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Sample records for monitoring glycerol secretion

  1. Rapid monitoring of glycerol in fermentation growth media: Facilitating crude glycerol bioprocess development.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sergi; Pérez, Xavier; Planas, Antoni; Turon, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the need for crude glycerol valorisation from the biodiesel industry has generated many studies for practical and economic applications. Amongst them, fermentations based on glycerol media for the production of high value metabolites are prominent applications. This has generated a need to develop analytical techniques which allow fast and simple glycerol monitoring during fermentation. The methodology should be fast and inexpensive to be adopted in research, as well as in industrial applications. In this study three different methods were analysed and compared: two common methodologies based on liquid chromatography and enzymatic kits, and the new method based on a DotBlot assay coupled with image analysis. The new methodology is faster and cheaper than the other conventional methods, with comparable performance. Good linearity, precision and accuracy were achieved in the lower range (10 or 15 g/L to depletion), the most common range of glycerol concentrations to monitor fermentations in terms of growth kinetics.

  2. Monitoring of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, ethanol and glycerol during wort fermentation by biosensors, HPLC and spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Monošík, Rastislav; Magdolen, Peter; Stredanský, Miroslav; Šturdík, Ernest

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze sugar levels (namely maltose, maltotriose, glucose and fructose) and alcohols (ethanol and glycerol) during the fermentation process in wort samples by amperometric enzymatic biosensors developed by our research group for industrial application, HPLC and spectrophotometry, and to compare the suitability of the presented methods for determination of individual analytes. We can conclude that for the specific monitoring of maltose or maltotriose only the HPLC method was suitable. On the other hand, biosensors and spectrophotometry reflected a decrease in total sugar concentration better and were able to detect both glucose and fructose in the later stages of fermentation, while HPLC was not. This can be attributed to the low detection limits and good sensitivity of the proposed methods. For the ethanol and glycerol analysis all methods proved to be suitable. However, concerning the cost expenses and time analysis, biosensors represented the best option.

  3. OCT monitoring of diffusion of water and glycerol through tooth dentine in different geometry of wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunina, N. A.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2010-02-01

    In our previous work optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proved to be a useful tool for monitoring of diffusion of chemical agents (water, glycerol) within human tooth dentine. Such diffusion studies are interesting for tooth therapy (diffusion of medicinal preparations) and cosmetics (chemical whitening agents). Here we compare different wetting schemes in which the sample is either merged in the liquid agent so that the probe beam is to pass through a layer of liquid, or subjected to wetting through a special window from the back side. In spite of certain difference revealed, the order of magnitude of the diffusion time constant and the permeability coefficient are shown to be the same in both cases.

  4. The use of capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for monitoring of glycerol in adipose tissues during a sporting performance.

    PubMed

    Tůma, Petr; Málková, Klára; Wedellová, Zuzana; Samcová, Eva; Stulík, Karel

    2010-06-01

    A CE procedure employing capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection has been developed for direct determination of the glycerol and mannitol polyalcohols in biological and pharmacological samples. Both glycerol and mannitol are fully separated from the sample matrix within very short times of 3.0 and 3.9 min, respectively, when using the optimized BGE, 60 mM H3BO3+30 mM LiOH (pH 9.1). The LODs amount to 0.5 microM for glycerol and 0.3 microM for mannitol. The repeatability of the glycerol determination in real biological materials is characterized by the coefficient of variation values, 0.5 and 3.2%, for the migration time and the peak area, respectively. The procedure has been used to monitor the free glycerol concentration in adipose tissue microdialyzates. A physiological study has demonstrated that the lipolysis occurring during a sporting action can be stimulated by local application of adrenaline. The procedure has further been utilized to determine mannitol in a pharmacological preparation. PMID:20564696

  5. In vivo determination of triglyceride (TG) secretion in rats fed different dietary saturated fats using (2- sup 3 H)-glycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.C.; Yang, H.; Lasekan, J.; Clayton, M.; Ney, D.M. )

    1990-02-26

    Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (154{plus minus}1 g) were fed diets containing 2% corn oil (CO) + 14% butterfat (BF), beef tallow (BT), olive oil (OO) or coconut oil (CN) vs a 16% CO control diet for 5 weeks. Changes in plasma TG specific activity (dpm/mg TG) were determined in individual unanesthetized rats after injection of 100 {mu}Ci (2-{sup 3}H)-glycerol via a carotid cannula. Fractional rate constants were obtained using a 2-compartment model and nonlinear regression analysis. Results demonstrated no difference in the fractional rate constants among dietary groups; but, differences in the rates of hepatic TG secretion were noted. Rats fed BT showed a higher rate of hepatic TG secretion than rats fed CO. Rats fed BF, OO or CN showed somewhat higher rates of hepatic TG secretion than CO. VLDL TG, phospholipid, and apolipoprotein B and E levels were higher with saturated fats vs CO. The data suggest that the higher plasma TG levels noted in response to feeding saturated fats vs corn oil can be explained, in part, by an increased flux of hepatic TG secretion.

  6. Dynamic OCT monitoring and quantification of light penetration enhancement for normal, benign and cancerous human lung tissues at different concentrations of glycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Shu-wen Tan; Ying Jin; Hui Yu; Guo-yong Wu

    2013-10-31

    We have evaluated the dynamic effects of the analyte diffusion on the 1/e light penetration depths of normal, benign and cancerous human lung tissue in vitro, as well as have monitored and quantified the dynamic change in the light penetration depths of the mentioned human lung tissue after application of 25 % and 50 % glycerol solution, respectively. The light penetration depths of the analyte diffusion in the lung tissue are measured using the Fourierdomain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Experimental results show that the application of glycerol as a chemical agent can significantly enhance light penetration depths into the human normal lung (NL), lung benign granulomatosis (LBG) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tissue. In-depth transport of the glycerol molecules in the NL, LBG and LSCC tissue at a lower glycerol concentration (25 %) are faster than those at a higher glycerol concentration (50 %), and the 1/e light penetration depths at a lower glycerol concentration (25 %) are smaller than those at a higher glycerol concentration (50 %), respectively. Their differences in the maximal 1/e light penetration depths of the NL, LBG and LSCC tissue at a higher and a lower glycerol concentrations were only 8.8 %, 6.8 % and 4.7 %, respectively. (biophotonics)

  7. A sampling design framework for monitoring secretive marshbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Gibbs, J.P.; Herzog, M.; Lor, S.; Niemuth, N.D.; Ribic, C.A.; Seamans, M.; Shaffer, T.L.; Shriver, W.G.; Stehman, S.V.; Thompson, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    A framework for a sampling plan for monitoring marshbird populations in the contiguous 48 states is proposed here. The sampling universe is the breeding habitat (i.e. wetlands) potentially used by marshbirds. Selection protocols would be implemented within each of large geographical strata, such as Bird Conservation Regions. Site selection will be done using a two-stage cluster sample. Primary sampling units (PSUs) would be land areas, such as legal townships, and would be selected by a procedure such as systematic sampling. Secondary sampling units (SSUs) will be wetlands or portions of wetlands in the PSUs. SSUs will be selected by a randomized spatially balanced procedure. For analysis, the use of a variety of methods as a means of increasing confidence in conclusions that may be reached is encouraged. Additional effort will be required to work out details and implement the plan.

  8. Monitoring TriAcylGlycerols Accumulation by Atomic Force Microscopy Based Infrared Spectroscopy in Streptomyces Species for Biodiesel Applications.

    PubMed

    Deniset-Besseau, Ariane; Prater, Craig B; Virolle, Marie-Joëlle; Dazzi, Alexandre

    2014-02-20

    An atomic force microscope coupled with a tunable infrared laser source (AFM-IR) was used to measure the size and map the distribution of oil inclusions inside of microorganism without staining or other special sample preparation. The microorganism under study is Streptomyces, a soil bacterium that possesses the capability, under some specific nutritional conditions, to store its carbon source into TriAcylGlycerols, a potential direct source of biodiesel. PMID:26270832

  9. Novel Authentication of Monitoring Data Through the use of Secret and Public Cryptographic Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tolk, Keith; Tanner, Jennifer E.

    2014-07-21

    The Office of Nuclear Verification (ONV) is supporting the development of a piece of equipment to provide data authentication and protection for a suite of monitoring sensors as part of a larger effort to create an arms control technology toolkit. This device, currently called the Red Box, leverages the strengths of both secret and public cryptographic keys to authenticate, digitally sign, and pass along monitoring data to allow for host review, and redaction if necessary, without the loss of confidence in the authenticity of the data by the monitoring party. The design of the Red Box will allow for the addition and removal of monitoring equipment and can also verify that the data was collected by authentic monitoring equipment prior to signing the data and sending it to the host and for review. The host will then forward the data to the monitor for review and inspection. This paper will highlight the progress to date of the Red Box development, and will explain the novel method of leveraging both symmetric and asymmetric (secret and public key) cryptography to authenticate data within a warhead monitoring regime.

  10. Continuous monitoring of ATP levels in living insulin secreting cells expressing cytosolic firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Maechler, P; Wang, H; Wollheim, C B

    1998-02-01

    The second messenger role of ATP in insulin secretion was investigated in living INS-1 insulinoma cells. ATP-dependent luminescence was monitored in cells expressing high levels of firefly luciferase under the control of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator. The calibration of luminescence in permeabilized cells yielded similar ATP levels as those obtained in cell extracts with a conventional ATP assay. Stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose or methyl-succinate was correlated with rises of cellular ATP in simultaneous measurements. ATP generation was decreased by inhibition of the ADP-ATP translocase. This approach demonstrates the feasibility of defining the dynamic relationship between ATP and other parameters involved in metabolism-secretion coupling.

  11. Artificial MicroRNAs as Novel Secreted Reporters for Cell Monitoring in Living Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ronald, John A; D'Souza, Aloma L; Chuang, Hui-Yen; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2016-01-01

    Reporter genes are powerful technologies that can be used to directly inform on the fate of transplanted cells in living subjects. Imaging reporter genes are often employed to quantify cell number, location(s), and viability with various imaging modalities. To complement this, reporters that are secreted from cells can provide a low-cost, in vitro diagnostic test to monitor overall cell viability at relatively high frequency without knowing the locations of all cells. Whereas protein-based secretable reporters have been developed, an RNA-based reporter detectable with amplification inherent PCR-based assays has not been previously described. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs (18-22 nt) that regulate mRNA translation and are being explored as relatively stable blood-based disease biomarkers. We developed an artificial miRNA-based secreted reporter, called Sec-miR, utilizing a coding sequence that is not expressed endogenously and does not have any known vertebrate target. Sec-miR was detectable in both the cells and culture media of transiently transfected cells. Cells stably expressing Sec-miR also reliably secreted it into the culture media. Mice implanted with parental HeLa cells or HeLa cells expressing both Sec-miR and the bioluminescence imaging (BLI) reporter gene Firefly luciferase (FLuc) were monitored over time for tumor volume, FLuc signal via BLI, and blood levels of Sec-miR. Significantly (p<0.05) higher Sec-miR was found in the blood of mice bearing Sec-miR-expressing tumors compared to parental cell tumors at 21 and 28 days after implantation. Importantly, blood Sec-miR reporter levels after day 21 showed a trend towards correlation with tumor volume (R2 = 0.6090; p = 0.0671) and significantly correlated with FLuc signal (R2 = 0.7067; p<0.05). Finally, we could significantly (p<0.01) amplify Sec-miR secretion into the cell media by chaining together multiple Sec-miR copies (4 instead of 1 or 2) within an expression cassette. Overall, we

  12. Artificial MicroRNAs as Novel Secreted Reporters for Cell Monitoring in Living Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Yen; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2016-01-01

    Reporter genes are powerful technologies that can be used to directly inform on the fate of transplanted cells in living subjects. Imaging reporter genes are often employed to quantify cell number, location(s), and viability with various imaging modalities. To complement this, reporters that are secreted from cells can provide a low-cost, in vitro diagnostic test to monitor overall cell viability at relatively high frequency without knowing the locations of all cells. Whereas protein-based secretable reporters have been developed, an RNA-based reporter detectable with amplification inherent PCR-based assays has not been previously described. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs (18–22 nt) that regulate mRNA translation and are being explored as relatively stable blood-based disease biomarkers. We developed an artificial miRNA-based secreted reporter, called Sec-miR, utilizing a coding sequence that is not expressed endogenously and does not have any known vertebrate target. Sec-miR was detectable in both the cells and culture media of transiently transfected cells. Cells stably expressing Sec-miR also reliably secreted it into the culture media. Mice implanted with parental HeLa cells or HeLa cells expressing both Sec-miR and the bioluminescence imaging (BLI) reporter gene Firefly luciferase (FLuc) were monitored over time for tumor volume, FLuc signal via BLI, and blood levels of Sec-miR. Significantly (p<0.05) higher Sec-miR was found in the blood of mice bearing Sec-miR-expressing tumors compared to parental cell tumors at 21 and 28 days after implantation. Importantly, blood Sec-miR reporter levels after day 21 showed a trend towards correlation with tumor volume (R2 = 0.6090; p = 0.0671) and significantly correlated with FLuc signal (R2 = 0.7067; p<0.05). Finally, we could significantly (p<0.01) amplify Sec-miR secretion into the cell media by chaining together multiple Sec-miR copies (4 instead of 1 or 2) within an expression cassette. Overall, we

  13. Dynamic-SERS Optophysiology: A Nanosensor for Monitoring Cell Secretion Events.

    PubMed

    Lussier, Félix; Brulé, Thibault; Vishwakarma, Medhavi; Das, Tamal; Spatz, Joachim P; Masson, Jean-François

    2016-06-01

    We monitored metabolite secretion near living cells using a plasmonic nanosensor. The nanosensor created from borosilicate nanopipettes analogous to the patch clamp was decorated with Au nanoparticles and served as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with addressable location. With this nanosensor, we acquired SERS locally near Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) epithelial cells, and we detected multiple metabolites, such as pyruvate, lactate, ATP, and urea simultaneously. These plasmonic nanosensors were capable of monitoring metabolites in the extracellular medium with enough sensitivity to detect an increase in metabolite concentration following the lyses of MDCKII cells with a nonionic surfactant. The plasmonic nanosensors also allowed a relative quantification of a chemical gradient for a metabolite near cells, as demonstrated with a decrease in relative lactate to pyruvate concentration further away from the MDCKII cells. This SERS optophysiology technique for the sensitive and nondestructive monitoring of extracellular metabolites near living cells is broadly applicable to different cellular and tissue models and should therefore provide a powerful tool for cellular studies. PMID:27172291

  14. Dynamic-SERS Optophysiology: A Nanosensor for Monitoring Cell Secretion Events.

    PubMed

    Lussier, Félix; Brulé, Thibault; Vishwakarma, Medhavi; Das, Tamal; Spatz, Joachim P; Masson, Jean-François

    2016-06-01

    We monitored metabolite secretion near living cells using a plasmonic nanosensor. The nanosensor created from borosilicate nanopipettes analogous to the patch clamp was decorated with Au nanoparticles and served as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with addressable location. With this nanosensor, we acquired SERS locally near Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) epithelial cells, and we detected multiple metabolites, such as pyruvate, lactate, ATP, and urea simultaneously. These plasmonic nanosensors were capable of monitoring metabolites in the extracellular medium with enough sensitivity to detect an increase in metabolite concentration following the lyses of MDCKII cells with a nonionic surfactant. The plasmonic nanosensors also allowed a relative quantification of a chemical gradient for a metabolite near cells, as demonstrated with a decrease in relative lactate to pyruvate concentration further away from the MDCKII cells. This SERS optophysiology technique for the sensitive and nondestructive monitoring of extracellular metabolites near living cells is broadly applicable to different cellular and tissue models and should therefore provide a powerful tool for cellular studies.

  15. Smart tissue culture: in situ monitoring of the activity of protease enzymes secreted from live cells using nanostructured photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Kristopher A; Lai, Leo M H; Magenau, Astrid; Cartland, Siân; Böcking, Till; Di Girolamo, Nick; Gal, Michael; Gaus, Katharina; Gooding, J Justin

    2009-05-01

    Monitoring enzyme secretion in tissue culture has proved challenging because to date the activity cannot be continuously measured in situ. In this Letter, we present a solution using biopolymer loaded photonic crystals of anodized silicon. Shifts in the optical response by proteolytic degradation of the biopolymer provide label-free sensing with unprecedented low detection limits (1 pg) and calculation of kinetic parameters. The enhancement in sensitivity relative to previous photonic crystal sensors constitutes a change in the sensing paradigm because here the entire pore space is responsive to the secreted enzyme rather than just the pore walls. In situ monitoring is demonstrated by detecting secretion of matrix metalloprotease 9 from stimulated human macrophages.

  16. Glycerol combustion and emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the growing capacity in biodiesel production and the resulting glut of the glycerol by-product, there is increasing interest in finding alternative uses for crude glycerol. One option may be to burn it locally for combined process heat and power, replacing fossil fuels and i...

  17. Nanoparticle tracking analysis monitors microvesicle and exosome secretion from immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Chin Y; Song, Yaqiong; Zheng, Ying; Campbell, Elaine C; Riches, Andrew C; Gunn-Moore, Frank; Powis, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle tracking analysis permits the determination of both the size distribution and relative concentration of microvesicles, including exosomes, in the supernatants of cultured cells and biological fluids. We have studied the release of microvesicles from the human lymphoblastoid T-cell lines Jurkat and CEM. Unstimulated, both cell lines release microvesicles in the size range 70–90 nm, which can be depleted from the supernatant by ultracentrifugation at 100 000 g, and by anti-CD45 magnetic beads, and which by immunoblotting also contain the exosome-associated proteins Alix and Tsg101. Incubation with known potentiators of exosome release, the ionophores monensin and A23187, resulted in a significant increase in microvesicle release that was both time and concentration dependent. Mass spectrometric analysis of proteins isolated from ultracentrifuged supernatants of A23187-treated cells revealed the presence of exosome-associated proteins including heat-shock protein 90, tubulin, elongation factor α1, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Additionally, treatment of peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells with bacterial lipopolysaccharide displayed an increase in secreted microvesicles. Consequently, nanoparticle tracking analysis can be effectively applied to monitor microvesicle release from cells of the immune system. PMID:22348503

  18. Electrochemical valorisation of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Simões, Mário; Baranton, Stève; Coutanceau, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    The worldwide glycerol stocks are increasing; to make the biodiesel industry sustainable economically, this chemical could be used as a secondary primary raw material. Electric energy or hydrogen and added-value-chemical cogeneration becomes more and more an important research topic for increasing economical and industrial interests towards electrochemical technologies. Studies on glycerol electrooxidation for fuel or electrolysis cell applications are scarce. The valorisation of glycerol is generally performed by organic chemistry reactions forming, for example, esters, glycerol carbonates, ethers, acetals or ketals. Glycerol oxidation is made up of complex pathway reactions that can produce a large number of useful intermediates or valuable fine chemicals with presently limited market impact due to expensive production processes. Many of these chemical oxidation routes lead to significant amounts of undesired by-products, and enzymatic processes are limited. Converse to classical heterogeneous processes, electrocatalytic oxidation processes can be tuned by controlling the nature, composition and structure of the electrocatalyts as well as the electrode potential. Such control may lead to very high selectivity and activity, avoiding or limiting product separation steps. The coupling of glycerol oxidation to produce chemicals with the oxygen reduction reaction in a fuel cell or water reduction reaction in an electrolysis cell on Pt-free catalysts results either in coproduction of electrical energy or hydrogen for energy storage.

  19. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips.

  20. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips. PMID:27098564

  1. Glycerol-induced hyperhydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Marvin L.; Lyons, Timothy P.; Mcnamara, M. Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance of euhydration is essential for maximum work performance. Environments which induce hypohydration reduce plasma volume and cardiovascular performance progressively declines as does work capacity. Hyperhydration prior to exposure to dehydrating environments appears to be a potential countermeasure to the debilitating effects of hypohydration. The extravascular fluid space, being the largest fluid compartment in the body, is the most logical space by which significant hyperhydration can be accomplished. Volume and osmotic receptors in the vascular space result in physiological responses which counteract hyperhydration. Our hypothesis is that glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) can accomplish extravascular fluid expansion because of the high solubility of glycerol in lipid and aqueous media. A hypertonic solution of glycerol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, results in mild increases in plasma osmolality and is distributed to 65 percent of the body mass. A large volume of water ingested within minutes after glycerol intake results in increased total body water because of the osmotic action and distribution of glycerol. The resulting expanded extravascular fluid space can act as a reservoir to maintain plasma volume during exposure to dehydrating environments. The fluid shifts associated with exposure to microgravity result in increased urine production and is another example of an environment which induces hypohydration. Our goal is to demonstrate that GIH will facilitate maintenance of euhydration and cardiovascular performance during space flight and upon return to a 1 g environment.

  2. MEASUREMENT OF LIPOLYSIS PRODUCTS SECRETED BY 3T3-L1 ADIPOCYTES USING MICROFLUIDICS

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Colleen E.; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Glass microfluidic devices have been fabricated to monitor the secretion of glycerol or fatty acids from cultured murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the current studies, adipocytes are perfused in a reversibly-sealed cell chamber and secreted products are analyzed by enzyme assay on either a single- or dual-chip device. The analysis of glycerol employed the use of a dual-chip system, which used separate chips for cell perfusion and sample analysis. An improved single-chip device integrated the cell perfusion chamber and analysis component on one platform. The performance of this device was demonstrated by the analysis of fatty acids, but could also be applied to analysis of glycerol or other chemicals. The single-chip system required fewer cells and lower flow rates, and provided improved temporal response. In both systems, cells were perfused with buffer to monitor basal response followed by lipolysis stimulation with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Measured basal glycerol concentration from 50,000 cells was 28 μM, and when stimulated, a spike 3-fold higher than basal concentration was detected followed by a continuous release 40% above basal levels. Fatty acid basal concentration was 24 μM, measured from 6,200 cells, and isoproterenol stimulation resulted in a constant elevated concentration 7-fold higher than basal levels. PMID:24529440

  3. A mathematical method for extracting cell secretion rate from affinity biosensors continuously monitoring cell activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yandong; Zhou, Qing; Matharu, Zimple; Liu, Ying; Kwa, Timothy; Revzin, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Our laboratory has previously developed miniature aptasensors that may be integrated at the site of a small group of cells for continuous detection of cell secreted molecules such as inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In a system such as this, the signal measured at the sensor surfaces is a complex function of transport, reaction, as well as of cellular activity. Herein, we report on the development of a mathematical framework for extracting cell production rates from binding curves generated with affinity biosensors. This framework consisted of a diffusion-reaction model coupled to a root finding algorithm for determining cell production rates values causing convergence of a predetermined criterion. To experimentally validate model predictions, we deployed a microfluidic device with an integrated biosensor for measuring the IFN-γ release from CD4 T cells. We found close agreement between secretion rate observed theoretically and those observed experimentally. After taking into account the differences in sensor geometry and reaction kinetics, the method for cell secretion rate determination described in this paper may be broadly applied to any biosensor continuously measuring cellular activity.

  4. Quantitation of short-chain glycerol-bound compounds in thermoxidized and used frying oils. A monitoring study during thermoxidation of olive and sunflower oils.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Joaquín; Marmesat, Susana; Berdeaux, Olivier; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Dobarganes, Carmen

    2005-05-18

    Major short-chain glycerol-bound compounds were investigated in olive oil (OO) and conventional sunflower oil (SO) during thermoxidation at 180 degrees C for 5, 10, and 15 h. These compounds included methyl heptanoate (C7:0), methyl octanoate (C8:0), methyl 8-oxo-octanoate (8-oxo-C8:0), methyl 9-oxononanoate (9-oxo-C9:0), dimethyl octanodiate (C8:0 diester), and dimethyl nonanodiate (C9:0 diester), which were analyzed by GC after derivatization of triacylglycerols to fatty acid methyl esters. An acceptable linear correlation (r = 0.967) was found between the total content of these compounds and the total content of polar compounds, suggesting that quantitation of the major short-chain glycerol-bound compounds provides a good indication of the total alteration level of oils heated at frying temperature. Samples with levels of polar compounds around 25% on oil showed total contents within 2-3 mg/g of oil. To determine the content of these compounds in used frying oils, 10 samples from restaurants and fried-food outlets in Spain were analyzed. Results showed total levels between 2.13 and 7.56 mg/g of oil in samples with contents of polar compounds ranging from 18.8 to 55.5% on oil. Samples with levels of polar compounds of approximately 25% showed total contents of the short-chain compounds similar to those found in the thermoxidized oils, that is, within 2-3 mg/g of oil. PMID:15884831

  5. Identification of agents that promote endoplasmic reticulum stress using an assay that monitors luciferase secretion

    PubMed Central

    Doudican, Nicole A.; Wen, Shih Ya; Mazumder, Amitabha; Orlow, Seth J.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of protein processing in the secretory pathway is a measurable hallmark of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of ER stress-mediated pathways has been implicated in numerous diseases including cancer. To identify agents that induce ER stress, we established a screen for compounds that reduce secretion of the reporter protein Gaussia luciferase (GLUC). Given the clinically validated importance of targeting ER stress-mediated pathways in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), we used this hematological malignancy as a model for validating our screening system. From a screen of 2000 marketed drugs and natural compounds in KMS11 and ARP1 MM cells, we identified 97 agents that reduced GLUC secretion in both cell lines by at least 30%. In order to confirm inducers of ER stress, we applied a secondary screen that assessed splicing of the unfolded protein response (UPR) transcription factor XBP1. One agent, theaflavin-3,3′–digallate (TF-3), was chosen based on its history of safe human consumption and further validated through studies of ER stress-related pathways including the UPR and apoptosis. Given these promising results, this screen could be a useful tool to identify agents targeting ER stress-related mechanisms in other cellular systems wherein ER stress plays a role in disease etiology. PMID:24371212

  6. Real-time monitoring of antibody secretion from hybridomas on a microchip by time-resolved luminescence anisotropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Munaka, Tatsuya; Abe, Hirohisa; Kanai, Masaki; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Shoji, Shuichi; Murakami, Akira

    2006-06-01

    This article presents a real-time monitoring system for cellular analysis using micro total analysis systems technology. Time-resolved luminescence anisotropy analysis was adopted for real-time detection of small amounts of a target protein produced by a small number of cells. The system was tested by real-time monitoring of the antibody secretion by hybridomas. The cells were successfully cultivated in a micro-incubation chamber (240 nl) fabricated on a microchip. The quantification of the antibody was achieved using the Ru(II) complex-labeled Staphylococcus aureus protein A probe, which can bind specifically to the Fc region of the antibody. Using this system, we detected as little as 24 fmol of immunoglobulin G under physiological conditions without the bound/free separation protocol. We successfully achieved real-time and quantitative monitoring of small amounts of antibody production by approximately 200 hybridoma cells. This method could be applied to various cellular analyses using small numbers of cells.

  7. Direct methods for dynamic monitoring of secretions from single cells by capillary electrophoresis and microscopy with laser-induced native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.

    1997-10-08

    Microscale separation and detection methods for real-time monitoring of dynamic cellular processes (e.g., secretion) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microscopic imaging were developed. Ultraviolet laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) provides simple, sensitive and direct detection of neurotransmitters and proteins without any derivatization. An on-column CE-LINF protocol for quantification of the release from single cell was demonstrated. Quantitative measurements of both the amount of insulin released from and the amount remaining in the cell ({beta}TC3) were achieved simultaneously. Secretion of catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)) from individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was determined using the on-column CE-LINF. Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved by LINF imaging microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution. The secretion of serotonin from individual leech Retzius neurons was directly characterized by LINF microscopy with high spatial resolution.

  8. Boron bridging of rhamnogalacturonan-II, monitored by gel electrophoresis, occurs during polysaccharide synthesis and secretion but not post-secretion

    PubMed Central

    Chormova, Dimitra; Messenger, David J; Fry, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The cell-wall pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is cross-linked via borate diester bridges, which influence the expansion, thickness and porosity of the wall. Previously, little was known about the mechanism or subcellular site of this cross-linking. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate monomeric from dimeric (boron-bridged) RG-II, we confirmed that Pb2+ promotes H3BO3-dependent dimerisation in vitro. H3BO3 concentrations as high as 50 mm did not prevent cross-linking. For in-vivo experiments, we successfully cultured ‘Paul's Scarlet’ rose (Rosa sp.) cells in boron-free medium: their wall-bound pectin contained monomeric RG-II domains but no detectable dimers. Thus pectins containing RG-II domains can be held in the wall other than via boron bridges. Re-addition of H3BO3 to 3.3 μm triggered a gradual appearance of RG-II dimer over 24 h but without detectable loss of existing monomers, suggesting that only newly synthesised RG-II was amenable to boron bridging. In agreement with this, Rosa cultures whose polysaccharide biosynthetic machinery had been compromised (by carbon starvation, respiratory inhibitors, anaerobiosis, freezing or boiling) lost the ability to generate RG-II dimers. We conclude that RG-II normally becomes boron-bridged during synthesis or secretion but not post-secretion. Supporting this conclusion, exogenous [3H]RG-II was neither dimerised in the medium nor cross-linked to existing wall-associated RG-II domains when added to Rosa cultures. In conclusion, in cultured Rosa cells RG-II domains have a brief window of opportunity for boron-bridging intraprotoplasmically or during secretion, but secretion into the apoplast is a point of no return beyond which additional boron-bridging does not readily occur. PMID:24320597

  9. Boron bridging of rhamnogalacturonan-II, monitored by gel electrophoresis, occurs during polysaccharide synthesis and secretion but not post-secretion.

    PubMed

    Chormova, Dimitra; Messenger, David J; Fry, Stephen C

    2014-02-01

    The cell-wall pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is cross-linked via borate diester bridges, which influence the expansion, thickness and porosity of the wall. Previously, little was known about the mechanism or subcellular site of this cross-linking. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate monomeric from dimeric (boron-bridged) RG-II, we confirmed that Pb(2+) promotes H3 BO3 -dependent dimerisation in vitro. H3 BO3 concentrations as high as 50 mm did not prevent cross-linking. For in-vivo experiments, we successfully cultured 'Paul's Scarlet' rose (Rosa sp.) cells in boron-free medium: their wall-bound pectin contained monomeric RG-II domains but no detectable dimers. Thus pectins containing RG-II domains can be held in the wall other than via boron bridges. Re-addition of H3 BO3 to 3.3 μm triggered a gradual appearance of RG-II dimer over 24 h but without detectable loss of existing monomers, suggesting that only newly synthesised RG-II was amenable to boron bridging. In agreement with this, Rosa cultures whose polysaccharide biosynthetic machinery had been compromised (by carbon starvation, respiratory inhibitors, anaerobiosis, freezing or boiling) lost the ability to generate RG-II dimers. We conclude that RG-II normally becomes boron-bridged during synthesis or secretion but not post-secretion. Supporting this conclusion, exogenous [(3) H]RG-II was neither dimerised in the medium nor cross-linked to existing wall-associated RG-II domains when added to Rosa cultures. In conclusion, in cultured Rosa cells RG-II domains have a brief window of opportunity for boron-bridging intraprotoplasmically or during secretion, but secretion into the apoplast is a point of no return beyond which additional boron-bridging does not readily occur. PMID:24320597

  10. Boron bridging of rhamnogalacturonan-II, monitored by gel electrophoresis, occurs during polysaccharide synthesis and secretion but not post-secretion.

    PubMed

    Chormova, Dimitra; Messenger, David J; Fry, Stephen C

    2014-02-01

    The cell-wall pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is cross-linked via borate diester bridges, which influence the expansion, thickness and porosity of the wall. Previously, little was known about the mechanism or subcellular site of this cross-linking. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate monomeric from dimeric (boron-bridged) RG-II, we confirmed that Pb(2+) promotes H3 BO3 -dependent dimerisation in vitro. H3 BO3 concentrations as high as 50 mm did not prevent cross-linking. For in-vivo experiments, we successfully cultured 'Paul's Scarlet' rose (Rosa sp.) cells in boron-free medium: their wall-bound pectin contained monomeric RG-II domains but no detectable dimers. Thus pectins containing RG-II domains can be held in the wall other than via boron bridges. Re-addition of H3 BO3 to 3.3 μm triggered a gradual appearance of RG-II dimer over 24 h but without detectable loss of existing monomers, suggesting that only newly synthesised RG-II was amenable to boron bridging. In agreement with this, Rosa cultures whose polysaccharide biosynthetic machinery had been compromised (by carbon starvation, respiratory inhibitors, anaerobiosis, freezing or boiling) lost the ability to generate RG-II dimers. We conclude that RG-II normally becomes boron-bridged during synthesis or secretion but not post-secretion. Supporting this conclusion, exogenous [(3) H]RG-II was neither dimerised in the medium nor cross-linked to existing wall-associated RG-II domains when added to Rosa cultures. In conclusion, in cultured Rosa cells RG-II domains have a brief window of opportunity for boron-bridging intraprotoplasmically or during secretion, but secretion into the apoplast is a point of no return beyond which additional boron-bridging does not readily occur.

  11. Fluorescence assays to monitor membrane fusion: potential application in biliary lipid secretion and vesicle interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, D

    1990-09-01

    Membrane fusion constitutes an essential, intermediate step in numerous cell biological processes, occurring for example during endocytosis, membrane recycling and exocytosis. Also less desirable events such as the infection of cells by animal viruses are mediated by membrane fusion during which the viral envelope merges with a cellular membrane, causing the expulsion of the viral nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm of the cell as an initial step in virus replication. Much of our current knowledge concerning the mechanism of membrane fusion has been derived from studies using simple artificial membranes, such as liposomes or phospholipid vesicles, as model systems. A most essential feature of these studies has been the development of membrane fusion assays that register in a sensitive and continuous fashion the mixing of membranes or the aqueous volumes initially enclosed by these membranes. Not only do these assays allow one to readily detect and quantify fusion, but they also provide the possibility to relate the kinetics of fusion to the rate by which certain molecular changes in membranes take place. Obviously, this insight is of relevance for understanding the mechanism of membrane fusion. The principles and applications of some representative assays that rely on the use of fluorescence spectroscopy will be discussed. Assays that monitor membrane mixing are commonly based on the detection of changes in resonance energy transfer efficiency or the relief of fluorescence self-quenching of appropriate fluorescent lipid analogs. Contents mixing assays rely on either the formation of a (aqueous-soluble) fluorescent complex or quenching of a fluorophore, encapsulated in one vesicle population, by a suitable quencher, entrapped in a second population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Rotation of ultrasonically levitated glycerol drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Leung, E. W.; Trinh, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonic levitation is used to suspend single millimeter-size glycerol drops in a rectangular chamber. Audio-frequency laterally standing waves set up in the chamber are used to torque the suspended drops. The shape evolution of the drop under the combined effect of centrifugal forces and the acoustic radiation stress, along with its angular velocity are monitored, using video imaging and light scattering techniques. The results show good qualitative agreement with the theoretically predicted shape evolution as a function of angular velocity.

  13. Transplantation and in vitro perifusion of rat islets of Langerhans after slow cooling and warming in the presence of either glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Duffy, T J; Hunt, C J; Morgan, S R; Davisson, P J

    1983-04-01

    The cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) and glycerol have been used for the cryopreservation of fetal rat pancreases but only Me2SO has been reported for the cryopreservation of adult rat islets. Since glycerol may be preferred to Me2SO for clinical use, this study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of these cryoprotectants during the slow cooling of isolated adult rat islets. Islets of Langerhans prepared from the pancreases of WAG rats by collagenase digestion were stored at -196 degrees C after slow cooling (0.3 degrees C/min) to -70 degrees C in the presence of multimolar concentrations of either Me2SO or glycerol. Samples were rewarmed slowly (approximately 10 degrees C/min) and dilution of the cryoprotectant was achieved using medium containing sucrose. Function was assessed by determination of the time course of the glucose-induced insulin release during in vitro perifusion at 37 degrees C and also by isograft transplantation. Transplants were carried out by intraportal injection of a minimum of 1700 frozen and thawed islets into streptozotocin-induced diabetic recipients and tissue function was assessed by monitoring blood glucose levels and body weight changes. Without exception the islets frozen and thawed in the presence of glycerol failed to reduce high serum glucose levels of recipient rats and in vitro dynamic release curves showed to demonstrate a glucose-sensitive insulin release pattern. Reversal of the diabetic conditions was achieved in two of five animals receiving islets which had been frozen and thawed with 2 M Me2SO; and in one of three animals receiving islets cryopreserved with 3 M Me2SO. Nevertheless, perifusion studies showed that the pattern of insulin secretion from groups of cryopreserved islets which did show an ability to secrete insulin was atypical compared with that of untreated controls, suggesting that the tissue was altered or damaged in some way. PMID:6406152

  14. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-06-13

    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash. PMID:22612334

  15. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-06-13

    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  16. Glycerol inhibition of ruminal lipolysis in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental glycerol inhibits rumen lipolysis, a prerequisite for rumen biohydrogenation, which is responsible for the saturation of dietary fatty acids consumed by ruminant animals. Feeding excess glycerol, however, adversely affects dry matter digestibility. To more clearly define the effect of...

  17. Esterification of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ilham, Zul; Saka, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate was studied by esterification with dimethyl carbonate in a non-catalytic supercritical condition. It was found that in a non-catalytic supercritical condition, glycerol at higher purity gave higher yield of glycerol carbonate at 98 wt% after reaction at 300 °C/20-40 MPa/15 min. The yield of glycerol carbonate was observed to increase with molar ratio, temperature, pressure and time until a certain equilibrium limit. The existence of impurities such as water and remnants of alkaline catalyst in crude glycerol will direct the reaction to produce glycidol. Although impurities might not be desirable, the non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate could be an alternative method for conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to value-added glycerol carbonate.Graphical abstractPlausible reaction scheme for conversion of glycerol to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate.

  18. Esterification of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ilham, Zul; Saka, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate was studied by esterification with dimethyl carbonate in a non-catalytic supercritical condition. It was found that in a non-catalytic supercritical condition, glycerol at higher purity gave higher yield of glycerol carbonate at 98 wt% after reaction at 300 °C/20-40 MPa/15 min. The yield of glycerol carbonate was observed to increase with molar ratio, temperature, pressure and time until a certain equilibrium limit. The existence of impurities such as water and remnants of alkaline catalyst in crude glycerol will direct the reaction to produce glycidol. Although impurities might not be desirable, the non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate could be an alternative method for conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to value-added glycerol carbonate.Graphical abstractPlausible reaction scheme for conversion of glycerol to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate. PMID:27386367

  19. Blockade of MUC1 expression by glycerol guaiacolate inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, J S; Colon, J; Madero-Visbal, R; Isley, B; Konduri, S D; Baker, C H

    2010-10-01

    We sought to determine whether administration of glycerol guaiacolate at an optimal biological dose inhibits human breast cancer cell growth. Human breast cancer MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells were treated with glycerol guaiacolate and the therapeutic efficacy and biological activity of this drug was investigated on breast cancer cell growth. MCF-7 cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of overectamized female athymic nude mice. Ten days later, animals were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of glycerol guaiacolate for six weeks. Tumor size and volume was monitored and immunohistochemistry analysis on MUC1, p21 and ki-67 was performed. Glycerol guaiacolate decreased breast cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, decreased cell migration, and caused G1 cell cycle arrest. Our results demonstrate that glycerol guaiacolate inhibits MUC1 protein and mRNA expression levels and significantly increased p21 expression in human breast cancer cells as well as induced PARP cleavage. Similarly, glycerol guaiacolate inhibited breast tumor growth in vivo as well as enhanced p21 expression and decreased breast tumor cell proliferation (ki-67 expression). Collectively, our results demonstrate that glycerol guaiacolate decreased MUC1 expression and enhanced cell growth inhibition by inducing p21 expression in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that glycerol guaiacolate may provide a novel and effective approach for the treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:21184665

  20. Glycerol reduces food intake in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Brief, D J; Davis, J D

    1982-10-01

    Streptozotocin diabetic rats received four daily subcutaneous injections of glycerol or a glycerol solution in place of water for a seven day period. Both night and total food intake in the subcutaneous glycerol group were significantly suppressed below untreated diabetic controls. The oral glycerol group showed a nonsignificant decrease in night foot intake and a significant reduction in day and total food intake. Consumption of additional fluid calories by the oral glycerol group contributed to the suppression of food intake in this group, but suppression in the subcutaneous group was unrelated to calculated calories obtained from glycerol. The oral glycerol group also consumed more of the glycerol solution than the other diabetic groups did of water. Results of this study support previous findings that subcutaneous and oral glycerol suppress food intake in normal rats although suppression with oral glycerol may have related to caloric intake, and suggest that low plasma concentrations of insulin do not interfere with the effects obtained with glycerol in normal animals.

  1. Mathematical modeling of glycerol biotransformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova-Krumova, Petya; Yankova, Sofia; Ilieva, Biliana

    2013-12-01

    A method for mathematical modeling of glycerol biotransformation by Klebsiella oxytoca is presented. Glycerol is a renewable resource for it is formed as a by-product during biodiesel production. Because of its large volume production, it seems to be a good idea to develop a technology that converts this waste into products of high value (1, 3-Propanediol; 2, 3-Butanediol). The kinetic model of this process consists of many equations and parameters. The minimization of the least square function will be used for model parameters identification. In cases of parameters identification in multiparameter models the minimization of the least square function is very difficult because it is multiextremal. This is the main problem in the multiextremal function minimization which will be solved on the base a hierarchical approach, using a polynomial approximation of the experimental data.

  2. Freestanding graphene paper decorated with 2D-assembly of Au@Pt nanoparticles as flexible biosensors to monitor live cell secretion of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xiaoli; Fang, Zheng; Wu, Jin; Xiao, Fei; Huo, Fengwei; Duan, Hongwei

    2013-11-15

    We report the development of a new type of flexible electrochemical biosensors based on graphene paper loaded with closely-packed Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as a freestanding cell culture substrate for real-time monitoring cell secretion of nitric oxide. The hybrid electrode was fabricated through a modular approach in which 2D-assembly of nanoparticles formed at the oil-water interface was transferred onto graphene paper by dip-coating. We have shown that the independently optimized metal nanostructures and graphene paper were integrated into functional electrodes with high electrocatalytic activity. When used for the detection of nitric oxide, the flexible electrodes have demonstrated high sensitivity, a wide linear range, and a low detection limit, which, in combination with its biocompatibility, offer unique opportunities for the real-time monitoring of nitric oxide secretion by human endothelial vein cells grown on the electrode. These interesting findings collectively demonstrate the potential of our modular approach for designing high-performance flexible electrodes with tailored surface properties.

  3. Combined laser and glycerol enhancing skin optical clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Zhi, Zhongwei; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zhu, Dan

    2009-02-01

    The inherent barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) makes optical clearing agents difficult to penetrate into skin. To date, several physicochemical methods have been studied to enhance skin optical clearing. In this study, the rat skin was initially irradiated by various light (Carbon-Dioxide Laser, Intensed Pulse Light, Nd:YAG Laser and its frequency-doubled laser) with different dose, and then topically applied anhydrous glycerol. A fiber spectrometer was used to monitor the change of skin diffuse reflectance spectrum so as to evaluate the optical clearing effect on skin. The results showed that Nd:YAG Laser(1,064 nm) with appropriate pulse width and energy density combined with glycerol could improve skin optical clearing effectively, and that Q-switched Nd:YAG Laser combining glycerol made the most significant decrease of skin diffuse reflectance. However, after the irradiation of Carbon-Dioxide Laser (ultra-pulsed), Intensed Pulse Light (400-700 nm) or frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG Laser(532 nm), the following application of glycerol didn't lead to skin optical clearing. Adversely, higher power of the former two light could result in erythema, the later one may harm skin apparently even lead to blood coagulation dot. This study provids a new idea to find out a noninvasive but high-effective approach to increase skin optical clearing, and available parameters of laser need to be further investigated.

  4. Glycerol derivatives and sterols from Sargassum parvivesiculosum.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Si; Huang, Jian-She; Xiao, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Jun; Long, Li-Juan

    2004-08-01

    Five glycerol derivatives (1-5) and three sterols (6-8) were isolated from the EtOH extraction of the brown alga of Sargassum parvivesiculosum. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, their structures were elucidated as 1,3-di-O-[2',2'-di-(p-phenylene) isopropylidene] glycerol (1), (2S)-1-O-heptatriacontanoyl glycerol (2), (2S)-1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulpho-alpha-D-quinovopyranosyl) glycerol (3), (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl glycerol (4), (2S)-1,3-di-(O-palmitoyl)-2-O-octadecanoyl glycerol (5), 24-ethylcholest-5,23Z-dien-3beta,28zeta-diol (6), 24-vinylcholest-5-en-24zeta-hydroperoxy (7), 24-ethylcholest-4,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (8), respectively. Among them, 1 and 2 were new.

  5. Spatiotemporal monitoring of the antibiome secreted by Bacillus biofilms on plant roots using MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Debois, Delphine; Jourdan, Emmanuel; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Thonart, Philippe; De Pauw, Edwin; Ongena, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Some soil Bacilli living in association with plant roots can protect their host from infection by pathogenic microbes and are therefore being developed as biological agents to control plant diseases. The plant-protective activity of these bacteria has been correlated with the potential to secrete a wide array of antibiotic compounds upon growth as planktonic cells in isolated cultures under laboratory conditions. However, in situ expression of these antibiotics in the rhizosphere where bacterial cells naturally colonize root tissues is still poorly understood. In this work, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to examine spatiotemporal changes in the secreted antibiome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens developing as biofilms on roots. Nonribosomal lipopeptides such as the plant immunity elicitor surfactin or the highly fungitoxic iturins and fengycins were readily produced albeit in different time frames and quantities in the surrounding medium. Interestingly, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments performed directly from the gelified culture medium also allowed us to identify a new variant of surfactins released at later time points. However, no other bioactive compounds such as polyketides were detected at any time, strongly suggesting that the antibiome expressed in planta by B. amyloliquefaciens does not reflect the vast genetic arsenal devoted to the formation of such compounds. This first dynamic study reveals the power of MALDI MSI as tool to identify and map antibiotics synthesized by root-associated bacteria and, more generally, to investigate plant-microbe interactions at the molecular level.

  6. Glycerol inhibition of ruminal lipolysis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H D; Anderson, R C; Miller, R K; Taylor, T M; Hardin, M D; Smith, S B; Krueger, N A; Nisbet, D J

    2012-09-01

    Supplemental glycerol inhibits rumen lipolysis, a prerequisite for rumen biohydrogenation, which is responsible for the saturation of dietary fatty acids consumed by ruminant animals. Feeding excess glycerol, however, adversely affects dry matter digestibility. To more clearly define the effect of supplemental glycerol on rumen lipolysis, mixed populations of ruminal bacteria were incubated with 6 or 20% glycerol (vol/vol). After 48-h anaerobic incubation of mixed culture rumen fluid, rates of free fatty acid production (nmol/mL per h) for the 6 and 20% glycerol-supplemented samples were decreased by 80 and 86%, respectively, compared with rates from nonsupplemented control cultures (12.4±1.0; mean ± SE). Conversely, assay of the prominent ruminal lipase-producing bacteria Anaerovibrio lipolyticus 5S, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49, and Propionibacterium species avidum and acnes revealed no effect of 2 or 10% (vol/vol) added glycerol on lipolytic activity by these organisms. Supplementing glycerol at 6% on a vol/vol basis, equivalent to supplementing glycerol at approximately 8 to 15% of diet dry matter, effectively reduced lipolysis. However, the mechanism of glycerol inhibition of ruminal lipolysis remains to be demonstrated. PMID:22916923

  7. Calibrating the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether temperature signal in speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, Alison J.; Schouten, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    Palaeotemperature proxies based on glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) lipids have been established for marine and lacustrine environments, but there has been relatively little study of their application in speleothems. In this study we analyse the GDGT content of 33 speleothem samples from 16 different sites around the globe, and test whether proxies based on isoprenoid tetraethers (TEX86) or branched tetraethers (MBT/CBT) are correlated with measured surface and cave mean annual air temperature (MAT). The results show that the TEX86 has a strong relationship with measured temperature (r2 = 0.78, standard error of the estimate 2.3 °C, when calibrated with surface MAT). Furthermore, the MBT/CBT also showed a significant relationship with temperature (r2 = 0.73, standard error of the estimate 2.7 °C, when calibrated with surface MAT). Some issues remain requiring future work, in particular the development of a larger calibration sample set with measured cave temperature data, and the investigation of controls other than temperature on GDGT distribution, but overall the results indicate that GDGT based proxies derived from speleothems may be highly viable new methods for reconstructing continental palaeotemperatures.

  8. Ag-ELISA and PCR for monitoring the vaccination of cattle against Taenia saginata cysticercosis using an oncospheral adhesion protein (HP6) with surface and secreted localization.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J S; Garate, T; Bryce, D M; Gonzalez, L M; Foster-Cuevas, M; Wamae, L W; Onyango-Abuje, J A; Parkhouse, R M E

    2005-02-01

    A Taenia saginata oncosphere-derived adhesion protein (HP6) with surface and secreted localization was used to successfully vaccinate calves against oral challenge with T. saginata eggs. In contrast, vaccination using a combination of T. saginata oncosphere-derived peptides, selected on the basis of their antigenic index, and including three derived from the HP6 molecule (HP6-1, HP6-2 and HP6-3), was unsuccessful. This either indicated that the wrong peptides were selected or, in the case of the HP6 protein, that the protective epitope is conformational in nature. The protection experiments were monitored using a parasite antigen detection ELISA (HP10 Ag-ELISA), which allowed the early determination of the success of the vaccination protocol, subsequently confirmed at autopsy. PCR assays were used for the first time to confirm the presence of T. saginata DNA in lesions recovered at autopsy and thus verify the parasite origin of the lesions.

  9. Glycerol citrate polyesters produced through microwave heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of various heating methods without catalysis to prepare copolyesters from citric acid:glycerol blends were studied. In the presence of short term microwave treatments, i.e., 60 sec at 1200 W, blends of glycerol and citric acid invariably formed solid amorphous copolyesters. Fourier tra...

  10. Formulation and Applications of Glycerol Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased production of biodiesel in the U.S. and Europe during the past several years has created an oversupply of glycerol, creating lower domestic profitability. In addition, increased petroleum prices have driven up the cost of synthetic polymers made from petrochemicals. Glycerol can be polym...

  11. From ether to acid: A plausible degradation pathway of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Lei; Birgel, Daniel; Elling, Felix J.; Sutton, Paul A.; Lipp, Julius S.; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Chuanlun; Könneke, Martin; Peckmann, Jörn; Rowland, Steven J.; Summons, Roger E.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are ubiquitous microbial lipids with extensive demonstrated and potential roles as paleoenvironmental proxies. Despite the great attention they receive, comparatively little is known regarding their diagenetic fate. Putative degradation products of GDGTs, identified as hydroxyl and carboxyl derivatives, were detected in lipid extracts of marine sediment, seep carbonate, hot spring sediment and cells of the marine thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The distribution of GDGT degradation products in environmental samples suggests that both biotic and abiotic processes act as sinks for GDGTs. More than a hundred newly recognized degradation products afford a view of the stepwise degradation of GDGT via (1) ether bond hydrolysis yielding hydroxyl isoprenoids, namely, GDGTol (glycerol dialkyl glycerol triether alcohol), GMGD (glycerol monobiphytanyl glycerol diether), GDD (glycerol dibiphytanol diether), GMM (glycerol monobiphytanol monoether) and bpdiol (biphytanic diol); (2) oxidation of isoprenoidal alcohols into corresponding carboxyl derivatives and (3) chain shortening to yield C39 and smaller isoprenoids. This plausible GDGT degradation pathway from glycerol ethers to isoprenoidal fatty acids provides the link to commonly detected head-to-head linked long chain isoprenoidal hydrocarbons in petroleum and sediment samples. The problematic C80 to C82 tetraacids that cause naphthenate deposits in some oil production facilities can be generated from H-shaped glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraethers (GMGTs) following the same process, as indicated by the distribution of related derivatives in hydrothermally influenced sediments.

  12. Biosynthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol by lipase in dimethyl carbonate as the solvent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Glycerol carbonate was synthesized from renewable glycerol and dimethyl carbonate using lipase in solvent-free reaction system in which excess dimethyl carbonate played as the reaction medium. A variety of lipases have been tested for their abilities to catalyze transesterification reaction, and Candida antartica lipase B and Novozyme 435 exhibited higher catalytic activities. The silica-coated glycerol with a 1:1 ratio was supplied to prevent two-phase formation between hydrophobic dimethyl carbonate and hydrophilic glycerol. Glycerol carbonate was successfully synthesized with more than 90% conversion from dimethyl carbonate and glycerol with a molar ratio of 10 using Novozyme 435-catalyzed transesterification at 70 °C. The Novozyme 435 [5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w)] and silica gel were more than four times recycled with good stability in a repeated batch operation for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol carbonate. PMID:20502921

  13. Biosynthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol by lipase in dimethyl carbonate as the solvent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Glycerol carbonate was synthesized from renewable glycerol and dimethyl carbonate using lipase in solvent-free reaction system in which excess dimethyl carbonate played as the reaction medium. A variety of lipases have been tested for their abilities to catalyze transesterification reaction, and Candida antartica lipase B and Novozyme 435 exhibited higher catalytic activities. The silica-coated glycerol with a 1:1 ratio was supplied to prevent two-phase formation between hydrophobic dimethyl carbonate and hydrophilic glycerol. Glycerol carbonate was successfully synthesized with more than 90% conversion from dimethyl carbonate and glycerol with a molar ratio of 10 using Novozyme 435-catalyzed transesterification at 70 °C. The Novozyme 435 [5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w)] and silica gel were more than four times recycled with good stability in a repeated batch operation for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol carbonate.

  14. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production.

  15. Permeability of the infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae to glycerol during osmotic dehydration and its effect on biochemical adaptation and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qiu, L; Lacey, M J; Bedding, R A

    2000-03-01

    Permeability of the sheath and cuticle of the infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema carpocapsae to glycerol and its effect on biochemical adaptation of the IJs to osmotic dehydration were examined by incubating both sheathed and exsheathed IJs in glycerol-d5 solution then monitoring the changes in levels of deuterium labelled and non-labelled glycerol and trehalose. Energy metabolism of the IJs during osmotic dehydration and subsequent rehydration and the effect of the permeated glycerol on this process were investigated by examining and comparing the changes in mean dry weight and key biochemical composition of the IJs dehydrated in glycerol and sodium chloride solutions. The results show: (1) similarly to evaporative dehydration, osmotic dehydration induces IJs to synthesise the protectants glycerol and trehalose; (2) glycerol permeates the sheath and the cuticle into the body of IJs during dehydration in glycerol solution. Part of the permeated glycerol plays a role as protectant like that synthesised by IJs from their energy reserve materials while part is incorporated into trehalose; (3) the sheath reduces the rate of permeation of glycerol and therefore affects the equilibrium glycerol and trehalose levels of the IJs and also the time needed to reach the equilibrium levels; (4) the reduction in mean dry weight and lipids of the IJs during dehydration in glycerol solution is substantially less than those dehydrated in sodium chloride solution. Both the total protectant level and the ratio of glycerol to trehalose of the IJs dehydrated in glycerol solution are higher than those dehydrated in sodium chloride solution; (5) glycogen reserves of the IJs play a role as a buffer reservoir of the protectants during both dehydration and rehydration but the principal sources of the protectants during dehydration are more likely to be lipids and proteins rather than glycogen.

  16. Two potential fish glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Raymond, James A

    2015-06-01

    Winter-acclimated rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax Mitchill) produce high levels of glycerol as an antifreeze. A common pathway to glycerol involves the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), but no GPP has yet been identified in fish or any other animal. Here, two phosphatases assembled from existing EST libraries (from winter-acclimated smelt and cold-acclimated smelt hepatocytes) were found to resemble a glycerol-associated phosphatase from a glycerol-producing alga, Dunaliella salina, and a recently discovered GPP from a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recombinant proteins were generated and were found to have GPP activity on the order of a few μMol Pi/mg enzyme/min. The two enzymes have acidic pH optima (~5.5) similar to that previously determined for GPP activity in liver tissue, with about 1/3 of their peak activities at neutral pH. The two enzymes appear to account for the GPP activity of smelt liver, but due to their reduced activities at neutral pH, their contributions to glycerol production in vivo remain unclear. Similar enzymes may be active in a glycerol-producing insect, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

  17. Acute overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase-A perturbs beta-cell mitochondrial metabolism and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ainscow, E K; Zhao, C; Rutter, G A

    2000-07-01

    Islet beta-cells express low levels of lactate dehydrogenase and have high glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase activity. To determine whether this configuration favors oxidative glucose metabolism via mitochondria in the beta-cell and is important for beta-cell metabolic signal transduction, we have determined the effects on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion of acute overexpression of the skeletal muscle isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A. Monitored in single MIN6 beta-cells, LDH hyperexpression (achieved by intranuclear cDNA microinjection or adenoviral infection) diminished the response to glucose of both phases of increases in mitochondrial NAD(P)H, as well as increases in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic free ATP, and cystolic free Ca2+. These effects were observed at all glucose concentrations, but were most pronounced at submaximal glucose levels. Correspondingly, adenoviral vector-mediated LDH-A overexpression reduced insulin secretion stimulated by 11 mmol/l glucose and the subsequent response to stimulation with 30 mmol/l glucose, but it was without significant effect when the concentration of glucose was raised acutely from 3 to 30 mmol/l. Thus, overexpression of LDH activity interferes with normal glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in the islet beta-cell type, and it may therefore be directly responsible for insulin secretory defects in some forms of type 2 diabetes. The results also reinforce the view that glucose-derived pyruvate metabolism in the mitochondrion is critical for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the beta-cell.

  18. Synthesis of prebiotic glycerol in interstellar ices.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ralf I; Maity, Surajit; Jones, Brant M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary mechanisms for the spontaneous formation of glycerol have not been able to explain its existence on early Earth. The exogenous origin and delivery of organic molecules to early Earth presents an alternative route to their terrestrial in situ formation since biorelevant molecules like amino acids, carboxylic acids, and alkylphosphonic acids have been recovered from carbonaceous chondrites. Reported herein is the first in situ identification of glycerol, the key building block of all cellular membranes, formed by exposure of methanol-based - interstellar model ices to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons. These results provide compelling evidence that the radiation-induced formation of glycerol in low-temperature interstellar model ices is facile. Synthesized on interstellar grains and eventually incorporated into the "building material" of solar systems, biorelevant molecules such as glycerol could have been dispensed to habitable planets such as early Earth by comets and meteorites. PMID:25363714

  19. Efficient green methanol synthesis from glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Muhammad H.; Dummer, Nicholas F.; Knight, David W.; Jenkins, Robert L.; Howard, Mark; Moulijn, Jacob; Taylor, Stuart H.; Hutchings, Graham J.

    2015-12-01

    The production of biodiesel from the transesterification of plant-derived triglycerides with methanol has been commercialized extensively. Impure glycerol is obtained as a by-product at roughly one-tenth the mass of the biodiesel. Utilization of this crude glycerol is important in improving the viability of the overall process. Here we show that crude glycerol can be reacted with water over very simple basic or redox oxide catalysts to produce methanol in high yields, together with other useful chemicals, in a one-step low-pressure process. Our discovery opens up the possibility of recycling the crude glycerol produced during biodiesel manufacture. Furthermore, we show that molecules containing at least two hydroxyl groups can be converted into methanol, which demonstrates some aspects of the generality of this new chemistry.

  20. Production of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde from Glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Slininger, Patricia J.; Bothast, Rodney J.; Smiley, Karl L.

