with field experimentation, the relative effect of each mechanism on the GPR signal could not be confirmed. To overcome the limitations of field observations in assessing the response of GPR signals to biomass formation, a 90-day laboratory

  9. Biological monitoring for isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Cocker, John

    2011-03-01

    Isocyanates are reactive chemicals and thousands of workers may be exposed to them during their manufacture and use in a wide range of products. They are classed as sensitizers and are a major cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Workplace exposure limits are low and control of exposure often depends on personal respiratory protection. Biological monitoring is increasingly used to assess exposure and the efficacy of control measures, including the behavioural aspects of controls. Biological monitoring methods are available for the most common isocyanates hexamethylene diisocyanate, toluene diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate. They are based on the analysis of hexamethylene diamine, toluene diamine, isopherone diamine, and methylenediamine released after hydrolysis of isocyanate-protein adducts in urine or blood. Volunteer and occupational studies show good correlations between inhalation exposure to isocyanate monomers and isocyanate-derived diamines in urine or blood. However, occupational exposure to isocyanates is often to a mixture of monomers and oligomers so there is some uncertainty comparing biological monitoring results with airborne exposure to 'total NCO'. Nevertheless, there is a substantial body of work demonstrating the utility of biological monitoring as a tool to assess exposure and the efficacy of controls, including how they are used in practice. Non-health-based biological monitoring guidance values are available to help target when and where further action is required. Occupational hygienists will need to use their knowledge and experience to determine the relative contributions of different routes of exposure and how controls can be improved to reduced the risk of ill health.

  10. Development of a selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry-based assay to detect asparaginyl endopeptidase activity in biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Michael J.; Gray, Oliver J.; Parker, Catriona; Holland, Mark; Williamson, Andrew J.K.; Pierce, Andrew; Unwin, Richard D.; Krishnan, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer Biomarkers have the capability to improve patient outcomes. They have potential applications in diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of disease progression and measuring response to treatment. This type of information is particularly useful in the individualisation of treatment regimens. Biomarkers may take many forms but considerable effort has been made to identify and quantify proteins in biological fluids. However, a major challenge in measuring protein in biological fluids, such as plasma, is the sensitivity of the assay and the complex matrix of proteins present. Furthermore, determining the effect of proteases in disease requires measurement of their activity in biological fluids as quantification of the protein itself may not provide sufficient information. To date little progress has been made towards monitoring activity of proteases in plasma. The protease asparaginyl endopeptidase has been implicated in diseases such as breast cancer, leukaemia and dementia. Here we describe a new approach to sensitively and in a targeted fashion quantify asparaginyl endopeptidase activity in plasma using a synthetic substrate peptide protected from nonspecific hydrolysis using D-amino acids within the structure. Our selected reaction monitoring approach enabled asparaginyl endopeptidase activity to be measured in human plasma with both a high dynamic range and sensitivity. This manuscript describes a paradigm for future development of assays to measure protease activities in biological fluids as biomarkers of disease. PMID:27683124

  11. Determination of aluminum and phosphorus in biological materials by reactor activation analysis using germanium as integral flux monitor and comparator.

    PubMed

    Furnari, J C; Cohen, I M

    1994-01-01

    A method for determination of aluminum and phosphorus in biological materials, based on activation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of 28Al, produced by the 27Al(n, gamma)28Al and 31P(n, alpha)28Al reactions, is described. Irradiations in the undisturbed and epicadmium spectra provide a two-equation system in order to determine the contributions of aluminum and phosphorus to the total activities. Germanium is used as an integral flux monitor and comparator, through the reactions: 74Ge(n, gamma)75Ge, 76Ge(n, gamma)77Ge, and 72Ge(n,p)72Ga.

  12. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  13. Monitoring of the effect of biological activity on the pedogenesis of a constructed Technosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salifou Jangorzo, Nouhou; Watteau, Françoise; Schwartz, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Pedogenesis is the set of steps, which lead to the formation and evolution of soils under pedogenetic factors and processes. They may be described quantitatively for a modeling end. For this purpose, constructed Technosols are candidates to be studied, because their initial composition is well described. Furthermore, among pedogenetic factors, living organisms are known to play a major role in soil formation. The most challenging objective of our work is then to monitor in situ the effect of biological agents on soil evolution. However, soil pedogenesis is known to be dynamic, therefore visualizing in situ plant roots or soil fauna in contact with soil, will help understand better how pedogenesis occurs realistically. The aim of this work is to study in situ, visually and quantitatively, the evolution of a constructed Technosol pedogenesis using an innovative dispositive of observation on cosmes. The Technosol is constructed in three horizons, from bottom to top we have: gravels, treated industrial soil and paper mill sludge (2/3, 1/3 masse ratio) and green waste compost. The soil is put into a cosme equipped with image acquisition devices. Factors are organized into two modalities each repeated three times. "Plant", where five seeds of white lupin are sown in each cosme. "Plant and Fauna" where six epigeic adult earthworms and five seeds of white lupin are inoculated, and a "control". A moisture of 60 - 80 % field capacity is maintained in all modalities. Results show that roots grow at 10 mm.day-1 speed during the first three weeks. Roots increase porosity and aggregation with time. Earthworms explore the soil randomly by creating and filling burrows. At a second time, they create their burrows preferentially along plant roots. Roots and earthworms contribute to the rapid increase of porosity (9.81 times control at 268 days) and aggregation (10.15 times control at 268 days) during time, in the early stages of pedogenesis. In situ and non-destructive observation

  14. Biological monitoring of toxic metals

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, T.W.; Friberg, L.; Nordberg, G.F.; Sager, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a compendium of papers representing the content of presentations made at the conference on /open quotes/Biological Monitoring of Metals/close quotes/ held in Rochester, New York, June 2-6, 1986. The papers are organized into five sessions entitled: Introduction, Specific Metals, Metals Used in Advanced High Technology, Trends in Analytical Methods, and Biological Media /emdash/ Their Advantages and Pitfalls When Used in Biological Monitoring. The 37 papers presented have been individually abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  15. Monitoring undergraduate student needs and activities at Experimental Biology: APS pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Nicole L; Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Matyas, Marsha L

    2017-06-01

    Life science professional societies play important roles for undergraduates in their fields and increasingly offer membership, fellowships, and awards for undergraduate students. However, the overall impacts of society-student interactions have not been well studied. Here, we sought to develop and test a pilot survey of undergraduate students to determine how they got involved in research and in presenting at the Experimental Biology (EB) meeting, what they gained from the scientific and career development sessions at the meeting, and how the American Physiological Society (APS) can best support and engage undergraduate students. This survey was administered in 2014 and 2015 to undergraduate students who submitted physiology abstracts for and attended EB. More than 150 students responded (38% response rate). Respondents were demographically representative of undergraduate students majoring in life sciences in the United States. Most students (72%) became involved in research through a summer research program or college course. They attended a variety of EB sessions, including poster sessions and symposia, and found them useful. Undergraduate students interacted with established researchers at multiple venues. Students recommended that APS provide more research fellowships (25%) and keep in touch with students via both e-mail (46%) and social media (37%). Our results indicate that APS' EB undergraduate activities are valued by students and are effective in helping them have a positive scientific meeting experience. These results also guided the development of a more streamlined survey for use in future years. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, William; Gawne, Carrie; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, Mark W.; Stewart, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the USGS LEBS successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and LTLA (see FTG, CWTG, and FTG reports, respectively). Results from the surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Task Group data needs and analyses of trends in Lake Erie’s fish communities. The cruise survey schedule in 2014 was greatly increased by LEBS’s participation in the Lake Erie CSMI, which consisted of up-to two weeks of additional sampling per month from April to October. CSMI is a bi-national effort that occurs at Lake Erie every five years with the purpose of addressing data and knowledge gaps necessary to management agencies and the Lake Erie LaMP. LEBS deepwater science capabilities also provided a platform for data collection by Lake Erie investigators from multiple agencies and universities including: the USGS GLSC, ODW, KSU, OSU, UM, PU, UT, and the USNRL. Samples from this survey are being processed and a separate report of the findings will be made available in a separate document. Our 2014 vessel operations were initiated in mid-April, as soon after ice-out as possible, and continued into early December. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 196 bottom trawls covering 48.5 km of lake-bottom, nearly 6 km of gillnet, collected data from 60 hydroacoustics transects, 285 lower trophic (i.e., zooplankton and benthos) samples, and 330 water quality measures (e.g., temperature profiles, water samples). Thus, 2014 was an intensive year of field activity. Our June and September bottom trawl surveys in the Western Basin were numerically dominated by Emerald Shiner, White Perch, and Yellow Perch; however, Freshwater Drum were

  17. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  18. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  19. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, W.H.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, M. R.; Schoonyan, A. L.; Stewart, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS) successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Fish Community Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and Lower Trophic Level Assessment (see Forage and Coldwater Task Group reports). In 2015, LEBS also initiated a Lake Erie Central Basin Trawling survey in response to the need for forage fish data from Management Unit 3 (as defined by the Yellow Perch Task Group). Results from these surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Fish Community Goals and Objectives. Our 2015 vessel operations were initiated in early April and continued into late November. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 121 bottom trawls covering 83.2 ha of lake-bottom and catching 105,600 fish totaling 4,065 kg during four separate trawl surveys in the western and central basins of Lake Erie. We deployed and lifted 9.5 km of gillnet, which caught an additional 805 fish, 100 (337 kg) of which were the native coldwater predators Lake Trout, Burbot, and Lake Whitefish (these data are reported in the 2016 Coldwater Task Group report). We also conducted 317 km of hydroacoustic survey transects (reported in the 2016 Forage Task Group report), collected 114 lower trophic (i.e. zooplankton and benthos) samples, and obtained 216 water quality observations (e.g., temperature profiles, and water samples). The LEBS also assisted CLC member agencies with the maintenance and expansion of GLATOS throughout all three Lake Erie sub-basins. Within the following report sections, we describe results from three trawl surveys – the spring and autumn Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and the East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment – and

  20. Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii) as a biological monitor of changes in soil metal loading related to past mining activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witte, K.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) is the dominant tree species in many abandoned mine areas of the Rocky Mountains. It is long-lived, and therefore, may act as a long term biological monitor of changes in soil chemistry caused by past mining activity. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) was used to analyze individual tree rings of Engelmann spruce for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb and Sr concentrations. Cores were obtained from trees growing in tailings-impacted and control (non-tailings impacted) sites near the Waldorf mine (Waldorf, CO, USA). Zinc, Cu, Fe, Cd, Pb and Sr concentrations remained low and consistent over time in the control tree rings. However, in the tailings impacted cores, concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Cd increase significantly in post-mining rings. In addition, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Cd concentrations in pre-mining rings of both the control and tailings impacted cores are similar, indicating that present day soil concentrations of these elements in the control area are a reasonable estimation of background for this area. Lead and Sr concentrations in control and tailings-impacted rings remained similar and relatively constant through time and are not useful in determining changes in soil chemistry due to past mining activity. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring and modeling of microbial and biological water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbial and biological water quality informs on the health of water systems and their suitability for uses in irrigation, recreation, aquaculture, and other activities. Indicators of microbial and biological water quality demonstrate high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, monitoring str...

  2. Immunochemical techniques in biological monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, M H; Grassman, J A; Haas, R A

    1991-01-01

    Immunoassays are analytical methods that detect interactions between antibodies and antigens. Immunoassays were used originally to detect large biological molecules. The new generation of these antibody-based assays can detect small synthetic compounds. As a result, immunoassays are being developed specifically for biomarkers of exposure and effect to environmentally prevalent chemicals. Immunochemical detection of parent compounds in blood and tissues, metabolites in excreta, and adducts with DNA and protein have been successfully performed by several investigators. Although there is great potential for use of immunoassays in biological monitoring studies, the limitations of these analyses must be fully understood to prevent improper evaluation of the acquired data. This review will cover some of the background material necessary to understand how an antibody-based assay is developed. The differences between polyclonal and monoclonal antibody-based assays and the importance of antibody class, affinity, specificity, and cross-reactivity must be considered in both study design and data analysis. PMID:1954923

  3. Immunochemical techniques in biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rosner, M H; Grassman, J A; Haas, R A

    1991-08-01

    Immunoassays are analytical methods that detect interactions between antibodies and antigens. Immunoassays were used originally to detect large biological molecules. The new generation of these antibody-based assays can detect small synthetic compounds. As a result, immunoassays are being developed specifically for biomarkers of exposure and effect to environmentally prevalent chemicals. Immunochemical detection of parent compounds in blood and tissues, metabolites in excreta, and adducts with DNA and protein have been successfully performed by several investigators. Although there is great potential for use of immunoassays in biological monitoring studies, the limitations of these analyses must be fully understood to prevent improper evaluation of the acquired data. This review will cover some of the background material necessary to understand how an antibody-based assay is developed. The differences between polyclonal and monoclonal antibody-based assays and the importance of antibody class, affinity, specificity, and cross-reactivity must be considered in both study design and data analysis.

  4. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) technology for monitoring biological foaming in activated sludge: full scale plant verification.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Cha, D K; Kim, I; Son, A; Ahn, K H

    2008-02-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) technology was evaluated as a monitoring tool for quantification of Gordonia amarae in activated sludge systems. The fatty acid, 19:1 alcohol, which was identified as a unique fatty acid in G. amarae was not only confirmed to be present in foaming plant samples, but the quantity of the signature peak correlated closely with the degree of foaming. Foaming potential experiment provided a range of critical foaming levels that corresponded to G. amarae population. This range of critical Gordonia levels was correlated to the threshold signature FAME amount. Six full-scale wastewater treatment plants were selected based on a survey to participate in our full-scale study to evaluate the potential application of the FAME technique as the Gordonia monitoring tool. Greater amounts of signature FAME were extracted from the mixed liquor samples obtained from treatment plants experiencing Gordonia foaming problems. The amounts of signature FAME correlated well with the conventional filamentous counting technique. These results demonstrated that the relative abundance of the signature FAMEs can be used to quantitatively monitor the abundance of foam-causing microorganism in activated sludge.

  5. Metadata Activities in Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Inigo, Gil San; HUTCHISON, VIVIAN; Frame, Mike; Palanisamy, Giri

    2010-01-01

    The National Biological Information Infrastructure program has advanced the biological sciences ability to standardize, share, integrate and synthesize data by making the metadata program a core of its activities. Through strategic partnerships, a series of crosswalks for the main biological metadata specifications have enabled data providers and international clearinghouses to aggregate and disseminate tens of thousands of metadata sets describing petabytes of data records. New efforts at the National Biological Information Infrastructure are focusing on better metadata creation and curation tools, semantic mediation for data discovery and other curious initiatives.

  6. MCO Monitoring activity description

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-11-09

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description.

  7. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    PubMed

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

    2001-01-01

    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  8. [Biological monitoring in chromium-plating industry].

    PubMed

    Madsen, S W; Krue, S; Bonde, J P

    1992-05-25

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the role of biological monitoring as a means of surveillance of exposure in the Danish chromium-plating industry. We collected spot urine samples from 47 employees in five electro-plating plants near Aarhus and compared the results wide 40 non-exposed workers. We found no increase of chromium in urine during a work shift (mean = 0.11 nmol chromium/mmol creatinine, p = .46). The mean urine chromium value among the chromium workers was twice the mean value of the referent population (p = 0.001). There was, however, a considerable overlap between the two populations. All of the urine chromium values were much lower than the proposed American biological exposure indices. The results do not indicate any need for implementation of biological monitoring in the Danish chromium-plating industry, but longitudinal studies concerning possible accumulation of chromium at present occupational exposure levels should be carried out.

  9. Active Biological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2009-05-01

    Cells make use of dynamic internal structures to control shape and create movement. By consuming energy to assemble into highly organized systems of interacting parts, these structures can generate force and resist compression, as well as adaptively change in response to their environment. Recent progress in reconstituting cytoskeletal structures in vitro has provided an opportunity to characterize the mechanics and dynamics of filament networks formed from purified proteins. Results indicate that a complex interplay between length scales and timescales underlies the mechanical responses of these systems and that energy consumption, as manifested in molecular motor activity and cytoskeletal filament growth, can drive transitions between distinct material states. This review discusses the basic characteristics of these active biological materials that set them apart from conventional materials and that create a rich array of unique behaviors.

  10. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  11. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  12. Biological monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Monster, A.C.

    1986-08-01

    The possibility of biological monitoring of exposure to some volatile, halogenated hydrocarbons will be discussed. Most of these agents are widely used as solvents. All agents act on the nervous system as narcotics and differ widely in toxicity. Most of the solvents undergo biotransformation to metabolites. This allows biological assessment of exposure by measurement of the solvent and/or metabolites in exhaled air, blood, and/or urine. However, the same metabolites may occur with exposure to different chlorinated hydrocarbons, eg, trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid from exposure to trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. On the other hand, these agents differ widely in the percentage that is metabolized. There are large gaps in our knowledge, however, and much research will have to be carried out before even tentative data can be established for most of the solvents.

  13. Dark cycle monitoring of biological specimens on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mian, Arshad; Chuang, Sherry

    1992-01-01

    The operational environment for biological research on Space Station Freedom will incorporate video technology for monitoring plant and animal subjects. The video coverage must include dark-cycle monitoring because early experiments will use rodents that are nocturnal and therefore most active during the dark part of the daily cycle. Scientific requirements for monitoring during the dark cycle are exacting. Infrared (IR) or near-IR sensors are required. The trade-offs between these two types of sensors are based on engineering constraints, sensitivity spectra, and the quality of imagery possible from each type. This paper presents results of a study conducted by the Biological Flight Research Projects Office in conjunction with the Spacecraft Data Systems Branch at ARC to investigate the use of charged-coupled-device and IR cameras to meet the scientific requirements. Also examined is the effect of low levels of near-IR illumination on the circadian rhythm in rats.

  14. Dark cycle monitoring of biological specimens on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mian, Arshad; Chuang, Sherry

    1992-01-01

    The operational environment for biological research on Space Station Freedom will incorporate video technology for monitoring plant and animal subjects. The video coverage must include dark-cycle monitoring because early experiments will use rodents that are nocturnal and therefore most active during the dark part of the daily cycle. Scientific requirements for monitoring during the dark cycle are exacting. Infrared (IR) or near-IR sensors are required. The trade-offs between these two types of sensors are based on engineering constraints, sensitivity spectra, and the quality of imagery possible from each type. This paper presents results of a study conducted by the Biological Flight Research Projects Office in conjunction with the Spacecraft Data Systems Branch at ARC to investigate the use of charged-coupled-device and IR cameras to meet the scientific requirements. Also examined is the effect of low levels of near-IR illumination on the circadian rhythm in rats.

  15. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    SciTech Connect

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  16. Monitoring biological aerosols using UV fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversole, Jay D.; Roselle, Dominick; Seaver, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus has been designed and constructed to continuously monitor the number density, size, and fluorescent emission of ambient aerosol particles. The application of fluorescence to biological particles suspended in the atmosphere requires laser excitation in the UV spectral region. In this study, a Nd:YAG laser is quadrupled to provide a 266 nm wavelength to excite emission from single micrometer-sized particles in air. Fluorescent emission is used to continuously identify aerosol particles of biological origin. For calibration, biological samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and vegetative cells, Esherichia coli, Bacillus thuringiensis and Erwinia herbicola vegetative cells were prepared as suspensions in water and nebulized to produce aerosols. Detection of single aerosol particles, provides elastic scattering response as well as fluorescent emission in two spectral bands simultaneously. Our efforts have focuses on empirical characterization of the emission and scattering characteristics of various bacterial samples to determine the feasibility of optical discrimination between different cell types. Preliminary spectroscopic evidence suggest that different samples can be distinguished as separate bio-aerosol groups. In addition to controlled sample results, we will also discuss the most recent result on the effectiveness of detection outdoor releases and variations in environmental backgrounds.

  17. Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review.

    PubMed

    Houde, Magali; Martin, Jonathan W; Letcher, Robert J; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    2006-06-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFSs) are used in industrial and commercial products and can degrade to persistent perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). Temporal trend studies using human, fish, bird, and marine mammal samples indicate that exposure to PFSs has increased significantly over the past 15-25 years. This review summarizes the biological monitoring of PFCAs, PFSAs, and related PFSs in wildlife and humans, compares concentrations and contamination profiles among species and locations, evaluatesthe bioaccumulation/biomagnification in the environment, discusses possible sources, and identifies knowledge gaps. PFSs can reach elevated concentrations in humans and wildlife inhabiting industrialized areas of North America, Europe, and Asia (2-30,000 ng/ mL or ng/g of wet weight (ww)). PFSs have also been detected in organisms from the Arctic and mid-ocean islands (< or = 3000 ng/g ww). In humans, PFSAs and PFCAs have been shown to vary among ethnic groups and PFCA/PFSA profiles differ from those in wildlife with high proportions of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate. The pattern of contamination in wildlife varied among species and locations suggesting multiple emission sources. Food web analyses have shown that PFCAs and PFSAs can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Knowledge gaps with respect to the transport, accumulation, biodegradation, temporal/spatial trends and PFS precursors have been identified. Continuous monitoring with key sentinel species and standardization of analytical methods are recommended.

  18. [Biological monitoring of autoimmune diseases during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Blétry, O; Molina, V; Somogyi, A

    2003-02-01

    This review focuses on auto-immune diseases which frequently affect women and can have interactions with pregnancy: lupus erythematosus (LES), antiphospholipide syndrome (SAPL), Sjögren's syndrome (GS), rheumatoid arthritis (PR) and auto-immune thyroiditis. LES may flare at the end of a pregnancy and during post-partum. Its biological monitoring during pregnancy is well established. SAPL is at risk of sterility, prematurity, Hellp syndrome, eclampsia and retroplacental hematoma. The main risk, actually risk is foetal loss by placental ischemia, which has to be well known as 2 randomised studies have proven the efficacy of treatments with aspirin +/- subcutaneous heparin. LES, GS and PR can both be associated with anti SS-A +/- anti SS-B antibodies linked to a risk of congenital auriculo-ventricular block, which is fortunately low (less than 5% of the cases). Auto-immune thyroiditis are often revealed during pregnancy and may be enhanced during the six first months of post-partum.

  19. Biological monitoring of welders exposed to aluminium.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, Bernd; Buchta, Mark; Csanády, György A; Filser, Johannes G; Hilla, Wolfgang; Windorfer, Klaus; Stork, Joachim; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; Pfahlberg, Annette; Schaller, Karl-Heinz; Egerer, Ellen; Escobar Pinzón, Luis Carlos; Letzel, Stephan

    2006-04-10

    To evaluate an adequate strategy for biological monitoring of aluminium (Al), a group of 62 Al welders (age in 1999: 23-51 years, median 35 years) was surveyed annually from 1999 to 2003 by determination of pre- and post-shift Al in urine and plasma. Biomonitoring was supplemented by personal air measurements of the total dust concentration. The welders' internal exposure was compared to the exposure of 60 non-exposed assembly workers (age in 1999: 21-51 years, median: 36 years) who were surveyed in 1999, 2001 and 2003. Having a nearly constant dust exposure, median concentrations of Al in urine (Al in plasma) of the welders decreased from 40.1 microg/g to 19.8 microg/g creatinine (8.7 to 4.6 microg/l). For the control group the median levels of Al in urine (plasma) ranged from 4.8 microg/g to 5.2 microg/g creatinine (2.4-4.3 microg/l) indicating a higher sensitivity for the marker Al in urine. No systematic differences have been found between pre- and post-shift internal exposure. This might be caused by the slow elimination kinetics and low systemic bioavailability of Al. A correlation analysis did not yield close relationships between dust exposure, Al in plasma and Al in urine underlining the importance of biomonitoring for assessment of Al exposure.

  20. [Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to sevoflurane].

    PubMed

    Imbriani, M; Zadra, P; Negri, S; Alessio, A; Maestri, L; Ghittori, S

    2001-01-01

    conditions for the MSD were the following: ion mass monitored = 131 m/e; dwell time = 50 msec; selected ion monitoring window time = 0.1 amu; electromultiplier = 400 V. Urine samples were collected near the end of the shift and were analyzed for HFIP by head-space gas chromatography after glucuronide hydrolysis. 0.5 ml of urine and 1.5 ml of 10 M sulfuric acid were added to 21.8 ml headspace vials. The vials were immediately capped, vortexed, and loaded into the headspace autosampler. Samples were maintained at 100 degrees C for 30 min, after which glucuronide hydrolysis was 99% complete. Analyses were performed on a GC equipped with a MSD. The analytical conditions for urine analysis were as follows: cross-linked 5% phenylmethylsilicon column (internal diameter 0.2 mm, length 25 m); column temperature = 35 degrees C; carrier gas = helium. The analytical conditions for the MSD were: monitored ions = 51.05 and 99; dwell time = 100 ms; selected ion monitoring window time = 0.1 amu; electromultiplier voltage = 2000 Volt. With our analytical procedure, the detection limit of HFIP in urine was 20 micrograms/L. The variation coefficient (CV) for HFIP measurement in urine was 8.7% (on 10 determinations; mean value = 1000 micrograms/L). The median value of CI was 0.77 ppm (Geometric Standard Deviation = 4.08; range = 0.05-27.9 ppm). The correlation between CI and HFIP (Cu, microgram/L) was: Log Cu (microgram/L) = 0.813 x Log CI (ppm) + 2.517 (r = 0.79, n = 145, p < 0.0001). On the basis of the equation it was possible to establish tentatively the biological limit values corresponding to the respective occupational exposure limit values proposed for sevoflurane. According to our experimental results, HFIP values of 488 micrograms/L and 160 micrograms/L correspond to airborne sevoflurane concentrations of 2 and 0.5 ppm respectively.

  1. Automated SPME-GC-MS monitoring of headspace metabolomic responses of E. coli to biologically active components extracted by the coating.

    PubMed

    Hossain, S M Zakir; Bojko, Barbara; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-05-07

    Monitoring extracellular metabolites of bacteria is very useful for not only metabolomics research but also for assessment of the effects of various chemicals, including antimicrobial agents and drugs. Herein, we describe the automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the qualitative as well as semi-quantitative determination of metabolic responses of Escherichia coli to an antimicrobial agent, cinnamaldehyde. The minimum inhibitory concentration of cinnamaldehyde was calculated to be 2 g L(-1). We found that cinnamaldehyde was an important factor influencing the metabolic profile and growth process. A higher number of metabolites were observed during the mid-logarithmic growth phase. The metabolite variations (types and concentrations) induced by cinnamaldehyde were dependent on both cell density and the dose of cinnamaldehyde. Simultaneously, 25 different metabolites were separated and detected (e.g., indole, alkane, alcohol, organic acids, esters, etc.) in headspace of complex biological samples due to intermittent addition of high dose of cinnamaldehyde. The study was done using an automated system, thereby minimizing manual workup and indicating the potential of the method for high-throughput analysis. These findings enhanced the understanding of the metabolic responses of E. coli to cinnamaldehyde shock effect and demonstrated the effectiveness of the SPME-GC-MS based metabolomics approach to study such a complex biological system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Establishing a national biological laboratory safety and security monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Blaine, James W

    2012-12-01

    The growing concern over the potential use of biological agents as weapons and the continuing work of the Biological Weapons Convention has promoted an interest in establishing national biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring programs. The challenges and issues that should be considered by governments, or organizations, embarking on the creation of a biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring program are discussed in this article. The discussion focuses on the following questions: Is there critical infrastructure support available? What should be the program focus? Who should be monitored? Who should do the monitoring? How extensive should the monitoring be? What standards and requirements should be used? What are the consequences if a laboratory does not meet the requirements or is not willing to comply? Would the program achieve the results intended? What are the program costs? The success of a monitoring program can depend on how the government, or organization, responds to these questions.

  3. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    PubMed Central

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  4. Monitoring biological diversity: strategies, tools, limitations, and challenges.

    Treesearch

    Erik A. Beever

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring is an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability in one or more ecosystem properties, and is an essential component of adaptive management. Monitoring can help determine whether mandated environmental standards are being met and can provide an early-warning system of ecological change. Development of a strategy for monitoring biological diversity...

  5. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  6. Biological activity of ionene polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Ionene polymers are polyammonium salts with positive nitrogens in the backbone, resulting from the polycondensation of diamines with dihalides or from the polycondensation of halo amines. The mechanism of formation of ionene polymers of different structures and their biological activity is reviewed. The antimicrobial and antifungal properties are compared with low molecular weight ammonium salts. Ionenes were found to combine with DNA by means of ionic bonds to yield similar complexes to those obtained with polyamines (spermine and spermidine). They also combine with nerve cell receptors and exercise a more powerful and longer duration ganglionic blocking action than their monomeric analogs. The antiheparin activity of ionenes and the thromboresistance of elastomeric ionene heparin coatings is described. The enhanced biological activity of ionenes as compared with low molecular weight compounds is attributed to a cooperative effect of a large number of positive charges on the polymeric chains.

  7. Biological activity of ionene polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Ionene polymers are polyammonium salts with positive nitrogens in the backbone, resulting from the polycondensation of diamines with dihalides or from the polycondensation of halo amines. The mechanism of formation of ionene polymers of different structures and their biological activity is reviewed. The antimicrobial and antifungal properties are compared with low molecular weight ammonium salts. Ionenes were found to combine with DNA by means of ionic bonds to yield similar complexes to those obtained with polyamines (spermine and spermidine). They also combine with nerve cell receptors and exercise a more powerful and longer duration ganglionic blocking action than their monomeric analogs. The antiheparin activity of ionenes and the thromboresistance of elastomeric ionene heparin coatings is described. The enhanced biological activity of ionenes as compared with low molecular weight compounds is attributed to a cooperative effect of a large number of positive charges on the polymeric chains.

  8. Diverse biological activities of dandelion.

    PubMed

    González-Castejón, Marta; Visioli, Francesco; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2012-09-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber) is a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, native to Europe but widely distributed in the warmer temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Dandelion and its parts are habitually consumed as plant foods in several areas of the world, where they are also employed in phytotherapy. Indeed, dandelion contains a wide array of phytochemicals whose biological activities are actively being explored in various areas of human health. In particular, emerging evidence suggests that dandelion and its constituents have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that result in diverse biological effects. The present review provides a comprehensive analysis of the constituents of dandelion, an assessment of the pharmacological properties of dandelion, and a description of relevant studies that support the use of dandelion as a medicinal plant.

  9. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of meters into the atmosphere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. Countless eruptions in the geologic past have produced volcanic rocks that form much of the Earth's present surface. The gradual disintegration and weathering of these rocks have yielded some of the richest farmlands in the world, and these fertile soils play a significant role in sustaining our large and growing population. Were it not for volcanic activity, the Hawaiian Islands with their sugar cane and pineapple fields and magnificent landscapes and seascapes would not exist to support their residents and to charm their visitors. Yet, the actual eruptive processes are catastrophic and can claim life and property.

  10. Lung function, biological monitoring, and biological effect monitoring of gemstone cutters exposed to beryls.

    PubMed

    Wegner, R; Heinrich-Ramm, R; Nowak, D; Olma, K; Poschadel, B; Szadkowski, D

    2000-02-01

    Gemstone cutters are potentially exposed to various carcinogenic and fibrogenic metals such as chromium, nickel, aluminium, and beryllium, as well as to lead. Increased beryllium concentrations had been reported in the air of workplaces of beryl cutters in Idar-Oberstein, Germany. The aim of the survey was to study the excretion of beryllium in cutters and grinders with occupational exposure to beryls--for example, aquamarines and emeralds--to examine the prevalence of beryllium sensitisation with the beryllium lymphocyte transformation test (BeLT), to examine the prevalence of lung disease induced by beryllium, to describe the internal load of the respective metals relative to work process, and to screen for genotoxic effects in this particular profession. In a cross sectional investigation, 57 out of 100 gemstone cutters working in 12 factories in Idar-Oberstein with occupational exposure to beryls underwent medical examinations, a chest radiograph, lung function testing (spirometry, airway resistance with the interrupter technique), and biological monitoring, including measurements of aluminium, chromium, and nickel in urine as well as lead in blood. Beryllium in urine was measured with a newly developed direct electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy technique with a measurement limit of 0.06 microgram/l. Also, cytogenetic tests (rates of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange), and a BeLT were performed. Airborne concentrations of beryllium were measured in three factories. As no adequate local control group was available, the cutters were categorised into those with an exposure to beryls of > 4 hours/week (group A) and < or = 4 hours/week (group B). Clinical, radiological, or spirometric abnormalities indicating pneumoconiosis were detected in none of the gemstone cutters. Metal concentrations in biological material were far below the respective biological limit values, and beryllium in urine was only measurable in subjects of group A. Cytogenetic

  11. Biological oscillations: Fluorescence monitoring by confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2016-09-01

    Fluctuations play a vital role in biological systems. Single molecule spectroscopy has recently revealed many new kinds of fluctuations in biological molecules. In this account, we focus on structural fluctuations of an antigen-antibody complex, conformational dynamics of a DNA quadruplex, effects of taxol on dynamics of microtubules, intermittent red-ox oscillations at different organelles in a live cell (mitochondria, lipid droplets, endoplasmic reticulum and cell membrane) and stochastic resonance in gene silencing. We show that there are major differences in these dynamics between a cancer cell and the corresponding non-cancer cell.

  12. Environmental and biological monitoring for lead exposure in California workplaces.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, L; Sharp, D S; Samuels, S; Perkins, C; Rosenberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Patterns of environmental and biological monitoring for lead exposure were surveyed in lead-using industries in California. Employer self-reporting indicates a large proportion of potentially lead-exposed workers have never participated in a monitoring program. Only 2.6 percent of facilities have done environmental monitoring for lead, and only 1.4 percent have routine biological monitoring programs. Monitoring practices vary by size of facility, with higher proportions in industries in which larger facilities predominate. Almost 80 percent of battery manufacturing employees work in job classifications which have been monitored, versus only 1 percent of radiator-repair workers. These findings suggest that laboratory-based surveillance for occupational lead poisoning may seriously underestimate the true number of lead poisoned workers and raise serious questions regarding compliance with key elements of the OSHA Lead Standard. PMID:2368850

  13. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  14. Introduction to the biological monitoring and abatement program.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark J

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a long-term biological monitoring program and the Environmental Management special issue titled Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management. The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program, or BMAP, was implemented to assess biological impairment downstream of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, beginning in 1985. Several of the unique aspects of the program include its long-term consistent sampling, a focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific facility abatement and remedial actions, and the use of quantitative sampling protocols using a multidisciplinary approach. This paper describes the need and importance of long-term watershed-based biological monitoring strategies, in particular for addressing long-term stewardship goals at DOE sites, and provides a summary of the BMAP's objectives, spatial and temporal extent, and overall focus. The primary components of the biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee are introduced, as are the additional 9 papers in this Environmental Management special issue.

  15. [Biological monitoring: concepts and applications in public health].

    PubMed

    Pivetta, F; Machado, J M; Araújo, U C; Moreira, M F; Apostoli, P

    2001-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the theoretical discussion on potential uses for biological monitoring of exposure to chemical substances as related to human health, considering different concepts: definitions, uses, and limitations of internal dose and biological effect indicators and their availability for the substances to be quantified; knowledge of reference values, action levels, and limits based on health and negotiated patterns in biological monitoring interpretation and perspectives; and ethical and social problems in practice and within different preventive practices and their use in public health. Biological monitoring is the result of an exposure situation with conclusions based on scientific and consensus values, rules, and legislation. Biological monitoring as a continuous process and related to actually observed cases has helped establish technological exposure reference values and consensus levels as indicators for improving the environment and the workplace. As a step in the decision-making process in risk analysis, biological monitoring needs to be critically assessed as to its ethical aspects in light of the end use of results and values, which are references for application of this methodology.

  16. Molybdenum: biological activity and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Ralf R

    2005-11-07

    Molybdenum and tungsten are available to all organisms, with molybdenum having the far greater abundance and availability. Molybdenum occurs in a wide range of metalloenzymes in bacteria, fungi, algae, plants and animals, while tungsten was found to be essential only for a limited range of bacteria. In order to gain biological activity, molybdenum has to be complexed by a pterin compound, thus forming a molybdenum cofactor. In this article I will review the way that molybdenum takes from uptake into the cell, via formation of the molybdenum cofactor and its storage, to the final modification of molybdenum cofactor and its insertion into apo-metalloenzymes.

  17. Lung function, biological monitoring, and biological effect monitoring of gemstone cutters exposed to beryls

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, R.; Heinrich-Ramm, R.; Nowak, D.; Olma, K.; Poschadel, B.; Szadkowski, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Gemstone cutters are potentially exposed to various carcinogenic and fibrogenic metals such as chromium, nickel, aluminium, and beryllium, as well as to lead. Increased beryllium concentrations had been reported in the air of workplaces of beryl cutters in Idar-Oberstein, Germany. The aim of the survey was to study the excretion of beryllium in cutters and grinders with occupational exposure to beryls—for example, aquamarines and emeralds—to examine the prevalence of beryllium sensitisation with the beryllium lymphocyte transformation test (BeLT), to examine the prevalence of lung disease induced by beryllium, to describe the internal load of the respective metals relative to work process, and to screen for genotoxic effects in this particular profession.
METHODS—In a cross sectional investigation, 57 out of 100 gemstone cutters working in 12 factories in Idar-Oberstein with occupational exposure to beryls underwent medical examinations, a chest radiograph, lung function testing (spirometry, airway resistance with the interrupter technique), and biological monitoring, including measurements of aluminium, chromium, and nickel in urine as well as lead in blood. Beryllium in urine was measured with a newly developed direct electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy technique with a measurement limit of 0.06 µg/l. Also, cytogenetic tests (rates of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange), and a BeLT were performed. Airborne concentrations of beryllium were measured in three factories. As no adequate local control group was available, the cutters were categorised into those with an exposure to beryls of >4 hours/week (group A) and ⩽4 hours/week (group B).
RESULTS—Clinical, radiological, or spirometric abnormalities indicating pneumoconiosis were detected in none of the gemstone cutters. Metal concentrations in biological material were far below the respective biological limit values, and beryllium in urine was only measurable in

  18. Drug-Encoded Biomarkers for Monitoring Biological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bedenk, Kristina; Zhang, Qian; Frentzen, Alexa; Cappello, Joseph; Fischer, Utz; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2015-01-01

    Blood tests are necessary, easy-to-perform and low-cost alternatives for monitoring of oncolytic virotherapy and other biological therapies in translational research. Here we assessed three candidate proteins with the potential to be used as biomarkers in biological fluids: two glucuronidases from E. coli (GusA) and Staphylococcus sp. RLH1 (GusPlus), and the luciferase from Gaussia princeps (GLuc). The three genes encoding these proteins were inserted individually into vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 genome under the control of an identical promoter. The three resulting recombinant viruses were used to infect tumor cells in cultures and human tumor xenografts in nude mice. In contrast to the actively secreted GLuc, the cytoplasmic glucuronidases GusA and GusPlus were released into the supernatants only as a result of virus-mediated oncolysis. GusPlus resulted in the most sensitive detection of enzyme activity under controlled assay conditions in samples containing as little as 1 pg/ml of GusPlus, followed by GusA (25 pg/ml) and GLuc (≥375 pg/ml). Unexpectedly, even though GusA had a lower specific activity compared to GusPlus, the substrate conversion in the serum of tumor-bearing mice injected with the GusA-encoding virus strains was substantially higher than that of GusPlus. This was attributed to a 3.2 fold and 16.2 fold longer half-life of GusA in the blood stream compared to GusPlus and GLuc respectively, thus a more sensitive monitor of virus replication than the other two enzymes. Due to the good correlation between enzymatic activity of expressed marker gene and virus titer, we conclude that the amount of the biomarker protein in the body fluid semiquantitatively represents the amount of virus in the infected tumors which was confirmed by low light imaging. We found GusA to be the most reliable biomarker for monitoring oncolytic virotherapy among the three tested markers. PMID:26348361

  19. Biological versus ambient exposure monitoring of creosote facility workers.

    PubMed

    Borak, Jonathan; Sirianni, Greg; Cohen, Howard; Chemerynski, Susan; Jongeneelen, Frans

    2002-04-01

    Traditional methods for monitoring occupational creosote exposure have focused on inhalation. However, there is evidence that dermal exposure contributes importantly to total systemic dose, as measured by biological monitoring methods. This study was conducted to further characterize the relationships between inhalation and dermal exposures to creosote, and to compare traditional ambient exposure monitoring versus biological monitoring in 36 creosote-exposed wood treatment workers. Full-shift personal air samples were obtained, along with post-shift and next-day urine measurements for 1-hydroxypyrene. There was little or no correlation between airborne measures and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (r2 = 0.05 to 0.35). More than 90% of 1-hydroxypyrene could be attributed to dermal exposure. These data indicate that traditional monitoring methods may be inappropriate for creosote workers, raising concerns about the adequacy of methods currently mandated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  20. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  1. Biological activation of carbon filters.

    PubMed

    Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bozena; Tomaszewska, Maria; Janus, Magdalena; Morawski, Antoni W

    2006-01-01

    To prepare biological activated carbon (BAC), raw surface water was circulated through granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Biological activity of carbon filters was initiated after about 6 months of filter operation and was confirmed by two methods: measurement of the amount of biomass attached to the carbon and by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) test. The effect of carbon pre-washing on WG-12 carbon properties was also studied. For this purpose, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra analyses were performed. Moreover, iodine number, decolorizing power and adsorption properties of carbon in relation to phenol were studied. Analysis of the results revealed that after WG-12 carbon pre-washing its BET surface increased a little, the pH value of the carbon water extract decreased from 11.0 to 9.4, decolorizing power remained at the same level, and the iodine number and phenol adsorption rate increased. In preliminary studies of the ozonation-biofiltration process, a model phenol solution with concentration of approximately 10mg/l was applied. During the ozonation process a dose of 1.64 mg O(3)/mg TOC (total organic carbon) was employed and the contact time was 5 min. Four empty bed contact times (EBCTs) in the range of 2.4-24.0 min were used in the biofiltration experiment. The effectiveness of purification was measured by the following parameters: chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), TOC, phenol concentration and UV(254)-absorbance. The parameters were found to decrease with EBCT.