    1983-01-01

    3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde is a precursor to acrolein, which can be used as an intermediate for making acrylic acid and a variety of other useful industrial chemicals. Conversion of glycerol, a renewable resource, to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde was attempted via action of glycerol dehydrase isolated from Lactobacillus sp. strain NRRL B-1720. This method, however, was unsatisfactory because enzyme activity was lost within 60 to 90 min after the reaction initiation. Fermentation of glycerol by whole cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae NRRL B-199 in the presence of optimal semicarbazide hydrochloride proved more effective. Using this technique, glycerol solutions of 30 g/liter yielded 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde solutions of 13.1 g/liter. Thus, a conversion efficiency equal to 55% of the theoretical maximum was realized. PMID:16346353

  1. Acute metabolic responses of postpartal dairy cows to subcutaneous glucagon injections, oral glycerol, or both.

    PubMed

    Osman, M A; Allen, P S; Mehyar, N A; Bobe, G; Coetzee, J F; Koehler, K J; Beitz, D C

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the effects of multiple subcutaneous glucagon injections with or without co-administration of oral glycerol on energy status-related blood metabolites and hormones of Holstein dairy cows in the first 2 wk postpartum. Twenty multiparous cows were fed a dry cow ration supplemented with 6 kg of cracked corn during the dry period to increase the likelihood of developing postpartal fatty liver syndrome. Cows with a body condition score of >or=3.5 points (1- to 5-point scale) were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatment groups: saline, glucagon, glycerol, or glucagon plus glycerol. Following treatment, serial blood samples were collected over an 8-h period to determine the effects of glucagon and glycerol on blood metabolites and hormones. Treatment effects were determined by comparing the concentrations of metabolites and hormones during the first 4-h period and the entire 8-h period after treatment administration (time 0) with the concentration of the same compounds at time 0 on d 1, 7, and 13 postpartum. Administration of glucagon alone increased concentrations of plasma glucagon and insulin on d 1, 7, and 13 and increased plasma glucose and decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) on d 7 and 13 postpartum relative to the saline group. Administration of glycerol alone increased plasma glucose on d 7 and plasma triacylglycerols on d 1 postpartum. Glycerol administration also decreased plasma glucagon and NEFA on d 1, 7, and 13 and plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) on d 1 postpartum relative to the saline group. Administration of glucagon plus glycerol increased and sustained concentrations of plasma glucagon, glucose, and insulin on d 1, 7, and 13 and decreased plasma NEFA on d 1, 7, and 13 and BHBA on d 1 and 7. Early postpartal treatment of dairy cows with glucagon plus glycerol increased plasma glucose and insulin, decreased plasma NEFA and BHBA, and increased secretion of liver NEFA as plasma triacylglycerols. This suggests that glucagon

  2. Intracellular glycerol influences resistance to freeze stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: analysis of a quadruple mutant in glycerol dehydrogenase genes and glycerol-enriched cells.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shingo; Sato, Machiko; Yokoigawa, Kumio; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    Glycerol is well known as a cryoprotectant similar to trehalose. However, there is little information about the effects of intracellular glycerol on the freeze-thaw stress tolerance of yeast. Through analysis of a quadruple-knockout mutant of glycerol dehydrogenase genes (ara1 Delta gcy1 Delta gre3 Delta ypr1 Delta) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we revealed that the decrease in glycerol dehydrogenase activity led to increased levels of intracellular glycerol. We also found that this mutant showed higher tolerance to freeze stress than wild type strain W303-1A. Furthermore, we demonstrated that intracellular-glycerol-enriched cells cultured in glycerol medium acquire tolerance to freeze stress and retain high leavening ability in dough even after frozen storage for 7 days. These results suggest the possibility of using intracellular-glycerol-enriched cells to develop better frozen dough.

  3. Intracellular glycerol influences resistance to freeze stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: analysis of a quadruple mutant in glycerol dehydrogenase genes and glycerol-enriched cells.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shingo; Sato, Machiko; Yokoigawa, Kumio; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    Glycerol is well known as a cryoprotectant similar to trehalose. However, there is little information about the effects of intracellular glycerol on the freeze-thaw stress tolerance of yeast. Through analysis of a quadruple-knockout mutant of glycerol dehydrogenase genes (ara1 Delta gcy1 Delta gre3 Delta ypr1 Delta) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we revealed that the decrease in glycerol dehydrogenase activity led to increased levels of intracellular glycerol. We also found that this mutant showed higher tolerance to freeze stress than wild type strain W303-1A. Furthermore, we demonstrated that intracellular-glycerol-enriched cells cultured in glycerol medium acquire tolerance to freeze stress and retain high leavening ability in dough even after frozen storage for 7 days. These results suggest the possibility of using intracellular-glycerol-enriched cells to develop better frozen dough. PMID:15127164

  4. Glycerol monooleate-blood interactions.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Emma M; Faxälv, Lars; Weissenrieder, Anna; Askendal, Agneta; Lindahl, Tomas L; Tengvall, Pentti

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the initial blood compatibility of glycerol monooleate (GMO)-coated surfaces was evaluated after deposition to surfaces and in bulk. The model surface was silica onto which multiple layers of fibrinogen or human serum albumin (HSA) was immobilized. The protein-coated surfaces were subsequently dip-coated in GMO in ethanol and used for blood plasma and whole blood experiments. The characterization methods included null ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, imaging of coagulation, hemolysis test and whole blood coagulation time by free oscillation rheometry. The results showed a GMO film thickness of approximately 350 A (approximately 4 microg/cm(2)) upon dip-coating in ethanolic solution. A major part of the deposited layer detached in aqueous solutions, especially during shear conditions. The coagulation time on GMO was significantly prolonged compared to that on HSA coated silica. Whole blood tests showed that GMO is a very weak hemolytic agent. Deposited GMO detached easily from surfaces upon rinsing or shearing, although a stable layer with undefined phase structure and a thickness of 50-70 A remained on HSA and fibrinogen precoated surfaces. This indicates that GMO has stronger adhesive forces to its substrate compared to the cohesive forces acting within the bulk GMO. The ability of GMO to detach from itself and tentatively form micelles or lipid bilayers when subjected to flowing blood may be of use in extravascular applications. It is concluded that GMO results in weak blood activation, and the material may in spite of this be suitable in selected biomaterial applications, especially as a biosealant and in colloidal dispersions.

  5. Feruloyl glycerol and 1,3-diferuloyl glycerol antioxidant behavior in phospholipid vesicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatically synthesized feruloyl¬-sn¬-glycerol (FG) and 1,3-diferuloyl-sn-glycerol (F2G) were both found to partition and incorporate well into 1,2-dioleoylphosphocholine vesicles. Incorporation resulted in vesicles that were as or slightly more stable than the unloaded ones. FG and F2G both demon...

  6. Synthesis of Glycerol Carbonate by Transesterification of Glycerol with Urea Over Zn/Al Mixed Oxide.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Young Bok; Baek, Jae Ho; Kim, Yangdo; Lee, Man Sig

    2015-01-01

    Reactions of glycerol carbonate using glycerol and urea have been carried out previously using ZnSO4 and ZnO catalysts, and high yields have been reported using ZnSO4 as catalyst. However, this salt is soluble in glycerol, and recycling of catalyst is difficult after the reaction. In this study, we prepared a mixed metal oxide catalyst using Zn and Al, and this catalyst consisted of a mixture of ZnO and ZnAl2O4. We confirmed the conversion of glycerol and the yield of glycerol carbonate of the amount of Al. As a result, we obtained a yield of 82.3% and a conversion of 82.7%. In addition we obtained high yield in recycling of catalyst. The yield of the glycerol carbonate increases with an increase of acid and base site of catalysts and the highest catalytic activity was obtained when acid/base ratio was approx. 1. From this result, we may conclude that the acid and base site density and ratio of catalysts were very important parameters in the synthesis of glycerol carbonate from urea and glycerol. PMID:26328352

  7. Integrated multienzyme electrochemical biosensors for the determination of glycerol in wines.

    PubMed

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2008-02-25

    The construction and performance of integrated amperometric biosensors for the determination of glycerol are reported. Two different biosensor configurations have been evaluated: one based on the glycerol dehydrogenase/diaphorase (GDH/DP) bienzyme system, and another using glycerol kinase/glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase/peroxidase (GK/GPOx/HRP). Both enzyme systems were immobilized together with the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) on a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified gold electrode by using a dialysis membrane. The electrochemical oxidation of TTF at +150mV (vs. Ag/AgCl), and the reduction of TTF(+) at 0mV were used for the monitoring of the enzyme reactions for the bienzyme and trienzyme configurations, respectively. Experimental variables concerning both the biosensors composition and the working conditions were optimized for each configuration. A good repeatability of the measurements with no need of cleaning or pretreatment of the biosensors was obtained in both cases. After 51 days of use, the GDH/DP biosensor still exhibited 87% of the original sensitivity, while the GK/GPOx/HRP biosensor yielded a 46% of the original response after 8 days. Calibration graphs for glycerol with linear ranges of 1.0x10(-6) to 2.0x10(-5) or 1.0x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-5)M glycerol and sensitivities of 1214+/-21 or 1460+/-34microAM(-1) were obtained with GDH/DP and GK/GPOx/HRP biosensors, respectively. The calculated detection limits were 4.0x10(-7) and 3.1x10(-7)M, respectively. The biosensors exhibited a great sensitivity with no significant interferences in the analysis of wines. The biosensors were applied to the determination of glycerol in 12 different wines and the results advantageously compared with those provided by a commercial enzyme kit.

  8. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H2. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H2, CH4, CO, CO2. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H2O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  9. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Monica Mihet, Maria Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  10. Enhanced cellulase production by Trichoderma harzianum by cultivation on glycerol followed by induction on cellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Lima, Deise Juliana; Robl, Diogo; Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2016-05-01

    The use of glycerol obtained as an intermediate of the biodiesel manufacturing process as carbon source for microbial growth is a potential alternative strategy for the production of enzymes and other high-value bioproducts. This work evaluates the production of cellulase enzymes using glycerol for high cell density growth of Trichoderma harzianum followed by induction with a cellulosic material. Firstly, the influence of the carbon source used in the pre-culture step was investigated in terms of total protein secretion and fungal morphology. Enzymatic productivity was then determined for cultivation strategies using different types and concentrations of carbon source, as well as different feeding procedures (batch and fed-batch). The best strategy for cellulase production was then further studied on a larger scale using a stirred tank bioreactor. The proposed strategy for cellulase production, using glycerol to achieve high cell density growth followed by induction with pretreated sugarcane bagasse, achieved enzymatic activities up to 2.27 ± 0.37 FPU/mL, 106.40 ± 8.87 IU/mL, and 9.04 ± 0.39 IU/mL of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively. These values were 2 times higher when compared to the control experiments using glucose instead of glycerol. This novel strategy proved to be a promising approach for improving cellulolytic enzymes production, and could potentially contribute to adding value to biomass within the biofuels sector. PMID:26883662

  11. Enhanced cellulase production by Trichoderma harzianum by cultivation on glycerol followed by induction on cellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Lima, Deise Juliana; Robl, Diogo; Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2016-05-01

    The use of glycerol obtained as an intermediate of the biodiesel manufacturing process as carbon source for microbial growth is a potential alternative strategy for the production of enzymes and other high-value bioproducts. This work evaluates the production of cellulase enzymes using glycerol for high cell density growth of Trichoderma harzianum followed by induction with a cellulosic material. Firstly, the influence of the carbon source used in the pre-culture step was investigated in terms of total protein secretion and fungal morphology. Enzymatic productivity was then determined for cultivation strategies using different types and concentrations of carbon source, as well as different feeding procedures (batch and fed-batch). The best strategy for cellulase production was then further studied on a larger scale using a stirred tank bioreactor. The proposed strategy for cellulase production, using glycerol to achieve high cell density growth followed by induction with pretreated sugarcane bagasse, achieved enzymatic activities up to 2.27 ± 0.37 FPU/mL, 106.40 ± 8.87 IU/mL, and 9.04 ± 0.39 IU/mL of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively. These values were 2 times higher when compared to the control experiments using glucose instead of glycerol. This novel strategy proved to be a promising approach for improving cellulolytic enzymes production, and could potentially contribute to adding value to biomass within the biofuels sector.

  12. Biorefinery for Glycerol Rich Biodiesel Industry Waste.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha

    2016-06-01

    The biodiesel industry has the potential to meet the fuel requirements in the future. A few inherent lacunae of this bioprocess are the effluent, which is 10 % of the actual product, and the fact that it is 85 % glycerol along with a few impurities. Biological treatments of wastes have been known as a dependable and economical direction of overseeing them and bring some value added products as well. A novel eco-biotechnological strategy employs metabolically diverse bacteria, which ensures higher reproducibility and economics. In this article, we have opined, which organisms and what bioproducts should be the focus, while exploiting glycerol as feed. PMID:27570302

  13. Biorefinery for Glycerol Rich Biodiesel Industry Waste.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha

    2016-06-01

    The biodiesel industry has the potential to meet the fuel requirements in the future. A few inherent lacunae of this bioprocess are the effluent, which is 10 % of the actual product, and the fact that it is 85 % glycerol along with a few impurities. Biological treatments of wastes have been known as a dependable and economical direction of overseeing them and bring some value added products as well. A novel eco-biotechnological strategy employs metabolically diverse bacteria, which ensures higher reproducibility and economics. In this article, we have opined, which organisms and what bioproducts should be the focus, while exploiting glycerol as feed.

  14. Effects of intravenous infusion of glycerol on blood parameters and urinary glycerol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masato; Nishitani, Yasunori; Dohi, Michiko; Kageyama, Shinji

    2016-05-01

    In sports, the oral intake and intravenous administration of glycerol as a potential masking agent have been prohibited. The effect of glycerol on blood parameters was investigated by comparing the intravenous administration of glycerol (20g/200mL) with that of an electrolyte (8g glucose/200mL) as a comparator (n=7, fixed-dose-rate i.v. infusion, 200mL in 1h). This study was also designed to evaluate whether the urinary concentrations reached the positivity threshold after the intravenous infusion of glycerol. Significant decreases of the haemoglobin (HGB, g/dL), haematocrit (HCT, %) and OFF-h Score (OFF-score) values were observed after the infusion of glycerol (P<0.05 at 1-6h). The differences in the HGB, HCT and OFF-score between pre- and post-administration were -0.49±0.23g/dL (2h), -1.54±0.73% (2h) and -3.89±3.66 (2h), respectively. Glycerol infusion significantly increased the plasma volume by 12.1% (1h), 6.3% (2h) and 5.7% (3h) compared with the initial values. The infusion of the comparator also increased the plasma volume by 9.6% (1h), 5.8% (2h) and 4.9% (3h) compared with the values before infusion. There were no significant differences in the change of the plasma volume between the intravenous infusions of glycerol and the glucose-based electrolyte (as the comparator) (P≥0.05). This finding might indicate that glycerol itself only exhibited limited effects on the expansion of plasma. After administration of glycerol, the urinary glycerol concentrations increased from 0.0013±0.0004mg/mL to 6.86±2.86mg/mL at 1h and 6.45±3.08mg/mL at 2h. The intravenous infusion of glycerol can most likely be detected using the current urine analysis; however, the dependence of the concentration of urinary glycerol on the urine volume should be considered. PMID:26986972

  15. Genetic construction of recombinant Pseudomonas chlororaphis for improved glycerol utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to improve by genetic engineering the glycerol metabolic capability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis which is capable of producing commercially valuable biodegradable poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) and biosurfactant rhamnolipids (RLs). In the study, glycerol uptake facilitat...

  16. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood rosin... purified by countercurrent steam distillation or steam stripping. (b) It is used to adjust the density...

  17. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood rosin... purified by countercurrent steam distillation or steam stripping. (b) It is used to adjust the density...

  18. The efficient desymmetrization of glycerol using scaffolding catalysis.

    PubMed

    Giustra, Zachary X; Tan, Kian L

    2013-05-14

    Glycerol is an ideal building block for the synthesis of complex molecules, because it is inexpensive and highly functionalized. We report the desymmetrization of glycerol through silyl transfer, using a chiral organic catalyst in high yield and enantioselectivity.

  19. Glycerol Hypersensitivity in a Drosophila Model for Glycerol Kinase Deficiency Is Affected by Mutations in Eye Pigmentation Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wightman, Patrick J.; Jackson, George R.; Dipple, Katrina M.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency results in a wide range of phenotypic variability; patients can have severe metabolic and CNS abnormalities, while others possess hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria with no other apparent phenotype. In an effort to help understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variation, we have created a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency by RNAi targeting of dGyk (CG18374) and dGK (CG7995). As expected, RNAi flies have reduced glycerol kinase RNA expression, reduced phosphorylation activity and elevated glycerol levels. Further investigation revealed these flies to be hypersensitive to fly food supplemented with glycerol. Due to the hygroscopic nature of glycerol, we predict glycerol hypersensitivity is a result of greater susceptibility to desiccation, suggesting glycerol kinase to play an important role in desiccation resistance in insects. To evaluate a role for genetic modifier loci in determining severity of the glycerol hypersensitivity observed in knockdown flies, we performed a preliminary screen of lethal transposon insertion mutant flies using a glycerol hypersensitive survivorship assay. We demonstrate that this type of screen can identify both enhancer and suppressor genetic loci of glycerol hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that the glycerol hypersensitivity phenotype can be enhanced or suppressed by null mutations in eye pigmentation genes. Taken together, our data suggest proteins encoded by eye pigmentation genes play an important role in desiccation resistance and that eye pigmentation genes are strong modifiers of the glycerol hypersensitive phenotype identified in our Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency. PMID:22427807

  20. Anaerobic treatment of crude glycerol from biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, M M; Silva Júnior, W R S; Kato, M T; Gavazza, S; Florencio, L

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the use of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to treat crude glycerol obtained from cottonseed biodiesel production. The laboratory-scale UASB reactor (7.0 L) was operated at ambient temperature of 26.5°C with chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations between 0.5 and 8.0 g/L. The volatile fatty acid contents, pH, inorganic salt contents and biogas production were monitored during a 280-day experimental period. Molecular biology techniques were used to assess the microbial diversity in the bioreactor. The reactor achieved COD removal efficiencies of up to 92% except during one phase when the efficiency decreased to 81%. Biogas production remained stable throughout the experimental period, when the fraction converted to methane reached values as high as 68%. The profile of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands suggested slight changes in the microbial community during reactor operation. The overall results indicated that the crude glycerol from biodiesel production can serve as a suitable substrate for anaerobic degradation with a stable reactor performance and biogas production as long as the applied organic loads are up to 8.06 kg COD/m3·d. PMID:26465309

  1. Determining Atmospheric Pressure with a Eudiometer and Glycerol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jed; Rohald, Kate; Sutton, Atasha

    2010-01-01

    We consider a volume of air trapped over a glycerol column in a eudiometer. We demonstrate that there is an approximately linear relationship between the volume of trapped air and the height of the glycerol column. Simply by moving the eudiometer up and down, we cause the glycerol-column height and trapped-air volume to vary. The plot of volume…

  2. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  5. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glycerol ester of rosin. 172.735 Section 172.735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood rosin, gum rosin, or tall oil rosin may be...

  6. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glycerol ester of rosin. 172.735 Section 172.735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood...

  7. 21 CFR 172.735 - Glycerol ester of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycerol ester of rosin. 172.735 Section 172.735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.735 Glycerol ester of rosin. Glycerol ester of wood...

  8. 1,2-Isopropylidene glycerol carbonate: preparation, characterization, and hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utilization of excess glycerol supplies derived from the burgeoning biodiesel industry is of major importance to the oleochemical industry as the economic viability of the biodiesel and oleochemical industries are closely linked to glycerol prices. Carbonate compounds based on glycerol, such as...

  9. Digestable and Metabolizable Energy of Crude Glycerol in Growing Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent DE and ME value of crude glycerol for growing pigs was determined in a series of 5 experiments using crude glycerol (86.95% glycerol) from a biodiesel production facility with soybean oil used as the initial feedstock (AG Processing Inc., Sergeant Bluff, IA). Dietary treatments were 0, ...

  10. Intracellular glycerol accumulation in light-limited Dunaliella tertiolecta culture is determined by partitioning of glycerol across the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Ng, Daphne H P; Low, Chin Seng; Chow, Yvonne Y S; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2014-08-01

    Dunaliella accumulates intracellular glycerol to counterbalance the extracellular salinity. In N-limited chemostat cultures of D. tertiolecta, total glycerol production (sum of intracellular and extracellular) and intracellular glycerol content were proportional to the salinity of the culture medium. In the light-limited D. tertiolecta culture, total glycerol output (sum of intracellular and extracellular) was relatively constant at different salinities (0.5 and 2.0 M), while the intracellular glycerol content was proportional to the culture medium salinity, that is, the cells released less glycerol into the culture medium, rather than de novo synthesis of glycerol at high culture medium salinity. The study implies different regulatory mechanisms in the accumulation of intracellular glycerol in N-limited and light-limited D. tertiolecta in response to salinity. PMID:24966133

  11. Proteotoxicity and the contrasting effects of oxaloacetate and glycerol on Caenorhabditis elegans life span: a role for methylglyoxal?

    PubMed

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2010-10-01

    Because accumulation of altered proteins is the most common biochemical symptom of aging, it is at least possible that such proteotoxicity may cause aging and influence life span. The life span of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly influenced by changes in the intracellular concentration of methylglyoxal (MG), a putative source of much age-related proteotoxicity and organelle, cellular, and molecular dysfunction. Glycerol has recently been shown to shorten, whereas oxaloacetate has been found to extend, life span in C. elegans. It is suggested here that glycerol and oxaloacetate exert opposing effects on MG formation in C. elegans. It is proposed that, if not secreted by aquaporin, glycerol is converted to glycerol phosphate and then to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) via a reaction requiring nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). This inhibits operation of the glycerol phosphate cycle in which DHAP is converted into glycerol phosphate, which concomitantly regenerates NAD(+) from NADH, thereby ensuring glycolytic oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). Because DHAP and G3P spontaneously decompose into MG, and NAD(+) is required for conversion of G3P into phosphoglycerate, the glycerol-induced increased DHAP formation and decreased NAD(+) availability will increase the potential for MG generation. In contrast, oxaloacetate may decrease MG generation by stimulating the operation of the malate-oxaloacetate shuttle, in which oxaloacetate is converted to malate, which regenerates NAD(+) from NADH. By the ensuing G3P oxidation, increased NAD(+) availability will decrease the potential for MG formation. It should be noted that mitochondria are involved in the operation of the above cycle/shuttles and that increased NAD(+) availability also stimulates those sirtuin activities that increase mitogenesis and mitochondrial activity via effects on signal transduction and gene expression, which frequently accompany dietary restriction-induced life

  12. Glycerol and glycerol carbonate as ultraviscous solvents for mixture analysis by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lameiras, Pedro; Boudesocque, Leslie; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-01

    NMR of weakly polar analytes in an apolar ultraviscous solvent has recently been proposed for mixture analysis as a pertinent alternative to the DOSY experiment. The present article reports the first use of glycerol and glycerol carbonate as polar solvents for the NMR analysis of a model mixture of dipeptides. This work demonstrates the high potentiality of these solvents for the analysis of mixtures made of polar and potentially bioactive compounds. Medium-sized molecules slowly reorient in glycerol and glycerol carbonate under particular temperature conditions, so that solute resonances may show spin diffusion in NOESY spectra, thus opening the way to mixture analysis. Glycerol and glycerol carbonate have turned out to be ultraviscous solvents of choice for the individualization of four structurally close mixed dipeptides: Leu-Val, Leu-Tyr, Gly-Tyr and Ala-Tyr by means of 1D and 2D NOESY experiments. Selective sample excitation and signal detection were implemented to eliminate the intense proton signals of the non-deuterated solvents. Moreover, the recording of a multiplet selective 2D NOESY-TOCSY has shown that the analytical power of NMR in highly viscous solvents is not limited to the extraction of mixture component 1D subspectra but may also yield some supplementary information about atom connectivity within components.

  13. Antioxidant behavior of 1-feruloyl-sn-glycerol and 1,3-diferuloyl-sn-glycerol in phospholipid liposomes 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1-Feruloyl-sn-glycerol (FG) and 1,3-diferuloyl-sn-glycerol (DFG) are two natural plant compounds that may be useful in cosmeceutical, food, and skin care applications because of excellent antioxidant properties. FG and DFG enzymatically synthesized through esterification of glycerol and soybean oil...

  14. Yeast Fps1 glycerol facilitator functions as a homotetramer.

    PubMed

    Beese-Sims, Sara E; Lee, Jongmin; Levin, David E

    2011-12-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fps1 glycerol channel is a member of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) family of plasma membrane channel proteins that functions in osmoregulatory pathways to transport glycerol passively out of the cell. The MIP family is subdivided into members that are selectively permeable to water (aquaporins) and those permeated by glycerol (aquaglyceroporins or glycerol facilitators). Although aquaporins function as homo-tetramers with each monomer possessing its own channel, previous studies have suggested that aquaglyceroporins may function as monomers. Here we provide both genetic and biochemical evidence that Fps1 functions as a homotetramer to regulate glycerol transport in yeast. PMID:22030956

  15. Influence of altered CSF solute composition on parotid salivary secretion in goats.

    PubMed

    Olsson, K

    1976-06-01

    Infusions of hypertonic NaCl solution into the CSF of the lateral cerebral ventricle of the goat caused a marked reduction in parotid salivary flow concomitant with a rise in salivary [Na+]. Corresponding infusions of iso- or hypertonic glucose and glycerol solutions affected salivary secretion in the opposite direction. The possibility is discussed that a periventricular sodium-sensitive mechanism, which is of importance in the central control of fluid balance, also may participate in the regulation of parotid secretion in the goat. This interpretation of the results is to some extent obscured by the observation of a high incidence of intermittent rumination during the intraventricular infusions of glucose and glycerol solution.

  16. Continual production of glycerol from carbon dioxide by Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    PubMed

    Chow, Yvonne Y S; Goh, Serena J M; Su, Ziheng; Ng, Daphne H P; Lim, Chan Yuen; Lim, Natalie Y N; Lin, Huixin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2013-05-01

    Microalgae have high photosynthetic efficiencies and produce many valuable compounds from carbon dioxide. The Dunaliella genus accumulates glycerol, yet no commercial process currently exists for glycerol production from this microalga. Here it was found that in addition to intracellular accumulation, Dunaliella tertiolecta also releases glycerol into the external medium continuously, forming a large and stable carbon pool. The process is not affected by nutrient starvation or onset of cell death. Carbon dioxide was fixed at a constant rate, the bulk of it being channelled to extracellular glycerol (82%), resulting in enhanced photosynthetic carbon assimilation of 5 times that used for biomass production. The final extracellular glycerol concentration was 34 times the maximum concentration of intracellular glycerol; the latter declined further during cell death. Findings from this work will assist in the development of a bioconversion process to produce glycerol using D. tertiolecta without the need for cell harvest or disruption.

  17. Ultrasound assisted enzyme catalyzed synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and dimethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Govind V; Vetal, Mangesh D; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-01-01

    The present work illustrates the transesterification of glycerol to glycerol carbonate (GlyC) from dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using commercial immobilized lipase (Novozym 435) under ultrasonic irradiation. The experiments were performed in a batch reactor placed in an ultrasonic water bath using a sequence of experimental protocol to evaluate the effects of temperature, molar ratios of substrates, enzyme loading, duty cycle and ultrasound power on the conversion of glycerol to GlyC. It has been found that ultrasound-assisted lipase-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol would be a potential alternative to conventional alkali-catalyzed method, as high conversion (99.75%) was obtained at mild operating conditions: molar ratio of DMC to glycerol 3:1, catalyst amount of 13% (w/w), lower power input (100W), duty cycle 50% and temperature (60°C) in a relatively short reaction time (4h) using Novozym 435 as catalyst. Ultrasound reduces the reaction time up to 4h as compared to conventional stirring method (14h) catalyzed by Novozym 435. The repeated use of the catalyst under the optimum experimental condition resulted in decay in both enzyme activity and product conversion. PMID:25069889

  18. Ultrasound assisted enzyme catalyzed synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and dimethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Govind V; Vetal, Mangesh D; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-01-01

    The present work illustrates the transesterification of glycerol to glycerol carbonate (GlyC) from dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using commercial immobilized lipase (Novozym 435) under ultrasonic irradiation. The experiments were performed in a batch reactor placed in an ultrasonic water bath using a sequence of experimental protocol to evaluate the effects of temperature, molar ratios of substrates, enzyme loading, duty cycle and ultrasound power on the conversion of glycerol to GlyC. It has been found that ultrasound-assisted lipase-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol would be a potential alternative to conventional alkali-catalyzed method, as high conversion (99.75%) was obtained at mild operating conditions: molar ratio of DMC to glycerol 3:1, catalyst amount of 13% (w/w), lower power input (100W), duty cycle 50% and temperature (60°C) in a relatively short reaction time (4h) using Novozym 435 as catalyst. Ultrasound reduces the reaction time up to 4h as compared to conventional stirring method (14h) catalyzed by Novozym 435. The repeated use of the catalyst under the optimum experimental condition resulted in decay in both enzyme activity and product conversion.

  19. Biological Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol by Enterobacter aerogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwachukwu, Raymond E. S.

    In a search to turn the economically and environmentally non-valuable "waste" streams of biodiesel production into a profitable byproduct, a mutant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 was developed by six-tube subculturing technique. This technique is based on the principle of adaptive evolution, and involved subculturing the bacterium in a tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB) containing specific glycerol and ethanol concentration for six consecutive times. Then, the six consecutive subculturing was repeated in a fresh TSB of higher glycerol and ethanol concentrations. A new mutant strain, E. aerogenes S012, which could withstand a combination of 200 g/l glycerol and 30 g/l ethanol concentrations, was developed. The wild and mutant strains were used for the fermentation of pure (P-) and recovered (R-) glycerol. Taguchi and full factorial methods of design of experiments were used to screen and optimize the important process factors that influence the microbial production of ethanol. A statistically sound regression model was used to establish the mathematical relationship between the process variables and ethanol production. Temperature of 38°C, agitation speed of 200 rpm, pH of 6.3-6.6, and microaerobic condition were the optimum process conditions. Different pretreatment methods to recover glycerol from the crude glycerol and the subsequent fermentation method showed that direct acidification using 85% H3PO4 was the best. The R-glycerol contained 51% pure glycerol and 21% methanol. The wild strain, E. aerogenes ATCC 13048, produced only 12 g/l and 12.8 g/l ethanol from 20 g/l P- and R-glycerol respectively, and could not utilize higher glycerol concentrations. The mutant, E. aerogenes S012, produced ethanol amount and yield of 43 g/l and 1.12 mol/mol-glycerol from P-glycerol, respectively within 96 h. It also produced ethanol amount and yield of 26.8 g/l and 1.07 mol/mol-glycerol, respectively, from R-glycerol within the same duration. In a

  20. Infanticide secrets

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jennieffer A.; Beck, Cheryl T.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore thoughts of infanticide that did not lead to the act among mothers with postpartum depression. DESIGN A phenomenologic hermeneutic study in which women were invited to share their experiences of having thoughts of infanticide. SETTING Community setting in a large metropolitan city, Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Fifteen women who had been diagnosed as clinically depressed with postpartum onset whose babies were 12 months of age or younger. METHOD Audiotaped, in-depth interviews were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis commenced immediately after the first interview, and data collection continued until saturation was achieved. A questioning approach that reflected hermeneutics was facilitated by use of journals by the researchers. MAIN FINDINGS Six themes emerged from the data: imagined acts of infanticide, the experience of horror, distorted sense of responsibility, consuming negativity, keeping secrets, and managing the crisis. CONCLUSION Women who experienced nonpsychotic depression preferred not to disclose their thoughts of infanticide to health professionals, including trusted general practitioners or psychiatrists. These women were more likely to mention their suicidal thoughts than their infanticidal thoughts in order to obtain health care. General practitioners and other health professionals should directly ask about whether a woman has been experiencing thoughts of harming herself or her baby, regardless of the reason why she has presented. PMID:19074717

  1. Attacus atlas caterpillars (Lep., Saturniidae) spray an irritant secretion from defensive glands.

    PubMed

    Deml, R; Dettner, K

    1994-08-01

    The ability ofAttacus atlas caterpillars to spray a defensive secretion seems to be due to the fine structure of the integumental glands that produce it. The giant gland cells are fixed to stable cuticular rings surrounding the gland openings and tightly closed by cuticular lids. Probably by increasing hemolymph pressure, the lids are blasted off and the secretion spouts out. The fluid contains several aromatics, biogenic amines (e.g., acetylcholine, histamine), glycerol, and trehalose and exhibits tyrosinase activity. Deterrent effects of caterpillar secretion and hemolymph on predatory ants could be shown. Presumably the spraying process serves to apply the secretion to sensitive sites of vertebrate target organisms.

  2. Glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Scoffield, Jessica; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes persistent infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphotidylcholine, a major component of host cell membranes. Phosphotidylcholine can be degraded by P. aeruginosa to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of glycerol in the CF lung. In this study, we explored the role that glycerol metabolism plays in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. We report that glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by both a chronic CF isolate (FRD1) and a wound isolate (PAO1) of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, loss of the GlpR regulator, which represses the expression of genes involved in glycerol metabolism, enhances biofilm formation in FRD1 through the upregulation of Pel polysaccharide. Taken together, our results suggest that glycerol metabolism may be a key factor that contributes to P. aeruginosa persistence by promoting biofilm formation.

  3. Glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Scoffield, Jessica; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes persistent infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphotidylcholine, a major component of host cell membranes. Phosphotidylcholine can be degraded by P. aeruginosa to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of glycerol in the CF lung. In this study, we explored the role that glycerol metabolism plays in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. We report that glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by both a chronic CF isolate (FRD1) and a wound isolate (PAO1) of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, loss of the GlpR regulator, which represses the expression of genes involved in glycerol metabolism, enhances biofilm formation in FRD1 through the upregulation of Pel polysaccharide. Taken together, our results suggest that glycerol metabolism may be a key factor that contributes to P. aeruginosa persistence by promoting biofilm formation. PMID:27392247

  4. Production of mannitol from raw glycerol by Candida azyma.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Habe, Hiroshi; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Iwabuchi, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Shingo; Tamura, Takamitsu; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-06-01

    To promote the effective use of raw glycerol, 13 yeast strains with the ability to produce mannitol from glycerol were isolated from environmental samples. Of the 13 strains, strain 7-12G was selected as an efficient mannitol producer from 25% (w/v) glycerol and was identified as Candida azyma by morphological, physicochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. When the ability to produce mannitol from raw glycerol in flask culture was compared among strains 7-12G, NBRC10406 (the type strain of C. azyma), and related strains, strain NBRC10406 exhibited the highest production level (31.8 g/l). Culture in jar fermentors was next investigated, and mannitol production reached 50.8 g/l over 7 days, corresponding to 0.30 g/g-glycerol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported level of mannitol produced by a microbe from glycerol under batch-type culture conditions.

  5. Measuring glycerol turnover, gluconeogenesis from glycerol, and total gluconeogenesis with [2-13C] glycerol: role of the infusion-sampling mode.

    PubMed

    Peroni, O; Large, V; Odeon, M; Beylot, M

    1996-07-01

    Mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) of glucose during infusion of [2-13C]glycerol is a new method for measuring total gluconeogenesis (GNG). Since this method relies on calculation of the isotopic enrichment (IE) of hepatic triose phosphates (TP), the results should be independent of the sites of tracer infusion and blood sampling. Postabsorptive and starved rats were infused with [2-13C]glycerol and sampled either in the arterial-venous (A-V) or venous-arterial (V-A) modes. Blood was also sampled from the portal vein. In both postabsorptive and starved rats, glycerol turnover rate (Rt) and the percent contribution of glycerol to total glucose production were higher in the A-V mode than in the V-A mode (P < .05). Glycerol IE in portal venous blood was intermediate between IE values observed in peripheral arterial and venous blood. Its use for calculating the contribution of glycerol to glucose production reconciled the results obtained with the two infusion-sampling modes in both postabsorptive and starved rats; this contribution was increased by starvation (P < .01). In postabsorptive rats, total GNG calculated from MIDA of glucose accounted for approximately 50% of glucose production whatever the infusion-sampling mode (A-V, 48.8% +/- 4.7%; V-A, 52.2% +/- 3.9%). This contribution increased to 90% in starved rats, again, with no difference between A-V (95.2% +/- 1.8%) and V-A (89.2% +/- 1.3%) modes. In conclusion, during infusion of [2-13C]glycerol, total GNG measured from MIDA of glucose is independent of the infusion-sampling mode, contrary to calculations of Rt and GNG from glycerol. Measurement of glycerol IE in portal venous blood reconciles the results obtained with the two modes with respect to the contribution of glycerol to GNG. PMID:8692028

  6. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into malic acid.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Malic acid production from the biodiesel coproduct crude glycerol by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, ATCC 10577 and ATCC 12846 was observed to occur with the highest malic acid level acid being produced by A. niger ATCC 12846. Fungal biomass production from crude glycerol was similar, but ATCC 10577 produced the highest biomass. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into the commercially valuable organic acid malic acid appeared feasible.

  7. Electrical dual-sensing method for real-time quantitative monitoring of cell-secreted MMP-9 and cellular morphology during migration process.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong Binh; Nguyen, Phuong Diem; Baek, Changyoon; Min, Junhong

    2016-03-15

    MMP-9 (92 kDa gelatinease), which is member of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) family, plays a crucial role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix (ECM) by degrading the major components of ECM that lead to tumor cell invasion and metastasis through the basement membrane. Our study presents the on-chip dual-sensing device for rapid detection of cell-secreted MMP-9 and corresponding cell morphology changes in real-time domain. The device consists of 2 sensing platforms (both are interdigitated array microelectrodes - IDAMs) within 1 common fluidic chamber: one detects the cell morphology responses via Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) technique, meanwhile the other records the cleavage effect between cell-secreted MMP-9 and the surface immobilized peptide via the capacitance-based sensing method. Thanks to the selectivity of designed peptide, this approach allows the rapid and specific detection of MMP-9. In comparison with gold standard ELISA assay, the detection time was significantly reduced from over 4h to within 30 min with the wide detection range from 10 pM to 10nM. Finally, this study provides the novel model for MMP-9 protease direct detection from living cell and new insights in multi-purpose detection of cancer associated enzyme and cell migration behavior. PMID:26485177

  8. Effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse pretreated by acidified glycerol solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Harrison, Mark D; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2015-09-01

    In this study, for the first time the effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis was inhibited slightly with 2.0 wt% glycerol, leading to reduction in glucan digestibility from 84.9% without glycerol to 82.9% (72 h). With 5.0 wt% and 10.0 wt% glycerol, glucan digestibility was reduced by 4.5% and 11.0%, respectively. However, glycerol did not irreversibly inhibit cellulase enzymes. Ethanol fermentation was not affected by glycerol up to 5.0 wt%, but was inhibited slightly at 10.0 wt% glycerol, resulting in reduction in ethanol yield from 86.0% in the absence of glycerol to 83.7% (20 h). Based on the results of laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, it was estimated that 0.142 kg ethanol can be produced from 1.0 kg dry bagasse (a glucan content of 38.0%) after pretreatment with acidified glycerol solution. PMID:26056778

  9. Effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse pretreated by acidified glycerol solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Harrison, Mark D; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2015-09-01

    In this study, for the first time the effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis was inhibited slightly with 2.0 wt% glycerol, leading to reduction in glucan digestibility from 84.9% without glycerol to 82.9% (72 h). With 5.0 wt% and 10.0 wt% glycerol, glucan digestibility was reduced by 4.5% and 11.0%, respectively. However, glycerol did not irreversibly inhibit cellulase enzymes. Ethanol fermentation was not affected by glycerol up to 5.0 wt%, but was inhibited slightly at 10.0 wt% glycerol, resulting in reduction in ethanol yield from 86.0% in the absence of glycerol to 83.7% (20 h). Based on the results of laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, it was estimated that 0.142 kg ethanol can be produced from 1.0 kg dry bagasse (a glucan content of 38.0%) after pretreatment with acidified glycerol solution.

  10. A double blind, randomised controlled trial of glycerol adjuvant therapy in adult bacterial meningitis in a high HIV seroprevalence setting in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Ajdukiewicz, Katherine M.B.; Cartwright, Katharine E.; Scarborough, Matthew; Mwambene, James B.; Goodson, Patrick; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Zijlstra, Eduard E.; French, Neil; Whitty, Christopher J.M.; Lalloo, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Southern Africa has a high incidence of bacterial meningitis in adults, often associated with HIV co-infection. Even with appropriate antibiotic therapy, mortality exceeds 50% and is not improved with corticosteroids. Glycerol adjuvant therapy reduced mortality and long-term morbidity (deafness) in bacterial meningitis in children and is being promoted. If similarly effective in adults, glycerol would provide a cheap, available adjuvant therapy in Africa. Methods Following a dose-finding study, we conducted a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral glycerol in adults with bacterial meningitis. Patients with clinical and CSF findings suggestive of bacterial meningitis were randomised either to glycerol or an equivalent volume of sugar solution. The primary outcome was mortality at 40 days with secondary outcomes including disability and mortality restricted to pneumococcal disease. Findings 75ml glycerol QDS was best tolerated and was used for the main study. 265 patients were randomised to receive glycerol or placebo. The trial was stopped early on the advice of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) following a planned interim analysis. Mortality by day 40 was 61/125 (49%) in the placebo and 86/136 (69%) in the glycerol arms, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2·4 (95% CI 1·3-4·2 p0·003). There was no benefit from glycerol for death and disability by day 40 by intention to treat or in predefined subgroups. Two serious adverse events occurred possibly due to study drug. Interpretation Oral glycerol therapy did not improve mortality in adults with bacterial meningitis and cannot be recommended as a suitable adjuvant therapy in resource-poor settings with a high HIV prevalence. PMID:21334262

  11. Juvenile hormone-stimulated synthesis of acyl-glycerols and vitamin E in female accessory sexual glands of the fire bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Pavel; Cvacka, Josef; Sláma, Karel

    2009-09-01

    Secretory cells of the female accessory sexual glands (AG) of P. apterus grow and produce yellow oily exocrine secretion in response to stimulation by endogenous juvenile hormone (JH) or exogenous treatments by JH analogues. The secretion determines the property of future egg shells by coating the chorion surface of the oocytes that are passing individually through the common uterus during oviposition. Diapausing females with a physiologically inhibited endocrine system or females with artificially removed hormonal sources show inactive ovaries and empty AG without the secretory products. Ovary-ectomised females with the intact neuroendocrine system develop hypertrophic AG loaded with the oily secretion. This shows that there is no direct dependence between formation of the oily secretion in AG and ovarian growth. Chemical analysis of the secretory products revealed the presence of acetylated glycerols, with the most abundant stearoyl-diacetyl-glycerol, stearoyl-acetyl-propionyl-glycerol, and the corresponding derivatives of arachidonic acid. In addition to this, the JH-activated secretory cells of AG also produced gamma- and delta-tocopherols. The possible antioxidant or antimutagenic action of these vitamin E compounds in insect reproduction has been emphasized.

  12. Functional characterization of Yersinia pestis aerobic glycerol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Willias, Stephan P; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-11-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Orientalis isolates have lost the capacity to ferment glycerol. Herein we provide experimental validation that a 93 bp in-frame deletion within the glpD gene encoding the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase present in all biovar Orientalis strains is sufficient to disrupt aerobic glycerol fermentation. Furthermore, the inability to ferment glycerol is often insured by a variety of additional mutations within the glpFKX operon which prevents glycerol internalization and conversion to glycerol-3-phosphate. The physiological impact of functional glpFKX in the presence of dysfunctional glpD was assessed. Results demonstrate no change in growth kinetics at 26 °C and 37 °C. Mutants deficient in glpD displayed decreased intracellular accumulation of glycerol-3-phosphate, a characterized inhibitor of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) activation. Since CRP is rigorously involved in global regulation Y. pestis virulence, we tested a possible influence of a single glpD mutation on virulence. Nonetheless, subcutaneous and intranasal murine challenge was not impacted by glycerol metabolism. As quantified by crystal violet assay, biofilm formation of the glpD-deficient KIM6+ mutant was mildly repressed; whereas, chromosomal restoration of glpD in CO92 resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation. PMID:25220241

  13. Degradation rates of glycerol polyesters at acidic and basic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyesters prepared from glycerol with mixtures of adipic and citric acids were evaluated in the laboratory to estimate degradation rates over a range of pH conditions. These renewable polymers provide a market for glycerol that is generated during biodiesel production. The polyesters were prepared...

  14. Fabrication of a glycerol from CO2 reaction system, supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The fabrication, installation, and testing of a glycerol hydrogenation and a CO2 hydrogenation - CH4 partial oxidation units are reported. The glycerol system proved to be operational while the CO2 system was installed but not bought on operational steam.

  15. Synthesis and applications of {sup 13}C glycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Stocking, E.; Khalsa, O.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Due in part to the use of labeled glycerol for the {sup 13}C enrichment of biomolecules, we are currently developing new synthetic routes to various isotopomers of glycerol. Judging from our experience, traditional methods of glycerol synthesis are not easily adapted for isotopic enrichment and/or have poor overall yields (12 to 15%). Furthermore, the use of glycerol for enrichment can be prohibitively expensive and its availability is limited by the level of demand. We are presently developing a short de novo synthesis of glycerol from carbon dioxide ({approximately}53% overall yield for four steps) and are examining the feasibility of synthesizing site-specific {sup 13}C-labeled glycerol and dihydroxyacetone (DHA) from labeled methanol and carbon dioxide. One application of {sup 13}C glycerol we have examined is enzymatic conversion of glycerol to glyceraldehyde-3-monophosphate or dihydroxyacetone monophosphate (DHAP) with yields ranging from 25 to 50% (as determined by NMR spectroscopy). We are also pursuing the chemical conversion of {sup 13}C-labeled DHA to DHAP. We are especially interested in {sup 13}C-labeled DHAP because we are investigating its use as a chemo-enzymatic precursor for both labeled 2-deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribonucleic acids.

  16. The Acrylation of Glycerol: a Precursor to Functionalized Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Didecanoylacryloylglycerol was synthesized from decanoic and acrylic acids and glycerol using K2O as catalyst. This reaction was carried out in hexane in a closed stainless steel reactor at 200°C for 5h. The reactants were added in a 1:3:4 glycerol:decanoic acid:acrylic acid molar ratio. The resu...

  17. Biodegradation of Glycerol Trinitrate and Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate by Agrobacterium radiobacter

    PubMed Central

    White, G. F.; Snape, J. R.; Nicklin, S.

    1996-01-01

    Bacteria capable of metabolizing highly explosive and vasodilatory glycerol trinitrate (GTN) were isolated under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions from soil, river water, and activated sewage sludge. One of these strains (from sewage sludge) chosen for further study was identified as Agrobacterium radiobacter subgroup B. A combination of high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the culture medium during the growth of A. radiobacter on basal salts-glycerol-GTN medium showed the sequential conversion of GTN to glycerol dinitrates and glycerol mononitrates. Isomeric glycerol 1,2-dinitrate and glycerol 1,3-dinitrate were produced simultaneously and concomitantly with the disappearance of GTN, with significant regioselectivity for the production of the 1,3-dinitrate. Dinitrates were further degraded to glycerol 1- and 2-mononitrates, but mononitrates were not biodegraded. Cells were also capable of metabolizing pentaerythritol tetranitrate, probably to its trinitrate and dinitrate analogs. Extracts of broth-grown cells contained an enzyme which in the presence of added NADH converted GTN stoichiometrically to nitrite and the mixture of glycerol dinitrates. The specific activity of this enzyme was increased 160-fold by growth on GTN as the sole source of nitrogen. PMID:16535244

  18. Transketolase activity modulates glycerol-3-phosphate levels in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vimala, A; Harinarayanan, R

    2016-04-01

    Transketolase activity provides an important link between the metabolic pathways of glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt and catalyzes inter-conversions between pentose phosphates and glycolytic intermediates. It is widely conserved in life forms. A genetic screen for suppression of the growth defect of Escherichia coli tktA tktB mutant in LB medium revealed two mutations, one that rendered the glpK expression constitutive and another that inactivated deoB. Characterizing these mutations aided in uncovering the role of ribose-5-P (a transketolase substrate) as an inhibitor of glycerol assimilation and de novo glycerol-3-P synthesis. Using lacZ fusions, we show that ribose-5-P enhances GlpR-mediated repression of the glpFKX operon and inhibits glycerol assimilation. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) showed ribose-5-P made the DNA-GlpR complex less sensitive to the inducer glycerol-3-P. In addition to inhibition of glycerol assimilation, obstruction of ribose-5-P metabolism retards growth from glycerol-3-P limitation. Glucose helps to overcome this limitation through a mechanism involving catabolite repression. To our knowledge, this report is the first to show ribose-5-P can modulate glycerol-3-P concentration in the cell by regulation of glycerol assimilation as well as its de novo synthesis. This regulation could be prevalent in other organisms. PMID:26691989

  19. Microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, A.P.; Biebl, H.; Deckwer, W.D.

    1996-10-01

    Glycerol is a byproduct from the soap and detergent industry and possibly from future biodiesel plants. The conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (PD) is of industrial interest due to the potential use of PD for the synthesis of polyesters. We have been studying the microbial conversion of glycerol to PD with work ranging from strain isolation, medium optimization, pathway analysis, product formation kinetics and growth modeling, downstream processing and reactor scale-up (up to 2000 1). PD yields of nearly 100% of the theoretical maximum (0.72 mol/mol glycerol) and final product concentrations of about 65 g/l were achieved with both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Clostridium butyricum. In addition to summarizing our experimental results the advances of bioconversion of glycerol will be reviewed in this presentation, with emphasis on discussing further research and development needs in this area. Results of process engineering and cost analysis will also be presented.

  20. Characteristics of a glycerol utilization mutant of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Courtright, J B

    1975-01-01

    A mutant of Neurospora crassa able to grow on liquid minimal glycerol medium without evidence of conidiation and with high cell yields has been isolated and shown to be allelic to ff-1. The glycerol-specific induction of glycerokinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was similar in both wild-type and mutant cells, although higher specific activities as well as higher glycerokinase cross-reacting material levels were found in fully induced mutant cells. After growth in minimal glycerol medium there is a significant reduction in wild-type cells of the activities of both pyruvate dehydrogenase and dihydrolipoyl transacetylase. This evidence indicates a relationship between the conditional acetate requirement by wild-type cells grown on glycerol medium and the levels of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Images PMID:126227

  1. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  2. Feruloyl glycerol and 1,3-diferuloyl glycerol antioxidant behavior in phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L; Laszlo, Joseph A; Appell, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Feruloyl-sn-glycerol (FG) and 1,3-diferuloyl-sn-glycerol (F2G), the by-product of biocatalytic transesterification soybean oil and ethyl ferulate, were examined for their behavior in phospholipid vesicles. Based on absorbance and fluorescence methods, FG and F2G both were found to partition into vesicles and incorporate well into 1,2-dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC) vesicles. FG and F2G incorporation resulted in vesicles that were as or slightly more stable than the unloaded vesicles. FG and F2G both demonstrated the ability to maintain antioxidant properties within the lipid bilayer. Bilayer depth analysis was conducted using the parallax method and molecular modeling. PMID:26561732

  3. Glycerol synthesis in freeze-resistant rainbow smelt: towards the characterization of a key enzyme glycerol-3-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Ditlecadet, Delphine; Driedzic, William R

    2014-02-01

    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) synthesize high amounts of glycerol in winter as a cryoprotectant through the direct dephosphorylation of glycerol-3-phosphate by a phosphatase, glycerol-3-phosphatase (G3Pase). Such a protein is well described in a few species including fungi, bacteria and plants but never studied beyond tissue homogenates in any animal species. Purification, identification and characterization of this enzyme is thus crucial for a better comprehension of the biochemical adaptation in rainbow smelt in response to low temperature and more generally of the biochemical mechanisms involved in glycerol synthesis in animals. This work presents the first attempt to purify G3Pase from smelt liver, the main site of glycerol synthesis for the whole animal. A partial purification was performed, and some characteristics of the protein determined, including optimal pH, K(m) and cation requirements. Smelt G3Pase is most likely a low molecular weight, Mg⁺-dependent and cytosolic phosphatase. PMID:23925893

  4. Renewable Chemicals: Dehydroxylation of Glycerol and Polyols

    PubMed Central

    ten Dam, Jeroen; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable chemicals is gaining attention over the past few years. The natural resources from which they can be derived in a sustainable way are most abundant in sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose. These highly functionalized molecules need to be de-functionalized in order to be feedstocks for the chemical industry. A fundamentally different approach to chemistry thus becomes necessary, since the traditionally employed oil-based chemicals normally lack functionality. This new chemical toolbox needs to be designed to guarantee the demands of future generations at a reasonable price. The surplus of functionality in sugars and glycerol consists of alcohol groups. To yield suitable renewable chemicals these natural products need to be defunctionalized by means of dehydroxylation. Here we review the possible approaches and evaluate them from a fundamental chemical aspect. PMID:21887771

  5. Renewable chemicals: dehydroxylation of glycerol and polyols.

    PubMed

    ten Dam, Jeroen; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2011-08-22

    The production of renewable chemicals is gaining attention over the past few years. The natural resources from which they can be derived in a sustainable way are most abundant in sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose. These highly functionalized molecules need to be de-functionalized in order to be feedstocks for the chemical industry. A fundamentally different approach to chemistry thus becomes necessary, since the traditionally employed oil-based chemicals normally lack functionality. This new chemical toolbox needs to be designed to guarantee the demands of future generations at a reasonable price. The surplus of functionality in sugars and glycerol consists of alcohol groups. To yield suitable renewable chemicals these natural products need to be defunctionalized by means of dehydroxylation. Here we review the possible approaches and evaluate them from a fundamental chemical aspect. PMID:21887771

  6. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    PubMed

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed.

  7. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    PubMed

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed. PMID:22349197

  8. Anaerobic glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains under hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Modig, Tobias; Granath, Katarina; Adler, Lennart; Lidén, Gunnar

    2007-05-01

    Glycerol formation is vital for reoxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form; NADH) under anaerobic conditions and for the hyperosmotic stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, relatively few studies have been made on hyperosmotic stress under anaerobic conditions. To study the combined effect of salt stress and anaerobic conditions, industrial and laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae were grown anaerobically on glucose in batch-cultures containing 40 g/l NaCl. The time needed for complete glucose conversion increased considerably, and the specific growth rates decreased by 80-90% when the cells were subjected to the hyperosmotic conditions. This was accompanied by an increased yield of glycerol and other by-products and reduced biomass yield in all strains. The slowest fermenting strain doubled its glycerol yield (from 0.072 to 0.148 g/g glucose) and a nearly fivefold increase in acetate formation was seen. In more tolerant strains, a lower increase was seen in the glycerol and in the acetate, succinate and pyruvate yields. Additionally, the NADH-producing pathway from acetaldehyde to acetate was analysed by overexpressing the stress-induced gene ALD3. However, this had no or very marginal effect on the acetate and glycerol yields. In the control experiments, the production of NADH from known sources well matched the glycerol formation. This was not the case for the salt stress experiments in which the production of NADH from known sources was insufficient to explain the formed glycerol.

  9. Glycerol inhibits water permeation through Plasmodium falciparum aquaglyceroporin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liao Y

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum aquaglyceroporin (PfAQP) is a multifunctional membrane protein in the plasma membrane of P. falciparum, the parasite that causes the most severe form of malaria. The current literature has established the science of PfAQP's structure, functions, and hydrogen-bonding interactions but left unanswered the following fundamental question: does glycerol modulate water permeation through aquaglyceroporin that conducts both glycerol and water? This paper provides an affirmative answer to this question of essential importance to the protein's functions. On the basis of the chemical-potential profile of glycerol from the extracellular bulk region, throughout PfAQP's conducting channel, to the cytoplasmic bulk region, this study shows the existence of a bound state of glycerol inside aquaglyceroporin's permeation pore, from which the dissociation constant is approximately 14μM. A glycerol molecule occupying the bound state occludes the conducting pore through which permeating molecules line up in single file by hydrogen-bonding with one another and with the luminal residues of aquaglyceroporin. In this way, glycerol inhibits permeation of water and other permeants through aquaglyceroporin. The biological implications of this theory are discussed and shown to agree with the existent in vitro data. It turns out that the structure of aquaglyceroporin is perfect for the van der Waals interactions between the protein and glycerol to cause the existence of the bound state deep inside the conducting pore and, thus to play an unexpected but significant role in aquaglyceroporin's functions.

  10. Hydrogen bonding in maltooligomer-glycerol-water matrices: Relation to physical state and molecular free volume.

    PubMed

    Roussenova, Mina; Andrieux, Jean-Christophe; Alam, M Ashraf; Ubbink, Job

    2014-02-15

    We use Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy to explore the effects of water and glycerol on the hydrogen bonding of low water content maltooligomer matrices by monitoring the shifts in the position of the peak associated with the fundamental stretching vibration of the hydroxyl groups, νOH. Changes in hydrogen bonding are investigated in relation to the physical state and the molecular packing of the maltooligomer matrices, which are measured by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). In the concentration range studied (0-20 wt.%), glycerol acts as an anti-plasticizer whereby it reduces the average molecular hole size, vh, while modulating the hydrogen bond network of the carbohydrate matrices. Depending on the level of hydration, water can cause anti-plasticization or plasticization of the maltooligomer-glycerol matrices. For water contents below ∼ 5 wt.%, water acts as an anti-plasticizer, whereby it reduces vh and we measure a reduction νOH. At higher water contents, water acts as a plasticizer, causing a systematic increase in vh, while νOH continues to decrease as a function of increasing water content. PMID:24507320

  11. Glycerol metabolism and bitterness producing lactic acid bacteria in cidermaking.

    PubMed

    Garai-Ibabe, G; Ibarburu, I; Berregi, I; Claisse, O; Lonvaud-Funel, A; Irastorza, A; Dueñas, M T

    2008-02-10

    Several lactic acid bacteria were isolated from bitter tasting ciders in which glycerol was partially removed. The degradation of glycerol via glycerol dehydratase pathway was found in 22 out of 67 isolates. The confirmation of glycerol degradation by this pathway was twofold: showing their glycerol dehydratase activity and detecting the presence of the corresponding gene by a PCR method. 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDL) and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) were the metabolic end-products of glycerol utilization, and the accumulation of the acrolein precursor 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) was also detected in most of them. The strain identification by PCR-DGGE rpoB showed that Lactobacillus collinoides was the predominant species and only 2 belonged to Lactobacillus diolivorans. Environmental conditions conducting to 3-HPA accumulation in cidermaking were studied by varying the fructose concentration, pH and incubation temperature in L. collinoides 17. This strain failed to grow with glycerol as sole carbon source and the addition of fructose enhanced both growth and glycerol degradation. Regarding end-products of glycerol metabolism, 1,3-PDL was always the main end-product in all environmental conditions assayed, the only exception being the culture with 5.55 mM fructose, where equimolar amounts of 1,3-PDL and 3-HP were found. The 3-HPA was transitorily accumulated in the culture medium under almost all culture conditions, the degradation rate being notably slower at 15 degrees C. However, no disappearance of 3-HPA was found at pH 3.6, a usual value in cider making. After sugar exhaustion, L. collinoides 17 oxidated lactic acid and/or mannitol to obtain energy and these oxidations were accompanied by the removal of the toxic 3-HPA increasing the 1,3-PDL, 3-HP and acetic acid contents. PMID:18180066

  12. Glycerol uptake is by passive diffusion in the heart but by facilitated transport in RBCs at high glycerol levels in cold acclimated rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax).

    PubMed

    Clow, Kathy A; Driedzic, William R

    2012-04-15

    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is a small fish that accumulates glycerol at low winter seawater temperatures. In laboratory-held fish, glycerol concentration typically reaches 225 mM in plasma and in all cells. Glycerol uptake by the heart and red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by tracking [(14)C(U)]glycerol into the acid-soluble pool. In fish acclimated to 9-10°C a decrease in perfusion/incubation temperature from 8 to 1°C resulted in a decrease in glycerol uptake with a Q(10) of 3.2 in heart and 2.4 in RBCs. Acclimation to ∼1.5°C did not result in an adaptive enhancement of glycerol uptake as rates were unchanged in heart and RBCs. Glycerol uptake at 1°C was by passive diffusion in heart as evidenced by a linear relationship between glycerol uptake and extracellular glycerol concentration and a lack of inhibition by phloretin. In contrast, in RBCs, glycerol uptake with respect to glycerol concentration showed two linear relationships with a transition point around 50 mM extracellular glycerol. The slope of the second phase was much steeper and eliminated with the inclusion of phloretin. In RBCs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a related species that does not accumulate glycerol, glycerol uptake showed only a single linear curve and was not inhibited by phloretin. The data imply a strong facilitated component to glycerol uptake in rainbow smelt RBCs at high glycerol concentrations. We propose this is related to cyclic changes in RBC glycerol content involving a loss of glycerol at the gill and a reaccumulation during passage through the liver. PMID:22319051

  13. Glycerol uptake is by passive diffusion in the heart but by facilitated transport in RBCs at high glycerol levels in cold acclimated rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax).

    PubMed

    Clow, Kathy A; Driedzic, William R

    2012-04-15

    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is a small fish that accumulates glycerol at low winter seawater temperatures. In laboratory-held fish, glycerol concentration typically reaches 225 mM in plasma and in all cells. Glycerol uptake by the heart and red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed by tracking [(14)C(U)]glycerol into the acid-soluble pool. In fish acclimated to 9-10°C a decrease in perfusion/incubation temperature from 8 to 1°C resulted in a decrease in glycerol uptake with a Q(10) of 3.2 in heart and 2.4 in RBCs. Acclimation to ∼1.5°C did not result in an adaptive enhancement of glycerol uptake as rates were unchanged in heart and RBCs. Glycerol uptake at 1°C was by passive diffusion in heart as evidenced by a linear relationship between glycerol uptake and extracellular glycerol concentration and a lack of inhibition by phloretin. In contrast, in RBCs, glycerol uptake with respect to glycerol concentration showed two linear relationships with a transition point around 50 mM extracellular glycerol. The slope of the second phase was much steeper and eliminated with the inclusion of phloretin. In RBCs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a related species that does not accumulate glycerol, glycerol uptake showed only a single linear curve and was not inhibited by phloretin. The data imply a strong facilitated component to glycerol uptake in rainbow smelt RBCs at high glycerol concentrations. We propose this is related to cyclic changes in RBC glycerol content involving a loss of glycerol at the gill and a reaccumulation during passage through the liver.

  14. Comment on ``Fast dynamics of glass-forming glycerol''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, K. L.; Roland, C. M.