  2. Predicting biological effects of environmental mixtures using exposure:activity ratios (EAR) derived from US EPA’s ToxCast data: Retrospective application to chemical monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical monitoring has been widely used in environmental surveillance to assess exposure to environmental contaminants which could represent potential hazards to exposed organisms. However, the ability to detect chemicals in the environment has rapidly outpaced assessment of pot...

  3. Predicting biological effects of environmental mixtures using exposure:activity ratios (EAR) derived from US EPA’s ToxCast data: Retrospective application to chemical monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical monitoring has been widely used in environmental surveillance to assess exposure to environmental contaminants which could represent potential hazards to exposed organisms. However, the ability to detect chemicals in the environment has rapidly outpaced assessment of pot...

  4. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P.; Bartoli, D.; Alessio, L.; Buchet, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers. Urine samples at the end of work shift were analysed for biological monitoring. A control group of 39 subjects not exposed to As, and eight volunteers who drank water containing about 45 micrograms/l iAs for a week were also considered. Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of total As in air and urine samples, whereas the urinary As species (trivalent, As3; pentavalent, As5; monomethyl arsonic acid, MMA; dimethyl arsinic acid, DMA; arsenobetaine, AsB) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) RESULTS: Environmental concentrations of As in air varied widely (mean 84 micrograms/m3, SD 61, median 40) and also the sum of urinary iAs MMA and DMA, varied among the groups of exposed subjects (mean 106 micrograms/l, SD 84, median 65). AsB was the most excreted species (34% of total As) followed by DMA (28%), MMA (26%), and As3 + As5 (12%). In the volunteers who drank As in the water the excretion of MMA and DMA increased (from a median of 0.5 to 5 micrograms/day for MMA and from 4 to 13 micrograms/day for DMA). The best correlations between As in air and its urinary species were found for total iAs and As3 + As5. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the effect of As from sources other than occupation on urinary species of the element, in particular on DMA, it is proposed that urinary As3 + As5 may an indicator for monitoring the exposure to iAs. For concentrations of 10 micrograms/m3 the current environmental limit for iAs, the limit for urinary As3 + As5 was calculated to be around 5 micrograms/l, even if the wide

  5. Monitoring of environmental UV radiation by biological dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Ronto, G; Berces, A; Grof, P; Fekete, A; Kerekgyarto, T; Gaspar, S; Stick, C

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion biological systems can be damaged due to increased UV-B radiation. The aim of biological dosimetry is to establish a quantitative basis for the risk assessment of the biosphere. DNA is the most important target molecule of biological systems having special sensitivity against short wavelength components of the environmental radiation. Biological dosimeters are usually simple organisms, or components of them, modeling the cellular DNA. Phage T7 and polycrystalline uracil biological dosimeters have been developed and used in our laboratory for monitoring the environmental radiation in different radiation conditions (from the polar to equatorial regions). Comparisons with Robertson-Berger (RB) meter data, as well as with model calculation data weighted by the corresponding spectral sensitivities of the dosimeters are presented. Suggestion is given how to determine the trend of the increase in the biological risk due to ozone depletion. c2001 COSPAR Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Progress of environmental monitoring and biological containment system on genetically engineered microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Wu, Yijun

    2008-03-01

    With the development of biological technology, many genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for special purposes have been constructed and developed, but their practical applications in the field are still limited because GEMs may cause new environmental contaminations. To minimize the potential risks, the organisms released to environment need to be monitored and restricted for their distribution. In the laboratory conditions, the GEMs can be wiped off when required using some new biological technologies. The recent progress of research on the monitoring methods and active biological containment system for GEMs were reviewed in this paper.

  7. Monitoring biological diversity: strategies, tools, limitations, and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring is an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability in one or more ecosystem properties, and is an essential component of adaptive management. Monitoring can help determine whether mandated environmental standards are being met and can provide an early-warning system of ecological change. Development of a strategy for monitoring biological diversity will likely be most successful when based upon clearly articulated goals and objectives and may be enhanced by including several key steps in the process. Ideally, monitoring of biological diversity will measure not only composition, but also structure and function at the spatial and temporal scales of interest. Although biodiversity monitoring has several key limitations as well as numerous theoretical and practical challenges, many tools and strategies are available to address or overcome such challenges; I summarize several of these. Due to the diversity of spatio-temporal scales and comprehensiveness encompassed by existing definitions of biological diversity, an effective monitoring design will reflect the desired sampling domain of interest and its key stressors, available funding, legal requirements, and organizational goals.

  8. Biological Status Monitoring of European Fresh Water with Sentinel-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Romain; Mangin, Antoine; Fanton d'Andon, Odile Hembise; Lauters, Francois; Thomasset, Franck; Martin-Lauzer, Francois-Regis

    2016-08-01

    Thanks to a widening range of sensors available, the observation of continental water quality for lakes and reservoirs is gaining more and more consistency and accuracy.Consistency because back in 2012, the only free sensor with a sufficient resolution (30m) was Landsat-7 which has truncated data since 2003 and a 16-day revisit time. But today, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A are now operating so depending on the latitude of interest, the combined revisit time dropped to 2 to 4 days which is more appropriate for such a monitoring (especially considering the cloud cover).Accuracy because Landsat-7 has a poor contrast over water whereas Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A have a better radiometric sensitivity (more bit) and moreover Sentinel-2 offers additional spectral bands in the visible which are helpful for Chlorophyll-A concentration assessment. To sum up, with Sentinel-2, continental water quality monitoring capabilities are making a giant leap and it is important to exploit this potential the sooner. ACRI-HE has already built a strong basis to prepare Sentinel-2 by using Landsat data.Indeed, more than 600 lakes are already constantly monitored using Landsat data and their biological statuses are available on EyeOnWater (see eyeonwater.eu). Chlorophyll-A retrieval from (fresh) water leaving reflectances is the result of research activities conducted by ACRI-HE in parallel with EDF (Electricité de France) to respond to an emerging very demanding environmental monitoring through European regulations (typically the Water Framework Directive). Two parallel and complementary algorithms have thus been derived for Chlorophyll-a retrieval.Upstream of Eyeonwater, there is a complex and complete system automatically collecting images, extracting areas of interest around lakes, applying atmospheric correction (very sensitive part as atmosphere can contribute to 90% of the signal at sensor level) and then algorithms to retrieve water transparency (Secchi disk), turbidity and Chlorophyll

  9. Strigolactones: structures and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Koichi; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Takeuchi, Yasutomo

    2009-05-01

    Strigolactones released from plant roots induce seed germination of root parasitic weeds, witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche spp.), and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In addition to these functions in the rhizosphere, strigolactones have recently been shown to be a novel class of plant hormones regulating shoot outgrowth. The natural strigolactones identified so far have the common C-D ring moiety, which is thought to be the essential structure for exhibiting biological activity. The introduction of substitutions on the A-B ring moiety of 5-deoxystrigol, the basic strigolactone, affords various strigolactones, e.g. hydroxylation on C-4, C-5 and C-9 leads to orobanchol, strigol and sorgomol respectively. Then, acetylation and probably other derivatisations of these hydroxy-strigolactones would occur. Although the C-2'-(R) stereochemistry was thought to be an important structural feature for potent germination stimulation activity, 2'-epi-strigolactones were found in root exudates of tobacco, rice, pea and other plant species, indicating that at least some plants produce both epimers.

  10. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Harald; Gornicec, Jan; Neuper, Theresa; Parigiani, Maria Alejandra; Wallner, Michael; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2017-01-01

    Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the masking capacities of different buffer formulations and whether masked endotoxin is biologically active. We show that both naturally occurring endotoxin as well as control standard endotoxin can be affected by LER. Furthermore, whereas masked endotoxin cannot be detected in Factor C based assays, it is still detectable in a cell-based TLR4-NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in primary human monocytes, masked LPS induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and surface activation markers even at very low concentrations. We therefore conclude that masked LPS is a potent trigger of immune responses, which emphasizes the potential danger of masked LPS, as it may pose a health threat in pharmaceutical products or compromise experimental results. PMID:28317862

  11. Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoccoz, N.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring programmes are being used increasingly to assess spatial and temporal trends of biological diversity, with an emphasis on evaluating the efficiency of management policies. Recent reviews of the existing programmes, with a focus on their design in particular, have highlighted the main weaknesses: the lack of well-articulated objectives and the neglect of different sources of error in the estimation of biological diversity. We review recent developments in methods and designs that aim to integrate sources of error to provide unbiased estimates of change in biological diversity and to suggest the potential causes.

  12. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  13. Biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Beaty, T.W.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.S.

    1997-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  14. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

    1998-09-09

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  15. [Environmental and biological monitoring in the plating industry].

    PubMed

    Cavallo, D M; Cattaneo, A

    2012-01-01

    The work environment in the electroplating industry is characterized by a large amount of chemical substances used in the production process. The present work is a brief review of the time evolution of methods and strategies for the assessment of exposures to chromium and nickel by means of environmental and biological monitoring.

  16. Anatahan Activity and Monitoring, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A.; White, R.; Koyanagi, S.; Trusdell, F.; Kauahikaua, J.; Marso, J.; Ewert, J.

    2005-12-01

    Anatahan volcano began erupting in 2003 and continued with a second eruptive phase in 2004. In January 2005 the volcano began a sequence of eruptions and unrest that continues as of September 2005. The activity has been characterized by punctuated episodes of very steamy strombolian activity and vigorous ash emission. Some of the ash emissions have reached 50,000-foot elevations, with VOG and ash occasionally reaching the Philippines and southernmost Japan, over 1000 miles away. Vigorous ash emission has been almost continuous since June 2005. A M4.8 long-period earthquake (LP) occurred in mid-August, one of the largest LPs recorded on the planet in the last quarter-century. Real-time monitoring consisting of a few telemetered short-period seismometers and acoustic sensors has been severely hampered by ashfall on the small island. Monitoring efforts have been focused on the aircraft/ash hazard, with the goal of providing the FAA and airline industry with rapid notice of seismic signatures that may indicate ash columns rising to the altitude of airline traffic, or nominally above 20,000-30,000 ft.

  17. Concepts for Biologically Active Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kastin, Abba J.; Pan, Weihong

    2012-01-01

    Here we review a unique aspect of CNS research on biologically active peptides that started against a background of prevalent dogmas but ended by exerting considerable influence on the field. During the course of refuting some doctrines, we introduced several concepts that were unconventional and paradigm-shifting at the time. We showed that (1) hypothalamic peptides can act ‘up’ on the brain as well as ‘down’ on the pituitary, (2) peripheral peptides can affect the brain, (3) peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier, (4) the actions of peptides can persist longer than their half-lives in blood, (5) perinatal administration of peptides can exert actions persisting into adulthood, (6) a single peptide can have more than one action, (7) dose-response relationships of peptides need not be linear, (8) the brain produces antiopiate as well as opiate peptides, (9) there is a selective high affinity endogenous peptide ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, (10) a peptide’s name does not restrict its effects, and (11) astrocytes assume an active role in response to metabolic disturbance and hyperleptinemia. The evolving questions in our laboratories reflect the diligent effort of the neuropeptide community to identify the roles of peptides in the CNS. The next decade is expected to see greater progress in the following areas: (a) interactions of peptides with other molecules in the CNS; (b) peptide involvement in cell-cell interactions; and (c) peptides in neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. The development of peptidomics and gene silencing approaches will expedite the formation of many new concepts in a new era. PMID:20726835

  18. Biological spectra analysis: Linking biological activity profiles to molecular structure

    PubMed Central

    Fliri, Anton F.; Loging, William T.; Thadeio, Peter F.; Volkmann, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Establishing quantitative relationships between molecular structure and broad biological effects has been a longstanding challenge in science. Currently, no method exists for forecasting broad biological activity profiles of medicinal agents even within narrow boundaries of structurally similar molecules. Starting from the premise that biological activity results from the capacity of small organic molecules to modulate the activity of the proteome, we set out to investigate whether descriptor sets could be developed for measuring and quantifying this molecular property. Using a 1,567-compound database, we show that percent inhibition values, determined at single high drug concentration in a battery of in vitro assays representing a cross section of the proteome, provide precise molecular property descriptors that identify the structure of molecules. When broad biological activity of molecules is represented in spectra form, organic molecules can be sorted by quantifying differences between biological spectra. Unlike traditional structure–activity relationship methods, sorting of molecules by using biospectra comparisons does not require knowledge of a molecule's putative drug targets. To illustrate this finding, we selected as starting point the biological activity spectra of clotrimazole and tioconazole because their putative target, lanosterol demethylase (CYP51), was not included in the bioassay array. Spectra similarity obtained through profile similarity measurements and hierarchical clustering provided an unbiased means for establishing quantitative relationships between chemical structures and biological activity spectra. This methodology, which we have termed biological spectra analysis, provides the capability not only of sorting molecules on the basis of biospectra similarity but also of predicting simultaneous interactions of new molecules with multiple proteins. PMID:15625110

  19. A review exploring biological activities of hydrazones

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Garima; Marella, Akranth; Shaquiquzzaman, Mohammad; Akhtar, Mymoona; Ali, Mohammad Rahmat; Alam, Mohammad Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    The development of novel compounds, hydrazones has shown that they possess a wide variety of biological activities viz. antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral, cardio protective etc., Hydrazones/azomethines/imines possess-NHN = CH- and constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. A number of researchers have synthesized and evaluated the biological activities of hydrazones. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biological activities of hydrazones. PMID:24741273

  20. Air and biological monitoring of solvent exposure during graffiti removal.

    PubMed

    Anundi, H; Langworth, S; Johanson, G; Lind, M L; Akesson, B; Friis, L; Itkes, N; Söderman, E; Jönsson, B A; Edling, C

    2000-11-01

    The principal aim of the study was to estimate the level of exposure to organic solvents of graffiti removers, and to identify the chemicals used in different cleaning agents. A secondary objective was to inform about the toxicity of various products and to optimise working procedures. Exposure to organic solvents was determined by active air sampling and biological monitoring among 38 graffiti removers during an 8-h work shift in the Stockholm underground system. The air samples and biological samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Exposure to organic solvents was also assessed by a questionnaire and interviews. Solvents identified were N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), toluene, xylene, pseudocumene, hemimellitine, mesitylene, ethylbenzene, limonene, nonane, decane, undecane, hexandecane and gamma-butyrolactone. The 8-h average exposures [time-weighted average (TWA)] were below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents identified. In poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators etc., the short-term exposures exceeded occasionally the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL). The blood and urine concentrations of NMP and its metabolites were low. Glycol ethers and their metabolites (2-methoxypropionic acid (MPA), ethoxy acetic acid (EAA), butoxy acetic acid (BAA), and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEAA)) were found in low concentrations in urine. There were significant correlation between the concentrations of NMP in air and levels of NMP and its metabolites in blood and urine. The use of personal protective equipment, i.e. gloves and respirators, was generally high. Many different cleaning agents were used. The average exposure to solvents was low, but some working tasks included relatively high short-term exposure. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to inform workers about the

  1. Biologically active proteins from natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, B R

    2001-10-01

    The term "biologically active proteins" is almost redundant. All proteins produced by living creatures are, by their very nature, biologically active to some extent in their homologous species. In this review, a subset of these proteins will be discussed that are biologically active in heterologous systems. The isolation and characterization of novel proteins from natural product extracts including those derived from microorganisms, plants, insects, terrestrial vertebrates, and marine organisms will be reviewed and grouped into several distinct classes based on their biological activity and their structure.

  2. AIEgens for biological process monitoring and disease theranostics.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xinggui; Kwok, Ryan T K; Lam, Jacky W Y; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect. Luminogens with aggregation-induced emission characteristic (AIEgens) could serve as superior agents for biological process monitoring and disease theranostics. Herein, we review the recent results in the aspects of monitoring biological processes such as autophagy, mitophagy, mitochondrion-related dynamics, cell mitotic, long-term cellular tracing and apoptosis as well as the diagnosis of related diseases based on AIEgens in real time. As part of AIEgens and AIEgen-based nanoparticles with the functionalities of drugs, photosensitizers and adjuvants accompanied with imaging, they exhibit huge potential in theranostic systems for image-guided chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, radiotherapy and so on. Collectively, these examples show the potentials of AIEgens for understanding disease pathogenesis, for drug development and evaluation, and for clinical disease diagnosis and therapy. Future research efforts focused on developing long-wavelength excitable and phosphorescence-emissive AIEgens with improved depth-penetration and minimized background interference for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging, will extend the potential applications of AIEgens in in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Biological monitoring in the molding of plastics and rubbers].

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Cirla, A M; Cirla, P E; Cutugno, V; Lionetti, C; Martinotti, I; Mossini, E; Foà, V

    2007-01-01

    This survey was carried out in the molding of plastics and rubbers, in the "Professional Cancer Prevention Project" sponsored by the Lombardy region with the objective of developing and implementing protocols for evaluating exposure to carcinogens through the biological monitoring. The realities of molding the thermoplastic polymer ABS, rubber, and thermosetting plastics containing formaldehyde were examined. The carcinogenic substances identified in these processes were: 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile and styrene in molding ABS, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in molding rubber, and formaldehyde in molding the thermosetting plastics. Only for some of these substances biological indicators are available. The limited exposure to airborne chemicals in molding ABS and the intrinsic characteristics of biological indicators available for 1-3 butadiene have determined the non applicability of biological monitoring to this situation. The absence of a biological indicator of exposure to formaldehyde has made this situation not investigable. Exposure in the rubber molding was studied in 19 subjects applying the determination not metabolized PAH in urine. The levels of these indicators were similar to those measured in other groups of subjects without occupational exposure to PAH, confirming a low airborne contamination in this workplace.

  4. Recently reported biological activities of pyrazole compounds.

    PubMed

    Faria, Jéssica Venância; Vegi, Percilene Fazolin; Miguita, Ana Gabriella Carvalho; Dos Santos, Maurício Silva; Boechat, Nubia; Bernardino, Alice Maria Rolim

    2017-09-23

    The pyrazole nucleus is an aromatic azole heterocycle with two adjacent nitrogen atoms. Pyrazole derivatives have exhibited a broad spectrum of biological activities, and approved pyrazole-containing drugs include celecoxib, antipyrine, phenylbutazone, rimonabant, and dipyrone. Many research groups have synthesized and evaluated pyrazoles against several biological agents. This review examines recent publications relating the structures of pyrazoles with their corresponding biological activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The implications of the precautionary principle for biological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macgarvin, M.

    1995-03-01

    Marine biological monitoring programmes frequently attempt to determine “safe” levels of contamination, based on assumptions about the assimilative capacity of the environment. This paper argues that such assumptions lack scientific rigour, and do not form the basis upon which a precautionary policy can be built. It notes the problems associated with assessing toxicological effects, but centres its attention on the crucial (yet far less discussed) weaknesses in theoretical ecology that make it extremely unlikely that biological monitoring can determine safe levels of contamination that leave ecosystems unaffected. It is argued that many marine biologists, if pressed, would concede these shortcomings but believe that, in the face of the technical difficulties and high costs of pollution prevention, we have no choice but to use such methods. This paper argues, with examples, that pollution prevention, often with considerable economic savings, is becoming a reality for even the most problematic substances. The difficulty is that the development of “clean production” methods lie outside the sphere of interest of those carrying out monitoring, so that measures that attempt to determine safe levels of contamination continue to be advocated. This gulf needs to be bridged so that the continuation of monitoring programmes that are part of dilute and disperse policies become regarded as inappropriate, indeed unethical. The paper concludes that this does not mean the end of marine monitoring. Instead, reliable methods for assessing physical levels of contamination will be required to determine whether the reduction targets set—as part of the introduction of clean production—are being met. Formidable difficulties will remain, requiring a precautious approach. Nevertheless, monitoring will no longer carry the burden of attempting to demonstrate that a particular level of environmental contamination is safe, which is currently destroying its scientific credibility.

  6. Functional toxicology: a new approach to detect biologically active xenobiotics.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, J A

    1993-01-01

    The pervasiveness of chemicals in the environment with estrogenic activity and other biological functions recommends the development of new approaches to monitor and study them. Chemicals can be screened for activity in vitro using a panel of human or animal cells that have been transfected with a specific receptor and reporter gene; for example, the estrogen receptor. By using a variety of different receptors, the screening of xenobiotics for biological functions can be broad. Chemicals could then be classified by their function in vitro which, in some cases, may be a useful guide for toxicological studies. Images Figure 1. PMID:8119246

  7. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts.

  8. ``Recycling'' Geophysics: Monitoring and Isotopic Analysis of Engineered Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, R.; Singh, K. P.; Ogle, N.; Ntarlagiannis, D.

    2010-12-01

    The emerging sub discipline of biogeophysics has provoked debate on the mechanisms of microbial processes that may contribute to geophysical signatures. At field scales geophysical signatures are often non unique due to the many parameters (physical, chemical, and biological) that are involved. It may be easier to apply geophysical techniques such as electrodic potential (EP), self potential (SP) and induced polarization (IP) to engineered biological systems where there is a degree of control over the design of the physical and chemical domain. Here we present results of a column experiment that was designed to anaerobically biodegrade dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate. The column utilises a recycled porous media (concrete) to help sequester organic carbon. Electrodic potential, self potential and induced polarisation are used in conjunction with chemical and isotopic techniques to monitor the effectiveness of this approach. Preliminary carbon and oxygen isotopic analysis on concrete from the column in contact with leachate show isotopic enrichment suggesting abiotic precipitation of carbonates.

  9. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: Standard methods for amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heyer, W. Ronald; Donnelly, Maureen A.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Foster, Mercedes S.

    1994-01-01

    Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity is the first book to provide comprehensive coverage of standard methods for biodiversity sampling of amphibians, with information on analyzing and using data that will interest biologists in general.In this manual, nearly fifty herpetologists recommend ten standard sampling procedures for measuring and monitoring amphibian and many other populations. The contributors discuss each procedure, along with the circumstances for its appropriate use. In addition, they provide a detailed protocol for each procedure's implementation, a list of necessary equipment and personnel, and suggestions for analyzing the data.The data obtained using these standard methods are comparable across sites and through time and, as a result, are extremely useful for making decisions about habitat protection, sustained use, and restoration—decisions that are particularly relevant for threatened amphibian populations.

  10. Towards a biological monitoring guidance value for acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Sams, C; Jones, K; Warren, N; Cocker, J; Bell, S; Bull, P; Cain, M

    2015-08-19

    Acrylamide is classified as a potential human carcinogen and neurotoxicant. Biological monitoring is a useful tool for monitoring worker exposure. However, other sources of exposure to acrylamide (including cigarette smoke and diet) also need to be considered. This study has performed repeat measurements of the urinary mercapturic acids of acrylamide (AAMA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GAMA) and determined globin adducts in 20 production-plant workers at a UK acrylamide production facility. The relationship between biomarker levels and environmental monitoring data (air levels and hand washes) was investigated. Good correlations were found between all of the biomarkers (r(2)=0.86-0.91) and moderate correlations were found between the biomarkers and air levels (r(2) = 0.56-0.65). Our data show that urinary AAMA is a reliable biomarker of acrylamide exposure. Occupational hygiene data showed that acrylamide exposure at the company was well within the current UK Workplace Exposure Limit. The 90th percentile of urinary AAMA in non-smoking production-plant workers (537 μmol/mol creatinine (n = 59 samples)) is proposed as a possible biological monitoring guidance value. This 90th percentile increased to 798 μmol/mol if smokers were included (n = 72 samples). These values would be expected following an airborne exposure of less than 0.07 mg/m(3), well below the current UK workplace exposure limit of 0.3mg/m(3). Comparison of biomarker levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals suggests regional variations (between UK and Germany), possibly due to differences in diet. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Biological activity of probiotic microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Novik, G I; Samartsev, A A; Astapovich, N I; Kavrus, M A; Mikhaliuk, A N

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria to nutrient media with increased concentrations of bile (1%) and protein substrates of animal origin allowed the variants resistant to bile and displaying a high production of proteolytic enzymes (active within the pH range of 2.5-9.0) to be selected. Administration of the preparations involving the selected bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria assisted in the normalization of the intestinal microflora and activation of protein metabolism in the organism of animals. Specifically, it increased the total protein level in blood serum and redistributed protein fractions, increasing the content of globulins and decreasing albumin concentration.

  12. Dark-cycle monitoring of biological subjects on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Sherry; Mian, Arshad

    1992-01-01

    The operational environment for biological research on Space Station Freedom will incorporate video technology for monitoring plant and animal subjects. The video coverage must include dark-cycle monitoring because early experiments will use rodents that are nocturnal and therefore most active during the dark part of the daily cycle. Scientific requirements for monitoring during the dark cycle are exacting. Infrared (IR) or near-IR sensors are required. The trade-offs between these two types of sensors are based on engineering constraints, sensitivity spectra, and the quality of imagery possible from each type. This paper presents results of a study conducted by the Biological Flight Research Projects Office in conjunction with the Spacecraft Data Systems Branch at ARC to investigate the use of charged-coupled-device and IR cameras to meet the scientific requirements. Also examined is the effect of low levels of near-IR illumination on the circadian rhythm in rats.

  13. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    PubMed

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  14. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods.

    PubMed

    Creely, K S; Hughson, G W; Cocker, J; Jones, K

    2006-08-01

    Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Monitoring of airborne exposures to total isocyanate is costly, requiring considerable expertise, both in terms of sample collection and chemical analysis and cannot be used to assess the effectiveness of protection from wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Biological monitoring by analysis of metabolites in urine can be a relatively simple and inexpensive way to assess exposure to isocyanates. It may also be a useful way to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures in place. In this study biological and inhalation monitoring were undertaken to assess exposure in a variety of workplaces in the non-motor vehicle repair sector. Companies selected to participate in the survey included only those judged to be using good working practices when using isocyanate formulations. This included companies that used isocyanates to produce moulded polyurethane products, insulation material and those involved in industrial painting. Air samples were collected by personal monitoring and were analysed for total isocyanate content. Urine samples were collected soon after exposure and analysed for the metabolites of different isocyanate species, allowing calculation of the total metabolite concentration. Details of the control measures used and observed contamination of exposed skin were also recorded. A total of 21 companies agreed to participate in the study, with exposure measurements being collected from 22 sites. The airborne isocyanate concentrations were generally very low (range 0.0005-0.066 mg m(-3)). A total of 50 of the 70 samples were <0.001 mg m(-3), the limit of quantification (LOQ), therefore samples below the LOQ were assigned a value of 1/2 LOQ (0.0005 mg m(-3)). Of the 70 samples, 67 were below the current workplace exposure limit of 0.02 mg m(-3). The highest inhalation exposures occurred during spray painting activities in a truck manufacturing

  15. Linking chemical contamination to biological effects in coastal pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Beiras, Ricardo; Durán, Iria; Parra, Santiago; Urrutia, Miren B; Besada, Victoria; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Sánchez-Marín, Paula; González-Quijano, Amelia; Franco, María A; Nieto, Óscar; González, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    To establish the connection between pollutant levels and their harmful effects on living resources, coastal monitoring programmes have incorporated biological tools, such as the scope for growth (SFG) in marine mussels and benthic macrofauna community indices. Although the relation between oxygen-depleting anthropogenic inputs and the alteration of benthic communities is well described, the effects of chemical pollutants are unknown because they are not expected to favour any particular taxa. In this study, the combined efforts of five research teams involved in the investigative monitoring of marine pollution allowed the generation of a multiyear data set for Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula). Multivariate analysis of these data allowed the identification of the chemical-matrix combinations responsible for most of the variability among sites and the construction of a chemical pollution index (CPI) that significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with biological effects at both the individual and the community levels. We report a consistent reduction in the physiological fitness of local populations of mussels as chemical pollution increases. The energy balance was more sensitive to pollution than individual physiological rates, but the reduction in the SFG was primarily due to significantly decreased clearance rates. We also found a decrease in benthic macrofauna diversity as chemical pollution increases. This diversity reduction resulted not from altered evenness, as the classic paradigm might suggest, but from a loss of species richness.

  16. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  17. Elsholtzia: phytochemistry and biological activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Plants of the genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) have a long history of medicinal use in folk. The phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Abundant volatile components are also identified. Pure compounds, volatile constituents and crude extracts from the genus exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities. The aims of this review hopefully provide comprehensive information on the distribution, phytochemistry, volatile components, and pharmacological research of Elsholtzia for exploring the potential and advance researches. PMID:23216850

  18. Multisensor Instrument for Real-Time Biological Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Sean (Zhanxiang); Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie

    2004-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an instrumentation system, called a fiber optic-based integration system (FOBIS), that is undergoing development to enable real-time monitoring of fluid cell cultures, bioprocess flows, and the like. The FOBIS design combines a micro flow cytometer (MFC), a microphotometer (MP), and a fluorescence-spectrum- or binding-force-measuring micro-sensor (MS) in a single instrument that is capable of measuring multiple biological parameters simultaneously or sequentially. The fiber-optic-based integration system is so named because the MFC, the MP, and the MS are integrated into a single optical system that is coupled to light sources and photometric equipment via optical fibers. The optical coupling components also include a wavelength-division multiplexer and diffractive optical elements. The FOBIS includes a laserdiode- and fiber-optic-based optical trapping subsystem (optical tweezers ) with microphotometric and micro-sensing capabilities for noninvasive confinement and optical measurement of relevant parameters of a single cell or other particle. Some of the measurement techniques implemented together by the FOBIS have long been used separately to obtain basic understanding of the optical properties of individual cells and other organisms, the optical properties of populations of organisms, and the interrelationships among these properties, physiology of the organisms, and physical processes that govern the media that surround the organisms. For example, flow cytometry yields information on numerical concentrations, cross-sectional areas, and types of cells or other particles. Micro-sensing can be used to measure pH and concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, metabolites, calcium, and antigens in a cell-culture fluid, thereby providing feedback that can be helpful in improving control over a bioprocess. Microphotometry (including measurements of scattering and fluorescence) can yield further information about optically

  19. Design tradeoffs for trend assessment in aquatic biological monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurtz, Martin E.; Van Sickle, John; Carlisle, Daren M.; Paulsen, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Assessments of long-term (multiyear) temporal trends in biological monitoring programs are generally undertaken without an adequate understanding of the temporal variability of biological communities. When the sources and levels of variability are unknown, managers cannot make informed choices in sampling design to achieve monitoring goals in a cost-effective manner. We evaluated different trend sampling designs by estimating components of both short- and long-term variability in biological indicators of water quality in streams. Invertebrate samples were collected from 32 sites—9 urban, 6 agricultural, and 17 relatively undisturbed (reference) streams—distributed throughout the United States. Between 5 and 12 yearly samples were collected at each site during the period 1993–2008, plus 2 samples within a 10-week index period during either 2007 or 2008. These data allowed calculation of four sources of variance for invertebrate indicators: among sites, among years within sites, interaction among sites and years (site-specific annual variation), and among samples collected within an index period at a site (residual). When estimates of these variance components are known, changes to sampling design can be made to improve trend detection. Design modifications that result in the ability to detect the smallest trend with the fewest samples are, from most to least effective: (1) increasing the number of years in the sampling period (duration of the monitoring program), (2) decreasing the interval between samples, and (3) increasing the number of repeat-visit samples per year (within an index period). This order of improvement in trend detection, which achieves the greatest gain for the fewest samples, is the same whether trends are assessed at an individual site or an average trend of multiple sites. In multiple-site surveys, increasing the number of sites has an effect similar to that of decreasing the sampling interval; the benefit of adding sites is greater when

  20. Biological monitoring of IFN-β therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, A; Granieri, L; Marnetto, F; Valentino, P; Sala, A; Capobianco, M; Malucchi, S; Di Sapio, A; Malentacchi, M; Matta, M; Caldano, M

    2015-04-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease and a variable percentage of patients are non-responders to common treatment. Early diagnosis of non-responders allows change to a more useful therapy for the patient and better allocates a large amount of financial resources. Quantification of Neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) and of biological activity of IFN-β are recognized approaches to identify immuno-pharmacological non-responders. A consistent number of studies have demonstrated that quantification of Myxovirus-induced protein A (MxA) is a valid biomarker to detect immune-pharmacological non responders after one year of treatment. Persistent high titre of Nabs and absence of biological activity predict abolition of IFN-β effects in disease activity measured through MRI, number of relapses and disability. Guidelines and flow-charts including both Nabs and MxA quantification are presented.

  1. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  2. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: Standard methods for mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Don E.; Cole, F. Russell; Nichols, James D.; Rudran, Rasanayagam; Foster, Mercedes S.

    1996-01-01

    Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Mammals provides a comprehensive manual for designing and implementing inventories of mammalian biodiversity anywhere in the world and for any group, from rodents to open-country grazers. The book emphasizes formal estimation approaches, which supply data that can be compared across habitats and over time. Beginning with brief natural histories of the twenty-six orders of living mammals, the book details the field techniques—observation, capture, and sign interpretation—appropriate to different species. The contributors provide guidelines for study design, discuss survey planning, describe statistical techniques, and outline methods of translating field data into electronic formats. Extensive appendixes address such issues as the ethical treatment of animals in research, human health concerns, preserving voucher specimens, and assessing age, sex, and reproductive condition in mammals.Useful in both developed and developing countries, this volume and the Biological Diversity Handbook Series as a whole establish essential standards for a key aspect of conservation biology and resource management.

  3. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  4. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Biological activity of acetylated phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Apostolakis, Constantinos; Pliakis, Emmanuel; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2007-01-10

    In recent years an effort has been made to isolate and identify biologically active compounds that are included in the Mediterranean diet. The existence of naturally occurring acetylated phenolics, as well as studies with synthetic ones, provide evidence that acetyl groups could be correlated with their biological activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is implicated in atherosclerosis, whereas its inhibitors seem to play a protective role against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the biological activity of resveratrol and tyrosol and their acetylated derivatives as inhibitors of PAF-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Acetylation of resveratrol and tyrosol was performed, and separation was achieved by HPLC. Acetylated derivatives were identified by negative mass spectrometry. The data showed that tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivatives act as PAF inhibitors, whereas diacetylated derivatives induce platelet aggregation. Resveratrol and its mono- and triacetylated derivatives exert similar inhibitory activity, whereas the diacetylated ones are more potent inhibitors. In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one.

  6. [Biologically active metabolites of the marine actinobacteria].

    PubMed

    Sobolevskaia, M P; Kuznetsova, T A

    2010-01-01

    This review systematically data on the chemical structure and biological activity of metabolites of obligate and facultative marine actinobacteria, published from 2000 to 2007. We discuss some structural features of the five groups of metabolites related to macrolides and compounds containing lactone, quinone and diketopiperazine residues, cyclic peptides, alkaloids, and compounds of mixed biosynthesis. Survey shows a large chemical diversity of metabolites actinobacteria isolated from marine environment. It is shown that, along with metabolites, identical to previously isolated from terrestrial actinobacteria, marine actinobacteria synthesize unknown compounds not found in other natural sources, including micro organisms. Perhaps the biosynthesis of new chemotypes bioactive compounds in marine actinobacteria is one manifestation of chemical adaptation of microorganisms to environmental conditions at sea. Review stresses the importance of the chemical study of metabolites of marine actinobacteria. These studies are aimed at obtaining new data on marine microorganisms producers of biologically active compounds and chemical structure and biological activity of new low-molecular bioregulators of natural origin.

  7. Yucca Mountain Biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY89 and FY90

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. To ensure site characterization activities do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program, the Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program, has been implemented monitor and mitigate environmental impacts and to ensure activities comply with applicable environmental laws. Potential impacts to vegetation, small mammals, and the desert tortoise (an indigenous threatened species) are addressed, as are habitat reclamation, radiological monitoring, and compilation of baseline data. This report describes the program in Fiscal Years 1989 and 1990. 12 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs. (MHB)

  8. Monitoring by Control Technique - Activated Carbon Adsorber

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about Activated Carbon Adsorber control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  9. Non-linear dielectric monitoring of biological suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treo, E. F.; Felice, C. J.

    2007-11-01

    Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy as a tool for in situ monitoring of enzyme assumes a non-linear behavior of the sample when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to it. Even many attempts have been made to improve the original experiments, all of them had limited success. In this paper we present upgrades made to a non-linear dielectric spectrometer developed and the results obtained when using different cells. We emphasized on the electrode surface, characterizing the grinding and polishing procedure. We found that the biological medium does not behave as expected, and the non-linear response is generated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The electrochemistry of this interface can bias unpredictably the measured non-linear response.

  10. Perylenequinones: Isolation, Synthesis, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooey, Carol A.; O'Brien, Erin M.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    The perylenequinones are a novel class of natural products characterized by pentacyclic conjugated chromophore giving rise to photoactivity. Potentially useful light-activated biological activity, targeting protein kinase C (PKC), has been identified for several of the natural products. Recently discovered new members of this class of compound, as well as several related phenanthroperylenequinones, are reviewed. Natural product modifications that improve biological profiles, and avenues for the total synthesis of analogs, which are not available from the natural product series, are outlined. An overview of structure/function relationships is provided. PMID:24039544

  11. Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1998-10-15

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6

  12. The plasminogen activator system: biology and regulation.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, J P; Muñoz-Cánoves, P; Montero, L; Koziczak, M; Nagamine, Y

    1999-10-01

    The regulation of plasminogen activation involves genes for two plasminogen activators (tissue type and urokinase type), two specific inhibitors (type 1 and type 2), and a membrane-anchored urokinase-type plasminogen-activator-specific receptor. This system plays an important role in various biological processes involving extracellular proteolysis. Recent studies have revealed that the system, through interplay with integrins and the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, is also involved in the regulation of cell migration and proliferation in a manner independent of proteolytic activity. The genes are expressed in many different cell types and their expression is under the control of diverse extracellular signals. Gene expression reflects the levels of the corresponding mRNA, which should be the net result of synthesis and degradation. Thus, modulation of mRNA stability is an important factor in overall regulation. This review summarizes current understanding of the biology and regulation of genes involved in plasminogen activation at different levels.

  13. Assessing physical activity using wearable monitors: measures of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Ekelund, Ulf; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity may be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The quantitative assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors is grounded in the measurement of energy expenditure. Six main categories of wearable monitors are currently available to investigators: pedometers, load transducers/foot-contact monitors, accelerometers, HR monitors, combined accelerometer and HR monitors, and multiple sensor systems. Currently available monitors are capable of measuring total physical activity as well as components of physical activity that play important roles in human health. The selection of wearable monitors for measuring physical activity will depend on the physical activity component of interest, study objectives, characteristics of the target population, and study feasibility in terms of cost and logistics. Future development of sensors and analytical techniques for assessing physical activity should focus on the dynamic ranges of sensors, comparability for sensor output across manufacturers, and the application of advanced modeling techniques to predict energy expenditure and classify physical activities. New approaches for qualitatively classifying physical activity should be validated using direct observation or recording. New sensors and methods for quantitatively assessing physical activity should be validated in laboratory and free-living populations using criterion methods of calorimetry or doubly labeled water.

  14. Innovative biological approaches for monitoring and improving water quality

    PubMed Central

    Aracic, Sanja; Manna, Sam; Petrovski, Steve; Wiltshire, Jennifer L.; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is largely influenced by the abundance and diversity of indigenous microbes present within an aquatic environment. Physical, chemical and biological contaminants from anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic systems causing detrimental ecological consequences. Approaches exploiting microbial processes are now being utilized for the detection, and removal or reduction of contaminants. Contaminants can be identified and quantified in situ using microbial whole-cell biosensors, negating the need for water samples to be tested off-site. Similarly, the innate biodegradative processes can be enhanced through manipulation of the composition and/or function of the indigenous microbial communities present within the contaminated environments. Biological contaminants, such as detrimental/pathogenic bacteria, can be specifically targeted and reduced in number using bacteriophages. This mini-review discusses the potential application of whole-cell microbial biosensors for the detection of contaminants, the exploitation of microbial biodegradative processes for environmental restoration and the manipulation of microbial communities using phages. PMID:26322034

  15. Enhanced Gaussia luciferase blood assay for monitoring of in vivo biological processes.

    PubMed

    Bovenberg, M Sarah S; Degeling, M Hannah; Tannous, Bakhos A

    2012-01-17

    Secreted Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) has been shown to be a useful tool for ex vivo monitoring of in vivo biological processes. The Gluc level in the blood was used to detect tumor growth, metastasis and response to therapy, gene transfer, and circulating cells viability, as well as transcription factors activation, complementing in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The sensitivity of the Gluc blood assay is limited due to the absorption of blue light by pigmented molecules such as hemoglobin, resulting in quenching of the signal and therefore lower sensitivity. To overcome this problem, we designed an alternative microtiter well-based binding assay in which Gluc is captured first from blood using a specific antibody followed by the addition of coelenterazine and signal acquisition using a luminometer. This assay showed to be over 1 order of magnitude more sensitive in detecting Gluc in the blood as compared to the direct Gluc blood assay enhancing ex vivo monitoring of biological processes.

  16. The biological activity of silicon carbide whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    Size characteristics of SiC whiskers are similar to asbestos and contain potentially carcinogenic long thin fibers. Size distribution suggests that it is highly respirable, with majority of particles having diameters <3.0 [mu]m. Cytotoxic activity of SiC whiskers in cultured cells is [ge] than that of crocidolite asbestos. Inhalation exposures are needed to further delineate the biological activity; while SiC whiskers were as or more cytotoxic than crocidolite, JM Code 100 also displays such activity but results in no increased risk of lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis or mesothelioma. PRD-166, a coarse continuous glass filament, displays little in vitro biological activity. It is recommended that SiC whiskers be treated as asbestos, and to continue investigating the potential health effects of SiC whiskers, in particular conducting animal experiments with acute and chronic inhalation exposures. 17 refs., 11 tabs., 18 figs.

  17. [Biologically Active Peptides of King Crab Hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Substances of a peptide nature isolated from the hepatopancreas of the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus exhibited physicochemical properties and membranotropic and specific activities similar to those of membranotropic homeostatic tissue-specific bioregulators previously found in different mammalian and plant tissues. Their biological effect on vertebrate tissues was demonstrated on a model of roller organotypic cultivation of Pleurodeles waltl newt liver tissue.

  18. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs in hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Laura; Barbieri, Anna; Lodi, V; Violante, F S

    2012-01-01

    In view of the evidence of cytotoxicity of chemotherapic antineoplastic drugs (AD), current guidelines recommend the evaluation of the health risks of hospital personnel exposed to these compounds. Biological monitoring is the main tool to evaluate all possible drug intake and measure workers' real risk. The aim of this study was to assess occupational exposure toAD in a large hospital in Northern Italy in order to verify the effectiveness of the structural and procedural improvements carried out over the last decade. Three biological monitoring campaigns were performed using LC-MS/MS analysis of cyclophosphamide (CP) and metotrexate (MTX) as biomarkers of internal dose in the urine of hospital workers. In the first two campaigns, 50 and 81 workers respectively were monitored during AD preparation operations. The last campaign, concerning AD administration activity, was performed after a centralized preparation unit had been set up. Two environmental monitoring campaigns were carried out as well, to complete AD exposure assessment. During the first monitoring campaign we found positive urinary samples in all the wards studied (total positivity 36%), whereas in the second campaign 11% of the samples were positive and four departments showed negative results in all urine samples. The last campaign showed all urinary CP and MTX levels below the detection limit of the analytical method Exposure of oncology ward nurses considerably decreased due to the centralization of AD preparation operations together with training and education of workers. The last biological monitoring results were reassuring; nevertheless, surface contamination still occurred and safety measures should be further improved in order to achieve the lowest reasonably possible contamination levels.

  19. Biological monitoring and Biological Limit Values (BLV): the strategy of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M; Thier, Ricarda

    2006-04-10

    Occupational standards concerning allowable concentrations of chemical compounds in the ambient air of workplaces have been established in several countries worldwide. With the integration of the European Union (EU), there has been a need of establishing harmonised Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL). The European Commission Directive 95/320/EC of 12 July 1995 has given the tasks to a Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) to propose, based on scientific data and where appropriate, occupational limit values which may include the 8-h time-weighted average (TWA), short-term limits/excursion limits (STEL) and Biological Limit Values (BLVs). In 2000, the European Union issued a list of 62 chemical substances with Occupational Exposure Limits. Of these, 25 substances received a "skin" notation, indicating that toxicologically significant amounts may be taken up via the skin. For such substances, monitoring of concentrations in ambient air may not be sufficient, and biological monitoring strategies appear of potential importance in the medical surveillance of exposed workers. Recent progress has been made with respect to formulation of a strategy related to health-based BLVs.

  20. Assessment of temporal variance components and implications for trend assessment in biological monitoring programs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of temporal trends in biological monitoring programs is often undertaken without an understanding of temporal variability of biological communities. Typically, the within-site variance is unknown and included as part of sampling error. This investigation – designed jo...

  1. Assessment of temporal variance components and implications for trend assessment in biological monitoring programs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of temporal trends in biological monitoring programs is often undertaken without an understanding of temporal variability of biological communities. Typically, the within-site variance is unknown and included as part of sampling error. This investigation – designed jo...

  2. The future role of next-generation DNA sequencing and metagenetics in aquatic biology monitoring programs

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of current biological monitoring and bioassessment programs was a drastic improvement over previous programs created for monitoring a limited number of specific chemical pollutants. Although these assessment programs are better designed to address the transient an...

  3. The future role of next-generation DNA sequencing and metagenetics in aquatic biology monitoring programs

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of current biological monitoring and bioassessment programs was a drastic improvement over previous programs created for monitoring a limited number of specific chemical pollutants. Although these assessment programs are better designed to address the transient an...

  4. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  5. Functional activity monitoring from wearable sensor data.

    PubMed

    Nawab, S Hamid; Roy, Serge H; De Luca, Carlo J

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented for the interpretation and use of EMG and accelerometer data to monitor, identify, and categorize functional motor activities in individuals whose movements are unscripted, unrestrained, and take place in the "real world". Our proposed solution provides a novel and practical way of conceptualizing physical activities that facilitates the deployment of modern signal processing and interpretation techniques to carry out activity monitoring. A hierarchical approach is adopted that is based upon: 1) blackboard and rule-based technology from artificial intelligence to support a process in which coarse-grained activity partitioning forms the context for finer-grained activity partitioning; 2) neural network technology to support initial activity classification; and 3) integrated processing and understanding of signals (IPUS) technology for revising the initial classifications to account for the high degrees of anticipated signal variability and overlap during freeform activity.

  6. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: Absolute configuration and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Plants belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family are well known for their ornamental and medicinal use. Plant members of this group are distributed through both tropical and subtropical regions of the world and are dominant in Andean South America, the Mediterranean basin, and southern Africa. Amaryllidaceae plants have been demonstrated to be a good source of alkaloids with a large spectrum of biological activities, the latter being strictly related to the absolute stereochemistry of the alkaloid scaffold. Among them, great importance for practical applications in medicine has galanthamine, which has already spawned an Alzheimer's prescription drug as a potent and selective inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Furthermore, lycorine as well as its related isocarbostyryl analogs narciclasine and pancratistatine have shown a strong anticancer activity in vitro against different solid tumors with malignant prognosis. This review addresses the assignment of the absolute configuration of several Amaryllidaceae alkaloids and its relationship with their biological activities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2013-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

  8. Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

    As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

  9. Biological monitoring of cobalt in hard metal factory workers.

    PubMed

    Princivalle, Andrea; Iavicoli, Ivo; Cerpelloni, Marzia; Franceschi, Antonia; Manno, Maurizio; Perbellini, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the cobalt (Co) concentrations in urine along 4 months and their relationship with Co concentrations in blood and haemoglobin (adducts) in 34 workers from a hard metal manufacturing plant where metallic Co and Co oxide were used. Furthermore, the excretion kinetics of Co was investigated and the half-lives of Co in blood, plasma and urine were calculated along 18 days of non-exposure in the same workers. Co was analysed, in all biological samples, by ICP/MS. Wide fluctuations in the urinary Co concentration were observed throughout the work shift and during the work week. A highly significant linear correlation was found between Co concentration (geometrical mean) in urine samples provided each Thursday (end shift) during 16 subsequent weeks and levels of Co-haemoglobin adducts or blood Co concentrations at the end of the same period. The Co elimination kinetics in globin calculated along 18 days without Co exposure was slow, being related to the physiological metabolism of haemoglobin, while in blood, plasma and urine Co half-lives were 12.3, 9.1 and 5.3 days, respectively. Co concentrations in haemoglobin or blood are highly related to the geometrical mean concentration of urinary Co when samples are collected weekly for several subsequent weeks. The biological monitoring of occupational exposure to Co in hard metal facilities provides reliable results by using the Co concentrations in haemoglobin or in whole blood. The urinary findings, though, do not show the same reliability because of their wide daily and weekly fluctuations.

  10. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  11. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  12. Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity.

    PubMed

    Miksicek, R J

    1995-01-01

    A systematic survey of polycyclic phenols has been performed to identify members of this chemical group with estrogenic activity. Twelve compounds were found to be able to stimulate the transcriptional activity of the human estrogen receptor expressed in cultured cells by transient transfection. These natural estrogens belong to several distinct, but chemically related classes including chalcones, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones. Selected examples of estrogenic flavonoids were further analyzed to determine their biological potencies and their relative affinities for binding to the estrogen receptor. These data are interpreted with respect to the molecular structure of polycyclic phenols required for hormonal activity as nonsteroidal estrogens.

  13. Environmental and biological monitoring of workers exposed to inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    De Medinilla, J; Espigares, M

    1991-01-01

    A total of 20 workers who were exposed to inorganic lead in two local firms (M and N) were studied. Lead concentrations in the air (PbA) at firm M exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.150 mg/m3 established by Spanish and EC legislation, while atmospheric lead at firm N exceeded the action level of 0.075 mg/m3. In the same population, biological exposure indices (BEI) were also determined; these included lead in whole blood (PbB), erythrocyte activity of aminolevulinic acid (ALA-D), urinary excretion of aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). The relationship between the exposure parameters (PbA, PbB) and the biological activity indices (ALA-D, ALA-U, ZPP) were analysed statistically in order to obtain levels of significance, coefficients of correlation and regression equations. The high coefficients of correlation found confirm the usefulness of BEI in evaluating exposure to lead fumes and lead dust.

  14. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  15. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  16. Biological activities of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Schröder, G; Kreisel, H; Lindequist, U

    2013-03-01

    In a previous paper we demonstrated the results of biological screening of Yemeni basidiomycetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and the antioxidant activity of further basidiomycetes collected in Yemen. Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of 25 species were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), against six human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor sp., Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and against one non human pathogenic fungus (Candida maltosa). The results indicated that 75 extracts exhibited activity against one or more of the bacteria. The methanol extracts of Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Coriolopsis polyzona, Ganoderma xylonoides, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata showed activity against all tested bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Trametes cingulata and Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Coriolopsis polyzona, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes lactinea. The methanol extracts of Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Pycnoporus sanguineus showed considerable antifungal activities against the tested fungal strains. Strong antioxidative effects employing the DPPH assay were exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides, Hexagonia velutina, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata. Our previous and presented studies about 48 basidiomycetes collected in Yemen provide evidence that basidiomycetes from the Arabic region so far should attract more attention as potential source for new biologically active

  17. Monitoring of biological markers indicative of doping: the athlete biological passport.

    PubMed

    Saugy, Martial; Lundby, Carsten; Robinson, Neil

    2014-05-01

    The athlete biological passport (ABP) was recently implemented in anti-doping work and is based on the individual and longitudinal monitoring of haematological or urine markers. These may be influenced by illicit procedures performed by some athletes with the intent to improve exercise performance. Hence the ABP is a valuable tool in the fight against doping. Actually, the passport has been defined as an individual and longitudinal observation of markers. These markers need to belong to the biological cascade influenced by the application of forbidden hormones or more generally, affected by biological manipulations which can improve the performance of the athlete. So far, the haematological and steroid profile modules of the ABP have been implemented in major sport organisations, and a further module is under development. The individual and longitudinal monitoring of some blood and urine markers are of interest, because the intraindividual variability is lower than the corresponding interindividual variability. Among the key prerequisites for the implementation of the ABP is its prospect to resist to the legal and scientific challenges. The ABP should be implemented in the most transparent way and with the necessary independence between planning, interpretation and result management of the passport. To ensure this, the Athlete Passport Management Unit (APMU) was developed and the WADA implemented different technical documents associated to the passport. This was carried out to ensure the correct implementation of a profile which can also stand the challenge of any scientific or legal criticism. This goal can be reached only by following strictly important steps in the chain of production of the results and in the management of the interpretation of the passport. Various technical documents have been then associated to the guidelines which correspond to the requirements for passport operation. The ABP has been completed very recently by the steroid profile module

  18. Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Sherson, D; Sabro, P; Sigsgaard, T; Johansen, F; Autrup, H

    1990-01-01

    This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0 BP equivalents/100 micrograms protein (21.0] and smoking (28.0 (18.2] foundry workers were significantly higher than mean values for non-smoking (7.23 (8.72] and smoking (14.2 (24.4] controls. Foundry workers with high exposures to either quartz (28.4 (15.5] or BP (30.7 (19.3] had slightly raised mean adduct concentrations compared with foundry workers with low exposure for quartz (23.9 (23.1] or BP (24.5 (19.4). Highest mean adduct concentrations were found among a small group of workers with simultaneous high exposures to both quartz and BP (39.2 (6.5] suggesting an additive effect. These data support the ideas of a possible aetiological connection between an increased risk of lung cancer and BP exposure among foundry workers, and an additive effect between BP and quartz. Measurement of BP serum protein adduct concentrations appears to be a useful method by which groups exposed to BP may be biologically monitored. PMID:2383513

  19. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  20. Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi.

    PubMed

    Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2004-02-01

    This review describes biologically active natural products isolated from Aphyllophorales, many of which are known as polypores. Polypores are a large group of terrestrial fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota (basidiomycetes), and they along with certain Ascomycota are a major source of pharmacologically active substances. There are about 25 000 species of basidiomycetes, of which about 500 are members of the Aphyllophorales, a polyphyletic group that contains the polypores. Many of these fungi have circumboreal distributions in North America, Europe, and Asia and broad distributions on all inhabited continents and Africa; only a small number of the most common species with the most obvious fruiting bodies (basidiocarps) have been evaluated for biological activity. An estimated 75% of polypore fungi that have been tested show strong antimicrobial activity, and these may constitute a good source for developing new antibiotics. Numerous compounds from these fungi also display antiviral, cytotoxic, and/or antineoplastic activities. Additional important components of this vast arsenal of compounds are polysaccharides derived from the fungal cell walls. These compounds have attracted significant attention in recent years because of their immunomodulatory activities, resulting in antitumor effects. These high molecular weight compounds, often called biological response modifiers (BRM), or immunopotentiators, prevent carcinogenesis, show direct anticancer effects, and prevent tumor metastasis. Some of the protein-bound polysaccharides from polypores and other basidiomycetes have found their way to the market in Japan as anticancer drugs. Finally, numerous compounds with cardiovascular, phytotoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities, isolated from polypores, are also presented. In fact many of the fungi mentioned in this paper have long been used in herbal medicine, including polypores such as Ganoderma lucidum

  1. Perspectives on Biologically Active Camptothecin Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying-Qian; Li, Wen-Qun; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Qian, Keduo; Yang, Liu; Zhu, Gao-Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Chen, An-Liang; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Song, Zi-Long; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecins (CPTs) are cytotoxic natural alkaloids that specifically target DNA topoisomerase I. Research on CPTs has undergone a significant evolution from the initial discovery of CPT in the late 1960s through the study of synthetic small molecule derivatives to investigation of macromolecular constructs and formulations. Over the past years, intensive medicinal chemistry efforts have generated numerous CPT derivatives. Three derivatives, topotecan, irinotecan, and belotecan, are currently prescribed as anticancer drugs, and several related compounds are now in clinical trials. Interest in other biological effects, besides anticancer activity, of CPTs is also growing exponentially, as indicated by the large number of publications on the subject during the last decades. Therefore, the main focus of the present review is to provide an ample but condensed overview on various biological activities of CPT derivatives, in addition to continued up-to-date coverage of anticancer effects. PMID:25808858

  2. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1990-10-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites active on or after September 1988 and all transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites be monitored periodically to assure that radioactive contamination does not escape from the waste sites and pose a threat to the public or to the environment. This plan describes such a monitoring program for the active LLW disposal sites in SWSA 6 and the TRU waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  4. Generation and Biological Activities of Oxidized Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Oskolkova, Olga V.; Birukov, Konstantin G.; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Binder, Christoph J.; Stöckl, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Glycerophospholipids represent a common class of lipids critically important for integrity of cellular membranes. Oxidation of esterified unsaturated fatty acids dramatically changes biological activities of phospholipids. Apart from impairment of their structural function, oxidation makes oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) markers of “modified-self” type that are recognized by soluble and cell-associated receptors of innate immunity, including scavenger receptors, natural (germ line-encoded) antibodies, and C-reactive protein, thus directing removal of senescent and apoptotic cells or oxidized lipoproteins. In addition, OxPLs acquire novel biological activities not characteristic of their unoxidized precursors, including the ability to regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Effects of OxPLs described in vitro and in vivo suggest their potential relevance in different pathologies, including atherosclerosis, acute inflammation, lung injury, and many other conditions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of formation, structures, and biological activities of OxPLs. Furthermore, potential applications of OxPLs as disease biomarkers, as well as experimental therapies targeting OxPLs, are described, providing a broad overview of an emerging class of lipid mediators. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1009–1059. PMID:19686040

  5. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kang, Seong-Gil; Park, Young-Gyu

    2016-02-15

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO{sub 2} levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO{sub 2} gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO{sub 2} leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO{sub 2} leakage (ocean acidification

  6. Biological monitoring of toxic metals - steel workers respiratory health survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Almeida, A. Bugalho de; Alves, L.; Freitas, M. C.; Moniz, D.; Alvarez, E.; Monteiro, P.; Reis, M.

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this work is to search for respiratory system aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. Workers from one sector of a steel plant in Portugal, Siderurgia Nacional (SN), were selected according to the number of years of exposure and labouring characteristics. The work reports on blood elemental content alterations and lung function tests to determine an eventual bronchial hyper-reactivity. Aerosol samples collected permit an estimate of indoor air quality and airborne particulate matter characterisation to further check whether the elemental associations and alterations found in blood may derive from exposure. Blood and aerosol elemental composition was determined by PIXE and INAA. Respiratory affections were verified for 24% of the workers monitored. There are indications that the occurrence of affections can be associated with the total working years. The influence of long-term exposure, health status parameters, and lifestyle factors in blood elemental variations found was investigated.

  7. Biologic Activity of Porphyromonas endodontalis complex lipids

    PubMed Central

    Mirucki, Christopher S.; Abedi, Mehran; Jiang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Safavi, Kamran E.; Clark, Robert B.; Nichols, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Periapical infections secondary to pulpal necrosis are associated with bacterial contamination of the pulp. Porphyromonas endodontalis, a Gram-negative organism, is considered to be a pulpal pathogen. P. gingivalis is phylogenetically related to P. endodontalis and synthesizes several classes of novel complex lipids that possess biological activity, including the capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. The purpose of this study was to extract and characterize constituent lipids of P. endodontalis, and evaluate their capacity to promote pro-inflammatory secretory responses in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, as well as their capacity to promote osteoclastogenesis and inhibit osteoblast activity. Methods Constituent lipids of both organisms were fractionated by HPLC and were structurally characterized using electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or ESI-MS/MS. The virulence potential of P. endodontalis lipids was then compared with known biologically active lipids isolated from P. gingivalis. Results P. endodontalis total lipids were shown to promote TNF-α secretion from RAW 264.7 cells and the serine lipid fraction appeared to account for the majority of this effect. P. endodontalis lipid preparations also increased osteoclast formation from RAW 264.7 cells but osteoblast differentiation in culture was inhibited and appeared to be dependent on TLR2 expression. Conclusions These effects underscore the importance of P. endodontalis lipids in promoting inflammatory and bone cell activation processes that could lead to periapical pathology. PMID:25146013

  8. Randomized controlled trial of a nurse-led rheumatology clinic for monitoring biological therapy.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ingrid; Fridlund, Bengt; Arvidsson, Barbro; Teleman, Annika; Bergman, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    To compare and evaluate the treatment outcomes of a nurse-led rheumatology clinic and a rheumatologist-led clinic in patients with low disease activity or in remission who are undergoing biological therapy. Patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis treated with biological therapy are usually monitored by rheumatologists. Nurse-led rheumatology clinics have been proposed in patients with low disease activity or in remission. Randomized controlled trial. A 12-month follow-up trial was conducted between October 2009 and August 2011, where 107 patients were randomized into two groups with a 6-month follow-up to a nurse-led rheumatology clinic based on person-centred care (intervention group; n = 53) or to a rheumatologist-led clinic (control group; n = 54). The hypothesis was that the nurse-led clinic outcomes would not be inferior to those obtained from a rheumatologist-led clinic at the 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was disease activity measured by Disease Activity Score 28. A total of 47 patients in the intervention group and 50 in the control group completed the 12-month trial. The trial revealed no statistically significant differences between groups in mean change of Disease Activity Score 28, Visual Analogue Scales for pain, the Health Assessment Questionnaire, satisfaction with or confidence in obtaining rheumatology care. Patients with stable chronic inflammatory arthritis undergoing biological therapy could be monitored by a nurse-led rheumatology clinic without difference in outcome as measured by the Disease Activity Score 28. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  10. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  11. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  12. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  13. 34 CFR 300.120 - Monitoring activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Monitoring activities. 300.120 Section 300.120 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  14. Nonclassical biological activities of quinolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abeer; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Quinolones are considered as a big family of multi-faceted drugs; their chemical synthesis is flexible and can be easily adapted to prepare new congeners with rationally devised structures. This is shown by the description of many thousands of derivatives in the literature. Scientists could accurately describe their QSAR, which is essential for effective drug design. This also gave them the chance to discover new and unprecedented activities, which makes quinolones an endless source of hope and enables further development of new clinically useful drugs. Quinolones are among the most common frameworks present in the bioactive molecules that have dominated the market for more than four decades. Since 1962, 4(1H)-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives are widely used as antibacterial agents. Quinolones have a broad and potent spectrum of activity and are also used as second-line drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB). Recently, quinolones have been reported to display "nonclassical" biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-HIV-1 integrase, anti-HCV-NS3 helicase and -NS5B-polymerase activities. The present review focuses on the structural modifications responsible for the transformation of an antibacterial into an anticancer agent and/or an antiviral agent. Indeed, quinolones' antimicrobial action is distinguishable among antibacterial agents, because they target different type II topoisomerase enzymes. Many derivatives of this family show high activity against bacterial topoisomerases and eukaryotic topoisomerases, and are also toxic to cultured mammalian cells and in vivo tumor models. Moreover, quinolones have shown antiviral activity against HIV and HCV viruses. In this context the quinolones family of drugs seem to link three different biological activities (antibacterial, anticancer, and the antiviral profiles) and the review will also provide an insight into the different mechanisms responsible for these activities among different species.

  15. Biological monitoring of exposure to tebuconazole in winegrowers.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Rubino, Federico Maria; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Vianello, Giorgio; Colosio, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Tebuconazole (TEB) is a fungicide widely used in vineyards and is a suspected teratogen for humans. The aim of this research was to identify urinary biomarkers and the best sampling time for the biological monitoring of exposure to TEB in agricultural workers. Seven vineyard workers of the Monferrato region, Piedemont, Italy, were investigated for a total of 12 workdays. They treated the vineyards with TEB for 1-2 consecutive days, one of them for 3 days. During each application coveralls, underwears, hand washing liquids and head coverings were used to estimate dermal exposure. For biomonitoring, spot samples of urine from each individual were collected starting from 24 h before the first application, continuing during the application, and again after the application for about 48 h. TEB and its metabolites TEB-OH and TEB-COOH were measured by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. TEB contamination of coveralls and total dermal exposure showed median levels of 6180 and 1020 μg. Urinary TEB-OH was the most abundant metabolite; its excretion rate peaked within 24 h after product application (post 24 h). In this time frame, median levels of TEB-OH and TEB-COOH ranged from 8.0 to 387.8 μg/l and from 5.7 to 102.9 μg/l, respectively, with a ratio between the two metabolites of about 3.5. The total amount of urinary metabolites (U-TEBeq) post 24 h was significantly correlated with both TEB on coveralls and total dermal exposure (Pearson's r=0.756 and 0.577). The amount of metabolites excreted in urine represented about 17% of total dermal TEB exposure. Our results suggest that TEB-OH and TEB-COOH in post-exposure urine samples are promising candidates for biomonitoring TEB exposure in agricultural workers.

  16. Integrated assessment of oil pollution using biological monitoring and chemical fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Guitart, Carlos; Pook, Chris; Scarlett, Alan; Readman, James W; Galloway, Tamara S

    2010-06-01

    A full assessment of the impact of oil and chemical spills at sea requires the identification of both the polluting chemicals and the biological effects they cause. Here, a combination of chemical fingerprinting of surface oils, tissue residue analysis, and biological effects measures was used to explore the relationship between spilled oil and biological impact following the grounding of the MSC Napoli container ship in Lyme Bay, England in January 2007. Initially, oil contamination remained restricted to a surface slick in the vicinity of the wreck, and there was no chemical evidence to link biological impairment of animals (the common limpet, Patella vulgata) on the shore adjacent to the oil spill. Secondary oil contamination associated with salvage activities in July 2007 was also assessed. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons and terpanes in shell swabs taken from limpet shells provided an unequivocal match with the fuel oil carried by the ship. Corresponding chemical analysis of limpet tissues revealed increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dominated by phenanthrene and C1 to C3 phenanthrenes with smaller contributions from heavier molecular weight PAHs. Concurrent ecotoxicological tests indicated impairment of cellular viability (p < 0.001), reduced immune function (p < 0.001), and damage to DNA (Comet assay, p < 0.001) in these animals, whereas antioxidant defenses were elevated relative to un-oiled animals. These results illustrate the value of combining biological monitoring with chemical fingerprinting for the rapid identification of spilled oils and their sublethal impacts on biota in situ.

  17. A smart health monitoring chair for nonintrusive measurement of biological signals.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Chung, Gih Sung; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-01-01

    We developed nonintrusive methods for simultaneous electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram measurements that do not require direct contact between instruments and bare skin. These methods were applied to the design of a diagnostic chair for unconstrained heart rate and blood pressure monitoring purposes. Our methods were operationalized through capacitively coupled electrodes installed in the chair back that include high-input impedance amplifiers, and conductive textiles installed in the seat for capacitive driven-right-leg circuit configuration that is capable of recording electrocardiogram information through clothing. Photoplethysmograms were measured through clothing using seat mounted sensors with specially designed amplifier circuits that vary in light intensity according to clothing type. Ballistocardiograms were recorded using a film type transducer material, polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), which was installed beneath the seat cover. By simultaneously measuring signals, beat-to-beat heart rates could be monitored even when electrocardiograms were not recorded due to movement artifacts. Beat-to-beat blood pressure was also monitored using unconstrained measurements of pulse arrival time and other physiological parameters, and our experimental results indicated that the estimated blood pressure tended to coincide with actual blood pressure measurements. This study demonstrates the feasibility of our method and device for biological signal monitoring through clothing for unconstrained long-term daily health monitoring that does not require user awareness and is not limited by physical activity.

  18. Monitoring Malware Activity on the LAN Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzewski, Mirosław

    Many security related organizations periodically publish current network and systems security information, with the lists of top malware programs. These lists raises the question how these threats spreads out, if the worms (the only threat with own communication abilities) are low or missing on these lists. The paper discuss the research on malware network activity, aimed to deliver the answer to the question, what is the main infection channel of modern malware, done with the usage of virtual honeypot systems on dedicated, unprotected network. Systems setup, network and systems monitoring solutions, results of over three months of network traffic and malware monitoring are presented, along with the proposed answer to our research question.

  19. Active Monitoring Complex-Envelope Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, R.

    2011-12-01

    Pseudo-random 3-D signal transmission followed by quadrature signal processing significantly enhances seismic Active Monitoring (AM). The algorithm produces complex-envelope seismograms consisting of the dual time series of instantaneous amplitude and phase. Minimum-standard-deviation signal arrival detection and timing from coherent instantaneous-phase seismogram ensembles yields signal time errors inversely proportional to frequency and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, application to piezo-electric acoustic cross well monitoring as in SAFOD experiments should result in nano-second multiple-signal detection and timing precision. The method is applicable to all types (seismic, EM, acoustic) of AM.

  20. Utilizing high-throughput bioassays associated with US EPA ToxCast Program to assess biological activity of environmental contaminants: A case study of chemical mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects-based monitoring and surveillance is increasingly being utilized in conjunction with chemical monitoring to determine potential biological activity associated with environmental contaminants. Supervised approaches targeting specific chemical activity or molecular pathways...

  1. Utilizing high-throughput bioassays associated with US EPA ToxCast Program to assess biological activity of environmental contaminants: A case study of chemical mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects-based monitoring and surveillance is increasingly being utilized in conjunction with chemical monitoring to determine potential biological activity associated with environmental contaminants. Supervised approaches targeting specific chemical activity or molecular pathways...

  2. Reporters to monitor cellular MMP12 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Correa, Amanda; Mall, Marcus A.; Schultz, Carsten

    2010-02-01

    Macrophage elastase, also called MMP12, belongs to a family of proteolytic enzymes whose best known physiological function is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Under certain pathological conditions, including inflammation, chronic overexpression of MMP12 has been observed and its elevated proteolytic activity has been suggested to be the cause of pulmonary emphysema. However, it was until recently impossible to monitor the activity of MMP12 under disease conditions, mainly due to a lack of detection methods. Recent development of new reporters for monitoring MMP12 activity in living cells, such as LaRee1, provided novel insights into the pathobiology of MMP12 in pulmonary inflammation.1 In the future, these reporters might contribute to improved diagnosis and in finding better treatments for chronic inflammatory lung diseases and emphysema. Our approach for visualizing MMP12 activity is based on peptidic, membrane-targeted FRET (Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer) reporters. Here we describe a set of new reporters containing different fluorophore pairs as well as modifications in the membrane-targeting lipid moiety. We studied the influence of these modifications on reporter performance and the reporter mobility on live cell membranes by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). Finally, we generated several new fluorescently labeled MMP inhibitors based on the peptidic reporter structures as prototypes for future tools to inhibit and monitor MMP activity at the same time.

  3. Multiwavelength Monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Bradley M.

    2001-01-01

    By intensive monitoring of AGN variability over a large range in wavelength, we can probe the structure and physics of active galactic nuclei on microarcsecond angular scales. For example, multi-wavelength variability data allow us (a) to establish causal relationships between variations in different wavebands, and thus determine which physical processes are primary and which spectral changes are induced by variations at other wavelengths, and (b) through reverberation mapping of the UV/optical emission lines, to determine the structure and kinematics of the line-emitting region, and thus accurately determine the central masses in AGNs. Multiwavelength monitoring is resource-intensive, and is difficult to implement with general-purpose facilities. As a result, virtually all programs undertaken to date have been either sparsely sampled, or short in duration, or both. The potentially high return on this type of investigation, however, argues for dedicated facilities for multiwavelength monitoring programs.

  4. Bioluminescent reporter bacterium for toxicity monitoring in biological wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.J.; Lajoie, C.A.; Layton, A.C.; Sayler, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic shock due to certain chemical loads in biological wastewater treatment systems can result in death of microorganisms and loss of floc structure. To overcome the limitations of existing approaches to toxicity monitoring, genes encoding enzymes for light production were inserted to a bacterium (Shk 1) isolated from activated sludge. The Shk 1 bioreporter indicated a toxic response to concentrations of cadmium, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and hydroquinone by reductions in initial levels of bioluminescence on exposure to the toxicant. The decrease in bioluminescence was more severe with increasing toxicant concentration. Bioluminescence did not decrease in response to ethanol concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L or to pH conditions between 6.1 and 7.9. A continuous toxicity monitoring system using this bioreporter was developed for influent wastewater and tested with hydroquinone. The reporter exhibited a rapid and proportional decrease in bioluminescence in response to increasing hydroquinone concentrations.

  5. Drug Efficacy Monitoring in Pharmacotherapy of Multiple Sclerosis with Biological Agents.

    PubMed

    Caldano, M; Raoul, W; Rispens, T; Bertolotto, A

    2017-03-22

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease. Although several EMA approved Disease Modifying Treatments including biopharmaceuticals are available, their efficacy is limited and a certain percentage of patients are always non-responsive. Drug Efficacy Monitoring is an important tool to identify these non-responsive patients early on. Currently, Detection of Anti-Drug Antibodies and quantification of Biological Activity are used as methods of efficacy monitoring for Interferon beta (IFNβ) and Natalizumab (NAT) therapies. For NAT and Alemtuzumab treatments, drug level quantification could be an essential component of the overall disease management. Thus, utilization and development of strategies to determine treatment response are vital aspects of MS management given the tremendous clinical and economic promise of this tool.

  6. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  7. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-08-10

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that a component of reconstituted powdered milk has a high binding affinity to ricin. We discovered that milk can competitively bind to and reduce the amount of toxin available to asialofetuin type II, which is used as a model to study the binding of ricin to galactose cell-surface receptors. Milk also removes ricin bound to the microtiter plate. In parallel experiments, we demonstrated by activity assay and by immuno-PCR that milk can bind competitively to 1 ng/ml ricin, reducing the amount of toxin uptake by the cells, and thus inhibit the biological activity of ricin. The inhibitory effect of milk on ricin activity in Vero cells was at the same level as by anti-ricin antibodies. We also found that (a) milk did not inhibit ricin at concentrations of 10 or 100 ng/ml; (b) autoclaving 10 and 100 ng/ml ricin in DMEM at 121 °C for 30 min completely abolished activity; and (c) milk did not affect the activity of another ribosome inactivating protein, Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Unlike ricin, which is internalized into the cells via a galactose-binding site, Stx2 is internalized through the cell surface receptor glycolipid globotriasylceramides Gb3 and Gb4. These observations suggest that ricin toxicity may possibly be reduced at room temperature by a widely consumed natural liquid food.

  8. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  9. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  10. SORPTION ON WASTEWATER SOLIDS: ELIMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption was found to be greatly affected by the biological activity in wastewater solids. wo experimental techniques, cyanide treatment and pasteurization, were developed for eliminating the biological activity during isotherm measurements. oth methods are effective; however, pa...

  11. SORPTION ON WASTEWATER SOLIDS: ELIMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption was found to be greatly affected by the biological activity in wastewater solids. wo experimental techniques, cyanide treatment and pasteurization, were developed for eliminating the biological activity during isotherm measurements. oth methods are effective; however, pa...

  12. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    PubMed

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using synthetic biology to increase nitrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xin; Liu, Qi; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Shi, Hao-Wen; Chen, San-Feng

    2016-02-20

    Nitrogen fixation has been established in protokaryotic model Escherichia coli by transferring a minimal nif gene cluster composed of 9 genes (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV) from Paenibacillus sp. WLY78. However, the nitrogenase activity in the recombinant E. coli 78-7 is only 10 % of that observed in wild-type Paenibacillus. Thus, it is necessary to increase nitrogenase activity through synthetic biology. In order to increase nitrogenase activity in heterologous host, a total of 28 selected genes from Paenibacillus sp. WLY78 and Klebsiella oxytoca were placed under the control of Paenibacillus nif promoter in two different vectors and then they are separately or combinationally transferred to the recombinant E. coli 78-7. Our results demonstrate that Paenibacillus suf operon (Fe-S cluster assembly) and the potential electron transport genes pfoAB, fldA and fer can increase nitrogenase activity. Also, K. oxytoca nifSU (Fe-S cluster assembly) and nifFJ (electron transport specific for nitrogenase) can increase nitrogenase activity. Especially, the combined assembly of the potential Paenibacillus electron transporter genes (pfoABfldA) with K. oxytoca nifSU recovers 50.1 % of wild-type (Paenibacillus) activity. However, K. oxytoca nifWZM and nifQ can not increase activity. The combined assembly of the potential Paenibacillus electron transporter genes (pfoABfldA) with K. oxytoca nifSU recovers 50.1 % of wild-type (Paenibacillus) activity in the recombinant E. coli 78-7. Our results will provide valuable insights for the enhancement of nitrogenase activity in heterogeneous host and will provide guidance for engineering cereal plants with minimal nif genes.

  14. Biologically active neutrophil chemokine pattern in tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    RUDACK, C; JÖRG, S; SACHSE, F

    2004-01-01

    To gain an insight into the mechanisms of chronic and acute inflammation, the production of neutrophil chemokines in different types of tonsillitis – hyperplastic tonsillitis (HT), recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and peritonsillar abscesses (PA) – was investigated. The chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α), epithelial cell-derived neutrophil attractant-78 (ENA-78) and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2) were detected and shown to have different biological activities. With respect to the biological properties of CXC chemokines, the biological activity of the chemokines was identified using a three-step high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, a bioassay involving measurement of neutrophil chemotaxis in a single Boyden chamber in tissue of HT, RT and PA. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the chemokine concentrations were determined in the different tonsillitis entities. The chemokine pattern was dominated in PA by IL-8 and GRO-α and in RT by GRO-α. Hyperplastic tonsils of patients without a history of infection generated about five times lower IL-8 than PA. A protein concentration of GCP-2 was induced in PA and RT, whereas ENA-78 remained the same in all entities. In conclusion, it would appear that IL-8 was up-regulated in acute inflammation, whereas GRO-α dominated in chronic inflammation. ENA-78 seems not to play a pivotal role in inflammatory processes in tonsils. GCP-2 may serve as a substitute chemokine in certain inflammatory conditions as its quantity of mRNA and protein was higher in RT and PA than in HT. PMID:15008987

  15. Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi.

    PubMed

    Bills, Gerald F; Gloer, James B

    2016-11-01

    Many Fungi have a well-developed secondary metabolism. The diversity of fungal species and the diversification of biosynthetic gene clusters underscores a nearly limitless potential for metabolic variation and an untapped resource for drug discovery and synthetic biology. Much of the ecological success of the filamentous fungi in colonizing the planet is owed to their ability to deploy their secondary metabolites in concert with their penetrative and absorptive mode of life. Fungal secondary metabolites exhibit biological activities that have been developed into life-saving medicines and agrochemicals. Toxic metabolites, known as mycotoxins, contaminate human and livestock food and indoor environments. Secondary metabolites are determinants of fungal diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Secondary metabolites exhibit a staggering variation in chemical structures and biological activities, yet their biosynthetic pathways share a number of key characteristics. The genes encoding cooperative steps of a biosynthetic pathway tend to be located contiguously on the chromosome in coregulated gene clusters. Advances in genome sequencing, computational tools, and analytical chemistry are enabling the rapid connection of gene clusters with their metabolic products. At least three fungal drug precursors, penicillin K and V, mycophenolic acid, and pleuromutilin, have been produced by synthetic reconstruction and expression of respective gene clusters in heterologous hosts. This review summarizes general aspects of fungal secondary metabolism and recent developments in our understanding of how and why fungi make secondary metabolites, how these molecules are produced, and how their biosynthetic genes are distributed across the Fungi. The breadth of fungal secondary metabolite diversity is highlighted by recent information on the biosynthesis of important fungus-derived metabolites that have contributed to human health and agriculture and that have negatively impacted crops

  16. Optical monitoring of anchoring change in vertically aligned thin liquid crystal film for chemical and biological sensor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Namkung, Jun; Lin, Yongbin; Lindquist, Robert

    2010-04-01

    A significant advance in sensitivity of liquid-crystal (LC)-based chemical and biological sensors can be achieved by actively monitoring anchoring energy change. We simulate the deformation of a LC director with different anchoring energies using the finite element method and the optical properties of the LC film using the finite-difference time-domain method. Polarizing micrographs are collected and compared with simulated textures. Measurement of optical transmission is used to monitor the anchoring change. Experimental and simulation results both demonstrate the optical method can effectively monitor the surface anchoring change due to the presence of targeted analytes.

  17. Potential biological activity of acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences. PMID:26339647

  19. New lignans and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Chen, Jiejun; Liang, Zizhen; Zhao, Changqi

    2014-01-01

    Lignans, which are widely distributed in higher plants, represent a vast and rather diverse group of phenylpropane derivatives. They have attracted considerable attention due to their pharmacological activities. Some of the lignans have been developed approved therapeutics, and others are considered as lead structures for new drugs. This article is based on our previous review of lignans discovered in the period 2000-2004, and it provides a comprehensive compilation of the 354 new naturally occurring lignans obtained from 61 plant families between 2005 and 2011. We classified five main types according to their structural features, and provided the details of their sources, some typical structures, and diverse biological activities. A tabular compilation of the novel lignans by species is presented at the end. A total of 144 references were considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  1. Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bogdanović, Gordana; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses.The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters--fullerenes, nanotubes, and grapheme--their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C₆₀(OH)₂₄.

  2. THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L.

    PubMed Central

    Okmen, Gulten; Balpınar, Neslihan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mastitis reduces milk yield and alters milk composition. Antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of the disease. However, this widespread use of antibiotics causes both antibiotic residues in milks and antibiotic resistance developed in bacteria. Today’s researches are focused on discovering and using new antibiotics against bacteria. Objective: The aim of this work was to discover the antibacterial effects of Hypericum perforatum L. extracts against mastitis pathogens, and its other biological activities. Material and Methods: Kirby-Bauer assay was applied to the extracts. The other antibacterial activity was MIC for plant extracts. The non-enzymatic antioxidant activity was found using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH). Results: The extract was showed maximum inhibition zone against two bacteria (Coagulase-negative Staphylococci-33 and 37; CNS 33 and 37), and the zone was 17 mm. A bacterium (CNS - 22) showed the lowest sensitivity to 812.5 μg/mL concentration. In addition, the extract was tried against the stable DPPH for antioxidant activity. As a result, the extract showed a strength antioxidant activity. Trolox equivalent is 0.83 mM. Conclusion: The extract of Hypericum perforatum have antibacterial, antioxidant and antimutagenic potentials. PMID:28480399

  3. Optimiziing the laboratory monitoring of biological wastewater-purification systems

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Gerasimov

    2009-05-15

    Optimization of the laboratory monitoring of biochemical wastewater-treatment systems at coke plants is considered, for the example of OAO Koks. By adopting a methodological approach to determine the necessary data from chemical analysis, it is possible to reduce the time, labor, and materials required for monitoring, without impairing the purification process or compromising the plant's environmental policies.

  4. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  5. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1991-01-22

    This invention relates to a regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor 5 concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC 10 exhaust gases.

  6. [A monitor of the biomechanical cardiac activity].

    PubMed

    Masloboev, Iu P; Okhritskiĭ, A A; Prilutskiĭ, D A; Selishchev, S V

    2004-01-01

    A monitor of the biomechanical cardiac activity is described, which was elaborated on the basis of the accelerometer sensor and sigma-delta ADC for the purpose of registering the ballistocardiograms and seismocardiograms. The device ensures a non-stop signal recording for as long as 8 hours with the data being preserved in an inbuilt memory. Data are fed to the computer through the USB port. An algorithm is suggested for recordings processing by using the neuron-net technologies.