    1997-02-01

    The coupling model predicts the existence of a prominent fast α process at times <2 ps in fragile glass-forming liquids such as polymers. A further prediction is that this process will be only weakly apparent in intermediate and strong liquids such as glycerol. In light of these predictions, we have reexamined the neutron scattering data of glycerol published by Wuttke, Petry, Coddens, and Fujara (WPCF) [Phys. Rev. E 52, 4026 (1995)], leading to the conclusion that the fast α process is indeed quite weak therein. Thus, the coupling model predictions are fully consistent with the glycerol data, notwithstanding WPCF's statement to the contrary.

  15. Structural Determination and Toll-like Receptor 2-dependent Proinflammatory Activity of Dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol from Mycobacterium marinum*

    PubMed Central

    Elass-Rochard, Elisabeth; Rombouts, Yoann; Coddeville, Bernadette; Maes, Emmanuel; Blervaque, Renaud; Hot, David; Kremer, Laurent; Guérardel, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Although it was identified in the cell wall of several pathogenic mycobacteria, the biological properties of dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol have not been documented yet. In this study an apolar glycolipid, presumably corresponding to dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol, was purified from Mycobacterium marinum and subsequently identified as a 5-O-mycolyl-β-Araf-(1→2)-5-O-mycolyl-α-Araf-(1→1′)-glycerol (designated Mma_DMAG) using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analyses. Lipid composition analysis revealed that mycolic acids were dominated by oxygenated mycolates over α-mycolates and devoid of trans-cyclopropane functions. Highly purified Mma_DMAG was used to demonstrate its immunomodulatory activity. Mma_DMAG was found to induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β) in human macrophage THP-1 cells and to trigger the expression of ICAM-1 and CD40 cell surface antigens. This activation mechanism was dependent on TLR2, but not on TLR4, as demonstrated by (i) the use of neutralizing anti-TLR2 and -TLR4 antibodies and by (ii) the detection of secreted alkaline phosphatase in HEK293 cells co-transfected with the human TLR2 and secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase reporter genes. In addition, transcriptomic analyses indicated that various genes encoding proinflammatory factors were up-regulated after exposure of THP-1 cells to Mma_DMAG. Importantly, a wealth of other regulated genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, including chemokines/cytokines and their respective receptors, adhesion molecules, and metalloproteinases, were found to be modulated by Mma_DMAG. Overall, this study suggests that DMAG may be an active cell wall glycoconjugate driving host-pathogen interactions and participating in the immunopathogenesis of mycobacterial infections. PMID:22798072

  16. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate and alginate from glycerol by Azotobacter vinelandii under nitrogen-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an interesting feedstock for biomaterials such as biofuels and bioplastics because of its abundance as a by-product during biodiesel production. Here we demonstrate glycerol metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing species Azotobacter vinelandii through metabolomics and nitrogen-free bacterial production of biopolymers, such as poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate, from glycerol. Glycerol-3-phosphate was accumulated in A. vinelandii cells grown on glycerol to the exponential phase, and its level drastically decreased in the cells grown to the stationary growth phase. A. vinelandii also overexpressed the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene when it was grown on glycerol. These results indicate that glycerol was first converted to glycerol-3-phosphate by glycerol kinase. Other molecules with industrial interests, such as lactic acid and amino acids including γ-aminobutyric acid, have also been accumulated in the bacterial cells grown on glycerol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that glycerol-grown A. vinelandii stored PHB within the cells. The PHB production level reached 33% per dry cell weight in nitrogen-free glycerol medium. When grown on glycerol, alginate-overproducing mutants generated through chemical mutagenesis produced 2-fold the amount of alginate from glycerol than the parental wild-type strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial production of biopolymers from glycerol without addition of any nitrogen source. PMID:25880041

  17. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate and alginate from glycerol by Azotobacter vinelandii under nitrogen-free conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an interesting feedstock for biomaterials such as biofuels and bioplastics because of its abundance as a by-product during biodiesel production. Here we demonstrate glycerol metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing species Azotobacter vinelandii through metabolomics and nitrogen-free bacterial production of biopolymers, such as poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate, from glycerol. Glycerol-3-phosphate was accumulated in A. vinelandii cells grown on glycerol to the exponential phase, and its level drastically decreased in the cells grown to the stationary growth phase. A. vinelandii also overexpressed the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene when it was grown on glycerol. These results indicate that glycerol was first converted to glycerol-3-phosphate by glycerol kinase. Other molecules with industrial interests, such as lactic acid and amino acids including γ-aminobutyric acid, have also been accumulated in the bacterial cells grown on glycerol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that glycerol-grown A. vinelandii stored PHB within the cells. The PHB production level reached 33% per dry cell weight in nitrogen-free glycerol medium. When grown on glycerol, alginate-overproducing mutants generated through chemical mutagenesis produced 2-fold the amount of alginate from glycerol than the parental wild-type strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial production of biopolymers from glycerol without addition of any nitrogen source. PMID:25880041

  18. Renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from biodiesel waste glycerol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Zichun; Williams, Paul T; Huang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a novel and commercially viable method to recover renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from waste glycerol produced in the biodiesel process. Gas-phase catalytic reforming converts glycerol to clean hydrogen fuel and by replacing the problematical coke formed on the catalyst with high value carbon nanotubes, added value can be realised. Additional benefits of around 2.8 kg CNTs from the reforming of 1 tonne of glycerol and the production of 500 Nm(3) H2 could have a considerable impact on the economics of glycerol utilization. Thereby, the contribution of this research will be a significant step forward in solving a current major technical and economic challenge faced by the biofuels industry.

  19. Recent Advances in Glycerol Polymers: Chemistry and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, we describe the underlying chemistry of glycerol, which provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations. We then review the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth. Next, we describe several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity. Fourth, we describe the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine. Finally we conclude and summarize the findings, as well as discuss potential opportunities for continued research efforts. PMID:25308354

  20. Recent advances in glycerol polymers: chemistry and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, the underlying chemistry of glycerol that provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations is described. Then, the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth are reviewed. Next, several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity are described. Fourth, the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine is described. Finally, the findings are concluded and summarized, as well as the potential opportunities for continued research efforts are discussed.

  1. Physicochemical characterization of oil palm mesocarp fibre treated with glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor Hamizah M., A.; Roila, A.; Rahimi M., Y.

    2015-09-01

    Lignocellulose has been identified as another source for conversion into value added products. In the present work, physicochemical features from the oil palm mesocarp fibre treated by using pure glycerol with 2% (w/w) NaOH catalyst and crude glycerol have been studied. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 150 °C for 60 min. Fibre treated by crude glycerol resulted in high percentages of holocellulose and lower content of insoluble lignin. These results suggest that crude glycerol can be used as an alternative solvent for pretreatment process. The characterization treated fibre by means of FTIR and TGA has shown significant differences compared to untreated fibre. It was revealed that treated fibre successful eliminated hemicellulose and reduce of lignin content.

  2. Comprehensive utilization of glycerol from sugarcane bagasse pretreatment to fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Zheng, Anqing; Zhao, Zengli; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effects of glycerol pretreatment on subsequent glycerol fermentation and biomass fast pyrolysis were investigated. The liquid fraction from the pretreatment process was evaluated to be feasible for fermentation by Paenibacillus polymyxa and could be an economic substrate. The pretreated biomass was further utilized to obtain levoglucosan by fast pyrolysis. The pretreated sugarcane bagasse exhibited significantly higher levoglucosan yield (47.70%) than that of un-pretreated sample (11.25%). The promotion could likely be attributed to the effective removal of alkali and alkaline earth metals by glycerol pretreatment. This research developed an economically viable manufacturing paradigm to utilize glycerol comprehensively and enhance the formation of levoglucosan effectively from lignocellulose. PMID:26241838

  3. Plasma reforming of glycerol for synthesis gas production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinli; Hoang, Trung; Lobban, Lance L; Mallinson, Richard G

    2009-05-28

    Glycerol can be effectively converted to synthesis gas (selectivity higher than 80%) with small amounts of water or no water using plasmas at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, without external heating. PMID:19436906

  4. Renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from biodiesel waste glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Zichun; Williams, Paul T.; Huang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a novel and commercially viable method to recover renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from waste glycerol produced in the biodiesel process. Gas-phase catalytic reforming converts glycerol to clean hydrogen fuel and by replacing the problematical coke formed on the catalyst with high value carbon nanotubes, added value can be realised. Additional benefits of around 2.8 kg CNTs from the reforming of 1 tonne of glycerol and the production of 500 Nm3 H2 could have a considerable impact on the economics of glycerol utilization. Thereby, the contribution of this research will be a significant step forward in solving a current major technical and economic challenge faced by the biofuels industry. PMID:24067754

  5. A comparison of absorption of glycerol tristearate and glycerol trioleate by rat small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstedt, S.E.; Hayashi, H.; Kritchevsky, D.; Tso, P. )

    1990-09-01

    Generally, fats rich in saturated fatty acids raise serum cholesterol, whereas fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids lower it. There appear to be exceptions; e.g., stearic acid (18:0)-rich fats have little or no effect on serum cholesterol concentrations. This apparent lack of cholesterolemic effect of stearic acid-rich fat could be because intestinal absorption of fat is poor or subsequent plasma and/or tissue metabolism of fat is different. To investigate mechanisms involved, we compared intestinal digestion, uptake, and lymphatic transport of glycerol tristearate (TS) and glycerol trioleate (TO, 18:1). Two groups of rats bearing intestinal lymph fistulas were used. TO rats were fed intraduodenally for 8 h at a constant rate a lipid emulsion of 25 mumols/h of TO (labeled with glycerol tri(9,10 (n)-3H)oleate), 7.8 mumols of egg phosphatidylcholine, and 57 mumols of sodium taurocholate in 3 ml of phosphate-buffered saline. TS rats were fed the same lipid emulsion except that TS replaced TO and the emulsion was labeled with glyceryl (1,3-14C)tristearate. The lymph triglyceride and radioactivity were determined. After infusion, the luminal and mucosal radioactive lipid content was analyzed. The results showed that there was significantly less lipid transported in the lymph of TS rats compared with TO rats. The results also showed a significant decrease in the absorption of TS as compared with TO. This was due in part to poor lipolysis. In addition, the lipid absorbed by the intestine of the TS rats was transported into lymph less efficiently than in TO rats.

  6. Quantitative NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, M.; Alleman, T. L.; Dyer, T.; Ragauskas, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphitylation of hydroxyl groups in biodiesel samples with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by 31P-NMR analysis provides a rapid quantitative analytical technique for the determination of substitution patterns on partially esterified glycerols. The unique 31P-NMR chemical shift data was established with a series mono and di-substituted fatty acid esters of glycerol and then utilized to characterize an industrial sample of partially processed biodiesel.

  7. Optimizing aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Slininger, P.J.; Bothast, R.J.

    1985-12-01

    Chemical oxidation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) leads to acrylic acid, an industrially important polymerizable monomer currently derived from petroleum. As the availability of petroleum declines, 3-HPA may become attractive as a product to be obtained through fermentation of glycerol, a renewable resource. When cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae NRRL B-199 (ATCC 8724) were grown aerobically on a rich glycerol medium and then suspended in buffer supplemented with semicarbazide and glycerol, aerobic conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) ensued. Depending on conditions, 0.38 to 0.67 g of 3-HPA were formed per gram of glycerol consumed. This means that up to 83.8% of the carbon invested as glycerol could potentially be recovered as the target product, 3-HPA. Production of 3-HPA was sensitive to the age of cells harvested for resuspension and was nonexistent if cells were cultivated on glucose instead of glycerol as the sole carbon source. Compared with 24- and 72-h cells, 48-h cells produced 3-HPA at the highest rate and with the greatest yield. The cell biomass concentration present during the fermentation was never particularly critical to the 3-HPA yield, but initial fermentation rates and 3-HPA accumulation displayed a linear dependence on biomass concentration that faded when biomass exceeded 3 g/liter. Fermentation performance was a function of temperature, and an optimum initial specific 3-HPA productivity occurred at 32/sup 0/C, although the overall 3-HPA yield increased continuously within the 25 to 37/sup 0/C range studied. The pH optimum based on fermentation rate was different from that based on overall yield; 8 versus 7, respectively. Initial glycerol concentrations in the 20 to 50 g/liter range optimized initial 3-HPA productivity and yield.

  8. Comparative study of muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin and glycerol injury.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Mohamed A A; Lei, Hsiao Yin; Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Nishimura, Takanori

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we examined muscle regeneration following two types of chemical injuries, cardiotoxin (CTX) and glycerol, in order to compare their effect on the morphological characteristics during muscle regeneration, in addition we studied the structural changes of the intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) during the regeneration process, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after digestion of the cellular elements of the muscle with sodium hydroxide. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of adult male mice were injected either with CTX or glycerol. Muscle degeneration was greater in the CTX-injured model than in the glycerol-injured model at day 4 post injection. Muscle regeneration started at day 7 in both the CTX and glycerol models. However, the CTX-injured model showed a higher myotube density and larger myotube diameter than the glycerol-injured model at days 10 and 14 post injection. On other hand, adipocyte infiltration was detected in the glycerol-injured model. In contrast, no adipocytes could be detected in the CTX-injured model. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis showed a significant difference in myofiber damage and regeneration between the two models. SEM of the IMCT showed a transient increase in endomysial collagen deposition at early stages of regeneration in the CTX-injured model. In contrast, glycerol-injured model showed slight endomysial collagen deposition. Our results suggest that changes in IMCT affect the efficiency of muscle regeneration. Studying the three dimensional structure of IMCT may help clinical therapies to reduce skeletal muscle fibrosis. To our knowledge this is the first time the changes in IMCT following CTX and glycerol injury using SEM-cell maceration technique have been compared.

  9. Microaerobic Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Matthew S.; Li, Mai; Black, Ryan W.; Le, Thao Q.; Puthli, Sharon; Campbell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol has become a desirable feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals due to its availability and low price, but many barriers to commercialization remain. Previous investigators have made significant improvements in the yield of ethanol from glycerol. We have developed a fermentation process for the efficient microaerobic conversion of glycerol to ethanol by Escherichia coli that presents solutions to several other barriers to commercialization: rate, titer, specific productivity, use of inducers, use of antibiotics, and safety. To increase the rate, titer, and specific productivity to commercially relevant levels, we constructed a plasmid that overexpressed glycerol uptake genes dhaKLM, gldA, and glpK, as well as the ethanol pathway gene adhE. To eliminate the cost of inducers and antibiotics from the fermentation, we used the adhE and icd promoters from E. coli in our plasmid, and we implemented glycerol addiction to retain the plasmid. To address the safety issue of off-gas flammability, we optimized the fermentation process with reduced-oxygen sparge gas to ensure that the off-gas remained nonflammable. These advances represent significant progress toward the commercialization of an E. coli-based glycerol-to-ethanol process. PMID:24584248

  10. Key enzymes catalyzing glycerol to 1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shizhen; Wang, Yuanpeng; Fang, Baishan

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel as it is produced from animal fats and vegetable oils, and it produces about 10 % (w/w) glycerol, which is a promising new industrial microbial carbon, as a major by-product. One of the most potential applications of glycerol is its biotransformation to high value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), dihydroxyacetone (DHA), succinic acid, etc., through microbial fermentation. Glycerol dehydratase, 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase (1,3-propanediol-oxydoreductase), and glycerol dehydrogenase, which were encoded, respectively, by dhaB, dhaT, and dhaD and with DHA kinase are encompassed by the dha regulon, are the three key enzymes in glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA, and these are discussed in this review article. The summary of the main research direction of these three key enzyme and methods of glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA indicates their potential application in future enzymatic research and industrial production, especially in biodiesel industry. PMID:26966462

  11. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions.

  12. Value-added uses for crude glycerol--a byproduct of biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative, and renewable, fuel. As its production increases, so does production of the principle co-product, crude glycerol. The effective utilization of crude glycerol will contribute to the viability of biodiesel. In this review, composition and quality factors of crude glycerol are discussed. The value-added utilization opportunities of crude glycerol are reviewed. The majority of crude glycerol is used as feedstock for production of other value-added chemicals, followed by animal feeds. PMID:22413907

  13. Processes and systems for the production of propylene glycol from glycerol

    DOEpatents

    Frye, John G; Oberg, Aaron A; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-01-20

    Processes and systems for converting glycerol to propylene glycol are disclosed. The glycerol feed is diluted with propylene glycol as the primary solvent, rather than water which is typically used. The diluted glycerol feed is sent to a reactor where the glycerol is converted to propylene glycol (as well as other byproducts) in the presence of a catalyst. The propylene glycol-containing product from the reactor is recycled as a solvent for the glycerol feed.

  14. Identification of a mammalian glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase: Role in metabolism and signaling in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mugabo, Yves; Zhao, Shangang; Seifried, Annegrit; Gezzar, Sari; Al-Mass, Anfal; Zhang, Dongwei; Lamontagne, Julien; Attane, Camille; Poursharifi, Pegah; Iglesias, José; Joly, Erik; Peyot, Marie-Line; Gohla, Antje; Madiraju, S. R. Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, and the associated disturbed glycerolipid/fatty acid (GL/FA) cycle, contribute to insulin resistance, islet β-cell failure, and type 2 diabetes. Flux through the GL/FA cycle is regulated by the availability of glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P) and fatty acyl-CoA. We describe here a mammalian Gro3P phosphatase (G3PP), which was not known to exist in mammalian cells, that can directly hydrolyze Gro3P to glycerol. We identified that mammalian phosphoglycolate phosphatase, with an uncertain function, acts in fact as a G3PP. We found that G3PP, by controlling Gro3P levels, regulates glycolysis and glucose oxidation, cellular redox and ATP production, gluconeogenesis, glycerolipid synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation in pancreatic islet β-cells and hepatocytes, and that glucose stimulated insulin secretion and the response to metabolic stress, e.g., glucolipotoxicity, in β-cells. In vivo overexpression of G3PP in rat liver lowers body weight gain and hepatic glucose production from glycerol and elevates plasma HDL levels. G3PP is expressed at various levels in different tissues, and its expression varies according to the nutritional state in some tissues. As Gro3P lies at the crossroads of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism, control of its availability by G3PP adds a key level of metabolic regulation in mammalian cells, and G3PP offers a potential target for type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:26755581

  15. The Holocene Records of Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers From the Northern Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Nam, S.; Polyak, L. V.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in Cores HOTRAX 05-01 JPC5 and JPC 8, and ARA02B 01-GC in the northern Chukchi Sea. All of the three cores showed a similar changing pattern in GDGT composition during the Holocene. In the beginning of early Holocene, both isoprenoid and branched GDGT concentrations were low, and BIT and CBT were relatively high. The similar composition is found in modern sediments from the western Arctic Ocean north of 75°N, suggesting that the northern Chukchi Sea was covered by perennial sea ice. GDGT concentration increased, and BIT and CBT decreased during the early Holocene and reached the same level as those in modern sediments at 8 ka. TEX86 and CBT/MBT indices showed millennial-scale variation. We interpret that these proxies did not simply indicate temperatures but were affected by the relative contribution of different sediment sources. Millennial-scale variability likely reflected changes in sediment transport in the northern Chukchi Sea.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Phenylpropanoid Glycerol Glucosides in Different Organs of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-05-20

    The Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is esteemed worldwide as an attractive ornamental plant, and the flower buds and bulbs are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes in many parts of the world. L. longiflorum contains significant amounts of phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, a group of compounds that may contribute to plant pathogen defense, ultraviolet/high-intensity visible light (UV/high light) protection, and the purported medicinal uses of lilies. To define the natural distribution of these compounds within the plant, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method performed in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was employed for the quantitative analysis of five phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, namely, (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 1; (2R)-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-O-p-coumaroylglycerol, 2; (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 3; (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 4; and (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 5, in the different organs of L. longiflorum. The p-coumaroyl-based 3 and its acetylated derivative 5 were determined to be the most abundant of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides found in Easter lily bulbs, at 776.3 ± 8.4 and 650.7 ± 32.6 μg/g dry weight, respectively. The acetylated p-coumaroyl- and caffeoyl-based derivatives, 5 and 4, accumulated to the highest concentration in the closed flower buds, at 4925.2 ± 512.8 and 3216.8 ± 406.4 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Compound 4, followed by 5 and 1, proved to be the most abundant in the mature flowers, occurring at 6006.2 ± 625.8, 2160.3 ± 556.5, and 1535.8 ± 174.1 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Total concentrations of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides were 10-100-fold higher in the above-ground plant organs as compared to the bulbs and fleshy roots. Two of the five compounds, 1 and 2, were identified in L. longiflorum for the first time. The quantitative

  17. Genotoxicity testing of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG).

    PubMed

    Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    Four versions of esterified propoxylated glycerols (EPGs) were evaluated for potential genotoxicity using a range of in vitro and in vivo assays. H-EPG-05 HR/SO 9:1, H-EPG-05 soyate, and H-EPG-14 soyate were non-mutagenic in reverse mutation assays (maximum concentration 1000 μg/plate) using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Heated and unheated H-EPG-05 HR/SO 9:1 and EPG-05 HR/ST 45:55 were likewise non-mutagenic in reverse mutation assays in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 (maximum concentration 5000 μg/plate). H-EPG-05 HR/SO 9:1, H-EPG-05 soyate, and H-EPG-14 soyate, were devoid of mutagenic activity in a mouse lymphoma assay in L5178Y tk +/- cells (maximum concentration 200 μg/plate for H-EPG-05 HR/SO 9:1; 100 μg/plate for H-EPG-05 soyate and H-EPG-14 soyate), and a chromosomal aberration test using human lymphocytes (maximum concentration 50 μg/plate for H-EPG-05 HR/SO 9:1 and H-EPG-05 soyate; 60 μg/plate for H-EPG-14 soyate). All assays were conducted with and without metabolic activation. Additionally, H-EPG-05 HR/SO 9:1, H-EPG-05 soyate, and H-EPG-14 soyate were non-genotoxic in unscheduled DNA synthesis tests in rats (maximum dose 2000 mg/kg). Based on the results of these assays it was concluded that these versions of EPG were not genotoxic under any of the conditions of the assays performed.

  18. Swab transport in Amies gel followed by frozen storage in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) for studies of respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Stubbs, Elizabeth; Beissbarth, Jemima; Morris, Peter Stanley; Leach, Amanda J

    2010-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage studies are needed to monitor changes in important bacterial pathogens in response to vaccination and antibiotics. Commercial swab transport followed by transfer to skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth for frozen storage is an option for studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

  19. Induction of Glycerol Synthesis and Release in Cultured Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Suescún-Bolívar, Luis P.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Thomé, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Symbiotic dinoflagellates transfer a substantial amount of their photosynthetic products to their animal hosts. This amount has been estimated to represent up to 90% of the photosynthetically fixed carbon and can satisfy in some instances the full respiratory requirements of the host. Although in several cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses glycerol is the primary photosynthetic product translocated to the host, the mechanism for its production and release has not been demonstrated conclusively. Principal Findings Using Symbiodinium cells in culture we were able to reproduce the synthesis and release of glycerol in vitro by employing an inductor for glycerol synthesis, osmotic up-shocks. Photosynthetic parameters and fluorescence analysis of photosystem II showed that the inductive conditions did not have a negative effect on photosynthetic performance, suggesting that the capacity for carbon fixation by the cells was not compromised. The demand for glycerol production required to attain osmotic balance increased the expression of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate and of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, possibly competing with the flux of fixed carbon necessary for protein synthesis. In longer exposures of cultured Symbiodinium cells to high osmolarity, the response was analogous to photoacclimation, reducing the excitation pressure over photosystem II, suggesting that Symbiodinium cells perceived the stress as an increase in light. The induced synthesis of glycerol resulted in a reduction of growth rates. Conclusions Our results favor a hypothetical mechanism of a signaling event involving a pressure sensor that may induce the flux of carbon (glycerol) from the symbiotic algae to the animal host, and strongly suggest that carbon limitation may be a key factor modulating the population of symbionts within the host. PMID:23071753

  20. Authentication Without Secrets

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  1. Beneficial knockouts in Escherichia coli for producing hydrogen from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kien Trung; Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez-Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K

    2015-03-01

    Glycerol is an inexpensive and abundant source for biofuel production on a large scale. Escherichia coli is a robust bacterium for producing hydrogen; however, its hydrogen productivity from glycerol is low. In this study, we conducted random transposon mutagenesis to identify uncharacterized genes whose inactivation is beneficial for hydrogen production from glycerol. Through screening, four mutant strains were found that are able to have from 1.3- to 1.6-fold higher hydrogen productivity (μmol H2/mg protein) than that of their parent strain (p < 0.05). These mutations were identified as aroM, gatZ, ycgR, and yfgI. The hydrogen yield (mol H2/mol glycerol consumed) of the aroM, gatZ, ycgR, and yfgI strains was 1.7-, 1.4-, 2.4-, and 2.1-fold higher than that of their parent strain, respectively. Moreover, a single disruption in these genes resulted in a faster cell growth and glycerol consumption under anaerobic conditions. In E. coli, AroM is predicted to be involved in the shikimate pathway, GatZ is tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase 2 which converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1,6-biphosphate, and YcgR acts as a molecular brake limiting the swimming speed and ATP consumption. So far, the function of YfgI in general and in hydrogen production in particular remains unknown.

  2. The structure of GlpF, a glycerol conducting channel.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dax; Libson, Andrew; Stroud, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The passage of water or small neutral solutes across the cell membrane in animals, plants and bacteria is facilitated by a family of homologous membrane channels, variously known as aquaporins though perhaps more correctly as aquaglyceroporins. The glycerol facilitator (GlpF) is a 28 kDa aquaglyceroporin that catalyses transmembrane diffusion of glycerol and certain linear polyhydric alcohols in Escherichia coli. X-ray crystallographic analysis of GlpF to 2.2 A resolution revealed an alpha-barrel structure, surrounded by six full-length transmembrane helices and two half-spanning helices that are joined head-to-head in the middle of the membrane. These helices are arranged to a quasi twofold manner relative to the central membrane plane, where highly conserved residues make helix-to-helix contacts that stabilize the relative position and orientation of the helices in the structure. This sequence-structure correlation suggests that the evolutionary divergence of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins is constrained by a conserved structural framework within which specialized function may be developed. Three glycerol molecules were resolved in the central channel through the GlpF monomer, thereby defining a transmembrane channel for glycerol permeation. The structure of glycerol GlpF complex provides insight into the chemical basis for transmembrane selective permeability. PMID:12027015

  3. Dysferlin and myoferlin regulate transverse tubule formation and glycerol sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Demonbreun, Alexis R; Rossi, Ann E; Alvarez, Manuel G; Swanson, Kaitlin E; Deveaux, H Kieran; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; Vohra, Ravneet; Walter, Glenn A; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Dysferlin is a membrane-associated protein implicated in muscular dystrophy and vesicle movement and function in muscles. The precise role of dysferlin has been debated, partly because of the mild phenotype in dysferlin-null mice (Dysf). We bred Dysf mice to mice lacking myoferlin (MKO) to generate mice lacking both myoferlin and dysferlin (FER). FER animals displayed progressive muscle damage with myofiber necrosis, internalized nuclei, and, at older ages, chronic remodeling and increasing creatine kinase levels. These changes were most prominent in proximal limb and trunk muscles and were more severe than in Dysf mice. Consistently, FER animals had reduced ad libitum activity. Ultrastructural studies uncovered progressive dilation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and ectopic and misaligned transverse tubules in FER skeletal muscle. FER muscle, and Dysf- and MKO-null muscle, exuded lipid, and serum glycerol levels were elevated in FER and Dysf mice. Glycerol injection into muscle is known to induce myopathy, and glycerol exposure promotes detachment of transverse tubules from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Dysf, MKO, and FER muscles were highly susceptible to glycerol exposure in vitro, demonstrating a dysfunctional sarcotubule system, and in vivo glycerol exposure induced severe muscular dystrophy, especially in FER muscle. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of dysferlin and myoferlin for transverse tubule function and in the genesis of muscular dystrophy.

  4. Dysferlin and Myoferlin Regulate Transverse Tubule Formation and Glycerol Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Demonbreun, Alexis R.; Rossi, Ann E.; Alvarez, Manuel G.; Swanson, Kaitlin E.; Deveaux, H. Kieran; Earley, Judy U.; Hadhazy, Michele; Vohra, Ravneet; Walter, Glenn A.; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Dysferlin is a membrane-associated protein implicated in muscular dystrophy and vesicle movement and function in muscles. The precise role of dysferlin has been debated, partly because of the mild phenotype in dysferlin-null mice (Dysf). We bred Dysf mice to mice lacking myoferlin (MKO) to generate mice lacking both myoferlin and dysferlin (FER). FER animals displayed progressive muscle damage with myofiber necrosis, internalized nuclei, and, at older ages, chronic remodeling and increasing creatine kinase levels. These changes were most prominent in proximal limb and trunk muscles and were more severe than in Dysf mice. Consistently, FER animals had reduced ad libitum activity. Ultrastructural studies uncovered progressive dilation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and ectopic and misaligned transverse tubules in FER skeletal muscle. FER muscle, and Dysf- and MKO-null muscle, exuded lipid, and serum glycerol levels were elevated in FER and Dysf mice. Glycerol injection into muscle is known to induce myopathy, and glycerol exposure promotes detachment of transverse tubules from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Dysf, MKO, and FER muscles were highly susceptible to glycerol exposure in vitro, demonstrating a dysfunctional sarcotubule system, and in vivo glycerol exposure induced severe muscular dystrophy, especially in FER muscle. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of dysferlin and myoferlin for transverse tubule function and in the genesis of muscular dystrophy. PMID:24177035

  5. Glycerol use in hyperhydration and rehydration: scientific update.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Coombes, J S

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol ingestion creates an osmotic drive that enhances fluid retention. The major practical applications for athletes are to either (i) hyperhydrate before exercise so that they have more fluid to be lost as sweat during subsequent performance, thereby delaying the progression of dehydration from becoming physiologically significant, or (ii) improve both the rate of rehydration and total fluid retention following exercise. Recently we showed that rehydration may be improved further by combining glycerol with intravenous fluids. Improvements in endurance time, time trial performance and total power and work output have been seen during exercise following glycerol-induced hyperhydration or rehydration. Another recent trial showed that the increased body weight associated with the extra fluid does not inadvertently affect running economy. Concerns that the haemodilution associated with the fluid retention in the vascular space may be sufficient to mask illegal doping practices by athletes led the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to add glycerol to its list of prohibited substances in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that doses of > 0.032 ± 0.010 g/kg lean body mass (much lower than those required for rehydration) will result in urinary excretion that may be detectable, so athletes under the WADA jurisdiction should be cautious to limit their inadvertent glycerol intake. PMID:23075560

  6. Treatment of glycerol phase formed by biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek

    2010-05-01

    Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel produced by transesterification and is contained in the glycerol phase together with many other materials such as soaps, remaining catalyst, water, and esters formed during the process. The content of glycerol is approximately 30-60 wt.%. In this paper, treatments of the glycerol phase to obtain glycerol with a purity of 86 wt.% (without distillation) and a mixture of fatty acids with esters (1:1) or only a mixture of fatty acids with a purity of 99 wt.% are presented. The treatment was carried out by removing of alkaline substances and esters. Fatty acids were produced by saponification of the remaining esters and subsequent neutralization of alkaline substances by phosphoric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, or acetic acids. Salts are by-products and, in the case of phosphoric acid can be used as potash-phosphate fertilizer. The process of treatment is easy and environmentally friendly, because no special chemicals or equipment are required and all products are utilizable.

  7. Determination of optimal glycerol concentration for optical tissue clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Eungjun; Son, Taeyoon; Kim, Han-Sung; Jung, Byungjo

    2012-02-01

    The laser scattering in tissue is significant in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes of laser. Many studies have been conducted to minimize laser scattering in tissue and therefore, to maximize the clinical efficacy by enhancing photon density. Optical clearing agents (OCAs) have been employed for optical tissue clearing (OTC). This study was aimed to investigate the optimal concentration of an OCA, glycerol, in topical application,, so that it can be utilized for clinical diagnosis and therapy in dermatology. Glycerol was topically applied to avoid possible edema caused by dermal injection. The effect of OTC was quantitatively evaluated as a function of the concentration of glycerol with various methods. Optical methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and an integrating sphere were used to assess the enhancement of light penetration depth and refractive index matching. In addition, a non-optical method, ultrasound scanner, was utilized to evaluate quantitatively collagen dissociation. The results revealed that 70 % glycerol was the optimal concentration of OTC for topical application. This study may provide a guideline regarding to the use of glycerol for optimal diagnostic and therapeutic effects in dermatology.

  8. Secrets to success.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2014-02-01

    A new national study reveals what it takes for physician practices to stay financially viable. Several Texas practices, among those rated as "better performers," share their secrets to success. One of those secrets, a physician says, is "hiring good people and getting out of their way." PMID:24500918

  9. Source, settling and degradation of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in the marine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Fukuhara, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2016-10-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (branched GDGTs) are commonly found in distal marine sediments. However, their presence in the water column, source and delivery process are not fully understood. In this study, we examined seasonal and depth variation in the flux of branched GDGTs in sinking particles and underlying sediment at 39°N, 147°E in the mid-latitude NW Pacific from November 1997 to August 1999. Branched GDGTs showed synchronous variation in their sinking flux at different depths, and the variation was similar to that of lithogenic material of eolian dust origin. Their degrees of cyclization and methylation were nearly constant and bear some resemblance to those of alkaline soils. This suggests that westerly winds transport branched GDGTs to the study site via the atmosphere from continental Asia. The sinking flux of branched GDGTs was higher in 1999 than in 1998, presumably reflecting changes in the migration path of Asian dust in response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Synchronous variation in branched GDGT concentrations at different depths implies rapid vertical transport of branched GDGTs to deep water with a sinking velocity exceeding 260 m d-1. The sinking flux of the branched GDGTs decreased with increasing depth, but the rate of decrease was much smaller than those of other compounds. The preservation efficiency of branched GDGTs was 3.5-6.4% of surface inputs at the water-sediment interface, which is much higher than those of isoprenoid GDGTs (1.0-1.3%) and other compounds. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index values were extremely low (i.e. <0.0015) in comparison with any other studies so far. The BIT values in the surface sediment were five times higher than those in sinking particles, which is attributed to the preferential preservation of branched GDGTs in oxic environments.

  10. Water availability determines branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether distributions in soils of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, J.; Huguet, C.; Alcañiz, J. M.; Fietz, S.; Sachse, D.; Rosell-Melé, A.

    2013-06-01

    The MBT/CBT has recently gained significant attention as a novel paleotemperature proxy. It is based on the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in soils. The CBT quantifies the degree of cyclisation and relates to soil pH. The MBT' quantifies the degree of methylation and relates to mean annual temperature and soil pH. Combining these two indices allows estimation of mean annual temperature (MAT). However other factors such as soil water availability or moisture conditions have been suggested to influence the MBT'. To assess the effect of moisture conditions on the MBT'/CBT a set of 23 Iberian Peninsula soil samples covering a temperature range from 10-18 °C and a wide range of soil moisture regimes (405 mm to 1455 mm mean annual precipitation per year), was analyzed. We find that CBT is significantly correlated to soil pH confirming it as a robust proxy. In contrast the MBT' index was not correlated to MAT and was weakly correlated to annual mean precipitation (MAP). Instead we found a significant correlation between MBT' and the Aridity Index (AI), a parameter related to water availability in soils. The AI can explain 70% of the residuals of MAT estimation and 50% of the actual variation of the MBT'. This suggests that in dry environments or under moisture shortage the degree of methylation of branched GDGTs is not controlled by temperature but rather by the degree of water available. Our results suggest that the MBT/CBT index is not applicable as a paleotemperature proxy in dry subhumid to hyperarid environments.

  11. In situ production of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in a great basin hot spring (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Wang, Jinxiang; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Williams, Amanda J.; Zhu, Chun; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Zheng, Fengfeng; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are predominantly found in soils and peat bogs. In this study, we analyzed core (C)-bGDGTs after hydrolysis of polar fractions using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry and analyzed intact P-bGDGTs using total lipid extract (TLE) without hydrolysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple stage mass spectrometry. Our results show multiple lines of evidence for the production of bGDGTs in sediments and cellulolytic enrichments in a hot spring (62–86°C) in the Great Basin (USA). First, in situ cellulolytic enrichment led to an increase in the relative abundance of hydrolysis-derived P-bGDGTs over their C-bGDGT counterparts. Second, the hydrolysis-derived P- and C-bGDGT profiles in the hot spring were different from those of the surrounding soil samples; in particular, a monoglycosidic bGDGT Ib containing 13,16-dimethyloctacosane and one cyclopentane moiety was detected in the TLE but it was undetectable in surrounding soil samples even after sample enrichments. Third, previously published 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis from the same lignocellulose samples demonstrated the enrichment of thermophiles, rather than mesophiles, and total bGDGT abundance in cellulolytic enrichments correlated with the relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags from thermophilic bacteria in the phyla Bacteroidetes, Dictyoglomi, EM3, and OP9 (“Atribacteria”). These observations conclusively demonstrate the production of bGDGTs in this hot spring; however, the identity of organisms that produce bGDGTs in the geothermal environment remains unclear. PMID:23847605

  12. Archaeal and bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids in hot springs of yellowstone national park.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T J; Hopmans, Ellen C; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Ward, David M; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2007-10-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are core membrane lipids originally thought to be produced mainly by (hyper)thermophilic archaea. Environmental screening of low-temperature environments showed, however, the abundant presence of structurally diverse GDGTs from both bacterial and archaeal sources. In this study, we examined the occurrences and distribution of GDGTs in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park with high temperatures (47 to 83 degrees C) and mostly neutral to alkaline pHs. GDGTs with 0 to 4 cyclopentane moieties were dominant in all samples and are likely derived from both (hyper)thermophilic Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. GDGTs with 4 to 8 cyclopentane moieties, likely derived from the crenarchaeotal order Sulfolobales and the euryarchaeotal order Thermoplasmatales, are usually present in much lower abundance, consistent with the relatively high pH values of the hot springs. The relative abundances of cyclopentane-containing GDGTs did not correlate with in situ temperature and pH, suggesting that other environmental and possibly genetic factors play a role as well. Crenarchaeol, a biomarker thought to be specific for nonthermophilic group I Crenarchaeota, was also found in most hot springs, though in relatively low concentrations, i.e., <5% of total GDGTs. Its abundance did not correlate with temperature, as has been reported previously. Instead, the cooccurrence of relatively abundant nonisoprenoid GDGTs thought to be derived from soil bacteria suggests a predominantly allochthonous source for crenarchaeol in these hot spring environments. Finally, the distribution of bacterial branched GDGTs suggests that they may be derived from the geothermally heated soils surrounding the hot springs.

  13. Effect of NaCl on the accumulation of glycerol by three Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Zidan, M A; Abdel-Mallek, A Y

    1987-01-01

    The accumulation of glycerol was investigated in three Aspergillus species, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. tamarii after being grown in media containing different NaCl concentrations. Intra-extracellular as well as total glycerol were markedly accumulated by the three organisms in response to increased salinity. However, at salinity levels of 10-14% NaCl, extracellular glycerol was somewhat lowered. In addition, it was found that the maximum accumulation of glycerol in A. niger and A. tamarii was reached within the first 10 hours after salinization. However, after desalinization, the extracellular glycerol was continuously increased within the first 6 hours at the expense of intracellular glycerol.

  14. Effect of NaCl on the accumulation of glycerol by three Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Zidan, M A; Abdel-Mallek, A Y

    1987-01-01

    The accumulation of glycerol was investigated in three Aspergillus species, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. tamarii after being grown in media containing different NaCl concentrations. Intra-extracellular as well as total glycerol were markedly accumulated by the three organisms in response to increased salinity. However, at salinity levels of 10-14% NaCl, extracellular glycerol was somewhat lowered. In addition, it was found that the maximum accumulation of glycerol in A. niger and A. tamarii was reached within the first 10 hours after salinization. However, after desalinization, the extracellular glycerol was continuously increased within the first 6 hours at the expense of intracellular glycerol. PMID:3449615

  15. Secrets in "The Day of Ahmed's Secret."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckett, Peter; Knox, Marjorie

    2001-01-01

    Examines images and the written text in the picture book, "The Day of Ahmed's Secret," by Florence Parry Heide and Judith Heide Gilliland. Examines the book in greater detail by looking for issues of authenticity as well as social issues within the book's pictures and written texts. (SG)

  16. Transoval trigeminal cisternography and glycerol injection in trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, C; Smeets, P; Caemaert, J; Van de Velde, E

    1989-04-01

    In a series of 25 consecutive patients suffering from essential trigeminal neuralgia, transoval glycerol injection following Håkanson was performed in order to alleviate the pain attacks. This treatment proved to be successful in 76% of the patients. No major side-effects were reported. Authors stress the importance of a precise cisternography of Meckel's cave to ascertain the correct position of the needle, before injecting the glycerol. They discuss their mode of conducting the examination in using a conventional radiologic set-up. Transoval glycerol injection is a valuable interventional radiologic procedure and has to be taken into account as an alternative treatment of essential trigeminal neuralgia, especially when current therapeutic measures have failed. PMID:2788644

  17. Ru/FTO: Heterogeneous catalyst for glycerol hydrogenolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, Wan Zurina; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Liew, Kin Hong; Nordin, Norazzizi; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2014-09-01

    An introduction of Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as new catalyst support with Ru metal had enhanced the conversion and selectivity for glycerol hydrogenolysis. A small cluster of Ru were highly dispersed and intercalated over FTO via simple chemical mixture and reduction method. In comparison with various metal (Pd, Os, Cu), Ru/FTO catalyst showed the highest conversion (100%) and highly selectivity of 1,2-propanediol (94%) in the hydrogenolysis of glycerol. The reaction was optimally conducted at 150 °C, 20 bar of H2 pressure and at 8 hours. Ru/FTO catalyst was ascribed as active catalyst due to the amphoteric sites of FTO and small size of Ru metal. This provides high surface concentration of reduction process that involves the chemical bond dissociation in the glycerol hydrogenolysis.

  18. Enhanced production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol by modulation of glycerol metabolism in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangwook; Kim, Sun-Ki; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-03-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is a valuable biochemical with high potential for bioplastic manufacturing. The endogenous glycerol metabolism and by-product formation pathway in Escherichia coli were modulated to enhance 3-HP production from glycerol. Double deletion of glpK and yqhD directed the glycerol flux to 3-HP biosynthesis and reduced the formation of 1,3-propanediol. Since 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), a precursor of 3-HP, is toxic to cell growth, the gene encoding Pseudomonas aeruginosa semialdehyde dehydrogenase (PSALDH) highly active on 3-HPA was expressed in E. coli. Finally, fed-batch culture of recombinant E. coli BL21star(DE3) without glpK and yqhD, and expressing Lactobacillus brevis DhaB-DhaR, and P. aeruginosa PSALDH resulted in 57.3g/L 3-HP concentration, 1.59g/L-h productivity and 0.88g/g yield. In conclusion, modulation of the glycerol metabolism in combination with enhanced activity of 3-HPA dehydrogenation improved the production of 3-HP from glycerol. PMID:24502915

  19. 2H NMR studies of glycerol dynamics in protein matrices.

    PubMed

    Herbers, C R; Sauer, D; Vogel, M

    2012-03-28

    We use (2)H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the rotational motion of glycerol molecules in matrices provided by the connective tissue proteins elastin and collagen. Analyzing spin-lattice relaxation, line-shape properties, and stimulated-echo decays, we determine the rates and geometries of the motion as a function of temperature and composition. It is found that embedding glycerol in an elastin matrix leads to a mild slowdown of glycerol reorientation at low temperatures and glycerol concentrations, while the effect vanishes at ambient temperatures or high solvent content. Furthermore, it is observed that the nonexponential character of the rotational correlation functions is much more prominent in the elastin matrix than in the bulk liquid. Results from spin-lattice relaxation and line shape measurements indicate that, in the mixed systems, the strong nonexponentiality is in large part due to the existence of distributions of correlation times, which are broader on the long-time flank and, hence, more symmetric than in the neat system. Stimulated-echo analysis of slow glycerol dynamics reveals that, when elastin is added, the mechanism for the reorientation crosses over from small-angle jump dynamics to large-angle jump dynamics and the geometry of the motion changes from isotropic to anisotropic. The results are discussed against the background of present and previous findings for glycerol and water dynamics in various protein matrices and compared with observations for other dynamically highly asymmetric mixtures so as to ascertain in which way the viscous freezing of a fast component in the matrix of a slow component differs from the glassy slowdown in neat supercooled liquids. PMID:22462878

  20. 2H NMR studies of glycerol dynamics in protein matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbers, C. R.; Sauer, D.; Vogel, M.

    2012-03-01

    We use 2H NMR spectroscopy to investigate the rotational motion of glycerol molecules in matrices provided by the connective tissue proteins elastin and collagen. Analyzing spin-lattice relaxation, line-shape properties, and stimulated-echo decays, we determine the rates and geometries of the motion as a function of temperature and composition. It is found that embedding glycerol in an elastin matrix leads to a mild slowdown of glycerol reorientation at low temperatures and glycerol concentrations, while the effect vanishes at ambient temperatures or high solvent content. Furthermore, it is observed that the nonexponential character of the rotational correlation functions is much more prominent in the elastin matrix than in the bulk liquid. Results from spin-lattice relaxation and line shape measurements indicate that, in the mixed systems, the strong nonexponentiality is in large part due to the existence of distributions of correlation times, which are broader on the long-time flank and, hence, more symmetric than in the neat system. Stimulated-echo analysis of slow glycerol dynamics reveals that, when elastin is added, the mechanism for the reorientation crosses over from small-angle jump dynamics to large-angle jump dynamics and the geometry of the motion changes from isotropic to anisotropic. The results are discussed against the background of present and previous findings for glycerol and water dynamics in various protein matrices and compared with observations for other dynamically highly asymmetric mixtures so as to ascertain in which way the viscous freezing of a fast component in the matrix of a slow component differs from the glassy slowdown in neat supercooled liquids.

  1. Simultaneous quantification of labeled (2)H5-glycerol, (13)C6-glucose, and endogenous D-glucose in mouse plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring the level of glucose and glycerol or their labeled derivatives in biological fluid for kinetic studies has always been challenging, especially in mice, because of the limited volume in addition to the complexity of plasma. For such application, we developed a simple, fast, and sensitive method for the simultaneous measurement of absolute concentrations of labeled (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose as well as endogenous D-glucose using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In our study, 15.0 μL of mouse plasma was processed by a one-step protein precipitation, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The quantification of the analytes was carried out by monitoring the product ion scan of their corresponding deprotonated molecular ions and constructing the extracted ion fragmentogram by choosing a specific product ion for each analyte (equivalent to precursor ion to product ion transitions). The limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated to be 1.0 μM for both (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was observed to be 5.0 μM for both (2)H5-glycerol and (13)C6-glucose in diluted mice plasma that corresponds to 50 μM in plasma or 4.60 and 9.01 mg/dL of glycerol and glucose in plasma, respectively. The extraction recoveries are 81.9 % (CV = 8.1 %) for (2)H5-glycerol and 26.2 % (CV = 13.6 %) for (13)C6-glucose. PMID:26362155

  2. Propylene from renewable resources: catalytic conversion of glycerol into propylene.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Propylene, one of the most demanded commodity chemicals, is obtained overwhelmingly from fossil resources. In view of the diminishing fossil resources and the ongoing climate change, the identification of new efficient and alternative routes for the large-scale production of propylene from biorenewable resources has become essential. Herein, a new selective route for the synthesis of propylene from bio-derived glycerol is demonstrated. The route consists of the formation of 1-propanol (a versatile bulk chemical) as intermediate through hydrogenolysis of glycerol at a high selectivity. A subsequent dehydration produces propylene. PMID:24578188

  3. Propylene from renewable resources: catalytic conversion of glycerol into propylene.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Propylene, one of the most demanded commodity chemicals, is obtained overwhelmingly from fossil resources. In view of the diminishing fossil resources and the ongoing climate change, the identification of new efficient and alternative routes for the large-scale production of propylene from biorenewable resources has become essential. Herein, a new selective route for the synthesis of propylene from bio-derived glycerol is demonstrated. The route consists of the formation of 1-propanol (a versatile bulk chemical) as intermediate through hydrogenolysis of glycerol at a high selectivity. A subsequent dehydration produces propylene.

  4. Cryoprotective effect of different glycerol concentrations on domestic cat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Ana Izabel S Balbin; Fioratti, Eduardo G; Penitenti, Marcimara; Ikoma, Maura R V; Tsunemi, Miriam H; Papa, Frederico O; Lopes, Maria D

    2013-10-15

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is a pivotal tool in assisted reproduction, and studies aiming to establish optimal freezing/thawing protocols are essential to enhance sperm survival. The objectives of the present study were to (1) compare the cryoprotective efficiency of three different glycerol concentrations (3%, 5%, and 7%) on the basis of post-thaw sperm quality and (2) investigate whether the incidence of morphologically abnormal sperm in fresh samples is related to cryodamage sensitivity. Semen was collected from six tomcats using an artificial vagina (total 18 ejaculates). Each ejaculate was diluted using Tris-egg yolk-based extender (TEY), evaluated, equally divided into three aliquots, and rediluted using TEY with and without glycerol to achieve final concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 7%. Samples were loaded into 0.25 mL straws, equilibrated for 60 minutes at 5 °C, frozen, and then thawed at 46 °C for 12 seconds. Fresh and frozen-thawed samples were evaluated for sperm motion parameters (computer-assisted sperm analysis), plasma membrane integrity (PMI; propidium iodide and carboxyfluorescein diacetate), and DNA integrity (acridine orange). Plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity were assessed by flow cytometry (propidium iodide and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated pea (Pisum sativum) agglutinin) immediately after thawing. Sperm motion parameters were also evaluated at 30 and 60 minutes of postincubation. For all treatment groups, cryopreservation significantly impaired the PMI and sperm motion parameters, except for straightness and amplitude of lateral head displacement. DNA integrity showed a slight reduction (P < 0.05) when 3% glycerol was used. The percentage of total motility, progressive motility, and rapid spermatozoa were significantly lower immediately after thawing and up to 60 minutes of incubation for the 3% glycerol group when compared with 5% and 7%. No difference (P > 0.05) was found for PMI, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity among

  5. Dielectric and specific heat relaxations in vapor deposited glycerol.

    PubMed

    Kasina, A; Putzeys, T; Wübbenhorst, M

    2015-12-28

    Recently [S. Capponi, S. Napolitano, and M. Wübbenhorst, Nat. Commun. 3, 1233 (2012)], vapor deposited glasses of glycerol have been found to recover their super-cooled liquid state via a metastable, ordered liquid (MROL) state characterized by a tremendously enhanced dielectric strength along with a slow-down of the relaxation rate of the structural relaxation. To study the calorimetric signature of this phenomenon, we have implemented a chip-based, differential AC calorimeter in an organic molecular beam deposition setup, which allows the simultaneous measurement of dielectric relaxations via interdigitated comb electrodes and specific heat relaxation spectra during deposition and as function of the temperature. Heating of the as-deposited glass just above the bulk Tg and subsequent cooling/reheating revealed a step-wise increase in cp by in total 9%, indicating unambiguously that glycerol, through slow vapour deposition, forms a thermodynamically stable glass, which has a specific heat as low as that of crystalline glycerol. Moreover, these glasses were found to show excellent kinetic stability as well as evidenced by both a high onset-temperature and quasi-isothermal recovery measurements at -75 °C. The second goal of the study was to elucidate the impact of the MROL state on the specific heat and its relaxation to the super-cooled state. Conversion of "MROL glycerol" to its "normal" (ordinary liquid, OL) state revealed a second, small (∼2%) increase of the glassy cp, a little gain (<10%) in the relaxed specific heat, and no signs of deviations of τcal from that of normal "bulk" glycerol. These findings altogether suggest that the MROL state in glycerol comprises largely bulk-type glycerol that coexist with a minor volume fraction (<10%) of PVD-induced structural anomalies with a crystal-like calorimetric signature. Based on the new calorimetric findings, we have proposed a new physical picture that assumes the existence of rigid polar clusters (RPCs

  6. Measurement of flow of carbon atoms from glucose and glycogen glucose to glyceride glycerol and glycerol in rat heart and epididymal adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Denton, R. M.; Randle, P. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. Flow of carbon atoms from glucose and glycogen glucose to glyceride glycerol, glyceride fatty acids and glycerol was calculated in the perfused rat heart and incubated epididymal adipose tissue from the incorporation of 14C from [U-14C]-glucose (into glyceride glycerol, glyceride fatty acids and glycerol in the medium), and from measurements of the specific activity of l-glycerol 3-phosphate, and the effects of insulin, adrenaline and alloxan-diabetes were studied. Measurements were also made of the uptake of glucose and the outputs of lactate, pyruvate and glycerol. 2. New methods are described for the measurement of radioactivity in small amounts of metabolites (glycerol, glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate and l-glycerol 3-phosphate) in which use has been made of alterations in charge induced by enzymic conversions to effect resolution by ion-exchange chromatography. 3. In hearts the specific activity of l-glycerol 3-phosphate was less than that of glucose in the medium but similar to that of lactate released during perfusion. Because repeated measurements of the specific activity of l-glycerol 3-phosphate was impracticable, the specific activity of lactate has been used as an indirect measurement of glycerol phosphate specific activity. 4. In fat pads, specific activity of lactate was the same as that of glucose in the medium and thus the specific activity of l-glycerol 3-phosphate was taken to be the same as that of medium glucose. 5. In hearts from alloxan-diabetic rats, despite decreased glucose uptake and l-glycerol 3-phosphate concentration, flow of carbon atoms through l-glycerol 3-phosphate to glyceride glycerol was increased about threefold. 6. In fat pads, flow of carbon atoms through l-glycerol 3-phosphate to glyceride glycerol was increased by insulin (twofold), by adrenaline in the presence of insulin (fivefold) and by diabetes in pads incubated with insulin (1·5-fold). These increases could not be correlated either with increases in

  7. Excess wing in glass-forming glycerol and LiCl-glycerol mixtures detected by neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Arend, N.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.; Stingaciu, L.; Jalarvo, N.; Mamontov, E.; Ohl, M.

    2015-01-22

    The relaxational dynamics in glass-forming glycerol and glycerol mixed with LiCl is investigated using different neutron scattering techniques. The performed neutron spin echo experiments, which extend up to relatively long relaxation time scales of the order of 10 ns, should allow for the detection of contributions from the so-called excess wing. This phenomenon, whose microscopic origin is controversially discussed, arises in a variety of glass formers and, until now, was almost exclusively investigated by dielectric spectroscopy and light scattering. In conclusion, we show here that the relaxational process causing the excess wing can also be detected by neutron scattering, which directly couples to density fluctuations.

  8. Synthesis of isotopically labeled R- or S-[.sup.13C, .sup.2H] glycerols

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Alvarez, Marc A.

    2008-01-22

    The present invention is directed to asymmetric chiral labeled glycerols including at least one chiral atom, from one to two .sup.13C atoms and from zero to four deuterium atoms bonded directly to a carbon atom, e.g., (2S) [1,2-.sup.13C.sub.2]glycerol and (2R) [1,2-.sup.13C.sub.2]glycerol, and to the use of such chiral glycerols in the preparation of labeled amino acids.

  9. Hydrological conditions determine branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether distributions in soils of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Carme; Menges, Johanna; Fietz, Susanne; Sachse, Dirk; Rosell-Melé, Antoni

    2013-04-01

    Temperature is one of the key environmental factors driving climate change, but past continental temperature records are constrained by the few proxies that can be applied in these environments. The MBT-CBT proxy is based on the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), bacterial membrane lipids in soils1.Since the degree of cyclisation of the GDGTs (CBT) was found to corellate to soil pH, while tindex degree of methylation (MBT) corellates to mean annual temperature and soil pH. a combination of these two indices allows the estimation of mean annual temperature (MAT). However, it has been suggested, that other factors such as the hydrological conditions can also influence the MBT2, although it has never been testet directly. To asses the effect of hydrological conditions on the MBT-CBT a set of 25 soil samples of the Iberian Peninsula covering a temperature range from 10-18°C and a wide range of hydrological regimes was analysed (405 mm to 1455 mm per year) . We found that CBT was significantly correlated to soil pH confirming it even at a regional scale as a robust proxy for soil pH. The MBT was also shown to relate to soil pH, but the the expected relation between MBT and MAT could not be established. In fact, the correlation between MBT and MAT was inverse to the one expected according to previous studies and presented large scatter (R2=0,2). Consequently the MAT estimation using the MBT-CBT proxy leads to an underestimation of MAT, which is most prominent at the dryest sites and reaches up to 24°C. Instead we found a significant correlation between MBT and annual mean precipitation as well as the Aridity Index (AI)3, a parameter quantifying water availability in soils. This suggests that in dry environments or under moisture shortage the influence of the degree of methylation of branched GDGTs is not coupled to temperature but to the degree of water availability. 1. Weijers, J.W.H. et al. 2007. GCA. 71, 703-713. 2. Peterse, F

  10. Plio-Pleistocene Temperature Variability in the Terrestrial Arctic: Insights from Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, I. S.; Salacup, J.; de Wet, G.; Habicht, M. H.; Keisling, B. A.; Phu, V.; Johnson, J.; Lukas, S.; Lyons, N.; Brigham-Grette, J.

    2014-12-01

    Drill coring at Lake El'gygytgyn (Far East Russia) in 2009 retrieved a 3.6 Ma long sediment core, which is presently the oldest continuous sedimentary record available from the terrestrial Arctic. This unique Plio-Pleistocene record allows for the response of the Arctic to global climate events under a variety of different boundary conditions to be examined. Here we present results of ongoing organic geochemical analyses of Lake El'gygytgyn sediments focusing on the mid-Pliocene warm period, the Plio-Pleistocene transition, the mid-Brunhes transition, and warm Pleistocene interglacial periods including Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 9, 11, 19 and 31. Despite the ultra-oligotrophic nature of Lake El'gygytgyn and the generally low sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) content, we find abundant branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) throughout the entire record and use the methylation and cyclization indices of branched tetraethers (MBT and CBT, respectively) to reconstruct past temperature (Weijers et al., 2007). We hypothesize that the majority of brGDGTs are produced in the lake during the brief summer period of ice free conditions and that MBT/CBT likely reflects a warm season temperature. Trends noted in the MBT/CBT record are in close agreement with pollen-based temperature estimates throughout the entire core. For example, we note a dramatic ~6°C cooling associated with the mid-Pliocene M2 event and thus far MIS 31 has emerged as the warmest period at Lake El'gygytgyn during the past ~ 1 Ma, corroborating the pollen data. Interestingly, a number of abrupt and relatively short-lived cooling events of 2 to 4°C are noted within several of the particularly warm interglacial periods (e.g. MIS 5e, MIS 11 and MIS 31) and are the subject of ongoing investigation. Overall, application of the MBT/CBT paleothermometer to Lake El'gygytgyn sediments is a highly promising technique for generating a Plio-Pleistocene temperature record from the continental

  11. Characterization of a Novel Intestinal Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase Pathway and Its Role in Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Irani; Clark, Ronald W; Vera, Nicholas B; Kou, Kou; Erion, Derek M; Coskran, Timothy; Bobrowski, Walter F; Okerberg, Carlin; Goodwin, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Dietary triglycerides (TG) are absorbed by the enterocytes of the small intestine after luminal hydrolysis into monacylglycerol and fatty acids. Before secretion on chylomicrons, these lipids are reesterified into TG, primarily through the monoacylglycerol pathway. However, targeted deletion of the primary murine monoacylglycerol acyltransferase does not quantitatively affect lipid absorption, suggesting the existence of alternative pathways. Therefore, we investigated the role of the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway in dietary lipid absorption. The expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT3) was examined throughout the small intestine. To evaluate the role for GPAT3 in lipid absorption, mice harboring a disrupted GPAT3 gene (Gpat3(-/-)) were subjected to an oral lipid challenge and fed a Western-type diet to characterize the role in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis. Additional mechanistic studies were performed in primary enterocytes. GPAT3 was abundantly expressed in the apical surface of enterocytes in the small intestine. After an oral lipid bolus, Gpat3(-/-) mice exhibited attenuated plasma TG excursion and accumulated lipid in the enterocytes. Electron microscopy studies revealed a lack of lipids in the lamina propria and intercellular space in Gpat3(-/-) mice. Gpat3(-/-) enterocytes displayed a compensatory increase in the synthesis of phospholipid and cholesteryl ester. When fed a Western-type diet, hepatic TG and cholesteryl ester accumulation was significantly higher in Gpat3(-/-) mice compared with the wild-type mice accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, a marker of liver injury. Dysregulation of bile acid metabolism was also evident in Gpat3-null mice. These studies identify GPAT3 as a novel enzyme involved in intestinal lipid metabolism.

  12. Characterization of a Novel Intestinal Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase Pathway and Its Role in Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Irani; Clark, Ronald W; Vera, Nicholas B; Kou, Kou; Erion, Derek M; Coskran, Timothy; Bobrowski, Walter F; Okerberg, Carlin; Goodwin, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Dietary triglycerides (TG) are absorbed by the enterocytes of the small intestine after luminal hydrolysis into monacylglycerol and fatty acids. Before secretion on chylomicrons, these lipids are reesterified into TG, primarily through the monoacylglycerol pathway. However, targeted deletion of the primary murine monoacylglycerol acyltransferase does not quantitatively affect lipid absorption, suggesting the existence of alternative pathways. Therefore, we investigated the role of the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway in dietary lipid absorption. The expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT3) was examined throughout the small intestine. To evaluate the role for GPAT3 in lipid absorption, mice harboring a disrupted GPAT3 gene (Gpat3(-/-)) were subjected to an oral lipid challenge and fed a Western-type diet to characterize the role in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis. Additional mechanistic studies were performed in primary enterocytes. GPAT3 was abundantly expressed in the apical surface of enterocytes in the small intestine. After an oral lipid bolus, Gpat3(-/-) mice exhibited attenuated plasma TG excursion and accumulated lipid in the enterocytes. Electron microscopy studies revealed a lack of lipids in the lamina propria and intercellular space in Gpat3(-/-) mice. Gpat3(-/-) enterocytes displayed a compensatory increase in the synthesis of phospholipid and cholesteryl ester. When fed a Western-type diet, hepatic TG and cholesteryl ester accumulation was significantly higher in Gpat3(-/-) mice compared with the wild-type mice accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, a marker of liver injury. Dysregulation of bile acid metabolism was also evident in Gpat3-null mice. These studies identify GPAT3 as a novel enzyme involved in intestinal lipid metabolism. PMID:26644473

  13. Six secrets of champagne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2015-12-01

    Popping open a bottle of champagne is one of life's great delights, but how much do you really know about the science behind this greatest of wines? Gérard Liger-Belair reveals his six favourite champagne secrets.

  14. Secret quality of love.

    PubMed

    Strachan-Hall, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Many of us can recite three Donabedian dimensions of the quality of care of structure, process and outcome. Recently, I was introduced to another of Avedis Donabedian's quotes about the 'secret quality of love'. PMID:27581908

  15. Crude glycerol combustion: particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and ...

  16. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Multifunctional Glycerol Polyhydroxyurethanes PHUs.

    PubMed

    Nohra, Bassam; Candy, Laure; Blanco, Jean-François; Raoul, Yann; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol carbonate acrylate is a 5-membered cyclic carbonate synthesized from glycerol that is used as a chemical coupling agent and has proven highly suitable for use in the synthesis of multifunctional polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs). The multifunctionality of the structure of PHUs is determined by the density of the carbon-amine groups generated by the Aza-Michael reaction and that of the urethane groups and adjacent primary and secondary hydroxyl groups generated by aminolysis. Glycerol carbonate acrylate is polymerized with polyfunctional mono-, di-, tri, and tetra-amines, by type-AB polyaddition, either in bulk or in solution, through stepwise or one-pot reaction strategies in the absence of added catalysts. These approaches result in the generation of linear, interchain, and crosslinked structures, through the polyaddition of linear and branched amines to the ethylene and cyclic carbonate sites of glycerol carbonate acrylate. The resulting collection of organic molecules gives rise to polyethylene amino ester PHUs with a high molar mass, exceeding 20,000 g·mol(-1), with uniform dispersity. PMID:27626401

  17. Toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol to mice: depression of thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, P.R.; Meuten, D.J.; King, M.W.; Tove, S.B.

    1987-10-01

    Mice given propylthiouracil, a thyroid inhibitor, and fed a diet containing a nontoxic level of rac-1(3)-palmitoyl glycerol showed the hypothermia and mortality expected for a toxic dose, but did not show these signs when linoleate or oleate was added to the diet. Loss of radioiodine from the whole animal and thyroid gland was slower when mice were fed the toxic palmitoyl glycerol diet than when fed the same diet containing 4% safflower oil. However, mice fed the two diets did not differ in the extent of the incorporation of radioiodine, and essentially all was bound to protein in each case. Follicular thyroid cells from mice fed the potentially toxic diet that contained unsaturated fat were normal in appearance. Conversely, cells from mice fed the toxic diet were smaller and more densely stained, showing evidence of glycoprotein inside the cell. These findings show that the thyroid gland is affected by the palmitoyl glycerol diet. However, the thyroid is not the only organ affected, because giving either thyroxine or triiodothyronine had no effect on the toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol.

  18. Genetically engineered rhamnolipid-producing organism for glycerol utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhamnolipid (RL) is a microbial glycolipid currently developed for industrial use as a biobased surfactant. It also possesses antimicrobial activity that is attractive for applications in sanitizing washes. Glycerol byproduct stream from biodiesel production is a promising low-cost substrate for m...

  19. Optimization process of tribenzoine production as a glycerol derived product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, Abdurrakhman, Rifianto, Y.; Abdullah, Hadiyanto, Samsudin, Asep M.; Annisa, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Tribenzoin is a derived product from glycerol that can produce from glycerol conversion via esterification process. The product can be used in the food industry, cosmetics industry, polymer industry and also can be used to improve the properties of adhesive materials and water resistance in the ink printer.In the other hand, it advantages is environmentally friendly andrenewable because it is not derived from petroleum. This paper discusses the effect of temperature and catalyst concentration for tribenzoin production. For the responses, yield and product composition were observed. Results showed that the highest yield achieved at optimal variable data processed using Central Composite Design (CCD) which is 63.64 temperature (°C), mole ratio of benzoic acidto glycerol is 3.644:1, and catalyst concentration 6.25% (wt% glycerol). Yield products produced 58.71%. FTIR analysis results showed that the samples contained the results of IR spectra wavelength 1761 cm-1 in the fingerprint region and 3165 cm-1 frequency region group. The existence of these two adjustments that fixed in the area is strong evidence that the compound is tribenzoin.

  20. Conversion of Phosphatidylcholine to PPosphatidylglycerol with phospholipase D and Glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphatidylglycerol (PtdGly) is a relatively rare phospholipid that is useful in lubricant applications. Recently glycerol has become available in large quantities as a byproduct of biodiesel production, allowing for the economical synthesis of PtdGly. The conversion of readily available phosphat...

  1. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, were determined in a 138-d feeding trial conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. Pigs were weaned at 21d of age and were fed a commercial starter-...

  2. Apparent digestible energy value of crude glycerol fed to pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent digestible energy of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight of 11.0 kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal corn...

  3. Efficient quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-05-01

    An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.

  4. Increasing the penetration depth for ultrafast laser tissue ablation using glycerol based optical clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Ilan; Subramanian, Kaushik G.; Martin, Chris; Yildirim, Murat; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-03-01

    Background: Deep tissue ablation is the next challenge in ultrafast laser microsurgery. By focusing ultrafast pulses below the tissue surface one can create an ablation void confined to the focal volume. However, as the ablation depth increases in a scattering tissue, increase in the required power can trigger undesired nonlinear phenomena out of focus that restricts our ability to ablate beyond a maximum ablation depth of few scattering lengths. Optical clearing (OC) might reduce the intensity and increase the maximal ablation depth by lowering the refractive index mismatch, and therefore reducing scattering. Some efforts to ablate deeper showed out of focus damage, while others used brutal mechanical methods for clearing. Our clinical goal is to create voids in the scarred vocal folds and inject a biomaterial to bring back the tissue elasticity and restore phonation. Materials and methods: Fresh porcine vocal folds were excised and applied a biocompatible OC agent (75% glycerol). Collimated transmittance was monitored. The tissue was optically cleared and put under the microscope for ablation threshold measurements at different depths. Results: The time after which the tissue was optically cleared was roughly two hours. Fitting the threshold measurements to an exponential decay graph indicated that the scattering length of the tissue increased to 83+/-16 μm, which is more than doubling the known scattering length for normal tissue. Conclusion: Optical clearing with Glycerol increases the tissue scattering length and therefore reduces the energy for ablation and increases the maximal ablation depth. This technique can potentially improve clinical microsurgery.

  5. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  6. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  7. Quantification of the ratio of positional isomer dilinoleoyl-oleoyl glycerols in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Jakab, A; Jablonkai, I; Forgács, E

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of fatty acids in a triacylglycerol is of great importance from nutritional, biochemical, quality and technological points of view. The ratio of triacylglycerol positional isomers containing two linoleic acid (18:2) and one oleic acid (18:1) moieties--namely, 1(3),2-dilinoleoyl-3(1)-oleoyl glycerol (LLO) and 1,3-dilinoleoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (LOL)--were quantified in grape seed, olive, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower and wheat germ oils by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/APCI-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Relative LOL contents (LOL/(LLO+LOL)) of the oils were calculated from the mass abundances of the [LL]+ and [LO]+ diacylglycerol fragment ions ([M+H-RCOOH]+) using a calibration curve. The calibration curve of the relative diacylglycerol mass abundances was measured in SIM mode. The relative LOL contents were found to be relatively consistent for each oil variety. The relative LOL content in grape seed, sunflower, pumpkin seed, soybean and wheat germ oils accounted for 44.2 +/- 2.6, 26.8 +/- 3.2, 16.7 +/- 4.6, 15.9 +/- 2.9 and 13.9 +/- 4.3%, respectively. Only olive oils contained practically 100% of the LLO isomer. These results indicate that the unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acids have 'non-random' distribution patterns in various oils.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and nanocomposite formation of poly(glycerol succinate-co-maleate) with cellulose nanowhiskers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel biodegradable polymer based on glycerol, succinic anhydride and maleic anhydride, poly(glycerol succinate-co-maleate), poly(GlySAMA), was synthesized by melt polycondensation and tested as a matrix for composites with cellulose nanowhiskers. This glycerol-based polymer is thermally stable as...

  9. Etherification of biodiesel-derived glycerol with ethanol for fuel formulation over sulfonic modified catalysts.

    PubMed

    Melero, Juan A; Vicente, Gemma; Paniagua, Marta; Morales, Gabriel; Muñoz, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study is focused on the etherification of biodiesel-derived glycerol with anhydrous ethanol over arenesulfonic acid-functionalized mesostructured silicas to produce ethyl ethers of glycerol that can be used as gasoline or diesel fuel biocomponents. Within the studied range, the best conditions to maximize glycerol conversion and yield towards ethyl-glycerols are: T=200 °C, ethanol/glycerol molar ratio=15/1, and catalyst loading=19 wt%. Under these reaction conditions, 74% glycerol conversion and 42% yield to ethyl ethers have been achieved after 4 h of reaction but with a significant presence of glycerol by-products. In contrast, lower reaction temperatures (T=160 °C) and moderate catalyst loading (14 wt%) in presence of a high ethanol concentration (ethanol/glycerol molar ratio=15/1) are necessary to avoid the formation of glycerol by-products and maximize ethyl-glycerols selectivity. Interestingly, a close catalytic performance to that achieved using high purity glycerol has been obtained with low-grade water-containing glycerol.

  10. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol...

  11. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol may be safely used...

  12. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol...

  13. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol...

  14. The Effect of Glycerol Ingestion on Performance during Simulated Multisport Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Christopher; Braakhuis, Andrea; Paton, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol-induced hyperhydration has been applied to endurance sport with limited success as a performance enhancement strategy. Glycerol has been used as a hyperhydrating agent, because it has been shown to be rapidly absorbed and osmotically active; therefore, the fluid intake with glycerol is distributed throughout the body. Hyperhydration with…

  15. Thermal and mechanical properties of glycerol-based polymer films infused with plant cell wall polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(glutaric acid-co-glycerol) films were produced by first synthesizing polymer gels from uncatalyzed polyesterification of glutaric acid to glycerol in toluene. Residual amounts of starting materials in the gel matrices were determined by gas chromatography (GC) to contain 15 percent glycerol and...

  16. Production of arabitol from glycerol: strain screening and study of factors affecting production yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycerol is a major byproduct from biodiesel production, and developing new uses for glycerol is imperative to overall economics and sustainability of the biodiesel industry. With the aim of producing xylitol and/or arabitol as the value-added products from glycerol, 214 yeast strains, many osmotole...

  17. Preparation, characterization, and properties of 1,2-isopropylidene glycerol carbonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utilization of excess glycerol supplies derived from the burgeoning biodiesel industry is of major importance to the oleochemical industry as the economic viability of the biodiesel and oleochemical industries are closely linked to glycerol prices. Carbonate compounds based on glycerol, such as...

  18. Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy Value of Crude Glycerol for Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted with laying hens to determine the AMEn value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol (87% glycerol, 9% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% Na, and 3,625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from a commercial biodiesel production facility (Ag Process...

  19. Efficient utilization of crude glycerol as fermentation substrate in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One refined and 2 crude glycerol samples were utilized to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682. Fermentation conditions were determined to efficiently utilize glycerol while maintaining PHB yields. A batch culture protocol including 1% glycerol and an aerati...

  20. Tryptophan interactions with glycerol/water and trehalose/sucrose cryosolvents: infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Dashnau, Jennifer L; Zelent, Bogumil; Vanderkooi, Jane M

    2005-04-01

    In order to correlate how the solvent affects emission properties of tryptophan, the fluorescence and phosphorescence emission spectra of tryptophan and indole model compounds were compared for solid sugar glass (trehalose/sucrose) matrix and glycerol/water solution and under the same conditions, these matrices were examined by infrared spectroscopy. Temperature was varied from 290 to 12 K. In sugar glass, the fluorescence and phosphorescence emission spectra are constant over this temperature range and the fluorescence remains red shifted; these results are consistent with the static interaction of OH groups with tryptophan in the sugar glass. In sugar glass containing water, the water retains mobility over the entire temperature range as indicated by the HOH infrared bending frequency. The fluorescence of tryptophan in glycerol/water shifts to the blue as temperature decreases and the frequency change of the absorption of the HOH bend mode is larger than in the sugar glass. These results suggest rearrangement of glycerol and water molecules over the entire temperature change. Shifts in the fluorescence emission maximum of indole and tryptophan were relatively larger than shifts for the phosphorescence emission-as expected for the relatively smaller excited triplet state dipole for tryptophan. The fluorescence emission of tryptophan in glycerol/water at low temperature has maxima at 312, 313, and 316 nm at pH 1.4, 7.0, and 10.6, respectively. The spectral shifts are interpreted to be an indication of a charge, or Stark phenomena, effect on the excited state molecule, as supported by ab initio calculations. To check whether the amino acid remains charged over the temperature range, the infrared spectrum of alanine was monitored over the entire range of temperature. The ratio of infrared absorption characteristic of carboxylate/carbonyl was constant in glycerol/water and sugar glass, which indicates that the charge was retained. Tryptophan buried in proteins, namely

  1. Rainbow smelt: the unusual case of cryoprotection by sustained glycerol production in an aquatic animal.

    PubMed

    Driedzic, William R

    2015-07-01

    Rainbow smelt flourish at -1.8 °C, the freezing point of sea water. An antifreeze protein contributes to freeze point depression but, more importantly, cryoprotection is due to an elevation in osmotic pressure, by the accumulation of glycerol. The lower the water temperature, the higher the plasma glycerol with levels recorded as high as 400 mmol l(-1). Glycerol freely diffuses out in direct relation to the glycerol concentration and fish may lose as much as 15% of their glycerol reserve per day. Glycerol levels decrease from a maximum in February/March while water temperature is still sub-zero. The decrease in glycerol may respond to a photoperiod signal as opposed to initiation which is triggered by low temperature. The initial increase in glycerol level is supported by liver glycogen but high sustained glycerol level is dependent upon dietary carbohydrate and protein. The metabolic pathways leading to glycerol involve flux from glycogen/glucose to the level of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) via the initial part of glycolysis and from amino acids via a truncated gluconeogenesis again to the level of DHAP. DHAP in turn is converted to glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) and then directly to glycerol. The key to directing DHAP to G3P is a highly active glycerol 3-P dehydrogenase. G3P is converted directly to glycerol via G3P phosphatase, the rate-limiting step in the process. The transition to glycerol production is associated with increased activities of enzymes at key loci in the top part of glycogenolysis/glycolysis. Curtailment of the final section of glycolysis may reside at the level of pyruvate oxidation with an inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) driven by increased levels of PDH kinase. Enzymes associated with amino acid trafficking are elevated as is the pivotal enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. PMID:25921795

  2. Disruption of Glycerol Metabolism by RNAi Targeting of Genes Encoding Glycerol Kinase Results in a Range of Phenotype Severity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wightman, Patrick J.; Jackson, George R.; Dipple, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila, RNAi targeting of either dGyk or dGK can result in two alternative phenotypes: adult glycerol hypersensitivity or larval lethality. Here we compare these two phenotypes at the level of glycerol kinase (GK) phosphorylation activity, dGyk and dGK-RNA expression, and glycerol levels. We found both phenotypes exhibit reduced but similar levels of GK phosphorylation activity. Reduced RNA expression levels of dGyk and dGK corresponded with RNAi progeny that developed into glycerol hypersensitive adult flies. However, quantification of dGyk/dGK expression levels for the larval lethality phenotype revealed unexpected levels possibly due to a compensatory mechanism between dGyk and dGK or RNAi inhibition. The enzymatic role of glycerol kinase converts glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate. As expected, elevated glycerol levels were observed in larvae that went on to develop into glycerol hypersensitive adults. Interestingly, larvae that died before eclosion revealed extremely low glycerol levels. Further characterization identified a wing phenotype that is enhanced by a dGpdh null mutation, indicating disrupted glycerol metabolism underlies the wing phenotype. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) exhibits a wide range of phenotypic variation with no obvious genotype-phenotype correlations. Additionally, disease severity often does not correlate with GK phosphorylation activity. It is intriguing that both human GKD patients and our GKD Drosophila model show a range of phenotype severity. Additionally, the lack of correlation between GK phosphorylation and dGyk/dGK-RNA expression with phenotypic severity suggests further study including understanding the alternative functions of the GK protein, could provide insights into the complex pathogenic mechanism observed in human GKD patients. PMID:24039719

  3. The Glycerol-Dependent Metabolic Persistence of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Reflects the Regulatory Logic of the GlpR Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Nikel, Pablo I.; Romero-Campero, Francisco J.; Zeidman, Joshua A.; Goñi-Moreno, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The growth of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 on glycerol as the sole carbon source is characterized by a prolonged lag phase, not observed with other carbon substrates. We examined the bacterial growth in glycerol cultures while monitoring the metabolic activity of individual cells. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, as well as the analysis of the temporal start of growth in single-cell cultures, revealed that adoption of a glycerol-metabolizing regime was not the result of a gradual change in the whole population but rather reflected a time-dependent bimodal switch between metabolically inactive (i.e., nongrowing) and fully active (i.e., growing) bacteria. A transcriptional Φ(glpD-gfp) fusion (a proxy of the glycerol-3-phosphate [G3P] dehydrogenase activity) linked the macroscopic phenotype to the expression of the glp genes. Either deleting glpR (encoding the G3P-responsive transcriptional repressor that controls the expression of the glpFKRD gene cluster) or altering G3P formation (by overexpressing glpK, encoding glycerol kinase) abolished the bimodal glpD expression. These manipulations eliminated the stochastic growth start by shortening the otherwise long lag phase. Provision of glpR in trans restored the phenotypes lost in the ΔglpR mutant. The prolonged nongrowth regime of P. putida on glycerol could thus be traced to the regulatory device controlling the transcription of the glp genes. Since the physiological agonist of GlpR is G3P, the arrangement of metabolic and regulatory components at this checkpoint merges a positive feedback loop with a nonlinear transcriptional response, a layout fostering the observed time-dependent shift between two alternative physiological states. PMID:25827416

  4. In vivo quantification of propylene glycol, glucose and glycerol diffusion in human skin with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Guo, Z. Y.; Wei, H. J.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.; Wu, G. Y.; Zhong, H. Q.; Li, L. Q.; Zhao, Q. L.

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of study is to quantify and compare diffusion of propylene glycol, glucose, glycerol in the human skin in vivo noninvasively. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was utilized in the functional imaging of optical cleaning agents for monitoring and quantifying the permeability coefficients (PCs) of them. Our experiments showed that the permeability coefficient of 40% propylene glycol from different subjects was averaged and found to be (2.52 ± 0.02) × 10-6 cm/s, the permeability coefficient of 40% glucose was (1.94 ± 0.05) × 10-6 cm/s, and the permeability coefficient of 40% glycerol was (1.82 ± 0.04) × 10-6 cm/s. The results indicated that the diffusion of propylene glycol solutions was faster than that of glucose solution, and the diffusion of glucose solutions was faster than that of glycerol solutions. The dependence of the permeability on the different hyperosmotic analytes could potentially be used in various basic science and clinical fields, such as optical clearing of tissues and cells as well as in clinical pharmacology.

  5. Simultaneous determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel by capillary electrophoresis using multiple short-end injection.

    PubMed

    Spudeit, Daniel Alfonso; Piovezan, Marcel; Dolzan, Maressa D; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Leal Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free glycerol (FG) and total glycerol (TG) in biodiesel by CE using a short-end multiple injection (SE/MI) configuration system is described. The sample preparation for FG involves the extraction of glycerol with water and for TG a saponification reaction is carried out followed by extraction as in the case of FG. The glycerol extracted in both cases is submitted to periodate oxidation and the iodate ions formed are measured on a CE-SE/MI system. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that no analytical procedure has been previously reported for the determination of TG (or of FG and TG simultaneously) by CE. The optimum conditions for the saponification/extraction process were 1.25% KOH and 25°C, with a time of only 5 min, and biodiesel mass in the range of 50.0-200.0 mg can be used. Multiple injections were performed hydrodynamically with negative pressure as follows: 50 mbar/3s (FG sample); 50 mbar/6s (electrolyte spacer); 50 mbar/3s (TG sample). The linear range obtained was 1.55-46.5 mg/L with R(2) > 0.99. The LOD and LOQ were 0.16 mg/L and 0.47 mg/L, respectively for TG. The method provides acceptable throughput for application in quality control and monitoring biodiesel synthesis process. In addition, it offers simple sample preparation (saponification process), it can be applied to a variety biodiesel samples (soybean, castor, and waste cooking oils) and it can be used for the determination of two key parameters related to the biodiesel quality with a fast separation (less than 30 s) using an optimized CE-SE/MI system.

  6. Simultaneous determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel by capillary electrophoresis using multiple short-end injection.

    PubMed

    Spudeit, Daniel Alfonso; Piovezan, Marcel; Dolzan, Maressa D; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Leal Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free glycerol (FG) and total glycerol (TG) in biodiesel by CE using a short-end multiple injection (SE/MI) configuration system is described. The sample preparation for FG involves the extraction of glycerol with water and for TG a saponification reaction is carried out followed by extraction as in the case of FG. The glycerol extracted in both cases is submitted to periodate oxidation and the iodate ions formed are measured on a CE-SE/MI system. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that no analytical procedure has been previously reported for the determination of TG (or of FG and TG simultaneously) by CE. The optimum conditions for the saponification/extraction process were 1.25% KOH and 25°C, with a time of only 5 min, and biodiesel mass in the range of 50.0-200.0 mg can be used. Multiple injections were performed hydrodynamically with negative pressure as follows: 50 mbar/3s (FG sample); 50 mbar/6s (electrolyte spacer); 50 mbar/3s (TG sample). The linear range obtained was 1.55-46.5 mg/L with R(2) > 0.99. The LOD and LOQ were 0.16 mg/L and 0.47 mg/L, respectively for TG. The method provides acceptable throughput for application in quality control and monitoring biodiesel synthesis process. In addition, it offers simple sample preparation (saponification process), it can be applied to a variety biodiesel samples (soybean, castor, and waste cooking oils) and it can be used for the determination of two key parameters related to the biodiesel quality with a fast separation (less than 30 s) using an optimized CE-SE/MI system. PMID:24310857

  7. Sodium-induced hyperhydration decreases urine output and improves fluid balance compared with glycerol- and water-induced hyperhydration.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Félix A; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Goulet, Eric D B

    2015-01-01

    Before 2010, which is the year the World Anti-Doping Agency banned its use, glycerol was commonly used by athletes for hyperhydration purposes. Through its effect on osmoreceptors, we believe that sodium could prove a viable alternative to glycerol as a hyperhydrating agent. Therefore, this study compared the effects of sodium-induced hyperhydration (SIH), glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) and water-induced hyperhydration (WIH) on fluid balance responses. Using a randomized, double-blind and counterbalanced protocol, 17 men (21 ± 3 years, 64 ± 6 kg fat-free mass (FFM)) underwent three 3-h hyperhydration protocols during which they ingested, over the first 60-min period, 30 mL/kg FFM of water with (i) an artificial sweetener (WIH); (ii) an artificial sweetener + 7.45 g/L of table salt (SIH); or (iii) an artificial sweetener + 1.4 g glycerol/kg FFM (GIH). Changes in body weight (BW), urine production, fluid retention, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma volume, and perceptual variables were monitored throughout the 3-h trials. After 3 h, SIH was associated with significantly (p < 0.05) lower hemoglobin, hematocrit (SIH: 43.1% ± 2.8%; GIH: 44.9% ± 2.4%), and urine production, as well as greater BW, fluid retention (SIH: 1144 ± 294 mL; GIH: 795 ± 337 mL), and plasma volume (SIH: 11.9% ± 12.0%; GIH: 4.0% ± 6.0%) gains, compared with GIH and WIH. No significant differences in heart rate or abdominal discomfort were observed between treatments. In conclusion, our results indicate that SIH is a superior hyperhydrating technique than, and proves to be a worthwhile alternative to, GIH.

  8. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers preserved in stalagmites: a new continental palaeothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, A. J.; Schouten, S.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to recover reliable temperature records is central to palaeoclimatic research, informing our understanding of the past and our models of the future. However, there is a need for new quantitative terrestrial temperature proxies. Here we present a novel palaeothermometer, combining molecular temperature proxies with the strong dating control and established environmental records provided by stalagmites. The results show good correlations between known and calculated temperatures, suggesting that the approach has considerable potential as a climatic proxy. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are microbial membrane lipids, which vary in structure with temperature and pH [1]. In the terrestrial realm, the focus is on bacterially derived GDGTs, which have been used to measure terrestrial organic matter input to aquatic deposits via the BIT index [2], and developed into a temperature related index (MBT/CBT) in soils and near-shore marine sediments (MBT/CBT), based upon the degree of branching and cyclicisation of the carbon skeleton [3]. Stalagmites form an ideal archive for terrestrial climate records, as they are stable, can be easily dated, and contain a number of environmental proxies (stable isotopes, trace elements, organic matter etc). Attempts have been made to develop inorganic temperature proxies in stalagmites, most recently using isotopic analysis of fluid inclusions. However, the use of organic temperature proxies in this context is largely unstudied. Thirty-eight stalagmite or stalactite samples from twenty-one sites around the world were analysed for their GDGT content. Calcite samples were cleaned and decalcified with HCl, and lipids extracted into dichloromethane via liquid-liquid extraction. Each extract was then prepared and analysed via HPLC-MS following Weijers et al. [3]. The results show low but usable levels of GDGTs in all but one sample. Peak size measurements were made for all recognised compounds associated with BIT and

  9. Glycerol extends lifespan of Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera) and protects against stressors.

    PubMed

    Snell, Terry W; Johnston, Rachel K

    2014-09-01

    Diet has profound effects on animal longevity and manipulation of nutrient sensing pathways is one of the primary interventions capable of lifespan extension. This often is done through caloric restriction (CR) and a variety of CR mimics have been identified that produce life extending effects without adhering to the rigorous CR dietary regimen. Glycerol is a dietary supplement capable mimicking CR by shifting metabolism away from glycolysis and towards oxidative phosphorylation. Glycerol supplementation has a number of beneficial effects, including lifespan extension, improved stress resistance, and enhanced locomotory and mitochondria activity in older age classes. Using rotifers as a model, we show that supplements of 150-300mM glycerol produced 40-50% extension of mean lifespan. This effect was produced by raising glycerol concentration only three times higher than its baseline concentration in rotifer tissues. Glycerol supplementation decreased rotifer reliance on glycolysis and reduced the pro-aging effects of glucose. Glycerol also acted as a chemical chaperone, mitigating damage by protein aggregation. Glycerol treatment improved rotifer swimming performance in older age classes and maintained more mitochondrial activity. Glycerol treatment provided increased resistance to starvation, heat, oxidation, and osmotic stress, but not UV stress. When glycerol was co-administered with the hexokinase inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, the lifespan extending effect of glycerol was enhanced. Co-administration of glycerol with inhibitors like 2-deoxyglucose can lower their efficacious doses, thereby reducing their toxic side effects.

  10. Expression and functional studies of genes involved in transport and metabolism of glycerol in Pachysolen tannophilus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pachysolen tannophilus is a non-conventional yeast, which can metabolize many of the carbon sources found in low cost feedstocks including glycerol and xylose. The xylose utilisation pathways have been extensively studied in this organism. However, the mechanism behind glycerol metabolism is poorly understood. Using the recently published genome sequence of P. tannophilus CBS4044, we searched for genes with functions in glycerol transport and metabolism by performing a BLAST search using the sequences of the relevant genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as queries. Results Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to unveil the expression patterns of these genes during growth of P. tannophilus on glycerol and glucose as sole carbon sources. The genes predicted to be involved in glycerol transport in P. tannophilus were expressed in S. cerevisiae to validate their function. The S. cerevisiae strains transformed with heterologous genes showed improved growth and glycerol consumption rates with glycerol as the sole carbon source. Conclusions P. tannophilus has characteristics relevant for a microbial cell factory to be applied in a biorefinery setting, i.e. its ability to utilise the carbon sources such as xylose and glycerol. However, the strain is not currently amenable to genetic modification and transformation. Heterologous expression of the glycerol transporters from P. tannophilus, which has a relatively high growth rate on glycerol, could be used as an approach for improving the efficiency of glycerol assimilation in other well characterized and applied cell factories such as S. cerevisiae. PMID:23514356

  11. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained

  12. Effect of crude glycerol impurities on lipid preparation by Rhodosporidium toruloides yeast 32489.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhen; Ma, Yingqun; Wang, Qunhui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Juan; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Crude glycerol (byproduct of biodiesel preparation) was utilised as the carbon source to produce lipid using oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides 32489. Under the same conditions, lipid production with crude glycerol was higher than those produced with glucose and pure glycerol. The effects of 4 main impurities in crude glycerol (methyl oleate, sodium oleate, NaCl and methanol) on lipid production were investigated. Compared with utilising pure glycerol, addition of methyl oleate, sodium oleate, and NaCl impurities increased lipid production by 47.0%, 68.0% and 64.0%, respectively, while methanol decreased lipid production by 17.7%. However, when methanol was mixed with other impurities, its inhibition effect was alleviated due to the promoting effect of other impurities. Hence, crude glycerol could be used as a renewable and low-cost carbon source to replace pure glucose or glycerol for lipid preparation. PMID:27387413

  13. Effect of crude glycerol impurities on lipid preparation by Rhodosporidium toruloides yeast 32489.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhen; Ma, Yingqun; Wang, Qunhui; Zhang, Min; Wang, Juan; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Crude glycerol (byproduct of biodiesel preparation) was utilised as the carbon source to produce lipid using oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides 32489. Under the same conditions, lipid production with crude glycerol was higher than those produced with glucose and pure glycerol. The effects of 4 main impurities in crude glycerol (methyl oleate, sodium oleate, NaCl and methanol) on lipid production were investigated. Compared with utilising pure glycerol, addition of methyl oleate, sodium oleate, and NaCl impurities increased lipid production by 47.0%, 68.0% and 64.0%, respectively, while methanol decreased lipid production by 17.7%. However, when methanol was mixed with other impurities, its inhibition effect was alleviated due to the promoting effect of other impurities. Hence, crude glycerol could be used as a renewable and low-cost carbon source to replace pure glucose or glycerol for lipid preparation.

  14. Bi-functional biobased packing of the cassava starch, glycerol, licuri nanocellulose and red propolis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Samantha Serra; Druzian, Janice Izabel; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; de Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Guimarães, Alaíse Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4%) and glycerol (1.0%), reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0-1%) and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%). The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage.

  15. Bi-functional biobased packing of the cassava starch, glycerol, licuri nanocellulose and red propolis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Samantha Serra; Druzian, Janice Izabel; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; de Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Guimarães, Alaíse Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4%) and glycerol (1.0%), reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0-1%) and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%). The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage. PMID:25383783

  16. Bi-Functional Biobased Packing of the Cassava Starch, Glycerol, Licuri Nanocellulose and Red Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Samantha Serra; Druzian, Janice Izabel; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; de Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Guimarães, Alaíse Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4%) and glycerol (1.0%), reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0–1%) and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%). The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage. PMID:25383783

  17. Biochemical Methods to Analyze Wnt Protein Secretion.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Kathrin; Boutros, Michael; Gross, Julia Christina

    2016-01-01

    Wnt proteins act as potent morphogens in various aspects of embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. However, in addition to its physiological importance, aberrant Wnt signaling has been linked to the onset and progression of different types of cancer. On the cellular level, the secretion of Wnt proteins involves trafficking of lipid-modified Wnts from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and further compartments via the Wnt cargo receptor evenness interrupted. Others and we have recently shown that Wnt proteins are secreted on extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as microvesicles and exosomes. Although more details about specific regulation of Wnt secretion steps are emerging, it remains largely unknown how Wnt proteins are channeled into different release pathways such as lipoprotein particles, EVs and cytonemes. Here, we describe protocols to purify and quantify Wnts from the supernatant of cells by either assessing total Wnt proteins in the supernatant or monitoring Wnt proteins on EVs. Purified Wnts from the supernatant as well as total cellular protein content can be investigated by immunoblotting. Additionally, the relative activity of canonical Wnts in the supernatant can be assessed by a dual-luciferase Wnt reporter assay. Quantifying the amount of secreted Wnt proteins and their activity in the supernatant of cells allows the investigation of intracellular trafficking events that regulate Wnt secretion and the role of extracellular modulators of Wnt spreading. PMID:27590148

  18. Pathophysiology of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2004-02-01

    Defects in pancreatic islet beta-cell function play a major role in the development of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a more or less rapid destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and the autoimmune process begins years before the beta-cell destruction becomes complete, thereby providing a window of opportunity for intervention. During the preclinical period and early after diagnosis, much of the insulin deficiency may be the result of functional inhibition of insulin secretion that may be at least partially and transiently reversible. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a progressive loss of beta-cell function throughout the course of the disease. The pattern of loss is an initial (probably of genetic origin) defect in acute or first-phase insulin secretion, followed by a decreasing maximal capacity of insulin secretion. Last, a defective steady-state and basal insulin secretion develops, leading to almost complete beta-cell failure requiring insulin treatment. Because of the reciprocal relation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, valid representation of beta-cell function requires interpretation of insulin responses in the context of the prevailing degree of insulin sensitivity. This appropriate approach highlights defects in insulin secretion at the various stages of the natural history of type 2 diabetes and already present in individuals at risk to develop the disease. To date none of the available therapies can stop the progressive beta-cell defect and the progression of the metabolic disorder. The better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease should lead to the development of new strategies to preserve beta-cell function in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Quantitative analysis of the fermentative metabolism of glycerol in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cintolesi, Angela; Clomburg, James M; Rigou, Venetia; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Availability, low price, and high degree of reduction have made glycerol a highly attractive and exploited carbon source for the production of fuels and reduced chemicals. Here we report the quantitative analysis of the fermentative metabolism of glycerol in Escherichia coli through the use of kinetic modeling and metabolic control analysis (MCA) to gain a better understanding of glycerol fermentation and identify key targets for genetic manipulation that could enhance product synthesis. The kinetics of glycerol fermentation in a batch culture was simulated using a dynamic model consisting of mass balances for glycerol, ethanol, biomass, and 11 intracellular metabolites, along with the corresponding kinetic expressions for the metabolism of each species. The model was then used to calculate metabolic control coefficients and elucidate the control structure of the pathways involved in glycerol utilization and ethanol synthesis. The calculated flux control coefficients indicate that the glycolytic flux during glycerol fermentation is almost exclusively controlled by the enzymes glycerol dehydrogenase (encoded by gldA) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (DHAK) (encoded by dhaKLM). In agreement with the MCA findings, overexpression of gldA and dhaKLM led to significant increase in glycerol utilization and ethanol synthesis fluxes. Moreover, overexpression of other enzymes involved in the pathways that mediate glycerol utilization and its conversion to ethanol had no significant impact on glycerol utilization and ethanol synthesis, further validating the MCA predictions. These findings were then applied as a means of increasing the production of ethanol: overexpression of glycerol dehyrdogenase and DHAK enabled the production of 20 g/L ethanol from crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, indicating the potential for industrial scale conversion of waste glycerol to ethanol under anaerobic conditions. PMID:21858785

  20. Microbial conversion of glycerol into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317(T).

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-07-01

    Microbial conversion of glycerol into functional bio-based materials was investigated, aiming to facilitate the utilization of waste glycerol. A basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, efficiently produced mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) as glycolipid biosurfactants from glycerol. The amount of MEL yield reached 16.3 g l(-1) by intermittent feeding of glycerol. PMID:17697987

  1. Biomass Pretreatment using Ionic Liquid and Glycerol Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynam, Joan Goerss

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable, sustainable resource that can replace or supplement fossil fuels use for liquid fuels and chemicals. However, its recalcitrant structure including interwoven cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin biomacromolecules is challenging to deconstruct. Pretreating biomass so that it can be converted to useful liquids dominates process economics. Many pretreatment methods exist, but most require hazardous chemicals or processing conditions. Many ionic liquids (ILs), salts molten below 100°C, can be used to deconstruct lignocellulosic biomass and are less hazardous than the volatile organic compounds typically used. While effective, relatively safe, and recyclable, ILs are expensive. To reduce costs, dilution with other safe compounds is desirable, if there is no impact on deconstruction efficiency. Glycerol, a food additive, is inexpensive and becoming even more so since it is a by-product of the burgeoning biodiesel industry. Use of glycerol as an additive or diluent for ILs is extensively evaluated in this work. Rice hulls are an abundant biomass, with over 100 million tons produced per year, but with little practical use. The IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium formate ([C2mim][O2CH] or EMIM Form) when mixed with an equal amount of glycerol has been shown to be effective in pretreating rice hulls. Ambient pressure, a pretreatment temperature of 110°C, and a reaction time of three hours produced rice hulls that could be enzymatically hydrolyzed to give reasonably good glucose and xylose yields considering the recalcitrance of this silica-armored biomass. The IL [C2mim][O2CH] was also effective when mixed with an equal amount of glycerol to pretreat loblolly pine, a fast-growing softwood. Loblolly pine was pretreated at 140°C for three hours to produce a solid rich in cellulose and hemicelluloses, while a lignin-rich product could be precipitated from the IL. Similar products were obtained from pretreatment with a mixture of 75% 1

  2. The effect of glycerol treatment on crab muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Papir, D

    1973-04-01

    1. Membrane constants of the closer muscle of the ghost crab, Ocypoda cursor, were determined before and after treatment in hypertonic glycerol solution and return to an artificial sea-water (A.S.W.) solution.2. Muscle contraction was abolished after return of the muscle to A.S.W.3. The membrane capacitance was reduced from 29.0 muF/cm(2) to 10.5 muF/cm(2).4. Other passive properties of the muscle membrane, not dependent on capacitance, were not changed.5. The presynaptic nerve, transmitter release, post-synaptic sensitivity to transmitter and ionic mechanisms of synaptic action were unaffected by glycerol treatment.6. More than 60% of the membrane capacitance/unit area is contributed by the complex tubular system.7. The tubular system in crustacea is necessary for excitation-contraction coupling.

  3. Modified silica-based heterogeneous catalysts for etherification of glycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Gholami, Zahra; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi Gholami, Fatemeh; Vakili, Mohammadtaghi

    2015-07-22

    The advent of mesoporous silicas such as MCM-41 has provided new opportunities for research into supported metal catalysis. The loading of metals into framework structures and particularly into the pores of porous molecular sieves, has long been of interest because of their potential catalytic activity. Stable heterogeneous mesoporous basic catalysts were synthesized by wet impregnation of MCM-41 with calcium nitrate and lanthanum nitrate. The surface and structural properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized using BET surface analysis, SEM and TEM. MCM-41 and modified MCM-41 were used in the solventless etherification of glycerol to produce diglycerol as the desired product. The reaction was performed at 250 °C for 8 h, and catalyst activity was evaluated. Catalytic etherification over the 20%Ca{sub 1.6}La{sub 0.6}/MCM-41 catalyst resulted in the highest glycerol conversion of 91% and diglycerol yield of 43%.

  4. Enhanced succinate production from glycerol by engineered Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, an engineered strain Escherichia coli MLB (ldhA(-)pflB(-)) was constructed for production of succinate from glycerol. The succinate yield was 0.37mol/mol in anaerobic culture, however, the growth and glycerol consumption rates were very slow, resulting in a low succinate level. Two-stage fermentation was performed in flasks, and the succinate yield reached 0.93mol/mol, but the succinate titer was still low. Hence, overexpression of malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase (PCK) from E. coli, and pyruvate carboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum in MLB was investigated for improving succinate production. Overexpression of PCK resulted in remarkable enhancement of glycerol consumption and succinate production. In flask experiments, the succinate concentration reached 118.1mM, and in a 1.5-L bioreactor the succinate concentration further increased to 360.2mM. The highest succinate yield achieved 0.93mol/mol, which was 93% of the theoretical yield, in the anaerobic stage. PMID:27371794

  5. Production of bioadditives from glycerol esterification over zirconia supported heteropolyacids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanhui; Zhu, Yulei; Gao, Xiaoqing; Mo, Tao; Zhu, Yifeng; Li, Yongwang

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of bioadditives for biofuels from glycerol esterification with acetic acid was performed over zirconia supported heteropolyacids catalysts using H(4)SiW(12)O(40) (HSiW), H(3)PW(12)O(40) (HPW) and H(3)PMo(12)O(40) (HPMo) as active compounds. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by N(2)-physisorption, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, NH(3)-TPD, FTIR of pyridine adsorption and H(2)O-TPD. Among the catalysts tested, HSiW/ZrO(2) achieved the best catalytic performance owing to the better combination of surface Brønsted acid sites and hydrothermal stability. A 93.6% combined selectivity of glyceryl diacetate and glyceryl triacetate with complete glycerol conversion was obtained at 120°C and 4h of reaction time in the presence of HSiW/ZrO(2). This catalyst also presented consistent activity for four consecutive reaction cycles, while HPW/ZrO(2) and HPMo/ZrO(2) exhibited distinct deactivation after reusability tests. In addition, HSiW/ZrO(2) can be resistant to the impurities present in bulk glycerol.

  6. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  7. Biliary lipid secretion.

    PubMed

    Hişmioğullari, Adnan Adil; Bozdayi, A Mithat; Rahman, Khalid

    2007-06-01

    The liver has many biochemical functions, of which one of the most important is bile formation. Bile is both a secretory and an excretory fluid and two of its most important functions are the delivery to the intestinal tract of: (i) bile acids to assist in fat digestion and absorption; and (ii) liver-derived metabolites of potentially toxic materials prior to their elimination from the body in the feces. Bile contains numerous solutes, including bile acids, phospholipids and cholesterol. Biliary lipids mainly consist of cholesterol and phospholipids and their secretion into bile is affected by the secretion of bile acids. Phospholipids and cholesterol are synthesized in the hepatocytes and are thought to be transferred via vesicle- and non-vesicle-mediated mechanisms into the bile canaliculus. Hepatocytes acquire biliary lipid by three pathways, which are biosynthesis, lipoproteins and existing molecules drawn from intracellular membranes, with the newly synthesized biliary lipid accounting for less than 20% of the total lipids. The hepatic determinants of biliary cholesterol elimination are not limited to total cholesterol homeostasis, but also concern biliary disease conditions, since excess biliary cholesterol secretion is involved in cholesterol gallstone formation, as well as being a major risk factor for gallbladder cancer. The purpose of this review was to highlight some of the major mechanisms involved in biliary lipid secretion.

  8. Cell type-specific activation of metabolism reveals that beta-cell secretion suppresses glucagon release from alpha-cells in rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Rui; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Tamura, Akira; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Yamada, Takahiro; Takei, Daisuke; Katagiri, Hideki; Endou, Hitoshi; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-02-01

    Abnormal glucagon secretion is often associated with diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanisms by which nutrients modulate glucagon secretion remain poorly understood. Paracrine modulation by beta- or delta-cells is among the postulated mechanisms. Herein we present further evidence of the paracrine mechanism. First, to activate cellular metabolism and thus hormone secretion in response to specific secretagogues, we engineered insulinoma INS-1E cells using an adenovirus-mediated expression system. Expression of the Na+-dependent dicarboxylate transporter (NaDC)-1 resulted in 2.5- to 4.6-fold (P < 0.01) increases in insulin secretion in response to various tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Similarly, expression of glycerol kinase (GlyK) increased insulin secretion 3.8- or 4.2-fold (P < 0.01) in response to glycerol or dihydroxyacetone, respectively. This cell engineering method was then modified, using the Cre-loxP switching system, to activate beta-cells and non-beta-cells separately in rat islets. NaDC-1 expression only in non-beta-cells, among which alpha-cells are predominant, caused an increase (by 1.8-fold, P < 0.05) in glucagon secretion in response to malate or succinate. However, the increase in glucagon release was prevented when NaDC-1 was expressed in whole islets, i.e., both beta-cells and non-beta-cells. Similarly, an increase in glucagon release with glycerol was observed when GlyK was expressed only in non-beta-cells but not when it was expressed in whole islets. Furthermore, dicarboxylates suppressed basal glucagon secretion by 30% (P < 0.05) when NaDC-1 was expressed only in beta-cells. These data demonstrate that glucagon secretion from rat alpha-cells depends on beta-cell activation and provide insights into the coordinated mechanisms underlying hormone secretion from pancreatic islets.

  9. Excess wing in glass-forming glycerol and LiCl-glycerol mixtures detected by neutron scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Gupta, S.; Arend, N.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.; Stingaciu, L.; Jalarvo, N.; Mamontov, E.; Ohl, M.

    2015-01-22

    The relaxational dynamics in glass-forming glycerol and glycerol mixed with LiCl is investigated using different neutron scattering techniques. The performed neutron spin echo experiments, which extend up to relatively long relaxation time scales of the order of 10 ns, should allow for the detection of contributions from the so-called excess wing. This phenomenon, whose microscopic origin is controversially discussed, arises in a variety of glass formers and, until now, was almost exclusively investigated by dielectric spectroscopy and light scattering. In conclusion, we show here that the relaxational process causing the excess wing can also be detected by neutron scattering, whichmore » directly couples to density fluctuations.« less

  10. A specific glycerol kinase induces rapid cold hardening of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-08-01

    Insects in temperate zones survive low temperatures by migrating or tolerating the cold. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a serious insect pest on cabbage and other cruciferous crops worldwide. We showed that P. xylostella became cold-tolerant by expressing rapid cold hardiness (RCH) in response to a brief exposure to moderately low temperature (4°C) for 7h along with glycerol accumulation in hemolymph. Glycerol played a crucial role in the cold-hardening process because exogenously supplying glycerol significantly increased the cold tolerance of P. xylostella larvae without cold acclimation. To determine the genetic factor(s) responsible for RCH and the increase of glycerol, four glycerol kinases (GKs), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PxGPDH) were predicted from the whole P. xylostella genome and analyzed for their function associated with glycerol biosynthesis. All predicted genes were expressed, but differed in their expression during different developmental stages and in different tissues. Expression of the predicted genes was individually suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNAs specific to target genes. RNAi of PxGPDH expression significantly suppressed RCH and glycerol accumulation. Only PxGK1 among the four GKs was responsible for RCH and glycerol accumulation. Furthermore, PxGK1 expression was significantly enhanced during RCH. These results indicate that a specific GK, the terminal enzyme to produce glycerol, is specifically inducible during RCH to accumulate the main cryoprotectant.

  11. Effect of Glycerol Water Binary Mixtures on the Structure and Dynamics of Protein Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Carri, Gustavo A.

    2014-01-01

    We have performed 20ns of fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of Hen Egg-White Lysozyme in 0, 10, 20, 30 and 100% by weight of glycerol in water to better understand the microscopic physics behind the bioprotection offered by glycerol to naturally occuring biological systems. The sovlent exposure of protein surface residues changes when glycerol is introduced. The dynamic behavior of the protein, as quantified by the Incoherent Intermediate Scattering Function, shows a non-monotonic dependence on glycerol content. The fluctuations of the protein residues with respect to each other were found to be similar in all water containing solvents; but different from the pure glycerol case. The increase in the number of protein glycerol hydrogen bonds in glycerol water binary mixtures explains the slowing down of protein dynamics as the glycerol content increases. We also explored the dynamic behavior of the hydration layer. We show that the short-length scale dynamics of this layer are insenstive to glycerol concentration. However, the long-length scale behavior shows a significant dependence on glycerol content. We also provide insights into the behavior of bound and mobile water molecules.

  12. Effect of glycerol-water binary mixtures on the structure and dynamics of protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Carri, Gustavo A

    2014-01-01

    We have performed 20 ns of fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of Hen Egg-White Lysozyme in 0, 10, 20, 30, and 100% by weight of glycerol in water to better understand the microscopic physics behind the bioprotection offered by glycerol to naturally occuring biological systems. The solvent exposure of protein surface residues changes when glycerol is introduced. The dynamic behavior of the protein, as quantified by the incoherent intermediate scattering function, shows a nonmonotonic dependence on glycerol content. The fluctuations of the protein residues with respect to each other were found to be similar in all water-containing solvents, but different from the pure glycerol case. The increase in the number of protein-glycerol hydrogen bonds in glycerol-water binary mixtures explains the slowing down of protein dynamics as the glycerol content increases. We also explored the dynamic behavior of the hydration layer. We show that the short length scale dynamics of this layer are insensitive to glycerol concentration. However, the long length scale behavior shows a significant dependence on glycerol content. We also provide insights into the behavior of bound and mobile water molecules.

  13. Regulation of glycerol metabolism in Enterobacter aerogenes NBRC12010 under electrochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Kouta; Yagishita, Tatsuo

    2009-06-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes NBRC12010 was able to ferment glycerol to ethanol and hydrogen gas. Fermentation of glycerol ceased in the stationary phase of growth, and it was activated by electrochemical reactions using thionine as an electron transfer mediator from bacterial cells to an electrode. Using resting cells of E. aerogenes NBRC12010 in only citrate buffer solution, the cells did not consume glycerol at all, but they could metabolize glucose. These results suggest that the regulation of glycerol metabolism occurred at enzymatic steps before glycolysis. In E. aerogenes NBRC12010, glycerol was metabolized via glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and then dehydroxyacetone kinase. The GDH-catalyzed reaction mainly depended on the ratio of NAD(+)/NADH. At a NAD(+)/NADH ratio of nearly 1 or less, it was substantially suppressed and glycerol metabolism stopped. When the ratio was higher than 1, GDH was activated and glycerol was metabolized. Thus, the reaction of glycerol metabolism depended on the balance of cellular NAD(+)/NADH. Exogenous NADH was oxidized to NAD(+) by electrochemical reactions with thionine. We proposed the activation mechanism of glycerol metabolism under electrochemical conditions.

  14. Overcoming the metabolic burden of protein secretion in Schizosaccharomyces pombe--a quantitative approach using 13C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tobias; Lange, Sabrina; Wilhelm, Nadine; Bureik, Matthias; Yang, Tae-Hoon; Heinzle, Elmar; Schneider, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Protein secretion in yeast is generally associated with a burden to cellular metabolism. To investigate this metabolic burden in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we constructed a set of strains secreting the model protein maltase in different amounts. We quantified the influence of protein secretion on the metabolism applying (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis in chemostat cultures. Analysis of the macromolecular biomass composition revealed an increase in cellular lipid content at elevated levels of protein secretion and we observed altered metabolic fluxes in the pentose phosphate pathway, the TCA cycle, and around the pyruvate node including mitochondrial NADPH supply. Supplementing acetate to glucose or glycerol minimal media was found to improve protein secretion, accompanied by an increased cellular lipid content and carbon flux through the TCA cycle as well as increased mitochondrial NADPH production. Thus, systematic metabolic analyses can assist in identifying factors limiting protein secretion and in deriving strategies to overcome these limitations.

  15. Enhancement of glycerol utilization ability of Ralstonia eutropha H16 for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Toshiaki; Mukoyama, Masaharu; Orita, Izumi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a well-studied bacterium with respect to biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), which has attracted attentions as biodegradable bio-based plastics. However, this strain shows quite poor growth on glycerol of which bulk supply has been increasing as a major by-product of biodiesel industries. This study examined enhancement of glycerol assimilation ability of R. eutropha H16 by introduction of the genes of aquaglyceroporin (glpF) and glycerol kinase (glpK) from Escherichia coli. Although introduction of glpFK Ec into the strain H16 using a multi-copy vector was not successful, a recombinant strain possessing glpFK Ec within the chromosome showed much faster growth on glycerol than H16. Further analyses clarified that weak expression of glpK Ec alone allowed to establish efficient glycerol assimilation pathway, indicating that the poor growth of H16 on glycerol was caused by insufficient kination activity to glycerol, as well as this strain had a potential ability for uptake of extracellular glycerol. The engineered strains expressing glpFK Ec or glpK Ec produced large amounts of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] from glycerol with much higher productivity than H16. Unlike other glycerol-utilizable wild strains of R. eutropha, the H16-derived engineered strains accumulated P(3HB) with no significant decrease in molecular weights on glycerol, and the polydispersity index of the glycerol-based P(3HB) synthesized by the strains expressing glpFK Ec was lower than those by the parent strains. The present study demonstrated possibility of R. eutropha H16-based platform for production of useful compounds from inexpensive glycerol.

  16. Possibility of analytical finding of glycerol caused by self-catheterization in doping control.

    PubMed

    Okano, Masato; Nishitani, Yasunori; Kageyama, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol is listed on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list as a masking agent principally because the administration of glycerol increases plasma volume and decreases the concentration of haemoglobin and the value of haematocrit in blood. Glycerol is a naturally occurring substance; therefore, the threshold is set as 1.0 mg/mL in the WADA technical document (WADA TD2013DL). In a WADA-accredited doping control laboratory, three doping control urine specimens collected from impaired athletes were determined to contain a high concentration of glycerol (>1.0 mg/mL); two of these specimens were considered adverse analytical findings (AAFs). Self-catheterization is necessary for athletes with neurological disorders such as neurogenic bladder dysfunction. We conducted a simple simulation of self-catheterization as an experimental test using urethral catheters with an antiseptic agent containing glycerol to confirm the influence of this antiseptic agent on the quantitative value of glycerol in doping control analysis. Some users employ a catheter with glycerol solution (ca. 1 mL) to avoid pain during use. The urine sample passed through such a catheter exhibited a glycerol concentration (4.94 mg/mL) greater than the threshold level. In September 2014, the threshold for glycerol will change from 1.0 to 4.3 mg/mL (WADA TD2014DL); however, a possibility exists for the quantitative value of glycerol in doping control analysis to exceed the threshold because of the use of an antiseptic agent containing glycerol for self-catheterization. The AAF for glycerol for impaired athletes, particularly those who participate in Paralympic sports, should account for the use of a catheter with glycerol.

  17. Flavor impacts of glycerol in the processing of yeast fermented beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangdong; Procopio, Susanne; Becker, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol contributes to the beverage body and fullness. Moreover, it also influences the flavor intensity. As a major byproduct, glycerol not only serves critical roles in yeast osmoregulation and redox balancing, but also acts as the carbon competitor against ethanol in alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, increasing glycerol yield benefits both the flavor and ethanol reduction for the fermented beverages. Glycerol yield has been elevated either by fermentation optimization or by yeast genetic modification. The fermentation optimizations reached maximum 14 g/L glycerol through screening yeast strains and optimizing fermentation parameters. Meanwhile the yeast overexpressing GPD1 (encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) produced up to 6 folds more glycerol for beer and wine. Except for glycerol improvement, the genetically modified yeasts accumulated dramatically undesirable compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetate and acetoin which are detrimental for beverage flavor. In comparison, the natural high glycerol producers showed strain-specific manner on the yeast-derived aroma compounds like volatile acids, fusel alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Temperature, sugar concentration, nitrogen composition, oxygen and pH-value, which influence glycerol biosynthesis, also obtained various effects on the production of aromatic compounds. In the current review, we firstly deliberate the organoleptic contributions of glycerol for fermented beverages. Furthermore, glycerol optimization strategies are discussed regarding to the yield improvement, the genes expressions, the overall flavor impacts and the feasibilities in beverage applications. Lastly, for improving beverage flavor by glycerol optimization, a high-throughput platform is proposed to increase the screening capacity of yeast strains and parameters in the processing of fermented beverages. PMID:26604336

  18. Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

    1988-12-01

    Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P < 0.05). An extender was developed to freeze ram semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for

  19. Methylation and cyclisation of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers as temperature and pH proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaga, C. I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Schouten, S.; Lotter, A.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

    2009-04-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0 to 2 cyclopentyl moieties were initially detected in peat deposits [1]. Through the analysis of a global set of soils samples Weijers et al. [2] showed that these GDGTs, probably of bacterial origin, are produced in situ in these soils. Rivers and direct run-off transport these compounds, together with other soil organic matter, to marine [3] and lake sediments [4, 5]. Recently, Weijers et al. [6] defined two indices that are based on branched GDGTs that are distinctively influenced by two environmental factors. The cyclisation ratio of the branched tetraethers (CBT) is related to soil pH and the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) is related to temperature and soil pH. Lake sediments are often used for reconstructing past climatic changes. The presence of branched GDGTs in lake sediments potentially allows reconstruction of temperature and pH of the lake drainage area. We performed organic geochemical analyses on a series of surface sediments from 82 lakes characterised by variable amounts of soil organic matter and from different geographical locations to establish the application of the MBT/CBT as a continental palaeothermometer. Results show that in all of the 82 lakes substantial amounts of branched GDGTs are present (0.1-28% of total GDGTs). Besides the branched GDGTs crenarchaeol was also found in appreciable amounts (on average 23% of the total GDGTs). In the lakes from the northern hemisphere in fact the dominant GDGT is crenarchaeol (38% of total GDGTs) followed by the pentamethylated branched GDGT. In the southern hemisphere on the other hand we observe the hexamethylated branched GDGT as the dominant GDGT and crenarchaeol is here ten times less abundant then in the north (on average 3% of total GDGTs only). The CBT, as defined by Weijers et al. [6], for the entire data set ranges from values close to 0 (0.14 for Lake Ohrid) to 1.7 (Lake Nyos). The MBT ratio, also as defined

  20. Cloning and characterization of a NAD+-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Candida glycerinogenes, an industrial glycerol producer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong; Fang, Huiying; Rao, Zhiming; Shen, Wei; Zhuge, Bin; Wang, Zhengxiang; Zhuge, Jian

    2008-08-01

    The osmotolerant yeast Candida glycerinogenes produces glycerol as a major metabolite on an industrial scale, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We cloned and characterized a 4900-bp genomic fragment containing the CgGPD gene encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase homologous to GPD genes in other yeasts using degenerate primers in conjunction with inverse PCR. Sequence analysis revealed a 1167-bp open reading frame encoding a putative peptide of 388 deduced amino acids with a molecular mass of 42 695 Da. The CgGPD gene consisted of an N-terminal NAD(+)-binding domain and a central catalytic domain, whereas seven stress response elements were found in the upstream region. Functional analysis revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae gpd1Delta and gpd1Delta/gpd2Delta osmosensitive mutants transformed with CgGPD were restored to the wild-type phenotype when cultured in high osmolarity media, suggesting that it is a functional GPD protein. Transformants also accumulated glycerol intracellularly and GPD-specific activity increased significantly when stressed with NaCl, whereas the S. cerevisiae mutants transformed with the empty plasmid showed only slight increases. The full-length CgGPD gene sequence including upstream and downstream regions has been deposited in GenBank under accession no. EU186536.

  1. Dielectric and specific heat relaxations in vapor deposited glycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Kasina, A. E-mail: wubbenhorst@fys.kuleuven.be; Putzeys, T.; Wübbenhorst, M. E-mail: wubbenhorst@fys.kuleuven.be

    2015-12-28

    Recently [S. Capponi, S. Napolitano, and M. Wübbenhorst, Nat. Commun. 3, 1233 (2012)], vapor deposited glasses of glycerol have been found to recover their super-cooled liquid state via a metastable, ordered liquid (MROL) state characterized by a tremendously enhanced dielectric strength along with a slow-down of the relaxation rate of the structural relaxation. To study the calorimetric signature of this phenomenon, we have implemented a chip-based, differential AC calorimeter in an organic molecular beam deposition setup, which allows the simultaneous measurement of dielectric relaxations via interdigitated comb electrodes and specific heat relaxation spectra during deposition and as function of the temperature. Heating of the as-deposited glass just above the bulk T{sub g} and subsequent cooling/reheating revealed a step-wise increase in c{sub p} by in total 9%, indicating unambiguously that glycerol, through slow vapour deposition, forms a thermodynamically stable glass, which has a specific heat as low as that of crystalline glycerol. Moreover, these glasses were found to show excellent kinetic stability as well as evidenced by both a high onset-temperature and quasi-isothermal recovery measurements at −75 °C. The second goal of the study was to elucidate the impact of the MROL state on the specific heat and its relaxation to the super-cooled state. Conversion of “MROL glycerol” to its “normal” (ordinary liquid, OL) state revealed a second, small (∼2%) increase of the glassy c{sub p}, a little gain (<10%) in the relaxed specific heat, and no signs of deviations of τ{sub cal} from that of normal “bulk” glycerol. These findings altogether suggest that the MROL state in glycerol comprises largely bulk-type glycerol that coexist with a minor volume fraction (<10%) of PVD-induced structural anomalies with a crystal-like calorimetric signature. Based on the new calorimetric findings, we have proposed a new physical picture that assumes the

  2. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  3. Robust hydrolysis of prostaglandin glycerol esters by human monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).