  7. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  8. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.

  9. Monitoring Chemical and Biological Electron Transfer Reactions with a Fluorogenic Vitamin K Analogue Probe.

    PubMed

    Belzile, Mei-Ni; Godin, Robert; Durantini, Andrés M; Cosa, Gonzalo

    2016-12-21

    We report herein the design, synthesis, and characterization of a two-segment fluorogenic analogue of vitamin K, B-VKQ, prepared by coupling vitamin K3, also known as menadione (a quinone redox center), to a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore (a lipophilic reporter segment). Oxidation-reduction reactions, spectroelectrochemical studies, and enzymatic assays conducted in the presence of DT-diaphorase illustrate that the new probe shows reversible redox behavior on par with that of vitamin K, provides a high-sensitivity fluorescence signal, and is compatible with biological conditions, opening the door to monitor remotely (i.e., via imaging) redox processes in real time. In its oxidized form, B-VKQ is non-emissive, while upon reduction to the hydroquinone form, B-VKQH2, BODIPY fluorescence is restored, with emission quantum yield values of ca. 0.54 in toluene. Density functional theory studies validate a photoinduced electron transfer intramolecular switching mechanism, active in the non-emissive quinone form and deactivated upon reduction to the emissive dihydroquinone form. Our results highlight the potential of B-VKQ as a fluorogenic probe to study electron transfer and transport in model systems and biological structures with optimal sensitivity and desirable chemical specificity. Use of such a probe may enable a better understanding of the role that vitamin K plays in biological redox reactions ubiquitous in key cellular processes, and help elucidate the mechanism and pathological significance of these reactions in biological systems.

  10. Biological activity of some conjugated gibberellins.

    PubMed

    Sembdner, G; Borgmann, E; Schneider, G; Liebisch, H W; Miersch, O; Adam, G; Lischewski, M; Schrefber, K

    1976-01-01

    The biological activity of several gibberellin (GA) conjugates was studied and compared with that of the corresponding free GAs. The following conjugates were included: O(3)-β-D-glucopyranosides of GA1, GA3 and GA4; O(13)-β-D-glucopyranosides of GA1, GA3 and GA5; O(13)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-GA5-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester; GA3-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester and GA3-α-D-glucopyranosyl ester; N-GA3-oyl-glycine, its methyl ester, N-GA3-oyl-glycylglycine, and N-GA3-oyl-proline. All compounds were synthesized chemically but some of them are known to occur as endogenous plant products, or to be formed in plants upon application of a free GA. Activity was determined in the dwarf pea, dwarf corn, dwarf rice, and lettuce hypocotyl bioassays. The GA conjugates were found to posses different relative activities depending on the chemical structure, the bioassay system, and the site of application (shoot or roots). It is concluded that the activity of GA conjugates as measured in different bioassays is based upon the ability of plant enzymes and possibly of certain microorganisms to hydrolyze glucosidic, glucosyl ester, and amide-like linkages.

  11. Biological indicators for monitoring water quality of MTF canals system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethi, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Biological models, diversity indexes, were developed to predict environmental effects of NASA's Mississippi test facility (MTF) chemical operations on canal systems in the area. To predict the effects on local streams, a physical model of unpolluted streams was established. The model is fed by artesian well water free of background levels of pollutants. The species diversity and biota composition of unpolluted MTF stream was determined; resulting information will be used to form baseline data for future comparisons. Biological modeling was accomplished by adding controlled quantities or kinds of chemical pollutants and evaluating the effects of these chemicals on the biological life of the stream.

  12. MRI parametric monitoring of biological therapies in primary large vessel vasculitides: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Xenitidis, Theodoros; Henes, Jörg; Horger, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the development of characteristic MRI changes in patients with primary large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) when treated with biological therapies. Methods: 12 patients with primary LVV (8 patients with Takayasu arteritis and 4 patients with giant-cell arteritis) received biological therapy with tumour necrosis factor-α blockers (n = 9) or an interleukin-6 inhibitor (n = 3). MRI investigations were performed at baseline (pre-treatment) and follow-up. All patients underwent the same MRI/MR angiography (MRA) protocol. Laboratory parameters (C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and clinical response (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score) were assessed. Results: Wall thickness was 4.2 ± 0.3 mm pre-treatment and significantly decreased to 3.2 ± 0.3 mm post treatment in 9/12 patients. Mural enhancement was increased in all 12/12 patients with LVV, and subsided with therapy in 5/12 patients. Mural oedema or ill-defined contour were less prevalent but also improved with biological treatment. C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels decreased, and clinical assessment revealed a significant improvement from pre-treatment to post-treatment. However, the course of imaging characteristics often did not parallel that of laboratory or clinical parameters. In all three patients receiving interleukin-6 blockade, laboratory markers and clinical scores normalized despite persistent vascular inflammation in one patient which was disclosed by MRI. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MRI/MRA may be useful when evaluating the development of disease activity in primary LVV under biological therapies. A high degree of suspicion and regular imaging follow-up is needed to detect persistent inflammation. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study investigating the applicability of different MRI/MRA parameters for monitoring biological therapy in patients with primary LVV. PMID:26649990

  13. Chesapeake Bay Basin Monitoring Program Atlas. Volume 2. Biological and living resource monitoring programs

    SciTech Connect

    Heasly, P.; Pultz, S.; Batiuk, R.

    1989-08-01

    The Monitoring Program Atlas provides an overview of current long-term environmental monitoring programs in the Chesapeake Bay Basin. The Atlas covers a wide scope of program types, ranging from water quality, living resources, toxics, and physical processes to air quality, acid deposition and climate monitoring programs. The two-volume publication is intended to facilitate coordination and integration of environmental monitoring programs and to encourage the collection of comparable monitoring data basinwide.

  14. Biological Activity of Dolichandrone serrulata Flowers and Their Active Components.

    PubMed

    Phanthong, Phanida; Phumal, Noppawan; Chancharunee, Sirirat; Mangmool, Supachoke; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

    2015-08-01

    Dolichandrone serrulata (DC.) Seem flowers are widely used as vegetables in northern and eastern Thailand. Biological studies of the methanolic extract of these flowers have shown promising antioxidant activity. Biological-guided separation of D. serrulata flowers yielded six compounds, identified as hallerone, protocatechuic acid, rengyolone, cleroindicin B, ixoside, and isomaltose. This is the first report on hallerone, protocatechuic acid, rengyolone, cleroindicin B, and isomaltose in D. serrulata. Protocatechuic acid was the most potent scavenger of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals with IC50 values of 25.6 +/- 0.6 and 29.6 +/- 0.4 microM, respectively. Hallerone and rengyolone showed moderate scavenging action on superoxide radicals and inhibited H202 induced reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cell. In addition, the other isolated compounds showed weak activity.

  15. Biologically active and antimicrobial peptides from plants.

    PubMed

    Salas, Carlos E; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  16. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  17. Biotransformations and biological activities of hop flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Karabin, Marcel; Hudcova, Tereza; Jelinek, Lukas; Dostalek, Pavel

    2015-11-01

    Female hop cones are used extensively in the brewing industry, but there is now increasing interest in possible uses of hops for non-brewing purposes, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. Among pharmaceutically important compounds from hops are flavonoids, having proven anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects. In this review we aim to present current knowledge on the biotransformation of flavonoids from hop cones with respect to products, catalysis and conversion. A list of microbial enzymatic reactions associated with gastrointestinal microbiota is presented. A comparative analysis of the biological activities of hop flavonoids and their biotransformation products is described, indicating where further research has potential for applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

  18. [Nonequilibrium state of electrochemically activated water and its biological activity].

    PubMed

    Petrushanko, I Iu; Lobyshev, V I

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential and electroconductivity) of catholyte and anolyte produced by membrane electrolysis of distilled water and dilute (c < 10(-3) M) sodium chloride solutions were studied. The relaxation of these parameters after electrolysis and the influence of catholyte and anolyte on the growth of roots of Tradescantia viridis grafts, the development of duckweed, and the motive activity of infusoria Spirostomum ambiguum were investigated. It was found that the anolyte of distilled water stimulated development of these biological objects. The direction of shift of physicochemical parameters of catholyte and anolyte from equilibrium values and the type of their biological activity (stimulation or inhibition) depend on salt concentration in initial solution. Barbotage of initial distilled water with argon or nitrogen leads to a greater decrease in the redox potential of catholyte during electrolysis. The physicochemical parameters relax to equilibrium values, and the biological activity of catholite and anolyte decreases with time and practically disappears by the end of the day. It was found that the oxidation of reducing agent by atmospheric oxygen is not the sole cause of the relaxation of catalyte redox potential. The increase in the ionic strength of catholite and anolyte by the addition of concentrated sodium chloride after electrolysis decreases the rate of redox potential relaxation several times. The redox potential can be maintained for long periods by freezing.

  19. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): environment and biology.

    PubMed

    Levine, James A

    2004-05-01

    Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expended for everything that is not sleeping, eating, or sports-like exercise. It includes the energy expended walking to work, typing, performing yard work, undertaking agricultural tasks, and fidgeting. NEAT can be measured by one of two approaches. The first is to measure or estimate total NEAT. Here, total daily energy expenditure is measured, and from it "basal metabolic rate-plus-thermic effect of food" is subtracted. The second is the factoral approach, whereby the components of NEAT are quantified, and total NEAT is calculated by summing these components. The amount of NEAT that humans perform represents the product of the amount and types of physical activities and the thermogenic cost of each activity. The factors that impact a human's NEAT are readily divisible into environmental factors, such as occupation or dwelling within a "concrete jungle," and biological factors such as weight, gender, and body composition. The combined impact of these factors explains the substantial variance in human NEAT. The variability in NEAT might be viewed as random, but human and animal data contradict this. It appears that changes in NEAT subtly accompany experimentally induced changes in energy balance and are important in the physiology of weight change. Inadequate modulation of NEAT plus a sedentary lifestyle may thus be important in obesity. It then becomes intriguing to dissect mechanistic studies that delineate how NEAT is regulated into neural, peripheral, and humoral factors. A scheme is described in this review in which NEAT corresponds to a carefully regulated "tank" of physical activity that is crucial for weight control.

  20. Sulfation and biological activities of konjac glucomannan.

    PubMed

    Bo, Surina; Muschin, Tegshi; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-05-15

    The sulfation of konjac glucomannan and its anti-HIV and blood anticoagulant activities were investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a polysaccharide occurring naturally in konjac plant tubers and has high molecular weights. Solubility in water is very low, and the aqueous solutions at low concentrations have high viscosity. Before sulfation, hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid was carried out to decrease the molecular weights of M¯n=19.2 × 10(4)-0.2 × 10(4). Sulfation with piperidine-N-sulfonic acid or SO3-pyridine complex gave sulfated konjac glucomannans with molecular weights of M¯n=1.0 × 10(4)-0.4 × 10(4) and degrees of sulfation (DS) of 1.3-1.4. It was found that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had potent anti-HIV activity at a 50% effective concentration, (EC50) of 1.2-1.3 μg/ml, which was almost as high as that of an AIDS drug, ddC, whose EC50=3.2 μg/ml, and moderate blood anticoagulant activity, AA=0.8-22.7 units/mg, compared to those of standard sulfated polysaccharides, curdlan (10 units/mg) and dextran (22.7 units/mg) sulfates. Structural analysis of sulfated konjac glucomannans with negatively charged sulfated groups was performed by high resolution NMR, and the interaction between poly-l-lysine with positively charged amino groups as a model compound of proteins and peptides was measured by surface plasmon resonance measurement, suggesting that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had a high binding stability on immobilized poly-l-lysine. The binding of sulfated konjac glucomannan was concentration-dependent, and the biological activity of the sulfated konjac glucomannans may be due to electrostatic interaction between the sulfate and amino groups. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Air monitoring and detection of chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Leonelli, J.; Althouse, M.L.

    1999-06-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held November 2--3, 1998 in Boston, Massachusetts. Topics of discussion include the following: system simulations, atmospheric modeling, and performance prediction studies of chemical warfare remote sensing technologies; ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence and aerosol detection methods for remote sensing of biological warfare agents; passive detection methods for remote detection of chemical warfare agents; and lidar-based system performance assessments, demonstrations, and new concepts for chemical warfare/biological warfare detection.

  2. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; Shoemaker, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  3. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  4. System and method for monitoring cellular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Fraser, Scott E. (Inventor); Lansford, Russell D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring cellular activity in a cellular specimen. According to one embodiment, a plurality of excitable markers are applied to the specimen. A multi-photon laser microscope is provided to excite a region of the specimen and cause fluorescence to be radiated from the region. The radiating fluorescence is processed by a spectral analyzer to separate the fluorescence into respective wavelength bands. The respective bands of fluorescence are then collected by an array of detectors, with each detector receiving a corresponding one of the wavelength bands.

  5. Broadening participation in biological monitoring: handbook for scientists and managers.

    Treesearch

    David Pilz; Heidi L. Ballard; Eric T. Jones

    2006-01-01

    Participatory (collaborative, multiparty, citizen, volunteer) monitoring is a process that has been increasing in popularity and use in both developing and industrialized societies over the last several decades. It reflects the understanding that natural resource decisions are more effective and less controversial when stakeholders who have an interest in the results...

  6. Sequential decision plans, benthic macroinvertebrates, and biological monitoring programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, John K.; Resh, Vincent H.

    1989-07-01

    A common obstacle to the inclusion of benthic macroinvertebrates in water quality monitoring programs is that numerous sample units must be examined in order to distinguish between impacted and unimpacted conditions, which can add significantly to the total cost of a monitoring program. Sequential decision plans can be used to reduce this cost because the number of sample units needed to classify a site as impacted or unimpacted is reduced by an average of 50%. A plan is created using definitions of unimpacted and impacted conditions, a description of the mathematical distribution of the data, and definitions of acceptable risks of type I and II errors. The applicability of using sequential decision plans and benthic macroinvertebrates in water quality monitoring programs is illustrated with several examples (e.g., identifying moderate and extreme changes in species richness in response to acid mine drainage; assessing the impact of a crude oil contamination on the density of two benthic populations; monitoring the effect of geothermal effluents on species diversity). These examples use data conforming to the negative binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions and define impact as changes in population density, species richness, or species diversity based on empirical data or the economic feasibility of the sequential decision plan. All mathematical formulae and intermediate values are provided for the step-by-step calculation of each sequential decision plan.

  7. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  8. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  9. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  10. TYPES, USES, AND LOCATIONS OF REAL-TIME BIOLOGICAL MONITORING IN EUROPE AND THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many dffferent types of real-time biological monitoring (fish behavior and current, daphnid dynamic and toximeter, clam monitors, algae, and luminescent bacteria) have been used in several countries (Germany, Netherlands, France, England( and many locations in Europe. Only a few ...

  11. SCIENCE RESULTS INTEGRATION. BRINGING MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES TO REGIONAL WATER MONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) develops innovative methods for use in environmental monitoring and assessment by scientists in Regions, states, and Tribes. Molecular-biology-based methods are not yet established in the environmental monitoring "tool box". SRI (Sci...

  12. TYPES, USES, AND LOCATIONS OF REAL-TIME BIOLOGICAL MONITORING IN EUROPE AND THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many dffferent types of real-time biological monitoring (fish behavior and current, daphnid dynamic and toximeter, clam monitors, algae, and luminescent bacteria) have been used in several countries (Germany, Netherlands, France, England( and many locations in Europe. Only a few ...

  13. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function - Short Duration Biological Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence; Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish; Morukov, Boris; Uchakin, Peter; Nehlsen-Cannarella, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crew Member Immune Function - Short Duration Biological Investigation (Integrated Immune-SDBI) will assess the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of space flight on the human immune system and will validate a flightcompatible immune monitoring strategy. Immune system changes will be monitored by collecting and analyzing blood, urine and saliva samples from crewmembers before, during and after space flight.

  14. Social and Behavioral Science: Monitoring Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-12

    Identification (RFID) monitoring and to train students in the use of this technology and in the science underlying honey bee behavior. This enables...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 12-10-2016 15-Apr-2016 14-Aug-2016 Final Report: "Social and Behavioral Science : Monitoring...reviewed journals: Final Report: "Social and Behavioral Science : Monitoring Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System" Report Title The

  15. Biological water quality monitoring using chemiluminescent and bioluminescent techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated chemiluminescence and bioluminescence sensors were developed for the continuous monitoring of microbial levels in water supplies. The optimal chemical procedures were determined for the chemiluminescence system to achieve maximum sensitivity. By using hydrogen peroxide, reaction rate differentiation, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and carbon monoxide pretreatments, factors which cause interference were eliminated and specificity of the reaction for living and dead bacteria was greatly increased. By employing existing technology with some modifications, a sensitive and specific bioluminescent system was developed.

  16. Piezo impedance sensors to monitor degradation of biological structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamdas, Kiran Kishore Kumar; Annamdas, Venu Gopal Madhav

    2010-04-01

    In some countries it is common to have wooden structures in their homes, especially Japan. However, metals and its alloys are the most widely used engineering materials in construction of any military or civil structure. Re-visiting natural disasters like the recent Haiti earthquake (12 Jan 2010) or Katrina (cyclones) reminds the necessity to have better housing infrastructure with robust monitoring systems. Traditionally wood (green material) was accepted as excellent rehabilitation material, after any disaster. In recent times, the recycling materials extracted from inorganic, biodegradable wastes are converted into blocks or sheets, and are also used to assist public in rehabilitation camps. The key issue which decreases the life of these rehabilitated structure including green materials (like wood) is unnecessary degradation or deterioration over time due to insect or acid attack or rain/ice fall. The recycling material also needs monitoring to protect them against acid or rain/ice attacks. Thus, a few health monitoring techniques have emerged in the recent past. Electromechanical Impedance technique is one such technique, which is simple but robust to detect variations in the integrity of structures. In this paper, impedance based piezoceramic sensor was bonded on wooden sample, which was subjected to degradation in presence of acids. Variations in mass of plank are studied.

  17. Monascus secondary metabolites: production and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Patakova, Petra

    2013-02-01

    The genus Monascus, comprising nine species, can reproduce either vegetatively with filaments and conidia or sexually by the formation of ascospores. The most well-known species of genus Monascus, namely, M. purpureus, M. ruber and M. pilosus, are often used for rice fermentation to produce red yeast rice, a special product used either for food coloring or as a food supplement with positive effects on human health. The colored appearance (red, orange or yellow) of Monascus-fermented substrates is produced by a mixture of oligoketide pigments that are synthesized by a combination of polyketide and fatty acid synthases. The major pigments consist of pairs of yellow (ankaflavin and monascin), orange (rubropunctatin and monascorubrin) and red (rubropunctamine and monascorubramine) compounds; however, more than 20 other colored products have recently been isolated from fermented rice or culture media. In addition to pigments, a group of monacolin substances and the mycotoxin citrinin can be produced by Monascus. Various non-specific biological activities (antimicrobial, antitumor, immunomodulative and others) of these pigmented compounds are, at least partly, ascribed to their reaction with amino group-containing compounds, i.e. amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Monacolins, in the form of β-hydroxy acids, inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis in animals and humans.

  18. Biologically active peptides: prospects for drug development.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J

    1980-08-11

    Biologically active peptides aree typified by their unbiquity of distribution, their high receptor affinity and an almost infinite diversity of structure. For these reasons, considerable effort is now being expended to elucidate the possible role of peptides in brain function. This effort has been stimulated by the discovery of a number of new endogenous peptides, such as the enkephalins, endorphins, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neurotensin. At present, there is no clearly defined role for these peptides, although they may form an important basis for the chemical coding of various brain functions, including pain, mood and memory. At present, the potential for drug development of peptide agonists remains in fairly circumscribed areas such as analgesia, pituitary hormone control, and gastrointestinal motor and secretory control. Peptide antagonists may provide a vast field for future development, although only one area, that of antifertility drugs based on LHRH antagonists, shows any promise of immediate success. Industrial research approaches to new peptide agonists and antagonists mainly rely at present on rational drug design through structural analogies. Other fruitful approaches to be considered are the screening of natural microbial and plant products and the possible application of genetic engineering techniques.

  19. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Phipps, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  1. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  2. Multiwavelength monitoring of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent multiwavelength monitoring of active galactic nuclei (AGN), particularly with the IUE satellite, has produced extraordinay advances in our understanding of the energy-generation mechanism(s) in the central engine and of the structure of the surrounding material. Examples discussed here include both ordinary AGN and blazars (the collective name for highly variable, radio-loud AGN like BL Lac objects and Optically Violently Variable quasars). In the last decade, efforts to obtain single-epoch multiwavelength spectra led to fundamentally new models for the structure of AGN, involving accretion disks for AGN and relativistic jets for blazars. Recent extensions of multiwavelength spectroscopy into the temporal domain have shown that while these general pictures may be correct, the details were probably wrong. Campaigns to monitor Seyfert 1 galaxies like NGC 4151, NGC 5548 and Fairall 9 at infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths indicate that broad-emission line regions are stratified by ionization, density, and velocity; argue against a standard thin accretion disk model; and suggest that X-rays represent primary rather than reprocessed radiation. For blazars, years of radio monitoring indicated emission from an inhomogeneous synchrotron-emitting plasma, which could also produce at least some of the shorter-wavelength emission. The recent month-long campaign to observe the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 has revealed remarkably rapid variability that extends from the infrared through the X-ray with similar amplitude and little or no discernible lag. This lends strong support to relativistic jet models and rules out the proposed accretion disk model for the ultraviolet-X-ray continuum.

  3. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  4. Biological monitoring of non-thermal effects of mobile phone radiation: recent approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gaestel, Matthias

    2010-08-01

    This review describes recent developments in analysing the influence of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs ) on biological systems by monitoring the cellular stress response as well as overall gene expression. Recent data on the initiation and modulation of the classical cellular stress response by RF-EMFs, comprising expression of heat shock proteins and stimulation of stress-activated protein kinases, are summarised and evaluated. Since isothermic RF-EMF exposure is assumed rather than proven there are clear limitations in using the stress response to describe non-thermal effects of RF-EMFs. In particular, further experiments are needed to characterise better the threshold of the thermal heat shock response and the homogeneity of the cellular response in the whole sample for each biological system used. Before then, it is proposed that the absence of the classical stress response can define isothermal experimental conditions and qualifies other biological effects of RF-EMFs detected under these conditions to be of non-thermal origin. To minimise the probability that by making this assumption valuable insights into the nature of biological effects of RF-EMFs could be lost, proteotoxic non-thermal RF-EMF effects should also be monitored by measuring activities of labile intracellular enzymes and/or levels of their metabolites before the threshold for the heat shock response is reached. In addition, non-thermal induction of the stress response via promoter elements distinct from the heat shock element (HSE) should be analysed using HSE-mutated heat shock promoter reporter constructs. Screening for non-thermal RF-EMF effects in the absence of a classical stress response should be performed by transcriptomics and proteomics. Recent approaches demonstrate that due to their high-throughput characteristics, these methods inherently generate false positive results and require statistical evaluation based on quantitative expression analysis from a sufficient

  5. Wearable System for Acquisition and Monitoring of Biological Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, D. J.; Andino, N. B.; Ponce, S. D.; Roberti, MA; López, y. N.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a modular, wearable system for acquisition and wireless transmission of biological signals. Configurable slaves for different signals (such as ECG, EMG, inertial sensors, and temperature) based in the ADS1294 Medical Analog Front End are connected to a Master, based in the CC3200 microcontroller, both from Texas Instruments. The slaves are configurable according to the specific application, providing versatility to the wearable system. The battery consumption is reduced, through a couple of Li-ion batteries and the circuit has also a battery charger. A custom made box was designed and fabricated in a 3D printer, preserving the requirements of low cost, low weight and safety recommendations.

  6. System for monitoring an industrial or biological process

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Vilim, R.B.; White, A.M.

    1998-06-30

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring and responding to conditions of an industrial process. Industrial process signals, such as repetitive manufacturing, testing and operational machine signals, are generated by a system. Sensor signals characteristic of the process are generated over a time length and compared to reference signals over the time length. The industrial signals are adjusted over the time length relative to the reference signals, the phase shift of the industrial signals is optimized to the reference signals and the resulting signals output for analysis by systems such as SPRT. 49 figs.

  7. System for monitoring an industrial or biological process

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Vilim, Rick B.; White, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring and responding to conditions of an industrial process. Industrial process signals, such as repetitive manufacturing, testing and operational machine signals, are generated by a system. Sensor signals characteristic of the process are generated over a time length and compared to reference signals over the time length. The industrial signals are adjusted over the time length relative to the reference signals, the phase shift of the industrial signals is optimized to the reference signals and the resulting signals output for analysis by systems such as SPRT.

  8. Interesting biological activities from plants traditionally used by Native Australians.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Marcello; Kemp, Annabeth S; Taylor, Rory P; Wickens, Kristen M; Kienow, Lucie

    2005-01-15

    Four plants routinely used for medicinal purposes by Native Australians were screened for various biological activities. Methanol extracts of Eremophila maculata, Acacia auriculoformis and Acacia bivenosa exhibited antibiotic effects, while Eremophila alternifolia yielded an extract that induced significant changes to the heart activity of spontaneously hypertensive rats. We report on these biological activities.

  9. Monitoring of Crew Activity with FAMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L.; Cajochen, C.; Bromundt, V.

    2007-10-01

    The success of long duration space missions, such as manned missions to Mars, depends on high and sustained levels of vigilance and performance of astronauts and operators working in the technology rich environment of a spacecraft. Experiment 'Monitoring of Crew Activity with FAMOS' was set up to obtain operational experience with complimentary methods / technologies to assess the alertness / sleepiness status of selected AustroMars crewmembers on a daily basis. We applied a neurobehavioral test battery consisting of 1) Karolinska Sleepiness Scale KSS, 2) Karolinska Drowsiness Test KDT, 3) Psychomotor Vigilance Task PVT, combined with 4) left eye video recordings with an early prototype of the FAMOS Fatigue Monitoring System headset currently being developed by Sowoon Technologies (CH), and 5) Actiwatches that were worn continuously. A test battery required approximately 15 minutes and was repeated up to 4 times daily by 2 to 4 subjects. Here we present the data analysis of methods 1, 2, 3, and 5, while data analysis of method 4 is still in progress.

  10. Real Time Monitoring of Signaling Pathways in Biological Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-14

    quantify data/signal acquisition from activation of specific molecular events within the cell . 4) Demonstrate feasibility of using nanoprobes for high...be placed into endocytic compartments in the cells and subsequently be used to reflect transferrin receptor activity . Hops Yellow (HY) EviTags were... activation of specific molecular events within the cell . This task was not addressed in this phase of the project and will be addressed in the second

  11. Impedance based sensor technology to monitor stiffness of biological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamdas, Venu Gopal Madhav; Annamdas, Kiran Kishore Kumar

    2010-04-01

    In countries like USA or Japan it is not so uncommon to have wooden structures in their homes. However, metals and its alloys are the most widely used engineering materials in construction of any military or civil structure. Revisiting natural disasters like the recent Haiti earthquake (12 Jan 2010) or Katrina (cyclones) reminds the necessity to have better housing infrastructure with robust monitoring systems. Traditionally wood is accepted as excellent rehabilitation material, after any disaster. The recycling materials extracted from in-organic, biodegradable wastes, also can be used for rehabilitation. The key issue which dampens the life of these rehabilitated structure including green materials (like wood) is unnecessary deposits (nails, screws, bolts etc)/damages due to insect attack. Thus, a few health monitoring techniques have emerged in the recent past. Electromechanical Impedance technique is one such technique, which is simple but robust to detect variations in the integrity of structures. In this paper, impedance based piezoceramic sensor was bonded on wooden sample, which was used to study changes due to metallic (steel nails) deposits at various locations. A study of weight deposits on aluminum plate was used for comparisons.

  12. Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach geospatial technology activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach (OBIO) in Reston, Virginia, and its Center for Biological Informatics (CBI) in Denver, Colorado, provide leadership in the development and use of geospatial technologies to advance the Nation's biological science activities.

  13. Manipulating and Monitoring On-Surface Biological Reactions by Light-Triggered Local pH Alterations.

    PubMed

    Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Pevzner, Alexander; Davidi, Guy; Naddaka, Vladimir; Kwiat, Moria; Huppert, Dan; Patolsky, Fernando

    2015-07-08

    Significant research efforts have been dedicated to the integration of biological species with electronic elements to yield smart bioelectronic devices. The integration of DNA, proteins, and whole living cells and tissues with electronic devices has been developed into numerous intriguing applications. In particular, the quantitative detection of biological species and monitoring of biological processes are both critical to numerous areas of medical and life sciences. Nevertheless, most current approaches merely focus on the "monitoring" of chemical processes taking place on the sensing surfaces, and little efforts have been invested in the conception of sensitive devices that can simultaneously "control" and "monitor" chemical and biological reactions by the application of on-surface reversible stimuli. Here, we demonstrate the light-controlled fine modulation of surface pH by the use of photoactive molecularly modified nanomaterials. Through the use of nanowire-based FET devices, we showed the capability of modulating the on-surface pH, by intensity-controlled light stimulus. This allowed us simultaneously and locally to control and monitor pH-sensitive biological reactions on the nanodevices surfaces, such as the local activation and inhibition of proteolytic enzymatic processes, as well as dissociation of antigen-antibody binding interactions. The demonstrated capability of locally modulating the on-surface effective pH, by a light stimuli, may be further applied in the local control of on-surface DNA hybridization/dehybridization processes, activation or inhibition of living cells processes, local switching of cellular function, local photoactivation of neuronal networks with single cell resolution and so forth.

  14. Active chaotic excitation for bolted joint monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasel, Timothy R.; Todd, Michael D.; Park, Gyuhae

    2006-03-01

    Recent research has shown that high frequency chaotic excitation and state space reconstruction may be used to identify incipient damage (loss of preload) in a bolted joint. In this study, a new experiment is undertaken with updated test equipment, including a piezostack actuator that allows for precise control of bolt preload. The excitation waveform is applied to a macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch that is bonded to the test structure and is sensed in an active manner using a second MFC patch. A novel prediction error algorithm, based on comparing filtered properties of the guided chaotic waves, is used to determine the damage state of a frame structure and is shown to be highly sensitive to small levels of bolt preload loss. The performance of the prediction error method is compared with standard structural health monitoring damage features that are based on time series analysis using auto-regressive (AR) models.

  15. Lung biological activity of American attapulgite

    SciTech Connect

    Begin, R.; Masse, S.; Rola-Pleszczynski, M.; Geoffroy, M.; Martel, M.; Desmarais, Y.; Sebastien, P.

    1987-04-01

    Attapulgite is a fibrous mineral industrially consumed at the rate of over a million tons per year but the biological activity of the material is not fully known. To evaluate the in vivo toxicity of the fibrous materials, they exposed the tracheal lobe of 16 sheep to a single exposure of either 100 ml saline, 100 mg UICC asbestos fibers in 100 ml saline, 100 mg short asbestos fibers in 100 ml saline, or 100 mg attapulgite in 100 ml saline. The animals were studied by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at Days 2, 12, 24, 40, and 60 and by autopsy at Day 60. In the saline-exposed sheep, BAL and lung histology did not change. In the UICC asbestos-exposed animals, they reproduced the BAL changes previously reported. In the short asbestos-exposed sheep, there were no significant BAL changes. In the attapulgite sheep, they found significant and sustained increases in total BAL cells, macrophages, neutrophils, fibronectin, lactate dehydrogenase, ..beta..-glucuronidase, but BAL cellularity returned to control levels by Day 60 whereas in the UICC asbestos-exposed sheep, it remained significantly above control. Lung histology demonstrated the characteristic peribronchiolar fibrosing alveolitis in the UICC asbestos-exposed sheep, whereas macrophagic alveolitis with minimal airway distortion was seen in the short asbestos-exposed sheep, whereas macrophagic alveolitis with minimal airway distortion was seen in the short asbestos-exposed sheep and in all of the attapulgite-exposed sheep but three which had typical peribronchiolar alveolitis quite similar to that observed in UICC-exposed sheep, but of lower intensity.

  16. WFSD fault monitoring using active seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Ge, H.; Wang, B.; Yuan, S.; Song, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Wenchuan Fault Scientific Drilling(WFSD)is a rapid response drilling project to the great Wenchuan earthquake. It focuses on the fault structure, earthquake physical mechanism, fluid and in-situ stress, energy budget and so on. Temporal variation of stress and physical property in the fault zone is important information for understanding earthquake physics, especially when the fault is still under the post-seismic recovery or stress modification. Seismic velocity is a good indicator of the medium mechanics, stress state within the fault zone. After the great Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, May 12, 2008, we built up a fault dynamic monitoring system using active seismic source cross the WFSD fault. It consists of a 10 ton accurately controlled eccentric mass source and eight receivers to continuously monitor the seismic velocity cross the fault zone. Combining the aftershock data, we try to monitor the fault recovery and some aftershock physical process. The observatory is located at the middle of the Longmenshan range-front fault, Mianzhu, Sichuan Province. The No.3 hole of WFSD is on the survey line near the No.4 receiver. The source and receiver site were carefully treated. All instruments were well installed to ensure the system's repeatability. Seismic velocity across the fault zone was monitored with continuous observation. The recording system consists of Guralp-40T short period seismometer and RefTek-130B recorder which was continuously GPS timed up to 20us. The active source ran since June 20, 2009. It was operated routinely at night and working continuously from 21:00 to 02:00 of the next day. So far, we have gotten almost one year recording. The seismic velocity variation may be caused by changes of the fault zone medium mechanical property, fault stress, fluid, and earth tide, barometric pressure and rainfall. Deconvolution, stacking and cross-correlation analysis were used for the velocity analysis. Results show that the relationship between seismic

  17. [Medical and biologic monitoring of Aral region population health].

    PubMed

    Mutaihan, Zh M; Ibrayeva, L K; Batyrbekova, L S; Aleshina, N Yu; Smagulova, B Zh; Abitayev, D S; Atshabarova, S Sh

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on health state in dwellers of Shiely settlement in Kyzylorda region, evaluation of therapeutic morbidity by organ systems among the examined population. Findings are that 92% of the examinees are assigned to a morbid group, according to medical and biologic studies. As per nosology classes: first place was occupied by urogenital diseases, second place--by digestive diseases, third place--by blood and hemogenesis disorders. Comparative analysis by sex revealed no differences in first two rank places (urogenital diseases in males 78.7%, in females - 77.2%; digestive diseases--72.3% and 74.4% respectively), third place was occupied by circulatory diseases (15.7%) in males and by blood and hemogenesis disorders (26.4%) in females.

  18. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Shoemaker, B. A.; Hinzman, R. L.

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  19. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Biologically Active Cyclopenta[b]indoles.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marilia S; Fernandes, Daniara C; Rodrigues, Manoel T; Regiani, Thais; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; de Carvalho, João E; Eberlin, Marcos N; Coelho, Fernando

    2016-08-05

    The cyclopenta[b]indole motif is present in several natural and synthetic biologically active compounds, being directly responsible for the biological effects some of them present. We described herein a three step sequence for the synthesis of cyclopenta[b]indoles with a great structural diversity. The method is based on an oxidative Michael addition of suitable indoles on the double bond of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts mediated by a hypervalent iodine reagent (IBX) to form β-ketoesters, which were chemoselectively reduced with NaBH4 in THF to give the corresponding β-hydroxy-esters. The diastereoisomeric mixture was then treated with a catalytic amount of triflic acid (20 mol %) to give cyclopenta[b]indoles with overall yields ranging from 8 to 73% (for 2 steps). The acid-catalyzed cyclization step gave the required heterocycles, via an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction, with high diastereoselectivity, where only the trans product was observed. A mechanistic study monitored by ESI-(+)-MS was also conducted to collect evidence about the mechanism of this reaction. The new molecules herein synthesized were also evaluated against a panel of human cancer cells demonstrating a promising antitumoral profile.

  20. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  1. Biological monitoring IX: Concomitant exposure to medications and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J.

    1994-05-01

    A significant proportion of workers may be receiving prescription or nonprescription medications. In two surveys, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, 15 to 30 percent of workers reported current use of pharmaceuticals. In a viscose rayon factory in Belgium, 31 percent of 129 workers exposed to carbon disulfide and 19.8 percent of 81 control workers from other factories reported use of some medication. Some of the drugs may affect the relationship between the external exposure (dose) of a chemical and the concentration of that chemical or its metabolite(s) in a sampled biological medium (internal dose), and/or the relationship between external exposure and concentration at a receptor site. They may also modulate the response of the receptor, as suggested by the increased reports of neurological symptoms in carbon disulfide-exposed workers taking certain medications. There are two obvious differences between drugs and industrial chemicals: (1) The effects of drugs cover a wider spectrum and include effects not known to be the result of any industrial chemicals. Examples include selective destructive inhibition of hepatic enzymes (monoamine oxidase inhibitors, indomethacin) and alteration of hepatic blood flow (adrenergic agents, cimetidine). (2) Drugs are administered to produce specific therapeutic effects. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Toxicity testing and instream biological monitoring in evaluating municipal effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, K.; Pontasch, K.

    1995-12-31

    Twelve streams receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents were evaluated in riffle areas above and below the outfall using the Environmental Protection Agency`s Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) for benthic macroinvertebrates. Eight of the sites evaluated using RBP 1 exhibited stream health in the downstream riffles equaling or exceeding the upstream riffles. RBP 1 results suggested possible impacts at the remaining four sites, and these sites were more intensely evaluated using RBPs 2 and 3, acute effluent toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, and quantification of periphytic chlorophyll a and ash free dry weight (AFDW). Results from RBP 2 indicated three of the four sites evaluated have similar taxonomic richness above and below the outfall, while one site is heavily impacted by organic pollutants. Toxicity tests with 100% effluent resulted in no mortality with any of the four effluents tested. Relative to the respective upstream sites, chlorophyll a was significantly increased at one downstream site and significantly reduced at another. AFDW was similar above and below the outfalls in all streams. These results suggest that laboratory toxicity tests may not always be adequate predictors of instream biological effects.

  3. The ice nucleation activity of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothe, H.; Pummer, B.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.

    2012-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen may be important for several atmospheric processes. Particularly, the ice nucleation caused by PBAPs is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate is not yet fully understood. In laboratory model studies we investigated the ice nucleation activity of selected PBAPs. We studied the immersion mode freezing using water-oil emulsion, which we observed by optical microscopy. We particularly focused on pollen. We show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behavior. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 K to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen) have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. For comparison the ice nucleation activity of Snomax, fungal spores, and mushrooms will be discussed as well. In the past, pollen have been rejected as important atmospheric IN, as they are not as abundant in the atmosphere as bacteria or mineral dust and are too heavy to reach higher altitudes. However, in our experiments (Pummer et al. 2011) it turned out that water, which had been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. So the ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules (100-300 kDa) located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. It is widely known, that material from the pollen, like allergens and sugars, can indeed leave the pollen body and be distributed independently. The most probable mechanism is the pollen grain bursting by rain, which releases

  4. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Optoacoustic laser monitoring of cooling and freezing of tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, I. V.; Motamedi, M.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2002-11-01

    Real-time monitoring of cooling and freezing of tissues, cells, and other biological objects with a high spatial and time resolution, which is necessary for selective destruction of cancer and benign tumours during cryotherapy, as well as for preventing any damage to the structure and functioning of biological objects in cryobiology, is considered. The optoacoustic method, based on the measurement and analysis of acoustic waves induced by short laser pulses, is proposed for monitoring the cooling and freezing of the tissue. The effect of cooling and freezing on the amplitude and time profile of acoustic signals generated in real tissues and in a model object is studied. The experimental results indicate that the optoacoustic laser technique can be used for real-time monitoring of cooling and freezing of biological objects with a submillimeter spatial resolution and a high contrast.

  5. An ecological acoustic recorder (EAR) for long-term monitoring of biological and anthropogenic sounds on coral reefs and other marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Marc O; Brainard, Russell E; Au, Whitlow W L; Mooney, T Aran; Wong, Kevin B

    2008-03-01

    Keeping track of long-term biological trends in many marine habitats is a challenging task that is exacerbated when the habitats in question are in remote locations. Monitoring the ambient sound field may be a useful way of assessing biological activity because many behavioral processes are accompanied by sound production. This article reports the preliminary results of an effort to develop and use an Ecological Acoustic Recorder (EAR) to monitor biological activity on coral reefs and in surrounding waters for periods of 1 year or longer. The EAR is a microprocessor-based autonomous recorder that periodically samples the ambient sound field and also automatically detects sounds that meet specific criteria. The system was used to record the sound field of coral reefs and other marine habitats on Oahu, HI. Snapping shrimp produced the dominant acoustic energy on the reefs examined and exhibited clear diel acoustic trends. Other biological sounds recorded included those produced by fish and cetaceans, which also exhibited distinct temporal variability. Motor vessel activity could also be monitored effectively with the EAR. The results indicate that acoustic monitoring may be an effective means of tracking biological and anthropogenic activity at locations where continuous monitoring by traditional survey methods is impractical.

  6. The Infusion of Environmental Activities into a Secondary Biology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Helen M.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed are "adventure-type" environmental education activities incorporated into a secondary level biology course. Student wilderness experiences included 24 weekend activities of hiking, bird watching, camping, and cross-country skiing. (SL)

  7. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor); Rabolt, John (Inventor); Casper, Cheryl (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A functionalized electrospun matrix for the controlled-release of biologically active agents, such as growth factors, is presented. The functionalized matrix comprises a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin.

  8. Integrating biological indicators in a Soil Monitoring Network to improve soil quality diagnosis - a study case in Southern Belgium (Wallonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Inken; Chartin, Caroline; van Wesemael, Bas; Carnol, Monique

    2017-04-01

    Soil organisms and their activities are essential for soil ecosystem functioning and are thus pertinent indicators of soil quality. Recent efforts have been undertaken to include biological indicators of soil quality into regional/national monitoring networks. The aim of this study was to establish baseline values for six biological indicators and two eco-physiological quotients for agricultural soils in the CARBIOSOL network and to assess small scale spatial and seasonal variability. Potential respiration, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, net nitrogen mineralization, metabolic diversity of soil bacteria, earthworm abundance, microbial quotient and metabolic quotient were measured at 60 sites across contrasting agricultural regions (different soil types and climate) and land use types (grasslands and croplands). Eleven additional cropland sites, the same biological indicators were measured at four sampling points within the same farm plot at four dates during the vegetation period (April, June, August, October of 2016) to assess temporal variability and small-scale spatial variability. Four of the six selected biological indicators (potential respiration, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen as well as metabolic diversity of soil bacteria) were significantly higher under grassland than under cropland. Ranges of values were generally wider under grasslands than under croplands. Agricultural region did not significantly influence the biological indicators tested. Date of sampling had a significant effect on five of the six selected biological indicators (potential respiration, microbial nitrogen, metabolic diversity of soil bacteria, and net nitrogen mineralization). Temporal variability within one year was slightly higher than variability within one farm plot, with the biological indicators having the highest seasonal variability also showing the highest small-scale spatial variability. This study defined baseline values for agricultural soils at the scale of

  9. A review of microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis for monitoring biological events.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Rachel A; Lunte, Susan M

    2015-02-20

    Microdialysis is a powerful sampling technique that enables monitoring of dynamic processes in vitro and in vivo. The combination of microdialysis with chromatographic or electrophoretic methods with selective detection yields a "separation-based sensor" capable of monitoring multiple analytes in near real time. For monitoring biological events, analysis of microdialysis samples often requires techniques that are fast (<1 min), have low volume requirements (nL-pL), and, ideally, can be employed on-line. Microchip electrophoresis fulfills these requirements and also permits the possibility of integrating sample preparation and manipulation with detection strategies directly on-chip. Microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis has been employed for monitoring biological events in vivo and in vitro. This review discusses technical considerations for coupling microdialysis sampling and microchip electrophoresis, including various interface designs, and current applications in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Automatic Tremor Activity Monitoring System (TAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, H.; Thompson, P. J.; Rogers, G.; Dragert, H.; Spence, G.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an algorithm that quantitatively characterizes the level of seismic tremors from recorded seismic waveforms. For each hour of waveform at a given station, the process begins with the calculation of scintillation index and moving average with various time lengths. The scintillation index (essentially the `normalized variance of intensity of the signal') is adapted from the studies of pulses in radio waves and is an efficient tool to identify the energy bursts of tremor signals. Both scintillation index and moving average values are fed into a series of logic gates to determine if tremor activity exists. This algorithm is implemented in the Tremor Activity Monitoring System (TAMS) to provide automatic early alerts for episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events in the northern Cascadia margin. Currently, TAMS retrieves the digital waveforms recorded during the previous day from the Canadian National Seismographic Network (CNSN) archive server at 1 AM every morning. The detecting process is repeated for all stations and hours to determine the level of tremor activity of the previous day. If a sufficient number of stations within a radius of 100 km are determined to have tremor patterns and coherent tremor arrivals can be found at more than 3 stations, TAMS automatically sends out alert emails to a list of subscribers with a figure summarizing the hours and locations of coherent tremors. TAMS outputs are very consistent with the work done by visual inspection, especially for major ETS events. It is straightforward to configure TAMS into a near-real-time system that can send out hourly (or shorter) reports if necessary.

  11. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Bowen, M.

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  12. Development and investigation of MOEMS type displacement-pressure sensor for biological information monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Malinauskas, Karolis; Janusas, Giedrius; Palevicius, Arvydas; Cekas, Elingas

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop and investigate MOEMS displacement-pressure sensor for biological information monitoring. Developing computational periodical microstructure models using COMSOL Multiphysics modeling software for modal and shape analysis and implementation of these results for design MOEMS displacement-pressure sensor for biological information monitoring was performed. The micro manufacturing technology of periodical microstructure having good diffraction efficiency was proposed. Experimental setup for characterisation of optical properties of periodical microstructure used for design of displacement-pressure sensor was created. Pulsating human artery dynamic characteristics in this paper were analysed.

  13. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to lead with a zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) meter.

    PubMed

    Mets, J T

    1981-12-05

    Recent literature dealing with biological monitoring of people exposed to lead at work is reviewed. The widespread trend to regard lower levels of lead in air or in the blood of workers as acceptable or as recommended upper limits is discussed. Based on practical experience over a 6-month period, it is concluded that the zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) test is an adequate, convenient and inexpensive screening method for monitoring workers exposed to lead in a motor care manufacturing plant.

  14. Biological monitoring of low-level exposure to benzene.

    PubMed

    Campagna, M; Satta, Giannina; Campo, Laura; Flore, Valeria; Ibba, A; Meloni, M; Tocco, Maria Giuseppina; Avataneo, G; Flore, C; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cocco, P

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting opinions exist about the reliability of biomarkers of low-level exposure to benzene. We compared the ability of the urinary excretion of trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), s-phenilmercapturic acid (s-PAMA) and urinary benzene (U-Benz) to detect low level occupational and environmental exposure to benzene. We monitored airborne benzene by personal air sampling, and U-Benz, s-PMAI, t,t-MA and cotinine (U-Cotinine) in spot urine samples, collected at 8 am and 8 pm, in 32 oil refinery workers and 65 subjects, randomly selected among the general population of urban and suburban Cagliari, Italy. Information on personal characteristics, diet and events during the sampling day was acquired through in person interviews. The median concentration of airborne benzene was 25.2 microg/m3 in oil refinery workers, and 8.5 microg/m3 in the general population subgroup. U-Benz in morning and evening samples was significantly more elevated among oil refinery workers than the general population subgroup (p = 0.012, and p = 7.4 x 10(-7), respectively) and among current smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 5.2 x 10(-8), and p = 5.2 x 10(-5) respectively). Benzene biomarkers and their readings in the two sampling phases were well correlated to each other. The Spearman's correlation coefficient with airborne benzene was significant for U-Benz in the evening sample, while no correlation was seen with t,t-MA and s-PMA readings in either samplings. The two benzene metabolites were frequently below limit of detection (LOD), particularly among the general population study subjects (17-9% and 39%, for t,t-MA and s-PMA respectively). Morning U-Cotinine excretion showed a good correlation with U-Benz in the morning and in the evening sampling (p < 0.001), and with s-PMA in the evening sample (p < 0.001), but not with t,t-MA in either samplings. t,t-MA in the evening sample was the only biomarker showing a moderate inverse correlation with BMI (p < 0.05). The multiple regression

  15. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that compon...

  16. Optically active biological particle distinguishing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzman, Gary C.; Kupperman, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to organic particle sorting and identification. High frequency pulses of circularly polarized light, alternating between left and right, intersect a fast moving stream of organic particles. Circular intensity differential scattering and linear intensity differential scattering are monitored to uniquely identify a variety of organic particles.

  17. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  18. A System for Monitoring Posture and Physical Activity Using Accelerometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Abstract- Accelerometers can be used to monitor physical activity in the home over prolonged periods. We describe a novel system for...processing schema in which these parameters are extracted is described. Keywords - physical activity , accelerometers, congestive heart failure, chronic...When monitoring the condition of patients with neurodegenerative or chronic diseases, a knowledge of their body movement and physical activity

  19. Biological effects related to geomagnetic activity and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Viacheslav V

    2017-06-21

    This review presents contemporary data on the biological effects of geomagnetic activity. Correlations between geomagnetic indices and biological parameters and experimental studies that used simulated geomagnetic storms to detect possible responses of organisms to these events in nature are discussed. Possible mechanisms by which geomagnetic activity influences organisms are also considered. Special attention is paid to the idea that geomagnetic activity is perceived by organisms as a disruption of diurnal geomagnetic variation. This variation, in turn, is viewed by way of a secondary zeitgeber for biological circadian rhythms. Additionally, we discuss the utility of cryptochrome as a biological detector of geomagnetic storms. The possible involvement of melatonin and protein coding by the CG8198 gene in the biological effects of geomagnetic activity are discussed. Perspectives for studying mechanisms by which geomagnetic storms affect organisms are suggested. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;9999:1-14. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Biology Research Activities: Teacher's Edition (with Answers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara

    This book is part of the series "Explorations in Science" which contains enrichment activities for the general science curriculum. Each book in the series contains innovative and traditional projects for both the bright and average, the self-motivated, and those who find activity motivating. Each activity is self-contained and provides everything…

  1. Biology Research Activities: Teacher's Edition (with Answers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara

    This book is part of the series "Explorations in Science" which contains enrichment activities for the general science curriculum. Each book in the series contains innovative and traditional projects for both the bright and average, the self-motivated, and those who find activity motivating. Each activity is self-contained and provides everything…

  2. Employing spatial information technologies to monitor biological control of saltcedar in West Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhadha spp.) has shown promise as a biocontrol agent for saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) invasions in the United States. In Texas, natural resource managers need assistance in monitoring biological control of invasive saltcedars. This study describes application of a medium fo...

  3. Quarterly Progress Report on the Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-12-30

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program ( BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  4. EVALUATION OF REAL-TIME INNOVATIVE BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS TO PROTECT SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Real-Time Innovative Biological and Chemical Monitoring Systems
    To Protect Source Waters

    Drinking water supplies have in recent years come under increasing pressure from regulatory concerns regarding TMDL designations and restoration strategies as well ...

  5. EVALUATION OF REAL-TIME INNOVATIVE BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS TO PROTECT SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Real-Time Innovative Biological and Chemical Monitoring Systems
    To Protect Source Waters

    Drinking water supplies have in recent years come under increasing pressure from regulatory concerns regarding TMDL designations and restoration strategies as well ...

  6. A simple convenient biological dosimeter for monitoring solar UV-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C. )

    1991-05-31

    The use of dry Bacillus subtilis spores as a biological dosimeter for the monitoring of solar UV-B (290-330 nm) radiation was described. Our field tests had supported the utility of this dosimeter as a reproducible and reliable sunlight dosimeter.

  7. Glossary (for Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Fungi)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately 300 technical terms and 250 diagrammatic sketches and illustrations are provided for the Smithsonian Institution methods book, ‘Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Fungi.’ Technical terms focus on traditional morphotaxonomy, ecology, and pathology. Als...

  8. New Method for Monitoring the Process of Freeze Drying of Biological Materials.

    PubMed

    Alkeev, Nikolay; Averin, Stanislav; von Gratowski, Svetlana

    2015-12-01

    A capacitive sensor was proposed and tested for the monitoring and control of a freeze drying process of a vaccine against the Newcastle disease of birds. The residual moisture of the vaccine was measured by the thermogravimetric method. The vaccine activity was determined by titration in chicken embryos. It was shown that, at the stages of freezing and primary drying, a capacitive sensor measured the fraction of unfrozen liquid phase in a material and allowed one to control the sublimation stage of drying in an optimal way. This prevented the foaming of the material and shortened the total drying time approximately twice. The control range at the sublimation stage of drying expanded up to -70°C. It was found at the final stage of drying that the signal of a capacitive sensor passed through a maximum value. We supposed that this maximum corresponds to the minimum of intramolecular mobility of biological macromolecules and hence to the optimal residual moisture of the material, which ensures long-term preservation of its activity. We also suppose that using the capacitive sensor at the final stage of drying allows one to more precisely detect the time when the residual moisture of dried material reaches the optimal value.

  9. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  10. Deformation Monitoring of AN Active Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapchuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of low frequency earthquakes, slow slip events and other deformation phenomena, new for geophysics, change our understanding of how the energy accumulated in the Earth's crust do release. The new geophysical data make one revise the underlying mechanism of geomechanical processes taking place in fault zones. Conditions for generating different slip modes are still unclear. The most vital question is whether a certain slip mode is intrinsic for a fault or may be controlled by external factors. This work presents the results of two and a half year deformation monitoring of a discontinuity in the zone of the Main Sayanskiy Fault. Main Sayanskiy Fault is right-lateral strike-slip fault. Observations were performed in the tunnel of Talaya seismic station (TLY), Irkutsk region, Russia. Measurements were carried out 70 m away from the entrance of the tunnel, the thickness of overlying rock was about 30 m. Inductive sensors of displacement were mounted at the both sides of a discontinuity, which recorded three components of relative fault side displacement with the accuracy of 0.2 mcm. Temperature variation inside the tunnel didn't exceed 0.5oC during the all period of observations. Important information about deformation properties of an active fault was obtained. A pronounced seasonality of deformation characteristics of discontinuity is observed in the investigated segment of rock. A great number of slow slip events with durations from several hours to several weeks were registered. Besides that alterations of fault deformation characteristics before the megathrust earthquake M9.0 Tohoku Oki 11 March 2011 and reaction to the event itself were detected. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 14-17-00719).

  11. Proposal for a biological environmental monitoring approach to be used in libraries and archives.

    PubMed

    Pasquarella, Cesira; Saccani, Elisa; Sansebastiano, Giuliano Ezio; Ugolotti, Manuela; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Albertini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In cultural-heritage-related indoor environments, biological particles represent a hazard not only for cultural property, but also for operators and visitors. Reliable environmental monitoring methods are essential for examining each situation and assessing the effectiveness of preventive measures. We propose an integrated approach to the study of biological pollution in indoor environments such as libraries and archives. This approach includes microbial air and surface sampling, as well as an investigation of allergens and pollens. Part of this monitoring plan has been applied at the Palatina Library in Parma, Italy. However, wider collections of data are needed to fully understand the phenomena related with biological contamination, define reliable contamination threshold values, and implement appropriate preventive measures.

  12. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  13. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of remedial

  14. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  15. Sensitive bioassay for detection of biologically active ricin in food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare highlights the need to develop fast and effective methods to detect biologically active ricin. The current “gold standard” for ricin detection is an in vivo mouse bioassay; however, this method is not practical to test on a large number of...

  16. A review of surface wipe sampling compared to biologic monitoring for occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kibby, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The potential for adverse health effects from occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD) is well known. Control measures recommended by the NIOSH Alert ([3]) include medical and biologic monitoring, and environmental monitoring where available. At present no guidelines or published best practices exist to guide EHS managers on how to carry out this biologic or environmental monitoring. Studies investigating surface wipe sampling for AD have been numerous in the past decade, but very limited research exists to correlate surface contamination with actual absorption by pharmacists and nurses. This article reviews the studies with concurrent surface wipe sampling and urine monitoring for the same AD, and tests their correlation. Methodologic limitations are reviewed. Twenty-one studies were identified that concurrently measured surface contamination by AD by wipe sampling and AD absorption by urine monitoring. Two studies directly evaluated the AD by wipe sampling and urine levels and neither found a statistically significant correlation. Six studies reported a decrease in both surface and urine levels following interventions to reduce contamination or exposure. Only one study directly evaluated the personal protective equipment and handling techniques employed by the studied workers, which can be viewed as a major confounder of absorption. While no statistically significant correlation was found between wipe sampling and urine monitoring for AD, decreases in urine and wipe levels following interventions to reduce exposure were noted. Limitations in the data and recommendations for future research are reviewed.

  17. Geophysical Mapping and Monitoring of Active Planets (GMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, P. J.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2017-02-01

    Recent findings require a strongly upward revision of volcano-tectonic activity rate estimates for Venus and Mars. We propose a program of Geophysical Mapping and Monitoring of Active Planets (GMAP) including seismology, gravimetry, InSAR, and GPS.

  18. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  19. Instructional physical activity monitor video in english and spanish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ActiGraph activity monitor is a widely used method for assessing physical activity. Compliance with study procedures in critical. A common procedure is for the research team to meet with participants and demonstrate how and when to attach and remove the monitor and convey how many wear-days are ...

  20. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Brasil, Davi Do Socorro Barros; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:26246738

  1. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Barros Brasil, Davi Do Socorro; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:27041867

  2. Evaluation of biological activity of quantum dots in a microsystem.

    PubMed

    Grabowska-Jadach, Ilona; Haczyk, Maja; Drozd, Marcin; Fischer, Agnieszka; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Malinowska, Elżbieta; Brzózka, Zbigniew

    2016-02-01

    The presented work aimed at systematic investigation of biological activity of CdSex S1- x /ZnS and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), whose surface was modified with different ligands. For these studies, we used a microfluidic system combined with fluorescence microscopy techniques, which enabled analysis of cells' morphology, viability, and QDs uptake. PDMS and glass-based microfluidic system enabled the precise control of the cell environment, allowed to examine five replications of each tested QDs concentrations (statistically significant number), monitor multiple cellular events, and avoid manual preparation of QDs dilutions. We investigated the influence of the core composition and the type of surface modifiers on QDs toxicity. We also determined whether the examined nanoparticles penetrate into the cells. For all tested nanoparticles, the decrease of cells' viability was observed when increasing nanoparticles concentration. The decrease of live cells' number in microchambers and the accumulation of the nanoparticles around cultured cells were observed. The effect of hydrocarbon chain length of surface modifiers and QDs core composition on the cell viability was confirmed in our tests.

  3. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, Sandra

    2015-04-14

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  5. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  6. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  7. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-05-27

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  8. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a biologically active functionalized electrospun matrix to permit immobilization and long-term delivery of biologically active agents. In particular the invention relates to a functionalized polymer matrix comprising a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin. Examples of active molecules that may be used with the multicomponent polymer of the invention include, for example, a drug, a biopolymer, for example a growth factor, a protein, a peptide, a nucleotide, a polysaccharide, a biological macromolecule or the like. The invention is further directed to the formation of functionalized crosslinked matrices, such as hydrogels, that include at least one functionalized compatibilizing polymer capable of assembly.

  9. Integrating Biological Activity and Exposure in the US EPA's ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    presentation at the IUTOX meeting in Mexico on Oct. 3, 2016. on Integrating Biological Activity and Exposure in the US EPA's Toxcast Program. presentation at the IUTOX meeting in Mexico on Oct. 3, 2016.

  10. Enriching the biological space of natural products, through real time biotransformation monitoring: The NMR tube bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chatzikonstantinou, Alexandra V; Chatziathanasiadou, Maria V; Ravera, Enrico; Fragai, Marco; Parigi, Giacomo; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Luchinat, Claudio; Stamatis, Haralambos L; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2017-09-30

    Natural products offer a wide range of biological activities, but they are not easily integrated in the drug discovery pipeline, beacuse of their inherent scaffold intricacy and the associated complexity in their synthetic chemistry. Enzymes may be used to perform regioselective and stereoselective incorporation of functional groups in the natural product core, avoiding harsh reaction conditions, several protection/deprotection and purification steps. Herein we developed a three step protocol carried out inside an NMR-tube. 1st-step: STD-NMR was used to predict the: i) capacity of natural products as enzyme substrates and ii) possible regioselectivity of the biotransformations. 2nd-step: The real-time formation of multiple-biotransformation products in the NMR-tube bioreactor was monitored in-situ. 3rd-step: STD-NMR was applied in the mixture of the biotransformed products to screen ligands for protein targets. Herein we developed a simple and time-effective process, the "NMR-tube bioreactor", that is able to: (i) predict which component of a mixture of natural products can be enzymatically transformed, (ii) monitor in situ the transformation efficacy and regioselectivity in crude extracts and multiple substrate biotransformations without fractionation and (iii) simultaneously screen for interactions of the biotransformation products with pharmaceutical protein targets. We have developed a green, time-, and cost-effective process that provide a simple route from natural products to lead compounds for drug discovery. This process can speed up the most crucial steps in the early drug discovery process, and reduce the chemical manipulations usually involved in the pipeline, improving the environmental compatibility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Evaluation of exposure to PAHs in asphalt workers by environmental and biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Buratti, Marina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cirla, Piero E; Martinotti, Irene; Longhi, Omar; Cavallo, Domenico; Foà, Vito

    2006-09-01

    In the present article we assessed exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Italian asphalt workers (AW, n = 100), exposed to bitumen fumes and diesel exhausts, and in roadside construction workers (CW, n = 47), exposed to diesel exhausts, by means of environmental and biological monitoring. 1-hydroxypyrene (OH-Py) was determined in urine spot samples collected, respectively, after 2 days of vacation (baseline), before, and at the end of the monitored work shift, in the second part of the workweek. Median airborne levels during the work shift of 15 PAHs (both vapor and particulate phases), from naphthalene (NAP) to indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, ranged from below 0.03 to 426 ng/m(3). Median excretion values of OH-Py in baseline, before- and end-shift samples were 228, 402, and 690 ng/L for AW and 260, 304, and 378 ng/L for CW. Lower values were found in nonsmokers compared to smokers (e.g., in AW 565 and 781 versus 252 and 506 ng/L in before-shift and end-shift samples, respectively). In all subjects a weak correlation between personal exposure to the sum of airborne 15 PAHs and OH-Py was observed (r = 0.30). The results of this article show that AW experienced a moderate occupational exposure to airborne PAHs, resulting in a significant increase of urinary OH-Py during the workday and the workweek. The contribution of working activities to internal dose was in the same order of magnitude of the contribution of cigarette smoking.

  12. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bacil, Eliane Denise Araújo; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Legnani, Rosimeide Francisco dos Santos; de Campos, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA) and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight) can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders. PMID:25583624

  13. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  14. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  15. Biological monitoring of genotoxic hazard in workers of the rubber industry.

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, M; Villarini, M; Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Monarca, S; Libraro, M; Fatigoni, C; Donato, F; Leonardis, C; Perego, L

    1996-01-01

    Biological monitoring of genotoxic hazard in the rubber industry was performed in 19 male workers and 20 age-matched controls in a local health unit in northern Italy. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were analyzed for the presence of DNA damage (single-cell microgel-electrophoresis, or comet assay) and for cytogenetic parameters (sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei frequency, and proliferative rate index). The following bioassays were performed in urine samples: a) mutagenicity test and concentration of thioethers as markers of exposure, and b) excretion of D-glucaric acid and 6-beta-hydroxycortisol (related to 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion) as indicators of the inductive status of the microsomal enzyme system (phase-I). The exposed subjects showed statistically higher mean values of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and micronuclei and lower values of 6-beta-hydroxycortisol than controls, when taking cigarette smoking into account. The comet assay showed higher values for migration distance in exposed subjects than controls, although the differences were not significant at a p-value of 0.05. These findings suggest that industrial exposure in the rubber processing industry may cause genetic damage and may modify the activity level of some enzymes; these results should be considered with caution due to the small number of subjects enrolled. PMID:8781380

  16. Carbon Nanotube Degradation in Macrophages: Live Nanoscale Monitoring and Understanding of Biological Pathway.

    PubMed

    Elgrabli, Dan; Dachraoui, Walid; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Liu, Xiao Jie; Bégin, Dominique; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Bianco, Alberto; Gazeau, Florence; Alloyeau, Damien

    2015-10-27

    Despite numerous applications, the cellular-clearance mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has not been clearly established yet. Previous in vitro studies showed the ability of oxidative enzymes to induce nanotube degradation. Interestingly, these enzymes have the common capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we combined material and life science approaches for revealing an intracellular way taken by macrophages to degrade carbon nanotubes. We report the in situ monitoring of ROS-mediated MWCNT degradation by liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy. Two degradation mechanisms induced by hydroxyl radicals were extracted from these unseen dynamic nanoscale investigations: a non-site-specific thinning process of the walls and a site-specific transversal drilling process on pre-existing defects of nanotubes. Remarkably, similar ROS-induced structural injuries were observed on MWCNTs after aging into macrophages from 1 to 7 days. Beside unraveling oxidative transformations of MWCNT structure, we elucidated an important, albeit not exclusive, biological pathway for MWCNT degradation in macrophages, involving NOX2 complex activation, superoxide production, and hydroxyl radical attack, which highlights the critical role of oxidative stress in cellular processing of MWCNTs.

  17. Long-Term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management [Special Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Marshall; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Ham, Kenneth; Kszos, Lynn A; Loar, James M; McCracken, Kitty; Morris, Gail Wright; Peterson, Mark J; Ryon, Michael G; Smith, John G; Southworth, George R; Stewart, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  18. Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Synthesis and Environmental Management Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Adams, Marshall

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  19. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S. ); Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. ); Gatz, A.J. )

    1991-01-01

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were best'' or worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature.

  20. Tennessee`s East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Gatz, A.J.

    1991-12-31

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge`s Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ``best`` or ``worst`` for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature.

  1. Long-Term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Synthesis and Environmental Management Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Adams, S. Marshall

    2011-06-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  2. Biologically active secondary metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpus.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Ma, Guoyi; El-Hela, Atef A; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I; Kottob, Saeid; El-Ghaly, Sayed; Cutler, Stephen J; Ross, Samir A

    2013-08-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm.et Vivi (Asphodelaceae) resulted in the isolation of one new metabolite, 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2-naphthoic acid (1) as well as nine known compounds: asphodelin (2), chrysophanol (3), 8-methoxychrysophanol (4), emodin (5), 2-acetyl-1,8-dimethoxy-3-methylnaphthalene (6), 10-(chrysophanol-7'-yl)-10-hydroxychrysophanol-9-anthrone (7), aloesaponol-III-8-methyl ether (8), ramosin (9) and aestivin (10). The compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Compounds 3, 6 and 10 were isolated for the first time from this species. Compounds 3 and 4 showed moderate to weak antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 14.3 and 35.1 microg/mL, respectively. Compound 4 exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 15.0 microg/mL, while compounds 5, 7 and 10 showed good to potent activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values of 6.6, 9.4 microg/mL and 1.4 microg/mL respectively. Compounds 5, 8 and 9 displayed good activity against S. aureus with IC50 values of 3.2, 7.3 and 8.5 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 7 and 9 exhibited a potent cytotoxic activity against leukemia LH60 and K562 cell lines. Compound 10 showed potent antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values in the range of 0.8-0.7 microg/mL without showing any cytotoxicity to mammalian cells.

  3. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    SciTech Connect

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with /sup 3/H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled (29-/sup 3/H)-(24-/sup 14/C) fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of /sup 3/H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The (29-/sup 3/H) phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation.

  4. Transport and biological activities of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Brittnee L; Agellon, Luis B

    2013-07-01

    Bile acids have emerged as important biological molecules that support the solubilization of various lipids and lipid-soluble compounds in the gut, and the regulation of gene expression and cellular function. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and eventually released into the small intestine. The majority of bile acids are recovered in the distal end of the small intestine and then returned to the liver for reuse. The components of the mechanism responsible for the recycling of bile acids within the enterohepatic circulation have been identified whereas the mechanism for intracellular transport is less understood. Recently, the ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP; human gene symbol FABP6) was shown to be needed for the efficient transport of bile acids from the apical side to the basolateral side of enterocytes in the distal intestine. This review presents an overview of the transport of bile acids between the liver and the gut as well as within hepatocytes and enterocytes. A variety of pathologies is associated with the malfunction of the bile acid transport system.

  5. Biologically active phenols from Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cheng-Qi; Yue, Jian-Min

    2003-03-06

    Sixteen phenolic compounds were isolated from the polar fraction of Saussurea medusa and were structurally elucidated by chemical evidences and spectral methods. These compounds include two new lignan glucosides, namely medusasides A (1) and B (2), and fourteen known phenolic compounds (3-16). One major compound, apigenin 7-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (6) showed remarkable activity to attenuate the scopolamine induced memory deficit of mice. Compound 6 and another major one, quercetin (8) also exhibited moderate cell protecting activities against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced PC12 cell damage.

  6. Evaluation of hydrotreatment as a means of reducing biological activity of synfuel related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Dumont, J.N.; Rao, T.K.; Guerin, M.R.; Ma, C.Y.; Epler, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    Raw and hydrotreated product liquids from process demonstration units of experimental ''H-coal'' and ''solvent-refined coal'' processes were examined for acute toxicity monitored as population growth impairment of Tetrahymena exposed to aqueous extracts and for mutagenic activity monitored as revertants of Salmonella exposed to metabolically activated chemical class fractions. With both systems, deleterious effects are generally reduced as the severity of hydrotreatment is increased. The major exception appears to be with the low severity hydrotreated H-coal distillate where mutagenicity in the polyaromatic fraction is slightly enhanced over that of the raw distillate. However, medium to high severity hydrotreatment appears to be an effective means of reducing biological activity monitored presumably by reducing aromaticity and heteroatom content.

  7. Biologically active steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Bedir, E; Khan, I A; Walker, L A

    2002-07-01

    The steroidal saponin constituents obtained from Tribulus terrestris were tested for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. The spirostanol-based steroidal saponins 1-3 exhibited remarkable activity against fungal organisms (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) and cancer cell lines [human malignant melanoma (SK-MEL), human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB), human breast ductal carcinoma (BT-549), and human ovary carcinoma (SK-OV-3)], while none of the compounds possessing the furostanol framework 4-7 showed activity. The most active spirostanol glycoside, compound 3 exhibited a broad range of anticancer activity against cell lines, SK-MEL, KB, BT-549 and SK-OV-3 at IC50s of 6.0, 7.0, 6.0 and 8.2 micrograms/ml, respectively, while compounds 1 and 2 showed selective cytotoxicity against SK-MEL at 6.7 and 9.1 micrograms/ml, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in antifungal bioassay for compounds 1-3 varied from 1.5 to 6.2 micrograms/ml, which prompted to conclude certain structural features are required for these bioactivities.

  8. Building biologically active nucleic acid nanocomplexes.

    PubMed

    Smith, C I Edvard; Lundin, Karin E; Simonson, Oscar E; Moreno, Pedro M D; Svahn, Mathias G; Wenska, Malgorzata; Strömberg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The Bioplex technology allows the hybridization of functional entities to various forms of nucleic acids by the use of synthetic nucleic acid analogs. Such supramolecular assemblies can be made in a predetermined fashion and can confer new properties. The Zorro technology is based on a novel construct generated to simultaneously bind to both DNA strands. Such compounds may have gene silencing activity.

  9. Relationship between insulin A chain regions and insulin biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shi-Zhen; Huang, Yi-Ding; Jie, Xin-Feng; Feng, You-Min; Niu, Jing-Yi

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between insulin A chain regions and insulin biological activities, we designed a series of insulin analogues with changes at A21, A12-18 of C-terminal helical region and A8-10 located in the region of A6-A11 intra-chain disulphide bond. METHODS: Insulin A-chain analogues were prepared by stepwise Fmoc solid-phase manual synthesis and then combined with natural B-chain of porcine insulin to yield corresponding insulin analogues. Their biological activities were tested by receptor binding, mouse convulsion and immunological assay. RESULTS: [A21Ala]Ins retains 70.3% receptor binding capacity and 60% in vivo biological activity. [DesA13-14, A21Ala]Ins and [DesA12-13-14-15, A21Ala] Ins still have definite biological activity, 7.9% and 4.0% receptor binding, and 6.2% and 3.3% in vivo biological activity respectively. [A15Asn, A17Pro, A21Ala]Ins maintains 10.4% receptor binding and 10% in vivo biological activity. [A8His, A9Arg, A10Pro, A21Ala]Ins, [A8His, A9Lys, A10Pro, A21Ala]Ins and [A8His, A9Lys, A10Arg, A21Ala]Ins have 51.9%, 44.3% and 32.1% receptor binding respectively, 50%, 40% and 30% in vivo biological activity respectively, and 28.8%, 29.6% and 15.4% immunological activity respectively. CONCLUSION: A21Asn can be replaced by simple amino acid residues. The A chains with gradually damaged structur al integrity in A12-18 helical region and the demolition of the A12-18 helical region by the substitution of Pro and Asn for A17Glu and A15Gln respectively ca n combine with the B chain and the combination products show definite biological activity, the helical structure of A12-18 is essential for biological activities of insulin. A8-10 is not much concerned with biological activities, but is much more important antigenically in binding to its antibodies, these results may help us design a new type of insulin analogue molecule. PMID:11819600

  10. Integration of experiments for the detection of biological activity in extraterrestrial exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merek, E. L.; Oyama, V. I.

    1970-01-01

    Although many experiments have been suggested and described for the detection of biological activity in planetary exploration, each experiment has required its own sample for the detection of a specific phenomenon. An experimental design which could detect growth, catabolic and anabolic activity on a single sample is described. Growth is monitored in a liquid medium which is in contact with, and chemically influenced by, a relatively large sample. Catabolic activity is indicated by changes in the gas composition of the atmosphere above the sample. Anabolic activity is indicated by the appearance of reduced carbon compounds, from oxidized precursors, in the liquid medium.

  11. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake.

  12. Isoxanthohumol--Biologically active hop flavonoid.

    PubMed

    Żołnierczyk, Anna Katarzyna; Mączka, Wanda Krystyna; Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Wińska, Katarzyna; Woźniak, Edyta; Anioł, Mirosław

    2015-06-01

    Isoxanthohumol (IXN), apart from xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN), is one of the most important prenylflavonoids found in hops. Another natural source of this compound is a shrub Sophora flavescens, used in traditional Chinese medicine. Main dietary source of IXN is beer, and the compound is produced from XN during wort boiling. In the human body, the compound is O-demethylated to 8PN, the strongest known phytoestrogen. This process takes place in the liver and in the intestine, where it is mediated by local microflora. It has been reported in some studies that even though beer contains small amounts of hops and its preparations, these compounds may affect the functioning of the human body. IXN exhibits an antiproliferative activity against human cell lines typical for breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian cancer (A-2780), prostate cancer (DU145 and PC-3), and colon cancer (HT-29 and SW620) cells. It strongly inhibits the activation of the following carcinogens: 2-amino-3-methylimidazol-[4,5-f]quinoline and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) via human cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2). It also inhibits the production of prostate specific antigen (PSA). IXN significantly reduces the expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the case of invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It interferes with JAK/STAT signaling pathway and inhibits the expression of pro1inflammatory genes in the monoblastic leukemia cell line (MonoMac6). It activates apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). In addition, IXN shows an antiviral activity towards herpes viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

  13. Biological activities of yarrow species (Achillea spp.).

    PubMed

    Nemeth, E; Bernath, J

    2008-01-01

    The genus Achillea consists of about 140 perennial herbs native to the Northern hemisphere. Traditional indications of their use include digestive problems, liver and gall-bladder conditions, menstrual irregularities, cramps, fever, wound healing. The Commission E approves its internal use for loss of appetite and dyspeptic ailments (gastric catarrh, spastic discomfort), externally it is used in form of sitz bath or as a compress against skin inflammation, slow healing wounds, bacterial or fungal infections. In the last decades, pharmacological studies became intensive, although human clinical investigations are still rare. Recent findings have confirmed several traditional uses. The largest number of data accumulated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. There are positive results on the analgesic, anti-ulcer, choleretic, hepatoprotective and wound healing activities. First results on other interesting therapeutical areas - antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antispermatogenic activities -need confirmation. Yarrow can be used also as an insect repellent. Contact dermatitis as adverse effect may be connected to sesquiterpenes. The diversity and complexity of the effective compounds of yarrow species explains the broad spectrum of their activity. According to the literature the pharmacological effects are mainly due to the essential oil, proazulenes and other sesquiterpene lactones, dicaffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids. Synergistic actions of these and other compounds are also supposed. Achillea species have different chemical and therapeutical values. Despite of numerous data, correct evaluation of the results is difficult because of missing generally accepted taxonomical nomenclature. The used chemical-analytical methods and bio-assays are utmost diverse, making the comparison complicated. Further research on the activity is needed using exactly defined plant material, standardized methods and chemical analysis.

  14. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  15. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Wu, Chin-Sheng; Wu, Po-Yuan; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2015-09-01

    Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Development of a downscale sedimentation field flow fractionation device for biological event monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bégaud-Grimaud, G; Battu, S; Liagre, B; Beneytout, J L; Jauberteau, M O; Cardot, P J P

    2009-12-25

    Classically described as a macroscale size-density based method, Sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) has been successfully used for cell sorting. The goal of this study was to develop a new SdFFF device for downscale applications, in particular for oncology research to rapidly monitor chemical biological event induction in a cell line. The development of a downscale SdFFF device required reduction of the separation channel volume. Taking advantage of a newly laboratory designed apparatus, channel volume was successfully decreased by reducing both length and breadth. To validate the apparatus and method, we used the well-known model of diosgenin dose-dependent induction of apoptosis or megakaryocytic differentiation in HEL cells. After a minute scale acquisition of a reference profile, the downscale device was able to perform fast, early, significant and reproducible monitoring of apoptosis and differentiation, two important biological mechanisms in the field of cancer research.

  17. Application of thermal desorption to the biological monitoring of organic compounds in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Periago, J F; Prado, C; Ibarra, I; Tortosa, J

    1993-12-24

    We have developed a thermal desorption-gas chromatographic method for the analysis of organic compounds in exhaled breath air, to be used in the biological monitoring of environmental exposure. The exhaled breath sampler is based on the concentration of compounds present in alveolar air in a solid sorbent material. Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl-ether), an inhaled anaesthetic used widely in surgery, and styrene, used in boat construction and the manufacture of fibreglass-reinforced plastics, are partially eliminated from the body in exhaled breath, samples of which can therefore be used to monitor biological exposure to these two organic compounds. Recoveries were tested in controlled atmospheres of isoflurane or styrene, with Chromosorb 106 or Tenax, respectively, as the adsorbent. We also investigated the influence of relative humidity, an important factor in breath sampling, on adsorption.

  18. Variability in biological monitoring of solvent exposure. I. Development of a population physiological model.

    PubMed Central

    Droz, P O; Wu, M M; Cumberland, W G; Berode, M

    1989-01-01

    Biological indicators of exposure to solvents are often characterised by a high variability that may be due either to fluctuations in exposure or individual differences in the workers. To describe and understand this variability better a physiological model for differing workers under variable industrial environments has been developed. Standard statistical distributions are used to simulate variability in exposure concentration, physical workload, body build, liver function, and renal clearance. For groups of workers exposed daily, the model calculates air monitoring indicators and biological monitoring results (expired air, blood, and urine). The results obtained are discussed and compared with measured data, both physiological (body build, cardiac output, alveolar ventilation) and toxicokinetic for six solvents: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, styrene, and their main metabolites. Possible applications of this population physiological model are presented. PMID:2765418

  19. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Crumby, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  20. A Residual Chlorine Removal Method to Allow Drinking Water Monitoring by Biological Early Warning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    Spearman - Karber method (Hamilton et as described below. al., 1977). Dilution water was a mixture Reagent-grade sodium hypochlorite of 60% well water...Inc., Ann Hamilton MA, Russo RC, Thurston RV. Arbor, MI. 1977. Trimmed Spearman - Karber National Research Council. 1996. Guide method for estimating...Technical Report 0501 AAD A RESIDUAL CHLORINE REMOVAL METHOD TO ALLOW DRINKING WATER MONITORING BY BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS US Army Center

  1. Biological monitoring and questionnaire for assessing exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in a multicenter European field study.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Liesivuori, J; Pennanen, S; Vergieva, T; van Amelsvoort, Lgpm; Bosetti, C; Van Loveren, H; Colosio, C

    2008-09-01

    This study deals with pesticide exposure profile in some European countries with a specific focus on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). In all, 55 Bulgarian greenhouse workers, 51 Finnish potato farmers, 48 Italian vineyard workers, 42 Dutch floriculture farmers, and 52 Bulgarian zineb producers entered the study. Each group was matched with a group of not occupationally exposed subjects. Exposure data were gained through self-administered questionnaires and measuring ethylenethiourea (ETU) in two spot urine samples collected, respectively, before the beginning of seasonal exposure (T0), and after 30 days, at the end of the exposure period (T30). Controls underwent a similar protocol. Study agriculture workers were involved in mixing and loading pesticides, application of pesticide mixture with mechanical or manual equipments, re-entry activities, and cleaning equipments. Chemical workers were involved in synthesis, quality controls, and packing activities. The number of pesticides to whom these subjects were exposed varied from one (zineb production) to eight (potato farmers). The use of personal protective devices was variegate and regarded both aerial and dermal penetration routes. EBDC exposure, assessed by T30 urinary ETU, was found to follow the order: greenhouse workers, zineb producers, vineyard workers, potato farmers, floriculture farmers with median levels of 49.6, 23.0, 11.8, 7.5, and 0.9 microg/g creatinine; the last group having ETU at the same level of controls (approximately 0.5 microg/g creatinine). Among agriculture workers, pesticide application, especially using manual equipment, seems to be the major determinant in explaining internal dose. Although the analysis of self-administered questionnaires evidenced difficulties especially related to lack and/or poor quality of reported data, biological monitoring confirms to be a powerful tool in assessing pesticide exposure.

  2. Modification of biological surface activity of particles

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The hemolytic activity of fibrous asbestos varieties and of fibrous or granular silica dust can be markedly reduced by adsorption of polymers. Polyanions exert a specific action on asbestos, particularly chrysotile, whereas silica is inactivated by nonionic polymers. A high degree of reduction of the lytic action by comparatively small amounts of the antagonistic polymers can be demonstrated after short exposure to concentrations of 0.1–0.4 mg/ml of appropriate polymers. Inactivation is based on stable adsorption. Repeated washings of inactivated mineral sediments or exposure to elevated temperatures (80–120°C) produced no essential loss of the reduction of lytic potency. In one example, inactivation of chrysotile by sodium alginate, depolymerization by ascorbic acid was also ineffective. PMID:4377873

  3. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  4. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-07-01

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation.

  5. Biological activities of terthiophenes and polyynes from the Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J B; Graham, E A; Rossi, R; Carpita, A; Neri, D; Towers, G H

    1993-10-01

    We evaluated a number of terthiophenes and polyynes, from the Asteraceae, for biological activities against microorganisms, viruses, and tumor cells, with and without the aid of UVA (long wavelength ultraviolet) radiation. The terthiophenes, which represented the basic alpha-terthienyl nucleus with simple side chains, showed impressive UVA-dependent activities, some of which were superior to alpha-terthienyl itself. In contrast, the polyynes had no significant biological activity, with or without UVA. We believe that these terthiophenes would be worthwhile evaluating in animal models of infectious diseases.