    PubMed

    Savinainen, Juha R; Kansanen, Emilia; Pantsar, Tatu; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Parkkari, Teija; Lehtonen, Marko; Laitinen, Tuomo; Nevalainen, Tapio; Poso, Antti; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jarmo T

    2014-11-01

    The primary route of inactivation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the central nervous system is through enzymatic hydrolysis, mainly carried out by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), along with a small contribution by the α/β-hydrolase domain (ABHD) proteins ABHD6 and ABHD12. Recent methodological progress allowing kinetic monitoring of glycerol liberation has facilitated substrate profiling of the human endocannabinoid hydrolases, and these studies have revealed that the three enzymes have distinct monoacylglycerol substrate and isomer preferences. Here, we have extended this substrate profiling to cover four prostaglandin glycerol esters, namely, 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2-2-glycerol (15d-PGJ2-G), PGD2-G, PGE2-G, and PGF2 α-G. We found that the three enzymes hydrolyzed the tested substrates, albeit with distinct rates and preferences. Although human ABHD12 (hABHD12) showed only marginal activity toward PGE2-G, hABHD6 preferentially hydrolyzed PGD2-G, and human MAGL (hMAGL) robustly hydrolyzed all four. This was particularly intriguing for MAGL activity toward 15d-PGJ2-G whose hydrolysis rate rivaled that of the best monoacylglycerol substrates. Molecular modeling studies combined with kinetic analysis supported favorable interaction with the hMAGL active site. Long and short MAGL isoforms shared a similar substrate profile, and hMAGL hydrolyzed 15d-PGJ2-G also in living cells. The ability of 15d-PGJ2-G to activate the canonical nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) signaling pathway used by 15d-PGJ2 was assessed, and these studies revealed for the first time that 15d-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2-G similarly activated Nrf2 signaling as well as transcription of target genes of this pathway. Our study challenges previous claims regarding the ability of MAGL to catalyze PG-G hydrolysis and extend the MAGL substrate profile beyond the classic monoacylglycerols. PMID:25140003

  4. Co-gasification of hardwood chips and crude glycerol in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Pordesimo, Lester O; Haryanto, Agus; Wooten, James

    2011-05-01

    Seeking appropriate approaches to utilize the crude glycerol produced in biodiesel production is very important for the economic viability and environmental impacts of biodiesel industry. Gasification may be one of options for addressing this issue. Co-gasification of hardwood chips blending with crude glycerol in various loading levels was undertaken in the study involving a pilot scale fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. The results indicated that crude glycerol loading levels affected the gasifier's performance and the quality of syngas produced. When crude glycerol loading level increased, the CO, CH(4), and tar concentrations of the syngas also increased but particle concentration decreased. Though further testing is suggested, downdraft gasifiers could be run well with hardwood chips blending with liquid crude glycerol up to 20 (wt%). The syngas produced had relatively good quality for fueling internal combustion engines. This study provides a considerable way to utilize crude glycerol. PMID:21435871

  5. Bioconversion of glycerol for bioethanol production using isolated Escherichia coli ss1

    PubMed Central

    Suhaimi, Sheril Norliana; Phang, Lai-Yee; Maeda, Toshinari; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production. PMID:24031858

  6. Value-added processing of crude glycerol into chemicals and polymers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaolan; Ge, Xumeng; Cui, Shaoqing; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Crude glycerol is a low-value byproduct which is primarily obtained from the biodiesel production process. Its composition is significantly different from that of pure glycerol. Crude glycerol usually contains various impurities, such as water, methanol, soap, fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable efforts have been devoted to finding applications for converting crude glycerol into high-value products, such as biofuels, chemicals, polymers, and animal feed, to improve the economic viability of the biodiesel industry and overcome environmental challenges associated with crude glycerol disposal. This article reviews recent advances of biological and chemical technologies for value-added processing of crude glycerol into chemicals and polymers, and provides strategies for addressing production challenges. PMID:27004448

  7. Electron beam irradiation of maltodextrin and cinnamyl alcohol mixtures: influence of glycerol on cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Khandal, Dhriti; Aggarwal, Manjeet; Suri, Gunjan; Coqueret, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The influence of glycerol on the electron beam-induced changes in maltodextrins-cinnamyl alcohol (CA) blends is examined with respect to its influence on the degree of chain scission, grafting, and cross-linking. The study is relevant to radiation-induced polysaccharide modification, specifically in the perspective of using blended starch as a thermoplastic material, where glycerol is commonly used as a plasticizer. In the absence of CA, glycerol protects maltodextrin from chromophore formation onto the main chain, but also induces more chain scission. The presence of CA provides efficient radiation-protection against scission. Glycerol is shown to affect the interaction between maltodextrin and CA, most likely in the form of an inclusion complex when glycerol is absent. The global behavior under radiation is therefore governed by the physical interactions between the blend constituents rather than on the role of glycerol role as a plasticizer, or as an OH˙ radical scavenger.

  8. Rheological properties of purified illite clays in glycerol/water suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenkova, I.; Malers, J.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies about rheological properties of clay-water suspensions, but no published investigations about clay-glycerol suspensions. In this work apparent viscosity of previously purified illite containing clay fraction < 2 μm and glycerol/water suspensions were investigated. Carbonates were removed by dissolution in hydrochloric and citric acids and other non-clay minerals were almost totally removed by centrifugation. All obtained suspensions behaved as shear-thinning fluids with multiple times higher viscosity than pure glycerol/water solutions. Reduction of clay fraction concentration by 5% decreased the apparent viscosity of 50% glycerol/water suspensions approximately 5 times. There was basically no difference in apparent viscosity between all four 50% glycerol/water suspensions, but in 90% glycerol/water suspensions samples from Iecava deposit showed slightly higher apparent viscosity, which could be affected by the particle size distribution.

  9. Supercooling and vitrification of aqueous glycerol solutions at normal and high pressures.

    PubMed

    Miyata, K; Hayakawa, S; Kajiwara, K; Kanno, H

    2012-10-01

    The supercooling and vitrification of aqueous glycerol solutions was studied at high pressures. Homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures (T(H)) were obtained for aqueous glycerol solutions of R=50, 30, 20, 12, and 10 (R: moles of water/moles of glycerol) up to 300MPa. The R=20 glycerol solution formed a glass above 200MPa at a cooling rate of 200°C/min, indicating that pressure enhances glass-formation of aqueous glycerol solutions. The (dT(g)/dP) values were obtained for vitrified aqueous glycerol solutions of R=3, 5, 10, and 20. These data can be used for the development of cryo-preservation liquids for living cells at high pressures.

  10. Telling stories: keeping secrets.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Joan M

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the reticence of some farm women to share their experiences with historians and how that desire to keep secrets collides with the desire by scholars to tell the stories of these women. It argues that scholars must continue to struggle with the issue of which stories to tell publicly and which to keep private. The author discusses her own experience telling stories about rural women in the 1970s and the need to give voice to the heritage of rural women, especially of groups that have feared revealing their experiences. She offers examples of historians of rural women who have successfully worked with formerly silenced populations and urges historians to continue to tell stories about these lives, to reevaluate what has been already learned, to ask new questions, and to discuss which secrets need to be shared.

  11. Cell secretion: an update.

    PubMed

    Jeremic, A

    2008-08-01

    This past decade has witnessed the publication of a flurry of scientific papers and reports on the subject of cell secretion, following discovery of a permanent plasma membrane structure termed 'porosome' and its determination as the universal secretory machinery in cells. This discovery has led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the secretory process, demonstrating that membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse at the porosome base to release their contents to the cell exterior. The regulated release of intravesicular contents during cell secretion is governed by dilation of the porosome opening to the outside, and the extent of vesicle swelling. In agreement, a great number of articles have been written and studies performed, which are briefly discussed in this article.

  12. Cell secretion: an update

    PubMed Central

    Jeremic, A

    2008-01-01

    This past decade has witnessed the publication of a flurry of scientific papers and reports on the subject of cell secretion, following discovery of a permanent plasma membrane structure termed ‘porosome’ and its determination as the universal secretory machinery in cells. This discovery has led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the secretory process, demonstrating that membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse at the porosome base to release their contents to the cell exterior. The regulated release of intravesicular contents during cell secretion is governed by dilation of the porosome opening to the outside, and the extent of vesicle swelling. In agreement, a great number of articles have been written and studies performed, which are briefly discussed in this article. PMID:18363838

  13. Bile Formation and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (~1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. PMID:23897680

  14. Catechin secretion and phytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Shail

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that the invasiveness of Centaurea stoebe is attributed to the stronger allelopathic effects on the native North American species than on the related European species, which is one of the unquestionable aspects of the “novel weapons hypothesis (NWH).” Studies originating from controlled to field conditions have shown that C. stoebe utilizes its biochemical potential to exert its invasiveness. The roots of C. stoebe secrete a potent phytotoxin, catechin, which has a detrimental effect on the surrounding plant species. Although, studies on catechin secretion and phytotoxicity represent one of the most well studied systems describing negative plant-plant interactions, it has also sparked controversies lately due to its phytotoxicity dosages and secretion effluxes. Previous reports negate the phytotoxic and pro-oxidant nature of catechin.1–3 In our recent study we have shown that catechin is highly phytotoxic against Arabidopsis thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. We also show that (±) catechin applied to roots of A. thaliana induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) confirming the pro-oxidant nature of catechin. In addition, activation of signature cell death genes such as acd2 and cad1 post catechin treatment in A. thaliana ascertains the phytotoxic nature of catechin. PMID:21057643

  15. Quantitative analysis of glycerol in dicarboxylic acid-rich cutins provides insights into Arabidopsis cutin structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weili; Pollard, Mike; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Ohlrogge, John

    2016-10-01

    Cutin is an extracellular lipid polymer that contributes to protective cuticle barrier functions against biotic and abiotic stresses in land plants. Glycerol has been reported as a component of cutin, contributing up to 14% by weight of total released monomers. Previous studies using partial hydrolysis of cuticle-enriched preparations established the presence of oligomers with glycerol-aliphatic ester links. Furthermore, glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferases (sn-2-GPATs) are essential for cutin biosynthesis. However, precise roles of glycerol in cutin assembly and structure remain uncertain. Here, a stable isotope-dilution assay was developed for the quantitative analysis of glycerol by GC/MS of triacetin with simultaneous determination of aliphatic monomers. To provide clues about the role of glycerol in dicarboxylic acid (DCA)-rich cutins, this methodology was applied to compare wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis cutin with a series of mutants that are defective in cutin synthesis. The molar ratio of glycerol to total DCAs in WT cutins was 2:1. Even when allowing for a small additional contribution from hydroxy fatty acids, this is a substantially higher glycerol to aliphatic monomer ratio than previously reported for any cutin. Glycerol content was strongly reduced in both stem and leaf cutin from all Arabidopsis mutants analyzed (gpat4/gpat8, att1-2 and lacs2-3). In addition, the molar reduction of glycerol was proportional to the molar reduction of total DCAs. These results suggest "glycerol-DCA-glycerol" may be the dominant motif in DCA-rich cutins. The ramifications and caveats for this hypothesis are presented. PMID:27211345

  16. Effects of modulation of glycerol kinase expression on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in human muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Montell, Eulàlia; Lerín, Carlos; Newgard, Christopher B; Gómez-Foix, Anna M

    2002-01-25

    Glycerol is taken up by human muscle in vivo and incorporated into lipids, but little is known about regulation of glycerol metabolism in this tissue. In this study, we have analyzed the role of glycerol kinase (GlK) in the regulation of glycerol metabolism in primary cultured human muscle cells. Isolated human muscle cells exhibited lower GlK activity than fresh muscle explants, but the activity in cultured cells was increased by exposure to insulin. [U-(14)C]Glycerol was incorporated into cellular phospholipids and triacylglycerides (TAGs), but little or no increase in TAG content or lactate release was observed in response to changes in the medium glycerol concentration. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of the Escherichia coli GlK gene (AdCMV-GlK) into muscle cells caused a 30-fold increase in GlK activity, which was associated with a marked rise in the labeling of phospholipid or TAG from [U-(14)C]glycerol compared with controls. Moreover, GlK overexpression caused [U-(14)C]glycerol to be incorporated into glycogen, which was dependent on the activation of glycogen synthase. Co-incubation of AdCMV-GlK-treated muscle cells with glycerol and oleate resulted in a large accumulation of TAG and an increase in lactate production. We conclude that GlK is the limiting step in muscle cell glycerol metabolism. Glycerol 3-phosphate is readily used for TAG synthesis but can also be diverted to form glycolytic intermediates that are in turn converted to glycogen or lactate. Given the high levels of glycerol in muscle interstitial fluid, these finding suggest that changes in GlK activity in muscle can exert important influences on fuel deposition in this tissue. PMID:11714702

  17. Anaerobic Fermentation of Glycerol in Paenibacillus macerans: Metabolic Pathways and Environmental Determinants▿

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Murarka, Abhishek; Campbell, Paul; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Paenibacillus macerans is one of the species with the broadest metabolic capabilities in the genus Paenibacillus, able to ferment hexoses, deoxyhexoses, pentoses, cellulose, and hemicellulose. However, little is known about glycerol metabolism in this organism, and some studies have reported that glycerol is not fermented. Despite these reports, we found that several P. macerans strains are capable of anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. One of these strains, P. macerans N234A, grew fermentatively on glycerol at a maximum specific growth rate of 0.40 h−1 and was chosen for further characterization. The use of [U-13C]glycerol and further analysis of extracellular metabolites and proteinogenic amino acids via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy allowed identification of ethanol, formate, acetate, succinate, and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) as fermentation products and demonstrated that glycerol is incorporated into cellular components. A medium formulation with low concentrations of potassium and phosphate, cultivation at acidic pH, and the use of a CO2-enriched atmosphere stimulated glycerol fermentation and are proposed to be environmental determinants of this process. The pathways involved in glycerol utilization and synthesis of fermentation products were identified using NMR spectroscopy in combination with enzyme assays. Based on these studies, the synthesis of ethanol and 1,2-PDO is proposed to be a metabolic determinant of glycerol fermentation in P. macerans N234A. Conversion of glycerol to ethanol fulfills energy requirements by generating one molecule of ATP per molecule of ethanol synthesized. Conversion of glycerol to 1,2-PDO results in the consumption of reducing equivalents, thus facilitating redox balance. Given the availability, low price, and high degree of reduction of glycerol, the high metabolic rates exhibited by P. macerans N234A are of paramount importance for the production of fuels and chemicals. PMID:19617389

  18. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol in Paenibacillus macerans: metabolic pathways and environmental determinants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Murarka, Abhishek; Campbell, Paul; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2009-09-01

    Paenibacillus macerans is one of the species with the broadest metabolic capabilities in the genus Paenibacillus, able to ferment hexoses, deoxyhexoses, pentoses, cellulose, and hemicellulose. However, little is known about glycerol metabolism in this organism, and some studies have reported that glycerol is not fermented. Despite these reports, we found that several P. macerans strains are capable of anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. One of these strains, P. macerans N234A, grew fermentatively on glycerol at a maximum specific growth rate of 0.40 h(-1) and was chosen for further characterization. The use of [U-13C]glycerol and further analysis of extracellular metabolites and proteinogenic amino acids via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy allowed identification of ethanol, formate, acetate, succinate, and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) as fermentation products and demonstrated that glycerol is incorporated into cellular components. A medium formulation with low concentrations of potassium and phosphate, cultivation at acidic pH, and the use of a CO2-enriched atmosphere stimulated glycerol fermentation and are proposed to be environmental determinants of this process. The pathways involved in glycerol utilization and synthesis of fermentation products were identified using NMR spectroscopy in combination with enzyme assays. Based on these studies, the synthesis of ethanol and 1,2-PDO is proposed to be a metabolic determinant of glycerol fermentation in P. macerans N234A. Conversion of glycerol to ethanol fulfills energy requirements by generating one molecule of ATP per molecule of ethanol synthesized. Conversion of glycerol to 1,2-PDO results in the consumption of reducing equivalents, thus facilitating redox balance. Given the availability, low price, and high degree of reduction of glycerol, the high metabolic rates exhibited by P. macerans N234A are of paramount importance for the production of fuels and chemicals. PMID:19617389

  19. Engineering of the glycerol decomposition pathway and cofactor regulation in an industrial yeast improves ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Tang, Yan; Guo, Zhongpeng; Shi, Guiyang

    2013-10-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of industrial ethanol production and its formation consumes up to 4 % of the sugar substrate. This study modified the glycerol decomposition pathway of an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to optimize the consumption of substrate and yield of ethanol. This study is the first to couple glycerol degradation with ethanol formation, to the best of our knowledge. The recombinant strain overexpressing GCY1 and DAK1, encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and dihydroxyacetone kinase, respectively, in glycerol degradation pathway, exhibited a moderate increase in ethanol yield (2.9 %) and decrease in glycerol yield (24.9 %) compared to the wild type with the initial glucose concentration of 15 % under anaerobic conditions. However, when the mhpF gene, encoding acetylating NAD⁺-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli, was co-expressed in the aforementioned recombinant strain, a further increase in ethanol yield by 5.5 % and decrease in glycerol yield by 48 % were observed for the resultant recombinant strain GDMS1 when acetic acid was added into the medium prior to inoculation compared to the wild type. The process outlined in this study which enhances glycerol consumption and cofactor regulation in an industrial yeast is a promising metabolic engineering strategy to increase ethanol production by reducing the formation of glycerol.

  20. Characteristics of droplets ejected from liquid glycerol doped with carbon in laser ablation propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Yuan, Zheng; Si-Qi, Zhang; Tian, Liang; Lu, Gao; Hua, Gao; Zi-Li, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    The characteristics of droplets ejected from liquid glycerol doped with carbon are investigated in laser ablation propulsion. Results show that carbon content has an effect on both the coupling coefficient and the specific impulse. The doped-carbon moves the laser focal position from the glycerol interior to the surface. This results in a less consumed glycerol and a high specific impulse. An optimal propulsion can be realized by varying carbon content in glycerol. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10905049) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 53200859165 and 2562010050).

  1. Microbial synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate from glycerol: gluconeogenesis, molecular weight and material properties of biopolyester.

    PubMed

    Tanadchangsaeng, Nuttapol; Yu, Jian

    2012-11-01

    Glycerol is considered as an ideal feedstock for producing bioplastics via bacterial fermentation due to its ubiquity, low price, and high degree of reduction substrate. In this work, we study the yield and cause of limitation in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production from glycerol. Compared to glucose-based PHB production, PHB produced by Cupriavidus necator grown on glycerol has a low productivity (0.92 g PHB/L/h) with a comparably low maximum specific growth rate of 0.11 h(-1) . We found that C. necator can synthesize glucose from glycerol and that the lithotrophical utilization of glycerol (non-fermentative substrate) or gluconeogenesis is an essential metabolic pathway for biosynthesis of cellular components. Here, we show that gluconeogenesis affects the reduction of cell mass, the productivity of biopolymer product, and the molecular chain size of intracellular PHB synthesized from glycerol by C. necator. We use NMR spectroscopy to show that the isolated PHB is capped by glycerol. We then characterized the physical properties of the isolated glycerol-based PHB with differential scanning calorimetry and tensile tests. We found that although the final molecular weight of the glycerol-based PHB is lower than those of glucose-based and commercial PHB, the thermal and mechanical properties of the biopolymers are similar. PMID:22566160

  2. Effect of crude glycerol-derived inhibitors on ethanol production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Sung Bong; Kang, Seong Woo; Han, Sung Ok; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2012-01-01

    In this study, ethanol production from pure and crude glycerol using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 was evaluated under anaerobic culture conditions. Inhibitory effects of substrate concentrations, pH, and salt concentrations were investigated based on crude glycerol components. Ethanol production was performed with pure glycerol concentrations ranging from 5 to 30 g/L to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration and osmotic pressure. The consumed glycerol was 5-14.33 g/L, and the yield of ethanol was higher than 0.75 mol ethanol/mol glycerol after 24 h of cultivation. To evaluate the inhibitory effects of salts (NaCl and KCl), experiments were performed with 0-20 g/L of each salt. Inhibitory effects of salts were strongest at high salt concentrations. The inhibitory effect of pH was performed in the pH range 4-10, and cell growth and ethanol production were highest at pH 5-6. Also, ethanol production was slightly inhibited at low concentration of crude glycerol comparison with pure glycerol. However, significant inhibitory effects were not observed at 1.5 and 2% crude glycerol which showed higher ethanol production compared to pure glycerol.

  3. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montner, P.; Stark, D. M.; Riedesel, M. L.; Murata, G.; Robergs, R.; Timms, M.; Chick, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  4. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time.

    PubMed

    Montner, P; Stark, D M; Riedesel, M L; Murata, G; Robergs, R; Timms, M; Chick, T W

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  5. Scattering of water from the glycerol liquid-vacuum interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, I.; Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.; Nathanson, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations of the scattering of D2O from the glycerol surface at different collision energies are reported. The results for the trapping probabilities and energy transfer are in good agreement with experiments. The calculations demonstrate that the strong attractive forces between these two strongly hydrogen bonding molecules have only a minor effect on the initial collision dynamics. The trapping probability is influenced to a significant extent by the repulsive hard sphere-like initial encounter with the corrugated surface and, only at a later stage, by the efficiency of energy flow in the multiple interactions between the water and the surface molecules.

  6. Production of d-Mannitol and Glycerol by Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    1968-01-01

    D-Mannitol has not so far been known as a major product of sugar metabolism by yeasts. Three yeast strains, a newly isolated yeast from soy-sauce mash, Torulopsis versatilis, and T. anomala, were found to be good mannitol producers. Under optimal conditions, the isolate produced mannitol at good yield of 30% of the sugar consumed. Glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, maltose, glycerol, and xylitol were suitable substrates for mannitol formation. High concentrations of yeast extract, Casamino Acids, NaCl, and KCl in media affected significantly the mannitol yield, whereas high levels of inorganic phosphate did not show any detrimental effect. PMID:5749751

  7. Use of molecular dynamics to assess the biophysiological role of hydroxyl groups in glycerol dyalkyl glycerol teraethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Carme; Costenaro, Lionel; Fietz, Susanne; Daura, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The cell membrane of some Archaea is constituted by lipids that span the whole membrane width and contain two alkyl chains bound by two glycerol groups (glycerol dyalkyl glycerol teraethers or GDGTs). These lipids confer stability to the membrane in mesophile to extremophile environments. Besides the more frequently studied isoprenoid archaeal lipids, both mono- and dihydroxy-GDGTs (OH-GDGT) have been recently reported to occur in marine sediments (1). OH-GDGTs contain up to two cyclopentane moieties and have been identified in both core and intact forms. In 2013, a correlation between OH-GDGTs and temperature was reported, with higher relative OH-GDGT abundances at high latitudes (2,3). The physiological function of the hydroxyl group in a GDGT is not yet known, but given the field results, it could be linked to an adaptation of the membrane to changes in temperature. For hydroxydiether lipid cores in methanogenic bacteria, it has been postulated that the hydroxyl group may alter the cell membrane properties: either extending the polar head group region or creating a hydrophilic pocket (4). It has also been suggested that the hydroxylation of the biphytany (l) moiety may result in enhanced membrane rigidity (1). To improve our understanding of the effect of the hydroxylation on physical properties of membranes, we performed molecular-dynamics simulations of GDGT membranes presenting and lacking these additional OH groups. This is an approach with a great development potential in the archaea lipid field, especially in relation to proxy validation. Our results indicate that the addition of an OH increases the membrane fluidity, thus providing an advantage in cold environments. We also observe a widening of the polar head group area, which could enhance transport. 1. Liu et al. 2012, GCA 2. Huguet et al. 2013, Org. Geochem 3. Fietz et al. 2013 4. Sprott et al. 1990. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 13735-13740.

  8. L (+)-lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 on biodiesel crude glycerol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given its availability and low price, glycerol derived from biodiesel industry has become an ideal feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A solution to reduce the negative environmental problems and the cost of biodiesel is to use crude glycerol as carbon source for microbial growth media in order to produce valuable organic chemicals. In the present paper, crude glycerol was used as carbon substrate for production of L (+)-lactic acid using pelletized fungus R. oryzae NRRL 395 on batch fermentation. More, the experiments were conducted on media supplemented with inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. Results Crude and pure glycerols were first used to produce the highest biomass yield of R. oryzae NRRL 395. An enhanced lactic acid production then followed up using fed-batch fermentation with crude glycerol, inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice. The optimal crude glycerol concentration for cultivating R. oryzae NRRL 395 was 75 g l-1, which resulted in a fungal biomass yield of 0.72 g g-1 in trial without lucerne green juice addition and 0.83 g g-1 in trial with lucerne green juice. The glycerol consumption rate was 1.04 g l-1 h-1 after 48 h in trial with crude glycerol 75 g l-1 while in trial with crude glycerol 10 g l-1 the lowest rate of 0.12 g l-1 h-1 was registered. The highest L (+)-lactic acid yield (3.72 g g-1) was obtained at the crude glycerol concentration of 75 g l-1 and LGJ 25 g l-1, and the concentration of lactic acid was approximately 48 g l-1. Conclusions This work introduced sustainable opportunities for L (+)-lactic acid production via R. oryzae NRRL 395 fermentation on biodiesel crude glycerol media. The results showed good fungal growth on crude glycerol at 75 g l-1 concentration with lucerne green juice supplementation of 25 g l-1. Lucerne green juice provided a good source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation, without needs for supplementation with inorganic nutrients

  9. Estrogen prevents increased hepatic aquaporin-9 expression and glycerol uptake during starvation.

    PubMed

    Lebeck, Janne; Gena, Patrizia; O'Neill, Heidi; Skowronski, Mariusz T; Lund, Sten; Calamita, Giuseppe; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2012-02-01

    In starvation, glycerol is released from adipose tissue and serves as an important precursor for hepatic gluconeogenesis. By unknown sex-specific mechanisms, women suppress the endogenous glucose production better than men and respond to metabolic stress with higher plasma glycerol levels. Hepatic glycerol uptake is facilitated by aquaporin-9 (AQP9), a broad-selectivity neutral solute channel, and represents an insulin-regulated step in supplying gluconeogenesis with glycerol. In the present study, hepatic AQP9 abundance was increased 2.6-fold in starved male rats as assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. By contrast, starvation had no significant effect on hepatic AQP9 expression in female rats. Coordinately, plasma glycerol levels remained unchanged with starvation in male rats, whereas it was increased in female rats. The different responses to starvation were paralleled by higher glycerol permeability in basolateral hepatocyte membranes from starved male rats compared with starved females. Ovariectomy led to a starvation-response pattern identical to that observed in male rats with increased hepatic AQP9 expression and unchanged plasma glycerol levels. In cultured hepatocytes, 17β-estradiol and the selective estrogen receptor α-agonist, propyl pyrazole triol, caused a decrease in AQP9 expression. Our results support that a sex-specific regulation of the hepatic glycerol channel AQP9 during starvation contributes to the higher plasma glycerol levels observed in women during fasting and possibly results in a lower cytosolic availability of glycerol. Furthermore, the sexual dimorphism in the hepatic handling of glycerol during starvation might be explained by 17β-estradiol preventing the starvation-induced increase in hepatic AQP9 abundance.

  10. Characterization of the CDP-2-Glycerol Biosynthetic Pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quan; Xu, Yanli; Perepelov, Andrei V.; Xiong, Wei; Wei, Dongmei; Shashkov, Alexander S.; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide (CPS) plays an important role in the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is usually used as the pneumococcal vaccine target. Glycerol-2-phosphate is found in the CPS of S. pneumoniae types 15A and 23F and is rarely found in the polysaccharides of other bacteria. The biosynthetic pathway of the nucleotide-activated form of glycerol-2-phosphate (NDP-2-glycerol) has never been identified. In this study, three genes (gtp1, gtp2, and gtp3) from S. pneumoniae 23F that have been proposed to be involved in the synthesis of NDP-2-glycerol were cloned and the enzyme products were expressed, purified, and assayed for their respective activities. Capillary electrophoresis was used to detect novel products from the enzyme-substrate reactions, and the structure of the product was elucidated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Gtp1 was identified as a reductase that catalyzes the conversion of 1,3-dihydroxyacetone to glycerol, Gtp3 was identified as a glycerol-2-phosphotransferase that catalyzes the conversion of glycerol to glycerol-2-phosphate, and Gtp2 was identified as a cytidylyltransferase that transfers CTP to glycerol-2-phosphate to form CDP-2-glycerol as the final product. The kinetic parameters of Gtp1 and Gtp2 were characterized in depth, and the effects of temperature, pH, and cations on these two enzymes were analyzed. This is the first time that the biosynthetic pathway of CDP-2-glycerol has been identified biochemically; this pathway provides a method to enzymatically synthesize this compound. PMID:20729354

  11. Substrate versatility of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing glycerol grown bacterial enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    Waste-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by bacterial enrichments generally follows a three step strategy in which first the wastewater is converted into a volatile fatty acid rich stream that is subsequently used as substrate in a selector and biopolymer production units. In this work, a bacterial community with high biopolymer production capacity was enriched using glycerol, a non-fermented substrate. The substrate versatility and PHA production capacity of this community was studied using glucose, lactate, acetate and xylitol as substrate. Except for xylitol, very high PHA producing capacities were obtained. The PHA accumulation was comparable or even higher than with glycerol as substrate. This is the first study that established a high PHA content (≈70 wt%) with glucose as substrate in a microbial enrichment culture. The results presented in this study support the development of replacing pure culture based PHA production by bacterial enrichment cultures. A process where mixtures of substrates can be easily handled and the acidification step can potentially be avoided is described.

  12. Dynamical and orientational structural crossovers in low-temperature glycerol.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Salman; Martin, Daniel R; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2016-07-01

    Mean-square displacements of hydrogen atoms in glass-forming materials and proteins, as reported by incoherent elastic neutron scattering, show kinks in their temperature dependence. This crossover, known as the dynamical transition, connects two approximately linear regimes. It is often assigned to the dynamical freezing of subsets of molecular modes at the point of equality between their corresponding relaxation times and the instrumental observation window. The origin of the dynamical transition in glass-forming glycerol is studied here by extensive molecular dynamics simulations. We find the dynamical transition to occur for both the center-of-mass translations and the molecular rotations at the same temperature, insensitive to changes of the observation window. Both the translational and rotational dynamics of glycerol show a dynamic crossover from the structural to a secondary relaxation at the temperature of the dynamical transition. A significant and discontinuous increase in the orientational Kirkwood factor and in the dielectric constant is observed in the same range of temperatures. No indication is found of a true thermodynamic transition to an ordered low-temperature phase. We therefore suggest that all observed crossovers are dynamic in character. The increase in the dielectric constant is related to the dynamic freezing of dipolar domains on the time scale of simulations.

  13. Dynamical and orientational structural crossovers in low-temperature glycerol.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Salman; Martin, Daniel R; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2016-07-01

    Mean-square displacements of hydrogen atoms in glass-forming materials and proteins, as reported by incoherent elastic neutron scattering, show kinks in their temperature dependence. This crossover, known as the dynamical transition, connects two approximately linear regimes. It is often assigned to the dynamical freezing of subsets of molecular modes at the point of equality between their corresponding relaxation times and the instrumental observation window. The origin of the dynamical transition in glass-forming glycerol is studied here by extensive molecular dynamics simulations. We find the dynamical transition to occur for both the center-of-mass translations and the molecular rotations at the same temperature, insensitive to changes of the observation window. Both the translational and rotational dynamics of glycerol show a dynamic crossover from the structural to a secondary relaxation at the temperature of the dynamical transition. A significant and discontinuous increase in the orientational Kirkwood factor and in the dielectric constant is observed in the same range of temperatures. No indication is found of a true thermodynamic transition to an ordered low-temperature phase. We therefore suggest that all observed crossovers are dynamic in character. The increase in the dielectric constant is related to the dynamic freezing of dipolar domains on the time scale of simulations. PMID:27575188

  14. Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

    2011-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and α-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 μmo l min−1 g−1) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally. PMID:21909232

  15. Crystal structure of substrate free form of glycerol dehydratase

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Der-Ing; Dotson, Garry; Turner, Jr., Ivan; Reiss, Lisa; Emptage, Mark

    2010-03-08

    Glycerol dehydratase (GDH) and diol dehydratase (DDH) are highly homologous isofunctional enzymes that catalyze the elimination of water from glycerol and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) to the corresponding aldehyde via a coenzyme B{sub 12}-dependent radical mechanism. The crystal structure of substrate free form of GDH in complex with cobalamin and K{sup +} has been determined at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution. Its overall fold and the subunit assembly closely resemble those of DDH. Comparison of this structure and the DDH structure, available only in substrate bound form, shows the expected change of the coordination of the essential K{sup +} from hexacoordinate to heptacoordinate with the displacement of a single coordinated water by the substrate diol. In addition, there appears to be an increase in the rigidity of the K{sup +} coordination (as measured by lower B values) upon the binding of the substrate. Structural analysis of the locations of conserved residues among various GDH and DDH sequences has aided in identification of residues potentially important for substrate preference or specificity of protein-protein interactions.

  16. Dielectric spectroscopy study of myoglobin in glycerol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Roy, Soham; Richert, Ranko

    2014-02-01

    Due to the interest in protein dynamics, there are numerous dielectric relaxation studies of proteins in water and in glass-forming aqueous solvents such as glycerol-water mixtures. In the regime of low frequencies, the inevitable dc-conductivity of such systems limits the resolution of dynamics that are slow compared with the solvent relaxation. Solutions of myoglobin in glycerol/water mixtures of various compositions are measured by dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range from 10mHz to 10MHz. The resolution of low frequency modes is improved by two approaches: electrical 'cleaning' and the analysis of the derivative of the real component of permittivity, which shows no direct signature of dc-conductivity. Effects of internal interfacial polarization are also addressed by measuring the same solvents in confinement as well as mixed with glass beads. We find two processes, the structural relaxation of the solvent and the slower rotational mode of the protein, with no indication at even lower frequencies of a dielectric signature of fluctuations associated with protein dynamics.

  17. Substrate versatility of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing glycerol grown bacterial enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    Waste-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by bacterial enrichments generally follows a three step strategy in which first the wastewater is converted into a volatile fatty acid rich stream that is subsequently used as substrate in a selector and biopolymer production units. In this work, a bacterial community with high biopolymer production capacity was enriched using glycerol, a non-fermented substrate. The substrate versatility and PHA production capacity of this community was studied using glucose, lactate, acetate and xylitol as substrate. Except for xylitol, very high PHA producing capacities were obtained. The PHA accumulation was comparable or even higher than with glycerol as substrate. This is the first study that established a high PHA content (≈70 wt%) with glucose as substrate in a microbial enrichment culture. The results presented in this study support the development of replacing pure culture based PHA production by bacterial enrichment cultures. A process where mixtures of substrates can be easily handled and the acidification step can potentially be avoided is described. PMID:25213684

  18. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface.

  19. Dynamical and orientational structural crossovers in low-temperature glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedi, Salman; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-07-01

    Mean-square displacements of hydrogen atoms in glass-forming materials and proteins, as reported by incoherent elastic neutron scattering, show kinks in their temperature dependence. This crossover, known as the dynamical transition, connects two approximately linear regimes. It is often assigned to the dynamical freezing of subsets of molecular modes at the point of equality between their corresponding relaxation times and the instrumental observation window. The origin of the dynamical transition in glass-forming glycerol is studied here by extensive molecular dynamics simulations. We find the dynamical transition to occur for both the center-of-mass translations and the molecular rotations at the same temperature, insensitive to changes of the observation window. Both the translational and rotational dynamics of glycerol show a dynamic crossover from the structural to a secondary relaxation at the temperature of the dynamical transition. A significant and discontinuous increase in the orientational Kirkwood factor and in the dielectric constant is observed in the same range of temperatures. No indication is found of a true thermodynamic transition to an ordered low-temperature phase. We therefore suggest that all observed crossovers are dynamic in character. The increase in the dielectric constant is related to the dynamic freezing of dipolar domains on the time scale of simulations.

  20. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface. PMID:24671023

  1. Glass polymorphism in glycerol-water mixtures: II. Experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Bachler, Johannes; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Jahn, David A; Wong, Jessina; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Loerting, Thomas

    2016-04-28

    We report a detailed experimental study of (i) pressure-induced transformations in glycerol-water mixtures at T = 77 K and P = 0-1.8 GPa, and (ii) heating-induced transformations of glycerol-water mixtures recovered at 1 atm and T = 77 K. Our samples are prepared by cooling the solutions at ambient pressure at various cooling rates (100 K s(-1)-10 K h(-1)) and for the whole range of glycerol mole fractions, χ(g). Depending on concentration and cooling rates, cooling leads to samples containing amorphous ice (χg ≥ 0.20), ice (χ(g) ≤ 0.32), and/or "distorted ice" (0 < χ(g) ≤ 0.38). Upon compression, we find that (a) fully vitrified samples at χ(g) ≥ 0.20 do not show glass polymorphism, in agreement with previous works; (b) samples containing ice show pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) leading to the formation of high-density amorphous ice (HDA). PIA of ice domains within the glycerol-water mixtures is shown to be possible only up to χ(g) ≈ 0.32 (T = 77 K). This is rather surprising since it has been known that at χ(g) < 0.38, cooling leads to phase-separated samples with ice and maximally freeze-concentrated solution of χ(g) ≈ 0.38. Accordingly, in the range 0.32 < χ(g) < 0.38, we suggest that the water domains freeze into an interfacial ice, i.e., a highly-distorted form of layered ice, which is unable to transform to HDA upon compression. Upon heating samples recovered at 1 atm, we observe a rich phase behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry indicates that only at χ(g) ≤ 0.15, the water domains within the sample exhibit polyamorphism, i.e., the HDA-to-LDA (low-density amorphous ice) transformation. At 0.15 < χ(g) ≤ 0.38, samples contain ice, interfacial ice, and/or HDA domains. All samples (χ(g) ≤ 0.38) show: the crystallization of amorphous ice domains, followed by the glass transition of the vitrified glycerol-water domains and, finally, the melting of ice at high temperatures. Our work exemplifies the complex "phase" behavior

  2. Glass polymorphism in glycerol-water mixtures: II. Experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Bachler, Johannes; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Jahn, David A; Wong, Jessina; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Loerting, Thomas

    2016-04-28

    We report a detailed experimental study of (i) pressure-induced transformations in glycerol-water mixtures at T = 77 K and P = 0-1.8 GPa, and (ii) heating-induced transformations of glycerol-water mixtures recovered at 1 atm and T = 77 K. Our samples are prepared by cooling the solutions at ambient pressure at various cooling rates (100 K s(-1)-10 K h(-1)) and for the whole range of glycerol mole fractions, χ(g). Depending on concentration and cooling rates, cooling leads to samples containing amorphous ice (χg ≥ 0.20), ice (χ(g) ≤ 0.32), and/or "distorted ice" (0 < χ(g) ≤ 0.38). Upon compression, we find that (a) fully vitrified samples at χ(g) ≥ 0.20 do not show glass polymorphism, in agreement with previous works; (b) samples containing ice show pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) leading to the formation of high-density amorphous ice (HDA). PIA of ice domains within the glycerol-water mixtures is shown to be possible only up to χ(g) ≈ 0.32 (T = 77 K). This is rather surprising since it has been known that at χ(g) < 0.38, cooling leads to phase-separated samples with ice and maximally freeze-concentrated solution of χ(g) ≈ 0.38. Accordingly, in the range 0.32 < χ(g) < 0.38, we suggest that the water domains freeze into an interfacial ice, i.e., a highly-distorted form of layered ice, which is unable to transform to HDA upon compression. Upon heating samples recovered at 1 atm, we observe a rich phase behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry indicates that only at χ(g) ≤ 0.15, the water domains within the sample exhibit polyamorphism, i.e., the HDA-to-LDA (low-density amorphous ice) transformation. At 0.15 < χ(g) ≤ 0.38, samples contain ice, interfacial ice, and/or HDA domains. All samples (χ(g) ≤ 0.38) show: the crystallization of amorphous ice domains, followed by the glass transition of the vitrified glycerol-water domains and, finally, the melting of ice at high temperatures. Our work exemplifies the complex "phase" behavior

  3. Neuropeptides and nasal secretion.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, J N; Kaliner, M

    1991-10-01

    The nasal mucosa is innervated by the sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems. Nociceptive sensory nerves are stimulated by mucosal injury, inhalation of irritants, or mast cell degranulation and release of the calcitonin gene-related peptide, the tachykinins substance P and neurokinin A, and other peptides by the axon response mechanism. Sensory nerve stimulation initiates systemic reflexes, such as the sneeze, and central parasympathetic reflexes which release acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and other peptides and lead to glandular secretion. In concert, these proinflammatory neural responses lead to vasodilation, vascular permeability, and glandular secretion. Sympathetic nerves release neuropeptide Y and norepinephrine, potent vasoconstrictors which act to decompress the nasal mucosa and produce nasal patency. The balance between the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic neurotransmitters may regulate nasal homeostasis, whereas the nociceptive sensory system may be held in reserve as a defense mechanism. Dysfunction of these systems may lead to pathological nasal syndromes. In the future, specific neuropeptide agonists and antagonists may be useful for the treatment of human rhinitic diseases. PMID:1928355

  4. Metabolic Engineering of a Glycerol-Oxidative Pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for Utilization of Bioethanol Thin Stillage: Potential To Produce Platform Chemicals from Glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. PMID:25281374

  5. The Lewis-acid-catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched poly(glycerol-diacid)s in toluene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first examples of monomeric glycerol-derived hyperbranched polyesters produced in a non-polar solvent system are reported here. The polymers were made by the Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide)-catalyzed polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutari...

  6. Degree of branching in hyperbranched poly(glycerol-co-diacid)s synthesized in toluene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperbranched polymers were synthesized by using a Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide) to catalyze the polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutaric acid (n=3) or azelaic acid (n=7) in toluene. These are the first examples of diacid-glycerol hyperbranc...

  7. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Petousi, I.; Manios, T.

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 {sup o}C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106 {+-} 36 ml CH{sub 4}/d before the addition of glycerol and 2353 {+-} 94 ml CH{sub 4}/d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate ({mu}{sub max}) and the saturation constant (K{sub S}) of glycerol were 0.149 {+-} 0.015 h{sup -1} and 0.276 {+-} 0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process.

  8. Production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol by recombinant Pseudomonas denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfang; Catherine, Christy; Rathnasingh, Chelladurai; Somasundar, Ashok; Park, Sunghoon

    2013-12-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) can be produced from glycerol through two sequential enzymatic reactions that are catalyzed by a coenzyme B12 -dependent glycerol dehydratase and an NAD(P)(+) -dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), respectively. Pseudomonas denitrificans synthesizes coenzyme B12 under aerobic conditions, where NAD(P)(+) is regenerated efficiently. Hence, it is considered an ideal host for the production of 3-HP from glycerol under aerobic conditions. In this study, recombinant strains of P. denitrificans were developed and their potential for the production of 3-HP from glycerol was evaluated. When the enzymes, glycerol dehydratase (DhaB) and glycerol dehydratase reactivase (GdrAB), of Klebsiella pneumoniae were expressed heterologously, P. denitrificans could produce 3-HP at 37.7 mmol/L with 62% (mol/mol) yield on glycerol. Glucose was required as the carbon and energy sources for cell growth. The overexpression of heterologous ALDH was not essential; however, the titer and yield of 3-HP were improved to 54.7 mmol/L and 67% (mol/mol), respectively, when an ALDH gene (puuC) from K. pneumoniae was overexpressed. One serious drawback hindering the use of P. denitrificans as a recombinant host for 3-HP production is that it oxidizes 3-HP to malonate and utilizes 3-HP as a carbon source for growth. This is the first report on the development and use of recombinant P. denitrificans for 3-HP production from glycerol.

  9. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol...

  10. Synthesis of biodiesel fuel additives from glycerol using green chemistry and supercritical fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For every 3 moles of fatty acid esters produced, 1 mole of glycerol remains, ~11% of the biodiesel volume. One new method of glycerol use could be as a biodiesel fuel additive/extender using eco-friendly heterogeneous catalysts and supercritical fluids (SFs). SFs have advantages such as greater diff...

  11. Utilization of Crude Glycerol as a Substrate for the Production of Rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Eraqi, Walaa A.; Yassin, Aymen S.; Ali, Amal E.; Amin, Magdy A.

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by bacteria or yeast utilizing different substrates as sugars, glycerol, or oils. They have important applications in the detergent, oil, and pharmaceutical industries. Glycerol is the product of biodiesel industry and the existing glycerol market cannot accommodate the excess amounts generated; consequently, new markets for refined glycerol need to be developed. The aim of present work is to optimize the production of microbial rhamnolipid using waste glycerol. We have developed a process for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants using glycerol as the sole carbon source by a local Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate that was obtained from an extensive screening program. A factorial design was applied with the goal of optimizing the rhamnolipid production. The highest production yield was obtained after 2 days when cells were grown in minimal salt media at pH 6, containing 1% (v/v) glycerol and 2% (w/v) sodium nitrate as nitrogen source, at 37°C and at 180 rpm, and reached 2.164 g/L after 54 hours (0.04 g/L h). Analysis of the produced rhamnolipids by TLC, HPLC, and FTIR confirmed the nature of the biosurfactant as monorhamnolipid. Glycerol can serve as a source for the production of rhamnolipid from microbial isolates providing a cheap and reliable substrate. PMID:26942014

  12. Green synthesis of noble nanometals (Au, Pt, Pd) using glycerol under microwave irradiation conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newer application of glycerol in the field of nanomaterials synthesis has been developed from both the economic and environmental points of view. Glycerol can act as a reducing agent for the fabrication of noble nanometals, such as Au, Pt, and Pd, under microwave irradiation. T...

  13. Study of combined effects of Glycerol and Transglutaminase on properties of gelatin films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gelatin films plasticized with different glycerol contents (0-40%) were cross-linked using transglutaminase (TGase). Unmodified films were prepared as controls. Cross-linking degree of the films decreased linearly with increasing glycerol content, resulting in an increase in water solubility. Glycer...

  14. Microstructure and molecular interaction in glycerol plasticized chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blending films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/chitosan (CS) blended films plasticized by glycerol were investigated using mechanical testing, atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FTIR spectroscopy, with primary emphasis on the effects of the glycerol content and the molecular weig...

  15. Modeling mechanisms of cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Osinga, Hinke M; Tabak, Joël; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2010-12-01

    Secretion is a fundamental cellular process involving the regulated release of intracellular products from cells. Physiological functions such as neurotransmission, or the release of hormones and digestive enzymes, are all governed by cell secretion. Anomalies in the processes involved in secretion contribute to the development and progression of diseases such as diabetes and other hormonal disorders. To unravel the mechanisms that govern such diseases, it is essential to understand how hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters are synthesized and processed, and how their signals are recognized, amplified and transmitted by intracellular signaling pathways in the target cells. Here, we discuss diverse aspects of the detailed mechanisms involved in secretion based on mathematical models. The models range from stochastic ones describing the trafficking of secretory vesicles to deterministic ones investigating the regulation of cellular processes that underlie hormonal secretion. In all cases, the models are closely related to experimental results and suggest theoretical predictions for the secretion mechanisms.

  16. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    PubMed

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. PMID:25986591

  17. Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol Lipase Activity Decreases Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in INS-1 (832/13) Cells and Rat Islets.

    PubMed

    Berdan, Charles A; Erion, Karel A; Burritt, Nathan E; Corkey, Barbara E; Deeney, Jude T

    2016-01-01

    Lipid signals derived from lipolysis and membrane phospholipids play an important role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), though the exact secondary signals remain unclear. Previous reports have documented a stimulatory role of exogenously added mono-acyl-glycerol (MAG) on insulin secretion from cultured β-cells and islets. In this report we have determined effects of increasing intracellular MAG in the β-cell by inhibiting mono-acyl-glycerol lipase (MGL) activity, which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol breakdown, namely the hydrolysis of MAG to glycerol and free fatty acid (FA). To determine the role of MGL in GSIS, we used three different pharmacological agents (JZL184, MJN110 and URB602). All three inhibited GSIS and depolarization-induced insulin secretion in INS-1 (832/13). JZL184 significantly inhibited both GSIS and depolarization-induced insulin secretion in rat islets. JZL184 significantly decreased lipolysis and increased both mono- and diacyglycerol species in INS-1 cells. Analysis of the kinetics of GSIS showed that inhibition was greater during the sustained phase of secretion. A similar pattern was observed in the response of Ca2+ to glucose and depolarization but to a lesser degree suggesting that altered Ca2+ handling alone could not explain the reduction in insulin secretion. In addition, a significant reduction in long chain-CoA (LC-CoA) was observed in INS-1 cells at both basal and stimulatory glucose following inhibition of MGL. Our data implicate an important role for MGL in insulin secretion.

  18. Distribution of Glycerol Diakyl Glycerol Tetraethers in Surface Soil and Crater Lake Sediments from Mount Kenya, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omuombo, C.; Huguet, A.; Olago, D.; Williamson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), a palaeoclimate proxy based on the relative abundance of lipids produced by archaea and bacteria, is gaining wide acceptance for the determination of past temperature and pH conditions. This study looks at the spatial distribution and abundance of GDGTs in soil and sediment samples along an altitudinal transect from 3 crater lakes of Mt. Kenya (Lake Nkunga, Sacred Lake and Lake Rutundu) ranging in elevation from 1700m - 3080m above sea level. GDGTs were extracted with solvents and then analysed using high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APCI-MS). Mean annual air temperature and pH were estimated based on the relative abundance of the different branched GDGTs, i.e. on the MBT (Methylation index of Branched Tetraethers) and CBT (Cyclization ratio of Branched Tetraethers) indices. Substantial amount of GDGTs were detected in both soil and sediment samples. In addition, branched GDGT distribution was observed to vary with altitude. These results highlight the importance of quantifying the branched GDGTs to understand the environmental parameters controlling the distribution of these lipids. The MBT/CBT proxy is a promising tool to infer palaeotemperatures and characterize the climate events of the past millennia in equatorial east Africa.

  19. Activation of glycerol metabolism in Xanthomonas campestris by adaptive evolution to produce a high-transparency and low-viscosity xanthan gum from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zichao; Wu, Jianrong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have focused on using crude glycerol from biodiesel to obtain valuable products, but few of these studies have focused on obtaining polysaccharides. A mutant strain of Xanthomonas campestris CCTCC M2015714 that could use glycerol to produce high-transparency and low-viscosity xanthan gum was obtained by adaptive evolution, and the yield of xanthan gum reached 11.0g/L. We found that transcriptional levels of genes related to glycerol metabolism (glpF, glpK, glpD, and fbp) in the mutant strain were all higher than those from the parent strain. Using 5g/L sucrose or glucose as starter substrate, cell growth time decreased from 36h to 24h and xanthan gum yield increased. Moreover, the mutant strain can tolerate high titer glycerol, and its activity was not affected by the impurities in crude glycerol. All these results proved that crude glycerol from biodiesel industries can be used for xanthan gum production. PMID:27030959

  20. Glycerol Affects Root Development through Regulation of Multiple Pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol metabolism has been well studied biochemically. However, the means by which glycerol functions in plant development is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of glycerol on root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Exogenous glycerol inhibited primary root growth and altered lateral root development in wild-type plants. These phenotypes appeared concurrently with increased endogenous glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and H2O2 contents in seedlings, and decreased phosphate levels in roots. Upon glycerol treatment, G3P level and root development did not change in glycerol kinase mutant gli1, but G3P level increased in gpdhc1 and fad-gpdh mutants, which resulted in more severely impaired root development. Overexpression of the FAD-GPDH gene attenuated the alterations in G3P, phosphate and H2O2 levels, leading to increased tolerance to exogenous glycerol, which suggested that FAD-GPDH plays an important role in modulating this response. Free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content increased by 46%, and DR5pro::GUS staining increased in the stele cells of the root meristem under glycerol treatment, suggesting that glycerol likely alters normal auxin distribution. Decreases in PIN1 and PIN7 expression, β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining in plants expressing PIN7pro::GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in plants expressing PIN7pro::PIN7-GFP were observed, indicating that polar auxin transport in the root was downregulated under glycerol treatment. Analyses with auxin-related mutants showed that TIR1 and ARF7 were involved in regulating root growth under glycerol treatment. Glycerol-treated plants showed significant reductions in root meristem size and cell number as revealed by CYCB1;1pro::GUS staining. Furthermore, the expression of CDKA and CYCB1 decreased significantly in treated plants compared with control plants, implying possible alterations in cell cycle progression. Our data demonstrated that glycerol

  1. Enzymatic production of glycerol carbonate from by-product after biodiesel manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hongsub; Lee, Youngrak; Kim, Daeheum; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Park, Chulhwan

    2012-08-10

    Glycerol carbonate is one of the higher value-added products derived from glycerol. In this study, glycerol carbonate (GC) was synthesized by transesterification of glycerol and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica Lipase B) at various conditions. For the enzymatic production of GC, the optimum conditions were the amount of enzyme (75 g/L), DMC/glycerol molar ratio (2.00), reaction temperature (60°C) and organic solvent (acetonitrile). Experimental investigation of the effect of water content revealed that the conversion of GC was maximized with no added water. The addition of surfactant such as Tween 80 increased the GC conversion, which finally reached 96.25% under the optimum condition and with surfactant addition. PMID:22759533

  2. Moisturizing Effects of Diglycerol Combined with Glycerol on Human Stratum Corneum.

    PubMed

    Tomiie, Ai; Shinozaki, Masami; Yamada, Takeshi; Kuriyama, Juhei

    2016-08-01

    The water content of the stratum corneum was measured to investigate the skin-moisturizing property of diglycerol in water and in a lotion. The water content of the stratum corneum, to which the diglycerol solution was applied, was lower than that of the glycerol solution for 8 h. However, skin treated with diglycerol in combination with glycerol solution maintained a higher capacitance level compared with that of glycerol solution alone after 8 h. Moreover, the long-term moisturizing effect of the stratum corneum prominently appeared when diglycerol was formulated to the lotion containing glycerol and 1,3-butylene glycol. These studies suggest that diglycerol in combination with glycerol has a long-term moisturizing effect on human skin.

  3. Microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.C.; Held, A.M.; Zhu, Mei-Ying

    1995-12-01

    Glycerol is a co-product of the conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats to soap, fatty acids, fatty acid esters and biodiesel fuel. We have investigated the use of both native and recombinant microorganisms for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable products. Fed-batch fermentations of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae gave over 50 g/L of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD, trimethylene glycol) with high volumetric productivity. Escherichia coli containing genes for glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-PD oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae also gave 1,3-PD from glycerol, but at a lower level than the native organism. Experiments with the recombinant E. coli have provided insights into ways to improve 1,3-PD production in both the recombinant and native organism and to modify the pathway for the production of compounds such as 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and dihydroxyacetone.

  4. Moisturizing Effects of Diglycerol Combined with Glycerol on Human Stratum Corneum.

    PubMed

    Tomiie, Ai; Shinozaki, Masami; Yamada, Takeshi; Kuriyama, Juhei

    2016-08-01

    The water content of the stratum corneum was measured to investigate the skin-moisturizing property of diglycerol in water and in a lotion. The water content of the stratum corneum, to which the diglycerol solution was applied, was lower than that of the glycerol solution for 8 h. However, skin treated with diglycerol in combination with glycerol solution maintained a higher capacitance level compared with that of glycerol solution alone after 8 h. Moreover, the long-term moisturizing effect of the stratum corneum prominently appeared when diglycerol was formulated to the lotion containing glycerol and 1,3-butylene glycol. These studies suggest that diglycerol in combination with glycerol has a long-term moisturizing effect on human skin. PMID:27430380

  5. Dietary glycerol for quail: association between productive performance and COX III mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Silva, S C C; Gasparino, E; Batista, E; Tanamati, F; Vesco, A P D; Lala, B; de Oliveira, D P

    2016-01-01

    This study was carry out to evaluate mRNA expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III in the Pectoralis superficialis muscle of 28-day-old quails fed diets containing 0, 8, and 12% glycerol. Total RNA was extracted (N = 10) and cDNA was amplified using specifics primers for qRT-PCR. Feed efficiency and feed intake were evaluated. COX III mRNA expression in breast muscle was higher in the group fed with 12% glycerol (0.863 AU); no differences were observed in the expression of this gene between the muscle of animals fed diets without glycerol (0.357 AU) and 8% glycerol (0.415 AU). Quails that showed greater COX III mRNA expression also showed the lowest feed efficiency. These results show that there is a difference in COX III mRNA expression in breast muscle of 28-day-old quail fed diets different concentrations of glycerol. PMID:27323091

  6. Salty glycerol versus salty water surface organization: bromide and iodide surface propensities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2013-07-25

    Salty NaBr and NaI glycerol solution interfaces are examined in the OH stretching region using broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are used to further understand the VSFG spectroscopic signature. The VSFG spectra of salty glycerol solutions reveal that bromide and iodide anions perturb the interfacial glycerol organization in a manner similar as that found in aqueous halide salt solutions, thus confirming the presence of bromide and iodide anions at the glycerol surface. Surface tension measurements are consistent with the surface propensity suggested by the VSFG data and also show that the surface excess increases with increasing salt concentration, similar to that of water. In addition, iodide is shown to have more surface prevalence than bromide, as has also been determined from aqueous solutions. These results suggest that glycerol behaves similarly to water with respect to surface activity and solvation of halide anions at its air/liquid interface. PMID:23663033

  7. Effects of specimen turbidity and glycerol concentration on nine enzymatic methods for triglyceride determination.

    PubMed

    Sampson, M; Ruddel, M; Elin, R J

    1994-02-01

    We compared the effects of specimen turbidity and glycerol concentration on nine enzymatic methods for triglyceride measurement. We assayed 51 specimens with triglyceride concentrations of 0.85-8.21 mmol/L (75-727 mg/dL) and turbidity at 420 nm equivalent to > or = 0.1 mmol/L (8.8 mg/dL) triglyceride (measured as part of our comparison method). The data were analyzed by multiple regression, which gave coefficients for the effects of glycerol concentration and the change in turbidity during the reaction. The effects of specimen turbidity and glycerol concentration were method-dependent and ranged from 6.20% to -15.67% of the measured result. The magnitude of the turbidity effect (in assays with a significant turbidity interference) was similar to that for glycerol (in assays with a significant glycerol interference). A triglyceride assay with a bichromatic measurement was less subject to interference from turbidity.

  8. Laboratory and pilot scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by acidified aqueous glycerol solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2013-06-01

    Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acidified aqueous glycerol solution was evaluated at both laboratory and pilot scales. Laboratory scale pretreatment (4.00 g dry mass in 40.00 g liquid) with glycerol solutions containing ≤ 20 wt.% water and 1.2 wt.% HCl at 130°C for 60 min resulted in biomass having glucan digestibilities of ≥ 88%. Comparable glucan enzymatic digestibility of 90% was achieved with bagasse pretreated at pilot scale (10 kg dry mass in 60 kg liquid) using a glycerol solution containing 0.4 wt.% HCl and 17 wt.% water at 130°C for 15 min. We attribute more efficient pretreatment at pilot scale (despite shorter reaction time and reduced acid content) to improved mixing and heat transfer in a horizontal reactor. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acid-catalysed glycerol solutions likely produces glycerol-glycosides, which together with hydrolysed lignin are potential substrates for the production of biopolymers.

  9. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  10. Expansible quantum secret sharing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2013-08-01

    In the practical applications, member expansion is a usual demand during the development of a secret sharing network. However, there are few consideration and discussion on network expansibility in the existing quantum secret sharing schemes. We propose an expansible quantum secret sharing scheme with relatively simple and economical quantum resources and show how to split and reconstruct the quantum secret among an expansible user group in our scheme. Its trait, no requirement of any agent's assistant during the process of member expansion, can help to prevent potential menaces of insider cheating. We also give a discussion on the security of this scheme from three aspects.

  11. Microfluidic Devices for the Measurement of Cellular Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrell, Adrian M.; Mukhitov, Nikita; Yi, Lian; Wang, Xue; Roper, Michael G.

    2016-06-01

    The release of chemical information from cells and tissues holds the key to understanding cellular behavior and dysfunction. The development of methodologies that can measure cellular secretion in a time-dependent fashion is therefore essential. Often these measurements are made difficult by the high-salt conditions of the cellular environment, the presence of numerous other secreted factors, and the small mass samples that are produced when frequent sampling is used to resolve secretory dynamics. In this review, the methods that we have developed for measuring hormone release from islets of Langerhans are dissected to illustrate the practical difficulties of studying cellular secretions. Other methods from the literature are presented that provide alternative approaches to particularly challenging areas of monitoring cellular secretion. The examples presented in this review serve as case studies and should be adaptable to other cell types and systems for unique applications.

  12. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits the Effects of Gram Positive Select Agents on Eukaryotic Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2008-01-01

    Many exotoxins of gram positive bacteria, such as superantigens (staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 [TSST-1], and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins) and anthrax toxin are bioterrorism agents that cause diseases by immunostimulation or cytotoxicity. Glycerol monolaurate (GML), a fatty acid monoester found naturally in humans, has been reported to prevent synthesis of gram positive bacterial exotoxins. This study explored the ability of GML to inhibit the effects of exotoxins on mammalian cells and prevent rabbit lethality from TSS. GML (≥10 ug/ml) inhibited superantigen (5 ug/ml) immunoproliferation, as determined by inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (1 × 106 cells/ml) as well as phospholipase Cγ1, suggesting inhibition of signal transduction. The compound (20 ug/ml) prevented superantigen (100 ug/ml) induced cytokine secretion by human vaginal epithelial cells (HVECs) as measured by ELISA. GML (250 ug) inhibited rabbit lethality due to TSST-1 administered vaginally. GML (10 ug/ml) inhibited HVEC and macrophage cytotoxicity by anthrax toxin, prevented erythrocyte lysis by purified hemolysins (staphylococcal α and β) and culture fluids containing streptococcal and Bacillus anthracis hemolysins, and was non-toxic to mammalian cells (up to 100 ug/ml) and rabbits (250 ug). GML stabilized mammalian cell membranes, as erythrocyte lysis was reduced in the presence of hypotonic aqueous solutions (0 to 0.05 M saline) or staphylococcal α and β-hemolysins when erythrocytes were pretreated with GML. GML may be useful in management of gram positive exotoxin illnesses; its action appears to be membrane stabilization with inhibition of signal transduction. PMID:16475828

  13. Inclusion of glycerol in forage diets increases methane production in a rumen simulation technique system.

    PubMed

    Avila-Stagno, Jorge; Chaves, Alexandre V; Ribeiro, Gabriel O; Ungerfeld, Emilio M; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-03-14

    We hypothesised that the inclusion of glycerol in the forage diets of ruminants would increase the proportion of propionate produced and thereby decrease in vitro CH₄ production. This hypothesis was examined in the present study using a semi-continuous fermentation system (rumen simulation technique) fed a brome hay (8·5 g) and maize silage (1·5 g) diet with increasing concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg DM) of glycerol substituted for maize silage. Glycerol linearly increased total volatile fatty acids production (P<0·001). Acetate production was quadratically affected (P=0·023) and propionate and butyrate production was linearly increased (P<0·001). Glycerol linearly increased (P=0·011) DM disappearance from hay and silage. Crude protein disappearance from hay was not affected (P=0·789), but that from silage was linearly increased (P<0·001) with increasing glycerol concentrations. Neutral-detergent fibre (P=0·040) and acid-detergent fibre (P=0·031) disappearance from hay and silage was linearly increased by glycerol. Total gas production tended to increase linearly (P=0·061) and CH₄ concentration in gas was linearly increased (P<0·001) by glycerol, resulting in a linear increase (P<0·001) in mg CH₄/g DM digested. Our hypothesis was rejected as increasing concentrations of glycerol in a forage diet linearly increased CH₄ production in semi-continuous fermenters, despite the increases in the concentrations of propionate. In conclusion, this apparent discrepancy is due to the more reduced state of glycerol when compared with carbohydrates, which implies that there is no net incorporation of electrons when glycerol is metabolised to propionate.

  14. Solubility and secretability.

    PubMed

    Schein, C H

    1993-08-01

    The solubility and secretability of proteins can often be affected by extremely small changes in their primary structure. Attempts to determine empirical rules for the alteration of protein structure to improve either of these characteristics have met with only partial success. Those (mostly serendipitous) improvements in solubility that have been obtained via mutagenesis cannot be considered to be 'protein engineering'. The most successful examples where directed mutagenesis has been used to alter protein solubility, hemoglobin and insulin, have relied on established crystal structures and a wealth of data about the relationship between sequence and structure of the targeted protein. Currently, optimizing culture growth conditions by trial and error remains the fastest way to improve expression.

  15. Flow injection analysis-based methodology for automatic on-line monitoring and quality control for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Pinzi, S; Priego Capote, F; Ruiz Jiménez, J; Dorado, M P; Luque de Castro, M D

    2009-01-01

    An automated on-line approach based on determination of free and bound glycerol was here proposed to monitor biodiesel production. The method was based on liquid-liquid extraction of glycerol from the biodiesel to an aqueous ethanolic phase in which glycerol is oxidized to formaldehyde with meta periodate with subsequent reaction with acetylacetone. The reaction product was photometrically measured at 410 nm. Free and bound glycerol were differentiated by glycerides hydrolysis with potassium ethylate. The experimental set-up consisted of a flow-injection manifold for liquid-liquid extraction without phase separation and iterative change of the flow direction that enabled: (a) filling the flow manifold with a meta periodate-acetylacetone acceptor phase; (b) sampling of small amounts (microl) from the reactor; (c) determination of free glycerol by extraction from biodiesel to the aqueous phase with simultaneous oxidation-reaction with acetylacetone in the acceptor phase; (d) continuous monitoring of the aqueous phase by passage through a photometric detector; (e) filling the flow manifold with a potassium ethylate-meta periodate-acetylacetone new acceptor phase; (d) repetition of steps b-to-d to determine total glycerol after saponification of the bound glycerol by potassium ethylate; and (f) determination of bound glycerol by difference between the second and first analyses. The results showed that the proposed automated on-line method is a suitable option in routine analysis during biodiesel production. PMID:18614358

  16. Sonoluminescence quenching in aqueous solutions of aliphatic diols and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sunartio, Devi; Grieser, Franz; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2009-01-01

    The multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) signals that were generated using 358 kHz ultrasound in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol and glycerol, over a range of concentrations, have been studied. It was found that the intensity of the MBSL was either reduced or enhanced, relative to the signal in water, depending on the concentration of the solute. It was concluded that the reduction in the MBSL intensity was dependent on the strength of the intermolecular forces, in particular hydrogen bonding, between the solute molecules and water. The enhancement in the MBSL signal was ascribed to presence of the solute molecules at the bubble/solution interface that hinder the coalescence of the bubbles in the multibubble clouds produced at the antinodes in the system.

  17. Study Guide: Seven Simple Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Nancy; Breaux, Annette; Whitaker, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study guide has been developed to accompany the "Seven Simple Secrets" book written by Dr. Todd Whitaker and Annette Breaux. "Seven Simple Secrets" focuses on those attributes that have been found to help teachers be their absolute best in their daily challenges of teaching and improving student learning. The study guide is divided into the…

  18. Bacterial Secretion Systems: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Green, Erin R; Mecsas, Joan

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial pathogens utilize a multitude of methods to invade mammalian hosts, damage tissue sites, and thwart the immune system from responding. One essential component of these strategies for many bacterial pathogens is the secretion of proteins across phospholipid membranes. Secreted proteins can play many roles in promoting bacterial virulence, from enhancing attachment to eukaryotic cells, to scavenging resources in an environmental niche, to directly intoxicating target cells and disrupting their functions. Many pathogens use dedicated protein secretion systems to secrete virulence factors from the cytosol of the bacteria into host cells or the host environment. In general, bacterial protein secretion apparatuses can be divided into classes, based on their structures, functions, and specificity. Some systems are conserved in all classes of bacteria and secrete a broad array of substrates, while others are only found in a small number of bacterial species and/or are specific to only one or a few proteins. In this chapter, we review the canonical features of several common bacterial protein secretion systems, as well as their roles in promoting the virulence of bacterial pathogens. Additionally, we address recent findings that indicate that the innate immune system of the host can detect and respond to the presence of protein secretion systems during mammalian infection.

  19. Metabolism of glycerol, glucose, and lactate in the citric acid cycle prior to incorporation into hepatic acylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2013-05-17

    During hepatic lipogenesis, the glycerol backbone of acylglycerols originates from one of three sources: glucose, glycerol, or substrates passing through the citric acid cycle via glyceroneogenesis. The relative contribution of each substrate source to glycerol in rat liver acylglycerols was determined using (13)C-enriched substrates and NMR. Animals received a fixed mixture of glucose, glycerol, and lactate; one group received [U-(13)C6]glucose, another received [U-(13)C3]glycerol, and the third received [U-(13)C3]lactate. After 3 h, the livers were harvested to extract fats, and the glycerol moiety from hydrolyzed acylglycerols was analyzed by (13)C NMR. In either fed or fasted animals, glucose and glycerol provided the majority of the glycerol backbone carbons, whereas the contribution of lactate was small. In fed animals, glucose contributed >50% of the total newly synthesized glycerol backbone, and 35% of this contribution occurred after glucose had passed through the citric acid cycle. By comparison, the glycerol contribution was ~40%, and of this, 17% of the exogenous glycerol passed first through the cycle. In fasted animals, exogenous glycerol became the major contributor to acylglycerols. The contribution from exogenous lactate did increase in fasted animals, but its overall contribution remained small. The contributions of glucose and glycerol that had passed through the citric acid cycle first increased in fasted animals from 35 to 71% for glucose and from 17 to 24% for glycerol. Thus, a substantial fraction from both substrate sources passed through the cycle prior to incorporation into the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols in the liver.

  20. Production of fumaric acid from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhizopus arrhizus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuqing; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shihong; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    This work investigated the capability of Rhizopus arrhizus to assimilate biodiesel-derived crude glycerol and convert it into fumaric acid. After optimizing the initial glycerol concentration, spore inoculum and yeast extract concentration, smaller pellets (0.7 mm) and higher biomass (3.11 g/L) were obtained when R. arrhizus grew on crude glycerol. It was found that crude glycerol was more suitable than glucose for smaller R. arrhizus pellet forming. When 80 g/L crude glycerol was used as carbon source, the fumaric acid production of 4.37 g/L was obtained at 192 h. With a highest concentration of 22.81 g/L achieved in the co-fermentation of crude glycerol (40 g/L) and glucose (40 g/L) at 144 h, the fumaric acid production was enhanced by 553.6%, compared to the fermentation using glycerol (80 g/L) as sole carbon source. Moreover, the production cost of fumaric acid in co-fermentation was reduced by approximately 14% compared to glucose fermentation. PMID:24787316

  1. Effect of glycerol on ischemic cerebral edema assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Masanori; Igarashi, Hironaka; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Hagiwara, Hiroshi; Ando, Jun; Chishiki, Tetsurou; Curran, Brian C; Katayama, Yasuo

    2003-05-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the anticerebral edema effect of glycerol on a large cerebral infarction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Glycerol, which is widely used as an osmotic agent against cerebral edema, could exacerbate brain tissue shift, since it has been suggested that glycerol might shrink a noninfarcted hemisphere and worsen the mass effect after a large hemispheric cerebral infarction. To investigate these issues, changes in a large hemispheric infarction with cerebral edema were studied using MRI before and after glycerol administration. Infarct volumes, normal brain tissue volumes and lateral ventricle volumes, in addition to signal intensities of T(2)-weighted images, were measured in six patients before and after administration of 300 ml of glycerol. Ventricle volumes were significantly increased (p=0.0015) and the T(2) signal intensity of the post-treatment ischemic region decreased after glycerol administration. In contrast, no significant differences in either cerebral volume or T(2) signal intensity were seen in the noninfarcted hemisphere before and after administration. Our data suggest that glycerol does not exacerbate the mass effect on a large hemispheric infarction. PMID:12686405

  2. Application of Glycerol for Induced Powdery Mildew Resistance in Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinghui; Song, Na; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Li, Feng; Geng, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, Wanhui; Xie, Chaojie; Sun, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and oleic acid (18:1) are two important signal molecules associated with plant resistance to fungi. In this article, we provide evidence that a 3% glycerol spray application 1–2 days before powdery mildew infection and subsequent applications once every 4 days was sufficient to stimulate the plant defense responses without causing any significant damage to wheat leaves. We found that G3P and oleic acid levels were markedly induced by powdery mildew infection. In addition, TaGLI1 (encoding a glycerol kinase) and TaSSI2 (encoding a stearoylacyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase), two genes associated with the glycerol and fatty acid (FA) pathways, respectively, were induced by powdery mildew infection, and their promoter regions contain some fungal response elements. Moreover, exogenous application of glycerol increased the G3P level and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Glycerol application induced the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes (TaPR-1, TaPR-2, TaPR-3, TaPR-4, and TaPR-5), induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) before powdery mildew infection, and induced salicylic acid (SA) accumulation in wheat leaves. Further, we sprayed glycerol in a wheat field and found that it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the severity of powdery mildew disease and lessened disease-associated kernel weight loss, all without causing any noticeable degradation in wheat seed quality. PMID:27708588

  3. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a path to economic viability for the biofuels industry.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Syed Shams; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2007-06-01

    Although biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol represent a secure, renewable and environmentally safe alternative to fossil fuels, their economic viability is a major concern. The implementation of biorefineries that co-produce higher value products along with biofuels has been proposed as a solution to this problem. The biorefinery model would be especially advantageous if the conversion of byproducts or waste streams generated during biofuel production were considered. Glycerol-rich streams generated in large amounts by the biofuels industry, especially during the production of biodiesel, present an excellent opportunity to establish biorefineries. Once considered a valuable 'co-product', crude glycerol is rapidly becoming a 'waste product' with a disposal cost attributed to it. Given the highly reduced nature of carbon in glycerol and the cost advantage of anaerobic processes, fermentative metabolism of glycerol is of special interest. This review covers the anaerobic fermentation of glycerol in microbes and the harnessing of this metabolic process to convert abundant and low-priced glycerol streams into higher value products, thus creating a path to viability for the biofuels industry. Special attention is given to products whose synthesis from glycerol would be advantageous when compared with their production from common sugars.

  4. Effect of water polyamorphism on the molecular vibrations of glycerol in its glassy aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Mishima, Osamu

    2016-07-01

    A glassy dilute glycerol-water solution undergoes a mutual polyamorphic transition relating to the transition between high- and low-density amorphous ices of solvent water. The polyamorphic transition behavior depends on the glycerol concentration, indicating that the glycerol affects the water polyamorphism. Here, we used the glassy dilute glycerol-water solution of the solute molar fraction of 0.07 and examined the effect of the polyamorphic change in solvent water on the molecular vibrations of glycerol via Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the molecular vibration of glycerol in high-density liquid like solvent water is different from that in the low-density liquid like solvent water and that the change in the molecular vibration of glycerol is synchronized with the polyamorphic transition of solvent water. The dynamical change of the solute molecule relates to the polyamorphic state of solvent water. This result suggests that the polyamorphic fluctuation of water structure emanated from the presumed liquid-liquid critical point plays an important role for the function of aqueous solution under an ambient condition such as the conformational stability of solute, the functional expression of solute, and so on.

  5. Theoretical investigation of the interaction of glycerol with aluminum and magnesium phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Silva, V H C; Camargo, L T F M; Napolitano, H B; Pérez, C N; Camargo, A J

    2010-09-01

    Glycerol is a byproduct produced in great quantity by biodiesel industries in transesterification reactions. Finding new applications for glycerol is a current concern of many research groups around the world. This work focuses on a theoretical investigation, at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory, into the possibility of using aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) and magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) in the modelling of catalysts to convert glycerol into alcohol, which has wider industrial applicability. According to our calculations there are strong interactions between the O-terminus of glycerol and the central metal atom of AlPc and MgPc. By applying the Fukui function, HSAB theory and analysis of the frontier molecular orbital, it was possible to explain the way in which glycerol interacts with AlPc and MgPc. As a result of these interactions, there is a considerable change in both electronic and geometric parameters of glycerol, which can be used in designing new strategies to convert glycerol into alcohol. PMID:20655256

  6. Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to 1,2-Propanediol Over Clay Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Jung, Jae-Sun; Yang, Eun-Hyeok; Lee, Kwan-Young; Moon, Dong Ju

    2015-11-01

    1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) is one of the promising product among the valuable products derived from glycerol and it can be obtained by the catalytic hydrogenolysis of glycerol. Copper-supported clay-based catalysts were prepared with different pore sizes using various ratios of kaolin, Mg, and Al by coprecipitation and applied in the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-PDO. In recent research, variations of pore volume and pore size could affect the diffusion of reagents within the catalyst due to the collision between reagents or pore wall and reagents. It changes selectivities of each product in hydrogenolysis of glycerol reaction. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were analyzed by XRD, N2 physisorption, TPR, CO2-TPD, SEM, and a mercury porosimeter. The Cu/TALCITE 4 catalyst showed 98% 1,2-PDO selectivity with 65% glycerol conversion under the optimized condition of 190 degrees C, 25 bar, and 20 wt% glycerol aqueous solution. It was found that the basic strength and meso-macro pore structure of the catalysts play an important role in glycerol conversion and 1,2-PDO selectivity. PMID:26726594

  7. Hydrophobic fractal surface from glycerol tripalmitate and the effects on C6 glioma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Chen, Xuerui; Yu, Jing; Hong, Biyuan; Lei, Qunfang; Fang, Wenjun

    2016-06-01

    To provide a biomimic environment for glial cell culture, glycerol tripalmitate (PPP) has been used as a raw material to prepare fractal surfaces with different degrees of hydrophobicity. The spontaneous formation of the hydrophobic fractal surfaces was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphologies were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and then the fractal dimension (FD) values of the surfaces were determined with the box-counting method. C6 glioma cells were cultured and compared on different hydrophobic PPP surfaces and poly-L-lysine (PLL)-coated surface. The cell numbers as a function of incubation time on different surfaces during the cell proliferation process were measured, and the cell morphologies were observed under a fluorescence microscope. Influences of hydrophobic fractal surfaces on the cell number and morphology were analyzed. The experimental results show that the cell proliferation rates decrease while the cell morphology complexities increase with the growth of the fractal dimensions of the PPP surfaces. PMID:26970826

  8. Evidence of moisture control on the methylation of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in semi-arid and arid soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Xinyue; Yang, Huan; Naafs, B. David A.; Pancost, Richard D.; Xie, Shucheng

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of bacterial branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) is influenced by growth temperature and pH. This results in the widespread application of the brGDGT-based MBT(‧)/CBT proxy (MBT - methylation of branched tetraethers, CBT - cyclization of branched tetraethers) in terrestrial paleo-environmental reconstructions. Recently, it was shown that the amount of precipitation could also have an impact on CBT, as well as the abundance of brGDGTs relative to that of archaeal isoprenoidal (iso)GDGTs (Ri/b) and the absolute abundance of brGDGTs, potentially complicating the use of MBT/CBT as paleothermometer. However, the full influence of hydrology, and in particular soil water content (SWC), on GDGT distributions remains unclear. Here we investigated variations in the GDGT distribution across a SWC gradient (0-61%) around Qinghai Lake in the Tibetan Plateau, an arid to semiarid region in China. Our results demonstrate that SWC affects the brGDGT distribution. In particular, we show that SWC has a clear impact on the degree of methylation of C6-methylated brGDGTs, whereas C5-methylated brGDGTs are more impacted by temperature. This results in a combined SWC and temperature control on MBT‧. In this context we propose a diagnostic parameter, the IR6ME (relative abundance of C6-methylated GDGTs) index, to evaluate the applicability of brGDGT-based paleotemperature reconstructions. Using the global dataset, expanded with our own data, MBT‧ has a significant correlation with mean annual air temperature when IR6ME < 0.5, allowing for the use of MBT‧/CBT as temperature proxy. However, MBT‧ has a significant correlation with mean annual precipitation (i.e., a substantial reflection of SWC impact) when IR6ME > 0.5, implying that MBT‧ may respond to hydrological change in these regions and can be used as a proxy for MAP.

  9. Influence of water availability in the distributions of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether in soils of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, J.; Huguet, C.; Alcañiz, J. M.; Fietz, S.; Sachse, D.; Rosell-Melé, A.

    2014-05-01

    The combined application of the MBT (degree of methylation) and CBT (degree of cyclization) indices, based on the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in soils, has been proposed as a paleoproxy to estimate mean annual temperature (MAT). CBT quantifies the degree of cyclization of brGDGTs and relates to soil pH. MBT and the simplified version MBT' quantify the degree of methylation of brGDGTs and relate to MAT and soil pH. However, other factors such as soil water availability have also been suggested to influence MBT' and possibly restrict the combined application of the MBT' and CBT indices as a paleotemperature proxy. To assess the effect of hydrological conditions on MBT' and CBT, a set of 23 Iberian Peninsula soil samples, covering a MAT range from 10 to 18 °C and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) range of 405 mm to 1455 mm, was analyzed. We found that the CBT was indeed significantly correlated with soil pH in our sample set. In contrast, MBT' was not correlated with MAT but had a significant correlation with the aridity index (AI), a parameter related to water availability in soils. The AI can explain 50% of the variation of the MBT', and 70% of the residuals of MAT estimated with the MBT/CBT proxy as compared to instrumentally measured MAT. We propose that, in arid settings, where water may be an ecologically limiting factor, MBT' is influenced by hydrological conditions rather than temperature. Thus, our results suggest that the combination of MBT' and CBT indices should be applied with caution in paleotemperature reconstructions in soils from dry subhumid to hyperarid environments.

  10. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in Arctic lake sediments: Sources and implications for paleothermometry at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterse, Francien; Vonk, Jorien E.; Holmes, R. Max; Giosan, Liviu; Zimov, Nikita; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2014-08-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are analyzed in different lakes of the Mackenzie (Canadian Arctic) and Kolyma (Siberian Arctic) River basins to evaluate their sources and the implications for brGDGT-based paleothermometry in high-latitude lakes. The comparison of brGDGT distributions and concentrations in the lakes with those in river suspended particulate matter, riverbank sediments, and permafrost material indicates that brGDGTs in Arctic lake sediments have mixed sources. In contrast to global observations, distributional offsets between brGDGTs in Arctic lakes and elsewhere in the catchment are minor, likely due to the extreme seasonality and short window of biological production at high latitudes. Consequently, both soil- and lake-calibrated brGDGT-based temperature proxies return sensible temperature estimates, even though the mean air temperature (MAT) in the Arctic is below the calibration range. The original soil-calibrated MBT-CBT (methylation of branched tetraethers-cyclisation of branched tetraethers) proxy generates MATs similar to those in the studied river basins, whereas using the recently revised MBT'-CBT calibration overestimates MAT. The application of the two global lake calibrations, generating summer air temperatures (SAT) and MAT, respectively, illustrates the influence of seasonality on the production of brGDGTs in lakes, as the latter overestimates actual MAT, whereas the SAT-based lake calibration accounts for this influence and consequently returns more accurate temperatures. Our results in principle support the application of brGDGT-based temperature proxies in high-latitude lakes in order to obtain long-term paleotemperature records for the Arctic, although the calibration and associated transfer function have to be selected with care.

  11. Distribution of Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers in Soils from Two Environmental Transects in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirghangi, S. S.; Pagani, M.; Hren, M. T.; Tipple, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (GDGT) of both archaeal and bacterial origins form the basis of new temperature proxies applicable to soils, lake and marine sediments. In soils, branched GDGTs are prevalent and the abundance of methyl or cyclic groups in these compounds has been calibrated to mean-annual temperatures using MBT and CBT indices. However, soil pH is also known to be an important variable controlling the distribution of branched GDGTs. The factors influencing soil pH include bedrock type, vegetation, soil microbial activity, precipitation amount, drainage etc. For this study, we evaluate the distribution of branched GDGTs from two soil transects in the United States: a dry, western transect that covers four western states, and a wet, east-coast transect from Maine to Georgia in order to assess the effect of precipitation on the distribution of soil GDGTs. Our results show distinctly different GDGT distributions across climatic regions, with dry western soils predominantly characterized by crenarchaeal isoprenoidal GDGTs and moist-temperate east-coast transect soils expressing mostly branched GDGTs. Predominance of isoprenoidal GDGTs in the western soils is related to the degree of aeration which in turn is related to precipitation amount. We also observe a substantial increase in the offset between measured mean-annual temperatures (MAT) and MBT/CBT-based MAT below an annual precipitation of 700-800mm per year. These data suggest that while soil tetraethers work well as a temperature proxy in moist-temperate regimes, they do not produce reliable measurements of temperature in sediments sourced from areas with less than 700-800mm per year precipitation.

  12. Concentrations and abundance ratios of long-chain alkenones and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in sinking particles south of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenwen; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Schefuß, Enno; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we obtained concentrations and abundance ratios of long-chain alkenones and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in a one-year time-series of sinking particles collected with a sediment trap moored from December 2001 to November 2002 at 2200 m water depth south of Java in the eastern Indian Ocean. We investigate the seasonality of alkenone and GDGT fluxes as well as the potential habitat depth of the Thaumarchaeota producing the GDGTs entrained in sinking particles. The alkenone flux shows a pronounced seasonality and ranges from 1 μg m-2 d-1 to 35 μg m-2 d-1. The highest alkenone flux is observed in late September during the Southeast monsoon, coincident with high total organic carbon fluxes as well as high net primary productivity. Flux-weighted mean temperature for the high flux period using the alkenone-based sea-surface temperature (SST) index U37K‧ is 26.7 °C, which is similar to satellite-derived Southeast (SE) monsoon SST (26.4 °C). The GDGT flux displays a weaker seasonality than that of the alkenones. It is elevated during the SE monsoon period compared to the Northwest (NW) monsoon and intermonsoon periods (approximately 2.5 times), which is probably related to seasonal variation of the abundance of Thaumarchaeota, or to enhanced export of GDGTs by aggregation with sinking phytoplankton detritus. Flux-weighted mean temperature inferred from the GDGT-based TEX86H index is 26.2 °C, which is 1.8 °C lower than mean annual (ma) SST but similar to SE monsoon SST. As the time series of TEX86H temperature estimates, however, does not record a strong seasonal amplitude, we infer that TEX86H reflects ma upper thermocline temperature at approximately 50 m water depth.

  13. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Varrone, C; Heggeset, T M B; Le, S B; Haugen, T; Markussen, S; Skiadas, I V; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable and stable MMC, trying to overcome inhibition problems and enhance substrate degradation efficiency, as well as generation of soluble fermentation products. Repeated transfers in small batches and fed-batch conditions have been applied, comparing the use of different inoculum, growth media, and Kinetic Control. The adaptation of activated sludge inoculum was performed successfully and continued unhindered for several months. The best results showed a substrate degradation efficiency of almost 100% (about 10 g/L glycerol in 21 h) and different dominant metabolic products were obtained, depending on the selection strategy (mainly 1,3-propanediol, ethanol, or butyrate). On the other hand, anaerobic sludge exhibited inactivation after a few transfers. To circumvent this problem, fed-batch mode was used as an alternative adaptation strategy, which led to effective substrate degradation and high 1,3-propanediol and butyrate production. Changes in microbial composition were monitored by means of Next Generation Sequencing, revealing a dominance of glycerol consuming species, such as Clostridium, Klebsiella, and Escherichia.

  14. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Varrone, C.; Heggeset, T. M. B.; Le, S. B.; Haugen, T.; Markussen, S.; Skiadas, I. V.; Gavala, H. N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable and stable MMC, trying to overcome inhibition problems and enhance substrate degradation efficiency, as well as generation of soluble fermentation products. Repeated transfers in small batches and fed-batch conditions have been applied, comparing the use of different inoculum, growth media, and Kinetic Control. The adaptation of activated sludge inoculum was performed successfully and continued unhindered for several months. The best results showed a substrate degradation efficiency of almost 100% (about 10 g/L glycerol in 21 h) and different dominant metabolic products were obtained, depending on the selection strategy (mainly 1,3-propanediol, ethanol, or butyrate). On the other hand, anaerobic sludge exhibited inactivation after a few transfers. To circumvent this problem, fed-batch mode was used as an alternative adaptation strategy, which led to effective substrate degradation and high 1,3-propanediol and butyrate production. Changes in microbial composition were monitored by means of Next Generation Sequencing, revealing a dominance of glycerol consuming species, such as Clostridium, Klebsiella, and Escherichia. PMID:26509171

  15. A population study of urine glycerol concentrations in elite athletes competing in North America.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian N; Madsen, Myke; Sharpe, Ken; Nair, Vinod; Eichner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an endogenous substance that is on the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited threshold substances due to its potential use as a plasma volume expansion agent. The WADA has set the threshold for urine glycerol, including measurement uncertainty, at 1.3 mg/mL. Glycerol in circulation largely comes from metabolism of triglycerides in order to meet energy requirements and when the renal threshold is eclipsed, glycerol is excreted into urine. In part due to ethnic differences in postprandial triglyceride concentrations, we investigated urine glycerol concentrations in a population of elite athletes competing in North America and compared the results to those of athletes competing in Europe. 959 urine samples from elite athletes competing in North America collected for anti-doping purposes were analyzed for urine glycerol concentrations by a gas chromatography mass-spectrometry method. Samples were divided into groups according to: Timing (in- or out-of-competition), Class (strength, game, or endurance sports) and Gender. 333 (34.7%) samples had undetectable amounts of glycerol (<1 μg/mL). 861 (89.8%) of the samples had glycerol concentrations ≤20 μg/mL. The highest glycerol concentration observed was 652 μg/mL. Analysis of the data finds the effects of each category to be statistically significant. The largest estimate of the 99.9(th) percentile, from the in-competition, female, strength athlete samples, was 1813 μg/mL with a 95% confidence range from 774 to 4251 μg/mL. This suggests a conservative threshold of 4.3 mg/mL, which would result in a reasonable detection window for urine samples collected in-competition for all genders and sport classes. PMID:24353191

  16. Glucose and glycerol concentrations and their tracer enrichment measurements using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bornø, Andreas; Foged, Lene; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-10-01

    The present study describes a new liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for high-throughput quantification of glucose and glycerol in human plasma using stable isotopically labeled internal standards and is suitable for simultaneous measurements of glucose and glycerol enrichments in connection to in vivo metabolic studies investigating glucose turnover and lipolytic rate. Moreover, in order to keep up with this new fast analysis, simple derivatization procedures have been developed. Prior to analysis, glucose and glycerol were derivatized using benzoyl chloride in order to form benzoylated derivatives via new simplified fast procedures. For glucose, two internal standards were evaluated, [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and [U-(13) C(6), D(7)]glucose, and for glycerol, [U-(13) C(3), D(8)]glycerol was used. The method was validated by means of calibration curves, quality control samples, and plasma samples spiked with [6,6-D(2)]glucose, [U-(13) C(6)]glucose, and [1,1,2,3,3-D(5)]glycerol in order to test accuracy, precision, and recovery of the method. Moreover, post preparative and freeze-thaw sample stability were tested. The correlation of calibration curves for the glucose concentration were r(2) = 0.9998 for [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and r(2) = 0.9996 for [U-(13) C(6), D(7)]glucose, and r(2) = 0.9995 for the glycerol concentration. Interday accuracy for glucose using [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and glycerol determined in spiked plasma were respectively 103.5% and 106.0%, and the coefficients of variation were 2.0% and 9.7%, respectively. After derivatization, plasma samples were stable for at least 14 days. In conclusion, we have developed and validated a novel, accurate, and sensitive high-throughput liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of glucose and glycerol concentrations and enrichment of infused tracers most commonly used in human metabolic kinetic studies.

  17. Development of bioelectrocatalytic activity stimulates mixed-culture reduction of glycerol in a bioelectrochemical system

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Freguia, Stefano; Dennis, Paul G; Keller, Jürg; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    In a microbial bioelectrochemical system (BES), organic substrate such as glycerol can be reductively converted to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) by a mixed population biofilm growing on the cathode. Here, we show that 1,3-PDO yields positively correlated to the electrons supplied, increasing from 0.27 ± 0.13 to 0.57 ± 0.09 mol PDO mol−1 glycerol when the cathodic current switched from 1 A m−2 to 10 A m−2. Electrochemical measurements with linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) demonstrated that the biofilm was bioelectrocatalytically active and that the cathodic current was greatly enhanced only in the presence of both biofilm and glycerol, with an onset potential of −0.46 V. This indicates that glycerol or its degradation products effectively served as cathodic electron acceptor. During long-term operation (> 150 days), however, the yield decreased gradually to 0.13 ± 0.02 mol PDO mol−1 glycerol, and the current–product correlation disappeared. The onset potentials for cathodic current decreased to −0.58 V in the LSV tests at this stage, irrespective of the presence or absence of glycerol, with electrons from the cathode almost exclusively used for hydrogen evolution (accounted for 99.9% and 89.5% of the electrons transferred at glycerol and glycerol-free conditions respectively). Community analysis evidenced a decreasing relative abundance of Citrobacter in the biofilm, indicating a community succession leading to cathode independent processes relative to the glycerol. It is thus shown here that in processes where substrate conversion can occur independently of the electrode, electroactive microorganisms can be outcompeted and effectively disconnected from the substrate. PMID:25817314

  18. Absorbance Differentiation of Burned and Normal Tissue by the Addition of Glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chuan-I.; de Pedro, Hector; Zarnani, Faranak; Idris, Ahamed; Glosser, R.

    2012-03-01

    Minimizing the removal of healthy/recoverable tissue would significantly increase the chances of the patients' survival. The purpose is to be able to optically differentiate between burned and normal tissue with the addition of glycerol. Under normal conditions (without glycerol), the absorption coefficient is large, which means there is a large amount of absorption in the tissue. Glycerol decreases the absorption coefficient by reducing the cell size as well as providing a more uniform index of refraction in the interstitial environment. A lower overall absorption will reveal absorption peaks specific to the differentiation of the tissue. Results will be presented on the day of the conference.

  19. Production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae from glycerol broth.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ke-Ke; Zhang, Jian-An; Liu, De-Hua; Sun, Yan; Yang, Ming-De; Xu, Jing-Ming

    2006-11-01

    Broth containing 152 g glycerol l(-1) from Candida krusei culture was converted to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Residual glucose in the broth promoted growth of K. pneumoniae while acetate was inhibitory. After desalination treatment of glycerol broth by electrodialysis, the acetate in the broth was removed. A fed-batch culture with electrodialytically pretreated broth as substrate was developed giving 53 g 1,3-propanediol l(-1) with a yield of 0.41 g g(-1) glycerol and a productivity of 0.94 g l(-1) h(-1).

  20. Mechanical suitability of glycerol-preserved human dura mater for construction of prosthetic cardiac valves.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, K A; Lee, J M; Boughner, D R

    1984-03-01

    We have examined the tensile viscoelastic properties of fresh and glycerol-preserved human dura mater, and correlated the results with structural information from the scanning electron microscope. The interwoven laminar structure of dura produces rather high flexural stiffness, while the crossed-fibrillar laminae produce planar mechanical isotropy. Glycerol storage shifts the stress-strain curve to lower strain, reduces stress relaxation and creep, and lowers the ultimate tensile strength and strain at fracture. These changes may be due to glyceraldehyde crosslinking, or to increased interfibrillar friction. The latter hypothesis suggests that glycerol storage may reduce the fatigue lifetime of the tissue.

  1. The effect of 75% glycerol on the oxygen binding properties of carp hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, L D; Noble, R W

    1993-09-30

    At pH 6 in the presence of inositol hexaphosphate, IHP, conditions where ligand-saturated carp hemoglobin is already in the low affinity T state, the addition of glycerol has little effect on affinity and ligand binding remains noncooperative. At all other pH values examined, with and without IHP, the effect of glycerol is to lower oxygen affinity possibly by shifting the equilibrium between the T state and the high affinity R state in the direction of the T state. Although glycerol does not appear to have an appreciable effect on the T state itself, a small effect on the R state cannot be excluded by our data.

  2. Targeted gene disruption of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides reveals evidence that glycerol is a significant transferred nutrient from host plant to fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yangdou; Shen, Wenyun; Dauk, Melanie; Wang, Feng; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Zou, Jitao

    2004-01-01

    Unidirectional transfer of nutrients from plant host to pathogen represents a most revealing aspect of the parasitic lifestyle of plant pathogens. Whereas much effort has been focused on sugars and amino acids, the identification of other significant metabolites is equally important for comprehensive characterization of metabolic interactions between plants and biotrophic fungal pathogens. Employing a strategy of targeted gene disruption, we generated a mutant strain (gpdhDelta) defective in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in a hemibiotrophic plant pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. malvae. The gpdhDelta strain had severe defects in carbon utilization as it could use neither glucose nor amino acids for sustained growth. Although the mutant mycelia were able to grow on potato dextrose agar medium, they displayed arrhythmicity in growth and failure to conidiate. The metabolic defect of gpdhDelta could be entirely ameliorated by glycerol in chemically defined minimal medium. Furthermore, glycerol was the one and only metabolite that could restore rhythmic growth and conidiation of gpdhDelta. Despite the profound defects in carbon source utilization, in planta the gpdhDelta strain exhibited normal pathogenicity, proceeded normally in its life cycle, and produced abundant conidia. Analysis of plant tissues at the peripheral zone of fungal infection sites revealed a time-dependent reduction in glycerol content. This study provides strong evidence for a role of glycerol as a significant transferred metabolite from plant to fungal pathogen.

  3. Unconventional Protein Secretion in Plants.

    PubMed

    Davis, Destiny J; Kang, Byung-Ho; Heringer, Angelo S; Wilkop, Thomas E; Drakakaki, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) describes secretion pathways that bypass one or several of the canonical secretion pit-stops on the way to the plasma membrane, and/or involve the secretion of leaderless proteins. So far, alternatives to conventional secretion were primarily observed and studied in yeast and animal cells. The sessile lifestyle of plants brings with it unique restraints on how they adapt to adverse conditions and environmental challenges. Recently, attention towards unconventional secretion pathways in plant cells has substantially increased, with the large number of leaderless proteins identified through proteomic studies. While UPS pathways in plants are certainly not yet exhaustively researched, an emerging notion is that induction of UPS pathways is correlated with pathogenesis and stress responses. Given the multitude UPS events observed, comprehensively organizing the routes proteins take to the apoplast in defined UPS categories is challenging. With the establishment of a larger collection of studied plant proteins taking these UPS pathways, a clearer picture of endomembrane trafficking as a whole will emerge. There are several novel enabling technologies, such as vesicle proteomics and chemical genomics, with great potential for dissecting secretion pathways, providing information about the cargo that travels along them and the conditions that induce them. PMID:27665550

  4. Crude glycerol as feedstock for the sustainable production of p-hydroxybenzoate by Pseudomonas putida S12.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Suzanne; Gao, Nisi; Ruijssenaars, Harald J; de Winde, Johannes H

    2014-01-25

    Crude glycerol is a promising renewable feedstock in bioconversion processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Impurities present in crude glycerol can however, negatively impact the fermentation process. Successful crude glycerol utilization requires robust microbial production hosts that tolerate and preferably, can utilize such impurities. We investigated utilization of crude, unpurified glycerol as a substrate for the production of aromatic compounds by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. In high-cell density fed-batch fermentations, P. putida S12 surprisingly performed better on crude glycerol than on purified glycerol. By contrast, growth of Escherichia coli was severely compromised under these high cell density cultivation conditions on crude glycerol. For P. putida S12 the biomass-to-substrate yield, maximum biomass production rate and substrate uptake rate were consistently higher on crude glycerol. Moreover, production of p-hydroxybenzoate by engineered P. putida S12palB5 on crude glycerol showed a 10% yield improvement over production on purified glycerol. P. putida S12 is a favorable host for bioconversion processes utilizing crude glycerol as a substrate. Its intrinsic stress-tolerance properties provide the robustness required for efficient growth and metabolism on this renewable substrate. PMID:23999132

  5. Mixed feeds of glycerol and methanol can improve the performance of Pichia pastoris cultures: A quantitative study based on concentration gradients in transient continuous cultures.

    PubMed

    Jungo, Carmen; Marison, Ian; von Stockar, Urs

    2007-03-10

    Transient continuous cultures constitute a means to speed up strain characterization, by avoiding the need for many time-consuming steady-state experiments. In this study, mixed substrate growth on glycerol and methanol of a Pichia pastoris strain expressing and secreting recombinant avidin was characterized quantitatively by performing a nutrient gradient with linear increase of the methanol fraction in the feed medium from 0.5 to 0.93 C-mol C-mol(-1) at a dilution rate of 0.06 h(-1). The influence of the methanol fraction in the feed medium on recombinant avidin productivity and on specific alcohol oxidase activity were also examined. Results showed that, compared with cultures on methanol as sole carbon source, the specific recombinant avidin production rate was the same provided the methanol fraction in the feed medium was higher than 0.6 C-mol C-mol(-1). The volumetric avidin production rate was even 1.1-fold higher with a methanol fraction in the feed medium of 0.62 C-mol C-mol(-1) as a result of the higher biomass yield on mixed substrate growth compared with methanol alone. Moreover, since heat production and oxygen uptake rates are lower during mixed substrate growth on glycerol and methanol, mixed substrate cultures present technical advantages for the performance of high cell density P. pastoris cultures. Results obtained in a high cell density fed-batch culture with a mixed feed of 0.65 C-mol C-mol(-1) methanol and 0.35 C-mol C-mol(-1) glycerol were in agreement with results obtained during the transient nutrient gradient.

  6. Secret key generation via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M.; Evans, P. G.; Lawrie, B.; Legré, M.; Lougovski, P.; Ray, W.; Williams, B. P.; Qi, B.; Grice, W. P.

    2015-05-01

    We present and experimentally show a novel protocol for distributing secret information between two and only two parties in a N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) system. We demonstrate this new algorithm with N = 3 active parties over ~6km of telecom. fiber. Our experimental device is based on the Clavis2 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of the N parties can build secret keys based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N - 2 parties. This algorithm allows for the creation of two-party secret keys were standard QSS does not and significantly reduces the number of resources needed to implement QKD on a highly connected network such as the electrical grid.

  7. Secret Key Generation via a Modified Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Smith IV, Amos M; Evans, Philip G; Lawrie, Benjamin J; Legre, Matthieu; Lougovski, Pavel; Ray, William R; Williams, Brian P; Qi, Bing; Grice, Warren P

    2015-01-01

    We present and experimentally show a novel protocol for distributing secret information between two and only two parties in a N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS) system. We demonstrate this new algorithm with N = 3 active parties over 6km of telecom. ber. Our experimental device is based on the Clavis2 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system built by ID Quantique but is generalizable to any implementation. We show that any two out of the N parties can build secret keys based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N > 2 parties. This algorithm allows for the creation of two-party secret keys were standard QSS does not and signicantly reduces the number of resources needed to implement QKD on a highly connected network such as the electrical grid.

  8. Effect of glycerol on retention time and electrical properties of polymer bistable memory devices based on glycerol-modified PEDOT:PSS.

    PubMed

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Junhwan; Kim, Ohyun

    2012-01-01

    The addition of glycerol to Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films affected the bipolar switching characteristics of nonvolatile polymer memory devices (PMDs). Increasing the glycerol/PEDOT:PSS ratio caused increase in the OFF-current of the PMDs, but did not affect the ON-current levels. This result demonstrates that highly-conductive current paths occur in the ON-state. The write-read-erase-read cycle test was operated > 10(5) times. And, the ON-retention time is largely dependent on the glycerol to PEDOT:PSS ratio and annealing temperature. In addition, AFM analysis on the G-PEDOT:PSS films to see how the surface morphology of G-PEDOT:PSS layer influences the retention time properties was carried out. PMID:22524004

  9. Enzymatic coproduction of biodiesel and glycerol carbonate from soybean oil and dimethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil-Je; Jeon, Byoung Wook; Lee, Myunggu; Cho, Dae Haeng; Kim, Duk-Ki; Jung, Kwang S; Kim, Seung Wook; Han, Sung Ok; Kim, Yong Hwan; Park, Chulhwan

    2011-05-01

    The enzymatic coproduction of biodiesel and glycerol carbonate by the transesterification of soybean oil was studied using lipase as catalyst in organic solvent. To produce biodiesel and glycerol carbonate simultaneously, experiments were designed sequentially. Enzyme screening, the molar ratio of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) to soybean oil, reaction temperature and solvent effects were investigated. The results of enzyme screening, at 100 g/L Novozym 435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B), biodiesel and glycerol carbonate showed conversions of 58.7% and 50.7%, respectively. The optimal conditions were 60 °C, 100 g/L Novozym 435, 6.0:1 molar ratio with tert-butanol as solvent: 84.9% biodiesel and 92.0% glycerol carbonate production was achieved. PMID:22113023

  10. Cyanamide mediated synthesis under plausible primitive earth conditions. VI - The synthesis of glycerol and glycerophosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epps, D. E.; Nooner, D. W.; Eichberg, J.; Sherwood, E.; Oro, J.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of glycerol occurs when a solution of DL-glyceraldehyde is heated in the presence of hydrogen sulfide at room temperature. DL-glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone treated with hydrazine, as well as DL-glyceraldehyde incubated with formaldehyde are also partially converted to glycerol. The yields of the above reactions are from approximately 1% to about 3%. The formation of glycerophosphates occurs when glycerol is heated with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and either urea or cyanamide. The yield of glycerophosphates is about 30%, most of which is sn-glycero-1(3)-phosphate. These findings indicate that glycerol and sn-glycero-3-phosphate, which are moieties of glycerolipids, could have been formed under conditions which may have prevailed on the primitive earth.

  11. Kinetic analysis of dihydroxyacetone production from crude glycerol by immobilized cells of Gluconobacter oxydans MTCC 904.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Pritam Kumar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2016-09-01

    The present study has investigated kinetic features of bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol to dihydroxyacetone with immobilized Gluconobacter oxydans cells using modified Haldane substrate-inhibition model. The results have been compared against free cells and pure glycerol. Relative variations in the kinetic parameters KS, KI, Vmax, n and X reveal that immobilized G. oxydans cells (on PU foam substrate) with crude glycerol as substrate give higher order of inhibition (n) and lower maximum reaction velocities (Vmax). These results are essentially implications of substrate transport restrictions across immobilization matrix, which causes retention of substrate in the matrix and reduction in fractional available substrate (X) for the cells. This causes reduction in both KS (substrate concentration at Vmax/2) and KI (inhibition constant) as compared to free cells. For immobilized cells, substrate concentration (Smax) corresponding to Vmax is practically same for both pure and crude glycerol as substrate. PMID:27343447

  12. Insect glycerol transporters evolved by functional co-option and gene replacement

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Roderick Nigel; Chauvigné, François; Stavang, Jon Anders; Belles, Xavier; Cerdà, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane glycerol transport is typically facilitated by aquaglyceroporins in Prokaryota and Eukaryota. In holometabolan insects however, aquaglyceroporins are absent, yet several species possess polyol permeable aquaporins. It thus remains unknown how glycerol transport evolved in the Holometabola. By combining phylogenetic and functional studies, here we show that a more efficient form of glycerol transporter related to the water-selective channel AQP4 specifically evolved and multiplied in the insect lineage, resulting in the replacement of the ancestral branch of aquaglyceroporins in holometabolan insects. To recapitulate this evolutionary process, we generate specific mutants in distantly related insect aquaporins and human AQP4 and show that a single mutation in the selectivity filter converted a water-selective channel into a glycerol transporter at the root of the crown clade of hexapod insects. Integration of phanerozoic climate models suggests that these events were associated with the emergence of complete metamorphosis and the unparalleled radiation of insects. PMID:26183829

  13. Insect glycerol transporters evolved by functional co-option and gene replacement.

    PubMed

    Finn, Roderick Nigel; Chauvigné, François; Stavang, Jon Anders; Belles, Xavier; Cerdà, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane glycerol transport is typically facilitated by aquaglyceroporins in Prokaryota and Eukaryota. In holometabolan insects however, aquaglyceroporins are absent, yet several species possess polyol permeable aquaporins. It thus remains unknown how glycerol transport evolved in the Holometabola. By combining phylogenetic and functional studies, here we show that a more efficient form of glycerol transporter related to the water-selective channel AQP4 specifically evolved and multiplied in the insect lineage, resulting in the replacement of the ancestral branch of aquaglyceroporins in holometabolan insects. To recapitulate this evolutionary process, we generate specific mutants in distantly related insect aquaporins and human AQP4 and show that a single mutation in the selectivity filter converted a water-selective channel into a glycerol transporter at the root of the crown clade of hexapod insects. Integration of phanerozoic climate models suggests that these events were associated with the emergence of complete metamorphosis and the unparalleled radiation of insects. PMID:26183829

  14. Optimization of fermentation condition favoring butanol production from glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525.

    PubMed

    Sarchami, Tahereh; Johnson, Erin; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Butanol is a promising biofuel and valuable platform chemical that can be produced through fermentative conversion of glycerol. The initial fermentation conditions for butanol production from pure glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 were optimized via a central composite design. The effect of inoculum age, initial cell density, initial pH of medium and temperature were quantified and a quadratic model was able to predict butanol yield as a function of all four investigated factors. The model was confirmed through additional experiments and via analysis of variance (ANOVA). Subsequently, numerical optimization was used to maximize the butanol yield within the experimental range. Based on these results, batch fermentations in a 7 L bioreactor were performed using pure and crude (residue from biodiesel production) glycerol as substrates at optimized conditions. A butanol yield of 0.34 mole(butanol) mole(-1)(glycerol) was obtained indicating the suitability of this feedstock for fermentative butanol production. PMID:26922315

  15. Sensitivity analysis and parameter identification of nonlinear hybrid systems for glycerol transport mechanisms in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kuikui; Zhang, Xu; Feng, Enmin; Xiu, Zhilong

    2014-04-21

    In this paper, we establish a modified fourteen-dimensional nonlinear hybrid dynamic system with genetic regulation to describe the microbial continuous culture, in which we consider that there are three possible ways for glycerol to pass the cell's membrane and one way for 1,3-PD (passive diffusion and active transport). Then we discuss the existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence of solutions and the compactness of the solution set. We construct a global sensitivity analysis approach to reduce the number of kinetic parameters. In order to infer the most reasonable transport mechanism of glycerol, we propose a parameter identification model aiming at identifying the parameter with higher sensitivity and transport of glycerol, which takes the robustness index of the intracellular substance together with the relative error between the experimental data and the computational values of the extracellular substance as a performance index. Finally, a parallel algorithm is applied to find the optimal transport of glycerol and parameters. PMID:24406809

  16. Bioremediation of Parboiled Rice Effluent Supplemented with Biodiesel-Derived Glycerol Using Pichia pastoris X-33

    PubMed Central

    Gil de los Santos, Diego; Gil Turnes, Carlos; Rochedo Conceição, Fabricio

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Pichia pastoris X-33 as a bioremediator to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and phosphorus (P-PO4   3−), after culture in parboiled rice effluent supplemented with p.a. glycerol or a glycerol by-product of the biodiesel industry. The greatest reduction in the COD (55%), TKN (45%), and P-PO4   3− (52%) of the effluent was observed in cultures of P. pastoris X-33 supplemented with 15 g ·L−1 of biodiesel-derived glycerol. Furthermore, the overall biomass yield was 2.1 g ·L−1. These data suggest that biodiesel-derived glycerol is an efficient carbon source for the bioremediation of parboiled rice effluent and biomass production. PMID:22919327

  17. Progesterone inhibits mast cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Vasiadi, M; Kempuraj, D; Boucher, W; Kalogeromitros, D; Theoharides, T C

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, where they secrete numerous vasoactive, inflammatory and nociceptive mediators in response to immunoglobulin E (IgE) and antigen. However, they have also been implicated in inflammatory conditions, such as painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and migraines, all of which occur more often in women and are exacerbated during ovulation, but are suppressed during pregnancy. Mast cells express high affinity estrogen receptors and estradiol augments their secretion, while tamoxifen inhibits it. Here we report that progesterone (100 nM), but not the structurally related cholesterol, inhibits histamine secretion from purified rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated immunologically or by substance P (SP), an effect also documented by electron microscopy. These results suggest that mast cell secretion may be regulated by progesterone and may explain the reduced symptoms of certain inflammatory conditions during pregnancy.

  18. Plant secretome: unlocking secrets of the secreted proteins.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Job, Dominique; Rakwal, Randeep

    2010-02-01

    Plant secretomics is a newly emerging area of the plant proteomics field. It basically describes the global study of secreted proteins into the extracellular space of plant cell or tissue at any given time and under certain conditions through various secretory mechanisms. A combination of biochemical, proteomics and bioinformatics approaches has been developed to isolate, identify and profile secreted proteins using complementary in vitro suspension-cultured cells and in planta systems. Developed inventories of secreted proteins under normal, biotic and abiotic conditions revealed several different types of novel secreted proteins, including the leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs). On average, LSPs can account for more than 50% of the total identified secretome, supporting, as in other eukaryotes, the existence of novel secretory mechanisms independent of the classical endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway, and suggesting that this non-classical mechanism of protein expression is, for as yet unknown reasons, more massively used than in other eukaryotic systems. Plants LSPs, which seem to be potentially involved in the defense/stress responses, might have dual (extracellular and/or intracellular) roles as most of them have established intracellular functions, yet presently unknown extracellular functions. Evidence is emerging on the role of glycosylation in the apical sorting and trafficking of secretory proteins. These initial secretome studies in plants have considerably advanced our understanding on secretion of different types of proteins and their underlying mechanisms, and opened a door for comparative analyses of plant secretomes with those of other organisms. In this first review on plant secretomics, we summarize and discuss the secretome definition, the applied approaches for unlocking secrets of the secreted proteins in the extracellular fluid, the possible functional significance and secretory mechanisms of LSPs, as well as glycosylation of

  19. Glass polymorphism in glycerol-water mixtures: I. A computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Jahn, David A; Wong, Jessina; Bachler, Johannes; Loerting, Thomas; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2016-04-28

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of water-glycerol mixtures in the glass state. Specifically, we study the transformations between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) forms of these mixtures induced by compression/decompression at constant temperature. Our MD simulations reproduce qualitatively the density changes observed in experiments. Specifically, the LDA-HDA transformation becomes (i) smoother and (ii) the hysteresis in a compression/decompression cycle decreases as T and/or glycerol content increase. This is surprising given the fast compression/decompression rates (relative to experiments) accessible in MD simulations. We study mixtures with glycerol molar concentration χ(g) = 0-13% and find that, for the present mixture models and rates, the LDA-HDA transformation is detectable up to χ(g) ≈ 5%. As the concentration increases, the density of the starting glass (i.e., LDA at approximately χ(g) ≤ 5%) rapidly increases while, instead, the density of HDA remains practically constant. Accordingly, the LDA state and hence glass polymorphism become inaccessible for glassy mixtures with approximately χ(g) > 5%. We present an analysis of the molecular-level changes underlying the LDA-HDA transformation. As observed in pure glassy water, during the LDA-to-HDA transformation, water molecules within the mixture approach each other, moving from the second to the first hydration shell and filling the first interstitial shell of water molecules. Interestingly, similar changes also occur around glycerol OH groups. It follows that glycerol OH groups contribute to the density increase during the LDA-HDA transformation. An analysis of the hydrogen bond (HB)-network of the mixtures shows that the LDA-HDA transformation is accompanied by minor changes in the number of HBs of water and glycerol. Instead, large changes in glycerol and water coordination numbers occur. We also perform a detailed analysis of the effects that

  20. Glass polymorphism in glycerol-water mixtures: I. A computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Jahn, David A; Wong, Jessina; Bachler, Johannes; Loerting, Thomas; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2016-04-28

    We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of water-glycerol mixtures in the glass state. Specifically, we study the transformations between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) forms of these mixtures induced by compression/decompression at constant temperature. Our MD simulations reproduce qualitatively the density changes observed in experiments. Specifically, the LDA-HDA transformation becomes (i) smoother and (ii) the hysteresis in a compression/decompression cycle decreases as T and/or glycerol content increase. This is surprising given the fast compression/decompression rates (relative to experiments) accessible in MD simulations. We study mixtures with glycerol molar concentration χ(g) = 0-13% and find that, for the present mixture models and rates, the LDA-HDA transformation is detectable up to χ(g) ≈ 5%. As the concentration increases, the density of the starting glass (i.e., LDA at approximately χ(g) ≤ 5%) rapidly increases while, instead, the density of HDA remains practically constant. Accordingly, the LDA state and hence glass polymorphism become inaccessible for glassy mixtures with approximately χ(g) > 5%. We present an analysis of the molecular-level changes underlying the LDA-HDA transformation. As observed in pure glassy water, during the LDA-to-HDA transformation, water molecules within the mixture approach each other, moving from the second to the first hydration shell and filling the first interstitial shell of water molecules. Interestingly, similar changes also occur around glycerol OH groups. It follows that glycerol OH groups contribute to the density increase during the LDA-HDA transformation. An analysis of the hydrogen bond (HB)-network of the mixtures shows that the LDA-HDA transformation is accompanied by minor changes in the number of HBs of water and glycerol. Instead, large changes in glycerol and water coordination numbers occur. We also perform a detailed analysis of the effects that

  1. Fracture phenomena in an isotonic salt solution during freezing and their elimination using glycerol.

    PubMed

    Gao, D Y; Lin, S; Watson, P F; Critser, J K

    1995-06-01

    Thermal stress and consequent fracture in frozen organs or cell suspensions have been proposed to be two causes of cell cryoinjury. A specific device was developed to study the thermal stress and the fracture phenomena during a slow cooling process of isotonic NaCl solutions with different concentrations of glycerol (cryoprotectant) in a cylindrical tube. It was shown from the experimental results that glycerol significantly influenced the solidification process of the ternary solutions and reduced the thermal stress. The higher the initial glycerol concentration, the lower the thermal stress in the frozen solutions. Glycerol concentrations over 0.3 M were sufficient to eliminate the fracture of the frozen solutions under the present experimental conditions. To explain the action of glycerol in reducing the thermal stress and preventing the ice fracture, a further study on ice crystal formation and growth of ice in these solutions was undertaken using cryomicroscopy. It is known from previous studies that an increase of initial glycerol concentration reduced frozen fraction of water in the solution at any given low temperature due to colligative properties of solution, which reduced the total ice volume expansion during water solidification. The present cryomicroscopic investigation showed that under a fixed cooling condition the different initial glycerol concentrations induced the different microstructures of the frozen solutions at not only a given low temperature but also a given frozen fraction of water. It has been known that ice volume expansion during solidification is a major factor causing the thermal stress and the interior microstructure is critical for the mechanical strength of a solid. Therefore, functions of glycerol in reducing the total ice volume expansion during water solidification and in influencing interior microstructure of the ice may contribute to reduce the thermal stress and prevent the fracture in the frozen solutions.

  2. Lipid and citric acid production by wild yeasts grown in glycerol.

    PubMed

    Souza, Karla Silva Teixeira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2014-04-01

    In this study, crude glycerol was used as a carbon source in the cultivation of wild yeasts, aiming for the production of microbial lipids and citric acid. Forty yeasts of different sources were tested concerning their growth in crude and commercial glycerol. Four yeasts (Lidnera saturnus UFLA CES-Y677, Yarrowia lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4, Rhodotorula glutinis NCYC 2439, and Cryptococcus curvatus NCYC 476) were then selected owing to their ability to grow in pure (OD600 2.133, 1.633, 2.055, and 2.049, respectively) and crude (OD600 2.354, 1.753, 2.316, and 2.281, respectively) glycerol (10%, 20%, and 30%). Y. lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4 was selected for its ability to maintain cell viability in concentrations of 30% of crude glycerol, and high glycerol intake (18.907 g/l). This yeast was submitted to lipid production in 30 g/l of crude glycerol, and therefore obtained 63.4% of microbial lipids. In the fatty acid profile, there was a predominance of stearic (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids in the concentrations of 87.64% and 74.67%, respectively. We also performed optimization of the parameters for the production of citric acid, which yielded a production of 0.19 g/l of citric acid in optimum conditions (38.4 g/l of crude glycerol, agitation of 184 rpm, and temperature of 30°C). Yarrowia lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4 presented good lipid production when in the concentration of 30 g/l of glycerol. These data may be used for production in large quantities for the application of industrial biodiesel.

  3. Dependence of NO recombination dynamics in horse myoglobin on solution glycerol content

    SciTech Connect

    Shreve, A.P.; Franzen, S.; Simpson, M.C.; Dyer, R.B.

    1999-09-16

    The recombination dynamics of NO with horse heart myoglobin (Mb) following photolysis with a 570 nm excitation pulse were measured by time-resolved absorption with 250 fs temporal resolution. These measurements were carried out in room-temperature solutions in which the glycerol concentration was varied from 0 to 90% (w/v). The recombination of NO is nonsingle exponential in all cases,m but becomes faster as the glycerol concentration is increased. The interpretation of these results is aided by a maximum entropy analysis to determine a distribution of rate processes consistent with the data. This analysis suggests that in buffer there are two dominant rate processes for NO recombination on the subnanosecond time scale, one at {approx}10 ps and one at {approx}200 ps. The dominant effect of increasing glycerol content is to increase the amplitude of the fast process, with no corresponding significant change in rate, and to decrease the amplitude of the slow process, with no corresponding significant change in rate, and to decrease the amplitude of the slow process, but with a corresponding increase in rate. These results are consistent with a photodissociation process in which photolyzed NO partitions immediately between two distinct populations, one of which has a rapid and the other of which has a slower recombination. The rate of the rapid recombination is independent of glycerol concentration, and therefore decoupled from any protein relaxation process influenced by glycerol, while that of the slower recombination increases at higher glycerol concentration. Further, the partitioning between these two populations also depends on glycerol content, with the relative amplitude of the faster recombination process increasing as the glycerol content is increased. Interpretation of these observations in terms of ligand trajectories following photodissociation, and possible connections of these results with both infrared and crystallographic studies of photodissociated

  4. Adaptation of acidogenic sludge to increasing glycerol concentrations for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Venegas, E; Cabrol, L; Brandhoff, B; Hamelin, J; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative as an energetic carrier and its production by dark fermentation from wastewater has been recently proposed, with special attention to crude glycerol as potential substrate. In this study, two different feeding strategies were evaluated for replacing the glucose substrate by glycerol substrate: a one-step strategy (glucose was replaced abruptly by glycerol) and a step-by-step strategy (progressive decrease of glucose concentration and increase of glycerol concentration from 0 to 5 g L(-1)), in a continuous stirred tank reactor (12 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH 5.5, 35 °C). While the one-step strategy led to biomass washout and unsuccessful H2 production, the step-by-step strategy was efficient for biomass adaptation, reaching acceptable hydrogen yields (0.4 ± 0.1 molH2 mol(-1) glycerol consumed) around 33 % of the theoretical yield independently of the glycerol concentration. Microbial community structure was investigated by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting techniques, targeting either the total community (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene) or the functional Clostridium population involved in H2 production (hydA gene), as well as by 454 pyrosequencing of the total community. Multivariate analysis of fingerprinting and pyrosequencing results revealed the influence of the feeding strategy on the bacterial community structure and suggested the progressive structural adaptation of the community to increasing glycerol concentrations, through the emergence and selection of specific species, highly correlated to environmental parameters. Particularly, this work highlighted an interesting shift of dominant community members (putatively responsible of hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)) according to the gradient of glycerol proportion in the feed, from the family Veillonellaceae to the genera Prevotella and

  5. Adaptation of acidogenic sludge to increasing glycerol concentrations for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Venegas, E; Cabrol, L; Brandhoff, B; Hamelin, J; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative as an energetic carrier and its production by dark fermentation from wastewater has been recently proposed, with special attention to crude glycerol as potential substrate. In this study, two different feeding strategies were evaluated for replacing the glucose substrate by glycerol substrate: a one-step strategy (glucose was replaced abruptly by glycerol) and a step-by-step strategy (progressive decrease of glucose concentration and increase of glycerol concentration from 0 to 5 g L(-1)), in a continuous stirred tank reactor (12 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH 5.5, 35 °C). While the one-step strategy led to biomass washout and unsuccessful H2 production, the step-by-step strategy was efficient for biomass adaptation, reaching acceptable hydrogen yields (0.4 ± 0.1 molH2 mol(-1) glycerol consumed) around 33 % of the theoretical yield independently of the glycerol concentration. Microbial community structure was investigated by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting techniques, targeting either the total community (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene) or the functional Clostridium population involved in H2 production (hydA gene), as well as by 454 pyrosequencing of the total community. Multivariate analysis of fingerprinting and pyrosequencing results revealed the influence of the feeding strategy on the bacterial community structure and suggested the progressive structural adaptation of the community to increasing glycerol concentrations, through the emergence and selection of specific species, highly correlated to environmental parameters. Particularly, this work highlighted an interesting shift of dominant community members (putatively responsible of hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)) according to the gradient of glycerol proportion in the feed, from the family Veillonellaceae to the genera Prevotella and

  6. Yeast cells with impaired drug resistance accumulate glycerol and glucose.

    PubMed

    Dikicioglu, Duygu; Oc, Sebnem; Rash, Bharat M; Dunn, Warwick B; Pir, Pınar; Kell, Douglas B; Kirdar, Betul; Oliver, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in yeast is effected by two major superfamilies of membrane transporters: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. In the present work, we investigated the cellular responses to disruptions in both MFS (by deleting the transporter gene, QDR3) and ABC (by deleting the gene for the Pdr3 transcription factor) transporter systems by growing diploid homozygous deletion yeast strains in glucose- or ammonium-limited continuous cultures. The transcriptome and the metabolome profiles of these strains, as well as the flux distributions in the optimal solution space, reveal novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of action of QDR3 and PDR3. Our results show how cells rearrange their metabolism to cope with the problems that arise from the loss of these drug-resistance genes, which likely evolved to combat chemical attack from bacterial or fungal competitors. This is achieved through the accumulation of intracellular glucose, glycerol, and inorganic phosphate, as well as by repurposing genes that are known to function in other parts of metabolism in order to minimise the effects of toxic compounds. PMID:24157722

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Glycerol Monooleate Confined between Mica Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bradley-Shaw, Joshua L; Camp, Philip J; Dowding, Peter J; Lewtas, Ken

    2016-08-01

    The structure and frictional properties of glycerol monooleate (GMO) in organic solvents, with and without water impurity, confined and sheared between two mica surfaces are examined using molecular dynamics simulations. The structure of the fluid is characterized in various ways, and the differences between systems with nonaggregated GMO and with preformed GMO reverse micelles are examined. Preformed reverse micelles are metastable under static conditions in all systems. In n-heptane under shear conditions, with or without water, preformed GMO reverse micelles remain intact and adsorb onto one surface or another, becoming surface micelles. In dry toluene, preformed reverse micelles break apart under shear, while in the presence of water, the reverse micelles survive and become surface micelles. In all systems under static and shear conditions, nonaggregated GMO adsorbs onto both surfaces with roughly equal probability. Added water is strongly associated with the GMO, irrespective of shear or the form of the added GMO. In all cases, with increasing shear rate, the GMO molecules flatten on the surface, and the kinetic friction coefficient increases. Under low-shear conditions, the friction is insensitive to the form of the GMO added, whereas the presence of water is found to lead to a small reduction in friction. Under high-shear conditions, the presence of reverse micelles leads to a significant reduction in friction, whereas the presence of water increases the friction in n-heptane and decreases the friction in toluene. PMID:27429247

  8. Substrate specificity modification of the stromal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S R; Toguri, T

    1997-01-15

    The stromal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs; EC 2.3.1.15) from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and squash (Cucurbita moschata) were expressed in Escherichia coli and their activities with palmitoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA compared. The GPAT from squash, a chilling-sensitive plant, was found to have the greatest difference in activities between the two substrates, using palmitoyl-CoA over three times faster than oleoyl-CoA. In contrast, the enzyme from spinach, a chilling-tolerant plant, preferred oleoyl-CoA over palmitoyl-CoA. By using conserved restriction endonuclease sites each of the two genes was divided into three fragments of roughly equal size and recombined to create six different chimeras. All chimeras retained a large portion of their original activity but in most cases the specificity was greatly altered. The central third of the protein was found to contain the structural features which determine substrate specificity of the wild-type GPATs. Two of the chimeras, which have a spinach-derived central region and a squash-derived carboxyl region, were found to have greatly enhanced specificities for 18:1 acyl chains, potentially making them ideal for decreasing the level of saturation of plant membrane lipids through genetic engineering.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Glycerol Monooleate Confined between Mica Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bradley-Shaw, Joshua L; Camp, Philip J; Dowding, Peter J; Lewtas, Ken

    2016-08-01

    The structure and frictional properties of glycerol monooleate (GMO) in organic solvents, with and without water impurity, confined and sheared between two mica surfaces are examined using molecular dynamics simulations. The structure of the fluid is characterized in various ways, and the differences between systems with nonaggregated GMO and with preformed GMO reverse micelles are examined. Preformed reverse micelles are metastable under static conditions in all systems. In n-heptane under shear conditions, with or without water, preformed GMO reverse micelles remain intact and adsorb onto one surface or another, becoming surface micelles. In dry toluene, preformed reverse micelles break apart under shear, while in the presence of water, the reverse micelles survive and become surface micelles. In all systems under static and shear conditions, nonaggregated GMO adsorbs onto both surfaces with roughly equal probability. Added water is strongly associated with the GMO, irrespective of shear or the form of the added GMO. In all cases, with increasing shear rate, the GMO molecules flatten on the surface, and the kinetic friction coefficient increases. Under low-shear conditions, the friction is insensitive to the form of the GMO added, whereas the presence of water is found to lead to a small reduction in friction. Under high-shear conditions, the presence of reverse micelles leads to a significant reduction in friction, whereas the presence of water increases the friction in n-heptane and decreases the friction in toluene.

  10. Mutations and phenotype in isolated glycerol kinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. P.; Muscatelli, F.; Stafford, A. N.; Chelly, J.; Dahl, N.; Blomquist, H. K.; Delanghe, J.; Willems, P. J.; Steinmann, B.; Monaco, A. P.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that isolated glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency in three families results from mutation of the Xp21 GK gene. GK mutations were detected in four patients with widely differing phenotypes. Patient 1 had a splice-site mutation causing premature termination. His general health was good despite absent GK activity, indicating that isolated GK deficiency can be silent. Patient 2 had GK deficiency and a severe phenotype involving psychomotor retardation and growth delay, bone dysplasia, and seizures, similar to the severe phenotype of one of the first described cases of GK deficiency. His younger brother, patient 3, also had GK deficiency, but so far his development has been normal. GK exon 17 was deleted in both brothers, implicating additional factors in causation of the severe phenotype of patient 2. Patient 4 had both GK deficiency with mental retardation and a GK missense mutation (D440V). Possible explanations for the phenotypic variation of these four patients include ascertainment bias; metabolic or environmental stress as a precipitating factor in revealing GK-related changes, as has previously been described in juvenile GK deficiency; and interactions with functional polymorphisms in other genes that alter the effect of GK deficiency on normal development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8651297

  11. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  12. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  13. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2⁡m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  14. Transient Infantile Hypertriglyceridemia, Fatty Liver, and Hepatic Fibrosis Caused by Mutated GPD1, Encoding Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Zevit, Noam; Zahav, Adi Har; Guo, Liang; Parathath, Saj; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; McIntyre, Adam D.; Wang, Jian; Albin-Kaplanski, Adi; Hartman, Corina; Marom, Daphna; Zeharia, Avraham; Badir, Abir; Shoerman, Oded; Simon, Amos J.; Rechavi, Gideon; Shohat, Mordechai; Hegele, Robert A.; Fisher, Edward A.; Shamir, Raanan

    2012-01-01

    The molecular basis for primary hereditary hypertriglyceridemia has been identified in fewer than 5% of cases. Investigation of monogenic dyslipidemias has the potential to expose key metabolic pathways. We describe a hitherto unreported disease in ten individuals manifesting as moderate to severe transient childhood hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver followed by hepatic fibrosis and the identification of the mutated gene responsible for this condition. We performed SNP array-based homozygosity mapping and found a single large continuous segment of homozygosity on chromosomal region 12q13.12. The candidate region contained 35 genes that are listed in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and 27 other genes. We performed candidate gene sequencing and screened both clinically affected individuals (children and adults with hypertriglyceridemia) and also a healthy cohort for mutations in GPD1, which encodes glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1. Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous splicing mutation, c.361−1G>C, which resulted in an aberrantly spliced mRNA in the ten affected individuals. This mutation is predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking essential conserved residues, including a functional site responsible for initial substrate recognition. Functional consequences of the mutation were evaluated by measuring intracellular concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride as well as triglyceride secretion in HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells lines overexpressing normal and mutant GPD1 cDNA. Overexpression of mutant GPD1 in HepG2 cells, in comparison to overexpression of wild-type GPD1, resulted in increased secretion of triglycerides (p = 0.01). This finding supports the pathogenicity of the identified mutation. PMID:22226083

  15. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) in U.S. Great Basin hot springs.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Brian P; Paraiso, Julienne J; Williams, Amanda J; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wei, Yuli; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A; Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31-95°C; pH: 6.8-10.7). bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal). The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS(-)) and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO(-) 3). Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤70°C).

  16. In situ produced branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in suspended particulate matter from the Yenisei River, Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jonge, Cindy; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Cherkashov, Georgy; Fedotov, Andrey; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in marine river fan sediments have a potential use for determining changes in the mean annual temperature (MAT) and pH of the river watershed soils. Prior to their incorporation in marine sediments, the compounds are transported to the marine system by rivers. However, emerging evidence suggests that the brGDGTs in freshwater systems can be derived from both soil run-off and in situ production. The production of brGDGTs in the river system can complicate the interpretation of the brGDGT signal delivered to the marine system. Therefore, we studied the distribution of brGDGT lipids in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the Yenisei River. Chromatographic improvements allowed quantification of the recently described hexamethylated brGDGT isomer, characterized by having two methyl groups at the 6/6‧ instead of the 5/5‧ positions, in an environmental dataset for the first time. This novel compound was the most abundant brGDGT in SPM from the Yenisei. Its fractional abundance correlated well with that of the 6-methyl isomer of the hexamethylated brGDGT that contains one cyclopentane moiety. The Yenisei River watershed is characterized by large differences in MAT (>11 °C) as it spans a large latitudinal range (46-73°N), which would be expected to be reflected in brGDGT distributions of its soils. However, the brGDGT distributions in its SPM show little variation. Furthermore, the reconstructed pH values are high compared to the watershed soil pH. We, therefore, hypothesize that the brGDGTs in the Yenisei River SPM are predominantly produced in situ and not primarily derived from erosion of soil. This accounts for the absence of a change in the temperature signal, as the river water temperature is more stable. Using a lake calibration, the reconstructed temperature values agree with the mean summer temperatures (MST) recorded. The brGDGTs delivered to the sea by the Yenisei River during this

  17. High-purity propionate production from glycerol in mixed culture fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Wang, Ting; Shen, Nan; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-11-01

    High-purity propionate production from glycerol in mixed culture fermentation (MCF) induced by high ammonium concentration was investigated. Fed-batch experiments revealed that higher ammonium concentration (>2.9g/L) had simultaneous negative effects on acetate and propionate degradation. Propionate production and yield was up to 22.6g/L and 0.45g COD/g COD glycerol, respectively, with a purity of 96%. Sequential batch experiments demonstrated that the yields of propionate were 0.3±0.05, 0.32±0.01, and 0.34±0.03g COD/g COD at a glycerol concentration of 2.78, 4.38, and 5.56g/L, respectively, and the purity of propionate was 91-100%. Microbial community analysis showed that the phylum Firmicutes dominated the bacterial community at different glycerol concentrations. However, the Methanosaeta population decreased from 46% to 6% when glycerol concentration increased from 2.78 to 5.56g/L, resulting in lower acetate degradation rate. Thus, the present study might provide an alternative option for the production of propionate from glycerol via MCF. PMID:27544916

  18. The role of chemisorbed hydroxyl species in alkaline electrocatalysis of glycerol on gold.

    PubMed

    Shi, X; Simpson, D E; Roy, D

    2015-05-01

    The mechanism of energy conversion in a direct glycerol fuel cell (DGFC) is governed by the anode supported heterogeneous steps of glycerol electro-oxidation. In aerated alkaline electrolytes, glycerol also participates in a base catalyzed process, which can release certain species mixing with the anode catalyzed surface products. As a result, selective probing of the surface catalytic reactions involving such systems can be difficult. The present work addresses this issue for a gold anode by using the analytical capability of cyclic voltammetry (CV). In addition, surface plasmon resonance measurements are used to optically probe the adsorption characteristics of the electrolyte species. The net exchange current of the oxidation process and the transfer coefficient of the rate determining step are evaluated by analyzing the CV data. The interfacial reactions and their products on Au are identified by measuring the number of electrons released during the electro-oxidation of glycerol. The results indicate that these reactions are facilitated by the surface bound hydroxyl species on Au (chemisorbed OH(-) and faradaically formed Au-OH). By comparing the findings for stationary and rotating electrodes, it is shown that, convective mass transport is critical to maintaining efficient progression of the consecutive oxidation steps of glycerol. In the absence of hydrodynamic support, the main surface products of glycerol oxidation appear to be glyceraldehyde, glycerate and malonate, formed through a net six-electron route. In the presence of controlled convection, a ten-electron process is activated, where mesaxolate is the likely additional product. PMID:25855265

  19. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Alex M; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Han, Songi

    2016-07-28

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity.

  20. The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Patlar, Suleyman; Yalçin, Hasan; Boyali, Ekrem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycerol supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance in sedentary subjects and athletes. The glycerol supplement treatments were as follows: 40 volunteers were selected and divided into two groups, sedentary and exercise groups. These two groups were further subdivided into two groups. The first group, the placebo (S), only consumed water; the second group (GS) consumed glycerol followed by water. Neither of these groups did any exercise for 20 days. The third and fourth groups consisted of the exercise group subjects; they were required to perform a 20-m shuttle run test every day for 20 days. The third group’s subjects, the placebo (E), only consumed water. The last group (GE) consumed glycerol followed by water. The Astrand Cycle Ergometer Test (ACET) was performed, and the Cosmed K4b2 portable gas analysis system was used to determine the aerobic capacity, while the Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAPT) was performed to determine the level of anaerobic power. The 20 Meter Shuttle Run Test (20MSRT) was performed after glycerol supplementation throughout the 20 days, and the exercise periods and distances were recorded. The glycerol supplement was found to have an increasing effect on aerobic and anaerobic performance in GS, E and GE. A similar effect was found for the covered distances and time in the same groups. However, an adverse effect was found on body weight. PMID:23487412

  1. Consolidating biofuel platforms through the fermentative bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erin; Sarchami, Tahereh; Kießlich, Sascha; Munch, Garret; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Economic realities for the rising industrial biofuel production have changed substantially during the low oil price period starting in the mid 2010's. Increased competition requires the sector to increase productivity through the reduction of low-value by-products and full utilization of all value and energy stored in their respective feedstock. Biodiesel is produced commercially from substrates such as animal fat and vegetable oil, generating approximately 10 wt% crude glycerol as its main, currently underutilized, by-product. This crude glycerol is contaminated with catalyst, soap, free fatty acids, glycerides and methyl esters; hence only a small fraction enters the existing glycerol markets, while the purification costs for the majority of crude glycerol are simply too high. However, this presents a unique opportunity to generate additional value. One technical possibility is to use crude glycerol as a carbon source for butanol production, a compound of higher value and energy, a potential additive for gasoline and diesel fuels and bulk chemical commodity. Conversion facilities could be co-located with biodiesel plants, utilizing established infrastructure and adding significant value and productivity to the existing biodiesel industry. This review focuses on the current activities geared towards the bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

  2. Effects of glycerol on apoptotic signaling pathways during boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changjun; Tang, Keyi; He, Lian; Peng, Wenpei; Ding, Li; Fang, Donghui; Zhang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) with post-thawed boar spermatozoa results in low farrowing rates and reduced litter sizes mainly due to cryoinjury or damages to spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Low viability and motility of post-thawed boar spermatozoa are highly associated with apoptosis during cryopreservation. Although glycerol is widely used a cryoprotectant (CPA) for boar spermatozoa cryopreservation, the mechanism and relationship between glycerol and apoptosis-related gene expression needs to be clarified. In this study, we treated boar spermatozoa with different concentrations of glycerol in lactose egg yolk (LEY) extender to evaluate the apoptosis-related gene expression and protease activities of caspases. These results show that: (1) low concentrations of glycerol (2% and 3%) were more suitable for boar spermatozoa cryopreservation; (2) apoptosis-related genes involved in intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor apoptotic signaling pathways were widely expressed in different concentrations of glycerol treated boar spermatozoa; (3) there was a significant positive correlation (r=0.840, P=0.037) between the percentage of Annexin V(+)/PI(+) staining spermatozoa and caspase-6/9 protease activity. In conclusion, 2% and 3% glycerol have the best anti-apoptotic effects, and the expression of Fas/FasL and Bcl-2/Bax have a strong correlation with spermatozoa parameters. PMID:24680861

  3. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    PubMed

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-01-01

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive. PMID:22809320

  4. The citric acid production from raw glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica yeast and its regulation.

    PubMed

    Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Lunina, Julia N

    2013-08-01

    The optimal cultivation conditions ensuring the maximal rate of citric acid (CA) biosynthesis by glycerol-grown mutant Yarrowia lipolytica NG40/UV7 were found to be as follows: growth limitation by inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur), 28 °C, pH 5.0, dissolved oxygen concentration (pO₂) of 50 % (of air saturation), and pulsed addition of glycerol from 20 to 80 g L⁻¹ depending on the rate of medium titration. Under optimal conditions of fed-batch cultivation, in the medium with pure glycerol, strain Y. lipolytica NG40/UV7 produced 115 g L⁻¹ of CA with the mass yield coefficient of 0.64 g g⁻¹ and isocitric acid (ICA) amounted to 4.6 g L⁻¹; in the medium with raw glycerol, CA production was 112 g L⁻¹ with the mass yield coefficient of 0.90 g g⁻¹ and ICA amounted to 5.3 g L⁻¹. Based on the activities of enzymes involved in the initial stages of raw glycerol assimilation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate cycle, the mechanism of increased CA yield from glycerol-containing substrates in Y. lipolytica yeast was explained.

  5. Enhanced nutrient removal from municipal wastewater assisted by mixotrophic microalgal cultivation using glycerol.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabuddha L; Choi, Hee Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2016-05-01

    In a present study, nutrient removal from municipal wastewater by Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated by using mixotrophic cultivation with glycerol (0 to 5 g/L). Performance parameters were assessed by estimating the removal of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biomass growth, chlorophyll content, lipid yield, and fatty acids. With the addition of 2 g/L glycerol, a maximum biomass productivity of 56 mg/L/day was achieved in the mixotrophic culture of C. vulgaris within 12 days. The mixotrophic culture showed a 30-fold increase in biomass productivity compared to the wastewater without any glycerol. However, the highest total nitrogen removal (80.62 %), total phosphate removal (60.72 %), and COD removal (96.3 %) was observed in the N. oculata culture supplemented with 3, 5, and 1 g/L glycerol, respectively. These results suggest that mixotrophic cultivation using glycerol offers great potential in the production of renewable biomass, waste water treatment, and consequent production of high-value microalgal oil. Graphical Abstract Simultaneous biomass production and nutrient removal using microalgae cultivated in wastewater supplemented with glycerol. PMID:26867689

  6. Fermentation of residual glycerol by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 in pure and mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Dams, Rosemeri I; Guilherme, Alexandre A; Vale, Maria S; Nunes, Vanja F; Leitão, Renato C; Santaella, Sandra T

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to estimate the production of hydrogen, organic acids and alcohols by the strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using residual glycerol as a carbon source. The experiments were carried out in pure and mixed cultures in batch experiments. Three different sources of inocula for mixed culture were used. Ruminal liquid from goats and sludge collected from two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating municipal wastewater and brewery effluent were tested for hydrogen, organic acids and alcohols production with or without C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The main detected end-products from the glycerol fermentation were hydrogen, organic acids (acetic, propionic, butyric and caproic) and alcohol (ethanol and 1,3-propanediol - 1,3PD). High hydrogen (0.44 mol H2/mol glycerol consumed) and 1,3PD (0.32 mol 1,3PD/mol glycerol consumed) yields were obtained when the strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was bioaugmented into the sludge from municipal wastewater using 5 g/L of glycerol. Significant concentrations of n-caproic acid were detected in the ruminal liquid when amended with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The results suggest that glycerol can be used for the generation of H2, 1,3PD and n-caproic acid using C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 as agent in pure or mixed cultures.

  7. Glycerol Production by Fermenting Yeast Cells Is Essential for Optimal Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  8. Consolidating biofuel platforms through the fermentative bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erin; Sarchami, Tahereh; Kießlich, Sascha; Munch, Garret; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Economic realities for the rising industrial biofuel production have changed substantially during the low oil price period starting in the mid 2010's. Increased competition requires the sector to increase productivity through the reduction of low-value by-products and full utilization of all value and energy stored in their respective feedstock. Biodiesel is produced commercially from substrates such as animal fat and vegetable oil, generating approximately 10 wt% crude glycerol as its main, currently underutilized, by-product. This crude glycerol is contaminated with catalyst, soap, free fatty acids, glycerides and methyl esters; hence only a small fraction enters the existing glycerol markets, while the purification costs for the majority of crude glycerol are simply too high. However, this presents a unique opportunity to generate additional value. One technical possibility is to use crude glycerol as a carbon source for butanol production, a compound of higher value and energy, a potential additive for gasoline and diesel fuels and bulk chemical commodity. Conversion facilities could be co-located with biodiesel plants, utilizing established infrastructure and adding significant value and productivity to the existing biodiesel industry. This review focuses on the current activities geared towards the bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol. PMID:27116969

  9. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  10. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  11. Effects of glycerol infusion on cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with intracranial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekura, Y.; Tanada, S.; Senda, M.; Saji, H.; Kobayashi, A.; Taki, W.; Ishikawa, M.; Handa, H.; Torizuka, K.

    1985-05-01

    Glycerol is one of the most popular drugs frequently used to improve brain edema, which is associated with intracranial tumors. To evaluate the effects of glycerol infusion, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism were studied in 8 patients with positron emission computed tomography (PET) before and after glycerol infusion. Regional CBF, oxygen utilization (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were measured with continuous inhalation of 0-15 labeled carbon dioxide and oxygen, and bolus inhalation of 0-15 labeled carbon monoxide. Following the control measurements, 250 to 300 ml of 10% glycerol was infused intravenously within 20 min, and the repeat measurements were performed. In the control study, 6/8 cases showed decreased CBF and CMRO2 in the cerebral cortices, while the other two had normal CMRO2 with high OEF. After glycerol infusion, an increase in CBF was observed in all cases, whereas CMRO2 increased only in the cases with low CMRO2 at the control state, and didn't change in the two cases with normal CMRO2, in which OEF decreased to the normal level. These results indicated the important role of auto-regulation mechanism for oxygen metabolism to maintain neuronal activities against the changes in CBF. However, CMRO2 also decreased in the cases with severely diminished CBF, and glycerol improved both CBF and CMRO2 in these cases.

  12. Production of biohydrogen from crude glycerol in an upflow column bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dounavis, Athanasios S; Ntaikou, Ioanna; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2015-12-01

    A continuous attached growth process for the production of biohydrogen from crude glycerol was developed. The process consisted of an anaerobic up-flow column bioreactor (UFCB), packed with cylindrical ceramic beads, which constituted the support matrix for the attachment of bacterial cells. The effect of crude glycerol concentration, pH and hydraulic retention time on glycerol conversion, hydrogen yield and metabolite distribution was investigated. It was shown that the most critical parameter for the efficient bioconversion was the pH of the influent, whereas the hydrogen yield increased with an increase in feed glycerol concentration and a decrease in the hydraulic retention time. The main soluble metabolite detected was 1,3-propanediol in all cases, followed by butyric and hexanoic acids. The latter is reported to be produced from glycerol for the first time. Acidification of the waste reached 38.5%, and the maximum H2 productivity was 107.3 ± 0.7 L/kg waste glycerol at optimal conditions.

  13. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Alex M.; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity. PMID:27475340

  14. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Alex M.; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Han, Songi

    2016-07-01

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity.

  15. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Alex M; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Han, Songi

    2016-07-28

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity. PMID:27475340

  16. Alternative Glycerol Balance Strategies among Saccharomyces Species in Response to Winemaking Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Oliveira, Bruno M.; Zemančíková, Jana; Sychrová, Hana; Querol, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    Production and balance of glycerol is essential for the survival of yeast cells in certain stressful conditions as hyperosmotic or cold shock that occur during industrial processes as winemaking. These stress responses are well-known in S. cerevisiae, however, little is known in other phylogenetically close related Saccharomyces species associated with natural or fermentation environments such as S. uvarum, S. paradoxus or S. kudriavzevii. In this work we have investigated the expression of four genes (GPD1, GPD2, STL1, and FPS1) crucial in the glycerol pool balance in the four species with a biotechnological potential (S. cerevisiae; S. paradoxus; S. uvarum; and S. kudriavzevii), and the ability of strains to grow under osmotic and cold stresses. The results show different pattern and level of expression among the different species, especially for STL1. We also studied the function of Stl1 glycerol symporter in the survival to osmotic changes and cell growth capacity in winemaking environments. These experiments also revealed a different functionality of the glycerol transporters among the different species studied. All these data point to different strategies to handle glycerol accumulation in response to winemaking stresses as hyperosmotic or cold-hyperosmotic stress in the different species, with variable emphasis in the production, influx, or efflux of glycerol. PMID:27064588

  17. Chronic metabolic responses of postpartal dairy cows to subcutaneous glucagon injections, oral glycerol, or both.

    PubMed

    Osman, M A; Allen, P S; Bobe, G; Coetzee, J F; Abuzaid, A; Koehler, K; Beitz, D C

    2010-08-01

    We examined the long-term effects of daily subcutaneous injections of 15 mg of glucagon during the first 14 d postpartum with or without coadministration of 400 mL of pure glycerol orally on blood metabolites and hormones and liver composition of Holstein dairy cows during early lactation. Fourteen multiparous cows with body condition score of >or=3.5 points (1-5 point scale) were assigned randomly to one of 4 treatment groups-saline, glucagon, glycerol, or glucagon plus glycerol. Fatty liver syndrome was induced by feeding cows a dry-cow ration supplemented with 6 kg of cracked corn daily during the last 6 wk of the dry period. Compared with saline treatment (n=3), coadministration of glucagon and glycerol (n=4) increased plasma glucose and insulin and decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations in both treatment weeks, whereas glucagon alone (n=3) produced similar changes plus a decrease in plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate in the second week only. No significant changes were observed for the glycerol alone treatment (n=4). We conclude that a single daily dose of glycerol for the first 14 d postpartum may potentiate the action of glucagon in the first treatment days to alleviate some symptoms of fatty liver syndrome, such as the increase in plasma nonesterified fatty acids and the decrease in plasma glucose and insulin, in Holstein dairy cows after parturition.

  18. Glycerol assimilation and production of 1,3-propanediol by Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19.

    PubMed

    Ainala, Satish Kumar; Ashok, Somasundar; Ko, Yeounjoo; Park, Sunghoon

    2013-06-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19 (Y19) was isolated because of its ability for carbon monoxide-dependent hydrogen production (water-gas shift reaction). This paper reports the assimilation of glycerol and the production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) by Y19. Genome sequencing revealed that Y19 contained the genes for the utilization of glycerol and 1,2-propanediol (pdu operon) along with those for the synthesis of coenzyme B12 (cob operon). On the other hand, it did not possess the genes for the fermentative metabolism of glycerol of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which consists of both the oxidative (dhaD and dhaK) and reductive (dhaB and dhaT) pathways. In shake-flask cultivation under aerobic conditions, Y19 could grow well with glycerol as the sole carbon source and produced 1,3-PDO. The level of 1,3-PDO production was improved when vitamin B12 was added to the culture medium under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, cell growth and 1,3-PDO production on glycerol was also possible, but only when an exogenous electron acceptor, such as nitrate or fumarate, was added. This is the first report of the glycerol metabolism and 1,3-PDO production by C. amalonaticus Y19.

  19. Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of glycerol using Enterobacter and Citrobacter Sp.

    PubMed

    Maru, Biniam T; Constanti, Magda; Stchigel, Alberto M; Medina, Francesc; Sueiras, Jesus E

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an attractive substrate for biohydrogen production because, in theory, it can produce 3 mol of hydrogen per mol of glycerol. Moreover, glycerol is produced in substantial amounts as a byproduct of producing biodiesel, the demand for which has increased in recent years. Therefore, hydrogen production from glycerol was studied by dark fermentation using three strains of bacteria: namely, Enterobacter spH1, Enterobacter spH2, and Citrobacter freundii H3 and a mixture thereof (1:1:1). It was found that, when an initial concentration of 20 g/L of glycerol was used, all three strains and their mixture produced substantial amounts of hydrogen ranging from 2400 to 3500 mL/L, being highest for C. freundii H3 (3547 mL/L) and Enterobacter spH1 (3506 mL/L). The main nongaseous fermentation products were ethanol and acetate, albeit in different ratios. For Enterobacter spH1, Enterobacter spH2, C. freundii H3, and the mixture (1:1:1), the ethanol yields (in mol EtOH/mol glycerol consumed) were 0.96, 0.67, 0.31, and 0.66, respectively. Compared to the individual strains, the mixture (1:1:1) did not show a significantly higher hydrogen level, indicating that there was no synergistic effect. Enterobacter spH1 was selected for further investigation because of its higher yield of hydrogen and ethanol.

  20. Roles of sugar alcohols in osmotic stress adaptation. Replacement of glycerol by mannitol and sorbitol in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.; Hohmann, S.; Jensen, R.G.; Bohnert, H.J.

    1999-09-01

    For many organisms there is a correlation between increases of metabolites and osmotic stress tolerance, but the mechanisms that cause this protection are not clear. To understand the role of polyols, genes for bacterial mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase and apply sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase were introduced into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in glycerol synthesis. Sorbitol and mannitol provided some protection, but less than that generated by a similar concentration of glycerol generated by glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD1). Reduced protection by polyols suggested that glycerol had specific functions for which mannitol and sorbitol could not substitute, and that the absolute amount of the accumulating osmoticum might not be crucial. The retention of glycerol and mannitol-sorbitol, respectively, was a major difference. During salt stress, cells retained more of the six-carbon polyois than glycerol. The authors suggest that the loss of {gt} 98% of the glycerol synthesized could provide a safety value that dissipates reducing power, which a similar high intracellular concentration of retained polyois would be less protective. To understand the role of glycerol in salt tolerance, salt-tolerant suppressor mutants were isolated from the glycerol-deficient strain. One mutant, sr13, partially suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of the glycerol-deficient line, probably due to a doubling of [K{sup +}] accumulating during stress. The authors compare these results to the osmotic adjustment concept typically applied to accumulating metabolites in plants. The accumulation of polyois may have dual functions: facilitating osmotic adjustment and supporting redox control.

  1. The role of micronutrients and strategies for optimized continual glycerol production from carbon dioxide by Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    PubMed

    Chow, Yvonne; Tu, Wang Yung; Wang, David; Ng, Daphne H P; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2015-10-01

    The microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta synthesizes intracellular glycerol as an osmoticum to counteract external osmotic pressure in high saline environments. The species has recently been found to release and accumulate extracellular glycerol, making it a suitable candidate for sustainable industrial glycerol production if a sufficiently high product titre yield can be achieved. While macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are essential and well understood, this study seeks to understand the influence of the micronutrient profile on glycerol production. The effects of metallic elements calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, cobalt, copper, and iron, as well as boron, on glycerol production as well as cell growth were quantified. The relationship between cell density and glycerol productivity was also determined. Statistically, manganese recorded the highest improvement in glycerol production as well as cell growth. Further experiments showed that manganese availability was associated with higher superoxide dismutase formation, thus suggesting that glycerol production is negatively affected by oxidative stress and the manganese bound form of this enzyme is required in order to counteract reactive oxygen species in the cells. A minimum concentration of 8.25 × 10(-5)  g L(-1) manganese was sufficient to overcome this problem and achieve 10 g L(-1) extracellular glycerol, compared to 4 g L(-1) without the addition of manganese. Unlike cell growth, extracellular glycerol production was found to be negatively affected by the amount of calcium present in the normal growth medium, most likely due to the lower cell permeability at high calcium concentrations. The inhibitory effects of iron also affected extracellular glycerol production more significantly than cell growth and several antagonistic interaction effects between various micronutrients were observed. This study indicates how the optimization of these small amounts of nutrients in a two

  2. The role of micronutrients and strategies for optimized continual glycerol production from carbon dioxide by Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    PubMed

    Chow, Yvonne; Tu, Wang Yung; Wang, David; Ng, Daphne H P; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2015-10-01

    The microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta synthesizes intracellular glycerol as an osmoticum to counteract external osmotic pressure in high saline environments. The species has recently been found to release and accumulate extracellular glycerol, making it a suitable candidate for sustainable industrial glycerol production if a sufficiently high product titre yield can be achieved. While macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are essential and well understood, this study seeks to understand the influence of the micronutrient profile on glycerol production. The effects of metallic elements calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, cobalt, copper, and iron, as well as boron, on glycerol production as well as cell growth were quantified. The relationship between cell density and glycerol productivity was also determined. Statistically, manganese recorded the highest improvement in glycerol production as well as cell growth. Further experiments showed that manganese availability was associated with higher superoxide dismutase formation, thus suggesting that glycerol production is negatively affected by oxidative stress and the manganese bound form of this enzyme is required in order to counteract reactive oxygen species in the cells. A minimum concentration of 8.25 × 10(-5)  g L(-1) manganese was sufficient to overcome this problem and achieve 10 g L(-1) extracellular glycerol, compared to 4 g L(-1) without the addition of manganese. Unlike cell growth, extracellular glycerol production was found to be negatively affected by the amount of calcium present in the normal growth medium, most likely due to the lower cell permeability at high calcium concentrations. The inhibitory effects of iron also affected extracellular glycerol production more significantly than cell growth and several antagonistic interaction effects between various micronutrients were observed. This study indicates how the optimization of these small amounts of nutrients in a two

  3. Synergistic modular promoter and gene optimization to push cellulase secretion by Pichia pastoris beyond existing benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Mellitzer, Andrea; Ruth, Claudia; Gustafsson, Claes; Welch, Mark; Birner-Grünberger, Ruth; Weis, Roland; Purkarthofer, Thomas; Glieder, Anton

    2014-12-10

    Although successfully used for heterologous gene expression for more than twenty years, general knowledge about all factors influencing protein expression by Pichia pastoris is still lacking. For high titers of protein clones are optimized individually for each target protein. Optimization efforts in this study were focused on the DNA level, evaluating a set of 48 different individual synthetic genes (TrCBH2) coding for the same protein sequence of a Trichoderma reesei cellulase in combination with three different promoter sequences: PGAP (constitutive) and the synthetic AOX1 promoter variants PDeS (derepressed) and PEn (enhanced, inducible). Expression of active secreted enzyme varied from undetectable to ∼300% of the best known gene, as determined by secreted enzyme activity analyses of supernatants from 96 well plate and bioreactor cultivations. Finally, the best optimized gene and new promoters were combined to engineer highly productive P. pastoris CBH2 expression strains. Although no methanol was used for induction a final titer of more than 18g/l of secreted protein was produced under controlled conditions in small scale bioreactor cultivations after 60-70h of growth limiting glycerol feed. This is the highest concentration of secreted enzyme in P. pastoris published so far and single parts of the expression cassette could be independently optimized showing additive effects for improvements in protein production by P. pastoris.

  4. Adolescents' information management: comparing ideas about why adolescents disclose to or keep secrets from their parents.

    PubMed

    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree

    2014-05-01

    Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management.

  5. Characterization of oleaginous yeasts accumulating high levels of lipid when cultivated in glycerol and their potential for lipid production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Polburee, Pirapan; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Limtong, Savitree

    2015-12-01

    This study attempted to identify oleaginous yeasts and selected the strain that accumulated the largest quantity of lipid for lipid production from glycerol. Two-step screening of 387 yeast strains revealed 23 oleaginous strains that accumulated quantities of lipid higher than 20 % of their biomass when cultivated in glycerol. These strains were identified to be four ascomycetous yeast species i.e. Candida silvae, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma caribbica, and Pichia manshurica, and five basidiomycetous yeast species i.e. Cryptococcus cf. podzolicus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodotorula taiwanensis, and Sporidiobolus ruineniae. Rhodosporidium fluviale DMKU-RK253 accumulated the highest quantity of lipid equal to 65.2 % of its biomass (3.9 g L(-1) lipid and 6.0 g L(-1) biomass) by shaking flask cultivation in crude glycerol. The main fatty acids in the accumulated lipid of this strain consisted of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. Therefore, R. fluviale DMKU-RK253 has potential for producing lipid for biodiesel manufacturing using crude glycerol as a feedstock.

  6. Cell secretion and membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Jena, Bhanu P

    2005-07-01

    Secretion occurs in all cells of multicellular organisms and involves the delivery of secretory products packaged in membrane-bound vesicles to the cell exterior. Specialized cells for neurotransmission, enzyme secretion or hormone release utilize a highly regulated secretory process. Secretory vesicles are transported to specific sites at the plasma membrane, where they dock and fuse to release their contents. Similar to other cellular processes, cell secretion is found to be highly regulated and a precisely orchestrated event. It has been demonstrated that membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and fuse at porosomes, which are specialized supramolecular structures at the cell plasma membrane. Swelling of secretory vesicles results in a build-up of pressure, allowing expulsion of intravesicular contents. The extent of secretory vesicle swelling dictates the amount of intravesicular contents expelled during secretion. The discovery of the porosome, its isolation, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, its biochemical composition and functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have been determined. The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle fusion at the base of porosomes, and vesicle swelling, has also been resolved. These findings reveal the molecular mechanism of cell secretion.

  7. Second messengers in renin secretion.

    PubMed

    Churchill, P C

    1985-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a central role in electrolyte homeostasis and in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. The level of activity of this system is determined primarily by the rate at which the kidneys secrete renin into the blood. Although many factors affect renin secretion in vivo, it is certain that all extracellular first messengers affect the activity of the renin-secreting cell by altering its intracellular concentrations of only a few second messengers. The thesis of this review is that free ionic calcium (Ca2+) and cAMP are inhibitory and stimulatory second messengers in renin secretion and that Ca2+ is preeminent. In general, intracellular Ca2+ is controlled by two mechanisms of Ca2+ efflux (Na-Ca exchange; primary active Ca2+ transport) and two mechanisms of Ca2+ influx and/or mobilization (voltage-sensitive Ca channels; receptor-operated channels). There is evidence to suggest that first messengers affect intracellular Ca2+, and therefore renin secretion, by affecting these efflux, influx, and mobilization pathways.

  8. Thyroid hormones and renin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    Circulating angiotensin is produced by the action of renin from the kidneys on circulating angiotensinogen. There are other renin-angiotensin systems in various organs in the body, and recent observations raise the intriguing possibility that angiotensin II is produced by a totally intracellular pathway in the juxtaglomerular cells, the gonadotrops of the anterior pituitary, neurons, in the brain, salivary duct cells, and neuroblastoma cells. Circulating angiotensin II levels depend in large part on the plasma concentration of angiotensinogen, which is hormonally regulated, and on the rate of renin secretion. Renin secretion is regulated by an intrarenal baroreceptor mechanism, a macula densa mechanism, angiotensin II, vasopressin, and the sympathetic nervous system. The increase in renin secretion produced by sympathetic discharge is mediated for the most part by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the juxtaglomerular cells. Hyperthyroidism would be expected to be associated with increased renin secretion in view of the increased beta-adrenergic activity in this condition, and hypothyroidism would be associated with decreased plasma renin activity due to decreased beta-adrenergic activity. Our recent research on serotonin-mediated increases in renin secretion that depend on the integrity of the dorsal raphe nucleus and the mediobasal hypothalamus has led us to investigate the effect of the pituitary on the renin response to p-chloroamphetamine. The response is potentiated immediately after hypophysectomy, but 22 days after the operation, it is abolished. This slowly developing decrease in responsiveness may be due to decreased thyroid function.

  9. Protective effect of sulfated chitosan of C3 sulfation on glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of sulfated chitosan of C3 sulfation (TCTS) on the glycerol-induced acute renal failure. Compared with the normal group, rats from model group exhibited collecting duct and medullary ascending limb dilation and casts by glycerol treating. TCTS, which was injected to pretreat rats by glycerol, exerted a protective effect. The results showed that serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were markedly increased in glycerol-treated rats. It is proved that TCTS reduced their levels significantly. Ions level in plasma and urine were significantly changed in glycerol-treated rats, whereas TCTS almost recovered their levels back to normal. For female rats, administration of TCTS reduced their mortality. This study showed a noticeable renal morphologic and functional protection by TCTS in glycerol-induced acute renal failure.

  10. Structural Characterizations of Glycerol Kinase: Unraveling Phosphorylation-Induced Long-Range Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Kettering, Regina; Saxl, Ruth; Bourand, Alexa; Darbon, Emmanuelle; Joly, Nathalie; Briozzo, Pierre; Deutscher, Josef

    2009-09-11

    Glycerol metabolism provides a central link between sugar and fatty acid catabolism. In most bacteria, glycerol kinase plays a crucial role in regulating channel/facilitator-dependent uptake of glycerol into the cell. In the firmicute Enterococcus casseliflavus, this enzyme's activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of the histidine residue (His232) located in its activation loop, approximately 25 A from its catalytic cleft. We reported earlier that some mutations of His232 altered enzyme activities; we present here the crystal structures of these mutant GlpK enzymes. The structure of a mutant enzyme with enhanced enzymatic activity, His232Arg, reveals that residues at the catalytic cleft are more optimally aligned to bind ATP and mediate phosphoryl transfer. Specifically, the position of Arg18 in His232Arg shifts by approximately 1 A when compared to its position in wild-type (WT), His232Ala, and His232Glu enzymes. This new conformation of Arg18 is more optimally positioned at the presumed gamma-phosphate location of ATP, close to the glycerol substrate. In addition to structural changes exhibited at the active site, the conformational stability of the activation loop is decreased, as reflected by an approximately 35% increase in B factors ('thermal factors') in a mutant enzyme displaying diminished activity, His232Glu. Correlating conformational changes to alteration of enzymatic activities in the mutant enzymes identifies distinct localized regions that can have profound effects on intramolecular signal transduction. Alterations in pairwise interactions across the dimer interface can communicate phosphorylation states over 25 A from the activation loop to the catalytic cleft, positioning Arg18 to form favorable interactions at the beta,gamma-bridging position with ATP. This would offset loss of the hydrogen bonds at the gamma-phosphate of ATP during phosphoryl transfer to glycerol, suggesting that appropriate alignment of the second substrate of glycerol kinase

  11. Systematic analysis of glycerol: colourimetric screening and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric confirmation.

    PubMed

    Sardela, Vinícius F; Scalco, Fernanda B; Cavalcante, Karina M; Simoni, Ruth E; Silva, Deyvison R; Pereira, Henrique Marcelo G; de Oliveira, Maria Lúcia L Costa; Aquino Neto, Francisco R

    2015-10-01

    Glycerol is a naturally occurring polyol in the human body, essential for several metabolic processes. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and medical industries and in clinical practice as a plasma volume expander (PVE). Athletes, however, may use glycerol to mask the presence of forbidden substances or to enhance performance, inclusively through hyperhydration achieved by glycerol ingestion with added fluid. These practices are considered doping, and are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Therefore, glycerol was introduced in the prohibited list. Doping through glycerol ingestion can readily be identified by detection of elevated glycerol concentrations in urine. In this paper, a protocol for the fast detection of glycerol in urine is proposed. It consists of a previous visual colourimetric screening, followed by a quantitative/qualitative confirmation analysis by mass spectrometry. The screening procedure involves a reaction in which polyhydric alcohols are oxidized by periodate to formic acid and formaldehyde, which is detected by the addition of a fuchsin solution. For the subsequent qualitative/quantitative confirmation analysis, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based approach with a non-deuterated internal standard and a drying step of only 10 min is proposed. The linear correlation was demonstrated within WADA´s threshold range. The calculated RSD were 2.1% for within-day precision and 2.8% for between-day precision. The uncertainty estimation was calculated, and a value of 2.7% was obtained. The procedure may also be used for the analysis of other polyols in urine, as for example the PVE mannitol. PMID:26112364

  12. Effects of acetaldehyde on hepatocyte glycerol uptake and cell size: implication of Aquaporin 9

    PubMed Central

    Potter, James J.; Koteish, Ayman; Hamilton, James; Liu, Xiaopu; Liu, Kun; Agre, Peter; Mezey, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Background The effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde on uptake of glycerol and on cell size of hepatocytes and a role Aquaporin 9 (AQP9), a glycerol transport channel, were evaluated. Methods The studies were done in primary rat and mouse hepatocytes. The uptake of [14C] glycerol was determined with hepatocytes in suspension. For determination of cell size, rat hepatocytes on coated dishes were incubated with a lipophilic fluorochrome that is incorporated into the cell membrane and examined by confocal microscopy. A three dimensional z scan of the cell was performed, and the middle slice of the z scan was used for area measurements. Results Acute exposure to acetaldehyde, but not to ethanol, causes a rapid increase in the uptake of glycerol and an increase in hepatocyte size, which was inhibited by HgCl2, an inhibitor of aquaporins. This was not observed in hepatocytes from AQP9 knockout mice, nor observed by direct application of acetaldehyde to AQP9 expressed in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Prolonged 24 hours exposure to either acetaldehyde or ethanol did not result in an increase in glycerol uptake by rat hepatocytes. Acetaldehyde decreased AQP9 mRNA and AQP9 protein, while ethanol decreased AQP9 mRNA but not AQP9 protein. Ethanol, but not acetaldehyde, increased the activities of glycerol kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Conclusions The acute effects of acetaldehyde, while mediated by AQP9, are probably influenced by binding of acetaldehyde to hepatocyte membranes and changes in cell permeability. The effects of ethanol in enhancing glucose kinase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase leading to increased formation of glycerol-3-phosphate most likely contribute to alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:21294757

  13. Systematic analysis of glycerol: colourimetric screening and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric confirmation.

    PubMed

    Sardela, Vinícius F; Scalco, Fernanda B; Cavalcante, Karina M; Simoni, Ruth E; Silva, Deyvison R; Pereira, Henrique Marcelo G; de Oliveira, Maria Lúcia L Costa; Aquino Neto, Francisco R

    2015-10-01

    Glycerol is a naturally occurring polyol in the human body, essential for several metabolic processes. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and medical industries and in clinical practice as a plasma volume expander (PVE). Athletes, however, may use glycerol to mask the presence of forbidden substances or to enhance performance, inclusively through hyperhydration achieved by glycerol ingestion with added fluid. These practices are considered doping, and are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Therefore, glycerol was introduced in the prohibited list. Doping through glycerol ingestion can readily be identified by detection of elevated glycerol concentrations in urine. In this paper, a protocol for the fast detection of glycerol in urine is proposed. It consists of a previous visual colourimetric screening, followed by a quantitative/qualitative confirmation analysis by mass spectrometry. The screening procedure involves a reaction in which polyhydric alcohols are oxidized by periodate to formic acid and formaldehyde, which is detected by the addition of a fuchsin solution. For the subsequent qualitative/quantitative confirmation analysis, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based approach with a non-deuterated internal standard and a drying step of only 10 min is proposed. The linear correlation was demonstrated within WADA´s threshold range. The calculated RSD were 2.1% for within-day precision and 2.8% for between-day precision. The uncertainty estimation was calculated, and a value of 2.7% was obtained. The procedure may also be used for the analysis of other polyols in urine, as for example the PVE mannitol.

  14. Efficient synthesis of L-lactic acid from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its abundance and low-price, glycerol has become an attractive carbon source for the industrial production of value-added fuels and chemicals. This work reports the engineering of E. coli for the efficient conversion of glycerol into L-lactic acid (L-lactate). Results Escherichia coli strains have previously been metabolically engineered for the microaerobic production of D-lactic acid from glycerol in defined media by disrupting genes that minimize the synthesis of succinate, acetate, and ethanol, and also overexpressing the respiratory route of glycerol dissimilation (GlpK/GlpD). Here, further rounds of rationale design were performed on these strains for the homofermentative production of L-lactate, not normally produced in E. coli. Specifically, L-lactate production was enabled by: 1), replacing the native D-lactate specific dehydrogenase with Streptococcus bovis L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH), 2) blocking the methylglyoxal bypass pathways to avoid the synthesis of a racemic mixture of D- and L-lactate and prevent the accumulation of toxic intermediate, methylglyoxal, and 3) the native aerobic L-lactate dehydrogenase was blocked to prevent the undesired utilization of L-lactate. The engineered strain produced 50 g/L of L-lactate from 56 g/L of crude glycerol at a yield 93% of the theoretical maximum and with high optical (99.9%) and chemical (97%) purity. Conclusions This study demonstrates the efficient conversion of glycerol to L-lactate, a microbial process that had not been reported in the literature prior to our work. The engineered biocatalysts produced L-lactate from crude glycerol in defined minimal salts medium at high chemical and optical purity. PMID:23347598

  15. Studies on spectroscopy of glycerol in THz range using microfluidic chip-integrated micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bo; Han, Xue; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Cunlin

    2014-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a detection method of biological molecules with label-free, non-ionizing, non-intrusive, no pollution and real-time monitoring. But owing to the strong THz absorption by water, it is mainly used in the solid state detection of biological molecules. In this paper, we present a microfluidic chip technique for detecting biological liquid samples using the transmission type of THz-TDS system. The microfluidic channel of the microfluidic chip is fabricated in the quartz glass using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology and sealed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) diaphragm. The length, width and depth of the microfluidic channel are 25mm, 100μm and 50μm, respectively. The diameter of THz detection zone in the microfluidic channel is 4mm. The thicknesses of quartz glass and PDMS diaphragm are 1mm and 250μm, individually. Another one of the same quartz glass is used to bond with the PDMS for the rigidity and air tightness of the microfluidic chip. In order to realize the automation of sampling and improve the control precise of fluid, a micropump, which comprises PDMS diaphragm, pump chamber, diffuser and nozzle and flat vibration motor, is integrated on the microfluidic chip. The diffuser and nozzle are fabricated on both sides of the pump chamber, which is covered with PDMS diaphragm. The flat vibration motor is stuck on the PDMS diaphragm as the actuator. We study the terahertz absorption spectroscopy characteristics of glycerol with the concentration of 98% in the microfluidic chip by the aid of the THz-TDS system, and the feasibility of the microfluidic chip for the detection of liquid samples is proved.

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Colicin V Secretion Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L. H.; Fath, M. J.; Mahanty, H. K.; Tai, P. C.; Kolter, R.

    1995-01-01

    Colicin V (ColV) is peptide antibiotic secreted by Escherichia coli through a dedicated exporter composed of three proteins, CvaA, CvaB, and TolC. ColV secretion is independent of the E. coli general secretory pathway (Sec) but requires an N-terminal export signal specific for the CvaAB/TolC exporter. ColV secretion was characterized using genetic and biochemical methods. When the ColV N-terminal extension is replaced with the OmpA signal sequence, the Sec system can localize ColV to the periplasm. Periplasmic ColV is lethal to cells lacking the ColV immunity protein, Cvi. Based on this result, a genetic assay was designed to monitor for the presence of periplasmic ColV during normal CvaAB/TolC mediated secretion. Results indicate that low levels of ColV may be present in the periplasm during secretion. Precursor and mature ColV were also characterized from the wild-type system and in various exporter mutant backgrounds using immunoprecipitation. ColV processing is rapid in wild-type cells, and CvaA and CvaB are critical for processing to occur. In contrast, processing occurs normally, albeit more slowly, in a TolC mutant. PMID:8536973

  17. On family secrets and -K.

    PubMed

    Orgad, Yariv

    2014-08-01

    In this paper I present a novel interpretation of family secrets. Leaning on Bion's concept of -K, the constitution of secrecy is interpreted in terms of family dynamics that actively prevent knowledge formation and mental growth. Family secrets are interpreted as a destructive process that attacks the family's truth-generating-space - the shared semiotic space within which meanings are constituted through family relationships. The paper explores the microstructure interpersonal process of -K through the analysis of Mike Leigh's movie, Secrets and Lies. Two scenes in the movie are used to demonstrate how -K is worked out in the form of a specific intersubjective semiotic endeavor that unconsciously blocks the process of meaning-making. PMID:24902493

  18. On family secrets and -K.

    PubMed

    Orgad, Yariv

    2014-08-01

    In this paper I present a novel interpretation of family secrets. Leaning on Bion's concept of -K, the constitution of secrecy is interpreted in terms of family dynamics that actively prevent knowledge formation and mental growth. Family secrets are interpreted as a destructive process that attacks the family's truth-generating-space - the shared semiotic space within which meanings are constituted through family relationships. The paper explores the microstructure interpersonal process of -K through the analysis of Mike Leigh's movie, Secrets and Lies. Two scenes in the movie are used to demonstrate how -K is worked out in the form of a specific intersubjective semiotic endeavor that unconsciously blocks the process of meaning-making.

  19. Fluxes and distribution of intact glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipids in the water column of Lake Challa, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijers, J.; Buckles, L.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last years, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids have become an interesting tool in palaeoclimate research. Both the TEX86 sea surface temperature proxy, based on isoprenoid GDGT membrane lipids derived from pelagic Crenarchaeota, and the MBT/CBT annual mean air temperature proxy, based on the distribution of branched GDGTs derived from soil bacteria, receive increasing interest to be also applied in lake sediments. Despite successful studies utilizing the TEX86 to reconstruct past lake surface temperatures in two large African lakes, other studies indicated that TEX86 values derived from lake surface sediments differed from what would be expected based on the lake surface water temperatures. In addition, in two tropical lake systems, the distribution of branched GDGT lipids in lake surface sediments appeared to differ from that in the surrounding soils. Both situations suggest production of GDGTs by additional sources in some lake systems, hampering application of earlier mentioned temperature proxies. In order to constrain the provenance and flux of GDGT lipids in one of these lakes, Lake Challa, a freshwater crater lake in East Africa, we used a novel separation technique to analyze both intact and core GDGT membrane lipids in monthly samples derived from a sediment trap installed at 35m depth in the lake. Intact GDGT lipids still contain a functional polar head group which is thought to be lost quickly after cell lysis. Therefore, the presence of such intact GDGT lipids is thought indicative for extant life, most likely autochthonous in origin. High fluxes of intact GDGT-0 lipids, maybe derived from methanogenic Archaea residing in anoxic micro niches in descending particles, occur in July and August during a diatom bloom. High fluxes of both the intact and core isoprenoid GDGT lipid crenarchaeol in December and January clearly reflect the bloom of Crenarchaeota. TEX86 values of both the intact and core isoprenoid GDGTs are

  20. Occurrence and abundance of 6-methyl branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in soils: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jonge, Cindy; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Zell, Claudia I.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-09-01

    The distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in soils has been shown to correlate with the soil pH and the mean annual air temperature (MAT). This has been used to perform palaeoclimate reconstructions based on brGDGTs recovered from palaeosoils, freshwater, and marine sedimentary archives. Recently described 6-methyl brGDGTs were shown to co-elute with the 5-methyl brGDGTs that are used to calculate the CBT and MBT‧ indices used as palaeoclimate proxies. The impact of these 6-methyl brGDGTs on the established palaeoclimate proxies is unknown and will depend on their abundance in soils. Using improved chromatography, we quantified the fractional abundance of 6-methyl brGDGTs in globally distributed soils and show that they are abundant components, comprising on average 24% of the total amount of brGDGTs. All penta- and hexa-methylated brGDGTs (i.e. with zero to two cyclopentane moieties) were shown to comprise both 5- and 6-methyl isomers. The fractional abundances of the six 6-methyl brGDGTs correlate positively with each other, suggesting a common biological source in most soils, and correlate strongly with soil pH. The presence of the 6-methyl brGDGTs introduced scatter in the original MBT‧/CBT-MAT calibration and caused a dependence on soil pH of the MBT‧. Exclusion of the 6-methyl brGDGTs from the MBT‧, i.e. the newly defined MBT‧5ME, shows that it is no longer related to soil pH. The correlation with MAT is improved, reducing the residual mean error (RMSE) from 6.2 to 4.8 °C. Also, the correlation of the CBT after the exclusion of the 6-methyl brGDGTs (defined as CBT5ME) with soil pH slightly improved. Furthermore, the separate quantification of the 6-methyl brGDGTs allows the definition of new indices. The CBT‧, which comprises the 6-methyl brGDGTs, is a substantially improved alternative to the CBT5ME, reducing the RMSE from 0.8 to 0.5 pH units. Also, the accuracy of MAT reconstructions can be improved using a

  1. Secrets and Disclosures: How Young Children Handle Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…

  2. Enzymes of Glycerol and Glyceraldehyde Metabolism in Mouse Liver: Effects of Caloric Restriction and Age on Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Kevork; Ramsey, Jon J.; Weindruch, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis The influence of caloric restriction on hepatic glyceraldehyde and glycerol metabolizing enzyme activities of young and old mice were studied. Glycerol kinase and cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were increased in both young and old CR mice when compared to controls, while triokinase increased only in old CR mice. Aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase activities in both young and old CR were unchanged by CR. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed a trend towards an increased activity in old CR mice, while a trend towards a decreased activity in alcohol dehydrogenase was observed in both young and old CR mice. Serum glycerol levels decreased in young and old CR mice. Therefore, increases in glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in fasting blood glycerol levels in CR animals. A prominent role for triokinase in glyceraldehyde metabolism with CR was also observed. The results indicate that long-term CR induces sustained increases in the capacity for gluconeogenesis from glycerol. PMID:18429748

  3. A novel multigene expression construct for modification of glycerol metabolism in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High supply of raw, residual glycerol from biodiesel production plants promote the search for novel biotechnological methods of its utilization. In this study we attempted modification of glycerol catabolism in a nonconventional yeast species Yarrowia lipolytica through genetic engineering approach. Results To address this, we developed a novel genetic construct which allows transferring three heterologous genes, encoding glycerol dehydratase, its reactivator and a wide-spectrum alcohol oxidoreductase under the control of glycerol-induced promoter. The three genes, tandemly arrayed in an expression cassette with a marker gene ura3, regulatory and targeting sequences (G3P dh promoter and XPR-like terminator, 28S rDNA as a target locus), were transferred into Yarrowia lipolytica cells. The obtained recombinant strain NCYC3825 was characterized at the molecular level and with respect to its biotechnological potential. Our experiments indicated that the novel recombinant strain stably borne one copy of the expression cassette and efficiently expressed heterologous alcohol oxidoreductase, while glycerol dehydratase and its reactivator were expressed at lower level. Comparative shake flask cultivations in glucose- and glycerol-based media demonstrated higher biomass production by the recombinant strain when glycerol was the main carbon source. During bioreactor (5 L) fed-batch cultivation in glycerol-based medium, the recombinant strain was characterized by relatively high biomass and lipids accumulation (up to 42 gDCW L-1, and a peak value of 38%LIPIDS of DCW, respectively), and production of high titers of citric acid (59 g L-1) and 2-phenylethanol (up to 1 g L-1 in shake flask cultivation), which are industrially attractive bioproducts. Conclusions Due to heterogeneous nature of the observed alterations, we postulate that the main driving force of the modified phenotype was faster growth in glycerol-based media, triggered by modifications in the red

  4. Improvement of skin optical clearing efficacy by topical treatment of glycerol at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zijian; Liu, Caihua; Tao, Wei; Zhu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In the past decades, laser has been widely used in clinical diagnosis and cosmetic therapy. However, there is limitation for further usage in deeper tissue for high scattering property. Skin optical clearing technique, by introducing optical clearing agents (OCAs) into tissue, will have a potential impact on optical diagnosis and therapy. In this work, anhydrous glycerol at different temperatures of 4, 25, 32 and 45°C were applied respectively to in vitro porcine skin, and reflectance and transmittance spectra were then measured dynamically using a spectrometry combined with integrating sphere system. Further, reduced scattering coefficient and penetration depth were obtained. Results showed that, glycerol at different temperatures could induce the reduced scattering coefficient of in vitro skin to decrease and the penetration depth to increase. 4 and 25°C glycerol had similar effect, decreasing the scattering by 48.2% and 49.7%, and increasing penetration depth by 37.9% and 39.5%, respectively. However, 32 and 45°C glycerol treatment could decrease scattering by 61.6% and 76.6%, and increase penetration depth by 53.3% and 84.1%, respectively. In conclusion, glycerol at higher temperature can induce greater and faster skin optical clearing efficacy.

  5. Effect of glycerol on sustained insulin release from PVA hydrogels and its application in diabetes therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Che, Junyi; Yuan, Minglu; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Wei-En

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glycerol on the physical properties and release of an insulin-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel film. The insulin-loaded hydrogel composite film was produced using the freeze-thawing method, after which the in vitro swelling ratio, transmittance and insulin release, and the in vivo pharmacodynamics, of hydrogels containing various volumes of glycerol were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of glycerol reduced the swelling ratio and increased the softness of the PVA hydrogel film. An analysis of insulin release in vitro and of the hypoglycemic effects in rats demonstrated that the PVA hydrogel film had a sustained release of insulin and long-acting effect over 10 days. The results of the present study suggested that, as a hydrophilic plasticizer, glycerol was able to enhance the release of insulin in the early stage of release profile by enhancing the formation of water channels, although the total swelling ratio was decreased. Therefore, the insulin-loaded glycerol/PVA hydrogel film may be a promising sustained-release preparation for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27698690

  6. Regulation of hexokinase in a freeze avoiding insect: role in the winter production of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Muise, A M; Storey, K B

    2001-05-01

    Hexokinase from larvae of the freeze-avoiding goldenrod gall moth, Epiblema scudderiana, was purified 20-fold using chromatography on DE52 Sephadex, phosphocellulose, and blue dextran. Final specific activity was 75.8 U/mg and SDS-PAGE gave a molecular weight of 94,000 for the monomer. Arrhenius plot showed a break at 16 degrees or 12 degrees C in the absence vs. presence of 10% v/v glycerol, indicating a conformational change in the enzyme at lower temperatures but suggesting a stabilizing effect of glycerol. Comparison of hexokinase kinetic properties at 22 degrees and 4 degrees C showed higher affinity for both glucose and ATP (Km values were 45-50% lower), as well as for the cofactor Mg(2+), at the lower temperature. Furthermore, product inhibition by glucose-6-phosphate and ADP was reduced at 4 degrees C. Glucose levels rise in E. scudderiana as an apparent by-product of high rates of glycogenolysis during glycerol synthesis. The temperature-dependent properties of hexokinase would facilitate the recycling of this glucose back into the pathway of glycerol synthesis and could help to achieve the near stoichiometric conversion of glycogen to glycerol that is seen during cold hardening. Arch.

  7. The role of glycerol and phosphatidylcholine in solubilizing and enhancing insulin stability in reverse hexagonal mesophases.

    PubMed

    Amar-Yuli, Idit; Azulay, Doron; Mishraki, Tehila; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-12-15

    The potential of reverse hexagonal mesophases based on monoolein (GMO) and glycerol (as cosolvent) to facilitate the solubilization of proteins, such as insulin was explored. H(II) mesophases composed of GMO/decane/water were compared to GMO/decane/glycerol/water and GMO/phosphatidylcholine (PC)/decane/glycerol/water systems. The stability of insulin was tested, applying external physical modifications such as low pH and heat treatment (up to 70°C), in which insulin is known to form ordered amyloid-like aggregates (that are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases) with a characteristic cross β-pleated sheet structure. The impact of insulin confinement within these carriers on its stability, unfolding, and aggregation pathways was studied by combining SAXS, FTIR, and AFM techniques. These techniques provided a better insight into the molecular level of the "component interplay" in solubilizing and stabilizing insulin and its conformational modifications that dictate its final aggregate morphology. PC enlarged the water channels while glycerol shrank them, yet both facilitated insulin solubilization within the channels. The presence of glycerol within the mesophase water channels led to the formation of stronger hydrogen bonds with the hosting medium that enhanced the thermal stability of the protein and remarkably affected the unfolding process even after heat treatment (at 70°C for 60 min).

  8. Energy balance of biofuel production from biological conversion of crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valéro, Jose R

    2016-04-01

    Crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, has gained significant attention as a carbon source for biofuel production. This study evaluated the energy balance of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol production from 3.48 million L of crude glycerol (80% w/v). The conversion efficiency (energy output divided by energy invested) was 1.16, 0.22, 0.27, and 0.40 for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol respectively. It was found that the use of crude glycerol for biodiesel production was an energy gain process, with a positive energy balance and conversion efficiency of greater than 1. The energy balance revealed a net energy gain of 5226 GJ per 1 million kg biodiesel produced. Production of hydrogen, biogas and ethanol from crude glycerol were energy loss processes. Therefore, the conversion of crude glycerol to lipids and subsequently to biodiesel is suggested to be a better option compared to hydrogen, biogas, or ethanol production with respect to energy balance.

  9. Glycerol-Induced Membrane Stiffening: The Role of Viscous Fluid Adlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Pocivavsek, Luka; Gavrilov, Kseniya; Cao, Kathleen D.; Chi, Eva Y.; Li, Dongxu; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2011-12-09

    Lipid interfaces, ranging from cell membranes to thin surfactant layers that stabilize lung alveoli, are integral to living systems. Such interfaces are often subjected to mechanical forces, and because of their membrane-like geometry, they can easily deform by bending into localized folds. In this work, we explore the role of small molecules (i.e., glycerol) on the mechanical stability of model lung surfactant monolayers. We demonstrate that the presence of glycerol increases local monolayer bending stiffness by orders of magnitude. Our x-ray and neutron reflectivity measurements indicate that water is preferentially depleted, or glycerol is preferentially enriched, at the lipid headgroup/solvent interface, and that this glycerol-enriched layer extends O(10) beneath the monolayer with an adsorption free energy of 2.5 to 4.6 kJ/mol. The dramatic change in membrane bending stiffness in the presence of the sugar adlayer is understood in terms of two models: (1), lipid antiplasticization by glycerol; and (2), a continuum mechanical model of the viscous adlayer.

  10. Gelatinization and retrogradation phenomena in starch/montmorillonite nanocomposites plasticized with different glycerol/water ratios.

    PubMed

    Lara, Sandra Camila; Salcedo, Felipe

    2016-10-20

    This study aims to gain insights into the intermolecular interactions present in thermoplastic starch (TPS)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites prepared using water and/or glycerol as plasticizers. Specifically, the impact of using different glycerol/water proportions on the nature of gelatinization and retrogradation processes is studied. Nanocomposites were characterized by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). It is shown that clay tactoids preferentially interact with glycerol molecules rather than starch macromolecules. Consequently, the effects of MMT incorporation strongly depend on the glycerol/water ratio; when a ratio of 0.5 is used minor variations were observed on the starch gelatinization process-although stronger clays-starch interactions were evident-whereas at higher ratios the addition of clays significantly increased the gelatinization temperature, up to values over 100°C. In the gelatinization process of starch in TPS samples having only glycerol as a plasticizer, the leaching of amylose and the melting of amylopectin crystalline domains seem to occur simultaneously. This different gelatinization mechanism produces a TPS having a substantially different morphology, which exhibited reduced retrogradation characteristics.

  11. Antioxidant and Nephroprotective Activities of Aconitum heterophyllum Root in Glycerol Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eerike, Madhavi; Raghuraman, Lakshmipathy Prabhu; Rajamanickam, Maignana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and nephroprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Aconitum heterophyllum root (EEAHR) in glycerol induced acute renal failure (ARF) in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods In vitro antioxidant activity of EEAHR was assessed using the 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay), nitric oxide radical scavenging (NO assay), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 assay) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) scavenging activity assays. In vivo study, rats were divided into four groups of six each for assessing the nephroprotective activity. Group-1 received normal saline, group-2 received 50% glycerol (10 ml/kg) alone, group-3 received glycerol and 250 mg/kg of EEAHR and group-4 received glycerol and 500 mg/kg of EEAHR. The renal injury and recovery was measured by serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total proteins, albumin, urine output and histopathological changes. Results In vitro antioxidant activity of root extract was found to be equal to Vitamin C and in an in vivo study root extract treated animals showed significant attenuation of biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the kidney compared to glycerol treated group and it was found to be more significant with the extract at 500 mg/kg than 250mg/kg. Conclusion The present study revealed that Aconitum heterophyllum root has shown antioxidant and nephroprotective activities. PMID:27134892

  12. Biotechnological conversion of glycerol from biofuels to 1,3-propanediol using Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Przystałowska, Hanna; Lipiński, Daniel; Słomski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    In the face of shortage of fossil fuel supplies and climate warming triggered by excessive carbon dioxide emission, alternative resources for chemical industry have gained considerable attention. Renewable resources and their derivatives are of particular interest. Glycerol, which constitutes one of the by-products during biodiesel production, is such a substrate. Thus, generated excess glycerol may become an environmental problem, since it cannot be disposed of in the environment. The most promising products obtained from glycerol are polyols, including 1,3-propanediol, an important substrate in the production of synthetic materials, e.g. polyurethanes, unsaturated polyesters, and epoxy resins. Glycerol can be used as a carbon and energy source for microbial growth in industrial microbiology to produce 1,3-propanediol. This paper is a review of metabolic pathways of native producers and E. coli with the acquired ability to produce the diol via genetic manipulations. Culture conditions during 1,3-PDO production and genetic modifications of E. coli used in order to increase efficiency of glycerol bioconversion are also described in this paper.

  13. Effect of glycerol on sustained insulin release from PVA hydrogels and its application in diabetes therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Che, Junyi; Yuan, Minglu; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Wei-En

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glycerol on the physical properties and release of an insulin-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel film. The insulin-loaded hydrogel composite film was produced using the freeze-thawing method, after which the in vitro swelling ratio, transmittance and insulin release, and the in vivo pharmacodynamics, of hydrogels containing various volumes of glycerol were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of glycerol reduced the swelling ratio and increased the softness of the PVA hydrogel film. An analysis of insulin release in vitro and of the hypoglycemic effects in rats demonstrated that the PVA hydrogel film had a sustained release of insulin and long-acting effect over 10 days. The results of the present study suggested that, as a hydrophilic plasticizer, glycerol was able to enhance the release of insulin in the early stage of release profile by enhancing the formation of water channels, although the total swelling ratio was decreased. Therefore, the insulin-loaded glycerol/PVA hydrogel film may be a promising sustained-release preparation for the treatment of diabetes.

  14. Gelatinization and retrogradation phenomena in starch/montmorillonite nanocomposites plasticized with different glycerol/water ratios.

    PubMed

    Lara, Sandra Camila; Salcedo, Felipe

    2016-10-20

    This study aims to gain insights into the intermolecular interactions present in thermoplastic starch (TPS)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites prepared using water and/or glycerol as plasticizers. Specifically, the impact of using different glycerol/water proportions on the nature of gelatinization and retrogradation processes is studied. Nanocomposites were characterized by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). It is shown that clay tactoids preferentially interact with glycerol molecules rather than starch macromolecules. Consequently, the effects of MMT incorporation strongly depend on the glycerol/water ratio; when a ratio of 0.5 is used minor variations were observed on the starch gelatinization process-although stronger clays-starch interactions were evident-whereas at higher ratios the addition of clays significantly increased the gelatinization temperature, up to values over 100°C. In the gelatinization process of starch in TPS samples having only glycerol as a plasticizer, the leaching of amylose and the melting of amylopectin crystalline domains seem to occur simultaneously. This different gelatinization mechanism produces a TPS having a substantially different morphology, which exhibited reduced retrogradation characteristics. PMID:27474559

  15. Crude glycerol as feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoates production by mixed microbial cultures.

    PubMed

    Moita, R; Freches, A; Lemos, P C

    2014-07-01

    The increase in global biodiesel production makes imperative the development of sustainable processes for the use of its main by-product, crude glycerol. In this study the feasibility of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production by a mixed microbial community using crude glycerol as feedstock was investigated. The selected culture had the ability to consume both glycerol and methanol fraction present in the crude. However, glycerol seemed to be the only carbon source contributing for the two biopolymers stored: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and glucose biopolymer (GB). In this work the culture reached a maximum PHB content of 47% (cdw) and a productivity of 0.27 g X/L.d, with an aerobic mixed cultures and a real waste substrate with non-volatile fatty acids (VFA) organic matter. The overall PHA yield on total substrate obtained was in the middle range of those reported in literature. The fact that crude glycerol can be used to produce PHA without any pre-treatment step, makes the overall production process economically more competitive, reducing polymer final cost.

  16. Glycerol Is a Suberin Monomer. New Experimental Evidence for an Old Hypothesis1

    PubMed Central

    Moire, Laurence; Schmutz, Alain; Buchala, Antony; Yan, Bin; Stark, Ruth E.; Ryser, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    The monomer composition of the esterified part of suberin can be determined using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technology and is accordingly believed to be well known. However, evidence was presented recently indicating that the suberin of green cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Green Lint) fibers contains substantial amounts of esterified glycerol. This observation is confirmed in the present report by a sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction of membrane lipids and by a developmental study, demonstrating the correlated accumulation of glycerol and established suberin monomers. Corresponding amounts of glycerol also occur in the suberin of the periderm of cotton stems and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. A periderm preparation of wound-healing potato tuber storage parenchyma was further purified by different treatments. As the purification proceeded, the concentration of glycerol increased at about the same rate as that of α,ω-alkanedioic acids, the most diagnostic suberin monomers. Therefore, it is proposed that glycerol is a monomer of suberins in general and can cross-link aliphatic and aromatic suberin domains, corresponding to the electron-translucent and electron-opaque suberin lamellae, respectively. This proposal is consistent with the reported dimensions of the electron-translucent suberin lamellae. PMID:10069853

  17. Collisions of sodium atoms with liquid glycerol: insights into solvation and ionization.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Justin P; Nathanson, Gilbert M; Alexander, William A; Minton, Timothy K; Lakshmi, Sankaran; Schatz, George C

    2014-02-26

    The reactive uptake and ionization of sodium atoms in glycerol were investigated by gas-liquid scattering experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. A nearly effusive beam of Na atoms at 670 K was directed at liquid glycerol in vacuum, and the scattered Na atoms were detected by a rotatable mass spectrometer. The Na velocity and angular distributions imply that all impinging Na atoms that thermally equilibrate on the surface remain behind, likely ionizing to e(-) and Na(+). The reactive uptake of Na atoms into glycerol was determined to be greater than 75%. Complementary AIMD simulations of Na striking a 17-molecule glycerol cluster indicate that the glycerol hydroxyl groups reorient around the Na atom as it makes contact with the cluster and begins to ionize. Although complete ionization did not occur during the 10 ps simulation, distinct correlations among the extent of ionization, separation between Na(+) and e(-), solvent coordination, and binding energies of the Na atom and electron were observed. The combination of experiments and simulations indicates that Na-atom deposition provides a low-energy pathway for generating solvated electrons in the near-interfacial region of protic liquids.

  18. Production of erythritol and mannitol by Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in media containing glycerol.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ludwika; Rywińska, Anita; Gładkowski, Witold

    2012-09-01

    Glycerol is a by-product generated in large amounts during the production of biofuels. This study presents an alternative means of crude glycerol valorization through the production of erythritol and mannitol. In a shake-flasks experiment in a buffered medium, nine Yarrowia lipolytica strains were examined for polyols production. Three strains (A UV'1, A-15 and Wratislavia K1) were selected as promising producers of erythritol or/and mannitol and used in bioreactor batch cultures and fed-batch mode. Pure and biodiesel-derived crude glycerol media both supplemented (to 2.5 and 3.25 %) and not-supplemented with NaCl were applied. The best results for erythritol biosynthesis were achieved in medium with crude glycerol supplemented with 2.5 % NaCl. Wratislavia K1 strain produced up to 80.0 g l⁻¹ erythritol with 0.49 g g⁻¹ yield and productivity of 1.0 g l⁻¹ h⁻¹. Erythritol biosynthesis by A UV'1 and A-15 strains was accompanied by the simultaneous production of mannitol (up to 27.6 g l⁻¹). Extracellular as well as intracellular erythritol and mannitol ratios depended on the glycerol used and the presence of NaCl in the medium. The results from this study indicate that NaCl addition to the medium improves erythritol biosynthesis, and simultaneously inhibits mannitol formation.

  19. Improved tensile strength of glycerol-plasticized gluten bioplastic containing hydrophobic liquids.

    PubMed

    Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present work has been to study the influence of hydrophobic liquids on the morphology and the properties of thermo-molded plastics based on glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten (WG). While the total amount of castor oil and glycerol was remained constant at 30 wt%, castor oil with various proportions with respect to glycerol was incorporated with WG by mixing at room temperature and the resultant mixtures were thermo-molded at 120 degrees C to prepare sheet samples. Moisture absorption, morphology, dynamic mechanical properties, and tensile properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break) of the plastics were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the physical properties of WG plastic were closely related to glycerol to castor oil ratio. Increasing in castor oil content reduces the moisture absorption markedly, which is accompanied with a significant improvement in tensile strength and Young's modulus. These observations were further confirmed in 24 wt% glycerol-plasticized WG plastics containing 6 wt% silicone oil or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) liquid rubber.

  20. Glycerol-Induced Membrane Stiffening: The Role of Viscous Fluid Adlayers

    PubMed Central

    Pocivavsek, Luka; Gavrilov, Kseniya; Cao, Kathleen D.; Chi, Eva Y.; Li, Dongxu; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2011-01-01

    Lipid interfaces, ranging from cell membranes to thin surfactant layers that stabilize lung alveoli, are integral to living systems. Such interfaces are often subjected to mechanical forces, and because of their membrane-like geometry, they can easily deform by bending into localized folds. In this work, we explore the role of small molecules (i.e., glycerol) on the mechanical stability of model lung surfactant monolayers. We demonstrate that the presence of glycerol increases local monolayer bending stiffness by orders of magnitude. Our x-ray and neutron reflectivity measurements indicate that water is preferentially depleted, or glycerol is preferentially enriched, at the lipid headgroup/solvent interface, and that this glycerol-enriched layer extends O(10Å) beneath the monolayer with an adsorption free energy of −2.5 to −4.6 kJ/mol. The dramatic change in membrane bending stiffness in the presence of the sugar adlayer is understood in terms of two models: 1), lipid antiplasticization by glycerol; and 2), a continuum mechanical model of the viscous adlayer. PMID:21723821

  1. Optimization of cultural conditions for conversion of glycerol to ethanol by Enterobacter aerogenes S012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to optimize the cultural conditions for the conversion of glycerol to ethanol by Enterobacter aerogenes S012. Taguchi method was used to screen the cultural conditions based on their signal to noise ratio (SN). Temperature (°C), agitation speed (rpm) and time (h) were found to have the highest influence on both glycerol utilization and ethanol production by the organism while pH had the lowest. Full factorial design, statistical analysis, and regression model equation were used to optimize the selected cultural parameters for maximum ethanol production. The result showed that fermentation at 38°C and 200 rpm for 48 h would be ideal for the bacteria to produce maximum amount of ethanol from glycerol. At these optimum conditions, ethanol production, yield and productivity were 25.4 g/l, 0.53 g/l/h, and 1.12 mol/mol-glycerol, repectively. Ethanol production increased to 26.5 g/l while yield and productivity decreased to 1.04 mol/mol-glycerol and 0.37 g/l/h, respectively, after 72 h. Analysis of the fermentation products was performed using HPLC, while anaerobic condition was created by purging the fermentation vessel with nitrogen gas. PMID:23388539

  2. Hypothetical glycerol pathways of newly isolated strains capable of 1,3-propanediol production.

    PubMed

    Leja, Katarzyna; Samul, Dorota; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Myszka, Kamila; Juzwa, Wojciech; Pawlicka, Joanna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Study presented here demonstrates the ability of three newly isolated strains, obtained from environmental probes (manure, bottom sediment, and food waste) and identified as Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium butyricum, and Hafnia alvei, to synthesize 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), organic acids (such as lactic, acetic, fumaric, succinic, and butyric acids), and ethanol from glycerol. The production of 1,3-PD as well as the glycerol pathways in C. bifermentans and H. alvei cells have not been investigated and described yet by others. Moreover, there is no data in the available literature on the products of glycerol utilization by H. alvei and there is only some incoherent data (mainly from the first half of the twentieth century) about the ability of C. bifermentans to carry out glycerol degradation. Additionally, this study presents complete hypothetical glycerol pathways and the basic fermentation kinetic parameters (such as yield and productivity) for both strains as well as for the newly isolated C. butyricum strain. PMID:25473655

  3. Glycerol electro-oxidation on a carbon-supported platinum catalyst at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Keisuke; Kosaka, Fumihiko; Shimada, Iori; Oshima, Yoshito; Otomo, Junichiro

    2013-03-01

    The electro-oxidation of glycerol on a carbon-supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) in combination with a reaction products analysis was investigated at intermediate temperatures (235-260 °C) using a single cell with a CsH2PO4 proton conducting solid electrolyte. A high current density was achieved. The main products were H2, CO2 and CO but the formation of C2 compounds, such as glycolic acid and ethane, was also observed. In addition, several C3 compounds were detected as minor products. A reaction products analysis revealed that the C-C bond dissociation ratio of glycerol was 70-80% at both low and high potentials (>200 mV vs. reversible hydrogen electrode) at 250 °C, suggesting that rapid dissociation occurs on Pt/C. The reaction products analysis also suggested that hydrogen production via thermal decomposition and/or steam reforming of glycerol (indirect path) and direct electro-oxidation of glycerol (direct path) proceed in parallel. More detailed reaction paths involving C1, C2 and C3 reaction products are discussed as well as the possible rate-determining step in glycerol electro-oxidation at intermediate temperatures.

  4. The effect of replacing corn with glycerol on ruminal bacteria in continuous culture fermenters.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Abo El-Nor, S; Ibrahim, S A

    2011-06-01

    The effects of substituting corn with glycerol on DNA concentration of selected ruminal bacteria were investigated using continuous fermenters. Four continuous culture fermenters were used in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design with four 10 days consecutive periods. Treatment diets (60:40 forage to concentrate) were fed at 45 g/day dry matter (DM) in three equal portions. Glycerol (0.995 g/g glycerol) was used to replace corn in a grain mix at proportions of 0% (T0; control), 15% (T15), 30% (T30) and 45% (T45). On day 10 of each period, samples were collected from each fermenter 3 h after the morning feeding and analysed for volatile fatty acid and bacterial DNA concentration. Glycerol substitution was related to significantly higher butyrate, valerate and isovalerate concentrations. Compared with the T0 diet, acetate concentration was significantly lower with the T30 and T45 diets whilst propionate concentration was higher only with the T45 diet. The DNA concentrations for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Selenomonas ruminantium decreased with the T30 and T45 diets compared with the T0 diet. No differences in the DNA concentrations for Ruminococcus albus and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens amongst diets were observed. The findings show that substituting 15% of the dietary corn with glycerol had no substantive effects on fermentation processing or ruminal bacteria. Higher substitution levels, however, may adversely affect ruminal bacteria and negatively impact acetate production. PMID:20880288

  5. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) associated with citalopram use

    PubMed Central

    Kirpekar, Vivek C.; Joshi, Prashant P.

    2005-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can cause the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH is associated with hyponatraemia without oedema. We report the case of a patient who developed acute-onset hyponatraemia that progressed rapidly to serious neurological dysfunction shortly after the introduction of citalopram. All SSRIs including citalopram should be used with care in the elderly. The water and electrolyte balance should be monitored carefully during SSRI therapy. PMID:20711296

  6. Optical method for quantifying rates of mucus secretion from single submucosal glands.

    PubMed

    Joo, N S; Wu, J V; Krouse, M E; Saenz, Y; Wine, J J

    2001-08-01

    We describe an optical method to quantify single- gland secretion. Isolated tracheal mucosa were mounted at the air-Krebs interface and coated with oil. Gland secretions formed spherical bubbles that were digitally imaged at intervals, allowing rates of secretion to be calculated. We monitored 340 glands in 54 experiments with 12 sheep. Glands secreted basally at low rates (0.57 +/- 0.04 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1), 123 glands) in tissues up to 9 h postharvest and at lower rates for up to 3 days. Carbachol (10 microM) stimulated secretion with an early transient and a sustained or oscillating phase. Peak secretion was 15.7 +/- 1.2 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1) (60 glands); sustained secretion was 4.5 +/- 0.5 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1) (10 glands). Isoproterenol and phenylephrine (10 microM each) stimulated only small, transient responses. We confirmed that cats have a large secretory response to phenylephrine (11.6 +/- 3.7 nl x min(-1) x gland(-1), 12 glands), but pigs, sheep, and humans all have small responses (<2 nl x min(-1)m x gland(-1)). Carbachol-stimulated peak secretion was inhibited 56% by bumetanide, 67% by HCO replacement with HEPES, and 92% by both. The distribution of secretion rates was nonnormal, suggesting the existence of subpopulations of glands. PMID:11435221

  7. The Year of Secret Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Jaclyn

    2004-01-01

    The path to "novelist" was a convoluted one for Moriarty, who began writing fiction as doctoral student at Cambridge University. Her interest in young adults stems from an appreciation for the "troubles, strengths, and surprises of that age group." Now, in a uniquely formatted book titled "The Year of Secret Assignments," we peek inside the mind…

  8. Resistin induces lipolysis and suppresses adiponectin secretion in cultured human visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neng; Zhou, Lingmei; Zhang, Zixiang; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Liqiang

    2014-11-01

    Resistin is an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, which is likely involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance via its interaction with other organs, as well as affecting adipose tissue function. The impact of resistin treatment on lipolysis and adiponectin secretion in human visceral adipose tissue is currently unknown. Mesenteric adipose tissue samples were obtained from 14 male subjects [age 54±6 yr, body mass index (BMI) 23.59±0.44 kg/m(2)] undergoing abdominal surgeries. Adipose tissues were cultured and treated with resistin (100 ng/mL, 24h) in the absence or presence of different signaling inhibitors: H89 (1 μM), PD98059 (25 μM) and SB201290 (20 μM) for glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) measurement. Adiponectin level from media at 24 h was also measured via ELISA. Adipose tissue minces after resistin incubation (100 ng/mL, 24 h) were also collected for further Western blotting analysis. Resistin resulted in significant induction of glycerol (3.62±0.57 vs. 5.30±1.11 mmol/L/g tissue, p<0.05) and NEFA (5.99±1.06 vs. 8.48±1.57 mmol/L/g tissue, p<0.05) release at 24 h. H89 and PD98059 partially inhibited resistin induced glycerol and NEFA release, while SB201290 has no such effect. Resistin induced the phosphorylation of p-HSL at serine 563, PKA at ~62 kDa and ERK1/2 as measured by Western blotting. Resistin led to significant reduction of the secretion of adiponectin (38.16±10.43 vs. 21.81±4.21 ng/mL/g tissue, p<0.05). Our current findings implicate that resistin might play a significant role in obesity related pathologies in various tissues via its effect on adipose tissue function.

  9. Wnt Secretion and Gradient Formation

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Gonzalo P.; Lüchtenborg, Anne-Marie; Katanaev, Vladimir L.

    2013-01-01

    Concentration gradients formed by the lipid-modified morphogens of the Wnt family are known for their pivotal roles during embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt morphogens are also implicated in a variety of human diseases, especially cancer. Therefore, the signaling cascades triggered by Wnts have received considerable attention during recent decades. However, how Wnts are secreted and how concentration gradients are formed remains poorly understood. The use of model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster has provided important advances in this area. For instance, we have previously shown that the lipid raft-associated reggie/flotillin proteins influence Wnt secretion and spreading in Drosophila. Our work supports the notion that producing cells secrete Wnt molecules in at least two pools: a poorly diffusible one and a reggie/flotillin-dependent highly diffusible pool which allows morphogen spreading over long distances away from its source of production. Here we revise the current views of Wnt secretion and spreading, and propose two models for the role of the reggie/flotillin proteins in these processes: (i) reggies/flotillins regulate the basolateral endocytosis of the poorly diffusible, membrane-bound Wnt pool, which is then sorted and secreted to apical compartments for long-range diffusion, and (ii) lipid rafts organized by reggies/flotillins serve as “dating points” where extracellular Wnt transiently interacts with lipoprotein receptors to allow its capture and further spreading via lipoprotein particles. We further discuss these processes in the context of human breast cancer. A better understanding of these phenomena may be relevant for identification of novel drug targets and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23455472

  10. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  11. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss.

  12. Bioprocessing of glycerol into glyceric Acid for use in bioplastic monomer.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of excess glycerol supplies derived from the burgeoning biodiesel industry has recently become very important. Glyceric acid (GA) is one of the most promising glycerol derivatives, and it is abundantly obtained from glycerol by a bioprocess using acetic acid bacteria. In this study, a novel branched-type poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was synthesized by polycondensation of lactide in the presence of GA. The resulting branched PLA had lower crystallinity and glass transition temperatures than the conventional linear PLA, and the peak associated with the melting point of the branched PLA disappeared. Moreover, in a blend of the branched polymer, the crystallization of the linear PLA occurred at a lower temperature. Thus, the branched PLA containing GA synthesized in this study could potentially be used as a novel bio-based modifier for PLA.

  13. Evolutionary differences in food preference rely on Gr64e, a receptor for glycerol.

    PubMed

    Wisotsky, Zev; Medina, Adriana; Freeman, Erica; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2011-12-01

    Very little is known about how stimuli that are typically not rich in sugars, such as beer, trigger attractive gustatory responses in Drosophila. We identified a member of the gustatory receptor family, Gr64e, as a receptor that is required for feeding preference for beer and other sources that have fermenting yeast. We found that Gr64e is required for neuronal and behavioral responses to glycerol, an abundant component of growing yeast and fermentation products. Ectopic expression of Gr64e in an olfactory neuron conferred responsiveness to glycerol. We also found that Drosophila species that are predicted to carry pseudogenes of Gr64e had reduced glycerol sensitivity. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of feeding acceptance of yeast products and raise the possibility that Gr64e contributes to specific evolutionary variations in appetitive selectivity across Drosophila species. PMID:22057190

  14. Production of filmable medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates produced from glycerol by Pseudomonas mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Francesco; Fragalà, Manuela; Mineo, Placido G; Damigella, Arcangelo; Catara, Antonino F; Palmeri, Rosa; Rescifina, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Glycerol is an effective carbon source for the production of scl- and mcl-polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Pseudomonas spp. P. mediterranea 9.1 (CFBP 5447) synthesizes an amorphous mcl-PHA when grown on crude glycerol, whereas on both reagent grade (RG) and partially refined (PR) glycerol, it produces two very similar distinctive mcl-PHAs with the unusual property of producing, with the appropriate treatment, a transparent film. Mcl-PHAs recovered after biomass extraction have an average molecular weight of approximately 56,000/63,000 Da. The monomer composition and physicochemical properties of such mcl-PHAs suggest their potential application as a softener of biopolymeric blends for food packaging and medical devices.

  15. Design and control of glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol etherification process.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Elena; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Bozga, Grigore

    2012-01-01

    Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether : TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics.

  16. Aqueous phase reforming of glycerol over Ni-based catalysts for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Hyun; Moon, Dong Ju

    2011-08-01

    Aqueous phase reforming of glycerol over Ni-based catalysts for hydrogen production was carried out at 225 degrees C, 23 bar and LHSV = 4 h(-1). The Ni-based catalyst was prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts before and after the reaction were characterized by N2 physisorption, CO chemisorption, XRD, TPR, SEM and TEM techniques. It was found that Ni(20 wt%)-Co(3 wt%)/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst showed higher glycerol conversion and hydrogen selectivity than Ni(20 wt%)/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. There are no major changes in Ni particles after the reaction over Ni-Co/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. The results suggest that the Ni-Co/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst can be applied to the hydrogen production system using APR of glycerol. PMID:22103184

  17. Impact of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase on virulence factor production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jonathan B; Scoffield, Jessica; Woolnough, Jessica L; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes life-long chronic infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung by utilizing various adaptation strategies. Some of these strategies include altering metabolic pathways to utilize readily available nutrients present in the host environment. The airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphatidylcholine, a major component of lung surfactant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can degrade phosphatidylcholine to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of usable carbon sources in the CF lung. In this study, we show that some CF-adapted P. aeruginosa isolates utilize glycerol more efficiently as a carbon source than nonadapted isolates. Furthermore, a mutation in a gene required for glycerol utilization impacts the production of several virulence factors in both acute and chronic isolates of P. aeruginosa. Taken together, the results suggest that interference with this metabolic pathway may have potential therapeutic benefits. PMID:25409940

  18. Evolutionary differences in food preference rely on Gr64e, a receptor for glycerol.

    PubMed

    Wisotsky, Zev; Medina, Adriana; Freeman, Erica; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2011-12-01

    Very little is known about how stimuli that are typically not rich in sugars, such as beer, trigger attractive gustatory responses in Drosophila. We identified a member of the gustatory receptor family, Gr64e, as a receptor that is required for feeding preference for beer and other sources that have fermenting yeast. We found that Gr64e is required for neuronal and behavioral responses to glycerol, an abundant component of growing yeast and fermentation products. Ectopic expression of Gr64e in an olfactory neuron conferred responsiveness to glycerol. We also found that Drosophila species that are predicted to carry pseudogenes of Gr64e had reduced glycerol sensitivity. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of feeding acceptance of yeast products and raise the possibility that Gr64e contributes to specific evolutionary variations in appetitive selectivity across Drosophila species.

  19. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a platform for renewable fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Clomburg, James M; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    To ensure the long-term viability of biorefineries, it is essential to go beyond the carbohydrate-based platform and develop complementing technologies capable of producing fuels and chemicals from a wide array of available materials. Glycerol, a readily available and inexpensive compound, is generated during biodiesel, oleochemical, and bioethanol production processes, making its conversion into value-added products of great interest. The high degree of reduction of carbon atoms in glycerol confers the ability to produce fuels and reduced chemicals at higher yields when compared to the use of carbohydrates. This review focuses on current engineering efforts as well as the challenges involved in the utilization of glycerol as a carbon source for the production of fuels and chemicals.

  20. Ultraviolet stimulated melanogenesis by human melanocytes is augmented by di-acyl glycerol but not TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Wren, F.E.; Matthews, J.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Epidermal melanocytes (MC) synthesize melanin in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The mechanisms mediating the UV-induced activation of melanogenesis are unknown but since UVR induces turnover of membrane phospholipids generating prostaglandins (PGs) and other products, it is possible that one of these might provide the activating signal. We have examined the effects of prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2, D2, F2 alpha, and di-acyl glycerol upon the UV-induced responses of cultured human MC and the Cloudman S91 melanoma cell line. The PGs had little effect on unirradiated cells and did not alter the response to UVR in either human MC or S91 melanoma cells. However, a synthetic analogue of di-acyl glycerol, 1-oleyl 2-acetyl glycerol (OAG), caused a significant (P less than 0.0001), dose-related augmentation of melanin content both in human MC (seven-fold) and S91 cells (three-fold). UVR caused a significant augmentation of the OAG-induced melanogenesis of both human MC and S91 cells. Since OAG is known to activate protein kinase C, it was possible that the observed modulation of the UVR signal could be via that pathway. Di-octanoyl glycerol, another di-acyl glycerol, which activates kinase C, caused a small (70%) increase in melanogenesis in MC which was not altered by UVR. However, 12-0 tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C, had no significant effect on either basal or UV-induced melanin synthesis in either cell type. These data suggest that the UV-induced signal activating melanogenesis could be mediated by di-acyl glycerol. Furthermore, they imply that the signal is transduced via an alternative, pathway that might be independent of protein kinase C.

  1. Minimization of glycerol synthesis in industrial ethanol yeast without influencing its fermentation performance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong-peng; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhong-yang; Shi, Gui-yang

    2011-01-01

    To synthesize glycerol, a major by-product during anaerobic production of ethanol, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae would consume up to 4% of the sugar feedstock in typical industrial ethanol processes. The present study was dedicated to decreasing the glycerol production mostly in industrial ethanol producing yeast without affecting its desirable fermentation properties including high osmotic and ethanol tolerance, natural robustness in industrial processes. In the present study, the GPD1 gene, encoding NAD+-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in an industrial ethanol producing strain of S. cerevisiae, was deleted. Simultaneously, a non-phosphorylating NADP+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN) from Bacillus cereus was expressed in the mutant deletion of GPD1. Although the resultant strain AG1A (gpd1△ P(PGK)-gapN) exhibited a 48.7±0.3% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) lower glycerol yield and a 7.6±0.1% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) higher ethanol yield compared to the wild-type strain, it was sensitive to osmotic stress and failed to ferment on 25% glucose. However, when trehalose synthesis genes TPS1 and TPS2 were over-expressed in the above recombinant strain AG1A, its high osmotic stress tolerance was not only restored but also improved. In addition, this new recombinant yeast strain displayed further reduced glycerol yield, indistinguishable maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)) and fermentation ability compared to the wild type in anaerobic batch fermentations. This study provides a promising strategy to improve ethanol yields by minimization of glycerol production.

  2. Protocol for the measurement of fatty acid and glycerol turnover in vivo in baboons[S

    PubMed Central

    Bastarrachea, Raul A.; Veron, Sonya M.; Vaidyanathan, Vidya; Garcia-Forey, Maggie; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Higgins, Paul B.; Parks, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of the strength of nonhuman primate models in investigating metabolic disorders has resulted in an expanded need for in vivo research techniques. We studied adipose metabolism in 10 baboons (13.0 ± 4.2 years old, 29.5 ± 5.5 kg). Part 1 evaluated the effect of different sedatives on the rate of appearance of plasma free fatty acids (RaFFA), assessed using 13C4-labeled palmitate infusion (7 µmol/kg/min). Animals, were studied with no sedation, with complete isoflurane sedation, and with minimal midazolam infusion (0.04 mg/kg/h), with the last scheme allowing for the most consistent values and animals that were visually more calm. In Part 2, RaFFA and RaGlycerol (D5-glycerol, 5 mg/kg lean body mass/h) were measured. From midnight to 0300, flux fell and came to a steady state between 0500 and 0700 h (RaFFA, 39.4 ± 29.8 μmol/kg fat mass/min; and RaGlycerol, 26.9 ± 7.3 μmol/kg/min). The RaFFA-to-RaGlycerol ratio was 1.5 ± 0.8 (49% reesterification). The decline in turnover throughout the night reflects natural circadian processes and was mirrored by reductions in FFA and glycerol to 0.62 and ± 0.14 and 0.16 and ± 0.03 mmol/l, respectively. The concurrent changes in both FFA and glycerol kinetics indicate physiologic validity of the method. These techniques will support needed research to determine mechanisms by which treatments act upon the adipocyte in vivo. PMID:21415122

  3. Glycerol Salicylate-based Pulp-Capping Material Containing Portland Cement.

    PubMed

    Portella, Fernando Freitas; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Santos, Paula Dapper; Sartori, Cláudia; Wegner, Everton; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water sorption, solubility, pH and ability to diffuse into dentin of a glycerol salicylate-based, pulp-capping cement in comparison to a conventional calcium hydroxide-based pulp capping material (Hydcal). An experimental cement was developed containing 60% glycerol salicylate resin, 10% methyl salicylate, 25% calcium hydroxide and 5% Portland cement. Water sorption and solubility were determined based on mass changes in the samples before and after the immersion in distilled water for 7 days. Material discs were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 7 days and 28 days, and a digital pHmeter was used to measure the pH of water. The cement's ability to diffuse into bovine dentin was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. The glycerol salicylate-based cement presented higher water sorption and lower solubility than Hydcal. The pH of water used to store the samples increased for both cements, reaching 12.59 ± 0.06 and 12.54 ± 0.05 after 7 days, for Hydcal and glycerol salicylate-based cements, respectively. Both cements were able to turn alkaline the medium at 24 h and sustain its alkalinity after 28 days. Hydcal exhibited an intense diffusion into dentin up to 40 µm deep, and the glycerol salicylate-based cement penetrated 20 µm. The experimental glycerol salicylate-based cement presents good sorption, solubility, ability to alkalize the surrounding tissues and diffusion into dentin to be used as pulp capping material. PMID:26312972

  4. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive. PMID:22809320

  5. The glycerol-3-phosphate permease GlpT is the only fosfomycin transporter in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-García, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Guelfo, Javier R; Blázquez, Jesús

    2009-11-01

    Fosfomycin is transported into Escherichia coli via both glycerol-3-phosphate (GlpT) and a hexose phosphate transporter (UhpT). Consequently, the inactivation of either glpT or uhpT confers increased fosfomycin resistance in this species. The inactivation of other genes, including ptsI and cyaA, also confers significant fosfomycin resistance. It has been assumed that identical mechanisms are responsible for fosfomycin transport into Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells. The study of an ordered library of insertion mutants in P. aeruginosa PA14 demonstrated that only insertions in glpT confer significant resistance. To explore the uniqueness of this resistance target in P. aeruginosa, the linkage between fosfomycin resistance and the use of glycerol-3-phosphate was tested. Fosfomycin-resistant (Fos-R) mutants were obtained in LB and minimal medium containing glycerol as the sole carbon source at a frequency of 10(-6). However, no Fos-R mutants grew on plates containing fosfomycin and glycerol-3-phosphate instead of glycerol (mutant frequency, < or = 5 x 10(-11)). In addition, 10 out of 10 independent spontaneous Fos-R mutants, obtained on LB-fosfomycin, harbored mutations in glpT, and in all cases the sensitivity to fosfomycin was recovered upon complementation with the wild-type glpT gene. The analysis of these mutants provides additional insights into the structure-function relationship of glycerol-3-phosphate the transporter in P. aeruginosa. Studies with glucose-6-phosphate and different mutant derivatives strongly suggest that P. aeruginosa lacks a specific transport system for this sugar. Thus, glpT seems to be the only fosfomycin resistance mutational target in P. aeruginosa. The high frequency of Fos-R mutations and their apparent lack of fitness cost suggest that Fos-R variants will be obtained easily in vivo upon the fosfomycin treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

  6. Characterization of Glycerol Dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 and GGG Motif Identification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangliang; Wang, Jiajun; Shi, Hao; Gu, Huaxiang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Xun; Wang, Fei

    2016-06-28

    Glycerol dehydrogenases (GlyDHs) are essential for glycerol metabolism in vivo, catalyzing its reversible reduction to 1,3-dihydroxypropranone (DHA). The gldA gene encoding a putative GlyDH was cloned from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 (TtGlyDH) and expressed in Escherichia coli. The presence of Mn(2+) enhanced its enzymatic activity by 79.5%. Three highly conserved residues (Asp(171), His(254), and His(271)) in TtGlyDH were associated with metal ion binding. Based on an investigation of glycerol oxidation and DHA reduction, TtGlyDH showed maximum activity towards glycerol at 60°C and pH 8.0 and towards DHA at 60°C and pH 6.0. DHA reduction was the dominant reaction, with a lower Km(DHA) of 1.08 ± 0.13 mM and Vmax of 0.0053 ± 0.0001 mM/s, compared with glycerol oxidation, with a Km(glycerol) of 30.29 ± 3.42 mM and Vmax of 0.042 ± 0.002 mM/s. TtGlyDH had an apparent activation energy of 312.94 kJ/mol. The recombinant TtGlyDH was thermostable, maintaining 65% of its activity after a 2-h incubation at 60°C. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that TtGlyDH had an atypical dinucleotide binding motif (GGG motif) and a basic residue Arg(43), both related to dinucleotide binding. PMID:26975764

  7. The ultrastructure of normal and glycerol treated muscle in the ghost crab, Ocypode cursor.

    PubMed

    Castel, M; Papir, D

    1975-06-13

    The ultrastructure of normal and glycerol treated fibers of the closer muscle of the ghost crab, Ocypode cursor, was studiedmthe muscle is composed of presumably phasic (short sarcomeres) and tonic (long sarcomeres) fibers, the latter greatly predominating. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as an extracellular tracer to delineate the tubular system (TS), and to determine to what extent this system becomes detached from the extracellular space as a result of glycerol treatment. Sarcolemmal clefts invade deeply into the muscle at Z-lines and I-bands; tubules invaginate into the muscle from the clefts and from the surface sarcolemma at the Z-lines, A-I overlaps and A-bands. A tubules are in frequent diadic or tetradic contact with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), whereas Z tubules appear to be randomly associated with SR, terminal cisterns (TC) and Z-line fibrils. When HRP was administered to normal muscle, black reaction product was found adjacent to the outer surface of the sarcolemma, within the clefts and within profiles of the TS throughout the tissue. In glycerol treated muscle peripheral vacuolation frequently occurred; black reaction product penetrated only as far as the vacuoles and into dilated Z-line tubules, but was virtually absent from the rest of the TS. This lack of continuity between the extracellular space and the A tubules indicated disruption or constriction of the A tubules as a result of glycerol treatment, although Z tubule contact with the extracellular space appeared unimpaired. These findings provide ultrastructural correlates of the electrophysiological changes produced by glycerol treatment of the closer muscle of the ghost crab (Papir, 1973), namely, interference with excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling. The random association of the Z tubules with SR and TC, and their resistance to disruption by glycerol treatment, tend to endorse the claims that the Z tubules in crustacean muscle are not directly involved in e-c coupling (Brandt et

  8. Maize leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase : oligomeric state and activity in the presence of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Podestá, F E; Andreo, C S

    1989-06-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) leaf phosphoenopyruvate (PEP) carboxylase activity at subsaturating levels of PEP was increased by the inclusion of glycerol (20%, v/v) in the assay medium. The extent of activation was dependent on H(+) concentration, being more marked at pH 7 (with activities 100% higher than in aqueous medium) than at pH 8 (20% activation). The determination of the substrate concentration necessary to achieve half-maximal enzyme activity (S(0.5)) (PEP) and maximal velocity (V) between pH 6.9 and 8.2 showed a uniform decrease in S(0.5) in the presence of glycerol over the entire pH range tested, and only a slight decrease in V at pH values near 8. Including NaCl (100 millimolar) in the glycerol containing assay medium resulted in additional activation, mainly due to an increase in V over the entire range of pH. Glucose-6-phosphate (5 millimolar) activated both the native and the glycerol-treated enzyme almost to the same extent, at pH 7 and 1 millimolar PEP. Inhibition by 5 millimolar malate at pH 7 and subsaturating PEP was considerably lower in the presence of glycerol than in an aqueous medium (8% against 25%, respectively). Size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography in aqueous buffer revealed the existence of an equilibrium between the tetrameric and dimeric enzyme forms, which is displaced to the tetramer as the pH was increased from 7 to 8. In the presence of glycerol, only the 400 kilodalton tetrameric form was observed at pH 7 or 8. However, dissociation into dimers by NaCl could not be prevented by the polyol. We conclude that the control of the aggregation state by the metabolic status of the cell could be one regulatory mechanism of PEP carboxylase.

  9. Aquaporin-10 Represents an Alternative Pathway for Glycerol Efflux from Human Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Laforenza, Umberto; Scaffino, Manuela F.; Gastaldi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycerol outflow from adipocytes has been considered for a decade to be mediated by aquaporin-7, an aquaglyceroporin highly expressed in the adipose tissue. Its involvement in glycerol metabolism has been widely studied also in humans. Recent studies in different aquaporin-7 KO mice models pose two different questions 1) the exact localization of aquaporin-7 in human white adipose tissue; 2) the existence of other aquaglyceroporins that work with aquaporin-7 to guarantee glycerol efflux and thus a normal adiposity in humans. To this purpose we investigated the expression, the localization and the functioning of aquaglyceroporin-10 in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, in isolated and cultured differentiated adipocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Aquaporin-7 and -10 were expressed in the white adipose tissue both at mRNA and at protein level. Immunofluorescence revealed aquaporin-7 and -10 labelling in the human adipose tissue both to the plasma membrane and to a thin rim of cytoplasm of adipocytes. Aquaporin-7, but not aquaporin-10, colocalized with the endothelial marker CD34. Human cultured differentiated adipocytes showed an aquaporin-7 and -10 labelling mainly in the cytoplasm and in the lipid droplets with insulin reinforcing the lipid droplets staining and isoproterenol inducing its translocation to the plasma membrane compartment. Water and glycerol permeability measurements using adipocytes and adipose membrane vesicles confirmed the presence of functioning aquaglyceroporins. Aquaporin-10 silencing in human differentiated adipocytes resulted in a 50% decrease of glycerol and osmotic water permeability. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that aquaporin-7, differently from mice, is present in both adipocyte and capillary plasma membranes of human adipose tissue. Aquaporin-10, on the contrary, is expressed exclusively in the adipocytes. The expression of two aquaglyceroporins in human adipose tissue is particularly important for the

  10. Design of a recombinant Escherichia coli for producing L-phenylalanine from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Thongchuang, Mayura; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook; Chisti, Yusuf; Packdibamrung, Kanoktip

    2012-10-01

    A recombinant Escherichia coli was engineered to produce the commercially important amino acid L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) using glycerol as the carbon source. Compared to the conventionally used glucose and sucrose, glycerol is a less expensive carbon source. As phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH) activity is involved in the last step of L-Phe synthesis in E. coli, a phenylalanine dehydrogenase gene (phedh) from the thermotolerant Bacillus lentus was cloned into pRSFDuet-1 (pPheDH) and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The resulting clone had a limited ability to produce L-Phe from glycerol, possibly because of a poor glycerol uptake by the cell, or an inability to excrete L-Phe, or both. Therefore, yddG gene encoding an aromatic amino acid exporter and glpF gene encoding a glycerol transport facilitator were coexpressed with the phedh in a reengineered E. coli. In a glycerol medium, the maximum L-Phe production rates of the clones pPY (phedh and yddG genes) and pPYF (phedh, yddG and glpF genes) were 1.4- and 1.8-fold higher than the maximum production rate of the pPheDH clone. The better producing pPYF clone was further evaluated in a 5 l stirred-tank fermenter (37 °C, an aeration rate of 1 vvm, an agitation speed of 400 rpm). In the fermenter, the maximum concentration of L-Phe (366 mg/l) was achieved in a much shorter period compared to in the shake flasks. In the latter, the highest titer of L-Phe was only 76 % of the maximum value attained in the fermenter. PMID:22806734

  11. Effect of glycerol on mechanical and physical properties of silver-chitosan nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilowati, E.; Kartini, I.; Santosa, S. J.; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    The effect of using glycerol as plasticizer on mechanical and physical properties of silver-chitosan nanocomposite films have been studied. The nanocomposite films were prepared via three steps consisting of silver-chitosan colloidal nanocomposites preparation, adding of glycerol to colloids and silver-chitosan nanocomposites films formation. During the first step, silver ions were reduced by glucose and accelerated by sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Chitosan of 1% (v/v) act as stabilizing agent. Glycerol with volume variation of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 8 and 1.0 mL was added colloidal nanocomposites of 60 mL on the second step. On the third step, colloidal nanocomposites were cast on the polypropylene plate and dried at room temperature. The as-prepared films were then neutralized by NaOH and rinsed with distilled water until the filtrate reached the pH of 7. The colloidal nanocomposites were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mechanical properties, swelling capacity, water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films were also studied. The results indicated that the addition of different amounts of glycerol on colloidal nanocomposites effects on mechanical and physical properties of the resulted nanocomposite films. The elongation and tensile strength were gradually increased as the glycerol amount. Meanwhile, the swelling capacity, WVP, and crystallinity of the film also showed enhancement at increasing glycerol amount. However, the thermal stability decreased.

  12. A comparative study of solvent-assisted pretreatment of biodiesel derived crude glycerol on growth and 1,3-propanediol production from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pinki; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2012-01-15

    The rapidly growing biodiesel industry has created a scenario, where it is both important and challenging to deal with the enormous amount of crude glycerol generated as an inherent by-product. With every 100 gallons of biodiesel produced, 5-10 gallons of the crude glycerol is left behind containing several impurities which makes its disposal difficult. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the impact of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol upon microbial growth and production of 1,3-propanediol by Citrobacter freundii. Five different grades of crude glycerol (obtained from biodiesel preparation using jatropha, soybean, sunflower, rice bran and linseed oils) were used. Crude glycerol caused significant inhibition of microbial growth and subsequently 1,3-propanediol production as compared to pure glycerol. Therefore, a process was developed for the treatment of crude glycerol using solvents before fermentation wherein four different non-polar solvents were examined yielding different grades of pretreated glycerol. Subsequently, the potential toxic effects of pretreated glycerol on the growth and 1,3-propanediol production by C. freundii was evaluated. In case of petroleum ether-treated crude glycerol obtained from jatropha & linseed and hexane-treated crude glycerol obtained from rice bran, the yields obtained were comparable to the pure glycerol. Similarly, soybean-derived glycerol gave comparable results after treatment with either hexane or petroleum ether.

  13. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  14. The yeast glycerol 3-phosphatases Gpp1p and Gpp2p are required for glycerol biosynthesis and differentially involved in the cellular responses to osmotic, anaerobic, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pahlman, A K; Granath, K; Ansell, R; Hohmann, S; Adler, L

    2001-02-01

    We have characterized the strongly homologous GPP1/RHR2 and GPP2/HOR2 genes, encoding isoforms of glycerol 3-phosphatase. Mutants lacking both GPP1 and GPP2 are devoid of glycerol 3-phosphatase activity and produce only a small amount of glycerol, confirming the essential role for this enzyme in glycerol biosynthesis. Overproduction of Gpp1p and Gpp2p did not significantly enhance glycerol production, indicating that glycerol phosphatase is not rate-limiting for glycerol production. Previous studies have shown that expression of both GPP1 and GPP2 is induced under hyperosmotic stress and that induction partially depends on the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol) pathway. We here show that expression of GPP1 is strongly decreased in strains having low protein kinase A activity, although it is still responsive to osmotic stress. The gpp1Delta/gpp2Delta double mutant is hypersensitive to high osmolarity, whereas the single mutants remain unaffected, indicating GPP1 and GPP2 substitute well for each other. Transfer to anaerobic conditions does not affect expression of GPP2, whereas GPP1 is transiently induced, and mutants lacking GPP1 show poor anaerobic growth. All gpp mutants show increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate, which is especially pronounced when gpp1Delta and gpp1Delta/gpp2Delta mutants are transferred to anaerobic conditions. The addition of acetaldehyde, a strong oxidizer of NADH, leads to decreased glycerol 3-phosphate levels and restored anaerobic growth of the gpp1Delta/gpp2Delta mutant, indicating that the anaerobic accumulation of NADH causes glycerol 3-phosphate to reach growth-inhibiting levels. We also found the gpp1Delta/gpp2Delta mutant is hypersensitive to the superoxide anion generator, paraquat. Consistent with a role for glycerol 3-phosphatase in protection against oxidative stress, expression of GPP2 is induced in the presence of paraquat. This induction was only marginally affected by the general stress-response transcriptional factors Msn2p

  15. Pressure and temperature dependent viscosity of two glass forming liquids: Glycerol and dibutyl phthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Richard L.; King, H. E., Jr.; Herbst, Chris A.; Herschbach, Dudley R.

    1994-04-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent viscosities of two glass forming liquids, glycerol and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), have been studied in the range P=0-3 GPa, T=0-125 °C, and η=101-1010 cP. These studies were made using a combination of a rolling-ball and a centrifugal-force diamond anvil cell viscometer. The majority of the results extend up to viscosities of 107 cP, with those at 22.5 °C going to 1010 cP. The overall precision of the data are approximately 10% or better throughout. This level of precision allows us to define a viscosity surface which can then be extrapolated to the glass transition along both temperature and pressure cuts. The T-dependence of viscosity is larger for glycerol than DBP but the P-dependence smaller for glycerol than for DBP, whereas the T-dependence is much more pressure sensitive for DBP. These data provide an assessment of the T-dependence of an isothermal model (free volume), the P-dependence of an isobaric model (Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher) and by extension that for isochoric conditions. Fragility parameters are evaluated for these three isometric conditions. For glycerol and (less conclusively) DBP under isobaric conditions, the fragility increases markedly at high pressure. Under isochoric conditions, the fragility for both glycerol and DBP increases with increasing density. This is dramatic for DBP, which goes from a strong to an intermediate-strength liquid. For the isothermal model, we derive a new measure of fragility. Using this, DBP shows a trend common to several liquids, a decrease in fragility with increasing temperature. Glycerol, however, becomes more fragile over the same temperature range. For glycerol, the trends towards increased fragility at elevated pressure and temperature are consistent with diminished hydrogen bonding under those conditions. The P-dependence of the glass transition is also determined over a wide range of T. The slope, dTg/dP, is positive with the pressure dependence for glycerol being

  16. Some considerations on the transport properties of water-glycerol suspensions.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-01-01

    We study the self-diffusion coefficient and viscosity of a water-glycerol mixture for several glycerol molar fractions as a function of temperature well inside the metastable supercooled regime. We perform NMR experiments and verify that the system has at different concentration a fragile-to-strong crossover accompanied by the violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation. We observe that the crossover temperature depends on the water amount. Studying the fractional representation of the Stokes-Einstein relation, we find that in these systems dynamical arrest does not exhibit criticality and the transport parameters have a universal behavior.

  17. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  18. Isolation of a GPD gene from Debaryomyces hansenii encoding a glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+).

    PubMed

    Thomé, Patricia E

    2004-01-30

    A gene homologous to GPD1, coding for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (sn-glycerol 3-phosphate: NAD(+) oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.8), has been isolated from the halophilic yeast Debaryomyces hansenii by complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gpd1 Delta mutant. DNA sequencing of the complementing genomic clone indicated the existence of an open reading frame encoding a protein with 369 amino acids. Comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to homologous genes described for other eukaryotic GPD enzymes. The sequence has been submitted to the GenBank database under Accession No. AY333427.

  19. 1,3-Propanediol production from crude glycerol from Jatropha biodiesel process.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Anand; Kannabiran, Mithra; Rangaswamy, Vidhya

    2011-01-31

    The present report describes production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 15380 from crude glycerol from jatropha biodiesel process. Optimization resulted in a yield of up to 56g/L of 1,3-propanediol. A conversion rate of 0.85mol 1,3-propanediol/mol of glycerol has been obtained. Downstream processing to isolate 1,3-propanediol from the fermentation broth resulted in 99.7% pure product with a recovery of 34%. The pure 1,3-propanediol was polymerized with terephthalic acid successfully to yield polytrimethylene terephthalate.

  20. Getting lipids from glycerol: new perspectives on biotechnological exploitation of Candida freyschussii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microbial lipids represent a valuable alternative feedstock for biodiesel production when oleaginous microbes are cultured with inexpensive substrates in processes exhibiting high yield and productivity. In this perspective, crude glycerol is among the most promising raw materials for lipid production, because it is the costless residual of biodiesel production. Thus, cultivation of oleaginous yeasts in glycerol-based media is attracting great interest and natural biodiversity is increasingly explored to identify novel oleaginous species recycling this carbon source for growth and lipid production. Results Thirty-three yeasts strains belonging to 19 species were screened for the ability to grow and produce intracellular lipids in a pure glycerol-based medium with high C/N ratio. A minority of them consumed most of the glycerol and generated visible lipid bodies. Among them, Candida freyschussii ATCC 18737 was selected, because it exhibited the highest lipid production and glycerol conversion yield. Lipid production in this strain was positively affected by the increase of C/N ratio, but growth was inhibited by glycerol concentration higher than 40 g/L. In batch cultures, the highest lipid production (4.6 g/L), lipid content of biomass (33% w/w), and lipid volumetric productivity (0.15 g/L/h) were obtained with 40 g/L glycerol, during the course of a 30-h process. Fed-batch cultivation succeeded in preventing substrate inhibition and in achieving a high cell-density culture. The improved lipid production and volumetric productivity reached the remarkable high level of 28 g/L and 0.28 g/L/h, respectively. The lipids accumulated by C. freyschussii ATCC 18737 have similar fatty acid composition of plant oil indicating their potential use as biodiesel feedstock. Calculated physicochemical properties of a biodiesel produced with the lipids from C. freyschussii ATCC 18737 are expected to meet the European and American standards, being equal to those of