  6. Liposomal Packaging Generates Wnt Protein with In Vivo Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ludan; Kim, Jae-Beom; ten Berge, Derk; Ponnusamy, Karthik; Carre, A. Lyonel; Dudek, Henryk; Zachlederova, Marie; McElhaney, Michael; Brunton, Shirley; Gunzner, Janet; Callow, Marinella; Polakis, Paul; Costa, Mike; Zhang, Xiaoyan M.; Helms, Jill A.; Nusse, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Wnt signals exercise strong cell-biological and regenerative effects of considerable therapeutic value. There are, however, no specific Wnt agonists and no method for in vivo delivery of purified Wnt proteins. Wnts contain lipid adducts that are required for activity and we exploited this lipophilicity by packaging purified Wnt3a protein into lipid vesicles. Rather than being encapsulated, Wnts are tethered to the liposomal surface, where they enhance and sustain Wnt signaling in vitro. Molecules that effectively antagonize soluble Wnt3a protein but are ineffective against the Wnt3a signal presented by a cell in a paracrine or autocrine manner are also unable to block liposomal Wnt3a activity, suggesting that liposomal packaging mimics the biological state of active Wnts. When delivered subcutaneously, Wnt3a liposomes induce hair follicle neogenesis, demonstrating their robust biological activity in a regenerative context. PMID:18698373

  7. Models Role within Active Learning in Biology. A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pop-Pacurar, Irina; Tirla, Felicia-Doina

    2009-01-01

    In order to integrate ideas and information creatively, to motivate students and activate their thinking, we have used in Biology classes a series of active methods, among which the methods of critical thinking, which had very good results. Still, in the case of some intuitive, abstract, more difficult topics, such as the cell structure,…

  8. Should soil testing services measure soil biological activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Health of agricultural soils depends largely on conservation management to promote soil organic C accumulation. Total soil organic C changes slowly, but active fractions are more dynamic. A key indicator of healthy soil is potential biological activity, which could be measured rapidly with soil te...

  9. Azaglycomimetics: Natural Occurrence, Biological Activity, and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Naoki

    A large number of alkaloids mimicking the structures of monosaccharides or oligosaccharides have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. The sugar mimicking alkaloids with a nitrogen in the ring are called azasugars or iminosugars. Naturally occurring azasugars are classified into five structural classes: polyhydroxylated piperidines, pyrrolidines, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and nortropanes. They are easily soluble in water because of their polyhydroxylated structures and inhibit glycosidases because of a structural resemblance to the sugar moiety of the natural substrate. Glycosidases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic processes, such as digestion, lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, biosynthesis of glycoproteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and ER-associated degradation of glycoproteins. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo by inhibitors is of great interest from a therapeutic point of view. Azasugars are an important class of glycosidase inhibitors and are arousing great interest for instance as antidiabetics, antiobesity drugs, antivirals, and therapeutic agents for some genetic disorders. This review describes the recent studies on isolation, characterization, glycosidase inhibitory activity, and therapeutic application of azaglycomimetics.

  10. Manufacturing of peptides exhibiting biological activity.

    PubMed

    Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Timmer, Monika; Polanowski, Antoni; Lubec, Gert; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that food proteins may be a source of bioactive peptides. Those peptides are encrypted in the protein sequence. They stay inactive within the parental protein until release by proteolytic enzymes (Mine and Kovacs-Nolan in Worlds Poult Sci J 62(1):87-95, 2006; Hartman and Miesel in Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:163-169, 2007). Once released the bioactive peptides exhibit several biofunctionalities and may serve therapeutic roles in body systems. Opioid peptides, peptides lowering high blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation as well as being carriers of metal ions and peptides with immunostimulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities have been described (Hartman and Miesel in Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:163-169, 2007). The biofunctional abilities of the peptides have therefore aroused a lot of scientific, technological and consumer interest with respect to the role of dietary proteins in controlling and influencing health (Möller et al. in Eur J Nutr 47(4):171-182, 2008). Biopeptides may find wide application in food production, the cosmetics industry as well as in the prevention and treatment of various medical conditions. They are manufactured by chemical and biotechnological methods (Marx in Chem Eng News 83(11):17-24. 2005; Hancock and Sahl in Nat Biotechnol 24(12):1551-1557, 2006). Depending on specific needs (food or pharmaceutical industry) different degrees of peptide purifications are required. This paper discusses the practicability of manufacturing bioactive peptides, especially from food proteins.

  11. Phytochemistry and biological activities of Phlomis species.

    PubMed

    Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sgaier, Mohamed; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Kilani, Soumaya; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2009-09-07

    The genus Phlomis L. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and encompasses 100 species native to Turkey, North Africa, Europe and Asia. It is a popular herbal tea enjoyed for its taste and aroma. Phlomis species are used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation, and wounds. This review aims to summarize recent research on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Phlomis, with particular emphasis on its ethnobotanical uses. The essential oil of Phomis is composed of four chemotypes dominated by monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, limonene and linalool), sesquiterpenes (germacrene D and beta-caryophyllene), aliphalic compounds (9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester), fatty acids (hexadecanoic acid) and other components (trans-phytol, 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol). Flavonoids, iridoids and phenylethyl alcohol constitute the main compounds isolated from Phlomis extracts. The pharmacological activities of some Phlomis species have been investigated. They are described according to antidiabetic, antinociceptive, antiulcerogenic, protection of the vascular system, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

  12. A review of microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis for monitoring biological events

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Rachel A.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Microdialysis is a powerful sampling technique that enables monitoring of dynamic processes in vitro and in vivo. The combination of microdialysis with chromatographic or electrophoretic methods yields along with selective detection methods yields a “separation-based sensor” capable of monitoring multiple analytes in near real time. Analysis of microdialysis samples requires techniques that are fast (<1 min), have low volume requirements (nL–pL), and, ideally, can be employed on-line. Microchip electrophoresis fulfills these requirements and also permits the possibility of integrating sample preparation and manipulation with detection strategies directly on-chip. Microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis has been employed for monitoring biological events in vivo and in vitro. This review discusses technical considerations for coupling microdialysis sampling and microchip electrophoresis, including various interface designs, and current applications in the field. PMID:25637011

  13. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to benzene in the coke oven industry.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, L; Luck, R; Afacan, A S; Wilson, H K

    1988-01-01

    Workers in the coke oven industry are potentially exposed to low concentrations of benzene. There is a need to establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for low level benzene exposure. The use of breath and blood benzene and urinary phenol has been explored in conjunction with personal monitoring data. At exposures of about 1 ppm benzene, urinary phenol is of no value as an indicator of uptake/exposure. Benzene in blood was measured by head space gas chromatography but the concentrations were only just above the detection limit. The determination of breath benzene collected before the next shift is non-specific in the case of smokers. The most useful monitor at low concentrations appears to be breath benzene measured at the end-of-shift. PMID:3378002

  14. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B. D.; Kitchings, J. T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D. A.; Olsen, C. R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  15. Remote humidity and temperature real time monitoring system for studying seed biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Thiruparan

    This thesis discusses the design, prototyping, and testing of a remote monitoring system that is used to study the biology of seeds under various controlled conditions. Seed scientists use air-tight boxes to maintain relative humidity, which influences seed longevity and seed dormancy break. The common practice is the use of super-saturated solutions either with different chemicals or different concentrations of LiCl to create various relative humidity. Theretofore, no known system has been developed to remotely monitor the environmental conditions inside these boxes in real time. This thesis discusses the development of a remote monitoring system that can be used to accurately monitor and measure the relative humidity and temperature inside sealed boxes for the study of seed biology. The system allows the remote and real-time monitoring of these two parameters in five boxes with different conditions. It functions as a client that is connected to the internet using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) technology while Google spreadsheet is used as the server for uploading and plotting the data. This system directly gets connected to the Google sever through Wi-Fi and uploads the sensors' values in a Google spread sheet. Application-specific software is created and the user can monitor the data in real time and/or download the data into Excel for further analyses. Using Google drive app the data can be viewed using a smart phone or a tablet. Furthermore, an electronic mail (e-mail) alert is also integrated into the system. Whenever measured values go beyond the threshold values, the user will receive an e-mail alert.

  16. Promise of Wearable Physical Activity Monitors in Oncology Practice.

    PubMed

    Beg, Muhammad S; Gupta, Arjun; Stewart, Tyler; Rethorst, Chad D

    2017-02-01

    Commercially available physical activity monitors provide clinicians an opportunity to obtain oncology patient health measures to an unprecedented degree. These devices can provide objective and quantifiable measures of physical activity, which are not subject to errors or bias of self-reporting or shorter duration of formal testing. Prior work on so-called quantified-self data was based on older-generation, research-grade accelerometers, which laid the foundation for consumer-based physical activity monitoring devices to be validated as a feasible and reliable tool in patients with cancer. Physical activity monitors are being used in chronic conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Differing demographics, compounded with higher symptom and treatment burdens in patients with cancer, imply that additional work is needed to understand the unique strengths and weaknesses of physical activity monitors in this population. Oncology programs can systematically implement these tools into their workflows in an adaptable and iterative manner. Translating large amounts of data collected from an individual physical activity monitoring device into clinically relevant information requires sophisticated data compilation and reduction. In this article, we summarize the characteristics of older- and newer-generation physical activity monitors, review the validation of physical activity monitors with respect to health-related quality-of-life assessments, and describe the current role of these devices for the practicing oncologist. We also highlight the challenges and next steps needed for physical activity monitors to provide relevant information that can change the current state of oncology practice.

  17. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GREEN TEA EXTRACTS.

    PubMed

    Lursmanashvili, L; Gulua, L; Turmanidze, T; Enukidze, M; Machavariani, M; Sanikidze, T

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine effects of green tea extracts on the Jurkat cells incubated under oxidative stress conditions. The research was conducted on leukemic human mature T cells (Jurkat cells). For the modelling of oxidative stress 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (Sigma) (10 μl, 25 μl 50 μl and 100 μl) was added to Jurkat cell suspension with subsequent incubation for 4, 6, 8 and 24 h. Control group was represented by intact Jurkat cells. The assessment of cells proliferation activity (viability) was performed by MTT test. The viability of Jurkat cells incubated for 24 hours under acquit oxidative stress conditions dose-depenently, monotonically decreased (irreversibly at 100 μM of H2O2 and reaches the 30% of intact Jurkat cells viability level at 50 μM of H2O2). Low doses of H2O2 (10 μl, 25 μl H2O2) revealed cytotoxicity only within short term (8 hours) of the incubation, afterward the viability of Jurkat cells monotonically increased and after 24 hours it reached 43% and 56% of control level, respectively. Vitamins C and E revealed cytotoxic effect on intact Jurkat cells, while the C+V vitamins complex induced 2-fold stimulation of Jurkat cells viability. Under a moderate oxidative stress condition (25 μl of H2O2) the complex of C + E vitamins revealed cytoprotective effect on Jurkat cells which may be related to ability of vitamin C to induce regeneration and to transform E vitamin tocopheroxyl free radicals into tocopherol. Green tea had no effect, green tea catechins revealed stimulatory effect, while green tea pectin - weak cytotoxic effect on intact Jurkat cells. Green tea and especially extracted catechins (but not pectin) revealed stimulatory effect on the viability of the Jurkat cells incubated under an oxidative stress condition. Our study results confirm the opinion that the natural compounds (green tea extracts) are harmless for normal cellular metabolism. Their differential effects on the "diseased", incubated under an

  18. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-09-18

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  19. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C.; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V.; Serrano, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature. PMID:26393604

  20. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (benthic macroinvertebrates, fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from Jan. 1995 to Dec. 1995, although activities conducted outside this period are included as appropriate.

  1. Passive and active structural monitoring experience: Civil engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. D.; Westermo, B. D.; Crum, D. B.; Law, W. R.; Trombi, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    State Departments of Transportation and regional city government officials are beginning to view the long-term monitoring of infrastructure as being beneficial for structural damage accumulation assessment, condition based maintenance, life extension, and post-earthquake or -hurricane (-tornado, -typhoon, etc.) damage assessment. Active and passive structural monitoring systems were installed over the last few years to monitor concerns in a wide range of civil infrastructure applications. This paper describes the monitoring technologies and systems employed for such applications. Bridge system applications were directed at monitoring corrosion damage accumulation, composite reinforcements for life extension, general service cracking damage related to fatigue and overloads, and post-earthquake damage. Residential system applications were directed primarily at identifying damage accumulation and post-earthquake damage assessment. A professional sports stadium was monitored for isolated ground instability problems and for post-earthquake damage assessment. Internet-based, remote, data acquisition system experience is discussed with examples of long-term passive and active system data collected from many of the individual sites to illustrate the potential for both passive and active structural health monitoring. A summary of system-based operating characteristics and key engineering recommendations are provided to achieve specific structural monitoring objectives for a wide range of civil infrastructure applications.

  2. Investigating biological activity spectrum for novel quinoline analogues.

    PubMed

    Musiol, Robert; Jampilek, Josef; Kralova, Katarina; Richardson, Des R; Kalinowski, Danuta; Podeszwa, Barbara; Finster, Jacek; Niedbala, Halina; Palka, Anna; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2007-02-01

    The lack of the wide spectrum of biological data is an important obstacle preventing the efficient molecular design. Quinoline derivatives are known to exhibit a variety of biological effects. In the current publication, we tested a series of novel quinoline analogues for their photosynthesis-inhibiting activity (the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts (Spinacia oleracea L.) and the reduction of chlorophyll content in Chlorella vulgaris Beij.). Moreover, antiproliferative activity was measured using SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cell line. We described the structure-activity relationships (SAR) between the chemical structure and biological effects of the synthesized compounds. We also measured the lipophilicity of the novel compounds by means of the RP-HPLC and illustrate the relationships between the RP-HPLC retention parameter logK (the logarithm of capacity factor K) and logP data calculated by available programs.

  3. Photocardiography: a novel method for monitoring cardiac activity in fish.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masayuki; Hirano, Ruriko; Shima, Takao

    2009-05-01

    A non-invasive technique to monitor cardiac activity in small fish, such as goldfish, zebrafish, and medaka, is needed. In the present study, we developed photocardiography (PCG), a non-invasive optical method, to record cardiac activity in small fish. The method monitors changes in near-infrared light transmission through the heart using a phototransistor located outside the body. With this technique, heartbeats in fish of various sizes (14-218 mm) were stably recorded. PCG was applied to monitor the heartbeat during fear-related classical heart rate conditioning in goldfish wherein an electrical shock was used as an unconditioned stimulus. The heartbeats were continuously monitored, even when the beat coincided with the electrical shock, showing that PCG is robust even in an electrically noisy environment. This technique is particularly useful when monitoring the heartbeats of fish of small size or in the presence of ambient electrical noise, conditions in which the use of conventional electrocardiography (ECG) is difficult.

  4. Sensitive bioassay for detection of biologically active ricin in food.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; He, Xiaohua

    2012-05-01

    The potential use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare highlights the need to develop fast and effective methods to detect biologically active ricin. The current "gold standard" for ricin detection is an in vivo mouse bioassay; however, this method is not practical to test on a large number of samples and raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. In this work, we generated adenoviral vectors that express the green fluorescent protein gene and used the relative fluorescence units intensity inhibition by transduced cells for quantitative measurement of biologically active ricin. The detection limit of the assay was 200 pg/ml, which is over 500,000 times greater than the adult human lethal oral dose. The inhibition of fluorescence intensity between ricin treatment and control was higher in 72-h posttransduction Vero cells than 24-h human embryonic kidney cells. Therefore, to detect biologically active ricin in food matrices that might influence the assay, we used 72-h posttransduction Vero cells. This simple assay could be used for large-scale screening to detect biologically active ricin in food without added substrates or use of cell fixation methods.

  5. Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Pott, J.; Carlisle, S.

    1994-05-01

    In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented.

  6. Near-Real-Time Geophysical and Biological Monitoring of Bioremediation Methods at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrell, A. N.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    Bioremediation has been utilized on subsurface uranium contamination at the Rifle IRFC site in Colorado by injecting acetate as an electron donor. However, successfully monitoring the progress of subsurface bioremediation over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship considerations to ensure cost effective treatment due to biological, chemical, and hydrological heterogeneity. In order to better understand the complex heterogeneities of the subsurface and the resultant effect on microbial activity, innovative subsurface monitoring techniques must be investigated. The key hypothesis of this work is that a combination of data from electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential, and water level sensors will provide sufficient information for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and will provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve the redox activity from other electric potential changing events involved in bioremediation, a 2D tank (2.4m x 1.2m x 0.6m) experiment has been developed. Field material obtained from the Rifle IRFC site will be packed in the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through constant-head boundaries. The experiment will utilize sensors for electrode-based microbial monitoring, self potential monitoring, oxidation-reduction potential, and water level monitoring. Electrode-based microbial monitoring will be used to estimate microbial activity by measuring how much electrical current indigenous bacteria are producing. Self potential monitoring will be used to measure the natural electrical voltage potential between sampled points, providing indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring; such as reduction of radionuclides. In addition to the application of sensing technologies, this work will explore the application of a wireless sensor

  7. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    What is Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM)? The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) is an expandable habitat technology demonstration on ISS; increase human-rated inflatable structure Technology Readiness Level (TRL) to level 9. NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. Launched to ISS on Space X 8 (April 8th, 2016). Fully expanded on May 28th, 2016. Jeff Williams/Exp. 48 Commander first entered BEAM on June 5th, 2016.

  8. Human biological monitoring--a versatile tool in the aftermath of a CBRN incident.

    PubMed

    Müller, Michael; Schmiechen, Katharina; Heselmann, Deike; Schmidt, Lukas; Göen, Thomas

    2014-12-15

    Human biological monitoring (HBM) is a well established tool in occupational and environmental medicine. It allows to determine the internal dose of a chemical absorbed by an individual after acute or chronic exposure. Biological reference and threshold values may be used to evaluate the internal dose and estimate its health impact(s). HBM and its advantages have not been broadly recognized from a civil protection point of view in Germany, therefore we have designed a compendium to define state-of-the-art HBM sampling after a release of chemicals in a civil protection scenario. The compendium integrates the sampling of biological agents and the sampling of radio-nuclear target isotopes, to be analyzed by HBM, in a single sampling approach, thus limiting burden on the potentially exposed persons and facilitating comparison of their individual exposure to different CBRN agents. HBM analysis methods are evaluated and basic toxicity data (including biological reference and threshold values) are given for a list of 50 agents, previously identified as relevant in civil protection. For on scene commanders and healthcare professionals the compendium may help to generate HBM and biological-radio-nuclear (BRN) exposure data after a CBRN incident which can be used to improve risk communication. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Biological activity of Penicillium sp. 10-51 exometabolites].

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Ia I; Zaĭchenko, A M; Tsyganenko, E S

    2012-01-01

    Silica gel column chromatography (silica gel "L" II kind of activity 100/160 mkm) of the chloroform extract from the cultural filtrate of Penicillium sp. 10-51 gave two fractions (chloroform and chloroform-acetone, 5:1) having biological activity. Recrystallization yielded two compounds. On the basis of physico-chemical and spectral data these compounds were identified as curvularin and hydroxycurvularin, which have a large spectrum of biological action as to bacteria, yeast, blue-green algae and phytopathogenic micromycetes.

  10. Biological Activity of Aminophosphonic Acids and Their Short Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejczak, Barbara; Kafarski, Pawel

    The biological activity and natural occurrence of the aminophosphonic acids were described half a century ago. Since then the chemistry and biology of this class of compounds have developed into the separate field of phosphorus chemistry. Today it is well acknowledged that these compounds possess a wide variety of promising, and in some cases commercially useful, physiological activities. Thus, they have found applications ranging from agrochemical (with the herbicides glyphosate and bialaphos being the most prominent examples) to medicinal (with the potent antihypertensive fosinopril and antiosteoporetic bisphosphonates being examples).

  11. Teaching systems biology: an active-learning approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj

    2005-01-01

    With genomics well established in modern molecular biology, recent studies have sought to further the discipline by integrating complementary methodologies into a holistic depiction of the molecular mechanisms underpinning cell function. This genomic subdiscipline, loosely termed "systems biology," presents the biology educator with both opportunities and obstacles: The benefit of exposing students to this cutting-edge scientific methodology is manifest, yet how does one convey the breadth and advantage of systems biology while still engaging the student? Here, I describe an active-learning approach to the presentation of systems biology. In graduate classes at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, I divided students into small groups and asked each group to interpret a sample data set (e.g., microarray data, two-hybrid data, homology-search results) describing a hypothetical signaling pathway. Mimicking realistic experimental results, each data set revealed a portion of this pathway; however, students were only able to reconstruct the full pathway by integrating all data sets, thereby exemplifying the utility in a systems biology approach. Student response to this cooperative exercise was extremely positive. In total, this approach provides an effective introduction to systems biology appropriate for students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  12. Monitoring Phospholipase A2 Activity with Gd-encapsulated Phospholipid Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhiliang; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To date, numerous analytical methods have been developed to monitor phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. However, many of these methods require the use of unnatural PLA2 substrates that may alter enzyme kinetics, and probes that cannot be extended to applications in more complex environments. It would be desirable to develop a versatile assay that monitors PLA2 activity based on interactions with natural phospholipids in complex biological samples. Here, we developed an activatable T1 magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent to monitor PLA2 activity. Specifically, the clinically approved gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agent, gadoteridol, was encapsulated within nanometer-sized phospholipid liposomes. The encapsulated Gd exhibited a low T1-weighted signal, due to low membrane permeability. However, when the phospholipids within the liposomal membrane were hydrolyzed by PLA2, encapsulated Gd was released into bulk solution, resulting in a measureable change in the T1-relaxation time. These activatable MR contrast agents can potentially be used as nanosensors for monitoring of PLA2 activity in biological samples with minimal sample preparation. PMID:25376186

  13. Bi-Fi: an embedded sensor/system architecture for REMOTE biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Farshchi, Shahin; Pesterev, Aleksey; Nuyujukian, Paul H; Mody, Istvan; Judy, Jack W

    2007-11-01

    Wireless-enabled processor modules intended for communicating low-frequency phenomena (i.e., temperature, humidity, and ambient light) have been enabled to acquire and transmit multiple biological signals in real time, which has been achieved by using computationally efficient data acquisition, filtering, and compression algorithms, and interfacing the modules with biological interface hardware. The sensor modules can acquire and transmit raw biological signals at a rate of 32 kb/s, which is near the hardware limit of the modules. Furthermore, onboard signal processing enables one channel, sampled at a rate of 4000 samples/s at 12-bit resolution, to be compressed via adaptive differential-pulse-code modulation (ADPCM) and transmitted in real time. In addition, the sensors can be configured to filter and transmit individual time-referenced "spike" waveforms, or to transmit the spike height and width for alleviating network traffic and increasing battery life. The system is capable of acquiring eight channels of analog signals as well as data via an asynchronous serial connection. A back-end server archives the biological data received via networked gateway sensors, and hosts them to a client application that enables users to browse recorded data. The system also acquires, filters, and transmits oxygen saturation and pulse rate via a commercial-off-the-shelf interface board. The system architecture can be configured for performing real-time nonobtrusive biological monitoring of humans or rodents. This paper demonstrates that low-power, computational, and bandwidth-constrained wireless-enabled platforms can indeed be leveraged for wireless biosignal monitoring.

  14. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  15. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-07-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  16. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-10-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  17. Monitoring volcano activity through Hidden Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, C.; Montalto, P.; Prestifilippo, M.; Aliotta, M.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.

    2013-12-01

    During 2011-2013, Mt. Etna was mainly characterized by cyclic occurrences of lava fountains, totaling to 38 episodes. During this time interval Etna volcano's states (QUIET, PRE-FOUNTAIN, FOUNTAIN, POST-FOUNTAIN), whose automatic recognition is very useful for monitoring purposes, turned out to be strongly related to the trend of RMS (Root Mean Square) of the seismic signal recorded by stations close to the summit area. Since RMS time series behavior is considered to be stochastic, we can try to model the system generating its values, assuming to be a Markov process, by using Hidden Markov models (HMMs). HMMs are a powerful tool in modeling any time-varying series. HMMs analysis seeks to recover the sequence of hidden states from the observed emissions. In our framework, observed emissions are characters generated by the SAX (Symbolic Aggregate approXimation) technique, which maps RMS time series values with discrete literal emissions. The experiments show how it is possible to guess volcano states by means of HMMs and SAX.

  18. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  19. Monitoring dressing activity failures through RFID and video.

    PubMed

    Matic, A; Mehta, P; Rehg, J M; Osmani, V; Mayora, O

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of Activities of Daily Living in general, and dressing activity in particular, is an important indicator in the evaluation of the overall cognitive state of patients. In addition, the effectiveness of therapy in patients with motor impairments caused by a stroke, for example, can be measured through long-term monitoring of dressing activity. However, automatic monitoring of dressing activity has not received significant attention in the current literature. Considering the importance of monitoring dressing activity, the main goal of this work was to investigate the possibility of recognizing dressing activities and automatically identifying common failures exhibited by patients suffering from motor or cognitive impairments. The system developed for this purpose comprised analysis of RFID (radio frequency identification) tracking and computer vision processing. Eleven test subjects, not connected to the research, were recruited and asked to perform the dressing task by choosing any combination of clothes without further assistance. Initially the test subjects performed correct dressing and then they were free to choose from a set of dressing failures identified from the current research literature. The developed system was capable of automatically recognizing common dressing failures. In total, there were four dressing failures observed for upper garments and three failures for lower garments, in addition to recognizing successful dressing. The recognition rate for identified dressing failures was between 80% and 100%. We developed a robust system to monitor the dressing activity. Given the importance of monitoring the dressing activity as an indicator of both cognitive and motor skills the system allows for the possibility of long term tracking and continuous evaluation of the dressing task. Long term monitoring can be used in rehabilitation and cognitive skills evaluation.

  20. Biological monitoring to determine worker dose in a butadiene processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    Butadiene (BD) is a reactive gas used extensively in the rubber industry and is also found in combustion products. Although BD is genotoxic and acts as an animal carcinogen, the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is limited. Extrapolation from animal studies on BD carcinogenicity to risk in humans has been controversial because of uncertainties regarding relative biologic exposure and related effects in humans vs. experimental animals. To reduce this uncertainty, a study was designed to characterize exposure to BD at a polymer production facility and to relate this exposure to mutational and cytogenetic effects. Biological monitoring was used to better assess the internal dose of BD received by the workers. Measurement of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl) butane (M1) in urine served as the biomarker in this study. M1 has been shown to correlate with area monitoring in previous studies. Most studies that relate exposure to a toxic chemical with its biological effects rely on exposure concentration as the dose metric; however, exposure concentration may or may not reflect the actual internal dose of the chemical.

  1. Biological monitoring of iodine, a water disinfectant for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zareba, G.; Cernichiari, E.; Goldsmith, L. A.; Clarkson, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    In order to establish guidelines for exposure of astronauts to iodine, used as a water disinfectant in space, we studied the usefulness of hair, saliva, and urine for biological monitoring in humans and in the human hair/nude mouse model. The monitoring of iodine in patients that received 150 mCi of Na131I (carrier-free) showed similar patterns of elimination for blood, saliva, and urine. The mean correlation coefficient (r) between iodine elimination for blood/saliva was 0.99, for blood/urine, 0.95, and for saliva/urine, 0.97. The absolute value of iodine concentrations in urine revealed marked variability, which was corrected by adjusting for creatinine levels. The autoradiographic studies of human hair demonstrated that iodine is rapidly incorporated into external layers of the hair root and can be removed easily during washing. These data were confirmed after iodine exposure using the human hair/nude mouse model. Hair does not provide satisfactory information about exposure due to unstable incorporation of iodine. The most useful medium for biological monitoring of astronauts exposed to high doses of iodine in drinking water is urine, when adjusted for creatinine, and saliva, if quantitative evaluation of flow rate is provided.

  2. Biological monitoring of iodine, a water disinfectant for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zareba, G.; Cernichiari, E.; Goldsmith, L. A.; Clarkson, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    In order to establish guidelines for exposure of astronauts to iodine, used as a water disinfectant in space, we studied the usefulness of hair, saliva, and urine for biological monitoring in humans and in the human hair/nude mouse model. The monitoring of iodine in patients that received 150 mCi of Na131I (carrier-free) showed similar patterns of elimination for blood, saliva, and urine. The mean correlation coefficient (r) between iodine elimination for blood/saliva was 0.99, for blood/urine, 0.95, and for saliva/urine, 0.97. The absolute value of iodine concentrations in urine revealed marked variability, which was corrected by adjusting for creatinine levels. The autoradiographic studies of human hair demonstrated that iodine is rapidly incorporated into external layers of the hair root and can be removed easily during washing. These data were confirmed after iodine exposure using the human hair/nude mouse model. Hair does not provide satisfactory information about exposure due to unstable incorporation of iodine. The most useful medium for biological monitoring of astronauts exposed to high doses of iodine in drinking water is urine, when adjusted for creatinine, and saliva, if quantitative evaluation of flow rate is provided.

  3. Challenges of diatom-based biological monitoring and assessment of streams in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bere, Taurai

    2016-03-01

    Stream biomonitoring tools are largely lacking for many developing countries, resulting in adoption of tools developed from other countries/regions. In many instances, however, the applicability of adopted tools to the new system has not been explicitly evaluated. The objective of this study was to test the applicability of foreign diatom-based water quality assessment indices to streams in Zimbabwe, with the view to highlight challenges being faced in diatom-based biological monitoring in this developing country. The study evaluated the relationship between measured water quality variables and diatom index scores and observed some degree of concordance between water quality variables and diatom index scores emphasising the importance of diatom indices in characterisation and monitoring of stream ecological conditions in developing countries. However, ecological requirements of some diatom species need to be clarified and incorporated in a diatom-based water quality assessment protocol unique to these regions. Resources should be channelled towards tackling challenges associated with diatom-based biological monitoring, principally taxonomic studies, training of skilled labour and acquiring and maintaining the necessary infrastructure. Meanwhile, simpler coarse taxonomy-based rapid bioassessment protocol, which is less time and resource consuming and requires less specialised manpower, can be developed for the country.

  4. Management plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.; Pratt, D.R.

    1991-08-01

    The DOE/RL 89-19, United States Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1989), requires the Hanford Site to prepare an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) by November 9, 1991. The DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (1991), provides additional guidance and requires implementation of the EMP within 36 months of the effective data of the rule. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each US Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials to prepare an EMP. This EMP is to identify and discuss two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. At the Hanford Site, the site-wide EMP will consist of the following elements: (1) A conceptual plan addressing effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance; (2) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) site-wide environmental surveillance program; (3) Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) effluent monitoring program consisting of the near-field operations environmental monitoring activities and abstracts of each Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP). This management plan addresses the third of these three elements of the EMP, the FEMPs.

  5. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  6. Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Activity within a Wetland Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, M.; Zhang, C.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.

    2007-05-01

    We performed Induced Polarization (IP) and Self Potential (SP) measurements to record the geoelectrical signatures of microbial activity within a wetland soil. The experiment was conducted in laboratory, utilizing an open flow column set up. Soil samples from Kearny Marsh (KM), a shallow water wetland, were collected and stored at 4o Celsius prior to the start of the experiment. Two columns were dry packed with a mix of KM soil and sterile Ottawa sand (50% by weight). One column was sterilized and used as a control while the other column retained the biologically active soil sample. Both columns were saturated with a minimal salts medium capable of supporting microbial life; after saturation, a steady flow rate of one pore volume per day was maintained throughout the experiment. Ambient temperature and pressure changes (at the inflow and outflow of each column) were continuously monitored throughout the experiment. Common geochemical parameters, such as Eh, pH, and fluid conductivity were measured at the inflow and outflow of each column at regular intervals. IP and SP responses were continuously recorded on both columns utilizing a series of electrodes along the column length; additionally for the SP measurements we used a reference electrode at the inflow tube. Strong SP anomalies were observed for all the locations along the active column. Black visible mineral precipitant also formed in the active column. The observed precipitation coincided with the times that SP anomalies developed at each electrode position. These responses are associated with microbial induced sulfide mineralization. We interpret the SP signal as the result of redox processes associated with this mineralization driven by gradients in ionic concentration and mobility within the column, similar to a galvanic cell mechanism. IP measurements show no correlation with these visual and SP responses. Destructive analysis of the samples followed the termination of the experiment. Scanning electron

  7. Synthesis of Mono-PEGylated Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 and Investigation of its Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Beihua; Zhou, Ziniu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an efficient synthetic route to the mono-PEGylated growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and its biological activity in vivo. The commercially available key PEGylating reagent, mPEG-NHS ester, was successfully utilized to the synthesis of mono-PEGylated GHRP-2, during which the PEGylation profiles of GHRP-2 were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The product was purified by cation exchange chromatography, and its biological activity was conducted in rats. The desired mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 as the major product was readily obtained in anhydrous aprotic solvent, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), when the molar ratio of mPEG-NHS ester to GHRP-2 was fixed to be 0.8:1. The products were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the biological activity for the products showed that the mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 gave a more stable activity than GHRP-2, suggesting that PEGylation led to the increase in the half-life of GHRP-2 in plasma without greatly impairing the biological activity. PEGylation of the GHRP-2 is a good choice for the development of the GHRP-2 applications.

  8. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  9. Clarification of the Use of Biological Data and Information in the 2002 Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The memorandum modifies the 2002 Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report Guidance to provide clarity and promote consistency in the manner in which states use biological data and information in developing their 2002 submissions.

  10. Development of a strategy for biological monitoring in a chemical plant producing 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Knoell, Kristian F; Will, Norbert; Leng, Gabriele; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-01-01

    In a chemical plant in Germany producing 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride for the manufacture of colorants, blood and urine samples were taken for biological monitoring. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (DBZ) was analyzed in urine by thin-layer chromatography and subsequently further combined with analysis of adducts of 3,3'-DBZ in hemoglobin. Data highlight current ranges of industrial exposure to 3,3'-DBZ in Germany and demonstrate the applicability of biological monitoring to minimize this exposure. Effective biological monitoring was achieved by a combination of monitoring hemoglobin adducts with spot samplings of urinary 3,3'-DBZ excretion in cases of reported exposure periods. Data presented might help to identify biological guidance values (BGV/BAR) for 3,3'-DBZ-exposed individuals.

  11. Investigation of effects of terpene skin penetration enhancers on stability and biological activity of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Varman, Rahul M; Singh, Somnath

    2012-12-01

    The transport of proteins through skin can be facilitated potentially by using terpenes as chemical enhancers. However, we do not know about the effects of these enhancers on the stability and biological activity of proteins which is crucial for the development of safe and efficient formulations. Therefore, this project investigated the effects of terpene-based skin penetration enhancers which are reported as nontoxic to the skin (e.g., limonene, p-cymene, geraniol, farnesol, eugenol, menthol, terpineol, carveol, carvone, fenchone, and verbenone), on the conformational stability and biological activity of a model protein lysozyme. Terpene (5% v/v) was added to lysozyme solution and kept for 24 h (the time normally a transdermal patch remains) for investigating conformational stability profiles and biological activity. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer was used to analyze different secondary structures, e.g., α-helix, β-sheet, β-turn, and random coil. Conformational changes were also monitored by differential scanning calorimeter by determining midpoint transition temperature (Tm) and calorimetric enthalpy (ΔH). Biological activity of lysozyme was determined by measuring decrease in A (450) when it was added to a suspension of Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The results of this study indicate that terpenes 9, 10, and 11 (carvone, L-fenchone, and L-verbenone) decreased conformational stability and biological activity of lysozyme significantly (p < 0.05) less than other terpenes used in this study. It is concluded that smaller terpenes containing ketones with low lipophilicity (log K (ow) ∼2.00) would be optimal for preserving conformational stability and biological activity of lysozyme in a transdermal formulation containing terpene as permeation enhancer.

  12. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  13. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  14. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  15. BIOLOGICALLY ENHANCED OXYGEN TRANSFER IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biologically enhanced oxgyen transfer has been a hypothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in activated sludge systems that were well above that predicted from aerator clean-water testing. The enhanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests using BOD bottle oxygen ...

  16. Biologically active substances produced by antarctic cryptoendolithic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Friedmann, R; Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Researchers report results of laboratory studies of over 200 microbial strains of fungi, algae, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophic bacteria collected in the Ross Desert region of Antarctica. All of the 35 fungal strains produced substances that inhibited the growth of cyanobacteria and algae. The inhibitory effect of the biologically active substance was evident in crushed cell extract but less in spent broth.

  17. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  18. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  19. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  20. On the biological activity of drug molecules: Busulfan and nabumetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Igor; Kovač, Branka

    2010-10-01

    The electronic structures of drug molecules busulfan (BSU) and nabumetone (NAB) have been investigated by HeI and HeII UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), quantum chemical calculations and virtual docking studies. Their biological activities are discussed in the framework of their electronic and molecular structures, reactivity and drug-enzyme binding.

  1. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  2. Biological monitoring: lichens as bioindicators of air pollution assessment--a review.

    PubMed

    Conti, M E; Cecchetti, G

    2001-01-01

    Often as part of environmental impact studies and, above all, to obtain authorisations in accordance with prescriptions from the Ministry for the Environment (Italy), surveys and controls that use biological indicators are required. This is because such indicators are valid instruments for evaluating the quality of the air ensuing from the subject (often an industrial plant) of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). In this context, this paper aims to analyse some of the theoretical aspects of biological monitoring and to provide a progress report on the use of lichens as bioindicators of air quality, with a particular eye to the situation in Italy. The object of this paper is that of pointing out the most important lines in the current state of knowledge in this field, evaluating the methodological applications and their advantages/disadvantages with respect to traditional surveying methods.

  3. Set-up of a biological monitoring module realized in LTCC technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Walter; Balluch, Bruno; Stangl, Günther; Gaubitzer, Erwin; Edetsberger, Michael; Köhler, Gottfried

    2007-01-01

    Low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was originally developed for the realization of multilayer circuits of high reliability. It was recognized that LTCC technology is a valuable development in thick film technology, which launches new application areas as it becomes evident that complex three-dimensional structures can easily be realized. When considered for biological applications ceramic tape material must be proved with regard to its biocompatibility. A selection of appropriate commercially available ceramic tapes has been characterized in respect to the influence on proliferation, viability and adherence of cells. Aspects of realization of a complex biological monitoring module comprising a three-dimensional network of channels and cavities will be demonstrated.

  4. Biochemical methods for monitoring protein thiol redox states in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Rudyk, Olena; Eaton, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins resulting from events that increase cellular oxidant levels play important roles in physiological and pathophysiological processes. Evaluation of alterations to protein redox states is increasingly common place because of methodological advances that have enabled detection, quantification and identification of such changes in cells and tissues. This mini-review provides a synopsis of biochemical methods that can be utilized to monitor the array of different oxidative and electrophilic modifications that can occur to protein thiols and can be important in the regulatory or maladaptive impact oxidants can have on biological systems. Several of the methods discussed are valuable for monitoring the redox state of established redox sensing proteins such as Keap1. PMID:25009782

  5. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program FY 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, C.M.; Marshall, D.S.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1995 through September 1996. The Radioactive Solid Waste Operations Group (RSWOG) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) and the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established ASEMP in 1989. The purpose of the program is to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North as required by Chapters 2 and 3 of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A.

  6. Wireless monitoring of the biological object state at microwave frequencies: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kozlov, D. S.; Munina, I. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Rusakov, A. S.; Tural'chuk, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification systems used for the remote diagnostics of diseases and contactless monitoring and assessment of human health are reviewed. The propagation of electromagnetic waves inside a biological medium and along interfaces between different media, as well as the problem of telemetry data acquisition from implanted systems or system on the human body surface using wireless sensors, is considered. Emphasis is on radio-frequency identification systems that use far-field electromagnetic radiation, since they are necessary in emergency situations to find injured people in hard-to-reach places and assess the state of emergency response workers.

  7. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  8. Predicting Activity Energy Expenditure Using the Actical[R] Activity Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    This study developed algorithms for predicting activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children (n = 24) and adults (n = 24) from the Actical[R] activity monitor. Each participant performed 10 activities (supine resting, three sitting, three house cleaning, and three locomotion) while wearing monitors on the ankle, hip, and wrist; AEE was computed…

  9. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-03-01

    The first part of this review ("Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 1: Importance, variability and ratios") describes the current knowledge on the major biological particles present in the air regarding their global distribution, concentrations, ratios and influence of meteorological factors in an attempt to provide a framework for monitoring their biodiversity and variability in such a singular environment as the atmosphere. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, pollen and fragments thereof are the most abundant microscopic biological particles in the air outdoors. Some of them can cause allergy and severe diseases in humans, other animals and plants, with the subsequent economic impact. Despite the harsh conditions, they can be found from land and sea surfaces to beyond the troposphere and have been proposed to play a role also in weather conditions and climate change by acting as nucleation particles and inducing water vapour condensation. In regards to their global distribution, marine environments act mostly as a source for bacteria while continents additionally provide fungal and pollen elements. Within terrestrial environments, their abundances and diversity seem to be influenced by the land-use type (rural, urban, coastal) and their particularities. Temporal variability has been observed for all these organisms, mostly triggered by global changes in temperature, relative humidity, et cetera. Local fluctuations in meteorological factors may also result in pronounced changes in the airbiota. Although biological particles can be transported several hundreds of meters from the original source, and even intercontinentally, the time and final distance travelled are strongly influenced by factors such as wind speed and direction. [Int Microbiol 2016; 19(1):1-1 3].

  10. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Belforte, Stefano; Boehm, Max; Casajus, Adrian; Flix, Josep; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciabà, Andrea; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  11. Stereochemical Assignment of Strigolactone Analogues Confirms Their Selective Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Artuso, Emma; Ghibaudi, Elena; Lace, Beatrice; Marabello, Domenica; Vinciguerra, Daniele; Lombardi, Chiara; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram; Novero, Mara; Occhiato, Ernesto G; Scarpi, Dina; Parisotto, Stefano; Deagostino, Annamaria; Venturello, Paolo; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Bier, Ariel; Prandi, Cristina

    2015-11-25

    Strigolactones (SLs) are new plant hormones with various developmental functions. They are also soil signaling chemicals that are required for establishing beneficial mycorrhizal plant/fungus symbiosis. In addition, SLs play an essential role in inducing seed germination in root-parasitic weeds, which are one of the seven most serious biological threats to food security. There are around 20 natural SLs that are produced by plants in very low quantities. Therefore, most of the knowledge on SL signal transduction and associated molecular events is based on the application of synthetic analogues. Stereochemistry plays a crucial role in the structure-activity relationship of SLs, as compounds with an unnatural D-ring configuration may induce biological effects that are unrelated to SLs. We have synthesized a series of strigolactone analogues, whose absolute configuration has been elucidated and related with their biological activity, thus confirming the high specificity of the response. Analogues bearing the R-configured butenolide moiety showed enhanced biological activity, which highlights the importance of this stereochemical motif.

  12. Controlled release of biologically active silver from nanosilver surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H

    2010-11-23

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nanosilver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nanosilver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nanosilver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nanosilver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nanosilver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over 4 orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by preoxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and releasing inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through a bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nanosilver.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp Mills Under Unsafe Sampling Conditions E Appendix E to Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., App. E Appendix E to Part 63—Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological...

  14. PACFISH/INFISH Biological Opinion (PIBO): Effectiveness Monitoring Program seven-year status report 1998 through 2004

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Henderson; Eric K. Archer; Boyd A Bouwes; Marc S. Coles-Ritchie; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2005-01-01

    The PACFISH/INFISH Biological Opinion (PIBO) Effectiveness Monitoring Program was initiated in 1998 to provide a consistent framework for monitoring aquatic and riparian resources on most Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands within the Upper Columbia River Basin. This 7-year status report gives our funding sources, partners, and the public an overview of...

  15. Integrating running water monitoring tools with the Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method to improve water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Traversetti, Lorenzo; Losito, Francesca; Arienzo, Alyexandra; Stalio, Ottavia; Antonini, Giovanni; Scalici, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    Running water habitats are among the most altered aquatic systems by human activities driving an increase in the organic components and the associated bacterial load as well. To contribute in improving the monitoring activities in running waters, here we tested the validity of the new Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method to specifically assess the bacterial load in running waters focusing on Total Viable Counts (at 22°C and 37°C) and Escherichia coli (at 44°C) in order to propose a new prognostic tool for watercourses. MBS method is an alternative colorimetric method for counting bacterial load in water and food samples that is easy to use and leads to a reliable and simple interpretation of results, being also faster and less expensive than traditional methods. Then, we compared MBS with the traditionally used reference method for the bacterial load, and with the most used biotic index for Italian watercourses based on the benthic invertebrates: the Extended Biotic Index (EBI). The last comparison was performed to validate the use of MBS in biomonitoring activities since the benthic invertebrate multi-species assemblage (and then EBI) alter own structure mainly depending on the organic component variation. During the first part of the study, the assessment of both linearity (regressions among bacterial concentrations) and accuracy (significant correlation between a measured value and a value used as reference) confirmed the validity of the MBS method. Second, the linear regressions between the three investigated microbial parameters vs. both physical-chemical descriptors and EBI, revealed the usefulness of MBS as a valid tool for routine microbiological analyses involved in rapid and easy field monitoring activities. This represents the first attempt to evaluate the river microbial status by exploiting the innovative MBS on running waters to propose it as new valuable monitoring tool in the biomonitoring field.

  16. [Dihydroquercetin--a new antioxidant and biologically active food additive].

    PubMed

    Tiukavkina, N A; Rulenko, I A; Kolesnik, Iu A

    1997-01-01

    Information about types of vegetative raw material for flavonoid dihydroquercetin manufacture are given. Data of a wide spectrum of biological activity of dihydroquercetin are systematized. Two directions of use dihydroquercetin in food industry: as antioxidant and as biologically active supplement for creation different types of parapharmaceutical production is shown. Dihydroquercetin in the capacity of antioxidant may be compared or exceeds many synthetic and natural antioxidants and, in particular, known bioflavonoids (quercetin). High antioxidant activity of dihydroquercetin is combined with absence embryotoxicity, teratogenicity, allergenicity and mutability. Dihydroquercetin used as efficient antioxidant with regard to vegetable oils, animal fat, milk powder, fat contain pastry. Parapharmaceutical production with dihydroquercetin is intended for prophylactic of "oxidative stress" diseases (cardiovascular, bronchopulmonary, etc.). Practical application of new types of products containing dihydroquercetin was described. Dihydroquercetin is an available commercial food additive, producing domestic industry.

  17. 1,3,4-oxadiazole: a biologically active scaffold.

    PubMed

    Khalilullah, H; Ahsan, M J; Hedaitullah, Md; Khan, S; Ahmed, B

    2012-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antipsychotic, antimicrobial, antimycobecterial, antitumour, antiviral and antitubercular activities. 1,3,4-oxadiazoles constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations led to the development of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. This review article describes the various biological activities associated with 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring system and is useful in guiding the researchers across the world working on this moiety and consequently have been instrumental in the advancement of 1,3,4-oxadiazole chemistry.

  18. Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-02-02

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  19. Similar Biological Activities of Two Isostructural Ruthenium and Osmium Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimoska,J.; Williams, D.; Atilla-Gokcumen, G.; Smalley, K.; Carroll, P.; Webster, R.; Filippakopoulos, P.; Knapp, S.; Herlyn, M.; Meggers, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we probe and verify the concept of designing unreactive bioactive metal complexes, in which the metal possesses a purely structural function, by investigating the consequences of replacing ruthenium in a bioactive half-sandwich kinase inhibitor scaffold by its heavier congener osmium. The two isostructural complexes are compared with respect to their anticancer properties in 1205?Lu melanoma cells, activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, IC50 values against the protein kinases GSK-3? and Pim-1, and binding modes to the protein kinase Pim-1 by protein crystallography. It was found that the two congeners display almost indistinguishable biological activities, which can be explained by their nearly identical three-dimensional structures and their identical mode of action as protein kinase inhibitors. This is a unique example in which the replacement of a metal in an anticancer scaffold by its heavier homologue does not alter its biological activity.

  20. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures.

    PubMed

    Feller, Georges

    2010-08-18

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 °C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins.

  1. A Camera and Multi-Sensor Automated Station Design for Polar Physical and Biological Systems Monitoring: AMIGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlander, J. A.; Ross, R.; Scambos, T.; Haran, T. M.; Bauer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Automated Meteorology - Ice/Indigenous species - Geophysics Observation System (AMIGOS) consists of a set of measurement instruments and camera(s) controlled by a single-board computer with a simplified Linux operating system and an Iridium satellite modem supporting two-way communication. Primary features of the system relevant to polar operations are low power requirements, daily data uploading, reprogramming, tolerance for low temperatures, and various approaches for automatic resets and recovery from low power or cold shut-down. Instruments include a compact weather station, C/A or dual-frequency GPS, solar flux and reflectivity sensors, sonic snow gages, simplified radio-echo-sounder, and resistance thermometer string in the firn column. In the current state of development, there are two basic designs. One is intended for in situ observations of glacier conditions. The other design supports a high-resolution camera for monitoring biological or geophysical systems from short distances (100 m to 20 km). The stations have been successfully used in several locations for operational support, monitoring rapid ice changes in response to climate change or iceberg drift, and monitoring penguin colony activity. As of June, 2012, there are 9 AMIGOS systems installed, all on the Antarctic continent. The stations are a working prototype for a planned series of upgraded stations, currently termed 'Sentinels'. These stations would carry further instrumentation, communications, and processing capability to investigate ice - ocean interaction from ice tongue, ice shelf, or fjord coastline areas.

  2. Activity monitoring in sleep research, medicine and psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Klösch, G; Gruber, G; Anderer, P; Saletu, B

    2001-04-17

    Motor activity as a diagnostic parameter has become an important feature in many fields of medicine and psychology. The concept of mobility and immobility implies the assumption that mental and behaviour disorders involve abnormal activity that can be measured to characterise the disorder itself, to diagnose its presence and to document the impact of treatment. In sleep research, activity monitoring by wrist actigraphs has proven its usefulness as an efficient method to assess the rest-activity cycle over long time periods and to estimate sleep-related features such as sleep efficiency and total sleep time. But like many other techniques and devices, activity monitoring has some limitations and drawbacks. This paper describes the basic features of wrist actigraphy in measuring nocturnal and daytime motor activity.

  3. Monitoring Neural Activity with Bioluminescence during Natural Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Eva A.; Kampff, Adam R.; Prober, David A.; Schier, Alexander F.; Engert, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Existing techniques for monitoring neural activity in awake, freely behaving vertebrates are invasive and difficult to target to genetically identified neurons. Here we describe the use of bioluminescence to non-invasively monitor the activity of genetically specified neurons in freely behaving zebrafish. Transgenic fish expressing the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein GFP-apoAequorin (GA) in most neurons generated large and fast bioluminescent signals related to neural activity, neuroluminescence, that could be recorded continuously for many days. To test the limits of this technique, GA was specifically targeted to the hypocretin-positive neurons of the hypothalamus. We found that neuroluminescence generated by this group of ~20 neurons was associated with periods of increased locomotor activity and identified two classes of neural activity corresponding to distinct swim latencies. Thus, our neuroluminescence assay can report, with high temporal resolution and sensitivity, the activity of small subsets of neurons during unrestrained behavior. PMID:20305645

  4. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  5. Biological Ice Nucleation Activity in Cloud Water (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delort, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ice nucleation active (INA) biological particles, in particular microorganisms, were studied in cloud water. Twelve cloud samples were collected over a period of 16 months from the puy de Dôme summit (1465 m, France) using sterile cloud droplet impactors. The samples were characterized through biological (cultures, cell counts) and physico-chemical measurements (pH, ion concentrations, carbon content...), and biological ice nuclei were investigated by droplet-freezing assays from -3°C to -13°C. The concentration of total INA particles within this temperature range typically varied from ~1 to ~100 per mL of cloud water; the concentrations of biological IN were several orders of magnitude higher than the values previously reported for precipitations. At -12°C, at least 76% of the IN were biological in origin, i.e. they were inactivated by heating at 95°C, and at temperatures above -8°C only biological material could induce ice. By culture, 44 Pseudomonas-like strains of bacteria were isolated from cloud water samples; 16% of them were found INA at the temperature of -8°C and they were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas sp. and Pseudoxanthomonas sp.. Two strains induced freezing at as warm as -2°C, positioning them among the most active ice nucleators described so far. We estimated that, in average, 0.18% and more than 1%.of the bacterial cells present in clouds (~104 mL-1) are INA at the temperatures of -8°C and -12°C, respectively.

  6. Structure-activity relationships of αs-casein peptides with multifunctional biological activities.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Srinivas

    2013-12-01

    Multifunctional bioactive peptides have a wider role in modulating physiological functions and possess multiple biological activities. Peptides from bovine milk with sequences QKALNEINQF [p10] and TKKTKLTEEEKNRL [p14] from α-S2 casein f (79-88) and α-S2 casein f (148-161) were identified to be having multifunctional biological activities and were synthesized. These synthesized peptides show various biological activities like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, prolyl endopeptidase inhibition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The mode of antimicrobial mechanism was studied and p10 shows depolarization of cell membrane, whereas p14 was found to display DNA-binding activity. Structural studies envisaged backbone flexibility, for differences in their mode of action. Peptide structure function studies were correlated to understand their multifunctional biological activity.

  7. Humic substances biological activity at the plant-soil interface

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Sara; Francioso, Ornella; Nardi, Serenella

    2010-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) represent the organic material mainly widespread in nature. HS have positive effects on plant physiology by improving soil structure and fertility and by influencing nutrient uptake and root architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially known. HS have been shown to contain auxin and an “auxin-like” activity of humic substances has been proposed, but support to this hypothesis is fragmentary. In this review article, we are giving an overview of available data concerning molecular structures and biological activities of humic substances, with special emphasis on their hormone-like activities. PMID:20495384

  8. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Oxadiazole Derivatives: A Review.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Ankur; Jain, Shweta; Jain, Priyanka; Jain, Prachi; Tiwari, Nidhi; Jain, Roshni; Jain, Rashi; Jain, Abhishek K; Agrawal, Ram K

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been wide interest in compounds containing the oxadiazole scaffold because of their unique chemical structure and their broad spectrum of biological properties. This review provides readers with an overview of the main synthetic methodologies for oxadiazoles and of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activities such as, anti-microbial, anti-fungal activity, antiviral, anti-tubercular, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, analgesic, anti-oedema and in alzheimer activity, which were reported over the past years.

  9. Reviews and synthesis: Carbon capture and storage monitoring - an integrated biological, biophysical and chemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, N.; Vik, U.; Taylor, P.; Ladoukakis, E.; Park, J.; Kolisis, F.; Stahl, H.; Jakobsen, K. S.

    2015-06-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a developing technology that seeks to mitigate against the impact of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) production by capturing CO2 from large point source emitters. After capture the CO2 is compressed and transported to a reservoir where it is stored for geological time scales. Potential leakages from CCS projects, where stored CO2 migrates through the overlaying sediments, are likely to have severe implications on benthic and marine ecosystems. Nonetheless, prokaryotic response to elevated CO2 concentrations has been suggested as one of the first detectable warnings if a CO2 leakage should occur. Applying properties of prokaryotic communities (i.e. community composition and metabolic status) as a novel CO2 monitoring application is highly reliable within a multidisciplinary framework, where deviations from the baseline can easily be identified. In this paper we review current knowledge about the impact of CO2 leakages on marine sediments from a multidisciplinary-based monitoring perspective. We focus on aspects from the fields of biology, geophysics, and chemistry, and discuss a case study example. We argue the importance of an integrative multidisciplinary approach, incorporating biogeochemistry, geophysics, microbial ecology and modelling, with a particular emphasis on metagenomic techniques and novel bioinformatics, for future CCS monitoring. Within this framework, we consider that an effective CCS monitoring programme will ensure that large-scale leakages with potentially devastating effects for the overlaying ecosystem are avoided. Furthermore, the multidisciplinary approach suggested here for CCS monitoring is generic, and can be adapted to other systems of interest.

  10. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toxic chemicals. Collection, processing, and storage of specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Aitio, A.; Jaervisalo, J.

    1985-03-01

    Exposure to at least 100 different chemicals may be estimated on an individual basis from their concentrations in blood or urine. The present document reviews sources of error in the collection, processing and storage of specimens for this biological monitoring. Physiological factors cause variation in the concentration of chemicals in the body fluids. Distribution of water depends on posture. Exercise and meals cause changes in blood constituents. The urine output varies and, thus, the concentrations of dissolved chemicals change. Many toxic chemicals show short half times in the blood; thus, their concentrations depend on the timing of the specimen collection. Skin absorption may result in dramatically different chemical concentrations in different parts of the circulation. The stability of chemicals in the collected specimens is generally limited: chemical deterioration, adsorption, precipitation, and evaporation are the main causes of losses. For many chemicals, especially for trace elements, contamination of the specimen is the overwhelmingly most important source of error. As the range of the chemicals measured is wide, the relative importance of the sources of error is different for different chemicals. Information on most chemicals is at present very limited. Thus, before commencing a program on biological exposure monitoring, it is advisable to search the optimal conditions for specimen collection, processing, and storage.

  12. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J.; Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Steel Creek water quality: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Kretchmer, D.W.; Chimney, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet envirorunental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Models to support active sensing of biological aerosol clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrea M.; Kalter, Jeffrey M.; Corson, Elizabeth C.; Chaudhry, Zahra; Boggs, Nathan T.; Brown, David M.; Thomas, Michael E.; Carter, Christopher C.

    2013-05-01

    Elastic backscatter LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) is a promising approach for stand-off detection of biological aerosol clouds. Comprehensive models that explain the scattering behavior from the aerosol cloud are needed to understand and predict the scattering signatures of biological aerosols under varying atmospheric conditions and against different aerosol backgrounds. Elastic signatures are dependent on many parameters of the aerosol cloud, with two major components being the size distribution and refractive index of the aerosols. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has been in a unique position to measure the size distributions of released biological simulant clouds using a wide assortment of aerosol characterization systems that are available on the commercial market. In conjunction with the size distribution measurements, JHU/APL has also been making a dedicated effort to properly measure the refractive indices of the released materials using a thin-film absorption technique and laboratory characterization of the released materials. Intimate knowledge of the size distributions and refractive indices of the biological aerosols provides JHU/APL with powerful tools to build elastic scattering models, with the purpose of understanding, and ultimately, predicting the active signatures of biological clouds.

  15. [Environmental and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene in dry cleaning shops].

    PubMed

    Gobba, F; Rosa, P; Ghittori, S; Imbriani, M; Ferrari, G; Cavalleri, A

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) was studied in a total of 106 workers in 78 dry cleaning shops in the province of Pavia, Northern, Italy. Environmental monitoring was performed by personal passive sampling. The median time weighted average (TWA) level of PCE was 57 mg/m3, i.e., about 30% of the current Threshold Limit Value (TLV) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, in 12 workers exposure exceeded this limit. Biological monitoring was performed via measurement of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA), i.e. the exposure index currently used in Italy, and urinary excretion of unmodified perchloroethylene (PCE-U) in samples collected at the end of the half-shift. Median levels of TCA and PCE were 1.03 mg/l and 17.7 micrograms/l respectively. The correlation coefficient between environmental TWA concentrations of perchloroethylene and PCE-U was 0.755 (0.809 after logarithmic transformation), compared to 0.660 for TCA values. The subjects were then classified as "low exposed" and "heavily exposed" according to whether personal exposure was lower or higher than 57 mg/m3, the median TWA value of the whole group. PCE-U levels were significantly correlated to exposure in both subgroups whereas TCA was correlated only in the "heavily exposed subjects", but not in those with lower exposure. The results of the study show that in the majority of dry cleaning shops exposure to PCE was well below the current occupational limits. Nevertheless surveillance of dry cleaners is recommended as nearly 10% of the workers exceeded the environmental and biological limits. Urinary excretion of unmodified PCE appears to be a very reliable indicator for biological monitoring of PCE exposure in dry cleaning and is also significantly correlated to exposure at low levels. The estimated biological equivalent exposure level (BEEL) for PCE-U, corresponding to the current TLV-TWA proposed by the ACGIH, is 55 micrograms/l. Urinary

  16. High resolution coral records of reactive and micronutrient trace metals: Monitoring biological responses to flood plumes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyndham, T. D.; McCulloch, M. T.; Decarlo, E. H.

    2004-12-01

    The influences of flood plumes on the coastal ocean are difficult to investigate because they are intermittent, transient and highly variable in nature. The application of trace metals in coral carbonates as proxy recorders of marine environmental conditions has been demonstrated as an excellent method for overcoming these difficulties. Coral records of trace metals have been widely used to provide historical records of physical impacts of flood plumes such changing salinity (δ O18), sediment load (Ba) and anthropogenic inputs such as heavy metal pollution (eg. Pb, Cd). Despite successful applications to physical properties, the use of coral records to monitoring the biologic responses to these changing environmental conditions has proved more difficult. With improvements in analytical techniques however, it is now possible to investigate coral records of reactive (rare earth elements) and micronutrient (eg Mn, Zn and Cu) trace metals, which can be used to more widely explore the biogeochemical implications of flood plumes to the coastal ocean. We have obtained high resolution temporal records of rare earth elements, Cu, Zn, Mn and Sn, from corals from two locations, (1) near Townsville on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and (2) Kaneohe Bay on Oahu, Hawaii. Both of these locations often display large phytoplankton blooms following flood events, providing a good opportunity to test the idea that coral records can be used to monitor the biological response to flood plumes. These coral records show significant responses to flood plumes that can only be attributed to biogeochemical cycling that occurs as a result of the flood plume influence, rather than the flood plume itself. Thus a mechanism for exploring the biological response to flood plumes is provided. It has generally proven difficult however, to interpret these coral records without a good understanding of the coastal processes. Therefore we also include evidence from direct trace metal measurements of a

  17. Designing a biological monitoring program to assess community exposure to chromium: conclusions of an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A; Colton, T; Doull, J; Marks, J G; Smith, R G; Bruce, G M; Finley, B L; Paustenbach, D J

    1993-12-01

    The possible benefits of biological monitoring of large groups of people potentially exposed to environmental contaminants has become an area of much interest in recent years. Because chromite-ore processing residue has been found in some soils in northern New Jersey, urinary chromium monitoring of people in the community was evaluated as a potentially useful tool. In an attempt to identify those who could be exposed and to quantify the magnitude of exposure to the chromium in these soils, the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) initiated a public health screening project. In 1992, the NJDOH proposed to evaluate over 4000 people who lived or worked near these sites. Volunteers were administered a questionnaire and were given a limited physical examination, and a single spot urine sample was collected. Because of the difficulties in using urinary chromium to assess low-level exposure and the potential implications of any regulatory decisions that could be based on the results of this project, a panel of experts was convened to evaluate the protocol. The panel consisted of five scientists and physicians with expertise in toxicology, dermatology, epidemiology, biological monitoring, and analytical chemistry. Like a World Health Organization group, the panel concluded that although urine biomonitoring can be useful in evaluating high levels of exposure to chromium, it is not reliable for assessing low-level exposure similar to that which may have occurred in northern New Jersey. The panel also noted that when urinary biomonitoring is to be used to assess the public's possible exposure, a large number of precautions must be taken to ensure the accuracy and usefulness of the results. The single most important recommendation was to collect a second, and perhaps a third, spot urine (or 24-h urine) sample before concluding that a person may be routinely overexposed. These suggestions are applicable to designing a biomonitoring program for nearly any environmental

  18. Biological activity and photostability of biflorin micellar nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Santana, Edson R B; Ferreira-Neto, João P; Yara, Ricardo; Sena, Kêsia X F R; Fontes, Adriana; Lima, Cláudia S A

    2015-05-13

    Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR) and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9%) and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures' photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  19. Postulates on electromagnetic activity in biological systems and cancer.

    PubMed

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Kobilková, Jitka

    2013-12-01

    A framework of postulates is formulated to define the existence, nature, and function of a coherent state far from thermodynamic equilibrium in biological systems as an essential condition for the existence of life. This state is excited and sustained by energy supply. Mitochondria producing small packets of energy in the form of adenosine and guanosine triphosphate and strong static electric field around them form boundary elements between biochemical-genetic and physical processes. The transformation mechanism of chemical energy into useful work for biological needs and the excitation of the coherent state far from thermodynamic equilibrium are fundamental problems. The exceptional electrical polarity of biological objects and long-range interactions suggest a basic role of the endogenous electromagnetic field generated by living cells. The formulated postulates encompass generation, properties and function of the electromagnetic field connected with biological activity and its pathological deviations. Excited longitudinal polar oscillations in microtubules in eukaryotic cells generate the endogenous electromagnetic field. The metabolic activity of mitochondria connected with water ordering forms conditions for excitation. The electrodynamic field plays an important role in the establishment of coherence, directional transport, organization of morphological structures, interactions, information transfer, and brain activity. An overview of experimental results and physical models supporting the postulates is included. The existence of the endogenous biological electromagnetic field, its generation by microtubules and supporting effects produced by mitochondria have a reasonable experimental foundation. Cancer transformation is a pathological reduction of the coherent energy state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Malignancy, i.e. local invasion and metastasis, is a direct consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed microtubule polar oscillations and the

  20. Biological activities of xanthatin from Xanthium strumarium leaves.

    PubMed

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Youns, Mahamoud; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Wink, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biological activities of the major bioactive compound, xanthatin, and other compounds from Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) leaves. Inhibition of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and leukaemia HL-60 cell proliferation was assessed using resazurin as a vital stain. Xanthatin was found to be the major and most active compound against T. b. brucei with an IC(50) value of 2.63 µg/mL and a selectivity index of 20. The possible mode of action of xanthatin was further evaluated. Xanthatin showed antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis (24% inhibition) and 5-lipoxygenase activity (92% inhibition) at concentrations of 100 µg/mL and 97 µg/mL, respectively. Xanthatin exhibited weak irreversible inhibition of parasite specific trypanothione reductase. Unlike xanthatin, diminazene aceturate and ethidium bromide showed strong DNA intercalation with IC(50) values of 26.04 µg/mL and 44.70 µg/mL, respectively. Substantial induction of caspase 3/7 activity in MIA PaCa-2 cells was observed after 6 h of treatment with 100 µg/mL of xanthatin. All these data taken together suggest that xanthatin exerts its biological activity by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis and 5-lipoxygenase activity thereby avoiding unwanted inflammation commonly observed in diseases such as trypanosomiasis.

  1. Biological activities of ethanolic extracts from deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tom; Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina

    2013-04-02

    We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling.

  2. Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Tom; Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling. PMID:23549284

  3. Antidoping programme and biological monitoring before and during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baume, Norbert; Jan, Nicolas; Emery, Caroline; Mandanis, Béatrice; Schweizer, Carine; Giraud, Sylvain; Leuenberger, Nicolas; Marclay, François; Nicoli, Raul; Perrenoud, Laurent; Robinson, Neil; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial

    2015-01-01

    Background The FIFA has implemented an important antidoping programme for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Aim To perform the analyses before and during the World Cup with biological monitoring of blood and urine samples. Methods All qualified players from the 32 teams participating in the World Cup were tested out-of-competition. During the World Cup, 2–8 players per match were tested. Over 1000 samples were collected in total and analysed in the WADA accredited Laboratory of Lausanne. Results The quality of the analyses was at the required level as described in the WADA technical documents. The urinary steroid profiles of the players were stable and consistent with previously published papers on football players. During the competition, amphetamine was detected in a sample collected on a player who had a therapeutic use exemption for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The blood passport data showed no significant difference in haemoglobin values between out-of-competition and postmatch samples. Conclusions Logistical issues linked to biological samples collection, and the overseas shipment during the World Cup did not impair the quality of the analyses, especially when used as the biological passport of football players. PMID:25878079

  4. EarthScope Content Module for IRIS Active Earth Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.; Johnson, J. A.; Shiffman, C. R.; Olds, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Active Earth Monitor (AEM) is an interactive computer-based display for university lobbies, museums, visitor centers, schools and libraries. AEM runs in a standard Internet web browser in full screen mode. The display consists of a customizable set of content pages about plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis. Low-cost and simple-to-implement, the Active Earth Monitor provides a way to engage audiences with earth science information without spending resources on a large exhibit. The EarthScope Active Earth Monitor content set highlights the connections between the landscape and the research and monitoring being conducted by EarthScope in partnership with regional monitoring networks. Modules consist of chapters that focus on What is EarthScope?, EarthScope Observatories, and EarthScope Research Results. Content topics are easily explored using a web page button type navigation interface via a touch screen or mouse. A formative evaluation of general public users informed the interface design. Chapters in the modules start with a general overview and proceed to detailed specifics. Each chapter utilizes at least one set of live or near real-time research data (often more than one). This exposes the general public to active ongoing research that is engaging, relevant to the individual user, and explained in easy to understand terms. All live content is updated each time a user accesses the individual page displaying the live data. Leading questions are presented allowing the user to examine the content before accessing the answer via pop-up box. Diagrams and charts of research data have explanatory keys that allow users to self explore all content. Content pages can be created and inserted in the Active Earth Monitor by utilizing the simple HTML/CSS coding.;

  5. Biological material detection identification and monitoring: combining point and standoff sensors technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Rowsell, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Detection, Identification and Monitoring (DIM) of biological material is critical to enhancing Situational Awareness (SA) in a timely manner, supporting decisions, and enabling the endangered force to take the most appropriate actions in a recognized CB environment. An optimum Bio DIM capability would include both point sensors to provide local monitoring and sampling for confirmatory ID of the material, and standoff sensors to provide wide-area monitoring from a distance, increasing available response time and enhancing SA. In June 2015, a Canadian team co-deployed a point (VPBio) and a standoff (BioSense) bio sensor during the international S/K Challenge II event, at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), USA. The co-deployment of the point and standoff sensors allowed the assessment of their respective strengths and limitations with regards to Bio DIM and SA in a realistic CB environment. Moreover, the initial hypothesis stating the existence of valuable leverages between the two sensors in a context of Bio DIM was confirmed. Indeed, the spatial limitation of the point sensor was overcome with the wide area coverage of the standoff technology. In contrast, the sampling capability of the point sensor can allow confirmatory identification of the detected material. Additionally, in most scenarios, the combined results allowed an increase in detection confidence. In conclusion, the demonstration of valuable leverages between point and standoff sensors in a context of Bio DIM was made, confirming the mitigation effect of co-deploying these systems for bio surveillance.

  6. Biosensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Radiation-Induced Biologic Effects in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, James R.; Balogh, Lajos; Majoros, Istvan; Keszler, Balazs; Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Norris, Theodore; delaiglesia, Felix; Beeson, Nicholas W. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This work seeks to develop cellular biosensors based on dendritic polymers. Nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter will be used as the basis of the biosensors. The structures will be designed to target into specific cells of an astronaut and be able to monitor health issues such as exposure to radiation. Multiple components can be assembled on the polymers including target directors, analytical devices (such as molecular probes), and reporting agents. The reporting will be accomplished through fluorescence signal monitoring, with the use of multispectral analysis for signal interpretation. These nanosensors could facilitate the success and increase the safety of extended space flight. The design and assembly of these devices has been pioneered at the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology in the University of Michigan. This period, synthesis of the test-bed biosensors continued. Studies were performed on the candidate fluorescent dyes to determine which might be suitable for the biosensor under development. Development continued on producing an artificial capillary bed as a tool for the use in the production of the fluorescence signal monitor. Work was also done on the in vitro multispectral analysis system, which uses the robotic microscope.

  7. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Maria R.; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P. S.; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R.; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance. PMID:26579086

  8. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    PubMed

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  9. Removal of Biologically Active Organic Contaminants using Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Banks, Michael A. (Inventor); Banks, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical devices that are to come into contact with living tissue, such as prosthetic and other implants for the human body and the containers used to store and transport them, are together cleaned of non-living, but biologically active organic materials, including endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides, and assembled into a hermetically sealed package without recontamination. This is achieved by cleaning both the device and package components together in an apparatus, which includes a hermetically sealed chamber, in which they are contacted with atomic oxygen which biocleans them, by oxidizing the biologically active organic materials. The apparatus also includes means for manipulating the device and container and hermetically sealing the cleaned device into the cleaned container to form the package. A calibrated witness coupon visually indicates whether or not the device and container have received enough exposure to the atomic oxygen to have removed the organic materials from their surfaces. Gamma radiation is then used to sterilize the device in the sealed container.

  10. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekar, V; Rao, E Upender; P, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird's eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation. PMID:23569975

  11. Marine sponge lectins: actual status on properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Gomes Filho, Sandro Mascena; Cardoso, Juscélio Donizete; Anaya, Katya; Silva do Nascimento, Edilza; de Lacerda, José Thalles Jucelino Gomes; Mioso, Roberto; Santi Gadelha, Tatiane; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto

    2014-12-26

    Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  12. Studies on the biological activity of porcine proinsulin

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Norman R.; Penhos, Juan C.; Tanese, Tomio; Michaels, Leslie; Gutman, Raul; Recant, Lillian

    1970-01-01

    The biological activity of purified porcine proinsulin was investigated in rats. In vivo studies revealed that proinsulin produced a hypoglycemic response similar to insulin but of lesser magnitude. Hypophysectomized and adrenalectomized animals proved to be more sensitive to proinsulin than normal. In vitro studies with rat hemidiaphragm were consistent with the in vivo findings. No competition with insulin action could be demonstrated. Experiments were carried out to determine whether proinsulin is converted to intermediate forms or insulin as a requisite to its biological activity. Labeled proinsulin injected in vivo or incubated in vitro remained intact by a variety of techniques (Sephadex column chromatography and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis). An inhibitory action of Kunitz pancreatic trypsin inhibitor on proinsulin action in vitro was confirmed. No clarification of this effect could be ascertained. Images PMID:5416410

  13. Studies on the biological activity of porcine proinsulin.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, N R; Penhos, J C; Tanese, T; Michaels, L; Gutman, R; Recant, L

    1970-03-01

    The biological activity of purified porcine proinsulin was investigated in rats. In vivo studies revealed that proinsulin produced a hypoglycemic response similar to insulin but of lesser magnitude. Hypophysectomized and adrenalectomized animals proved to be more sensitive to proinsulin than normal. In vitro studies with rat hemidiaphragm were consistent with the in vivo findings. No competition with insulin action could be demonstrated. Experiments were carried out to determine whether proinsulin is converted to intermediate forms or insulin as a requisite to its biological activity. Labeled proinsulin injected in vivo or incubated in vitro remained intact by a variety of techniques (Sephadex column chromatography and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis). An inhibitory action of Kunitz pancreatic trypsin inhibitor on proinsulin action in vitro was confirmed. No clarification of this effect could be ascertained.

  14. Removal of Biologically Active Organic Contaminants using Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Banks, Michael A. (Inventor); Banks, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical devices that are to come into contact with living tissue, such as prosthetic and other implants for the human body and the containers used to store and transport them, are together cleaned of non-living, but biologically active organic materials, including endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides, and assembled into a hermetically sealed package without recontamination. This is achieved by cleaning both the device and package components together in an apparatus, which includes a hermetically sealed chamber, in which they are contacted with atomic oxygen which biocleans them, by oxidizing the biologically active organic materials. The apparatus also includes means for manipulating the device and container and hermetically sealing the cleaned device into the cleaned container to form the package. A calibrated witness coupon visually indicates whether or not the device and container have received enough exposure to the atomic oxygen to have removed the organic materials from their surfaces. Gamma radiation is then used to sterilize the device in the sealed container.

  15. Chemical and biological monitoring of MIOR on the pilot area of Vyngapour oil field, West Sibera, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Arinbasarov, M.U.; Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The pilot area of the Vyngapour oil field allotted for MIOR tests contains three injection and three producing wells. These wells were treated in summer 1993 and 1994. Before, during, and after MIOR treatments on the pilot area the chemical compounds of injected and formation waters were studied, as well as the amount and species of microorganisms entering the stratum with the injected water and indigenous bacteria presented in bottomhole zones of the wells. The results of monitoring showed that the bottomhole zone of the injection well already had biocenosis of heterotrophic, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, methanogenic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were besides permanently introduced into the reservoir during the usual waterflooding. The nutritious composition activated vital functions of all bacterial species presented in the bottomhole zone of the injection well. The formation waters from producing wells showed the increase of the content of nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions by the end of MIOR. The amount of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in formation waters of producing wells increased by one order. The chemical and biological monitoring revealed the activation of the formation microorganisms, but no transport of food industry waste bacteria through the formation from injection to producing wells was found.

  16. The use of innate immune responses as biomarkers in a programme of integrated biological effects monitoring on flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skouras, Andreas; Broeg, Katja; Dizer, Halim; von Westernhagen, Hein; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    Immunological biomarkers that reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in coastal marine habitats were sought in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from five locations in the German Bight with different anthropogenic impacts. During a 2-year period of sampling, innate immune responses were monitored from a total of 331 individual flounder of a body length of 18 to 25 cm. From the fish, plasma lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of head kidney leucocytes were analysed and implemented as part of an integrated biological effects monitoring programme. As the measurements of the parameters applied here varied within wide ranges at some locations, spatial differences could not always be established, but some general trends could be drawn: plasma lysozyme activity was decreased in flounder contaminated with DDT adducts and some PCBs, while cellular functions such as phagocytosis and respiratory burst were stimulated by some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Correlation analysis also revealed connections not only between the parameters applied here and some contaminants but also with some biochemical parameters used as biomarkers in pollution monitoring: in flounder with decreased integrity of hepatocyte lysosomal membranes, immune functions also were impaired, and plasma lysozyme as well as phagocytosis activity of head kidney cells were impaired when the activity of cytochrome P450 1A was induced. The data presented here indicate that innate immune responses may be useful parameters to monitor cellular functions in a battery of biomarkers of different levels of biological organisation.

  17. Influence of Activity Monitor Location and Bout Duration on Free-Living Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.; Bennett, Gary G.; Bond, Kathleen S.; Webster, Michael D.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy…

  18. Influence of Activity Monitor Location and Bout Duration on Free-Living Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.; Bennett, Gary G.; Bond, Kathleen S.; Webster, Michael D.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy…

  19. Polymer application for separation/filtration of biological active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylkowski, B.; Tsibranska, I.

    2017-06-01

    Membrane technology is an important part of the engineer's toolbox. This is especially true for industries that process food and other products with their primary source from nature. This review is focused on ongoing development work using membrane technologies for concentration and separation of biologically active compounds, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. We provide the readers not only with the last results achieve in this field but also, we deliver detailed information about the membrane types and polymers used for their preparation.

  20. Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Mohd Javed; Alam, Ozair; Nawaz, Farah; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Alam, Perwaiz

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy. PMID:26957862

  1. Influencing upon Mammalian Radioresistance with Biologically Active Drug Respistim Plus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-181 3 - 1 Influencing upon Mammalian Radioresistance with Biologically Active Drug Respistim Plus Leut . Iv. Kindekov MD Vl...Vasilieva Assoc. Prof. M. Aljakov MD PhD, Coll. Assoc. Prof. Pl. Petrunov MD, PhD ivankindekov@gmail.com ABSTRACT Radiobiology is a medical...success. Protection of the hematopoietic and immune systems is a critical area for restoring organism after irradiation. Some radioprotective

  2. Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities.

    PubMed

    Naim, Mohd Javed; Alam, Ozair; Nawaz, Farah; Alam, Md Jahangir; Alam, Perwaiz

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy.

  3. [New selen-organic biologically active nutrition supplement as a palliative for protection against chemical exposure].

    PubMed

    Sanotskiĭ, I V

    2009-01-01

    The article covers data on new biologically active nutrition supplement containing 3 generation selenium compound. The data include biologic effects, pharmacokinetics and usage recommendation for the supplement.

  4. Preparation, characterization and biological activity of C8-substituted cytokinins.

    PubMed

    Zahajská, Lenka; Nisler, Jaroslav; Voller, Jiří; Gucký, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Spíchal, Lukáš; Strnad, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    Naturally occurring cytokinins are adenine-based plant hormones. Although, the effect of various substituents at positions N1, C2, N3, N(6), N7, or N9 on the biological activity of cytokinins has been studied, the C8-substituted compounds have received little attention. Here, we report the synthesis and in vitro biological testing of thirty-one cytokinin derivatives substituted at the C8 position of the adenine skeleton and twenty-seven compounds which served as their N9-tetrahydropyranyl protected precursors. The cytokinin activity of all the compounds was determined in classical cytokinin biotests (wheat leaf senescence, Amaranthus and tobacco callus assays). With some exceptions, the compounds with a N9-tetrahydropyranyl group were generally less active than their de-protected analogs. The latter were further tested for their ability to activate the Arabidopsis cytokinin receptors AHK3 and CRE1/AHK4 in bacterial receptor activation assays. Using this approach, we identified derivatives bearing short aliphatic chains and retaining high cytokinin activity. Such compounds are suitable candidates for fluorescence labeling or as protein-affinity ligands. We further found that some C8-substituted cytokinins exhibited no or lower cytotoxicity toward tobacco cells when compared to their parent compound. Therefore, we also present and discuss the cytotoxicity of all the compounds against three normal human cell lines.

  5. Myricetin: A Dietary Molecule with Diverse Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Combrinck, Sandra; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-02-16

    Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid and is well recognised for its nutraceuticals value. It is one of the key ingredients of various foods and beverages. The compound exhibits a wide range of activities that include strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. It displays several activities that are related to the central nervous system and numerous studies have suggested that the compound may be beneficial to protect against diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The use of myricetin as a preserving agent to extend the shelf life of foods containing oils and fats is attributed to the compound's ability to protect lipids against oxidation. A detailed search of existing literature revealed that there is currently no comprehensive review available on this important molecule. Hence, the present work includes the history, synthesis, pharmaceutical applications and toxicity studies of myricetin. This report also highlights structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action for various biological activities.

  6. New sensitizers and rapid monitoring of their photodynamic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Posypanova, Anna M.; Volkova, Anna I.

    1996-04-01

    At present, there are lots and lots of chemical compounds that are, to a certain extent, photodynamically active. Therefore, the task of carrying out the expressive screening of such compounds has been raised sharply enough. The primary screening in vitro of compounds, with the help of biological liquids, is notable for quickness and cheapness at the same time, it is possible to determine the comparative characteristics of compounds by their photodynamical activity. Decomposition of albumins of a mixture of photosensitizer and biological liquid when irradiating with light is the basis of this method. Efficiency of decomposition of components of biological liquids is determined using biochemical reactions (e.g., those for determining the total albumins or blood hemoglobin). Subsequently, with a sufficient efficiency of a photosensitizer, it will be possible to carry out a study in vivo, with the purpose of establishing accumulation of preparations in tumor.

  7. Active air vs. passive air (settle plate) monitoring in routine environmental monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Andon, Barbara M

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the utility of active air versus passive air settle plate monitoring in a routine environmental monitoring program with an emphasis on the monitoring of the critical Grade A environments. It is recognized that there has been a long-standing historical use of settle plates in the pharmaceutical industry, and that European regulatory agencies have supported their use. However, current active air sampling technology can be more advantageous and effective in assessing airborne viable contamination in cleanrooms than settle plate monitoring. Given that both methods are designed to assess viable airborne contamination in cleanrooms, there may be no advantage in performing these two parallel methods for the detection of airborne contamination, especially if doing so increases the number of interventions into critical areas, which may in turn increase the risk of contamination without providing any added benefit in terms of data collection and/or process control. Therefore, the best use of settle plate monitoring may be as an optional test method for those applications where other, more efficient sampling methods may not be possible or may have limited applicability.

  8. The biological and toxicological activity of gases and vapors.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Michael H; Sánchez-Moreno, Ricardo; Gil-Lostes, Javier; Acree, William E; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique; Cain, William S

    2010-03-01

    A large amount of data on the biological and toxicological activity of gases and vapors has been collected from the literature. Processes include sensory irritation thresholds, the Alarie mouse test, inhalation anesthesia, etc. It is shown that a single equation using only five descriptors (properties of the gases and vapors) plus a set of indicator variables for the given processes can correlate 643 biological and non-lethal toxicological activities of 'non-reactive' compounds with a standard deviation of 0.36 log unit. The equation is scaled to sensory irritation thresholds obtained by the procedure of Cometto-Muñiz, and Cain provides a general equation for the prediction of sensory irritation thresholds in man. It is suggested that differences in biological/toxicological activity arise primarily from transport from the gas phase to a receptor phase or area, except for odor detection thresholds where interaction with a receptor(s) is important. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biologically active and biomimetic dual gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, P; Pedraz, J L; Orive, G

    2017-05-01

    We have designed, developed and optimized Genipin cross-linked 3D gelatin scaffolds that were biologically active and biomimetic, show a dual activity both for growth factor and cell delivery. Type B gelatin powder was dissolved in DI water. 100mg of genipin was dissolved in 10ml of DI water. Three genipin concentrations were prepared: 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% (w/v). Solutions were mixed at 40°C and under stirring and then left crosslinking for 72h. Scaffolds were obtained by punching 8 mm-cylinders into ethanol 70% solution for 10min and then freeze-drying. Scaffolds were biologically, biomechanically and morphologically evaluated. Cell adhesion and morphology of D1-Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and L-929 fibroblast was studied. Vascular endothelial grwoth factor (VEGF) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) were used as model proteins. Swelling ratio increased and younǵs module decreased along with the concentration of genipin. All scaffolds were biocompatible according to the toxicity test. MSC and L-929 cell adhesion improved in 0.2% of genipin, obtaining better results with MSCs. VEGF and SHH were released from the gels. This preliminary study suggest that the biologically active and dual gelatin scaffolds may be used for tissue engineering approaches like bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL(-1) and 0.6-0.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces.

  12. Integrity and Biological Activity of DNA after UV Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Delina Y.; Monier, Jean-Michel; Dupraz, Sébastien; Freissinet, Caroline; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M.

    2010-04-01

    The field of astrobiology lacks a universal marker with which to indicate the presence of life. This study supports the proposal to use nucleic acids, specifically DNA, as a signature of life (biosignature). In addition to its specificity to living organisms, DNA is a functional molecule that can confer new activities and characteristics to other organisms, following the molecular biology dogma, that is, DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated into proteins. Previous criticisms of the use of DNA as a biosignature have asserted that DNA molecules would be destroyed by UV radiation in space. To address this concern, DNA in plasmid form was deposited onto different surfaces and exposed to UVC radiation. The surviving DNA was quantified via the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results demonstrate increased survivability of DNA attached to surfaces versus non-adsorbed DNA. The DNA was also tested for biological activity via transformation into the bacterium Acinetobacter sp. and assaying for antibiotic resistance conferred by genes encoded by the plasmid. The success of these methods to detect DNA and its gene products after UV exposure (254 nm, 3.5 J/m2s) not only supports the use of the DNA molecule as a biosignature on mineral surfaces but also demonstrates that the DNA retained biological activity.

  13. Development of tools for integrated monitoring and assessment of hazardous substances and their biological effects in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Kari K; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas; Strand, Jakob

    2014-02-01

    The need to develop biological effects monitoring to facilitate a reliable assessment of hazardous substances has been emphasized in the Baltic Sea Action Plan of the Helsinki Commission. An integrated chemical-biological approach is vitally important for the understanding and proper assessment of anthropogenic pressures and their effects on the Baltic Sea. Such an approach is also necessary for prudent management aiming at safeguarding the sustainable use of ecosystem goods and Services. The BEAST project (Biological Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Stress: Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health) set out to address this topic within the BONUS Programme. BEAST generated a large amount of quality-assured data on several biological effects parameters (biomarkers) in various marine species in different sub-regions of the Baltic Sea. New indicators (biological response measurement methods) and management tools (integrated indices) with regard to the integrated monitoring approach were suggested.

  14. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  15. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies) from bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost) from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells. PMID:20831775

  16. Target identification for biologically active small molecules using chemical biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesu; Lee, Jae Wook

    2016-09-01

    The identification and validation of the targets of biologically active molecules is an important step in the field of chemical biology. While recent advances in proteomic and genomic technology have accelerated this identification process, the discovery of small molecule targets remains the most challenging step. A general method for the identification of these small molecule targets has not yet been established. To overcome the difficulty in target identification, new technology derived from the fields of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics has been developed. To date, pull-down methods using small molecules immobilized on a solid support followed by mass spectrometry have been the most successful approach. Here, we discuss current procedures for target identification. We also review the most recent target identification approaches and present several examples that illustrate advanced target identification technology.

  17. Spatial modeling of biological soil crusts to support rangeland assessment and monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are a diverse soil surface community, prevalent in semiarid regions, which function as ecosystem engineers and perform numerous important ecosystem services. Loss of crusts has been implicated as a factor leading to accelerated soil erosion and other forms of land degradation. To support assessment and monitoring efforts aimed at ensuring the sustainability of rangeland ecosystems, managers require spatially explicit information concerning potential cover and composition of biological soil crusts. We sampled low disturbance sites in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (Utah, USA) to determine the feasibility of modeling the potential cover and composition of biological soil crusts in a large area. We used classification and regression trees to model cover of four crust types (light cyanobacterial, dark cyanobacterial, moss, lichen) and 1 cyanobacterial biomass proxy (chlorophyll a), based upon a parsimonious set of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) data layers (soil types, precipitation, and elevation). Soil type was consistently the best predictor, although elevation and precipitation were both invoked in the various models. Predicted and observed values for the dark cyanobacterial, moss, and lichen models corresponded moderately well (R 2 = 0.49, 0.64, 0.55, respectively). Cover of late successional crust elements (moss + lichen + dark cyanobacterial) was also successfully modeled (R2 = 0.64). We were less successful with models of light cyanobacterial cover (R2 = 0.22) and chlorophyll a (R2 = 0.09). We believe that our difficulty modeling chlorophyll a concentration is related to a severe drought and subsequent cyanobacterial mortality during the course of the study. These models provide the necessary reference conditions to facilitate the comparison between the actual cover and composition of biological soil crusts at a given site and their potential cover and composition condition so that sites in poor condition can be

  18. Purification and characterization of biologically active peptides from spider venoms.

    PubMed

    Vassilevski, Alexander A; Kozlov, Sergey A; Egorov, Tsezi A; Grishin, Eugene V

    2010-01-01

    Spider venoms represent invaluable sources of biologically active compounds suitable for use in life science research and also having a significant potential for biotechnology and therapeutic applications. The methods reported herewith are based on our long experience of spider venom fractionation and peptides purification. We routinely screen new peptides for antimicrobial and insecticidal activities and our detailed protocols are also reported here. So far these have been tested on species of Central Asian and European spiders from the families Agelenidae, Eresidae, Gnaphosidae, Lycosidae, Miturgidae, Oxyopidae, Philodromidae, Pisauridae, Segestriidae, Theridiidae, Thomisidae, and Zodariidae. The reported protocols should be easily adaptable for use with other arthropod species.

  19. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section 884.2730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... previous preterm delivery to aid in the detection of preterm labor. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  20. Embedded Triboelectric Active Sensors for Real-Time Pneumatic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xian Peng; Bu, Tian Zhao; Xi, Feng Ben; Cheng, Ting Hai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-20

    Pneumatic monitoring sensors have great demands for power supply in cylinder systems. Here, we present an embedded sliding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in air cylinder as active sensors for position and velocity monitoring. The embedded TENG is composed of a circular poly(tetrafluoroethylene) polymer and a triangular copper electrode. The working mechanism as triboelectric active sensors and electric output performance are systematically investigated. By integrating into the pneumatic system, the embedded triboelectric active sensors have been used for real-time air pressure/flow monitoring and energy storage. Air pressures are measured from 0.04 to 0.12 MPa at a step of 0.02 MPa with a sensitivity of 49.235 V/MPa, as well as airflow from 50 to 250 L/min at a step of 50 L/min with a sensitivity of 0.002 μA·min/L. This work has first demonstrated triboelectric active sensors for pneumatic monitoring and may promote the development of TENG in intelligent pneumatic system.

  1. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section 884.2730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section 884.2730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a...

  3. Isocyanate exposure control in motor vehicle paint spraying: evidence from biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Piney, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the changes in control of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate based paints used in vehicle spraying after a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) national project. Paint sprayers and managers from motor vehicle repair (MVR) bodyshops across the UK, were invited to one of 32 Safety and Health Awareness Days (SHADs) to increase their understanding of the hazards, and practical ways of controlling of exposure to isocyanate based paints. Exposure measurement based on biological monitoring was offered, free of charge, to each of the roughly 4000 participants and used to assess the effectiveness of controls and methods of working. Results are compared with pre and post SHAD measurements. Urine samples were received from 995 paint sprayers. Hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in urine, indicative of exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), were significantly lower (Mann-Whitney, p<0.0001) than had been seen in a wider population from previous HSE inspections and routine sampling. Where a sprayer's urinary HDA was above the quantification limit they were asked to send another sample after reviewing and improving exposure control measures. The results from these repeat samples were significantly lower than the original results. There was no difference in the exposures of sprayers using air-fed half-mask face-pieces compared with visor type air-fed breathing apparatus, or between spray booths and rooms. The analysis of HDA in urine is a useful technique for assessing exposure to isocyanates in paint sprayers. The simplicity of this approach has allowed wide-scale use of biological monitoring in an industry dominated by small and micro businesses. Biological monitoring of exposure has enabled individual companies, and sprayers, to check that their control measures are working. This study showed overall lower levels of HDA in paint sprayers following SHADs. These lower levels have been maintained across a wider population of UK paint

  4. Permanent Infrasound Monitoring of Active Volcanoes in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Steele, A.; Segovia, M.; Vaca, S.; Cordova, A.; Enriquez, W.; Vaca, M.; Ramos, C.; Arrais, S.; Tapa, I.; Mejia, F.; Macias, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2006, infrasound monitoring has become a permanent tool for observing, analyzing and understanding volcanic activity in Ecuador. Within the framework of a cooperative project between the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Instituto Geofísico to enhance volcano monitoring capabilities within the country, 10 infrasound sensors were deployed in conjunction with broadband seismic stations at Cotopaxi and Tungurahua volcanoes. Each station comprises 1 ACO microphone (model 7144) and an amplifier with a flat response down to 0.1 Hz. At Tungurahua, between July 2006 and July 2013, the network recorded more than 5,500 explosion events with peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes larger than 45 Pa at station Mason (BMAS) which is located ~ 5.5 km from the active crater. This includes 3 explosions with pressure amplitudes larger than 1,000 Pa and which all have exhibited clear shock wave components. Two seismic and infrasound arrays were also installed in 2006 under the Acoustic Surveillance for Hazardous Eruptions (ASHE) project, used in volcano monitoring at Tungurahua, Sangay, and Reventador. This venture was led by the Geological Survey of Canada and the University of Hawaii. Through the SENESCYT-IGEPN project, the Instituto Geofísico is currently installing a regional network of MB2005 microbarometers with the aim to enhance monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes that include Reventador, Guagua Pichincha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Sangay, and Volcán Chico in the Galapagos Islands. Through the infrasound monitoring station at Volcán Chico it is also possible to extend observations to any activity initiated from Sierra Negra, Fernandina, Cerro Azul, and Alcedo volcanoes. During the past decade, a series of temporary acoustic arrays have also been deployed around Ecuador's most active volcanoes, helping to aid in short term volcanic monitoring and/or used in a series of research projects aimed at better understanding volcanic systems

  5. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  6. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Maio, Ilona Di; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life. PMID:26784660

  7. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chitosan oligosaccharide: Biological activities and potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is an oligomer of β-(1➔4)-linked d-glucosamine. COS can be prepared from the deacetylation and hydrolysis of chitin, which is commonly found in the exoskeletons of arthropods and insects and the cell walls of fungi. COS is water soluble, non-cytotoxic, readily absorbed through the intestine and mainly excreted in the urine. Of particular importance, COS and its derivatives have been demonstrated to possess several biological activities including anti-inflammation, immunostimulation, anti-tumor, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, anti-Alzheimer's disease, tissue regeneration promotion, drug and DNA delivery enhancement, anti-microbial, anti-oxidation and calcium-absorption enhancement. The mechanisms of actions of COS have been found to involve the modulation of several important pathways including the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This review summarizes the current knowledge of the preparation methods, pharmacokinetic profiles, biological activities, potential therapeutic applications and safety profiles of COS and its derivatives. In addition, future research directions are discussed.

  9. Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin.

    PubMed

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoids may play an important role in the decreased risk of chronic diseases associated with a diet rich in plant-derived foods. Flavonoids are also common constituents of plants used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. The purpose of this article is to summarize the distribution and biological activities of one of the most common flavonoids: luteolin. This flavonoid and its glycosides are widely distributed in the plant kingdom; they are present in many plant families and have been identified in Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. Dietary sources of luteolin include, for instance, carrots, peppers, celery, olive oil, peppermint, thyme, rosemary and oregano. Preclinical studies have shown that this flavone possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The ability of luteolin to inhibit angiogenesis, to induce apoptosis, to prevent carcinogenesis in animal models, to reduce tumor growth in vivo and to sensitize tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of some anticancer drugs suggests that this flavonoid has cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Modulation of ROS levels, inhibition of topoisomerases I and II, reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity, stabilization of p53, and inhibition of PI3K, STAT3, IGF1R and HER2 are possible mechanisms involved in the biological activities of luteolin.

  10. The Chemistry and Biological Activities of Mimosine: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-08-01

    Mimosine [β-[N-(3-hydroxy-4-oxypyridyl)]-α-aminopropionic acid] is a non-protein amino acid found in the members of Mimosoideae family. There are a considerable number of reports available on the chemistry, methods for estimation, biosynthesis, regulation, and degradation of this secondary metabolite. On the other hand, over the past years of active research, mimosine has been found to have various biological activities such as anti-cancer, antiinflammation, anti-fibrosis, anti-influenza, anti-virus, herbicidal and insecticidal activities, and others. Mimosine is a leading compound of interest for use in the development of RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-specific inhibitors for the treatment of various diseases/disorders, because PAK1 is not essential for the growth of normal cells. Interestingly, the new roles of mimosine in malignant glioma treatment, regenerative dentistry, and phytoremediation are being emerged. These identified properties indicate an exciting future for this amino acid. The present review is focused on the chemistry and recognized biological activities of mimosine in an attempt to draw a link between these two characteristics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chemistry, biological activity, and uses of formamidine pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Hollingworth, R M

    1976-01-01

    The formamidines, a relatively new group of acaricide-insecticides, are novel both in their range of biological activities and in their mode of action, which is presently unknown. This paper is a review of the historical development, properties, structures, uses, and chemistry of this group of pesticides, with particular emphasis on chlordimeform (Galecron or Fundal), N'-4-chloro-o-tolyl-N,N-dimethylformamidine, and amitraz, 1,3=di-(2,4-dimethylphenylimino)-2-methyl-2-azapropane. Their biological activity and uses are defined by their toxicity to spider mites, ticks, and certain insects, and they are particularly effective against juvenile and resistant forms of these organisms. A significant, but poorly understood feature of their field effectiveness is their breadth of toxic action which includes direct lethality, excitant-repellant behavioral effects, and chemosterilization. They are generally of low hazard for nontarget species with the significant exception of predaceous mites. Several aspects of the chemistry of these compounds are considered, including structure--activity relations, synthetic pathways, isomerism and configuration, and their chemical and environmental stability. A significant feature of the metabolism and toxicity of these agents is the possible activation of chlordimeform by N-demethylation in vivo. Strong evidence for this has been presented with the cattle tick, but recent results discussed here suggest that in other species, i.e., mice, German cockroaches or black cutworm eggs, N-demethylation is neither a strong activation nor a detoxication reaction. PMID:789070

  12. Controlled Release of Biologically Active Silver from Nanosilver Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A.; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nano-silver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nano-silver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nano-silver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nano-silver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nano-silver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over four orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by pre-oxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and release inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nano-silver. PMID:20968290

  13. Structure activity relationships: their function in biological prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationships provide a means of ranking or predicting biological effects based on chemical structure. For each compound used to formulate a structure activity model two kinds of quantitative information are required: (1) biological activity and (2) molecular properties. Molecular properties are of three types: (1) molecular shape, (2) physiochemical parameters, and (3) abstract quantitations of molecular structure. Currently the two best descriptors are the hydrophobic parameter, log 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), and the /sup 1/X/sup v/(one-chi-v) molecular connectivity index. Biological responses can be divided into three main categories: (1) non-specific effects due to membrane perturbation, (2) non-specific effects due to interaction with functional groups of proteins, and (3) specific effects due to interaction with receptors. Twenty-six synthetic fossil fuel-related nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds were examined to determine the quantitative correlation between log P and /sup 1/X/sup v/ and population growth impairment of Tetrahymena pyriformis. Nitro-containing compounds are the most active, followed by amino-containing compounds and azaarenes. Within each analog series activity increases with alkyl substitution and ring addition. The planar model log BR = 0.5564 log P + 0.3000 /sup 1/X/sup v/ -2.0138 was determined using mono-nitrogen substituted compounds. Attempts to extrapolate this model to dinitrogen-containing molecules were, for the most part, unsuccessful because of a change in mode of action from membrane perturbation to uncoupling of oxidative phosphoralation.

  14. Isoleukotrienes are biologically active free radical products of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, K A; Murphy, R C

    1995-07-21

    The free radical oxidation of arachidonic acid esterified to glycerophospholipids is known to generate complex metabolites, termed isoprostanes, that share structural features of prostaglandins derived from prostaglandin H2 synthase. Furthermore, certain isoprostanes have been found to exert biological activity through endogenous receptors on cell surfaces. Using mass spectrometry and ancillary techniques, the free radical oxidation of 1-hexadecanoyl-2-arachidonoyl-glycerophosphocholine was studied in the search for products of arachidonic acid isomeric to the leukotrienes that are derived from 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed metabolism of arachidonic acid. Several conjugated triene metabolites were chromatographically separated from known 5-lipoxygenase products and structures characterized as 5,12-dihydroxy-6,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid esterified to the glycerophosphocholine backbone. We have termed these products as B4-isoleukotrienes. Following saponification some, but not all, B4-isoleukotrienes were found to exert biological activity in elevating intracellular calcium in Indo-1-loaded human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This activity could be blocked by a leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist. An EC50 of approximately 30 nM was determined for one unique B4-isoleukotriene with a relative retention index of 2.54. We have shown that free radical processes can lead to the formation of biologically active isoleukotrienes in glycerophosphocholine liposomes, and we propose that B4-isoleukotrienes may also be formed in membrane glycerophospholipids as a result of lipid peroxidation during tissue injury. Such B4-isoleukotrienes could then mediate events of tissue damage through activation of leukotriene B4 receptors on target cells.

  15. [Influence of biological activated carbon dosage on landfill leachate treatment].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan-Rui; Guo, Yan; Wu, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC) dosage on COD removal in landfill leachate treatment were compared. The COD removal efficiency of reactors with 0, 100 and 300 g activated carbon dosage per litre activated sludge was 12.9%, 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. The results indicated that BAC improved the refractory organic matter removal efficiency and there was a positive correlation between COD removal efficiency and BAC dosage. The output of carbon dioxide after 8h of aeration in reactors was 109, 193 and 306 mg corresponding to the activated carbon dosages mentioned above, which indicated the amount of biodegradation and BAC dosage also had a positive correlation. The combination of adsorption and bioregeneration of BAC resulted in the positive correlation betweem organic matter removal efficiency and BAC dosage, and bioregeneration was the root cause for the microbial decomposition of refractory organics.

  16. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Mudassir A; Crow, Sidney A

    2005-01-04

    The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined against 12 fungal and 12 bacterial strains by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion assays. The extract of Zygophyllum fabago was found to be highly effective against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The extract of Vincetoxicum stocksii was also found to be significantly active against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Extracts of Hymenocrater sessilifolius and Grewia erythraea showed good activity only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; Mashino, T.

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C60-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C60-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC50 values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution effect on soil biological activity in the anthropogenic contaminated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Antonenko, Elena; Salamova, Anzhelika; Gimp, Alina; Deryabkina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most significant environmental contaminants with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties to all living organisms. The changes in microbial community structure in technogenic polluted soil may be used as tools for predicting and monitoring natural degradation and for search the most effective and appropriate pathways of bioremediation. The present study is aimed to research the biological activity of the soil in the emission zone of Novocherkassk Power station (NPs) (Russia) polluted by PAHs in 2015. The NPs is one of the largest thermal power stations in the south of Russia burning low-quality coal appurtenant the enterprises of I hazardous class. Monitoring plots were located on virgin or no-till fallow areas and not subject to the sanitary-protection zone of the NPs. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0- to 20-cm, because the major part of PAHs are accumulated in the surface soil layer. The soils of the plots mainly include Chernozems Calcic (plots 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10), Phaeozems Haplic (plots 3, 6, 8 and 11) Fluvisols Umbric (plots 2 and 12). In the soil of 12 monitoring plots located around NPs there were determined the main enzymes, abundance of soil bacteria and 17 priority PAHs. PAHs extraction from soil was performed by new developed ecologically clean method of subcritical water extraction without organic solvents (Sushkova et al., 2015). The level of PAHs around NPs is high at the nearest to factory monitoring plots situated at distance 1,0-1,2 km and reaches from 1600,1±14,7 up to 373,6±7,1 mkg/kg in the 20-cm soil layer. Gradually decrease of PAHs contamination is observed while increasing the distance from the NPs. The level of highmolecular PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings) exceeds the level of lowmolecular (2-3 aromatic rings) PAHs in all monitoring plots situated though the prevailing wind direction from NPs. The close correlations were found between PAHs content and biological activity parameters

  19. Biodegradation of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin LR in natural water and biologically active slow sand filters.

    PubMed

    Bourne, David G; Blakeley, Robert L; Riddles, Peter; Jones, Gary J

    2006-03-01

    A bacterium (MJ-PV) previously demonstrated to degrade the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin LR, was investigated for bioremediation applications in natural water microcosms and biologically active slow sand filters. Enhanced degradation of microcystin LR was observed with inoculated (1 x 10(6) cell/mL) treatments of river water dosed with microcystin LR (>80% degradation within 2 days) compared to uninoculated controls. Inoculation of MJ-PV at lower concentrations (1 x 10(2)-1 x 10(5) cells/mL) also demonstrated enhanced microcystin LR degradation over control treatments. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) specifically targeting amplification of 16S rDNA of MJ-PV and the gene responsible for initial degradation of microcystin LR (mlrA) were successfully applied to monitor the presence of the bacterium in experimental trials. No amplified products indicative of an endemic MJ-PV population were observed in uninoculated treatments indicating other bacterial strains were active in degradation of microcystin LR. Pilot scale biologically active slow sand filters demonstrated degradation of microcystin LR irrespective of MJ-PV bacterial inoculation. PCR analysis detected the MJ-PV population at all locations within the sand filters where microcystin degradation was measured. Despite not observing enhanced degradation of microcystin LR in inoculated columns compared to uninoculated column, these studies demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-technology water treatment system like biologically active slow sand filters for removal of microcystins from reticulated water supplies.

  20. Physical activity and cancer prevention: etiologic evidence and biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Friedenreich, Christine M; Orenstein, Marla R

    2002-11-01

    Scientific evidence is accumulating on physical activity as a means for the primary prevention of cancer. Nearly 170 observational epidemiologic studies of physical activity and cancer risk at a number of specific cancer sites have been conducted. The evidence for decreased risk with increased physical activity is classified as convincing for breast and colon cancers, probable for prostate cancer, possible for lung and endometrial cancers and insufficient for cancers at all other sites. Despite the large number of studies conducted on physical activity and cancer, most have been hampered by incomplete assessment of physical activity and a lack of full examination of effect modification and confounding. Several plausible hypothesized biological mechanisms exist for the association between physical activity and cancer, including changes in endogenous sexual and metabolic hormone levels and growth factors, decreased obesity and central adiposity and possibly changes in immune function. Weight control may play a particularly important role because links between excess weight and increased cancer risk have been established for several sites, and central adiposity has been particularly implicated in promoting metabolic conditions amenable to carcinogenesis. Based on existing evidence, some public health organizations have issued physical activity guidelines for cancer prevention, generally recommending at least 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity on > or =5 d/wk. Although most research has focused on the efficacy of physical activity in cancer prevention, evidence is increasing that exercise also influences other aspects of the cancer experience, including cancer detection, coping, rehabilitation and survival after diagnosis.

  1. Natural products as a resource for biologically active compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate various sources of biologically active natural products in an effort to identify the active pesticidal compounds involved. The study is divided into several parts. Chapter 1 contains a discussion of several new compounds from plant and animal sources. Chapter 2 introduces a new NMR technique. In section 2.1 a new technique for better utilizing the lanthanide relaxation agent Gd(fod)/sub 3/ is presented which allows the predictable removal of resonances without line broadening. Section 2.2 discusses a variation of this technique for use in an aqueous solvent by applying this technique towards identifying the binding sites of metals of biological interest. Section 2.3 presents an unambiguous /sup 13/C NMR assignment of melibiose. Chapter 3 deals with work relating to the molting hormone of most arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Section 3.1 discusses the use of two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) to assign the /sup 1/H NMR spectrum of this biologically important compound. Section 3.2 presents a new application for Droplet countercurrent chromatography (DCCC). Chapter 4 presents a basic improvement to the commercial DCCC instrument that is currently being applied to future commercial instruments. Chapter 5 discusses a curious observation of the effects that two previously known compounds, nagilactone C and (-)-epicatechin, have on lettuce and rice and suggest a possible new role for the ubiquitous flavanol (-)-epicatechin in plants.

  2. Towards biologically active self-assemblies: model nucleotide chimeras.

    PubMed

    Vebert-Nardin, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    With this article, we wish to give an overview of our main research activities assessing the potential of a suitable polymer modification of DNA fragments to self-assemble biologically active nanostructures. Specifically, the grafting of a hydrophobic polymer segment on DNA fragments results in amphiphilic nucleotide-based macromolecules, which, owing to both chemical and physical incompatibility, organize in self-assembled structures either on surfaces or in aqueous solution. Through the combination of the existing know-how in polymer chemistry with modern analytical techniques, we are currently focusing on establishing the mechanism of self-assembly of the polymer-modified nucleotide sequences in solution and on surfaces prior to the assessment of their hybridization capacity once involved in the ensemble. With the evaluation of the potential of the functional nanostructures to undergo biological-like adhesion through hybridization one can eventually foresee that the optimal functionality of these bio-inspired systems could be fine-tuned for biological applications such as drug delivery, gene therapy, tissue engineering and the design of either biomedical devices or biosensors.

  3. Molecular and biological diagnostic tests for monitoring benzimidazole resistance in human soil-transmitted helminths.

    PubMed

    Diawara, Aïssatou; Schwenkenbecher, Jan M; Kaplan, Ray M; Prichard, Roger K

    2013-06-01

    In endemic countries with soil-transmitted helminths mass drug administration with albendazole or mebendazole are being implemented as a control strategy. However, it is well known in veterinary helminths that the use of the same benzimidazole drugs can place selection on the β-tubulin gene, leading to resistance. Given the concern that resistance could arise in human soil-transmitted helminths, there is an urgent need to develop accurate diagnostic tools for monitoring resistance. In this study, we developed molecular assays to detect putative resistance genetic changes in Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, and we optimized an egg hatch assay for the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and applied it to Necator americanus. Both assays were tested on field samples. The molecular assays demonstrated their reproducibility and capacity to detect the presence of worms carrying putative resistance-associated genetic changes. However, further investigations are needed to validate our molecular and biological tests on additional field isolates.

  4. Gaussia luciferase reporter assay for monitoring of biological processes in culture and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2009-01-01

    Secreted reporters are a useful tool in the monitoring of different biological processes in the conditioned medium of cultured cells as well in the blood and urine of experimental animals. Described here is a protocol for detecting the recently established naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) in cultured cells as well as in blood and urine in vivo. Further, the assay for detecting the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), the most commonly used secreted reporter in serum is also presented. The Gluc reporter system has several advantages over the SEAP assay including: a much reduced assay time (1-10 min vs. 1.5 - 2 h); 20,000-fold (in vitro) or 1000-fold (in vivo) increased sensitivity and a linear range covering over 5 orders of magnitude of cell number. Additionally, the Gluc signal can be detected in urine and the signal can be localized in animals using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. PMID:19373229

  5. Monitoring cell concentration and activity by multiple excitation fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Li, J K; Asali, E C; Humphrey, A E; Horvath, J J

    1991-01-01

    Four key cellular metabolic fluorophores--tryptophan, pyridoxine, NAD(P)H, and riboflavin--were monitored on-line by a multiple excitation fluorometric system (MEFS) and a modified SLM 8000C scanning spectrofluorometer in three model yeast fermentation systems--bakers' yeast growing on glucose, Candida utilis growing on ethanol, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 growing on glucose. The measured fluorescence signals were compared with cell concentration, protein concentration, and cellular activity. The results indicate that the behavior and fluorescence intensity of various fluorophores differ in the various fermentation systems. Tryptophan fluorescence is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in bakers' yeast and C. utilis fermentations. Pyridoxine fluoresce is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in the S. cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 fermentation. In bakers' yeast fermentations the pyridoxine fluorescence signal can be used to monitor cellular activity. The NAD(P)H fluorescence signal is a good indicator of cellular activity in the C. utilis fermentation. For this fermentation NAD(P)H fluorescence can be used to control ethanol feeding in a fed-batch process.

  6. Biological monitoring of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs: urinary excretion and cytogenetics studies.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, A S; Huber, R; Pethran, A; Römmelt, H; Schierl, R; Kulka, U; Fruhmann, G

    1997-01-01

    For evaluation of the risk borne by hospital pharmacy personnel exposed to antineoplastic agents, the incorporation of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and platinum-containing drugs was quantified by the determination of urinary concentrations. In addition, the induction of micronuclei (MN) and sister-chromatid-exchange (SCE) rates in peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied for correlation with the urinary excretion of cytostatic drugs. Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide were determined in 24-h urine samples using gas chromatography with electron capture (detection limit 2.5 micrograms/l). Voltammetric analysis enabled the determination of platinum concentrations of 4 ng/l. Heparinized blood (20 ml) was drawn and lymphocytes were cultured for MN and SCE studies. In all, 13 hospital pharmacists and pharmacy technicians regularly involved in the preparation of cytostatic drugs participated in this investigation (7 persons represent a follow-up group). All subjects applied standard safety precautions, including the use of a vertical laminar air-flow hood, protective gowns, and latex gloves. On the day of urine sampling an average of 4,870 mg cyclophosphamide, 5,580 mg ifosfamide, and 504 mg platinum-containing drugs were handled. The excretion of 5 and 9 micrograms cyclophosphamide/l urine was measured in two samples, respectively. An elevated level of urinary platinum was found in one pharmacist (22.3 ng/g creatinine) in comparison with a nonexposed control group. Mean frequencies of MN and SCE did not differ significantly between the drug exposed group and control group. The employees who had incorporated chemotherapeutic agents were part of the follow-up group and, thus, particularly cautious and sensitive to a possible hazard. The results emphasize the necessity of improving personal protection of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs and support the importance of biological monitoring. In an ongoing project in our department the

  7. [Comparison of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids for biological monitoring].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Terue; Nakai, Kunihiko; Hagiwara, Chie; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Murata, Katsuyuki; Yaginuma, Kozue; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Previous data have indicated that the erythrocyte membrane may be the preferred sample type for assessing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) contents in cardiac and cerebral membranes. In this epidemiological study, we examined whether plasma phospholipids can be used for accurate biological monitoring of the LCPUFA state or whether analysis of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids is indispensable. (1) The analysis of LCPUFA contents in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids was conducted at baseline and after 1 and 3 days at 4°C, and 21 days at -40°C, after blood drawing, and the changes in LCPUFA content were examined. (2) The LCPUFA compositions of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in 133 young women (18-30 years old) were examined and the relationships between the sample type and the levels of LCPUFAs were determined. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) and (EPA+DHA)/AA ratios in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids after 21 days of blood drawing significantly decreased compared with the corresponding baseline data. Regarding AA, EPA and DHA, a significant positive correlation was shown between levels of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and plasma phospholipids (AA, r=0.364; EPA, r=0.709; DHA, r=0.653). The predictive value of plasma phospholipids for determining the highest concentration quartile in erythrocyte phospholipids was better in EPA (70%) than in DHA (55%) and AA (42%). The measurement of LCPUFA content in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids is necessary for accurate biological monitoring. We also found that LCPUFA in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids is stable in cold storage (4°C) for 3 days after blood drawing.

  8. External Quality Assessment Scheme for Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Toxic Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we summarized the External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toxic chemicals which started in 1995 and continued until a 31st round robin in the spring of 2010. The program was performed twice per year until 2009, and this was changed to once a year since 2010. The objective of the program is to ensure the reliability of the data related to biological monitoring from analytical laboratories. Methods One hundred and eighteen laboratories participated in the 31st round robin. The program offers 5 items for inorganic analysis: lead in blood, cadmium in blood, manganese in blood, cadmium in urine, and mercury in urine. It also offers 10 items for organic analysis, including hippuric acid, methylhippuric acid, mandelic acid, phenylglyoxylic acid, N-methylformamide, N-methylacetamide, trichloroacetic acid, total trichloro-compounds, trans,trans-muconic acid, and 2,5-hexanedione in urine. Target values were determined by statistical analysis using consensus values. All the data, such as chromatograms and calibration curves, were reviewed by the committee. Results The proficiency rate was below 70% prior to the first round robin and improved to over 90% for common items, such as PbB and HA, while those for other items still remained in the range of 60-90% and need to be improved up to 90%. Conclusion The EQAS has taken a primary role in improving the reliability of analytical data. A total quality assurance scheme is suggested, including the validation of technical documentation for the whole analytical procedure. PMID:22953206

  9. Mutant p53: Multiple Mechanisms Define Biologic Activity in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Michael Paul; Zhang, Yun; Lozano, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of alterations involve p53 missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may concomitantly gain novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in various model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 in various organ systems are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  10. Inhibitors of Angiogenesis in Cancer Therapy - Synthesis and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Gensicka, Monika; Głowacka, Agnieszka; Dzierzbicka, Krystyna; Cholewinski, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from preexisting blood vessels. Angiogenesis is involved in normal physiological processes, and plays an important role in tumor invasion and development of metastases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis. VEGF is a mitogen for vascular endothelial cells and stimulates their proliferation. By inhibiting the biological activity of VEGF, and then signal cascades with neutralizing VEGF antibodies and signal inhibitors, may negatively regulate the growth and metastasis. Anti-angiogenesis therapy is less toxic than chemotherapy. Angiogenesis is a multistep and multifactorial process, and therefore, can be blocked at different levels. In this review article, the authors present the synthesis of novel inhibitors of angiogenesis, together with the results of biological tests in vitro, and in some cases, state trials.

  11. Mutant p53: Multiple Mechanisms Define Biologic Activity in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michael Paul; Zhang, Yun; Lozano, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of alterations involve p53 missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may concomitantly gain novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in various model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 in various organ systems are reviewed and their limitations discussed. PMID:26618142

  12. Ion exchange defines the biological activity of titanate nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Rónavári, Andrea; Kovács, Dávid; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kónya, Zoltán; Kiricsi, Mónika; Pfeiffer, Ilona

    2016-05-01

    One-dimensional titanate nanotubes (TiONTs) were subjected to systematic ion exchange to determine the impact of these modifications on biological activities. Ion exchanged TiONTs (with Ag, Mg, Bi, Sb, Ca, K, Sr, Fe, and Cu ions) were successfully synthesized and the presence of the substituted ions was verified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A complex screening was carried out to reveal differences in toxicity to human cells, as well as in antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities between the various modified nanotubes. Our results demonstrated that Ag ion exchanged TiONTs exerted potent antibacterial and antifungal effects against all examined microbial species but were ineffective on viruses. Surprisingly, the antibacterial activity of Cu/TiONTs was restricted to Micrococcus luteus. Most ion exchanged TiONTs did not show antimicrobial activity against the tested bacterial and fungal species. Incorporation of various ions into nanotube architectures lead to mild, moderate, or even to a massive loss of human cell viability; therefore, this type of biological effect exerted by TiONTs can be greatly modulated by ion exchange. These findings further emphasize the contribution of ion exchange in determining not only the physical and chemical characteristics but also the bioactivity of TiONT against different types of living cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  14. [Histidine triad protein superfamily--biological function and enzymatic activity].

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Fryc, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The HIT superfamily consists of proteins that share the histidine triad motif, His-X-His-X-His-X-X (where X is a hydrophobic amino acid), which constitutes enzymatic catalytic center. These enzymes act as nucleotidylyl hydrolase or transferase, and the mutation of the second histidine in the triad abolishes their activity. HIT proteins were found ubiquitous in all organisms and they were classified into 5 branches, which are represented by human proteins: HINT1, FHIT, Aprataxin, GALT and DCPS. Because HINT1 orthologs, which belong to the evolutionally oldest family branch, were found from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, it is clear that HIT motif was conserved during the evolution what means that the enzymatic activity is necessary for functions of these proteins. However, in few cases, e.g. HINT1 and FHIT, the connection between the biological function and the enzymatic activity is still obscure. In this review, the relations between biology and activity for 7 HIT proteins, which were found in human, are highlighted.

  15. Biologically Active Metabolites Produced by the Basidiomycete Quambalaria cyanescens

    PubMed Central

    Stodůlková, Eva; Císařová, Ivana; Kolařík, Miroslav; Chudíčková, Milada; Novák, Petr; Man, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Pavlů, Barbora; Černý, Jan; Flieger, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Four strains of the fungus Quambalaria cyanescens (Basidiomycota: Microstromatales), were used for the determination of secondary metabolites production and their antimicrobial and biological activities. A new naphthoquinone named quambalarine A, (S)-(+)-3-(5-ethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yliden)-5,7,8-trihydroxy-2-oxo-1,4-naphthoquinone (1), together with two known naphthoquinones, 3-hexanoyl-2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (named here as quambalarine B, 2) and mompain, 2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (3) were isolated. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography, NMR and MS spectrometry. Quambalarine A (1) had a broad antifungal and antibacterial activity and is able inhibit growth of human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and fungi co-occurring with Q. cyanescens in bark beetle galleries including insect pathogenic species Beauveria bassiana. Quambalarine B (2) was active against several fungi and mompain mainly against bacteria. The biological activity against human-derived cell lines was selective towards mitochondria (2 and 3); after long-term incubation with 2, mitochondria were undetectable using a mitochondrial probe. A similar effect on mitochondria was observed also for environmental competitors of Q. cyanescens from the genus Geosmithia. PMID:25723150

  16. Limited activity monitoring in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Shic, Frederick; Bradshaw, Jessica; Klin, Ami; Scassellati, Brian; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2011-03-22

    This study used eye-tracking to examine how 20-month-old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=28), typical development (TD) (n=34), and non-autistic developmental delays (DD) (n=16) monitored the activities occurring in a context of an adult-child play interaction. Toddlers with ASD, in comparison to control groups, showed less attention to the activities of others and focused more on background objects (e.g., toys). In addition, while all groups spent the same time overall looking at people, toddlers with ASD looked less at people's heads and more at their bodies. In ASD, these patterns were associated with cognitive deficits and greater autism severity. These results suggest that the monitoring of the social activities of others is disrupted early in the developmental progression of autism, limiting future avenues for observational learning.

  17. Monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; McKenna, Mary L; Butler, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    Given the increase in the number of Canadian jurisdictions with school nutrition and/or physical activity policies, there is a need to assess the effectiveness of such policies. The objectives of this paper are to 1) provide an overview of key issues in monitoring and evaluating school nutrition and physical activity policies in Canada and 2) identify areas for further research needed to strengthen the evidence base and inform the development of effective approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Evaluation indicators, data sources and existing tools for evaluating nutrition and physical activity are reviewed. This paper has underscored the importance of identifying common indicators and approaches, using a comprehensive approach based on the WHO framework and ensuring that research capacity and funding is in place to facilitate high-quality evaluation efforts in the future.

  18. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  19. The value to the anaesthetist of monitoring cerebral activity.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Thomsen, C E

    1994-03-01

    The administration rate of general anaesthetic drugs is at present guided by clinical experience, and indirect indicators such as haemodynamic parameters. In the presence of muscle relaxants most of the clinical signs of inadequate anaesthesia are lost and accidental awareness may occur. A number of monitoring modalities, primarily based on analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been proposed for measurement of the anaesthetic depth. Moreover intraoperative cerebral monitoring may also provide the anaesthetist with early warning of cerebral ischaemia, or information on specific neurological pathways. To facilitate this, it is essential to combine analysis of the spontaneous EEG with recording of evoked potentials, to assess both cortical and subcortical activity/events. None of the reviewed methods, however promising, can alone meet all of the requirements for intraoperative monitoring of cerebral function. We suggest that the future direction should be to integrate several modalities in a single device, to provide valuable new information, upon which to base clinical management decisions.

  20. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C

    2014-06-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable