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Sample records for monitoring human exposure

  1. Monitoring phthalate exposure in humans.

    PubMed

    Latini, Giuseppe

    2005-11-01

    The dialkyl- or alkyl/aryl esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, commonly known as phthalates, are high-production-volume synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate in the environment. Humans are exposed to these compounds through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure for their whole lifetime, since the intrauterine life. Public and scientific concern has increased in recent years about the potential health risks associated with exposure to phthalates. The main focus has moved away from the hepatotoxic effects to the endocrine disrupting potency of these chemicals. To date, although the consistent toxicologic data on phthalates is suggestive, information on sources and pathways of human exposure to phthalates is limited. Recently, exposure to phthalates has been assessed by analyzing urine for their metabolites. This approach is contrary to the determination of the parent phthalates in air, water and foodstuff and not subject to contamination. Furthermore, these metabolites and the parent phthalates are considered the toxic species. However, accurate methods and models for measuring the amount of phthalates absorbed by the various pathways of exposure have to be developed. In fact, a frequent biological monitoring of phthalates in body fluids and tissues would be highly advisable, both in helping physicians to perform health risk assessments for exposure in the general population and in guiding governments to provide regulations concerning the maximum allowed concentrations in the environment, plasticized products, medications and medical equipment.

  2. Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Sbrana, I.; Migliore, L.; Marrazzini, A.; Scarcelli, V.; Bacci, E.; Di Sibio, A.; Tessa, A.; Cocchi, L.; Lubrano, V.; Vassalle, C.; He, J.

    1993-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and invididuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors. PMID:8143653

  3. EVALUATION OF A PERSONAL NEPHELOMETER FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current particulate matter (PM) exposure studies are using continuous personal nephelometers (pDR-1000, MIE, Inc.) to measure human exposure to PM. The personal nephelometer is a passive sampler which uses light scattering technology to measure particles ranging in size from 0....

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of immunochemical technologies including, but not limited to, immunoassays is expanding to include various aspects of environmental analysis. Ultimately, the basis for environmental investigations is concern about human and ecological exposure to potentially toxic compoun...

  5. Development and application of biomarkers exploitable for human exposure monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    De Flora, S. )

    1990-01-01

    The objectives, applications and limitations of laboratory methods for assessing human exposure to carcinogens are concisely discussed. The available technologies include cytological, cytogenetic and molecular analyses, somatic cell mutation, carcinogen-DNA or carcinogen-protein adducts, metabolic markers, and chemical or biological analyses of expired air, body fluids, and excreta.29 references.

  6. Estimating exposure and dose to characterize health risks: the role of human tissue monitoring in exposure assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, K; Callahan, M A; Bryan, E F

    1995-01-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral part of health risk characterization. Exposure assessments typically address three critical aspects of exposure: the number of people exposed to the environmental toxicant, at specific concentrations, for the time period of interest; the resulting dose; and the relative contribution of important sources and pathways to exposure/dose. Because historically both "point-of-contact" measurements and information about dose and related pharmacokinetic processes have been lacking, exposure assessments have had to rely on construction of "scenarios" to estimate exposure and dose. This could change, however, as advances in development of biologic markers of exposure and dose make it possible to measure and interpret toxicant concentrations in accessible human tissues. The increasing availability of "biomarkers," coupled with improvements in pharmacokinetic understanding, present opportunities to estimate ("reconstruct") exposure from measurements of dose and knowledge of intake and uptake parameters. Human tissue monitoring, however, is not a substitute for more traditional methods of measuring exposure, but rather a complementary approach. A combination of exposure measurements and dose measurements provides the most credible scientific basis for exposure assessment. PMID:7635107

  7. Environmental exposure modeling and monitoring of human pharmaceutical concentrations in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Versteeg, D.J.; Alder, A. C.; Cunningham, V. L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Murray-Smith, R.; Ternes, T.

    2005-01-01

    Human pharmaceuticals are receiving increased attention as environmental contaminants. This is due to their biological activity and the number of monitoring programs focusing on analysis of these compounds in various environmental media and compartments. Risk assessments are needed to understand the implications of reported concentrations; a fundamental part of the risk assessment is an assessment of environmental exposures. The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidance on the use of predictive tools (e.g., models) and monitoring data in exposure assessments for pharmaceuticals in the environment. Methods to predict environmental concentrations from equations based on first principles are presented. These equations form the basis of existing GIS (geographic information systems)-based systems for understanding the spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals in the environment. The pharmaceutical assessment and transport (PhATE), georeferenced regional exposure assessment tool for European rivers (GREAT-ER), and geographical information system (GIS)-ROUT models are reviewed and recommendations are provided concerning the design and execution of monitoring studies. Model predictions and monitoring data are compared to evaluate the relative utility of each approach in environmental exposure assessments. In summary, both models and monitoring data can be used to define representative exposure concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environment in support of environmental risk assessments.

  8. A computerized bibliographic literature information system for total human exposure monitoring research

    SciTech Connect

    Dellarco, M.; Ott, W.; Wallace, L. ); Hunt, H. )

    1988-01-01

    Total human exposure monitoring is a new concept that seeks to determine, with known precision and accuracy, the pollutant concentrations actually reaching people through the food they eat, the water they drink, and the air they breath regardless of whether people are located indoors, outdoors, or in-transit. Such monitoring provides the key information needed to protect public health and to make risk assessment through representative samples of the general population, using personal monitors to measure air exposure and making direct measurements of contaminants in food, drinking water, and breath. This paper discusses the new field which also includes: surveys of what people do, where, and when, called human activity patterns, special models designed to predict human exposures from activity pattern data, and studies of the pollutant concentrations found in the small physical microenvironments that people visit, such as in-transit vehicles (for example, buses, automobiles, trains, and subways); indoor settings (for example, schools, auditoriums, stores, churches, offices, and homes); and outdoor settings(for example, sidewalks, intersections, outdoor parking areas, street canyons).

  9. HUMAN EXPOSURE AIR MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) have a cross-pollination agenda to help share research opportunities between the two institutions. This presentation provides NCCU with an understanding of current air monitoring research the US EPA is involved in and some o...

  10. Immunoassays and Biosensors for Monitoring Environmental and Human Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Kim, Hee-Joo; Mccoy, Mark R.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes some of the early work on pyrethroid insecticides in the Casida laboratory and briefly reviews the development and application of immunochemical approaches for the detection of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolites for monitoring environmental and human exposure. Multiple technologies can be combined to enhance the sensitivity and speed of immunochemical analysis. The pyrethroid assays are used to illustrate the use of some of these immunoreagents such as antibodies, competitive mimics, and novel binding agents such as phage-displayed peptides. We also illustrate reporters such as fluorescent dyes, chemiluminescent compounds, and luminescent lanthanide nanoparticles, as well as the application of magnetic separation, and automatic instrumental systems, biosensor and novel immunological technologies. These new technologies alone and in combination result in an improved ability to determine both if effective levels of pyrethroids are being used in the field as well as evaluate possible contamination. PMID:21105656

  11. Can household pets be used as reliable monitors of lead exposure to humans?

    PubMed

    Berny, P J; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    1995-11-30

    We investigated the validity of dogs and cats as sentinels of environmental lead exposure to humans. This paper reports findings from a study conducted in Granite City, IL, during the summer of 1991. At this site, a former secondary lead smelter had been in activity for more than 80 years. The smelter was shut down in 1982. The surrounding area was found to be contaminated with lead, with soil lead concentrations above 5000 ppm in some places. The Illinois Department of Public Health conducted a survey in the community to determine the effects of lead on the local population. We sampled dogs and cats owned by these people. Our results suggest that living near a closed lead smelter, with heavy soil contamination, was not associated with high blood lead concentrations in pets, or their owners. There was a significant relationship between BLC (blood lead concentrations), in indoor pets and younger children, which was consistent with our hypothesis that pets could be used to monitor childhood lead exposure. We also found that, when there was one pet with a high BLC in a house, the likelihood of finding one person with a BLC above 10 micrograms/dl was significantly increased.

  12. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Brederode, Nelly E; Bos, Peter M J; Nijhuis, Nicole J; van de Weerdt, Rik H J; van der Woude, Irene; Eggens, Martin L

    2014-12-15

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency responders. Such exposure information may also be used to respond to individual concerns such as questions about a possible relationship between the chemicals released during the incident and health effects. In The Netherlands a guideline was prepared to support early decision-making about the possible use of HBM for exposure assessment during or as soon as possible following a chemical incident. The application of HBM in such an emergency setting is not much different from situations where HBM is normally used but there are some issues that need extra attention such as the choice of the biomarker, the biological media to be sampled, the time point at which biological samples should be collected, the ethics approval and technical implementation of the study protocol and the interpretation and communication of the study results. These issues addressed in the new guideline will support the use of HBM in the management of chemical disasters.

  13. An Immunoassay for Monitoring Environmental and Human Exposure to the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether BDE-47

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Shirley J.; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Bennett, Deborah; Nishioka, Marcia G.; Blum, Arlene; Fishman, Elana; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a selective competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to monitor environmental and human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-47 that is used as a flame retardant. 2,2’,4,4’-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) a dominant PBDE congener of toxicological concern, was the target analyte. To achieve effective hapten presentation on the carrier protein for antibody production, immunizing haptens with a rigid double-bonded hydrocarbon linker introduced at different positions on the target molecule were synthesized as well as coating haptens that mimic a characteristic fragment of the molecule. Rabbit antisera produced against each immunizing antigen were screened against competitive hapten coating antigens. Under optimized competitive indirect ELISA conditions, the linear detection range in the assay buffer that includes 50% dimethyl sulfoxide was 0.35 - 8.50 μg/L with an IC50 value of 1.75 μg/L for BDE-47. Little or no cross-reactivity (< 6%) was observed to related PBDE congeners containing the BDE-47 moiety and other halogenated compounds. Using a magnetic particle-based competitive direct ELISA increased the sensitivity by 10-fold over the indirect ELISA. The ELISA provided quantitative results when performed on small volume/weight samples such as dust, furniture foam, and blood/serum following sample preparation, suggesting a convenient screening tool. PMID:19921894

  14. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  15. Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

    2004-01-01

    Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders. PMID:14757538

  16. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  17. Monitoring of individual human exposure to aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) by immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, C.P.; Umbenhauer, D.; Chapot, B.; Montesano, R.

    1986-01-01

    Highly sensitive immunoassays have been used to quantitate aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) in human body fluids and tissues, respectively. This approach was taken in order to quantitate environmental exposure to these agents at an individual level to facilitate the investigation of their role in the etiology of human cancer. In order to analyse AF in human urine, an immunopurification step has been developed by using AF-specific antibody bound to AH-Sepharose 4B gel in a small (4-ml gel volume) affinity column prior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA can be used to quantitate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) over the range 0.01 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml and the assay system has been validated by using human urine samples spiked with AFB1 over this concentration range. In addition, 29 urine samples from the Philippines have been analyzed and found to contain a range of levels from zero to 4.25 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent with a mean of 0.875 ng/ml. This compared with a mean of 0.066 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent in samples from France. Radioimmunoassay of O6-methyldeoxyguanosine (O6-medG) has been performed on human esophageal and cardiac stomach mucosal DNA from tissue samples obtained during surgery in Linxian County, People's Republic of China, an area of high risk for both esophageal and stomach cancer. Using the methodology described and having 1 mg of hydrolyzed DNA allows the detection of approximately 25 fmol O6medG per mg DNA.

  18. Influence of Human Activity Patterns, particle composition, and residential air exchange rates on modeled distributions of PM 2.5 exposure compared with central-site monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central-site monitors do not account for factors such as outdoor-to-indoor transport and human activity patterns that influence personal exposures to ambient fine-particulate matter (PM2.5). We describe and compare different ambient PM2.5 exposure estimation...

  19. Quantitative analysis of untreated hair samples for monitoring human exposure to heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2002-04-01

    The method of quantitative analysis for untreated hair samples, which we developed three years ago, has proved to be quite useful for investigating environments contaminated by certain toxic elements. In the present work, the experimental conditions are improved. Loss of certain elements owing to irradiation damage, which has remained as one of the experimental uncertainties, was examined. It was found that the concentration of sulfur decreases gradually throughout the irradiation, while for the other elements, including arsenic and mercury, no changes occur under our measuring conditions. Furthermore, the degree of alteration of elemental concentration depending on the position along the hair was investigated. As a result, concentrations of some elements at different positions on a 14-cm-length hair, which was taken from a small-scale miner in the Philippines, showed some dependence on the distance from the root reflecting her history as a miner, while mercury does not show large deviation from a main trend. It was also found that concentration of mercury in hairs taken from different parts of a body does not show large difference. These results demonstrate that mercury and arsenic concentration in hairs, obtained by the present method, become a good index for an estimation of human exposure to these toxic elements. Changes of concentration of some elements depending on the way of cleaning before irradiation are studied in detail and the optimum way of washing is established.

  20. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kouji H.; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53–3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:26731104

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

  2. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  3. Monitoring urinary mercapturic acids as biomarkers of human dietary exposure to acrylamide in combination with acrylamide uptake assessment based on duplicate diets.

    PubMed

    Ruenz, Meike; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The present human intervention study investigated the relation between the intake of acrylamide (AA) in diets with minimized, low, and high AA contents and the levels of urinary exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers, the mercapturic acids, N-acetyl-S-(carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were monitored. The study was performed with 14 healthy male volunteers over a period of 9 days, under controlled conditions excluding any inadvertent AA exposure. Dietary exposure to AA was measured by determining AA contents in duplicates of all meals consumed by the volunteers. The study design included an initial washout period of 3 days on AA-minimized diet, resulting in dietary AA exposure not exceeding 41 ng/kg bw/d. Identical washout periods of 2 days each followed the AA exposure days (day 4, low exposure, and day 7, high exposure). At the respective AA intake days, volunteers ingested 0.6-0.8 (low exposure) or 1.3-1.8 (high exposure) μg AA/kg bw/d with their food. Both low and high AA intakes resulted in an AAMA output within 72 h corresponding to 58 % of the respective AA intake. At the end of the initial 3-day washout period, an AAMA baseline level of 93 ± 31 nmol/d was recorded, suggestive for an assumed net AA baseline exposure level of 0.2-0.3 μg AA/kg bw/d.

  4. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exposure monitoring. 850.24 Section 850.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24 Exposure monitoring. (a) General. The responsible employer must ensure that: (1) Exposure monitoring...

  5. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exposure monitoring. 850.24 Section 850.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24 Exposure monitoring. (a) General. The responsible employer must ensure that: (1) Exposure monitoring...

  6. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exposure monitoring. 850.24 Section 850.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24 Exposure monitoring. (a) General. The responsible employer must ensure that: (1) Exposure monitoring...

  7. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exposure monitoring. 850.24 Section 850.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24 Exposure monitoring. (a) General. The responsible employer must ensure that: (1) Exposure monitoring...

  8. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exposure monitoring. 850.24 Section 850.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24 Exposure monitoring. (a) General. The responsible employer must ensure that: (1) Exposure monitoring...

  9. Environmental and human exposure assessment monitoring of communities near an abandoned mercury mine in the Philippines: a toxic legacy.

    PubMed

    Maramba, Nelia P C; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta R; Dioquino, Carissa; Dando, Nerissa; Timbang, Rene; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Castillo, Ma Teresa; Quitoriano, Carmela; Afuang, Maredith; Matsuyama, Akito; Eguchi, Tomomi; Fuchigami, Youko

    2006-10-01

    Abandoned mines are an important global concern and continue to pose real or potential threats to human safety and health including environmental damage/s. Very few countries had government mine regulation and reclamation policies until the latter part of the century where legal, financial and technical procedures were required for existing mining operations. Major reasons for mine closure may be mainly due to poor economies of the commodity making mining unprofitable, technical difficulties and national security. If the mine is abandoned, more often than not it is the government that shoulders the burden of clean-up, monitoring and remediation. The topic of abandoned mines is complex because of the associated financial and legal liability implications. Abandoned mercury mines have been identified as one of the major concerns because of their significant long-term environmental problems. Primary mercury production is still ongoing in Spain, Kyrgzystan, China, Algeria, Russia and Slovakia while world production declined substantially in the late 1980s. In the Philippines, the mercury mine located southeast of Manila was in operation from 1955 to 1976, before ceasing operation because of the decline in world market price for the commodity. During this time, annual production of mercury was estimated to be about 140,000 kg of mercury yearly. Approximately 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining and roughly 1,000,000 t of these calcines were dumped into nearby Honda Bay to construct a jetty to facilitate mine operations where about 2000 people reside in the nearby three barangays. In October, 1994 the Department of Health received a request from the Provincial Health Office for technical assistance relative to the investigation of increasing complaints of unusual symptoms (e.g. miscarriages, tooth loss, muscle weakness, paralysis, anemia, tremors, etc.) among residents of three barangays. Initial health reports revealed significant

  10. Human exposure to aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  11. The use of consumption data to assess exposure to biotechnology-derived foods and the feasibility of identifying effects on human health through post-market monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hlywka, J J; Reid, J E; Munro, I C

    2003-10-01

    The pre-market safety assessment of foods derived through biotechnology provides a scientific basis for concluding reasonable certainty of no harm and ensuring safety. At a minimum, the outcome of such an assessment provides sufficient information to estimate the likelihood of adverse effects on consumers, generally precluding the need for post-market monitoring. Post-market monitoring (PMM) may be appropriate under certain conditions where a better estimate of dietary exposure and/or nutritional consequence of a biotechnology-derived food is required, when a potential safety issue, such as allergenicity, cannot be adequately addressed through pre-market studies, or to corroborate dietary intakes of a nutritionally improved food with beneficial effects on human health. Monitoring programs must be hypothesis-driven, and are dependent upon the availability of accurate consumption data. Exposure assessment methods include both deterministic and probabilistic estimates of intakes using food supply data, individual dietary surveys, household surveys, or total diet studies. In the development of a monitoring approach, resource allocation should be dependent upon both the desired level of conservatism and the endpoint of interest. However, the cost of monitoring varies substantially, and the potential to determine causation may be limited.

  12. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  13. Monitoring human exposure to ethylene oxide by the determination of hemoglobin adducts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, P.B.; Bailey, E.; Gorf, S.M.; Toernqvist, M.O.; Osterman-Golkar, S.; Kautiainen, A.; Lewis-Enright, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Globin samples from ethylene oxide-exposed workers and non-exposed referrents were analyzed by two methods: (i) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of Nt-(2-hydroxyethyl)histidine as its methyl ester heptafluorobutyryl derivative, after hydrolysis of the protein and isolation of the alkylated amino acid by ion exchange chromatography. The internal standard, Nt-(2-hydroxy-d4-ethyl)histidine, was added to the protein before hydrolysis. (ii) Determination of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine after derivatization of the protein by a modified Edman procedure, extraction and g.c.-m.s. determination of alkylated N-terminal valine in the form of its pentafluorophenylthiohydantoin derivative. The internal standard used was in this case a globin with a known content of hydroxy-d4-ethylated amino acids. The two methods gave consistent results, especially at high levels of alkylated products. The average content of hydroxyethylhistidine was 0.6 nmol/g higher than the content of hydroxyethylvaline. Higher levels of background alkylation (of unknown origin) were recorded with the histidine method as compared with the valine method, suggesting that the latter assay should show greater sensitivity for low level ethylene oxide exposure monitoring.

  14. Exposure monitoring of graphene nanoplatelets manufacturing workplaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Boowook; Bello, Dhimiter; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Gun Ho; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyungmin; Ahn, Kangho; Faustman, Elaine M; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    Graphenes have emerged as a highly promising, two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial that can possibly substitute carbon nanotubes. They are being explored in numerous R&D and industrial applications in laboratories across the globe, leading to possible human and environmental exposures to them. Yet, there are no published data on graphene exposures in occupational settings and no readily available methods for their detection and quantitation exist. This study investigates for the first time the potential exposure of workers and research personnel to graphenes in two research facilities and evaluates the status of the control measures. One facility manufactures graphene using graphite exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), while the other facility grows graphene on a copper plate using CVD, which is then transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. Graphene exposures and process emissions were investigated for three tasks - CVD growth, exfoliation, and transfer - using a multi-metric approach, which utilizes several direct reading instruments, integrated sampling, and chemical and morphological analysis. Real-time instruments included a dust monitor, condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor, scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aethalometer. Morphologically, graphenes and other nanostructures released from the work process were investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Graphenes were quantified in airborne respirable samples as elemental carbon via thermo-optical analysis. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate at Workplaces A and B were very low, and elemental carbon concentrations were mostly below the detection limit, indicating very low exposure to graphene or any other particles. The real-time monitoring, especially the aethalometer, showed a good response to the released black carbon, providing a signature of the graphene released during the opening of the CVD reactor

  15. Exposure monitoring of graphene nanoplatelets manufacturing workplaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Boowook; Bello, Dhimiter; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Gun Ho; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyungmin; Ahn, Kangho; Faustman, Elaine M; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    Graphenes have emerged as a highly promising, two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial that can possibly substitute carbon nanotubes. They are being explored in numerous R&D and industrial applications in laboratories across the globe, leading to possible human and environmental exposures to them. Yet, there are no published data on graphene exposures in occupational settings and no readily available methods for their detection and quantitation exist. This study investigates for the first time the potential exposure of workers and research personnel to graphenes in two research facilities and evaluates the status of the control measures. One facility manufactures graphene using graphite exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), while the other facility grows graphene on a copper plate using CVD, which is then transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. Graphene exposures and process emissions were investigated for three tasks - CVD growth, exfoliation, and transfer - using a multi-metric approach, which utilizes several direct reading instruments, integrated sampling, and chemical and morphological analysis. Real-time instruments included a dust monitor, condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor, scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aethalometer. Morphologically, graphenes and other nanostructures released from the work process were investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Graphenes were quantified in airborne respirable samples as elemental carbon via thermo-optical analysis. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate at Workplaces A and B were very low, and elemental carbon concentrations were mostly below the detection limit, indicating very low exposure to graphene or any other particles. The real-time monitoring, especially the aethalometer, showed a good response to the released black carbon, providing a signature of the graphene released during the opening of the CVD reactor

  16. Measurement methods for human exposure analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, P J

    1995-01-01

    The general methods used to complete measurements of human exposures are identified and illustrations are provided for the cases of indirect and direct methods used for exposure analysis. The application of the techniques for external measurements of exposure, microenvironmental and personal monitors, are placed in the context of the need to test hypotheses concerning the biological effects of concern. The linkage of external measurements to measurements made in biological fluids is explored for a suite of contaminants. This information is placed in the context of the scientific framework used to conduct exposure assessment. Examples are taken from research on volatile organics and for a large scale problem: hazardous waste sites. PMID:7635110

  17. HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory-Las Vegas is developing analytical methods for human exposure assessment studies. Critical exposure studies generate a large number of samples which must be analyzed in a reliable, cost-effective and timely manner. TCP (3,5,6-trichlor...

  18. EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of NERL's Exposure Research Program is to improve the scientific basis for conducting human exposure assessments that are part of the EPA's risk assessment, risk management and compliance process. Overall, we aim to address aggregate and cumulative exposures that pose...

  19. Magnetic field exposure and behavioral monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A W; Drost, D J; Prato, F S

    2001-09-01

    To maximize the availability and usefulness of a small magnetic field exposure laboratory, we designed a magnetic field exposure system that has been used to test human subjects, caged or confined animals, and cell cultures. The magnetic field exposure system consists of three orthogonal pairs of coils 2 m square x 1 m separation, 1.751 m x 0.875 m separation, and 1.5 m x 0.75 m separation. Each coil consisted of ten turns of insulated 8 gauge stranded copper conductor. Each of the pairs were driven by a constant-current amplifier via digital to analog (D/A) converter. A 9 pole zero-gain active Bessel low-pass filter (1 kHz corner frequency) before the amplifier input attenuated the expected high frequencies generated by the D/A conversion. The magnetic field was monitored with a 3D fluxgate magnetometer (0-3 kHz, +/- 1 mT) through an analog to digital converter. Behavioral monitoring utilized two monochrome video cameras (viewing the coil center vertically and horizontally), both of which could be video recorded and real-time digitally Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded to CD-ROM. Human postural sway (standing balance) was monitored with a 3D forceplate mounted on the floor, connected to an analog to digital converter. Lighting was provided by 12 offset overhead dimmable fluorescent track lights and monitored using a digitally connected spectroradiometer. The dc resistance, inductance of each coil pair connected in series were 1.5 m coil (0.27 Omega, 1.2 mH), 1.75 m coil (0.32 Omega, 1.4 mH), and 2 m coil (0.38 Omega, 1.6 mH). The frequency response of the 1.5 m coil set was 500 Hz at +/- 463 microT, 1 kHz at +/- 232 microT, 150 micros rise time from -200 microT(pk) to + 200 microT(pk) (square wave) and is limited by the maximum voltage ( +/- 146 V) of the amplifier (Bessel filter bypassed). PMID:11536281

  20. In Silico Identification of a Candidate Synthetic Peptide (Tsgf118–43) to Monitor Human Exposure to Tsetse Flies in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dama, Emilie; Cornelie, Sylvie; Camara, Mamadou; Somda, Martin Bienvenu; Poinsignon, Anne; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Jamonneau, Vincent; Solano, Philippe; Remoue, Franck; Bengaly, Zakaria; Belem, Adrien Marie Gaston; Bucheton, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background The analysis of humoral responses directed against the saliva of blood-sucking arthropods was shown to provide epidemiological biomarkers of human exposure to vector-borne diseases. However, the use of whole saliva as antigen presents several limitations such as problems of mass production, reproducibility and specificity. The aim of this study was to design a specific biomarker of exposure to tsetse flies based on the in silico analysis of three Glossina salivary proteins (Ada, Ag5 and Tsgf1) previously shown to be specifically recognized by plasma from exposed individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Synthetic peptides were designed by combining several linear epitope prediction methods and Blast analysis. The most specific peptides were then tested by indirect ELISA on a bank of 160 plasma samples from tsetse infested areas and tsetse free areas. Anti-Tsgf118–43 specific IgG levels were low in all three control populations (from rural Africa, urban Africa and Europe) and were significantly higher (p<0.0001) in the two populations exposed to tsetse flies (Guinean HAT foci, and South West Burkina Faso). A positive correlation was also found between Anti-Tsgf118–43 IgG levels and the risk of being infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the sleeping sickness foci of Guinea. Conclusion/Significance The Tsgf118–43 peptide is a suitable and promising candidate to develop a standardize immunoassay allowing large scale monitoring of human exposure to tsetse flies in West Africa. This could provide a new surveillance indicator for tsetse control interventions by HAT control programs. PMID:24086785

  1. Is plasma {beta}-glucuronidase a novel human biomarker for monitoring anticholinesterase pesticides exposure? A Malaysian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H. |. E-mail: salmaan@mib.gov.my; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Ali, Noor Suhailah; El Sersi, Magdi; Toong, Lee Mun; Zainal, Awang Mat; Hashim, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Mohd Shariman; Saidin, Mohd Nazri; Rahman, Ab Razak Ab; Rafaai, Mohd Jamil Mohd; Omar, Sollahudin; Rapiai, Rafiah; Othman, Radziah; Chan, Lee Tiong; Johari, Amran; Soon, Wong Hing; Salleh, Abdul Rahim; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-03-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure on the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme activity among five patients of acute pesticide poisoning in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, Klang, 230 farmers in the MADA area, Kedah and 49 fishermen in Setiu, Terengganu. The duration of pesticide exposure among the patients was unknown, but the plasma samples from patients were collected on day one in the hospital. The duration of pesticide exposure among the farmers was between 1 and 45 years. The {beta}-glucuronidase activity was compared with plasma cholinesterase activity in the same individual. The plasma cholinesterase activity was measured using Cholinesterase (PTC) Reagent set kit (Teco Diagnostics, UK) based on colorimetric method, while the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity was measured fluorometrically based on {beta}-glucuronidase assay. The plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) among the patients (1386.786 {+-} 791.291 U/L/min) but the inhibition in plasma cholinesterase activity among the farmers (7346.5 {+-} 1860.786 U/L/min) was not significant (p > 0.05). The plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity among the farmers was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) (0.737 {+-} 0.425 {mu}M/h) but not significant among the patients (p > 0.05). The plasma cholinesterase activity was positively correlated with the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity among the farmers (r = 0.205, p < 0.01) but not among the patients (r = 0.79, p > 0.05). Thus, plasma {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme activity can be measured as a biomarker for the chronic exposure of pesticide. However, further studies need to be performed to confirm whether plasma {beta}-glucuronidase can be a sensitive biomarker for anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning.

  2. Human Exposure Estimates and Oral Equivalents of In Vitro Bioactivity for Prioritizing, Monitoring and Testing of Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput, lower-cost, in vitro toxicity testing is currently being evaluated for use in prioritization and eventually for predicting in vivo toxicity. Interpreting in vitro data in the context of in vivo human relevance remains a formidable challenge. A key component in us...

  3. Monitoring Nanoaerosols and Occupational Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witschger, Olivier

    As for any new form of technology, it is essential to assess the potential risks involved in the nanotechnologies, and more exactly, those raised by nanoparticles and nanomaterials. The very chemical and/or physical properties, sometimes unprecedented, on which nanomaterials and resulting products are based, some of them extremely interesting, may lead to new risks for the environment and for human health [1].

  4. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted...

  5. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted...

  6. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted...

  7. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted...

  8. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted...

  9. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System.

    2005-06-23

    Version 01 The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a PC‑based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designedmore » to be user‑friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on‑line as well as context‑sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com.« less

  10. Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, W A

    1997-01-01

    For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. Pesticides and their metabolites are measured in biological samples, serum, fat, urine, blood, or breast milk by the usual analytical techniques. Biochemical responses to environmental chemicals provide a measure of toxic effect. A widely used biochemical biomarker, cholinesterase depression, measures exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Techniques that measure DNA damage (e.g., detection of DNA adducts) provide a powerful tool in measuring environmental effects. Adducts to hemoglobin have been detected with several pesticides. Determination of chromosomal aberration rates in cultured lymphocytes is an established method of monitoring populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to known or suspected mutagenic-carcinogenic agents. There are several studies on the cytogenetic effects of work with pesticide formulations. The majority of these studies report increases in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchanges among the exposed workers. Biomarkers will have a major impact on the study of environmental risk factors. The basic aim of scientists exploring these issues is to determine the nature and consequences of genetic change or variation, with the ultimate purpose of predicting or preventing disease. PMID:9255564

  11. Toxicologic methods: controlled human exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Utell, M J; Frampton, M W

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of risk from exposure to environmental air pollutants is complex, and involves the disciplines of epidemiology, animal toxicology, and human inhalation studies. Controlled, quantitative studies of exposed humans help determine health-related effects that result from breathing the atmosphere. The major unique feature of the clinical study is the ability to select, control, and quantify pollutant exposures of subjects of known clinical status, and determine their effects under ideal experimental conditions. The choice of outcomes to be assessed in human clinical studies can be guided by both scientific and practical considerations, but the diversity of human responses and responsiveness must be considered. Subjects considered to be among the most susceptible include those with asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and cardiovascular disease. New experimental approaches include exposures to concentrated ambient air particles, diesel engine exhaust, combustion products from smoking machines, and experimental model particles. Future investigations of the health effects of air pollution will benefit from collaborative efforts among the disciplines of epidemiology, animal toxicology, and human clinical studies. PMID:10931779

  12. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    PubMed Central

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  13. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  14. Environmental monitoring of secondhand smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Gundel, Lara; Hammond, S Katharine; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hyland, Andrew; Klepeis, Neil E; Madsen, Camille C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Repace, James; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    The complex composition of secondhand smoke (SHS) provides a range of constituents that can be measured in environmental samples (air, dust and on surfaces) and therefore used to assess non-smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke. Monitoring SHS exposure (SHSe) in indoor environments provides useful information on the extent and consequences of SHSe, implementing and evaluating tobacco control programmes and behavioural interventions, and estimating overall burden of disease caused by SHSe. The most widely used markers have been vapour-phase nicotine and respirable particulate matter (PM). Numerous other environmental analytes of SHS have been measured in the air including carbon monoxide, 3-ethenylpyridine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and volatile organic compounds, as well as nicotine in dust and on surfaces. The measurement of nicotine in the air has the advantage of reflecting the presence of tobacco smoke. While PM measurements are not as specific, they can be taken continuously, allowing for assessment of exposure and its variation over time. In general, when nicotine and PM are measured in the same setting using a common sampling period, an increase in nicotine concentration of 1 μg/m3 corresponds to an average increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM. This topic assessment presents a comprehensive summary of SHSe monitoring approaches using environmental markers and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and approaches. PMID:22949497

  15. Carboxyhemoglobin values in swine relative to carbon monoxide exposure: guidelines for monitoring animal and human health hazards in swine-confinement buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Donham, K.J.; Carson, T.L.; Adrian, B.R.

    1982-05-01

    Miniature pigs were exposed, in an environmental chamber, to 55 mg of CO/m3 of air, 110 mg/m3, 220 mg/m3, or 330 mg/m3. Blood samples were taken from the swine every hour over an exposure period of 6 or 8 hours. After the pigs were removed from the chamber, blood samples were taken every 30 minutes for an additional 3 hours. The blood samples were measured by spectrophotometry for the amount of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). On exposure to CO, the COHb values in the pigs increased in a linear fashion during the first 2 hours, then began to level off, reaching a peak concentration at 6 to 8 hours. The percentage of COHb in the blood after 6 hours' exposure to the different amounts of CO were as follows: 55 mg/m3 - 5%, 110 mg/m3 - 10.5%, 220 mg/m3 - 20%, and 330 mg/m3 - 27.2%. There was a linear relationship between the amount of CO exposure and the peak blood value of COHb. The present data provide guidelines for the use of COHb measurement in swine as a means to monitor the environment in swine-confinement buildings for potentially dangerous amounts of CO for swine and persons and to aid in the diagnosis of CO-induced perinatal disease in swine.

  16. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  17. Biological monitoring and exposure to mercury.

    PubMed

    Mason, H J; Hindell, P; Williams, N R

    2001-02-01

    Occupational health professionals' interest in controlling mercury (Hg) exposure, and the use of biological monitoring in this context, has been ongoing for a number of years. Evidence from urinary Hg results in a number of UK firms who have undertaken some form of biological monitoring or occupational health surveillance suggest that exposure has decreased over the last 10-15 years. This decrease precedes the establishment in the UK of an advisory biological monitoring guidance value (HGV) for urinary Hg and the production of updated medical guidance from the Health & Safety Executive on Hg exposure (MS12 1996). This latter document recommends a urinary sampling interval for urinary Hg of between 1 and 3 months, which is consistent with the reported toxicokinetics of Hg excretion, but we highlight that urinary Hg represents integrated exposure over many previous months. Mercury is a recognized nephrotoxin and MS12 1996 mentions the use of regular dipstick protein estimations. We review our experience of investigating proteinuria and enzymuria in a large-scale cross-sectional occupational study. The incidence of Hg-induced renal disease is probably very rare at current exposure levels. Therefore acceptance of a high false-positive rate of proteinuria not related to Hg exposure needs to be considered in any urinary protein testing regime of Hg workers. The establishment of an HGV for urinary Hg has raised questions about the uncertainty associated with a urinary Hg result, including factors such as diurnal variation, whether urine correction by creatinine or specific gravity is preferable and the possibility of non-occupational sources of Hg contributing significantly towards breaching the HGV. Correction of urinary Hg results by creatinine or specific gravity and the use of a fixed sampling time, such as the beginning or end of the day, substantially reduce the uncertainty in a urinary Hg measurement. But even with good laboratory precision, an individual with a

  18. Protocols of radiocontaminant air monitoring for inhalation exposure estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    Monitoring the plutonium and americium particle emissions from soils contaminated during atmospheric nuclear testing or due to accidental releases is important for several reasons. First, it is important to quantify the extent of potential human exposure from inhalation of alpha-emitting particles, which is the major exposure pathway from transuranic radionuclides. Second, the information provided by resuspension monitoring is the basis of criteria that determine the target soil concentrations for management and cleanup of contaminated soil sites. There are other radioactive aerosols, such as the fission products (cesium and strontium) and neutron-activation products (europium isotopes), which may be resuspended and therefore necessary to monitor as well. This Standard Protocol (SP) provides the method used for radiocontaminant air monitoring by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division (formerly Environmental Sciences Division), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as developed and tested at Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Marshall Islands. The objective of this SP is to document the applications and methods of monitoring of all the relevant variables. This protocol deals only with measuring air concentrations of radionuclides and total suspended particulates (TSP, or {open_quotes}dust{close_quotes}). A separate protocol presents the more difficult measurements required to determine transuranic aerosol emission rates, or {open_quotes}resuspension rate{close_quotes}.

  19. HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING: CONCEPTS, METHODS, AND TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding human exposure is critical when estimating the occurrence of deleterious effects that could follow contact with environmental contaminants. For many pollutants, the intensity, duration, frequency, route, and timing of exposure is highly variable, particularly whe...

  20. Oxidative metabolism of BDE-47, BDE-99, and HBCDs by cat liver microsomes: Implications of cats as sentinel species to monitor human exposure to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Erratico, Claudio; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    BDE-99 is different by cat and human liver microsomes. This suggests that cats are not a suitable sentinel to represent internal exposure of PBDEs for humans, but is likely a promising sentinel for internal HBCDs exposure for humans. PMID:26923239

  1. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  2. PROBABILISTIC MODELING FOR ADVANCED HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to environmental pollutants widely vary depending on the emission patterns that result in microenvironmental pollutant concentrations, as well as behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with these pollutants. Probabilistic human exp...

  3. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust mine air by a competent person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  4. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust mine air by a competent person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  5. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust mine air by a competent person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  6. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust mine air by a competent person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  7. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust mine air by a competent person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  8. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M; Wu, Lemuel D; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M S Riana; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based "mSpray" app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to humans

  9. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M; Wu, Lemuel D; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M S Riana; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based "mSpray" app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to humans

  10. Carcinogen biomonitoring in human exposures and laboratory research: validation and application to human occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Glenn; Maier, Andrew; Henn, Scott; Booth-Jones, Angela; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Vermeulen, Roel; Schumann, Brenda L

    2002-08-01

    A multiple biomarker approach is required to integrate for metabolism, temporal response and exposure-response kinetics, biological relevance, and positive predictive value. Carcinogen DNA adduct analysis can be used in animal and in vitro studies to detect absorption permutations caused by mixture interactions, and to control metabolic variation when specific CYP450 genes (1A1 or 1A2) are knocked out. These enzymes are not critical to the metabolic activation of model Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and aromatic amines, respectively, as suggested by in vitro analysis. Several human studies have been carried out where multiple biomarkers have been measured. In a study of benzidine workers, the similarities in elimination kinetics between urinary metabolites and mutagenicity is likely responsible for a better correlation between these markers than to BZ-DNA adducts in exfoliated cells. In a study of rubber workers, the relationship between specific departments, urinary 1 HP and DNA adducts in exfoliated cells coincided with the historical urinary bladder cancer risk in these departments; the same relationship did not hold for urinary mutagenicity. In a study of automotive mechanics, biomarkers were used to monitor the effectiveness of exposure interventions. These data reinforce the notion that carcinogen biomarkers are useful to monitor exposure, but that a complementary approaches involving effect and perhaps susceptibility biomarkers is necessary to obtain the necessary information.

  11. Characterization of an aerosol chamber for human exposures to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L; Reist, P C; Boehlecke, B A; Jacobs, R R

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize an exposure chamber in which human subjects could be exposed to low dust concentrations carrying an endotoxin coating. An exposure chamber, dust dispersion method, and endotoxin characterization technique were developed for inhalation exposures. A 6.27 m3 exposure chamber was designed and constructed from cinder block, glass windows, and Plexiglas. Using an acetone adhesion process, Enterobacter agglomerans were adsorbed onto respirable cellulose particles to create the endotoxin aerosol. The size distribution of the endotoxin-treated particles was verified using light microscopy and cascade impactors. A dry powder dust generator was refined to consistently disperse small quantities of the aerosol into the chamber to maintain dust concentrations at approximately 250 micrograms/m3. Dust levels during the chamber exposures were monitored using a portable continuous aerosol monitor (PCAM). During initial exposure runs, PCAM monitoring stations were positioned at different locations within a 0.5-meter matrix to document mixing patterns. Total dust and cascade impactor samples were collected throughout each exposure period to characterize the chamber operating system and insure the mean airborne dust concentration fulfilled target levels. A one-factor analysis of variance at the 95 percent confidence interval illustrated that there was not a statistically significant difference in the mean dust concentration throughout the exposure runs compared to the individual runs. Together the consistency of the total dust filters, endotoxin concentrations, and aerosol-monitoring instrument were adequate to allow use of the chamber for experimental studies involving human volunteers.

  12. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  13. Assessing human exposure to airborne pollutants: Advances and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J. )

    1991-08-01

    A committee which was convened by the National Research Council, recently completed an analysis of new methods and technologies for assessing exposure to air pollutants. The committee identified three major ways of determining human exposure to airborne pollutants. Monitoring the air around an individual with a portable personal air sampler is, of course, the most comprehensive and most accurate. It is also the costliest and most time consuming. The second method is more indirect and involves techniques such as measuring the amount of a contaminant with a stationary monitor and extrapolating exposure by means of personal activity records or mathematical models. Exposure to carbon monoxide inside a car, for example, might be roughly calculated from the amount of time spent in the car and the quantity of carbon monoxide in the car under typical operating conditions. The third method involves biological markers as a measure of the integrated dose within the body and of past contact with pollutants. For example, a marker for airborne lead exposure can be elevated lead levels in the blood. However, this must be weighed against contributions from other media. A final and major point made in the report is the need to have accurate and realistic assessments to ensure optimal reduction of human exposure. To accomplish this, exposure assessment research should be supported by government programs. Although not stated, such research should also be supported by other sectors, including the regulated community.

  14. Estimating occupational beryllium exposure from compliance monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Michele P; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to beryllium is widespread and is a health risk. The objectives of this study were to develop plausible models to estimate occupational airborne beryllium exposure. Compliance monitoring data were obtained from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for 12,148 personal measurements of beryllium exposure from 1979 to 2005. Industry codes were maintained as reported or collapsed based on the number of measurements per cell of a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Probability of exposure was predicted based on year, industry, job, and sampling duration. In these models, probability of exposure decreased over time, was highest in full-shift personal samples, and varied with industry and job. The probability of exposure was calculated using 6 JEMs, each providing similar rankings of the likelihood of non-negligible exposure to beryllium. These statistical models, with expert appraisal, are suitable for the assessment of the probability of elevated occupational exposure to beryllium.

  15. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

  16. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  17. Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

    1990-01-01

    Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

  18. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  19. SEROLOGIC EVALUATION OF HUMAN MICROCYSTIN EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction Microcystins (MCYST) are among the most commonly detected toxins associated with cyanobacteria blooms worldwide. Biological evidence of human exposure is needed in order to evaluate potential MCYST-associated health effects. MCYST are detectable in free and bound fo...

  20. PARTNERING TO IMPROVE HUMAN EXPOSURE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods development research is an application-driven scientific area that addresses programmatic needs. The goals are to reduce measurement uncertainties, address data gaps, and improve existing analytical procedures for estimating human exposures. Partnerships have been develop...

  1. The influence of human and environmental exposure factors on personal NO(2) exposures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ron; Jones, Paul; Croghan, Carry; Thornburg, Jonathan; Rodes, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO(2,) passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and community-based measurements allowed for the investigation of NO(2) spatial, temporal, human and environmental factors. The relationships between personal exposures to NO(2) and the factors that influence the relationship with community-based measurements were of interest. Survey data from 136 participants were integrated with exposure findings to allow for mixed model effect analyses. Ultimately, 50 individual factors were selected for examination. NO(2) analyses revealed that season, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and residential gas appliances were strong influencing factors. Only modest associations between community-based measures of nitrogen dioxide and personal exposures impacted by various exposure factors for heating (r=0.44) or non-heating seasons (r=0.34) were observed, indicating that use of ambient-based monitoring as a surrogate of personal exposure might result in sizeable exposure misclassification.

  2. Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor

    DOEpatents

    Thrall, Karla D.; Kenny, Donald V.; Endres, George W. R.; Sisk, Daniel R.

    1997-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose.

  3. Human exposure to dioxin from combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Because of their extreme toxicity, much concern and debate has arisen about the nature and extent of human exposure to dioxin. Since municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are known to emit polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polycholorinated dibenzofurnas (PCDFs) many people who live near MSW incinerators fear that they will be exposed to high levels of dioxin and subsequently develop cancer. What is often overlooked in this debate, however, is the fact that the general population is continuously being exposed to trace amounts of dioxin as exemplified by the fact that virtually all human adipose tissue samples contain dioxin at levels of 3 parts per trillion (ppt) or greater. This paper provides a perspective on MSW incineration as a source of human exposure to dioxin by comparing this exposure source with exposure to background environmental contamination and evaluates some of the potential key sources of PCDD/PCDF input into the enviroment. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor

    DOEpatents

    Thrall, K.D.; Kenny, D.V.; Endres, G.W.R.; Sisk, D.R.

    1997-07-08

    The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose. 7 figs.

  5. RESIDENTIAL POST-APPLICATION EXPOSURE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods of measurement of pesticide exposures can be separated into two categories: direct and indirect (Briston et al., 1984, Nigg et al. 1990). Direct methods measure a pesticide residue in environmental media or on the skin surface before it has entered the body in order to e...

  6. Overview of radiation environments and human exposures.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W

    2000-11-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by Earth's atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high-altitude and space operations.

  7. Overview of Radiation Environments and Human Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by the Earth s atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high altitude and space operations.

  8. Overview of radiation environments and human exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by Earth's atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high-altitude and space operations.

  9. Overview of radiation environments and human exposures.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W

    2000-11-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by Earth's atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high-altitude and space operations. PMID:11045522

  10. Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products.

    PubMed

    Schettler, Ted

    2006-02-01

    Phthalate exposures in the general population and in subpopulations are ubiquitous and widely variable. Many consumer products contain specific members of this family of chemicals, including building materials, household furnishings, clothing, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, medical devices, dentures, children's toys, glow sticks, modelling clay, food packaging, automobiles, lubricants, waxes, cleaning materials and insecticides. Consumer products containing phthalates can result in human exposures through direct contact and use, indirectly through leaching into other products, or general environmental contamination. Historically, the diet has been considered the major source of phthalate exposure in the general population, but all sources, pathways, and their relative contributions to human exposures are not well understood. Medical devices containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are a source of significant exposure in a susceptible subpopulation of individuals. Cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, herbal remedies and insecticides, may result in significant but poorly quantified human exposures to dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, or dimethyl phthalate. Oven baking of polymer clays may cause short-term, high-level inhalation exposures to higher molecular weight phthalates. PMID:16466533

  11. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation... monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as frequently as necessary to determine...

  12. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation... monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as frequently as necessary to determine...

  13. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation... monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as frequently as necessary to determine...

  14. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation... monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as frequently as necessary to determine...

  15. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation... monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as frequently as necessary to determine...

  16. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  17. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  18. Hand-arm vibration exposure monitoring with wearable sensor module.

    PubMed

    Austad, Hanne O; Røed, Morten H; Liverud, Anders E; Dalgard, Steffen; Seeberg, Trine M

    2013-01-01

    Vibration exposure is a serious risk within work physiology for several work groups. Combined with cold artic climate, the risk for permanent harm is even higher. Equipment that can monitor the vibration exposure and warn the user when at risk will provide a safer work environment for these work groups. This study evaluates whether data from a wearable wireless multi-parameter sensor module can be used to estimate vibration exposure and exposure time. This work has been focused on the characterization of the response from the accelerometer in the sensor module and the optimal location of the module in the hand-arm configuration.

  19. Bisphenol A: Human exposure and neurobehavior.

    PubMed

    Mustieles, Vicente; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández, Mariana F

    2015-07-01

    The effect of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on human brain and behavior is a relatively new issue, and particular concerns have been raised about its potential impact on children. The primary objective of this review was to analyze the current state of knowledge on the association of environmental BPA exposure during pregnancy and/or childhood with child cognitive and/or behavior outcomes. All scientific publications until March 2015 that include examination of this relationship have been reviewed using the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Although research on this issue has not been abundant, an association with altered neurobehavior was reported by eight out of the twelve available articles, including aggressive behavior, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety impairments, mostly in children exposed in utero, indicating disruption of the brain during this critical window of development. Despite the reduced number of studies and their heterogeneity, the results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may have a negative impact on neurobehavioral functioning in children and that the effects may be sex-dependent. It is therefore necessary to be vigilant towards the potential adverse effects of ubiquitous low-level BPA exposure, although more studies in humans are required to convincingly confirm or rule out the association between BPA exposure and health. Meanwhile, it is desirable to inform women planning or undergoing pregnancy about measures to reduce or avoid exposure to BPA. We discuss some key aspects of the relationship between exposure and neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:26121921

  20. Trichloroethylene exposure. Biological monitoring by breath and urine analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Droz, P O; Fernández, J G

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical model developed previously has been used to study some aspects of biological monitoring of exposure to trichloroethylene (TRI) by the analysis of this solvent in alveolar air or of its metabolites, trichloroethanol (TCE) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), in urine. Assuming that a biological control must be representative of the time-weighted average concentration (TWA), it was found that sampling for TRI and TCE analyses must be carried out the morning after the exposure being considered. On the other hand, for a TCA analysis, the timing of urine sampling is not a determinant factor. Theortical limit concentrations have been set up for these biological indicators, but it is shown that their application must be restricted to exposures which are quantitatively reproducible from one day to the next. In all other cases, it appears that this monitoring method can lead to errors in the estimated exposure concentrations. A tentative method of biological monitoring is therefore proposed. It is based on the analysis of TCE in the urine or TRI in the alveolar air before and after the exposure being monitored. TCA is not considered to be sensitive enough to variations in the inspired concentration to be used as an indicator of a single exposure risk. PMID:629887

  1. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Peters, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary, central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual’s exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-hour monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  2. EPA perspective - exposure and effects prediction and monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk-based decisions for environmental chemicals often rely on estimates of human exposure and biological response. Biomarkers have proven a useful empirical tool for evaluating exposure and hazard predictions. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Preventio...

  3. Radiation exposure for human Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, L C; Wilson, J W; Kim, M H; Cucinotta, F A

    2000-11-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human space flight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep-space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays since the missions are of long duration, and accumulated exposures can be high. Because cancer induction rates increase behind low to moderate thicknesses of aluminum shielding, according to available biological data on mammalian exposures to galactic cosmic ray-like ions, aluminum shield requirements for a Mars mission may be prohibitively expensive in terms of mission launch costs. Alternative materials for vehicle construction are under investigation to provide lightweight habitat structures with enhanced shielding properties. In the present paper, updated estimates for astronaut exposures on a Mars mission are presented and shielding properties of alternative materials are compared with aluminum. PMID:11045525

  4. Radiation exposure for human Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, L C; Wilson, J W; Kim, M H; Cucinotta, F A

    2000-11-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human space flight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep-space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays since the missions are of long duration, and accumulated exposures can be high. Because cancer induction rates increase behind low to moderate thicknesses of aluminum shielding, according to available biological data on mammalian exposures to galactic cosmic ray-like ions, aluminum shield requirements for a Mars mission may be prohibitively expensive in terms of mission launch costs. Alternative materials for vehicle construction are under investigation to provide lightweight habitat structures with enhanced shielding properties. In the present paper, updated estimates for astronaut exposures on a Mars mission are presented and shielding properties of alternative materials are compared with aluminum.

  5. Human melatonin during continuous magnetic field exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cook, M.R.; Riffle, D.W.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the third in a series of double-blind, laboratory-based studies that were aimed at determining the effects of nocturnal exposure to power frequency magnetic fields on blood levels of melatonin in human volunteers. The two earlier studies evaluated effects on melatonin of intermittent exposure to 60 Hz circularly polarized magnetic fields at 10 and 200 mG. No overall effects on melatonin levels were found. In the present study, men were exposed continuously rather than intermittently through the night to the same 200 mG magnetic field condition that was used previously; again, no overall effects on melatonin levels were found. The authors conclude that the intermittent and continuous exposure conditions used in the laboratory to date are not effective in altering nocturnal blood levels of melatonin in human volunteers.

  6. DEVELOPING MEANINGFUL COHORTS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes numerous statistical analyses focused on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), used by many exposure modelers as the basis for data on what people do and where they spend their time. In doing so, modelers ...

  7. HUMAN EXPOSURE ANALYSIS, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relatively new and expanding field of human exposure analysis has its genesis in the environmental movement and the interest of scientists and the public in understanding the interaction between anthropogenic and biogenic chemicals and people. The universe is full of chemi...

  8. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Joseph; Dressman, Holly K; Suchindran, Sunil; Nakamura, Mai; Chao, Nelson J; Himburg, Heather; Minor, Kerry; Phillips, Gary; Ross, Joel; Abedi, Majid; Terbrueggen, Robert; Chute, John P

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI). Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA) which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay. PMID:25255453

  9. A Translatable Predictor of Human Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Suchindran, Sunil; Nakamura, Mai; Chao, Nelson J.; Himburg, Heather; Minor, Kerry; Phillips, Gary; Ross, Joel; Abedi, Majid; Terbrueggen, Robert; Chute, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI). Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA) which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay. PMID:25255453

  10. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

  11. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed. PMID:25985312

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low-cost, low-burden monitoring strategies that could be used in large longitudinal exposure/epidemiological studies, such as the National Children's Study. The focus of this study is on (1) recruiting and retaining p...

  13. Assessment of human exposures to animal vaccines using poison control records, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Edison, L; Schulte, J; Schauben, J; Kay, R; Rubin, C

    2014-05-01

    To characterize human exposures to vaccines intended for animals, evaluate the human risk due to these exposures and determine whether there is sufficient surveillance in place to monitor them. Retrospective analysis of surveillance data (2000-2009). Information collected by poison specialists during calls reporting human exposure to an animal vaccine product, made to one of the 57 United States Poison Control Centers. Data from the National Poison Data System were analysed to determine the number of calls due to human exposures to animal vaccines, and descriptive statistics were generated to characterize the exposures by age, gender, medical outcome, exposure site, exposure route, vaccine type and intended species, aetiologic agent, call date and exposure reason. Overall, the human health effects were minor, primarily due to unintentional parenteral exposure. Less than 15% of the reports were classified as occupational, and 80% of the exposures took place outside of a workplace or healthcare facility. Almost 60% of calls were due to exposure to the West Nile Virus vaccine; the others distributed among a variety of vaccines. Unintentional exposure to animal vaccines appears to occur almost exclusively among untrained individuals who may benefit from more effective education about the risks and benefits of administering vaccines. Improved reporting of adverse outcomes is essential to adequately define the extent of human exposure and risks associated with availability of new vaccines.

  14. Reducing human exposure to Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2013-08-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of Mycobacterium avium pulmonary disease and the challenges of treating patients with M. avium infection, consideration of measures to reduce exposure is warranted. Because M. avium inhabits water and soil, humans are surrounded by that opportunistic pathogen. Because infection has been linked to the presence of M. avium in household plumbing, increasing hot water temperature, reducing aerosol (mist) exposures in bathrooms and showers, and installing filters that prevent the passage of mycobacteria will likely reduce M. avium exposure. Granular activated carbon (charcoal) filters support the growth of M. avium and should be avoided. When gardening, avoid the inhalation of soil dusts by using a mask or wetting the soil because peat-rich potting soils have high numbers of mycobacteria.

  15. Human exposure to urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Boström, C E; Almén, J; Steen, B; Westerholm, R

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic. The first section of this paper describes measurements in Stockholm of some unregulated light hydrocarbons, such as ethene, ethyne, propane, propene, butane, and isobutane. In addition, measurements of some volatile aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made. The ratios between CO and the individual specific compounds were determined by linear regression analysis. By analysis of relationships between CO and NOx, NOx concentrations can be used as a tracer to describe the exposure for these specific compounds. NOx are considered to be a better tracer than CO, because NOx or NO2 values exist for many places over a long time, while CO is measured mostly in streets with high concentrations. At low concentrations, instruments that measure normal CO levels give no detectable signals. Through use of atmospheric dispersion models and models that describe how people live and work in urban areas it has been possible to describe the average exposure to NOx in cities of different sizes. The exposure to NOx for people living in the countryside has also been estimated. In this way, it has been possible to calculate the average exposure dose for NOx for the Swedish population. This figure is 23 micrograms/m3. By use of the relationships between NOx and specific compounds the average dose has been calculated for the following compounds: polyaromatic compounds (PAH); ethene, propene, and butadiene; benzene, toluene, and xylene; formaldehyde

  16. Assessment of carcinogenic risk from personal exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES).

    PubMed

    Butler, J P; Post, G B; Lioy, P J; Waldman, J M; Greenberg, A

    1993-07-01

    The Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES) was an investigation of multimedia exposure to the ubiquitous environmental carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The three-phase study was conducted in Phillipsburg, New Jersey and involved the participation of 14-15 individuals (8-10 homes) during each 14-day monitoring period. Microenvironmental sampling of air, food, water and soil indicated that environmental exposure to BaP was primarily through air and food. Exposure and risk estimates were, therefore, based on the results of personal monitoring of breathing zone air and prepared food samples. Based on a comparison of the range and magnitude of inhalation and dietary BaP exposures, food ingestion was clearly the predominant exposure to pathway. The relative contributions of other potential sources of community exposure to BaP (e.g., soil and drinking water ingestion) were also assessed. The excess cancer risk estimates for food ingestion were consistently greater than those for personal air, reflecting both the predominantly higher BaP exposures through the diet and the higher carcinogenic potency value for oral exposure. Overall, the total lifetime risk from personal exposure to BaP for nonsmokers in the community was estimated at 10(-5). In identifying risk reduction options, it is important to account for the observation that personal activities, lifestyle, and diet strongly influenced individual exposures to BaP.

  17. Assessment of carcinogenic risk from personal exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.P.; Post, G.B.; Lioy, P.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Greenberg, A. )

    1993-07-01

    The Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES) was an investigation of multimedia exposure to the ubiquitous environmental carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The three-phase study was conducted in Phillipsburg, New Jersey and involved the participation of 14-15 individuals (8-10 homes) during each 14-day monitoring period. Microenvironmental sampling of air, food, water and soil indicated that environmental exposure to BaP was primarily through air and food. Exposure and risk estimates were, therefore, based on the results of personal monitoring of breathing zone air and prepared food samples. Based on a comparison of the range and magnitude of inhalation and dietary BaP exposures, food ingestion was clearly the predominant exposure to pathway. The relative contributions of other potential sources of community exposure to BaP (e.g., soil and drinking water ingestion) were also assessed. The excess cancer risk estimates for food ingestion were consistently greater than those for personal air, reflecting both the predominantly higher BaP exposures through the diet and the higher carcinogenic potency value for oral exposure. Overall, the total lifetime risk from personal exposure to BaP for nonsmokers in the community was estimated at 10(-5). In identifying risk reduction options, it is important to account for the observation that personal activities, lifestyle, and diet strongly influenced individual exposures to BaP.

  18. Assessment of human exposure level to PM10 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xingqin; Hou, Qing; Li, Nan; Zhai, Shixian

    2013-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that atmospheric particulate matter, especially PM10 (inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm) is one of the pollutants that are harmful to human health. In recent years, particulate matter pollution in China is becoming increasingly serious and PM10 has become the primary pollutant in Beijing and other cities. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out studies and a health damage assessment of PM10. In human health damage assessment, measuring human exposure level to PM10 is required and crucial to provide accurate exposure data for the exposure-response relationship, and also for the accurate quantitative assessment of human exposure. The spatial distribution of particle concentration in China is variable because of spatial differences in the local economic level and the geographical environment. Along with the accelerating urbanisation in China, city population density is high, and the population distribution is variable between and within cities, thus resulting in different population numbers exposed to different concentration ranges. Therefore, an accurate assessment of China's level of exposure to particulate matter is a priority and the basis for assessing the damage to public health caused by particle pollution. Using high accuracy population and PM10 monitoring data, this study analysed the human exposure to PM10 in different regions and typical cities of China. The results show that for most areas of China, the population-weighted PM10 exposure concentration is slightly higher than the annual mean concentration, meaning that more of the population is exposed to high concentrations, and most of the population is exposed to levels that meet the second national standard (between 40 and 100 μg m-3), occupying about 83.7% of population and 76.3% of area in China. The population exposure to PM10 is higher in two types of typical regions and cities: areas with dense human populations

  19. Biomonitoring of human exposure to arylamines.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Extensive industrial use of arylamines started in the middle of the 19th century in the dye industry. Because of the high incidence of bladder cancer, arylamines belong to the first and most intensively studied occupational and environmental carcinogens. In workers, biomonitoring of exposure to arylamines including ortho-toluidine started in the first half of the 20th century. This review highlights the many gaps in our knowledge on the human carcinogen ortho-toluidine.

  20. Pesticide exposure: human cancers on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Jaga, K; Brosius, D

    1999-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane, a halogenated hydrocarbon, was introduced as an insecticide in the 1940s. In her book "Silent Spring", Rachel Carson expressed her concern for the environment, plants, animals, and human health about the potential harmful effects of such chemicals. In 1972, the Environmental Protection Agency banned the chemical in the USA. DDT and its metabolite DDE are lipid soluble compounds that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in the body in adipose tissue at levels far higher than those in blood and breast milk. This paper evaluates the possibility of cancer occurring in humans from DDT exposure. Some risk of lymphoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer was found in humans exposed to DDT. Animal studies showed a significant association between DDT administration and lymphoma, respiratory cancer, liver cancer, and estrogenic effects on mammary tissue. On the basis of on epidemiological principles, human studies were deficient in adequate sample sizes and were not exempt from such confounding factors as multiple chemical exposure, lifestyle factors, genetic, and other environmental influences. Extrapolation of data on DDT toxicity from animals to humans has limitations. With the persistence of DDT and DDE in the environment, the potential risk to the health of man, animals, and the environment remains.

  1. Personal exposure monitoring of PM2.5 in indoor and outdoor microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E; Semple, Sean; Twigg, Marsailidh M; Braban, Christine F; Leeson, Sarah R; Heal, Mathew R; Harrison, David; Lin, Chun; Wu, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution are a global challenge and of widespread concern. Recent high ambient concentration episodes of air pollutants in European cities highlighted the dynamic nature of human exposure and the gaps in data and knowledge about exposure patterns. In order to support health impact assessment it is essential to develop a better understanding of individual exposure pathways in people's everyday lives by taking account of all environments in which people spend time. Here we describe the development, validation and results of an exposure method applied in a study conducted in Scotland. A low-cost particle counter based on light-scattering technology - the Dylos 1700 was used. Its performance was validated in comparison with equivalent instruments (TEOM-FDMS) at two national monitoring network sites (R(2)=0.9 at a rural background site, R(2)=0.7 at an urban background site). This validation also provided two functions to convert measured PNCs into calculated particle mass concentrations for direct comparison of concentrations with equivalent monitoring instruments and air quality limit values. This study also used contextual and time-based activity data to define six microenvironments (MEs) to assess everyday exposure of individuals to short-term PM2.5 concentrations. The Dylos was combined with a GPS receiver to track movement and exposure of individuals across the MEs. Seventeen volunteers collected 35 profiles. Profiles may have a different overall duration and structure with respect to times spent in different MEs and activities undertaken. Results indicate that due to the substantial variability across and between MEs, it is essential to measure near-complete exposure pathways to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the exposure risk a person encounters on a daily basis. Taking into account the information gained through personal exposure measurements, this work demonstrates the added value of data generated by the

  2. A SINGLE-EXPOSURE, MULTIDETECTOR NEUTRON SPECTROMETER FOR WORKPLACE MONITORING.

    PubMed

    Bedogni, R; Bortot, D; Buonomo, B; Esposito, A; Gómez-Ros, J M; Introini, M V; Mazzitelli, G; Moraleda, M; Pola, A; Romero, A M

    2016-09-01

    This communication describes a recently developed single-exposure neutron spectrometer, based on multiple active thermal neutron detectors located within a moderating sphere, which have been developed jointly by CIEMAT (Spain), INFN (Italy) and Politecnico di Milano (Italy) in the framework of Italian and Spanish collaboration projects. The fabricated prototypes permit to achieve spectrometric resolution with nearly isotropic response for neutron with energies from thermal to 100-200 MeV, thus being able to characterise the complete neutron spectrum in only one exposure by unfolding the measured responses of the detectors. This makes it especially advantageous for characterising neutron fields and workplace monitoring purposes in neutron-producing facilities.

  3. Characterizing climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to air pollutants such as ozone (O3) have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures, including: ambient pollutant concentrations, human activity patterns, population sizes and distributions, and hous...

  4. Parabens as Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Bishop, Amber M.; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure. Objectives Assessing human exposure to parabens usually involves measuring in urine the conjugated or free species of parabens or their metabolites. In animals, parabens are mostly hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and excreted in the urine as conjugates. Still, monitoring urinary concentrations of p-hydroxybenzoic acid is not necessarily the best way to assess exposure to parabens. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid is a nonspecific biomarker, and the varying estrogenic bioactivities of parabens require specific biomarkers. Therefore, we evaluated the use of free and conjugated parent parabens as new biomarkers for human exposure to these compounds. Results We measured the urinary concentrations of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, butyl (n- and iso-), and benzyl parabens in a demographically diverse group of 100 anonymous adults. We detected methyl and n-propyl parabens at the highest median concentrations (43.9 ng/mL and 9.05 ng/mL, respectively) in nearly all (> 96%) of the samples. We also detected other parabens in more than half of the samples (ethyl, 58%; butyl, 69%). Most important, however, we found that parabens in urine appear predominantly in their conjugated forms. Conclusions The results, demonstrating the presence of urinary conjugates of parabens in humans, suggest that such conjugated parabens could be used as exposure biomarkers. Additionally, the fact that conjugates appear to be the main urinary products of parabens may be important for risk assessment. PMID:17185273

  5. Three-Day Continuous Exposure Monitoring of CNT Manufacturing Workplaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Kang Ho; Kim, Sun Man; Kim, Ellen; Lee, Gun Ho; Han, Jeong Hee; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    Continuous monitoring for possible exposure to carbon nanotubes was conducted over a period of 2 to 3 days at workplaces that manufacture multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). To estimate the potential emission of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and real-time monitoring using an scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and dust monitor were conducted at workplaces where the workers manufactured CNTs. The personal and area sampling of the total suspended particulate (TSP) at the MWCNT manufacturing facilities ranged from 0.031 to 0.254 and from N.D (not detected) to 0.253 mg/m(3), respectively. This 2- to 3-day monitoring study found that nanoparticles were released when opening the chemical vapor deposit (CVD) reactor door after the synthesis of MWCNTs, when transferring the MWCNTs to containers and during blending and grinding. However, distinguishing the background concentration from the work process particle emission was complicated due to sustained and even increased particle concentrations after the work processes were terminated. The MWCNTs sampled for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation exhibited a tangled shape with no individual dispersed CNT structures. PMID:26125022

  6. Problems in the estimation of human exposure to components of acid precipitation precursors.

    PubMed

    Ferris, B G; Spengler, J D

    1985-11-01

    Problems associated with estimation of human exposure to ambient air pollutants are discussed. Ideally, we would prefer to have some indication of actual dose. For most pollutants this is not presently feasible. Specific problems discussed are adequacy of outdoor monitors; the need to correct for exposures and time spent indoors; the need to have particle size distributions described and the chemistry of the particles presented. These indicate the need to develop lightweight accurate and reliable personal monitors.

  7. Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    The space radiation environment is a complex field comprised primarily of charged particles spanning energies over many orders of magnitude. The principal sources of these particles are galactic cosmic rays, the Sun and the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Superimposed on a steady influx of cosmic rays and a steady outward flux of low-energy solar wind are short-term ejections of higher energy particles from the Sun and an 11-year variation of solar luminosity that modulates cosmic ray intensity. Human health risks are estimated from models of the radiation environment for various mission scenarios, the shielding of associated vehicles and the human body itself. Transport models are used to propagate the ambient radiation fields through realistic shielding levels and materials to yield radiation field models inside spacecraft. Then, informed by radiobiological experiments and epidemiology studies, estimates are made for various outcome measures associated with impairments of biological processes, losses of function or mortality. Cancer-associated risks have been formulated in a probabilistic model while management of non-cancer risks are based on permissible exposure limits. This article focuses on the various components of the space radiation environment and the human exposures that it creates.

  8. Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    The space radiation environment is a complex field comprised primarily of charged particles spanning energies over many orders of magnitude. The principal sources of these particles are galactic cosmic rays, the Sun and the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Superimposed on a steady influx of cosmic rays and a steady outward flux of low-energy solar wind are short-term ejections of higher energy particles from the Sun and an 11-year variation of solar luminosity that modulates cosmic ray intensity. Human health risks are estimated from models of the radiation environment for various mission scenarios, the shielding of associated vehicles and the human body itself. Transport models are used to propagate the ambient radiation fields through realistic shielding levels and materials to yield radiation field models inside spacecraft. Then, informed by radiobiological experiments and epidemiology studies, estimates are made for various outcome measures associated with impairments of biological processes, losses of function or mortality. Cancer-associated risks have been formulated in a probabilistic model while management of non-cancer risks are based on permissible exposure limits. This article focuses on the various components of the space radiation environment and the human exposures that it creates. PMID:27018778

  9. [Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Tominaga, M Y; Midio, A F

    1999-08-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic).

  10. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  11. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls. PMID:20056744

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  13. Assessment of human exposure to gaseous pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, L.B.; Falco, J.W. )

    1989-09-01

    A mathematical model to aid in assessment of human environmental exposure to volatile organic substances is presented. The model simulates the convective and diffusive transport of gas from the ambient environment into the human body by way of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Data required include easily obtained physical and chemical properties of substances as well as several estimated or measured physiological parameters. Transient and steady-state tissue concentrations resulting from an input atmospheric partial pressure are predicted. From these concentrations, an effective dose may be calculated, allowing for the determination of an exposure-response relationship based upon independently obtained dose-response data. The model's results compare favorably to experimental data on oxygen and halothane. Steady-state conditions are reached very rapidly. These results suggest that uptake of these substances is limited by both ventilation and perfusion. Rates are demonstrated to be essentially linear within the current neighborhoods. Conditions in which the primary processes of ventilation, diffusion, perfusion, and elimination limit uptake of gases are considered. Expressions describing the conditions necessary for a single process to limit gas uptake are derived. Accompanying equations for estimating tissue concentrations under these limiting conditions are presented.

  14. Systems biology of human benzene exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Li, Guilan; Ji, Zhiying; Vermeulen, Roel; Hubbard, Alan E.; Ren, Xuefeng; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen M.; North, Matthew; Skibola, Christine F.; Yin, Songnian; Vulpe, Christopher; Chanock, Stephen J.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Toxicogenomic studies, including genome-wide analyses of susceptibility genes (genomics), gene expression (transcriptomics), protein expression (proteomics), and epigenetic modifications (epigenomics), of human populations exposed to benzene are crucial to understanding gene-environment interactions, providing the ability to develop biomarkers of exposure, early effect and susceptibility. Comprehensive analysis of these toxicogenomic and epigenomic profiles by bioinformatics in the context of phenotypic endpoints, comprises systems biology, which has the potential to comprehensively define the mechanisms by which benzene causes leukemia. We have applied this approach to a molecular epidemiology study of workers exposed to benzene. Hematotoxicity, a significant decrease in almost all blood cell counts, was identified as a phenotypic effect of benzene that occurred even below 1ppm benzene exposure. We found a significant decrease in the formation of progenitor colonies arising from bone marrow stem cells with increasing benzene exposure, showing that progenitor cells are more sensitive to the effects of benzene than mature blood cells, likely leading to the observed hematotoxicity. Analysis of transcriptomics by microarray in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of exposed workers, identified genes and pathways (apoptosis, immune response, and inflammatory response) altered at high (>10ppm) and low (<1ppm) benzene levels. Serum proteomics by SELDI-TOF-MS revealed proteins consistently down-regulated in exposed workers. Preliminary epigenomics data showed effects of benzene on the DNA methylation of specific genes. Genomic screens for candidate genes involved in susceptibility to benzene toxicity are being undertaken in yeast, with subsequent confirmation by RNAi in human cells, to expand upon the findings from candidate gene analyses. Data on these and future biomarkers will be used to populate a large toxicogenomics database, to which we will apply bioinformatic

  15. MICROBES, MONITORING AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are about 20,000 wastewater treatment plants in the United States. These plants discharge about 50 trillion gallons of wastewater daily into the nation's surface waters. Most wastewater contains human feces, which are a potential source of microbial pathogens. Pathogens ...

  16. Aircrew exposure monitoring: results of 2001 to 2003 studies.

    PubMed

    Spurný, F; Turek, K; Vlcek, B; Dachev, Ts

    2004-01-01

    Aircrew exposure represents one of the recent subjects of occupational individual dosimetry. Since 1991 many new results have been found; there is however a need to gather further data on this exposure and its variation with geomagnetic position, solar activity and flight route parameters. Since 2001, many individual and six long-term monitoring programmes have been conducted onboard aircraft of Czech Airlines (CSA). In these programmes, a Si-diode spectrometer was fixed in an aircraft. Together with it, passive dosemeters thermoluminescent detector, track-etch based neutron dosemeter linear energy transfer and spectrometer) were exposed. More than 700 regular commercial flights were monitored in this manner. CSA supplied us also with full navigation data, which allowed us to calculate the exposure levels using EPCARD 3.2 and CARI6 codes. Direct experimental readings obtained with the detectors mentioned above were interpreted on the basis of calibrations in on-Earth reference fields and compared with calculated data. A satisfactory correlation between all sets of data was observed.

  17. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  18. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  19. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  20. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  1. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  2. NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS): OPPORTUNITIES AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in its fullest sense is a conceptual design, which upon implementation, will have long-term implications to exposure research and assessment. The ultimate goal is to document national distribution of human exposure to pote...

  3. AN APPROACH TO METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure assessment studies require methods that are rapid, cost-effective and have a high sample through-put. The development of analytical methods for exposure studies should be based on specific information for individual studies. Human exposure studies suggest that di...

  4. Biomarkers of human exposure to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, W.E.; Henderson, R.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Three biomarkers for benzene exposure were developed. The first biomarker, muconic acid in urine, results from the ring opening of a benzene metabolite. A gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) assay was developed to measure urinary muconic acid, and the analyte in urine samples from workers occupationally exposed to benzene was determined. Workers exposed to benzene concentrations as low as 4.4 ppm over an 8-h day showed higher urinary muconic acid concentrations than did any control individual (p < .005). The second biomarker, S-phenylcysteine (SPC) in hemoglobin (Hb), results from the addition of benzene oxide to a cysteine sulfhydryl group. A GC/MS assay was developed to measure SPC in the blood of F344/N rats and B67C3F mice exposed to benzene by inhalation. The cysteine moiety on rat Hb is at a more accessible site than on Hb of mice or humans, and rats showed considerably higher levels of SPC than did mice. As yet, we have been unable to detect SPC in the globin of humans occupationally exposed to benzene. The third biomarker is SPC in albumin. In humans occupationally exposed to average concentrations of 0, 4.4, 8.4, and 23.1 ppm benzene, 8 h/d, 5 d/wk, SPC increased in the exposed groups linearly, giving a statistically significant slope (p < .001) of 0.044 [+-] 0.008 pmol/mg albumin/ppm. The assay for SPC is arduous and often imprecise; assuming these difficulties can be overcome, muconic acid in urine and SPC in albumin may be useful for accurately determining benzene exposure. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DISCRIMINATING FACTORS IN HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurately modeling exposure to particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants ultimately involves the utilization of human location-activity databases to assist in understanding the potential variability of microenvironmental exposures. This paper critically considers and stati...

  6. USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

  7. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina Central University (NCCU) recently began an innovative human exposure research program in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC. In this project, researchers will examine ...

  8. Benzene exposure during tunnelling--using biological monitoring to assess control measures and working practice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kate; McCallum, Jane

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the assessment of worker exposure to high levels of benzene (up to 18 p.p.m. 8 h time weighted average, weekly average) during tunnelling on a contaminated land site (former gas works). Although respiratory and personal protection was used, biological monitoring results indicated that workers had urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid levels in excess of that expected following exposure to the UK workplace exposure limit. Factors such as environmental conditions (high temperature and humidity, confined workspace), respiratory and personal equipment providing insufficient protection, human behaviour (removing protective equipment, using mobile phones), and work practices (12-h shifts, too few and too short breaks, lack of drinking water) were identified as contributing to the exposure. A thorough review of control measures and working practice led to significant improvements, resulting in workers' exposure (as measured by biological monitoring) being kept below the 90th percentile value (8 μmol mol(-1) creatinine, 17 μg g(-1) creatinine) of data from a good cross section of UK industry (N = 2600) despite the continuing high environmental levels.

  9. Activity Monitors Help Users Get Optimum Sun Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Goddard scientist Shahid Aslam was investigating alternative methods for measuring extreme ultraviolet radiation on the Solar Dynamics Observatory when he hit upon semiconductors that measured wavelengths pertinent to human health. As a result, he and a partner established College Park, Maryland-based Sensor Sensor LLC and developed UVA+B SunFriend, a wrist monitor that lets people know when they've received their optimal amounts of sunlight for the day.

  10. Preventable Exposures Associated With Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Baan, Robert; Straif, Kurt; Grosse, Yann; Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Freeman, Crystal; Galichet, Laurent; Wild, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the causes of cancer at specific sites is important to cancer control planners, cancer researchers, cancer patients, and the general public. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph series, which has classified human carcinogens for more than 40 years, recently completed a review to provide up-to-date information on the cancer sites associated with more than 100 carcinogenic agents. Based on IARC’s review, we listed the cancer sites associated with each agent and then rearranged this information to list the known and suspected causes of cancer at each site. We also summarized the rationale for classifications that were based on mechanistic data. This information, based on the forthcoming IARC Monographs Volume 100, offers insights into the current state-of-the-science of carcinogen identification. Use of mechanistic data to identify carcinogens is increasing, and epidemiological research is identifying additional carcinogens and cancer sites or confirming carcinogenic potential under conditions of lower exposure. Nevertheless, some common human cancers still have few (or no) identified causal agents. PMID:22158127

  11. Occupational chronic exposure to metals. I. Chromium exposure of stainless steel welders--biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Angerer, J; Amin, W; Heinrich-Ramm, R; Szadkowski, D; Lehnert, G

    1987-01-01

    External and internal chromate exposure of 103 stainless steel welders who were using manual metal are welding (MMA), metal inert gas welding (MIG) and both methods, were measured by ambient and biological monitoring. At the working places the maximum chromium trioxide concentrations were 80 micrograms/m3. The median values were 4 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 10 micrograms/m3 (MIG). The median chromium concentrations in erythrocytes, plasma and urine of all welders were less than 0.60, 9.00 and 32.50 micrograms/l. For biological monitoring purposes, chromium levels in erythrocytes and simultaneously in plasma seem to be suitable parameters. According to our results, chromium levels in plasma and urine in the order of 10 and 40 micrograms/l seem to correspond to an external exposure of 100 micrograms chromium trioxide per cubic metre, the technical guiding concentration (TRK-value). Chromium concentrations in erythrocytes greater than 0.60 micrograms/l indicate an external chromate exposure greater than the TRK-value.

  12. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil. PMID:17351814

  13. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil.

  14. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  15. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure Monitoring Surveys and Development of Exposure Groups

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T.; Attfield, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 μg m−3 at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 μg m−3 at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 μg m−3 across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 μg m−3, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 μg m−3 by facility, an ∼2- to 3-fold difference. The average NO and

  16. Biological monitoring of isocyanates and related amines. IV. 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine in hydrolysed plasma and urine after test-chamber exposure of humans to 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Brorson, T; Skarping, G; Sangö, C

    1991-01-01

    Two men were exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) atmospheres at three different air concentrations (ca. 25, 50 and 70 micrograms/m3). The TDI atmospheres were generated by a gas-phase permeation method, and the exposures were performed in an 8-m3 stainless-steel test chamber. The effective exposure period was 4 h. The isomeric composition of the air in the test chamber was 30% 2,4-TDI and 70% 2,6-TDI. The concentration of TDI in air of the test chamber was determined by an HPLC method using the 9-(N-methyl-amino-methyl)-anthracene reagent and by a continuous-monitoring filter-tape instrument. Following the hydrolysis of plasma and urine, the related amines, 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-TDA) and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,6-TDA), were determined as pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatives by capillary gas chromatography using selected ion monitoring (SIM) in the electron-impact mode. In plasma, 2,4- and 2,6-TDA showed a rapid-phase elimination half-time of ca. 2-5 h, and that for the slow phase was greater than 6 days. A connection was observed between concentrations of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI in air and the levels of 2,4- and 2,6-TDA in plasma. The cumulated amount of 2,4-TDA excreted in the urine over 24 h was ca. 15%-19% of the estimated inhaled dose of 2,4-TDI, and that of 2,6-TDA was ca. 17%-23% of the inhaled dose of 2,6-TDI. A connection was found between the cumulated (24-h) urinary excretion of 2,4- and 2,6-TDA and the air concentration of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI in the test chamber.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1660449

  17. An introduction to the indirect exposure assessment approach: modeling human exposure using microenvironmental measurements and the recent National Human Activity Pattern Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Klepeis, N E

    1999-01-01

    Indirect exposure approaches offer a feasible and accurate method for estimating population exposures to indoor pollutants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In an effort to make the indirect exposure assessment approach more accessible to people in the health and risk assessment fields, this paper provides examples using real data from (italic>a(/italic>) a week-long personal carbon monoxide monitoring survey conducted by the author; and (italic>b(/italic>) the 1992 to 1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) for the United States. The indirect approach uses measurements of exposures in specific microenvironments (e.g., homes, bars, offices), validated microenvironmental models (based on the mass balance equation), and human activity pattern data obtained from questionnaires to predict frequency distributions of exposure for entire populations. This approach requires fewer resources than the direct approach to exposure assessment, for which the distribution of monitors to a representative sample of a given population is necessary. In the indirect exposure assessment approach, average microenvironmental concentrations are multiplied by the total time spent in each microenvironment to give total integrated exposure. By assuming that the concentrations encountered in each of 10 location categories are the same for different members of the U.S. population (i.e., the NHAPS respondents), the hypothetical contribution that ETS makes to the average 24-hr respirable suspended particle exposure for Americans working their main job is calculated in this paper to be 18 microg/m3. This article is an illustrative review and does not contain an actual exposure assessment or model validation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10350522

  18. Design and Clinical Feasibility of Personal Wearable Monitor for Measurement of Activity and Environmental Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ribón Fletcher, Richard; Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Robinson, Alyssa I.

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to specific environmental factors (e.g. air quality, lighting, and sound) is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases (e.g. asthma) and mental health disorders (e.g. anxiety). However, conventional fixed environmental monitoring stations are sparsely located and, despite environmental models, cannot adequately assess individual exposure levels. New forms of low-cost portable monitors have begun to emerge that enable the collection of higher spatial density “crowd sourced” data; however, the first generation of these low-cost environmental monitors have generally not been suitable for clinical environmental health studies due to practical challenges such as calibration, reproducibility, form factor, and battery life. In this paper, we present a wearable environmental monitor that overcomes these challenges and can be used in clinical studies The new device, called “Eco-Mini,” can be used without a smart phone and is capable of locally sampling and recording a variety of environmental parameters (Ozone, Sulfur Dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, humidity, temperature, ambient light color balance, and sound level) as well as individual activity (3-axis accelerometer) and location (GPS). In this paper, we also report findings and discuss lessons learned from a feasibility study conducted for one week with pediatric patients as part of an ongoing asthma research study. PMID:25570098

  19. Design and clinical feasibility of personal wearable monitor for measurement of activity and environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Richard Ribón; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Robinson, Alyssa I

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to specific environmental factors (e.g. air quality, lighting, and sound) is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases (e.g. asthma) and mental health disorders (e.g. anxiety). However, conventional fixed environmental monitoring stations are sparsely located and, despite environmental models, cannot adequately assess individual exposure levels. New forms of low-cost portable monitors have begun to emerge that enable the collection of higher spatial density "crowd sourced" data; however, the first generation of these low-cost environmental monitors have generally not been suitable for clinical environmental health studies due to practical challenges such as calibration, reproducibility, form factor, and battery life. In this paper, we present a wearable environmental monitor that overcomes these challenges and can be used in clinical studies The new device, called "Eco-Mini," can be used without a smart phone and is capable of locally sampling and recording a variety of environmental parameters (Ozone, Sulfur Dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, humidity, temperature, ambient light color balance, and sound level) as well as individual activity (3-axis accelerometer) and location (GPS). In this paper, we also report findings and discuss lessons learned from a feasibility study conducted for one week with pediatric patients as part of an ongoing asthma research study. PMID:25570098

  20. Novel Approaches for Estimating Human Exposure to Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous health studies have used measurements from a few central-site ambient monitors to characterize air pollution exposures. Relying on solely on central-site ambient monitors does not account for the spatial-heterogeneity of ambient air pollution patterns, the temporal varia...

  1. [Advances on research of human exposure to triclosan].

    PubMed

    Jin, Chenye; Chen, Yiming; Zhang, Peiqi; Xiong, Zhezhen; Wang, Caifeng; Tian, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Triclosan, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, was reported to have been widely detected in various human biological samples such as urine, blood and human milk among foreign populations. In China, limited reports have been found on human exposure to triclosan, and the reported urinary triclosan concentrations were significantly lower than that of American populations. Besides, the potential influencing factors still remain unclear regarding human exposure to triclosan, but evidences suggest that those in middle age and with higher household income and higher social class tend to have higher urinary triclosan concentrations. Furthermore, triclosan exposure tend to differ by sex, geography, heredity, metabolism and life style.

  2. Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Njobeh, Patrick B; Turner, Paul C; Kouanfack, Charles; Eyongetah, Mbu; Dutton, Mike; Moundipa, Paul F

    2013-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of human exposure to mycotoxin has mostly been limited to a few individually measured mycotoxin biomarkers. This study aimed to determine the frequency and level of exposure to multiple mycotoxins in human urine from Cameroonian adults. 175 Urine samples (83% from HIV-positive individuals) and food frequency questionnaire responses were collected from consenting Cameroonians, and analyzed for 15 mycotoxins and relevant metabolites using LC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, eleven analytes were detected individually or in combinations in 110/175 (63%) samples including the biomarkers aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and total deoxynivalenol. Additionally, important mycotoxins and metabolites thereof, such as fumonisin B2, nivalenol and zearalenone, were determined, some for the first time in urine following dietary exposures. Multi-mycotoxin contamination was common with one HIV-positive individual exposed to five mycotoxins, a severe case of co-exposure that has never been reported in adults before. For the first time in Africa or elsewhere, this study quantified eleven mycotoxin biomarkers and bio-measures in urine from adults. For several mycotoxins estimates indicate that the tolerable daily intake is being exceeded in this study population. Given that many mycotoxins adversely affect the immune system, future studies will examine whether combinations of mycotoxins negatively impact Cameroonian population particularly immune-suppressed individuals.

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF CONCURRENT MONITORING AND MODELING FOR UNDERSTANDING MERCURY EXPOSURE IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the cycling processes governing mercury exposure in the environment requires sufficient process-based modeling and monitoring data. Monitoring provides ambient concentration data for specific sample times and locations. Modeling provides a tool for investigating the...

  4. Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.

    PubMed

    Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction.

  5. Human rights monitoring in virtual community.

    PubMed

    El Morr, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around human rights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a human rights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities.

  6. Design and implementation of monitoring programmes for internal exposure (project OMINEX).

    PubMed

    Etherington, G; Stradling, G N; Rahola, T; LeGuen, B; Hurtgen, C; Jourdain, J R; Bérard, P

    2003-01-01

    The costs of monitoring for internal exposure in the workplace are usually significantly greater than the equivalent costs for external exposure. Therefore, there is a need to ensure that resources are employed with maximum effectiveness. The EC-funded OMINEX (optimisation of monitoring for internal exposure) project is developing methods for optimising the design and implementation of internal exposure monitoring programmes. Current monitoring programmes are being critically reviewed, the major sources of uncertainty in assessed internal dose investigated, and guidance formulated on factors such as programme design, choice of method/techniques, monitoring intervals, and monitoring frequency. OMINEX will promote a common, harmonised approach to the design and implementation of internal dose monitoring programmes throughout the EU.

  7. Human exposure assessment resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Schwela, Dieter; Hakkinen, Pertti J

    2004-05-20

    Human exposure assessment is frequently noted as a weak link and bottleneck in the risk assessment process. Fortunately, the World Wide Web and Internet are providing access to numerous valuable sources of human exposure assessment-related information, along with opportunities for information exchange. Internet mailing lists are available as potential online help for exposure assessment questions, e.g. RISKANAL has several hundred members from numerous countries. Various Web sites provide opportunities for training, e.g. Web sites offering general human exposure assessment training include two from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and four from the US National Library of Medicine. Numerous other Web sites offer access to a wide range of exposure assessment information. For example, the (US) Alliance for Chemical Awareness Web site addresses direct and indirect human exposures, occupational exposures and ecological exposure assessments. The US EPA's Exposure Factors Program Web site provides a focal point for current information and data on exposure factors relevant to the United States. In addition, the International Society of Exposure Analysis Web site provides information about how this society seeks to foster and advance the science of exposure analysis. A major opportunity exists for risk assessors and others to broaden the level of exposure assessment information available via Web sites. Broadening the Web's exposure information could include human exposure factors-related information about country- or region-specific ranges in body weights, drinking water consumption, etc. along with residential factors-related information on air changeovers per hour in various types of residences. Further, country- or region-specific ranges on how various tasks are performed by various types of consumers could be collected and provided. Noteworthy are that efforts are underway in Europe to develop a multi-country collection of exposure factors and the European

  8. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  9. Human dermal exposure to galaxolide from personal care products.

    PubMed

    Correia, P; Cruz, A; Santos, L; Alves, A

    2013-06-01

    Musks are synthetic fragrances applied on personal care and household products as fixatives, by retarding the release of other fragrances with higher volatility. Galaxolide is the most used polycyclic musk since the 90th decade, and it has been detected in several environmental and biological matrices, particularly in human tissues and fluids. For exposure assessment purposes, large-monitoring data need to be obtained and rapid but reliable analytical techniques are requested. The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a new and fast analytical methodology to quantify galaxolide in personal care products and to apply this method to real matrices like skin care products (creams and lotions), shower products (soap bar), hair care products (shampoo and hair conditioner) and oral care products (toothpaste), to evaluate the human dermal exposure risk. A dispersive solid-phase extraction is proposed, using QuEChERS methodology, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Some extraction parameters were studied, like the ratio of sample/solvent amounts, the homogenization time, the salt addition effect and the used sorbents. The validation parameters of the developed method were the following: a linearity range of 0.005-1.002 mg kg⁻¹ sample, a limit of detection of 0.001 mg kg⁻¹ sample, repeatability between 0.7% and 11.3% (variation coefficient of six standard injections), an intermediate precision of 2.5% (variation coefficient of six independent analysis of the same sample), mean recoveries ranging from 65% (soap bar) to 95% (body cream) and 3% of global uncertainty in most of the working range. The time of analysis, including the extraction steps, is 60 min, allowing a throughput of 4 samples h⁻¹ . Galaxolide was detected in all of the seven analysed products in concentrations ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ sample (toothpaste) to 280.78 ± 8.19 mg kg⁻¹ sample (perfumed body cream), which may correspond to a significant estimated

  10. TOLUENE EXPERIMENTAL EXPOSURES IN HUMANS: PHARMACOKINETICS AND BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene Experimental Exposures in Humans:
    Pharmacokinetics and Behavioral Effects
    (Ongoing Research)

    Vernon A. Benignus1, Philip J. Bushnell2 and William K. Boyes2

    Human subjects will be exposed to 250 and 500 ppm toluene for one hour in the Human St...

  11. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  12. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Continuous Personal Dust Monitors. The proposed rule would improve health protections for coal miners by... Occupational Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and...

  13. 75 FR 69617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors. The proposed rule was published on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412) and is available on MSHA's Web...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  14. Human exposure limits to hypergolic fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, H. D.; James, J. T.; Limero, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past four decades, many studies have been conducted on the toxicities of the rocket propellants hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MH). Numerous technical challenges have made it difficult to unambiguously interpret the results of these studies, and there is considerable divergence between results obtained by different investigators on the inhalation concentrations (MAC's) for each toxic effect inducible by exposure to hypergolic fuels in spacecraft atmospheres, NASA undertook a critical review of published and unpublished investigations on the toxicities of these compounds. The current state of the art practices for similar studies. While many questions remain unanswered, MAC's were determined using the best available data for a variety of toxic endpoints for potential continuous exposure durations ranging from 1 hour to 180 days. Spacecraft MAC's (SMAC's) were set for each compound based on the most sensitive toxic endpoint at each exposure duration.

  15. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY AT THE U.S. EPA, NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH BRANCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HERB has developed several immunoassay methods for environmental and human exposure studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been developed for dietary and indoor exposure surveys. An immunoassay for th...

  16. ASSESSING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a workshop sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development and Office of Pesticide Programs, the Aggregate Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) Model was used to assess potential aggregate residential pesticide e...

  17. Identification and characterization of biomarkers of organophosphorus exposures in humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jerry H; Stevens, Richard C; MacCoss, Michael J; Goodlett, David R; Scherl, Alex; Richter, Rebecca J; Suzuki, Stephanie M; Furlong, Clement E

    2010-01-01

    Over 1 billion pounds of organophosphorus (OP) chemicals are manufactured worldwide each year, including 70 million pounds of pesticides sprayed in the US. Current methods to monitor environmental and occupational exposures to OPs such as chlorpyrifos (CPS) have limitations, including low specificity and sensitivity, and short time windows for detection. Biomarkers for the OP tricresyl phosphate (TCP), which can contaminate bleed air from jet engines and cause an occupational exposure of commercial airline pilots, crewmembers and passengers, have not been identified. The aim of our work has been to identify, purify, and characterize new biomarkers of OP exposure. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition has been a standard for monitoring OP exposure. By identifying and characterizing molecular biomarkers with longer half-lives, we should be able to clinically detect TCP and OP insecticide exposure after longer durations of time than are currently possible. Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) is a red blood cell (RBC) cytosolic serine proteinase that removes N-acetylated amino acids from peptides and cleaves oxidized proteins. Due to its properties, it is an excellent candidate for a biomarker of exposure. We have been able to purify APH and detect inhibition by both CPS and metabolites of TCP. The 120-day lifetime of the RBC offers a much longer window for detecting exposure. The OP-modified serine conjugate in the active site tryptic peptide has been characterized by mass spectrometry. This research uses functional proteomics and enzyme activities to identify and characterize useful biomarkers of neurotoxic environmental and occupational OP exposures. PMID:20221871

  18. High throughput heuristics for prioritizing human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wambaugh, John F; Wang, Anran; Dionisio, Kathie L; Frame, Alicia; Egeghy, Peter; Judson, Richard; Setzer, R Woodrow

    2014-11-01

    The risk posed to human health by any of the thousands of untested anthropogenic chemicals in our environment is a function of both the hazard presented by the chemical and the extent of exposure. However, many chemicals lack estimates of exposure intake, limiting the understanding of health risks. We aim to develop a rapid heuristic method to determine potential human exposure to chemicals for application to the thousands of chemicals with little or no exposure data. We used Bayesian methodology to infer ranges of exposure consistent with biomarkers identified in urine samples from the U.S. population by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We performed linear regression on inferred exposure for demographic subsets of NHANES demarked by age, gender, and weight using chemical descriptors and use information from multiple databases and structure-based calculators. Five descriptors are capable of explaining roughly 50% of the variability in geometric means across 106 NHANES chemicals for all the demographic groups, including children aged 6-11. We use these descriptors to estimate human exposure to 7968 chemicals, the majority of which have no other quantitative exposure prediction. For thousands of chemicals with no other information, this approach allows forecasting of average exposure intake of environmental chemicals.

  19. Data Sources for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans may be exposed to thousands of chemicals through contact in the workplace, home, and via air, water, food, and soil. A major challenge is estimating chemical exposures, which requires understanding potential exposure pathways directly related to how chemicals are used. Wit...

  20. Reconstructing Human Exposures Using Biomarkers and other "Clues"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is the process by which biomarkers are measured in human tissues and specimens to evaluate exposures. Given the growing number of population-based biomonitoring surveys, there is now an escalated interest in using biomarker data to reconstruct exposures for supporti...

  1. Elevated personal exposure to particulate matter from human activities in a residence.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-01-01

    Continuous laser particle counters collocated with time-integrated filter samplers were used to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentrations for a variety of prescribed human activities during a 5-day experimental period in a home in Redwood City, CA, USA. The mean daytime personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) during prescribed activities were 6 and 17 times, respectively, as high as the pre-activity indoor background concentration. Activities that resulted in the highest exposures of PM(2.5), PM(5), and PM(10) were those that disturbed dust reservoirs on furniture and textiles, such as dry dusting, folding clothes and blankets, and making a bed. The vigor of activity and type of flooring were also important factors for dust resuspension. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) were 1.4 and 1.6 times, respectively, as high as the indoor concentration as measured by a stationary monitor. The ratio of personal exposure to the indoor concentration was a function of both particle size and the distance of the human activity from the stationary indoor monitor. The results demonstrate that a wide variety of indoor human resuspension activities increase human exposure to PM and contribute to the "personal cloud" effect.

  2. Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Human Lymphoblastoid TK6 Cells Following [13C2]-Acetaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Swenberg, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The dose-response relationship for biomarkers of exposure (N2-ethylidene-dG adducts) and effect (cell survival and micronucleus formation) was determined across 4.5 orders of magnitude (50nM–2mM) using [13C2]-acetaldehyde exposures to human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells for 12h. There was a clear increase in exogenous N 2-ethylidene-dG formation at exposure concentrations ≥ 1µM, whereas the endogenous adducts remained nearly constant across all exposure concentrations, with an average of 3.0 adducts/107 dG. Exogenous adducts were lower than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≤ 10µM and were greater than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≥ 250µM. When the endogenous and exogenous adducts were summed together, statistically significant increases in total adduct formation over the endogenous background occurred at 50µM. Cell survival and micronucleus formation were monitored across the exposure range and statistically significant decreases in cell survival and increases in micronucleus formation occurred at ≥ 1000µM. This research supports the hypothesis that endogenously produced reactive species, including acetaldehyde, are always present and constitute the majority of the observed biological effects following very low exposures to exogenous acetaldehyde. These data can replace default assumptions of linear extrapolation to very low doses of exogenous acetaldehyde for risk prediction. PMID:23425604

  3. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three NHEXAS Studies were conducted from 1995-1997 to evaluate total human exposure to multiple chemicals on community and regional scales. EPA established cooperative agreements with three Consortia to conduct three interrelated NHEXAS field studies. The University of Arizona...

  4. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  5. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in suscep...

  6. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  7. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts. PMID:27034246

  8. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts.

  9. Human performance during experimental formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, B.; Pedersen, O.F.; Moelhave, L. )

    1990-01-01

    Sixty-one subjects were exposed in a climate chamber for 5.5 hours to a controlled atmospheric environment. Formaldehyde vapors were added in concentrations of 0, 0.15, 0.40, or 1.20 mg/m{sup 3}. The exposures were arranged in a 4 x 4, balanced latin square design, involving four days in each of four weeks. The subjects were all males. Of these 32 had occupational exposure to formaldehyde in industrial productions of than five years. Twenty-nine were randomly selected, matched controls from the normal population. The hypothesis tested was that significant, but different dose-response relations exist in a number of performance tests for these two groups of subjects. The results indicate such differences in reactions to tests of short term memory and ability to concentrate (digit span tests, digit symbol test, graphic continuous performance test) and an addition test. Whether these results indicate chronic or acute CNS effects or they are caused by distractive sensory irritation due to formaldehyde exposure is discussed.

  10. Human monitoring of phthalates and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byung Mu

    2005-08-27

    Some phthalates, such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic and endocrino-disrupting effects. In this study, urinary levels of phthalates (DEHP, DBP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate BBP), and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, a major metabolite of DEHP) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in human populations (women [hospital visitors], n = 150, and children, n = 150). Daily exposure level of DEHP in children was estimated to be 12.4 microg/kg body weight/d (male 9.9 microg/kg body weight/d, female 17.8 microg/kg body weight/d), but, in women was estimated to be 41.7 microg/kg body weight/d, which exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI, 37 microg/kg body weight/day) level established by the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and the Environment (SCTEE) based on reproductive toxicity. Based on these data, hazard indices (HIs) were calculated to be 1.12 (41.7/37 TDI) for women and 0.33 (12.4/37 TDI) for children, respectively. These data suggest that Koreans (women and children) were exposed to significant levels of phthalates, which should be reduced to as low a level as technologically feasible to protect Koreans from the exposure to toxic phthalates.

  11. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (< 20 µg/m³). Health effects were evaluated in relation to rated changes in symptoms and environmental perception using a computerized questionnaire and a potentiometer. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, but when combining the effect of each of the symptoms into categorical symptom indices, significant effects were found for "environmental perception" (p = 0.0007), "irritative body perceptions" (p = 0.0127), "psychological/neurological effects" (p = 0.0075) and "weak inflammatory responses" (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating and caused irritated mucosas in humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  12. Benzo-a-pyrene: Environmental partitioning and human exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Travis, C.C. )

    1991-05-01

    A multimedia transport model was used to evaluate the environmental partitioning of benzo-a-pyrene (BaP). Measured and predicted environmental concentrations were used to estimate the accumulation of BaP in the food chain and the subsequent extent of human exposure from inhalation and ingestion. Results show that BaP partitions mainly into soil (82%) and sediment (17%) and that the food chain is the dominant pathway of human exposure, accounting for about 97% of the total daily intake of BaP. Inhalation and consumption of contaminated water are only minor pathways of human exposure. The long-term average daily intake of BaP by the general population of the U.S. is estimated to be 2.2 micrograms (micrograms) per day. Cigarette smoking and indoor activities do not substantially increase human exposure to BaP relative to exposures to background levels of BaP present in the environment. Since the increased lifetime risk associated with human exposure to background levels of BaP is 3.5 {times} 10(-4), the authors conclude that ingestion of food items contaminated with BaP may pose a serious health threat to the U.S. population.72 references.

  13. The evaluation of stack metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators: assessing human exposure through noninhalation pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Sedman, R M; Polisini, J M; Esparza, J R

    1994-01-01

    Potential public health effects associated with exposure to metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators through noninhalation pathways were evaluated. Instead of relying on modeling the movement of toxicants through various environmental media, an approach based on estimating changes from baseline levels of exposure was employed. Changes in soil and water As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, and Be concentrations that result from incinerator emissions were first determined. Estimates of changes in human exposure due to direct contact with shallow soil or the ingestion of surface water were then ascertained. Projected changes in dietary intakes of metals due to incinerator emissions were estimated based on changes from baseline dietary intakes that are monitored in U.S. Food and Drug Administration total diet studies. Changes from baseline intake were deemed to be proportional to the projected changes in soil or surface water metal concentrations. Human exposure to metals emitted from nine hazardous waste incinerators were then evaluated. Metal emissions from certain facilities resulted in tangible human exposure through noninhalation pathways. However, the analysis indicated that the deposition of metals from ambient air would result in substantially greater human exposure through noninhalation pathways than the emissions from most of the facilities. PMID:7925180

  14. Inferior retinal light exposure is more effective than superior retinal exposure in suppressing melatonin in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glickman, Gena; Hanifin, John P.; Rollag, Mark D.; Wang, Jenny; Cooper, Howard; Brainard, George C.

    2003-01-01

    Illumination of different areas of the human retina elicits differences in acute light-induced suppression of melatonin. The aim of this study was to compare changes in plasma melatonin levels when light exposures of equal illuminance and equal photon dose were administered to superior, inferior, and full retinal fields. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study. Plexiglass eye shields were modified to permit selective exposure of the superior and inferior halves of the retinas of each subject. The Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer was used both to confirm intact full visual fields and to quantify exposure of upper and lower visual fields. On study nights, eyes were dilated, and subjects were exposed to patternless white light for 90 min between 0200 and 0330 under five conditions: (1) full retinal exposure at 200 lux, (2) full retinal exposure at 100 lux, (3) inferior retinal exposure at 200 lux, (4) superior retinal exposure at 200 lux, and (5) a dark-exposed control. Plasma melatonin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. ANOVA demonstrated a significant effect of exposure condition (F = 5.91, p < 0.005). Post hoc Fisher PLSD tests showed significant (p < 0.05) melatonin suppression of both full retinal exposures as well as the inferior retinal exposure; however, superior retinal exposure was significantly less effective in suppressing melatonin. Furthermore, suppression with superior retinal exposure was not significantly different from that of the dark control condition. The results indicate that the inferior retina contributes more to the light-induced suppression of melatonin than the superior retina at the photon dosages tested in this study. Findings suggest a greater sensitivity or denser distribution of photoreceptors in the inferior retina are involved in light detection for the retinohypothalamic tract of humans.

  15. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS OF EXPOSURE TO POPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorinated d...

  16. Benzene exposure: An overview of monitoring methods and their findings

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Clifford P.

    2014-01-01

    Benzene has been measured throughout the environment and is commonly emitted in several industrial and transportation settings leading to widespread environmental and occupational exposures. Inhalation is the most common exposure route but benzene rapidly penetrates the skin and can contaminant water and food resulting in dermal and ingestion exposures. While less toxic solvents have been substituted for benzene, it still is a component of petroleum products, including gasoline, and is a trace impurity in industrial products resulting in continued sub to low ppm occupational exposures, though higher exposures exist in small, uncontrolled workshops in developing countries. Emissions from gasoline/petrochemical industry are its main sources to the ambient air, but a person’s total inhalation exposure can be elevated from emissions from cigarettes, consumer products and gasoline powered engines/tools stored in garages attached to homes. Air samples are collected in canisters or on adsorbent with subsequent quantification by gas chromatography. Ambient air concentrations vary from sub-ppb range, low ppb, and tens of ppb in rural/suburban, urban, and source impacted areas, respectively. Short-term environmental exposures of ppm occur during vehicle fueling. Indoor air concentrations of tens of ppb occur in microenvironments containing indoor sources. Occupational and environmental exposures have declined where regulations limit benzene in gasoline (<1%) and cigarette smoking has been banned from public and work places. Similar controls should be implemented worldwide to reduce benzene exposure. Biomarkers of benzene used to estimate exposure and risk include: benzene in breath, blood and urine; its urinary metabolites: phenol, t,t-muconic acid (t,tMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (sPMA); and blood protein adducts. The biomarker studies suggest benzene environmental exposures are in the sub to low ppb range though non-benzene sources for urinary metabolites

  17. The Influence of Human and Environmental Exposure Factors on Personal NO2 Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO2, passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and comm...

  18. Effects of nitrous acid exposure on human mucous membranes.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T R; Brauer, M; Kjaergaard, S

    1995-05-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is formed both indirectly from the reaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with water on indoor surfaces, and directly during combustion. This gaseous pollutant may be a previously unrecognized causal factor in assessments of nitrogen oxide exposure effects. The present study is the first attempt to evaluate exposure effects of HONO on the human airways and the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose. Fifteen healthy adult nonsmokers were exposed for 3.5 h in a double-blind, balanced protocol to clean air, 77, and 395 ppb HONO. Each exposure was preceded by a 1-h baseline measurement period, and exposures were separated by 1 wk. There was a 10-min exercise period during exposure. Effects measurements included assessment of bronchial reactivity, measurement of specific airway conductance, spirometry, acoustic rhinometry, nasal lavage, tear-fluid cytology, a CO2 eye-provocation test, evaluation of eye redness, and subjective sensations. Effects of HONO exposure on the eyes were found as exposure-related changes in tear-fluid cytology. In particular, the number of squamous cells increased by 20, 67, and 80% following exposure to clean air, 77, and 395 ppb HONO, respectively (p = 0.004). Possible indications of exposure effects on sensitivity to CO2 eye provocation and on specific airway conductance were also measured. For specific airway conductance there was an approximate 10% decrease in conductance following exercise in association with HONO exposure, compared with a 2% decrease with clean air (p = 0.038).

  19. Benzene toxicokinetics in humans: exposure of bone marrow to metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, K H; Bois, F Y; Daisey, J M; Auslander, D M; Spear, R C

    1994-01-01

    A three compartment physiologically based toxicokinetic model was fitted to human data on benzene disposition. Two separate groups of model parameter derivations were obtained, depending on which data sets were being fitted. The model was then used to simulate five environmental or occupational exposures. Predicted values of the total bone marrow exposure to benzene and cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow were generated for each scenario. The relation between cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow and continuous benzene exposure was also investigated in detail for simulated inhalation exposure concentrations ranging from 0.0039 ppm to 150 ppm. At the level of environmental exposures, no dose rate effect was found for either model. The occupational exposures led to only slight dose rate effects. A 32 ppm exposure for 15 minutes predicted consistently higher values than a 1 ppm exposure for eight hours for the total exposure of bone marrow to benzene and the cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow. The general relation between the cumulative quantity of metabolites produced by the bone marrow and the inhalation concentration of benzene is not linear. An inflection point exists in some cases leading to a slightly S shaped curve. At environmental levels (0.0039-10 ppm) the curve bends upward, and it saturates at high experimental exposures (greater than 100 ppm). PMID:8044234

  20. MULTIPLE SOLVENT EXPOSURE IN HUMANS: CROSS-SPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple Solvent Exposures in Humans:
    Cross-Species Extrapolations
    (Future Research Plan)

    Vernon A. Benignus1, Philip J. Bushnell2 and William K. Boyes2

    A few solvents can be safely studied in acute experiments in human subjects. Data exist in rats f...

  1. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from 12 U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the Internet. The data system is called the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), and it is ...

  2. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from nine U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the world-wide web. The data system is called CHAD-Consolidated Human Activity Database-and it is ...

  3. Chronic boron exposure and human semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Wendie A; Xun, Lin; Jia, Juan; Kennedy, Nola; Elashoff, David A; Ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2 ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9 ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (p<0.0001). Boron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups. PMID:19962437

  4. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  5. Monitoring Indoor Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants: Hand Wipes and House Dust

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Garantziotis, Stavros; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are becoming popular replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixtures, and they are now commonly detected in indoor environments. However, little is known about human exposure to PFRs because they cannot be easily measured in blood or serum. Objectives: To investigate relationships between the home environment and internal exposure, we assessed associations between two PFRs, tris(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), in paired hand wipe and dust samples and concentrations of their metabolites in urine samples (n = 53). We also assessed short-term variation in urinary metabolite concentrations (n = 11 participants; n = 49 samples). Methods: Adult volunteers in North Carolina, USA, completed questionnaires and provided urine, hand wipe, and household dust samples. PFRs and PBDEs were measured in hand wipes and dust, and bis(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), metabolites of TDCIPP and TPHP, were measured in urine. Results: TDCIPP and TPHP were detected frequently in hand wipes and dust (> 86.8%), with geometric mean concentrations exceeding those of PBDEs. Unlike PBDEs, dust TDCIPP and TPHP levels were not associated with hand wipes. However, hand wipe levels were associated with urinary metabolites. Participants with the highest hand wipe TPHP mass, for instance, had DPHP levels 2.42 times those of participants with the lowest levels (95% CI: 1.23, 4.77). Women had higher levels of DPHP, but not BDCIPP. BDCIPP and DPHP concentrations were moderately to strongly reliable over 5 consecutive days (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.81 and 0.51, respectively). Conclusions: PFR exposures are widespread, and hand-to-mouth contact or dermal absorption may be important pathways of exposure. Citation: Hoffman K, Garantziotis S, Birnbaum LS, Stapleton HM. 2015. Monitoring indoor exposure to organophosphate flame retardants

  6. Long duration human exposure to microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    Looking toward the era of long duration manned spaceflight, questions remain regarding human adaptation to the weightless environment. In particular, bone calcium loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, and effects of radiation require further study. NASA has undertaken a series of experiments to increase the knowledge base of human adaptation to spaceflight. To date, results in the area of cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasures are the furthest advanced. The results from the upcoming SLS-1 mission will enhance knowledge in all areas. With continued research, there is every confidence that astronauts will be able to be kept healthy for long periods of time.

  7. Lead exposures in the human environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment, and pinpointing the primary sources of lead in any particular environmental component is difficult. Nevertheless, our purpose is to describe the total exposure of humans to environmental lead and to determine the sources of lead contributing to this exposure. The total exposure is the total amount of lead consumed by ingestion and inhalation. Excluding lead exposure from choice or circumstance, a baseline level of potential human exposure can be defined for a normal individual eating a typical diet and living in a non-urban community remote from industrial sources of lead in a house without lead-based paints. Beyond this level, additive exposure factors can be determined for other environments (e.g. urban, occupational and smelter communities) and for certain habits and activities (e.g. pica, smoking, drinking and hobbies), with variation for age, sex or socioeconomic status.

  8. Worker-specific exposure monitor and method for surveillance of workers

    DOEpatents

    Lovejoy, Michael L.; Peeters, John P.; Johnson, A. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A person-specific monitor that provides sensor information regarding hazards to which the person is exposed and means to geolocate the person at the time of the exposure. The monitor also includes means to communicate with a remote base station. Information from the monitor can be downloaded at the base station for long term storage and analysis. The base station can also include means to recharge the monitor.

  9. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Dekant, Wolfgang Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 {mu}g/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 {mu}g per person (< 0.1 {mu}g/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population.

  10. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Farmer, P B; Sepai, O; Lawrence, R; Autrup, H; Sabro Nielsen, P; Vestergård, A B; Waters, R; Leuratti, C; Jones, N J; Stone, J; Baan, R A; van Delft, J H; Steenwinkel, M J; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Souliotis, V L; Theodorakopoulos, N; Bacalis, N C; Natarajan, A T; Tates, A D; Haugen, A; Andreassen, A; Ovrebø, S; Shuker, D E; Amaning, K S; Castelain, P

    1996-07-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological effects (mutation and cytogenetic damage). Adduct detection at the level of DNA or protein (haemoglobin) was carried out by 32P-postlabelling, immunochemical, HPLC or mass spectrometric methods. Urinary excretion products resulting from DNA damage were also estimated (immunochemical assay, mass spectrometry). The measurement of adducts was focused on those from genotoxicants that result from petrochemical combustion or processing, e.g. low-molecular-weight alkylating agents, PAHs and compounds that cause oxidative DNA damage. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes was undertaken (micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical sources to larger amounts of some of the genotoxic compounds present in the environmental samples were used as positive controls for the environmentally exposed population. Samples from rural areas were used as negative controls. The project has led to new, more sensitive and more selective approaches for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers exposed to ethylene oxide in a sterilization plant. Dose reponse and adduct repair were studied for methylated adducts in patients treated with methylating cytostatic drugs

  11. Cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure in three UK nuclear industry workforces.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, L. M.; Higgins, C. D.; Douglas, A. J.; Maconochie, N. E.; Omar, R. Z.; Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Smith, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer mortality in 40,761 employees of three UK nuclear industry facilities who had been monitored for external radiation exposure was examined according to whether they had also been monitored for possible internal exposure to tritium, plutonium or other radionuclides (uranium, polonium, actinium or other unspecified). Death rates from cancer were compared both with national rates and with rates in radiation workers not monitored for exposure to any radionuclides. Among workers monitored for tritium exposure, overall cancer mortality was significantly below national rates [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 83, 165 deaths; 2P = 0.02] and none of the cancer-specific death rates was significantly above either the national average or rates in non-monitored workers. Although the overall death rate from cancer in workers monitored for plutonium exposure was also significantly low relative to national rates (SMR = 89, 581 deaths; 2P = 0.005), mortality from pleural cancer was significantly raised (SMR = 357, nine deaths; 2P = 0.002); none of the rates differed significantly from those of non-monitored workers. Workers monitored for radionuclides other than tritium or plutonium also had a death rate from all cancers combined that was below the national average (SMR = 86, 418 deaths; 2P = 0.002) but prostatic cancer mortality was raised both in relation to death rates in the general population (SMR = 153, 37 deaths; 2P = 0.02) and to death rates in radiation workers who had not been monitored for exposure to any radionuclide [rate ratio (RR) = 1.65; 2P = 0.03]. Mortality from cancer of the lung was also significantly increased in workers monitored for other radionuclides compared with those of radiation workers not monitored for exposure to radionuclides (RR = 1.31, 164 deaths; 2P = 0.01). For cancers of the lung, prostate and all cancers combined, death rates in monitored workers were examined according to the timing and duration of monitoring for radionuclide

  12. Aerosol Inoculator for Exposure of Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gerone, Peter J.; Couch, Robert B.; Knight, Vernon

    1971-01-01

    The performance of an aerosol inoculator for human volunteers is described in tests that used the PR8 strain of type A influenza virus and sodium fluorescein as a physical tracer. Virus recovery from the aerosols was approximately 1% and was unaffected by such variables as prolonged aerosolization, total airflow, relative humidity, or method of sampling. The recovery of sodium fluorescein from the aerosol was approximately 12% and was influenced by total airflow rates and relative humidity. With this apparatus, it should be possible to deliver reasonably predictable and measurable doses of respiratory viruses to human subjects. The design makes it possible to dismantle the inoculator into its component parts to facilitate portability. Images PMID:5132095

  13. Development and evaluation of a technique for in vivo monitoring of 60Co in human lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, J. Q.; Lucena, E. A.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    60Co is a fission product of 235U and represents a risk of internal exposure of workers in nuclear power plants, especially those involved in the maintenance of potentially contaminated parts and equipment. The control of 60Co intake by inhalation can be performed through in vivo monitoring. This work describes the evaluation of a technique through the minimum detectable activity and the corresponding minimum detectable effective doses, based on biokinetic and dosimetric models of 60Co in the human body. The results allow to state that the technique is suitable either for monitoring of occupational exposures or evaluation of accidental intake.

  14. EXPOSURE MONITORING COMPONENT FOR DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY ( DCHS )

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional, regulatory-based air monitoring is expensive and, thus, conducted at one or few locations in a city. This provides limited info on intra-urban variability and spatial distribution of air pollution. Research-oriented urban network monitoring has progressed with inc...

  15. [Health effects of exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic compounds].

    PubMed

    Szymańska, J A; Chmielnicka, J

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a review of references concerning health effects of environmental and occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds. Special attention is paid to epidemiological studies indicating a relationship between time and amount of arsenic absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract (drinking water, contaminated food, drugs) and an increase in skin cancer rate. Occupational and environmental exposure of humans to arsenic dust induces a higher risk of lung cancer.

  16. Anogenital distance as a marker of androgen exposure in humans.

    PubMed

    Thankamony, A; Pasterski, V; Ong, K K; Acerini, C L; Hughes, I A

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal foetal testis development has been proposed to underlie common disorders of the male reproductive system such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, reduced semen quality and testicular germ cell tumour, which are regarded as components of a 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome'. The increasing trends and geographical variation in their incidence have been suggested to result from in utero exposure to environmental chemicals acting as endocrine disruptors. In rodents, the anogenital distance (AGD), measured from the anus to the base of genital tubercle, is a sensitive biomarker of androgen exposure during a critical embryonic window of testis development. In humans, several epidemiological studies have shown alterations in AGD associated with prenatal exposure to several chemicals with potential endocrine disrupting activity. However, the link between AGD and androgen exposure in humans is not well-defined. This review focuses on the current evidence for such a relationship. As in rodents, a clear gender difference is detected during foetal development of the AGD in humans which is maintained thereafter. Reduced AGD in association with clinically relevant outcomes of potential environmental exposures, such as cryptorchidism or hypospadias, is in keeping with AGD as a marker of foetal testicular function. Furthermore, AGD may reflect variations in prenatal androgen exposure in healthy children as shorter AGD at birth is associated with reduced masculine play behaviour in preschool boys. Several studies provide evidence linking shorter AGD with lower fertility, semen quality and testosterone levels in selected groups of adults attending andrology clinics. Overall, the observational data in humans are consistent with experimental studies in animals and support the use of AGD as a biomarker of foetal androgen exposure. Future studies evaluating AGD in relation to reproductive hormones in both infants and adults, and to gene polymorphisms, will help to further delineate

  17. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination, benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and naphthalene (NAPH) type metabolites were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio during and immediately after remedial ...

  18. Assessment of human exposure to atrazine through the determination of free atrazine in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Catenacci, G. ); Maroni, M. ); Cottica, D. ); Pozzoli, L.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on metabolism and excretion of atrazine in man are not available in the literature. The present study has investigated human exposure to atrazine during its industrial production by means of assessment of ambient exposure and determination of free atrazine in urine. Four workers exposed to atrazine during its manufacture and packaging in a production plant, volunteered for the study. Atrazine was determined in airborne dust of the working environment obtained by personal sampling, on skin pads according to the WHO standard method, and on the skin of the hands of the workers by means of a washing procedure. Urine was collected before, during, and after exposure. A 24 hr collection before the first workshift, all the urine voided during the monitoring period, subdivided in 8 hr fractions; and one or more 12 hr samples after the end of the exposure period were collected.

  19. Human exposure to uranium in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Orloff, Kenneth G; Mistry, Ketna; Charp, Paul; Metcalf, Susan; Marino, Robert; Shelly, Tracy; Melaro, Eric; Donohoe, Ann Marie; Jones, Robert L

    2004-03-01

    High concentrations of uranium (mean=620 microg/L) were detected in water samples collected from private wells in a residential community. Based on isotopic analyses, the source of the uranium contamination appeared to be from naturally occurring geological deposits. In homes where well water concentrations of uranium exceeded the drinking water standard, the residents were advised to use an alternate water source for potable purposes. Several months after the residents had stopped drinking the water, urine samples were collected and tested for uranium. Elevated concentrations of uranium (mean=0.40 microg/g creatinine) were detected in urine samples, and 85 percent of the urine uranium concentrations exceeded the 95th percentile concentration of a national reference population. Urine uranium concentrations were positively correlated with water uranium concentrations, but not with the participants' ages or how long they had been drinking the water. Six months later, a second urine sample was collected and tested for uranium. Urine uranium concentrations decreased in most (63 percent) of the people. In those people with the highest initial urine uranium concentrations, the urine levels decreased an average of 78 percent. However, urine uranium concentrations remained elevated (mean=0.27 microg/g), and 87 percent of the urine uranium concentrations exceeded the 95th percentile concentration of the reference population. The results of this investigation demonstrated that after long-term ingestion of uranium in drinking water, elevated concentrations of uranium in urine could be detected up to 10 months after exposure had stopped.

  20. Human exposure assessment: a graduate level course

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The course has been offered three times. The content and the approach to each lecture has evolved after each time it was given. This is not unexpected since the field has been undergoing major transformations, and new approaches to measurement and modeling are being applied to current problems. The most recent student evaluation, 1990, indicates a difficulty rating of just right' (70%) to difficult' (30%). Most felt the course stimulated their interest in the topic (72%) and the examinations were learning experiences as well as a grading exercise. The major need for the discipline is an adequate text book. The GRAPE program has excellent potential as an educational tool, but it needs to make more interactions and allow introduction of activities and data. The major strengths of the course are the problems provided to the students for homework. These give the student quantitative perspective on the concepts, range in values, variables, and uncertainties necessary to complete an assessment. In addition, the development of the mathematical and conceptional continuum for placing exposure assessment in the context of toxicology, environmental science, epidemiology, and clinical intervention provides a basic framework for the discipline.

  1. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    PubMed

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context.

  2. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA NERL'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessment para...

  3. Environmental exposure to cadmium and human birthweight.

    PubMed

    Fréry, N; Nessmann, C; Girard, F; Lafond, J; Moreau, T; Blot, P; Lellouch, J; Huel, G

    1993-04-30

    Fetal toxicity of cadmium (Cd) is well documented in rodents. However, little information is available regarding the human fetus. To investigate the effect of low levels of Cd on the human placenta and the consequences on birthweight, we conducted a study of 102 mothers and their newborns in an obstetrical care unit. Placental and hair samples were collected at delivery to determine Cd concentrations. The main finding of this study was the relationship between a decrease in birthweight and an increase of newborn hair Cd which varied in the presence of placental calcification. In cases of parenchymal calcifications, placental Cd levels were higher (Wilcoxon test, P < 0.05) and newborn hair Cd levels were lower (Wilcoxon test, P < 0.01) than in the absence of calcification. These relationships remained significant even after taking into account smoking habits and gestational age. In the presence of calcification, an increase in the level of Cd in newborn hair was related to a decrease in birthweight which was independent of placental Cd concentration (rpartial = -0.49, P < 0.01). In the absence of calcification, a decrease in birthweight was observed for the upper values of newborn hair Cd (r = -0.44, P < 0.05 when Cd > or = 0.3 ppm). The difference in birthweight between infants in the first and last quartiles of newborn hair Cd was 472 g in cases of calcifications and 122 g in the absence of calcification. Other placental parameters were not significantly related to placental Cd concentration.

  4. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  5. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  6. Human UVA exposures estimated from ambient UVA measurements.

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael G; Parisi, Alfio V; Downs, Nathan D

    2003-04-01

    The methods presented in this paper allow for the estimation of human UVA exposure using measured UVA irradiance values. Using measured broadband UVA irradiances over the period of a year, it was estimated that for humans in an upright posture and not moving the head with respect to the body, the nose received 26.5% of the available ambient UVA radiation, whilst the shoulders and vertex of the head received 81% and 100% respectively of the available ambient UVA radiation. Measurement of the exposure ratios for a series of solar zenith angles between 90 degrees and 0 degrees will allow extension of this technique to other latitudes. PMID:12760531

  7. RESULTS FROM EXPOSURE MONITORING PERFORMED DURING THE 1997 BALTIMORE PM PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An eighteen day winter-time ambient and personal exposure monitoring study of particulate matter (PM) was conducted as part of an.integrated epidemiological-exposure pilot study of an aged population. Goals of the study were to determine the feasibility of performing active per...

  8. 76 FR 25277 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... FR 64412), MSHA published a proposed rule, Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust... the proposed rule. The proposal was published on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412). DATES: All comments...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  9. Sulfuric acid aerosol exposure in humans assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, M.W.; Voter, K.Z.; Morrow, P.E.; Roberts, N.J. Jr.; Culp, D.J.; Cox, C.; Utell, M.J. )

    1992-09-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that exposure to acidic aerosols may affect human health. Brief exposures to acidic aerosols alter mucociliary clearance and increase airway responsiveness, but effects on host defense mechanisms at the alveolar level have not been studied in humans. Twelve healthy, nonsmoking volunteers between 20 and 39 yr of age were exposed for 2 h to aerosols of approximately 1,000 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or sodium chloride (NaCl (control)), with intermittent exercise, in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Each subject received both exposures, separated by at least 2 wk. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 18 h after exposure in order to detect evidence of an inflammatory response, changes in alveolar cell subpopulations, or changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) function, which is important in host defense. When compared with NaCl, exposure to H2SO4 did not increase polymorphonuclear leukocytes in BAL fluid. The percentage of T lymphocytes decreased in association with H2SO4 exposure, but the difference was not statistically significant (14.9% after NaCl, 11.5% after H2SO4; p = 0.14). Antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of AM increased in association with H2SO4 exposure (percent lysis 19.1 after NaCl, 23.6 after H2SO4; p = 0.16). No significant change was seen in release of superoxide anion or inactivation of influenza virus in vitro. Brief exposures to H2SO4 aerosol at 1,000 micrograms/m3 do not cause an influx of inflammatory cells into the alveolar space, and no evidence was found for alteration in antimicrobial defense 18 h after exposure.

  10. Analysis of human exposure to benzo(a)pyrene via inhalation and food ingestion in the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES)

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Lioy, P.J.; Greenberg, A.; Butler, J.P. )

    1991-04-01

    The Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES) focuses on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as an example of a combustion-generated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound. Primary pathways for environmental exposures to BaP are inhalation and ingestion. This program of field studies was conducted in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, a small, industrial city in the Delaware River valley. The study protocols included direct monitoring of BaP exposures via inhalation and ingestion pathways during three separate periods, each lasting 14 days. BaP concentrations in air were sampled at outdoor and in-home locations, with personal air sampling added during the latter two phases. Cooked food samples from each household were acquired, using a constant portion second plate' of each meal prepared at home. Ambient levels were 4-10 times higher during the cold months compared with the late summer study period. Space heating and regional aerosol were major contributors to community levels of BaP in the air during the wintertime. Penetration of outdoor air, cooking activities, combustion appliances, and cigarette smoke were important sources of indoor air exposures. Cooking activities, besides releasing BaP-enriched particles indoors, produced food imbued with BaP and added substantially to exposure via the ingestion route. Among the study subjects, the range and magnitude of dietary exposures (2 to 500 ng/d) were much greater than for inhalation (10 to 50 ng/d). Nevertheless, there were ample individual cases where inhalation of BaP was the predominant exposure route. Indoor air BaP levels were closely correlated with ambient levels in most of the homes. For some individuals, measured personal air BaP exposures were adequately predicted by time-weighting of microenvironmental (i.e., outdoor and in-home) concentrations.

  11. AN OVERVIEW OF HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING ACTIVITIES AT THE U.S. EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessm...

  12. Further studies of 60 Hz exposure effects on human function

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cohen, H.D.

    1990-10-09

    Public concern has been expressed about possible health risks arising from exposure to the electric and magnetic fields generated power distribution systems. This project is addressing this concern through a laboratory research program designed to evaluate the effects of brief exposure to known field conditions on multiple measures of human function. In previous research, we found that exposure had statistically significant effects on physiological measures of cardiac and brain activity, and on performance measures of reaction time and performance accuracy. Effects were seen more clearly under intermittent exposure conditions, and at certain levels of electric and magnetic field strength. In this continuation effort, we are performing a series of exploratory studies, to be followed by a confirmatory experiment, to determine if the above physiological effects differ as a function of exposure to the electric and magnetic fields separately and combined, time of day, and rate of intermittent exposure. Further studies will explore the mechanisms underlying these effects. The information developed in this project will be of value in risk assessment activities, and in basic research aimed at identifying specific factors involved in the interaction of power line fields with the human system. In this reporting period our goals were to: (a) continue performance of the probe studies; (b) participate in a site visit at MRI; (c) request 1991 research continuation funding; and (d) submit an abstract of project findings for presentation at the 1990 DOE Contractors Review Meeting.

  13. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, S.; Aubrecht, C.

    2012-11-01

    Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  14. Cardiovascular impacts and micro-environmental exposure factors associated with continuous personal PM2.5 monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Davyda; Croghan, Carry; Shin, Hwashin; Burnett, Richard; Bard, Robert; Brook, Robert D; Williams, Ron

    2014-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has provided extensive data on human exposures to a wide variety of air pollutants and their impact on human health. Previous analyses in the DEARS revealed select cardiovascular (CV) health outcomes such as increase in heart rate (HR) associated with hourly based continuous personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures in this adult, non-smoking cohort. Examination of time activity diary (TAD), follow-up questionnaire (FQ) and the continuous PM2.5 personal monitoring data provided the means to more fully examine the impact of discreet human activity patterns on personal PM2.5 exposures and changes in CV outcomes. A total of 329 343 min-based PM2.5 personal measurements involving 50 participants indicated that ∼75% of these total events resulted in exposures <35 μg/m(3). Cooking and car-related events accounted for nearly 10% of the hourly activities that were identified with observed peaks in personal PM2.5 exposures. In-residence cooking often resulted in some of the highest incidents of 1 min exposures (33.5-17.6 μg/m(3)), with average peaks for such events in excess of 209 μg/m(3). PM2.5 exposure data from hourly based personal exposure activities (for example,, cooking, cleaning and household products) were compared with daily CV data from the DEARS subject population. A total of 1300 hourly based lag risk estimates associated with changes in brachial artery diameter and flow-mediated dilatation (BAD and FMD, respectively), among others, were defined for this cohort. Findings indicate that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures resulted in significant HR changes between 3 and 7 h following the event, and exposure to smells resulted in increases in BAD on the order of 0.2-0.7 mm/μg/m(3). Results demonstrate that personal exposures may be associated with several biological responses, sometimes varying in degree and direction in

  15. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  16. Human exposure to cyanotoxins and their effects on health.

    PubMed

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Simeunović, Jelica; Baltić, Vladimir; Stanić, Dina; Svirčev, Zorica

    2013-06-01

    Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria. They pose a threat to human health and the environment. This review summarises the existing data on human exposure to cyanotoxins through drinking water, recreational activities (e.g., swimming, canoeing or bathing), the aquatic food web, terrestrial plants, food supplements, and haemodialysis. Furthermore, it discusses the tolerable daily intake and guideline values for cyanotoxins (especially microcystins) as well as the need to implement risk management measures via national and international legislation.

  17. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-01-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189705

  18. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed.

  19. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed. PMID:24280284

  20. Carbon monoxide exposure and human visual detection thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Hudnell, H.K.; Benignus, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    In order to test for low level CO exposure effects on vision, a battery of visual tests was administered to male college students. All subjects completed the battery of tests both before and during an exposure period in a double-blind study. Experimental subjects received CO during the exposure period, whereas control subjects received only room air. The battery of visual tests was designed for the assessment of scotopic (dark adapted, rod mediated) vision, photopic (light adapted, cone mediated) vision, the pattern detection process and the motion detection process. Contrast thresholds for the detection of stimulus pattern and for the detection of stimulus motion were measured under both photopic and scotopic viewing conditions, and sensitivity was monitored throughout the course of dark adaptation by measuring luminance thresholds. The results indicated that visual function in healthy, young adult males was not affected by a COHb level of about 17% which was maintained for over 2 hours.

  1. Exposure and Health Effects of Fungi on Humans.

    PubMed

    Baxi, Sachin N; Portnoy, Jay M; Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous microorganisms that are present in outdoor and indoor environments. Previous research has found relationships between environmental fungal exposures and human health effects. We reviewed recent articles focused on fungal exposure and dampness as risk factors for respiratory disease development, symptoms, and hypersensitivity. In particular, we reviewed the evidence suggesting that early exposure to dampness or fungi is associated with the development of asthma and increased asthma morbidity. Although outdoor exposure to high concentrations of spores can cause health effects such as asthma attacks in association with thunderstorms, most people appear to be relatively unaffected unless they are sensitized to specific genera. Indoor exposure and dampness, however, appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing asthma in young children and asthma morbidity in individuals who have asthma. These are important issues because they provide a rationale for interventions that might be considered for homes and buildings in which there is increased fungal exposure. In addition to rhinitis and asthma, fungus exposure is associated with a number of other illnesses including allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, allergic fungal sinusitis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Additional research is necessary to establish causality and evaluate interventions for fungal- and dampness-related health effects. PMID:26947460

  2. Human exposure to tetrachloroethylene: Inhalation and skin contact

    PubMed Central

    Hake, Carl L.; Stewart, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    There is considerable potential for worker exposure to tetrachloroethylene, both by skin contact and by inhalation, during its use in dry cleaning and degreasing operations. This paper reviews accounts of both accidental overexposures of workers and controlled exposures of human subjects by these two routes of exposure. Several reported cases of accidental overexposure to anesthetic doses of the chemical reveal that recovery was generally complete but prolonged, and accompanied by many days of measurable levels of the chemical in the patient's alveolar breath. Chronic overexposures of workmen have lessened since the general acceptance by the Western world of the recommended TLV of 100 ppm for 8 hr of daily exposure. Controlled inhalation studies with volunteer subjects at this level of exposure revealed no effects upon health but did indicate a slight decrement in performance on a coordination test. Additional behavioral and neurological tests revealed no interactive effects when alcohol or diazepam, two depressant drugs, were added singly to tetrachloroethylene exposures. Individual susceptibility to the vapor of this chemical, as evidenced by subjective complaints, was noted in approximately one of ten subjects. The authors conclude that the TLV concentration of 100 ppm in the workplace has a negligible margin of safety regarding unimpaired performance during repeated exposures which could be especially hazardous if the worker is physically active or is in a situation where skin absorption presents an added burden. PMID:612448

  3. Airborne acidity: estimates of exposure and human health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M

    1985-01-01

    Human health effects have resulted from the inhalation of ambient acidic aerosols, and there is suggestive evidence that current North American levels of exposure are producing excesses in respiratory morbidity. Annual mean mortality rates have been correlated with ambient aerosol concentration indices, with SO4(2-), FP, IP, and TSP having a descending order as predictive coefficients. These pollutant indices also contain H+ in descending mass ratios, and may all be surrogates for H+ as an active agent. Controlled exposure studies in humans and animals provide evidence that acidic aerosols produce greater changes in respiratory mechanical function and rates of particle clearance than other constituents of ambient particulate matter. The strong acid content of the ambient aerosol has not been measured in any of the population based pollutant effects studies in which it is a likely causal factor. The absence of direct measurement data on acidic aerosol in these studies, and their reliance on surrogate indices such as SO2 and SO4(2-), precludes firm conclusions about exposure-response relationships. High priority areas for further investigation include systematic investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of population exposures; extension and refinement of population response studies in relation to acid aerosol exposures; responses of normal healthy and asthmatic human volunteers to mixtures of acidic aerosols and oxidant vapors under controlled conditions of exposure and exercise intensity; and progression of changes in lung epithelia during repetitive daily exposures of experimental animals to acidic aerosols, oxidants, and their mixtures, with concurrent measurements of particle clearance and respiratory function. PMID:4076095

  4. DETERMINING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF IMPROVED HUMAN EXPOSURE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA develops and revises environmental regulations and policies to protect the environment and human health. One of the key components of the regulatory process is establishing the proposed action level, which requires high quality exposure data. In many cases, expos...

  5. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  6. ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR OBSERVATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure Studies." The presentation desc...

  7. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  8. Municipal waste incinerators: air and biological monitoring of workers for exposure to particles, metals, and organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, A; Collot-Fertey, D; Anzivino, L; Marques, M; Hours, M; Stoklov, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate occupational exposure to toxic pollutants at municipal waste incinerators (MWIs). Methods: Twenty nine male subjects working near the furnaces in two MWIs, and 17 subjects not occupationally exposed to combustion generated pollutants were studied. Individual air samples were taken throughout the shift; urine samples were collected before and after. Stationary air samples were taken near potential sources of emission. Results: Occupational exposure did not result in the infringement of any occupational threshold limit value. Atmospheric exposure levels to particles and metals were 10–100 times higher in MWIs than at the control site. The main sources were cleaning operations for particles, and residue transfer and disposal operations for metals. MWI workers were not exposed to higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons than workers who are routinely in contact with vehicle exhaust. The air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes were low and did not appear to pose any significant threat to human health. Only the measurement of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels would seem to be a reliable marker for the combustion of plastics. Urine metal levels were significantly higher at plant 1 than at plant 2 because of high levels of pollutants emanating from one old furnace. Conclusion: While biological monitoring is an easy way of acquiring data on long term personal exposure, air monitoring remains the only method that makes it possible to identify the primary sources of pollutant emission which need to be controlled if occupational exposure and environmental pollution are to be reduced. PMID:12883016

  9. Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects for human exposure to nanomaterials: The challenge ahead.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Laetitia; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Exposures to nanomaterials (NMs), with their specific physico-chemical characteristics, are likely to increase over the next years, as their production for industrial, consumer and medical applications is steadily rising. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the implementation of human biomonitoring studies of genotoxic effects after NM exposures in order to monitor and assure safety for workers and the general population. In this review, most commonly used biomarkers of early genetic effects were analyzed for their adequacy after NM exposures. A more in depth analysis of the ex vivo/in vitro lymphocyte MN assay was performed, although, in literature no studies are available using this assay for NM exposures. Therefore, the known factors determining the NMs tissue/cellular targets and the multiplicity of modes of action of NMs were summarized. The main pending questions are whether (1) lymphocytes are a NM target or an adequate surrogate tissue, (2) whether the buccal MN assay might be more suitable for NM exposures via inhalation or ingestion, as buccal cells might be exposed more directly. While the current state-of-the-art does not allow for drawing firm conclusions, major research gaps are identified and some cautious recommendations can be formulated. Therefore in vitro and in vivo studies should be conducted comparing methodologies side-by-side in the same subjects and for different types of NMs. The ex vivo/in vitro MN assay in its automated version, allowing objective analysis of large cohorts and detection of direct and indirect genotoxic effects, remains a valuable candidate for human biomonitoring to NM exposure. Considering the potential cancer risk from exposure to NMs and previous dramatic experiences with too late surveillance of occupational exposures to similar substances (e.g. to asbestos), there is an urgent need to define and implement adequate scientifically sound biomonitoring methods and programme for exposure to NMs. PMID:27234560

  10. NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS): ANALYSIS OF EXPOSURE PATHWAYS AND ROUTES FOR ARSENIC AND LEAD IN EPA REGION 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 (Great Lakes Area) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of approximately 250 residents of the region. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood...

  11. Human Bisphenol A Exposure and the “Diabesity Phenotype”

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Alessandro; Battezzati, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor, is a food contaminant suspected of being a contributing factor to the present-day increase in obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This issue is of increasing interest in the field of diabetes research and has become a matter of concern for regulatory agencies and food industries. Recently, the number of studies involving BPA has increased exponentially, but there are still many gaps in the knowledge of the relationship between actual BPA exposure and cardiometabolic risk and of the modalities of food intake exposure, all of which prevents sound judgments concerning the risks to human health. This review focuses on the association between human exposure to BPA and obesity, thyroid function, diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and BPA content in food. Many cross-sectional studies support, sometimes contradictorily, an adverse effect of BPA exposure on obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Few prospective studies support an adverse effect of BPA exposure on such pathologies. Moreover, no intervention studies have been conducted to evaluate the causality of such associations. This is mainly due to lack of an appropriate database of BPA content in foods, thus hindering any estimation of the usual dietary BPA intake. PMID:26858585

  12. ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES: AN IMPORTANT APPLICATION OF THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL (SHEDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurately quantifying human exposures and doses of various populations to environmental pollutants is critical for the Agency to assess and manage human health risks. For example, the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires EPA to consider aggregate human exposure ...

  13. Effect of controlled ozone exposure on human lymphocyte function

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.L.; Smialowicz, R.; Harder, S.; Ketcham, B.; House, D.

    1981-04-01

    The effects of ozone (O/sub 3/) on cell-mediated immunity were studied in 16 human subjects exposed to 1176 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ O/sub 3/ (0.6 ppM) for 2 h in an environmentally controlled exposure chamber. Venous blood samples were taken before and immediately after controlled air and O/sub 3/ exposures, as well as at 72 h, 2 and 4 weeks, and at one random time at least 1 month after treatment. The relative frequency of T lymphocytes in blood and the in vitro blastogenic response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and Candida albicans were determined. During the course of the experiment, no statistically significant changes were observed in the number of T lymphocytes that form spontaneous rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. The response of T lymphocytes to PHA was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in samples taken at 2 and 4 weeks, following O/sub 3/ exposure. Normal response to PHA was observed at 2 months post-O/sub 3/ exposure. No statistically significant changes in lymphocyte responses to Con A, PWM, or Candida were seen. These results show that one 2 h exposure of humans to 0.6 ppM O/sub 3/ may lead to a transient suppression of the PHA-stimulated blastogenic transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The data indicate that the blastogenic response to PHA of human lymphocytes is exquisitely sensitive to O/sub 3/ exposure and could serve as a bioassay for evaluating subtle changes in cellular immunity induced by O/sub 3/ and possibly other pollutants.

  14. Ozone exposure increases respiratory epithelial permeability in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.; McCartney, W.H.; Bromberg, P.A.

    1987-05-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown to cause an increase in the permeability of the respiratory epithelium in animals. We used inhaled aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) to investigate whether human respiratory epithelial permeability is similarly affected by exposure to ozone. In a randomized, crossover double-blinded study, 8 healthy, nonsmoking young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise (minute ventilation = 66.8 L/min). SRaw and FVC were measured before and at the end of exposures. Seventy-five minutes after the exposures, the pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was measured by sequential posterior lung imaging with a computer-assisted gamma camera. Ozone exposure caused respiratory symptoms in all 8 subjects and was associated with a 14 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM) decrement in FVC (p less than 0.001) and a 71 +/- 22% increase in SRaw (p = 0.04). Compared with the air exposure day, 7 of the 8 subjects showed increased /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance after the ozone exposure, with the mean value increasing from 0.59 +/- 0.08 to 1.75 +/- 0.43%/min (p = 0.03). These data show that ozone exposure sufficient to produce decrements in the pulmonary function of human subjects also causes an increase in /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance.

  15. Human exposures to monomers resulting from consumer contact with polymers.

    PubMed

    Leber, A P

    2001-06-01

    Many consumer products are composed completely, or in part, of polymeric materials. Direct or indirect human contact results in potential exposures to monomers as a result of migrations of trace amounts from the polymeric matrix into foods, into the skin or other bodily surfaces. Typically, residual monomer levels in these polymers are <100 p.p.m., and represent exposures well below those observable in traditional toxicity testing. These product applications thus require alternative methods for evaluating health risks relating to monomer exposures. A typical approach includes: (a) assessment of potential human contacts for specific polymer uses; (b) utilization of data from toxicity testing of pure monomers, e.g. cancer bioassay results; and (c) mathematical risk assessment methods. Exposure potentials are measured in one of two analytical procedures: (1) migration of monomer from polymer into a simulant solvent (e.g. alcohol, acidic water, vegetable oil) appropriate for the intended use of the product (e.g. beer cans, food jars, packaging adhesive, dairy hose); or (2) total monomer content of the polymer, providing worse-case values for migratable monomer. Application of toxicity data typically involves NOEL or benchmark values for non-cancer endpoints, or tumorigenicity potencies for monomers demonstrated to be carcinogens. Risk assessments provide exposure 'safety margin' ratios between levels that: (1) are projected to be safe according to toxicity information, and (2) are potential monomer exposures posed by the intended use of the consumer product. This paper includes an example of a health risk assessment for a chewing gum polymer for which exposures to trace levels of butadiene monomer occur.

  16. Perfluorinated substances in human food and other sources of human exposure.

    PubMed

    D'Hollander, Wendy; de Voogt, Pim; De Coen, Wim; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    The widespread distribution and degradation of PFCs in the environment results in a very complex exposure pattern, which makes it difficult to define the relative contribution to human exposure from different exposure pathways. The present review is designed to provide an overview of the existing data on levels of PFCs measured in the human diet and in drinking water. Data on levels of PFCs in the human diet are rather scarce, but the level in the fish appear to be well documented. Among PFCs, PFOS and PFOA are the best studied compounds in fish from both experimental and monitoring studies. Recently, the number of publications that address other PFCs has increased, but the total number available is still limited. In general, we discovered that care should be exercised when using the reviewed data, because, in the majority of publications, quality control and/or details on analysis are, at least partly, lacking. It has been well documented that PFOA and PFOS have the potential to accumulate in fish and concentrations up to 7 and 170 ng/g wwt, respectively in edible fish species have been found. PFOS is the most crucial and prominent compound identified, followed by the PFOA. Also, in aquatic invertebrate such as shrimps, mussels, clams, and oysters, high PFOS levels have been reported (up to 387 ng/g wwt). However in most publications PFC level reported in molluscs were less than 1 ng/g wwt. Positive correlations were found between PFC body burden and self reported fish consumption. In recognition of the potential for human exposure to PFCs via fish consumption, the Minnesota Department of Health has recently issued fish consumption advisories for contaminated sections of the Mississippi River. It is interesting to note that 79% of the reviewed publications on PFCs in the whole fish homogenates exceed the that threshold. Moreover, five of the PFC concentration reported in muscles tissue exceeded the advisory level of 38 ng/g wwt. Even though several authors

  17. Assessing Sources of Human Methylmercury Exposure Using Stable Mercury Isotopes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Seafood consumption is the primary route of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most populations. Inherent uncertainties in dietary survey data point to the need for an empirical tool to confirm exposure sources. We therefore explore the utility of Hg stable isotope ratios in human hair as a new method for discerning MeHg exposure sources. We characterized Hg isotope fractionation between humans and their diets using hair samples from Faroese whalers exposed to MeHg predominantly from pilot whales. We observed an increase of 1.75‰ in δ202Hg values between pilot whale muscle tissue and Faroese whalers’ hair but no mass-independent fractionation. We found a similar offset in δ202Hg between consumed seafood and hair samples from Gulf of Mexico recreational anglers who are exposed to lower levels of MeHg from a variety of seafood sources. An isotope mixing model was used to estimate individual MeHg exposure sources and confirmed that both Δ199Hg and δ202Hg values in human hair can help identify dietary MeHg sources. Variability in isotopic signatures among coastal fish consumers in the Gulf of Mexico likely reflects both differences in environmental sources of MeHg to coastal fish and uncertainty in dietary recall data. Additional data are needed to fully refine this approach for individuals with complex seafood consumption patterns. PMID:24967674

  18. Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2007-01-01

    A three dimensional computer model of the human face has been developed to represent solar ultraviolet exposures recorded by dosimeter measurements on a manikin headform under low cloud conditions and various solar zenith angles. Additionally, polysulfone dosimeters have been successfully miniaturised to provide the detailed measurements required across the face. The headform used in this research was scanned at 709 individual locations to make a wireframe mesh consisting of 18 vertical contours and 49 horizontal contours covering half the manikin's frontal facial topography. Additionally, the back of the headform and neck have also been scanned at 576 locations. Each scanned location has been used as a viable dosimeter position on the headform and represents a grid intersection point on the developed computer wireframe. A series of exposures recorded by dosimeters have been translated into three dimensional exposure ratio maps, representing ambient solar ultraviolet exposure. High dosimeter density has allowed for the development of individual topographic contour models which take into account complex variation in the face and improve upon previously employed techniques which utilise fewer dosimeters to interpolate exposure across facial contours. Exposure ratios for solar zenith angle ranges of 0 degrees -30 degrees, 30 degrees -50 degrees, and 50 degrees -80 degrees have been developed.

  19. Human health risk assessment from arsenic exposures in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    High arsenic exposures, prevalent through dietary and non-dietary sources in Bangladesh, present a major health risk to the public. A quantitative human health risk assessment is described as a result of arsenic exposure through food and water intake, tea intake, accidental soil ingestion, and chewing of betel quid, while people meet their desirable dietary intake requirements throughout their lifetime. In evaluating the contribution of each intake pathway to average daily arsenic intake, the results show that food and water intake combined, makes up approximately 98% of the daily arsenic intake with the balance contributed to by intake pathways such as tea consumption, soil ingestion, and quid consumption. Under an exposure scenario where arsenic concentration in water is at the WHO guideline (0.01 mg/L), food intake is the major arsenic intake pathway ranging from 67% to 80% of the average daily arsenic intake. However, the contribution from food drops to a range of 29% to 45% for an exposure scenario where arsenic in water is at the Bangladesh standard (0.05 mg/L). The lifetime excess risk of cancer occurrence from chronic arsenic exposure, considering a population of 160 million people, based on an exposure scenario with 85 million people at the WHO guideline value and 75 million people at the Bangladesh standard, and assuming that 35 million people are associated with a heavy activity level, is estimated as 1.15 million cases.

  20. Naphthalene distributions and human exposure in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Turco, Richard P.; Winer, Arthur M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Lurmann, Fred W.; Miguel, Antonio H.; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu

    The regional distribution of, and human exposure to, naphthalene are investigated for Southern California. A comprehensive approach is taken in which advanced models are linked for the first time to quantify population exposure to the emissions of naphthalene throughout Southern California. Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in polluted urban environments, and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor air samples. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene may have adverse health effects, possibly causing cancer in humans. Among the significant emission sources are volatilization from naphthalene-containing products, petroleum refining, and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, with related vaporization from fuels, are found to contribute roughly half of the daily total naphthalene burden in Southern California. As part of this study, the emission inventory for naphthalene has been verified against new field measurements of the naphthalene-to-benzene ratio in a busy traffic tunnel in Los Angeles, supporting the modeling work carried out here. The Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model is used to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of naphthalene and its photooxidation products in Southern California. The present simulations reveal a high degree of spatial variability in the concentrations of naphthalene-related species, with large diurnal and seasonal variations as well. Peak naphthalene concentrations are estimated to occur in the early morning hours in the winter season. The naphthalene concentration estimates obtained from the SMOG model are employed in the Regional Human Exposure (REHEX) model to calculate population exposure statistics. Results show average hourly naphthalene exposures in Southern California under summer and winter conditions of 270 and 430 ng m -3, respectively. Exposure to significantly higher concentrations

  1. Monitoring of human populations for early markers of cadmium toxicity: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Bruce A.

    2009-08-01

    Exposure of human populations to cadmium (Cd) from air, food and water may produce effects in organs such as the kidneys, liver, lungs, cardiovascular, immune and reproductive systems. Since Cd has been identified as a human carcinogen, biomarkers for early detection of susceptibility to cancer are of an importance to public health. The ability to document Cd exposure and uptake of this element through biological monitoring is a first step towards understanding its health effects. Interpretation and application of biological monitoring data for predicting human health outcomes require correlation with biological measures of organ system responses to the documented exposure. Essential to this understanding is the detection and linkage of early biological responses toxic effects in target cell populations. Fortunately, advances in cell biology have resulted in the development of pre-clinical biological markers (biomarkers) that demonstrate measurable and characteristic molecular changes in organ systems following chemical exposures that occur prior to the onset of overt clinical disease or development of cancer. Technical advances have rendered a number of these biomarkers practical for monitoring Cd-exposed human populations. Biomarkers will be increasingly important in relation to monitoring effects from the exposure to new Cd-based high technology materials. For example, cadmium-selenium (CdSe), nano-materials made from combinations of these elements have greatly altered cellular uptake characteristics due to particle size. These differences may greatly alter effects at the target cell level and hence risks for organ toxicities from such exposures. The value of validated biomarkers for early detection of systemic Cd-induced effects in humans cannot be underestimated due to the rapid expansion of nano-material technologies. This review will attempt to briefly summarize the applications, to date, of biomarker endpoints for assessing target organ system effects in

  2. Methods for biological monitoring of propylene oxide exposure in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Osterman-Golkar, S; Pérez, H L; Csanády, G A; Kessler, W; Filser, J G

    1999-05-01

    Propylene oxide (PO) is used as an intermediate in the chemical industry. Human exposure to PO may occur in the work place. Propylene, an important industrial chemical and a component of, for example, car exhausts and cigarette smoke, is another source of PO exposure. Once taken up in the organism, this epoxide alkylates macromolecules, such as haemoglobin and DNA. The aim of the present investigation was to compare two methods for determination of in vivo dose, the steady state concentration of PO in blood of exposed rats and the level of haemoglobin adducts. Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week) to PO at a mean atmospheric concentration of 500 ppm (19.9 micromol/l). Immediately after the last exposure blood was collected in order to determine the steady state concentration of PO. Free PO was measured in blood samples of three animals by means of a head space method to be 37 +/- 2 micromol/l blood (mean +/- S.D.). Blood samples were also harvested for the measurement of haemoglobin adducts. N-2-Hydroxypropyl adducts with N-terminal valine in haemoglobin were quantified using the N-alkyl Edman method with globin containing adducts of deuterium-substituted PO as an internal standard and N-D,L-2-hydroxypropyl-Val-Leu-anilide as a reference compound. Tandem mass spectrometry was used for adduct quantification. The adduct levels were < 0.02 and 77.7 +/- 4.7 nmol/g globin (mean +/- S.D.) in control animals (n = 7) and in exposed animals (n = 34), respectively. The adduct levels expected at the end of exposure were calculated to be 71.7 +/- 4.1 nmol/g globin (mean +/- S.D.) using the measured steady state concentration of PO in blood and taking into account the growth of animals, the life span of erythrocytes, the exposure conditions and the second order rate constant for adduct formation. The good agreement between the estimated and measured adduct levels indicates that both end-points investigated are suitable for biological monitoring.

  3. Biological monitoring IX: Concomitant exposure to medications and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J.

    1994-05-01

    A significant proportion of workers may be receiving prescription or nonprescription medications. In two surveys, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, 15 to 30 percent of workers reported current use of pharmaceuticals. In a viscose rayon factory in Belgium, 31 percent of 129 workers exposed to carbon disulfide and 19.8 percent of 81 control workers from other factories reported use of some medication. Some of the drugs may affect the relationship between the external exposure (dose) of a chemical and the concentration of that chemical or its metabolite(s) in a sampled biological medium (internal dose), and/or the relationship between external exposure and concentration at a receptor site. They may also modulate the response of the receptor, as suggested by the increased reports of neurological symptoms in carbon disulfide-exposed workers taking certain medications. There are two obvious differences between drugs and industrial chemicals: (1) The effects of drugs cover a wider spectrum and include effects not known to be the result of any industrial chemicals. Examples include selective destructive inhibition of hepatic enzymes (monoamine oxidase inhibitors, indomethacin) and alteration of hepatic blood flow (adrenergic agents, cimetidine). (2) Drugs are administered to produce specific therapeutic effects. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Design and characterization of a two-stage human subject exposure chamber.

    PubMed

    Kuprov, Roman Y; Buck, David; Pope, C Arden; Eatough, Delbert J; Hansen, Jaron C

    2011-08-01

    A human subject exposure chamber, designed to hold six to eight subjects, coupled to an approximately 30-m3 Teflon reaction bag was designed and built to provide exposures that mimic the production and photochemical oxidation of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the combustion of coal or wood from a stove. The combustion products are introduced into the Teflon bag under atmospheric conditions. Photochemical oxidation of this mixture is accomplished by exposure to tropospheric sun-like radiation from an array of ultraviolet and black lamps. The aerosol in the Teflon reaction bag is then transferred into the exposure room to maintain a constant, lower exposure level. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring of the gas and particulate matter (PM) pollution in the exposure room and the reaction bag is accomplished using a suite of instruments. This suite of instruments allows for the measurement of the concentrations of total and nonvolatile PM, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and ozone. The concentration of the particles was monitored by an R&P tapered element oscillating microbalance monitor. The chemical composition of the PM and its morphological characterization is accomplished by collecting samples in filter packs and conducting ion chromatography, elemental X-ray fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The concentration and composition of emissions from combustion of wood and coal is described. The results of this study suggest that although the bulk compositions of particulate emissions from the combustion of coal or wood in a stove have many similarities, the wood smoke aerosol is photochemically reactive, whereas the coal smoke aerosol is not.

  5. Urban daily life routines and human exposure to environmental discomfort.

    PubMed

    Schnell, I; Potchter, O; Yaakov, Y; Epstein, Y; Brener, S; Hermesh, H

    2012-07-01

    This study suggests a shift in focus from studying environmental discomfort in urban strategic stations, from which average results for the city or specific results for selected sites are deduced, and from measuring environmental conditions in fixed monitoring stations to a study in which we monitor, with mobile portable sensors, the exposure of people to environmental sources of discomfort while performing their daily life activities. Significant variations in sense of discomfort were measured in this study, and almost half of this variability was found to be explained while four independent environmental variables were considered: air quality (concentrations of CO), noise level, climatic variables (thermal load), and social loads. The study conducted in the city of Tel Aviv, which suffers from hot, humid summers and cool winters, and noise levels that reach the average levels of 85 dB, and relatively lower levels of exposure to the other potential stressors. These levels of combined exposures result in moderate levels of discomfort for young, healthy people once they experience the more stressing environments in the city. It is shown also that noise from other people is the most salient source of discomfort in Tel Aviv. Levels of discomfort accumulate during the working hours, either due to the impact of social loads or noise, but the subjects showed good coping abilities that enabled them to recover in late afternoons. It seems that thermal load does not have immediate impact, but rather cumulative ones, mainly during transitional seasons when subjects are less adaptive to extreme changes in weather.

  6. The SEMONT continuous monitoring of daily EMF exposure in an open area environment.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Nikola; Kljajic, Dragan; Kasas-Lazetic, Karolina; Bajovic, Vera

    2015-04-01

    Wireless networks traffic has experienced a considerable growth in recent years. Likewise, it is to be expected that billions of objects will be connected to the Internet in years to come, many of them wirelessly. Such increase in a number of wireless connections and the inevitability of wireless communications in proximity of users highlight the healthcare concern on electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. Thus, the intelligent monitoring systems, such as the Serbian Electromagnetic Field Monitoring Network-SEMONT-have been required to be developed and utilized for continuous and real-time EMF monitoring, as well as for the assessment of the potential in situ daily exposure of population. This paper presents the results of the SEMONT initial campaign of continuous monitoring of the high-frequency electric field strength over the campus of the University of Novi Sad, as an open area environment. Several locations, most frequently visited by the student population in their everyday activities, have been monitored during the rush hour in order to determine the fluctuation of daily exposure on this, usually considered, highly sensitive area. The results of monitoring suggest that potential exposure is far below the allowable limit, regarding reference levels prescribed by the Serbian legislation for the general population. PMID:25787169

  7. The SEMONT continuous monitoring of daily EMF exposure in an open area environment.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Nikola; Kljajic, Dragan; Kasas-Lazetic, Karolina; Bajovic, Vera

    2015-04-01

    Wireless networks traffic has experienced a considerable growth in recent years. Likewise, it is to be expected that billions of objects will be connected to the Internet in years to come, many of them wirelessly. Such increase in a number of wireless connections and the inevitability of wireless communications in proximity of users highlight the healthcare concern on electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. Thus, the intelligent monitoring systems, such as the Serbian Electromagnetic Field Monitoring Network-SEMONT-have been required to be developed and utilized for continuous and real-time EMF monitoring, as well as for the assessment of the potential in situ daily exposure of population. This paper presents the results of the SEMONT initial campaign of continuous monitoring of the high-frequency electric field strength over the campus of the University of Novi Sad, as an open area environment. Several locations, most frequently visited by the student population in their everyday activities, have been monitored during the rush hour in order to determine the fluctuation of daily exposure on this, usually considered, highly sensitive area. The results of monitoring suggest that potential exposure is far below the allowable limit, regarding reference levels prescribed by the Serbian legislation for the general population.

  8. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  9. Human Exposure Pathways of Heavy Metals in a Lead-Zinc Mining Area, Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chang-Sheng; Ma, Zong-Wei; Yang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is becoming a serious issue in developing countries such as China, and the public is increasingly aware of its adverse health impacts in recent years. We assessed the potential health risks in a lead-zinc mining area and attempted to identify the key exposure pathways. We evaluated the spatial distributions of personal exposure using indigenous exposure factors and field monitoring results of water, soil, food, and indoor and outdoor air samples. The risks posed by 10 metals and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks were estimated. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Our results show that heavy metal pollution may pose high potential health risks to local residents, especially in the village closest to the mine (V1), mainly due to Pb, Cd and Hg. Correspondingly, the residents in V1 had higher Pb (8.14 mg/kg) levels in hair than those in the other two villages. Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China. PMID:23152752

  10. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Wearable sensors for human health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, H. Harry; Reisner, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Wearable sensors for continuous monitoring of vital signs for extended periods of weeks or months are expected to revolutionize healthcare services in the home and workplace as well as in hospitals and nursing homes. This invited paper describes recent research progress in wearable health monitoring technology and its clinical applications, with emphasis on blood pressure and circulatory monitoring. First, a finger ring-type wearable blood pressure sensor based on photo plethysmogram is presented. Technical issues, including motion artifact reduction, power saving, and wearability enhancement, will be addressed. Second, sensor fusion and sensor networking for integrating multiple sensors with diverse modalities will be discussed for comprehensive monitoring and diagnosis of health status. Unlike traditional snap-shot measurements, continuous monitoring with wearable sensors opens up the possibility to treat the physiological system as a dynamical process. This allows us to apply powerful system dynamics and control methodologies, such as adaptive filtering, single- and multi-channel system identification, active noise cancellation, and adaptive control, to the monitoring and treatment of highly complex physiological systems. A few clinical trials illustrate the potentials of the wearable sensor technology for future heath care services.

  12. Case Report: Human Exposure to Dioxins from Clay

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Alfred; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Chen, Qixuan; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Adriaens, Peter; Demond, Avery; Garabrant, David; Gillespie, Brenda; Hong, Biling; Jolliet, Olivier; Lepkowski, James; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Wenger, Yvan

    2008-01-01

    Context For the general population, the dominant source of exposure to dioxin-like compounds is food. As part of the University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study (UMDES), we measured selected polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in serum of 946 subjects who were a representative sample of the general population in five Michigan counties. Case presentation The total toxic equivalency (TEQ; based on 2005 World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors) of serum from the index case was 211 ppt on a lipid-adjusted basis, which was the highest value observed in the UMDES study population. This subject had no apparent opportunity for exposure to dioxins, except that she had lived on property with soil contaminated with dioxins for almost 30 years, and had been a ceramics hobbyist for > 30 years. Soil from her property and clay that she used for ceramics were both contaminated with dioxins, but the congener patterns differed. Discussion The congener patterns in this subject’s serum, soil, and ceramic clay suggest strongly that the dioxin contamination in clay and not soil was the dominant source of dioxin contamination in her serum. Relevance to public health practice: It appears that ceramic clay, in particular the process of firing clay with unvented kilns, can be a significant nonfood and nonindustrial source of human exposure to dioxins among ceramics hobbyists. The extent of human exposure from ceramic clay is unclear, but it may be widespread. Further work is needed to more precisely characterize the routes of exposure. PMID:18288324

  13. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration.

  14. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. PMID:26924539

  15. Chronic drug exposures during development in nonhuman primates: models of brain dysfunction in humans.

    PubMed

    Paule, Merle G

    2005-01-01

    This review of our work presents three specific examples of how nonhuman primates (rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta) have been used to study the effects of chronic drug exposures on brain function during different stages of development. In all cases, exposure levels similar to those experienced by humans were employed and the focus was on long-term--not acute--effects. In the case of the marijuana studies, exposures occurred during the adolescent period; for the cocaine studies, exposures occurred in binge-like fashion entirely before birth (in utero); and for the remacemide studies, exposures occurred daily in juveniles, prior to adolescence. An automated battery of behavioral tasks, the National Center for Toxicological Research Operant Test Battery (NCTR OTB), designed to assess aspects of motivation, visual discrimination, time perception, short-term memory, and learning, was used to monitor treatment effects. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure resulted in an 'amotivational' syndrome--even in weekend-only smokers--that resolved within three months of exposure cessation. In utero cocaine exposure was shown to cause behavioral rigidity or lack of plasticity as evidenced by the difficulty of subjects to adjust to rules changes for some OTB tasks. These effects were seen in adult subjects suggesting that the effects of gestational cocaine exposure are long-term or permanent. In addition, animals exposed to cocaine in utero were less sensitive to the behaviorally-disrupting effects of cocaine as adults. Remacemide caused profound and long-lasting, perhaps permanent, changes in learning task performance and because performance of this same task by children is significantly correlated with traditional measures of intelligence (IQ), these data suggest that such treatment may provide a valuable model of chemically-induced mental retardation. PMID:15970490

  16. Monitoring the influence of antibiotic exposure using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Zemanek, Pavel; Bernatova, Silvie; Jezek, Jan; Sery, Mojmir; Jakl, Petr; Siler, Martin; Ruzicka, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Here we report on combination of the data obtained from MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) with infor- mation of microoragnisms fingerprint provided by Raman spectroscopy. In our feasibility study we could follow mechanisms of the bacteriostatic versus bactericidal action on biofilm-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis simply by monitoring Raman bands corresponding to DNA translating the changes introduced by selected antibiotics. The Raman spectra of Staphylococcus epidermidis treated with a bacteriostatic agent show little effect on DNA which is in contrast with the action of a bactericidal agent where decreased in dedicated Raman spectra signal strength suggests DNA fragmentation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Raman tweezers are indeed able to distinguish strains of biofilm-forming (biofilm-positive) and biofilm-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strains using principal component analysis (PCA).

  17. Gene expression as a biomarker for human radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Omaruddin, Romaica A; Roland, Thomas A; Wallace, H James; Chaudhry, M Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Accidental exposure to ionizing radiation can be unforeseen, rapid, and devastating. The detonation of a radiological device leading to such an exposure can be detrimental to the exposed population. The radiation-induced damage may manifest as acute effects that can be detected clinically or may be more subtle effects that can lead to long-term radiation-induced abnormalities. Accurate identification of the individuals exposed to radiation is challenging. The availability of a rapid and effective screening test that could be used as a biomarker of radiation exposure detection is mandatory. We tested the suitability of alterations in gene expression to serve as a biomarker of human radiation exposure. To develop a useful gene expression biomonitor, however, gene expression changes occurring in response to irradiation in vivo must be measured directly. Patients undergoing radiation therapy provide a suitable test population for this purpose. We examined the expression of CC3, MADH7, and SEC PRO in blood samples of these patients before and after radiotherapy to measure the in vivo response. The gene expression after ionizing radiation treatment varied among different patients, suggesting the complexity of the response. The expression of the SEC PRO gene was repressed in most of the patients. The MADH7 gene was found to be upregulated in most of the subjects and could serve as a molecular marker of radiation exposure. PMID:23446844

  18. Update to the U.S. EPA's Guidelines for Human Exposure Assessment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. EPA is to protect human health and the environment by understanding, characterizing, and reducing risks associated with exposure to environmental contaminants. Exposure science characterizes, estimates, and predicts exposures and provides information for d...

  19. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design.

  20. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design. PMID:26737430

  1. Arsenic Exposure and the Induction of Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Gil, Lionel; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid, that is, considered to be a human carcinogen. Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed through drinking water, with consequences ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies, such as skin and lung cancer. Despite well-known arsenic-related health effects, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood; however, the arsenic biotransformation process, which includes methylation changes, is thought to play a key role. This paper explores the relationship of arsenic exposure with cancer development and summarizes current knowledge of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to the neoplastic processes observed in arsenic exposed human populations. PMID:22174709

  2. Monitoring of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in Czechoslovak human sera by immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Fukal, L. ); Reisnerova, H. )

    1990-03-01

    Since a level of food contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A has been found low in Czechoslovakia, human exposure to these mycotoxins may not be negligible. However, analysis of food samples provides only indirect evidence of mycotoxin ingestion and no evidence about mycotoxin absorption. Direct evidence can only be obtained by analysis of human body fluids. Therefore, the authors decided to carry out a monitoring of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A level in human sera. In general, TLC and HPLC are most commonly used to analyze mycotoxins and its metabolites. The recent development of immunochemical techniques opens the possibility of determining individual exposure in a relatively large human population. These assays have the advantage of high specificity and sensitivity. Sample through-put is high, and the methods are technically simple and can be performed at low cost.

  3. The fox guarding the chicken coop: monitoring exposure to respirable coal mine dust, 1969-2000.

    PubMed

    Weeks, James L

    2003-08-01

    Following passage of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, underground coal mine operators were required to take air samples in order to monitor compliance with the exposure limit for respirable dust, a task essential for the prevention of pneumoconiosis among coal workers. Miners objected, claiming that having the mine operators perform this task was like "having the fox guard the chicken coop." This article is a historical narrative of mining industry corruption and of efforts to reform the program of monitoring exposure to coal mine dust. Several important themes common to the practice of occupational health are illustrated; most prominently, that employers should not be expected to regulate themselves.

  4. Monitoring of human endometrial function by radiommunoassay of PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Sh. G.

    1984-12-18

    The present invention relates to a novel method for the quantitative determination of PEP (progestagen-associated endometrial protein) in a body fluid by radioimmunoassay. The technique is useful in monitoring the function of the human endometrium.

  5. Local-Scale Air Quality Modeling in Support of Human Health and Exposure Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially- and temporally-sparse information on air quality is a key concern for air-pollution-related environmental health studies. Monitor networks are sparse in both space and time, are costly to maintain, and are often designed purposely to avoid detecting highly localized sources. Recent studies have shown that more narrowly defining the geographic domain of the study populations and improvements in the measured/estimated ambient concentrations can lead to stronger associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and mortality records. Traditionally, ambient air quality measurements have been used as a primary input to support human health and exposure research. However, there is increasing evidence that the current ambient monitoring network is not capturing sharp gradients in exposure due to the presence of high concentration levels near, for example, major roadways. Many air pollutants exhibit large concentration gradients near large emitters such as major roadways, factories, ports, etc. To overcome these limitations, researchers are now beginning to use air quality models to support air pollution exposure and health studies. There are many advantages to using air quality models over traditional approaches based on existing ambient measurements alone. First, models can provide spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations as direct input to exposure and health studies and thus better defining the concentration levels for the population in the geographic domain. Air quality models have a long history of use in air pollution regulations, and supported by regulatory agencies and a large user community. Also, models can provide bidirectional linkages between sources of emissions and ambient concentrations, thus allowing exploration of various mitigation strategies to reduce risk to exposure. In order to provide best estimates of air concentrations to support human health and exposure studies, model estimates should consider local-scale features

  6. Bisphenol Analogues Other Than BPA: Environmental Occurrence, Human Exposure, and Toxicity-A Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tan, Hongli; Zheng, Zhengui; Feng, Yong-Lai; Wu, Yan; Widelka, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Following stringent regulations on the production and usage of BPA, several bisphenol analogues have been produced as a replacement for BPA in various applications. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA) in the environment, consumer products and foodstuffs, human exposure and biomonitoring, and toxicity. Whereas BPA was still the major bisphenol analogue found in most environmental monitoring studies, BPF and BPS were also frequently detected. Elevated concentrations of BPAF, BPF, and BPS (i.e., similar to or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and human urine from some regions. Many analogues exhibit endocrine disrupting effects, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity in laboratory studies. BPAF, BPB, BPF, and BPS have been shown to exhibit estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the elucidation of environmental occurrences, persistence, and fate of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA), sources and pathways for human exposure, effects on reproductive systems and the mammary gland, mechanisms of toxicity from coexposure to multiple analogues, metabolic pathways and products, and the impact of metabolic modification on toxicity. PMID:27143250

  7. Bisphenol Analogues Other Than BPA: Environmental Occurrence, Human Exposure, and Toxicity-A Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tan, Hongli; Zheng, Zhengui; Feng, Yong-Lai; Wu, Yan; Widelka, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Following stringent regulations on the production and usage of BPA, several bisphenol analogues have been produced as a replacement for BPA in various applications. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA) in the environment, consumer products and foodstuffs, human exposure and biomonitoring, and toxicity. Whereas BPA was still the major bisphenol analogue found in most environmental monitoring studies, BPF and BPS were also frequently detected. Elevated concentrations of BPAF, BPF, and BPS (i.e., similar to or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and human urine from some regions. Many analogues exhibit endocrine disrupting effects, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity in laboratory studies. BPAF, BPB, BPF, and BPS have been shown to exhibit estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the elucidation of environmental occurrences, persistence, and fate of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA), sources and pathways for human exposure, effects on reproductive systems and the mammary gland, mechanisms of toxicity from coexposure to multiple analogues, metabolic pathways and products, and the impact of metabolic modification on toxicity.

  8. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  9. Assessment of human exposure to chemicals from Superfund sites.

    PubMed Central

    Kamrin, M A; Fischer, L J; Suk, W A; Fouts, J R; Pellizzari, E; Thornton, K

    1994-01-01

    Assessing human exposure to chemicals from Superfund sites requires knowledge of basic physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the environment and specific information about the local environment and population in the vicinity of sites of interest. Although progress is being made in both areas, there is still a tremendous amount to be done. Participants at this meeting have identified several of the areas in need of greater understanding, and they are listed below. Movement of dissolved and volatile organics, especially NAPLs, in the subsurface environment. This includes study of the partitioning of compounds between NAPLs, air, water, and soil. Partitioning of volatilized chemicals between gaseous and aerosol components of the atmosphere. This includes understanding how these components influence both wet and dry deposition. Long-term movement from sediments into biota and how these affect chronic toxicity to sediment biota. Broad validation of PBPK models describing partitioning of compounds from sediment and water into fish. Reactions of chemicals sorbed to atmospheric particles. This includes application of laboratory models to real and varied atmospheric conditions. Interactions between biotic and abiotic transformations in soil and sediment. Applicability of physiological pharmacokinetic models developed in laboratory studies of experimental animals and clinical investigations of humans to environmental chemicals, concentrations, and routes of exposure in humans. Use of human and wildlife behavioral and biomonitoring information to estimate exposure. This includes better understanding of human variability and the applicability of information gathered from particular wildlife species. To successfully address these gaps in our knowledge, much more analytical data must be collected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187712

  10. CHARACTERIZING THE SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MUTAGENIC AND CARCINOGENIC CHEMICALS IN AIRBORNE FINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal and ambient exposures to airborne fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and genotoxic activity has been studied in populations in the US, Japan, China, and the Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors used to collect fine particles were extracted f...

  11. AN OVERVIEW OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) PHASE I STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I studies were sponsored by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) to address critical information needs for assessing human exposures to multiple chemicals from multiple pathways and media. These studies were...

  12. Human exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Anh, Duong Hong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Vietnam is an agricultural country with a population of about 88 million, with some 18 million inhabitants living in the Red River Delta in Northern Vietnam. The present study reports the chemical analyses of 68 water and 213 biological (human hair and urine) samples conducted to investigate arsenic contamination in tube well water and human arsenic exposure in four districts (Tu Liem, Dan Phuong, Ly Nhan, and Hoai Duc) in the Red River Delta. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in these areas were in the range of <1 to 632 μg/L, with severe contamination found in the communities Ly Nhan, Hoai Duc, and Dan Phuong. Arsenic concentrations were markedly lowered in water treated with sand filters, except for groundwater from Hoai Duc. Human hair samples had arsenic levels in the range of 0.07-7.51 μg/g, and among residents exposed to arsenic levels ≥50 μg/L, 64% of them had hair arsenic concentrations higher than 1 μg/g, which is a level that can cause skin lesions. Urinary arsenic concentrations were 4-435 μg/g creatinine. Concentrations of arsenic in hair and urine increased significantly with increasing arsenic content in drinking water, indicating that drinking water is a significant source of arsenic exposure for these residents. The percentage of inorganic arsenic (IA) in urine decreased with age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine. Significant co-interactions of age and arsenic exposure status were also detected for concentrations of arsenic in hair and the sum of IA, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine and %MMA. In summary, this study demonstrates that a considerable proportion of the Vietnamese population is exposed to arsenic levels of chronic toxicity, even if sand filters reduce exposure in many households. Health problems caused by arsenic ingestion through drinking water are increasingly reported in Vietnam.

  13. Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Helena; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla; Westberg, Håkan

    2010-10-01

    Levels of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in different environmental and biological compartments have been known for some time, but the routes of exposure still remain unclear. The opinions are divergent whether the exposure to general populations occurs mainly indirect through precursor compounds or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed elevated blood levels of PFCAs in ski wax technicians compared to a general population. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs, perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), precursor compounds that are known to degrade to PFCAs, in air collected in the breathing zone of ski wax technicians during work. We collected air samples by using ISOLUTE ENV+ cartridges connected to portable air pumps with an air flow of 2.0 L min(-1). PFCAs C5-C11 and PFSAs C4, C6, C8, and C10 were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and FTOHs 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 with GC-MS/MS. The results show daily inhalation exposure of 8:2 FTOH in μg/m(3) air which is up to 800 times higher than levels of PFOA with individual levels ranging between 830-255000 ng/m(3) air. This suggests internal exposure of PFOA through biotransformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA and PFNA in humans.

  14. Memory monitoring by animals and humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. D.; Shields, W. E.; Allendoerfer, K. R.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The authors asked whether animals and humans would use similarly an uncertain response to escape indeterminate memories. Monkeys and humans performed serial probe recognition tasks that produced differential memory difficulty across serial positions (e.g., primacy and recency effects). Participants were given an escape option that let them avoid any trials they wished and receive a hint to the trial's answer. Across species, across tasks, and even across conspecifics with sharper or duller memories, monkeys and humans used the escape option selectively when more indeterminate memory traces were probed. Their pattern of escaping always mirrored the pattern of their primary memory performance across serial positions. Signal-detection analyses confirm the similarity of the animals' and humans' performances. Optimality analyses assess their efficiency. Several aspects of monkeys' performance suggest the cognitive sophistication of their decisions to escape.

  15. Human biomonitoring after chemical incidents and during short-term maintenance work as a tool for exposure analysis and assessment.

    PubMed

    Bader, M; Van Weyenbergh, T; Verwerft, E; Van Pul, J; Lang, S; Oberlinner, C

    2014-12-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is frequently used for the analysis and assessment of exposure to chemicals under routine working conditions. In recent years, HBM has also been applied to monitor the exposure of the general population, and of emergency responders in the aftermath of chemical incidents. Two examples of targeted HBM programs in the chemical industry are described and discussed in this paper: (1) analysis and assessment of the exposure of firefighters and chemical workers after the spill of p-chloroaniline from a burning chemical barrel, and (2) biomonitoring of maintenance workers potentially exposed to benzene during regular turnarounds. The results of these investigations underline that human biomonitoring contributes substantially to comprehensive exposure analyses, human health risk assessments and communication. In addition, regular HBM surveillance and feedback can assist in the continuous improvement of workplace safety measures and exposure control. In conclusion, data on accidental or short-term exposure to hazardous chemicals are an important source of information for the further development of limit and assessment values, the validation of biomarkers and of targeted HBM programs for both routine monitoring and disaster management.

  16. Human exposure to methylmercury from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Greenfield, Ben K; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in aquatic food raises global concerns about human exposure to MeHg. Crayfish is the world's third largest farmed crustacean species and a favorite aquatic food in many countries. However, human health hazard due to MeHg exposure via crayfish consumption is unclear, partly because appropriate survey data are lacking. We report on mercury concentrations and speciation in edible tail muscle of crayfish collected from restaurants in 23 Chinese cities. On average, MeHg constituted 99.1 % of mercury in tail muscle, and MeHg concentrations were comparable with those reported for fish in China. Variation in MeHg concentrations was not attributable to broad geographic region (i.e., provinces) or tail length. For different populations, potential health risk (characterized by hazard quotient or HQ) of MeHg exposure through crayfish consumption depended largely on crayfish consumption rates. In particular, a health hazard (HQ > 1) was found for high-rate consumers (i.e., 95 %ile or higher) in some cities in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR), during the peak consumption season. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to dietary MeHg intake via crayfish consumption in China, particularly for communities with high consumption in MLYR.

  17. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY DATA FOR USE IN MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity data are a critical part of exposure models being developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). An analysis of human activity data within NERL's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) was performed in two areas relevant to exposure ...

  18. 76 FR 2617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and.... SUMMARY: The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is extending the comment period on the...

  19. Exposure to Violence, Parental Monitoring, and Television Viewing as Contributors to Children's Psychological Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…

  20. Air Nicotine Monitoring for Second Hand Smoke Exposure in Public Places in India

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jagdish; Prasad, Vinayak M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air nicotine monitoring is an established method of measuring exposure to second hand smoke (SHS). Not much research has been done in India to measure air nicotine for the purpose of studying exposure to SHS. It is a risk factor and many diseases are known to occur among non smokers if they are exposed to second hand smoke. Objective: To conduct monitoring of air nicotine for second hand smoke exposure in public places across major cities in India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted across four cities across the country, using passive air monitoring. The buildings included hospitals, secondary schools, Governmental offices, bars and restaurants. The buildings were selected through convenience sampling method keeping in view specific sentinel locations of interest. Result: The presence of air nicotine was recorded in most of the buildings under the study, which included government buildings, hospitals, schools, restaurants and entertainment venues (bars) in all four cities under the study. The highest median levels of air nicotine were found in entertainment venues and restaurants in cities. Conclusion: The presence of air nicotine in indoor public places indicates weak implementation of existing smoke free law in India. The findings of this study provide a baseline characterization of exposure to SHS in public places in India, which could be used to promote clean indoor air policies and programs and monitor and evaluate the progress and future smoke-free initiatives in India. PMID:21976792

  1. 75 FR 73995 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., 2010, MSHA announced that it would hold six public hearings on the proposed rule (75 FR 69617). Due to... the proposed rule on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412); it is available on MSHA's Web site at http://www...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  2. Untargeted profiling of pesticide metabolites by LC-HRMS: an exposomics tool for human exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jamin, Emilien L; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Chevrier, Cécile; Cordier, Sylvaine; Debrauwer, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Human exposure to xenobiotics is usually estimated by indirect methods. Biological monitoring has emerged during the last decade to improve assessment of exposure. However, biomonitoring is still an analytical challenge, because the amounts of sample available are often very small yet analysis must be as thorough and sensitive as possible. The purpose of this work was to develop an untargeted "exposomics" approach by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), which was applied to the characterization of pesticide metabolites in urine from pregnant women from a French epidemiological cohort. An upgradable list of pesticides commonly used on different crops, with their metabolites (more than 400 substances) was produced. Raw MS data were then processed to extract signals from these substances. Metabolites were identified by tandem mass spectrometry; putative identifications were validated by comparison with standards and metabolites generated by experiments on animals. Finally, signals of identified compounds were statistically analyzed by use of multivariate methods. This enabled discrimination of exposure groups, defined by indirect methods, on the basis of four metabolites from two fungicides (azoxystrobin, fenpropimorph) used in cereal production. This original approach applied to pesticide exposure can be extended to a variety of contaminant families for upstream evaluation of exposure from food and the environment. PMID:23892877

  3. Untargeted profiling of pesticide metabolites by LC-HRMS: an exposomics tool for human exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jamin, Emilien L; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Chevrier, Cécile; Cordier, Sylvaine; Debrauwer, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Human exposure to xenobiotics is usually estimated by indirect methods. Biological monitoring has emerged during the last decade to improve assessment of exposure. However, biomonitoring is still an analytical challenge, because the amounts of sample available are often very small yet analysis must be as thorough and sensitive as possible. The purpose of this work was to develop an untargeted "exposomics" approach by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), which was applied to the characterization of pesticide metabolites in urine from pregnant women from a French epidemiological cohort. An upgradable list of pesticides commonly used on different crops, with their metabolites (more than 400 substances) was produced. Raw MS data were then processed to extract signals from these substances. Metabolites were identified by tandem mass spectrometry; putative identifications were validated by comparison with standards and metabolites generated by experiments on animals. Finally, signals of identified compounds were statistically analyzed by use of multivariate methods. This enabled discrimination of exposure groups, defined by indirect methods, on the basis of four metabolites from two fungicides (azoxystrobin, fenpropimorph) used in cereal production. This original approach applied to pesticide exposure can be extended to a variety of contaminant families for upstream evaluation of exposure from food and the environment.

  4. DUAL ION EXPOSURE VS. SPLIT-DOSE EXPOSURES IN HUMAN CELL NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION.

    SciTech Connect

    BENNETT, P.V.; CUTTER, N.C.; SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2006-06-05

    Since radiation fields of space contain many-fold more protons than high atomic number, high energy (HZE) particles, cells in astronaut crews will experience on average several proton hits before an HZE hit. Thus radiation regimes of proton exposure before HZE particle exposure simulate space radiation exposure, and measurement of the frequency of neoplastic transformation of human primary cells to anchorage-independent growth simulates in initial step in cancer induction. Previously our group found that exposure to 20 cGy 1 GeV/n protons followed within about 1 hr by a HZE ion (20 cGy 1 GeV/n Fe or Ti ions) hit gave about a 3-fold increase in transformation frequency ([1]). To provide insight into the H-HZE induced increased transformation frequencies, we asked if split doses of the same ion gave similar increased transformation frequencies. However, the data show that the split dose of 20 cGy plus 20 cGy of either H or HZE ions gave about the same effect as the 40 cGy uninterrupted dose, quite different from the effect of the mixed ion H + HZE irradiation. We also asked if lower proton doses than 20 cGy followed 15 minutes later by 20 cGy of HZE ions gave greater than additive transformation frequencies. Substantial increases in transformation levels were observed for all proton doses tested, including 1 cGy. These results point to the signal importance of protons in affecting the effect of space radiation on human cells.

  5. Variability in biological monitoring of solvent exposure. I. Development of a population physiological model.

    PubMed Central

    Droz, P O; Wu, M M; Cumberland, W G; Berode, M

    1989-01-01

    Biological indicators of exposure to solvents are often characterised by a high variability that may be due either to fluctuations in exposure or individual differences in the workers. To describe and understand this variability better a physiological model for differing workers under variable industrial environments has been developed. Standard statistical distributions are used to simulate variability in exposure concentration, physical workload, body build, liver function, and renal clearance. For groups of workers exposed daily, the model calculates air monitoring indicators and biological monitoring results (expired air, blood, and urine). The results obtained are discussed and compared with measured data, both physiological (body build, cardiac output, alveolar ventilation) and toxicokinetic for six solvents: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, styrene, and their main metabolites. Possible applications of this population physiological model are presented. PMID:2765418

  6. Real-time measurement of dust in the workplace using video exposure monitoring: Farming to pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, P. T.; Forth, A. R.; Clark, R. D. R.; Dowker, K. P.; Thorpe, A.

    2009-02-01

    Real-time, photometric, portable dust monitors have been employed for video exposure monitoring (VEM) to measure and highlight dust levels generated by work activities, illustrate dust control techniques, and demonstrate good practice. Two workplaces, presenting different challenges for measurement, were used to illustrate the capabilities of VEM: (a) poultry farming activities and (b) powder transfer operations in a pharmaceutical company. For the poultry farm work, the real-time monitors were calibrated with respect to the respirable and inhalable dust concentrations using cyclone and IOM reference samplers respectively. Different rankings of exposure for typical activities were found on the small farm studied here compared to previous exposure measurements at larger poultry farms: these were mainly attributed to the different scales of operation. Large variations in the ratios of respirable, inhalable and real-time monitor TWA concentrations of poultry farm dust for various activities were found. This has implications for the calibration of light-scattering dust monitors with respect to inhalable dust concentration. In the pharmaceutical application, the effectiveness of a curtain barrier for dust control when dispensing powder in a downflow booth was rapidly demonstrated.

  7. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods.

    PubMed

    Creely, K S; Hughson, G W; Cocker, J; Jones, K

    2006-08-01

    Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Monitoring of airborne exposures to total isocyanate is costly, requiring considerable expertise, both in terms of sample collection and chemical analysis and cannot be used to assess the effectiveness of protection from wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Biological monitoring by analysis of metabolites in urine can be a relatively simple and inexpensive way to assess exposure to isocyanates. It may also be a useful way to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures in place. In this study biological and inhalation monitoring were undertaken to assess exposure in a variety of workplaces in the non-motor vehicle repair sector. Companies selected to participate in the survey included only those judged to be using good working practices when using isocyanate formulations. This included companies that used isocyanates to produce moulded polyurethane products, insulation material and those involved in industrial painting. Air samples were collected by personal monitoring and were analysed for total isocyanate content. Urine samples were collected soon after exposure and analysed for the metabolites of different isocyanate species, allowing calculation of the total metabolite concentration. Details of the control measures used and observed contamination of exposed skin were also recorded. A total of 21 companies agreed to participate in the study, with exposure measurements being collected from 22 sites. The airborne isocyanate concentrations were generally very low (range 0.0005-0.066 mg m(-3)). A total of 50 of the 70 samples were <0.001 mg m(-3), the limit of quantification (LOQ), therefore samples below the LOQ were assigned a value of 1/2 LOQ (0.0005 mg m(-3)). Of the 70 samples, 67 were below the current workplace exposure limit of 0.02 mg m(-3). The highest inhalation exposures occurred during spray painting activities in a truck manufacturing

  8. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  9. Human exposures to pesticides in the United States.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L; Mort, Sandra Amiss

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in most homes, businesses, and farms to control a variety of pests, including insects, weeds, fungi, rodents, and even microbial organisms. Inappropriate use of pesticides can lead to adverse effects to humans and the environment. This study provides updated information on the magnitude of adverse pesticide exposures in the United States. Data on pesticide exposure were obtained from calls to poison control centers (PCCs) reported by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Estimates of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and health care costs were reported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and deaths from pesticide poisonings reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER (Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research). An average of 23 deaths occur each year with pesticides as the underlying cause of death, most due to suicidal ingestions. An average of 130,136 calls to poison control centers were reported from 2006 to 2010, with an average of 20,116 cases (17.8%) treated in health care facilities annually. AHQR reported an annual average of 7385 emergency room visits during 2006 to 2008, and 1419 annual hospitalizations during 2005 to 2009. Excluding cost from lost work time, hospital physician fees, and pesticide-induced cancers, the annual national cost associated with pesticide exposures was estimated as nearly $200 million USD based on data from emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and for deaths. Pesticide exposures remain a significant public health issue. Health care providers, cooperative extension agents, and pesticide manufactures can help prevent exposures by increasing education of parents and workers, encourage use of less toxic agents, and encourage the practice of integrated pest management.

  10. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  11. Human exposure assessment and the National Toxicology Program.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, G W; Schecter, A

    1998-01-01

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program (NIEHS/NTP) is developing a new interagency initiative in exposure assessment. This initiative involves the NIEHS, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through its National Center for Environmental Health, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the EPA, and other participating institutes and agencies of the NTP. This initiative will benefit public health and priority setting in a number of ways. First, as discussed above, it will strengthen the scientific foundation for risk assessments by the development of more credible exposure/response relationships in people by improving cross-species extrapolation, the development of biologically based dose-response models, and the identification of sensitive subpopulations and for "margin of exposure" based estimates of risk. Second, it will provide the kind of information necessary for deciding which chemicals should be studied with the limited resources available for toxicological testing. For example, there are 85,000 chemicals in commerce today, and the NTP can only provide toxicological evaluations on 10-20 per year. Third, we would use the information obtained from the exposure initiative to focus our research on mixtures that are actually present in people's bodies. Fourth, we would obtain information on the kinds and amount of chemicals in children and other potentially sensitive subpopulations. Determinations of whether additional safety factors need to be applied to children must rest, in part, upon comparative exposure analyses between children and adults. Fifth, this initiative, taken together with the environmental genome initiative, will provide the science base essential for meaningful studies on gene/environment interactions, particularly for strengthening the evaluation of epidemiology studies. Sixth, efficacy of public health policies aimed at reducing human exposure to chemical agents could be

  12. ATSDR evaluation of potential for human exposure to zinc.

    PubMed

    Roney, Nickolette; Osier, Mark; Paikoff, Sari J; Smith, Cassandra V; Williams, Malcolm; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-01-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of portions of the toxicological profile for zinc. The primary purpose of this article is to provide interested individuals with environmental information on zinc that includes production data, environmental fate, potential for human exposure, analytical methods and a listing of regulations and advisories. PMID:18386523

  13. ATSDR evaluation of potential for human exposure to benzene.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, S; Wohlers, D; Paikoff, S; Keith, L S; Faroon, O

    2008-01-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of portions of the toxicological profile for benzene. The primary purpose of this article is to provide interested individuals with environmental information on benzene that includes production data, environmental fate, potential for human exposure, analytical methods, and a listing of regulations and advisories. PMID:19022881

  14. The head dome: A simplified method for human exposures to inhaled air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Bowes, S.M. III; Frank, R.; Swift, D.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Acute controlled exposures of human subjects to air pollutants are customarily carried out with whole-body chambers, masks, or mouthpieces. The use of these methods may be limited by cost or technical considerations. To permit a study involving a highly unstable pollutant, artificial acid fog, administered to subjects during natural breathing, a head-only exposure chamber, called a head dome, was developed. It consists of a transparent cylinder with a neck seal which fits over the subject's head and rests lightly on his shoulders. The head dome does not constrain the upper airways or impede exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Ventilation can be monitored accurately and unobtrusively with a pneumotachograph at the exhaust port of the dome. A thermocouple may be used to monitor the onset and persistence of oronasal breathing. For short-term exposures to unstable or reactive pollutants lasting up to several hours, the head dome is an effective alternative to a whole-body chamber and probably superior to a face mask or mouthpiece.

  15. Monitoring and modeling human interactions with ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, Cristina

    With rapidly increasing consumption rates and global population, there is a growing interest in understanding how to balance human activities with the other components of the Earth system. Humans alter ecosystem functioning with land cover changes, greenhouse gas emissions and overexploitation of natural resources. On the other side, climate and its inherent interannual variability drive global Net Primary Productivity (NPP), the base of energy for all trophic levels, shaping humans' distribution on the land surface and their sensitivity to natural and accelerated patterns of variation in ecosystem processes. In this thesis, I analyzed anthropogenic influences on ecosystems and ecosystems impacts on humans through a multi-scale approach. Anthropogenic influences were analyzed with a special focus on urban ecosystems, the living environment of nearly half of the global population and almost 90% of the population in the industrialized countries. A poorly quantified aspect of urban ecosystems is the biogeochemistry of urban vegetation, intensively managed through fertilization and irrigation. In chapter 1, adapting the ecosystem model Biome-BGC, I simulated the growth of turf grasses across the United States, and estimated their potential impact on the continental water and carbon budget. Using a remote sensing-based approach, I also developed a methodology to estimate the impact of land cover changes due to urbanization on the regional photosynthetic capacity (chapter 2), finding that low-density urbanization can retain high levels of net primary productivity, although at the expense of inefficient sprawl. One of the feedbacks of urbanization is the urban heat island effect, which I analyzed in conjunction with a remote sensing based estimate of fractional impervious surface area, showing how this is related to increases in land surface temperatures, independently from geographic location and population density (chapter 3). Finally, in chapter 4, I described the

  16. Acrolein environmental levels and potential for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

    2008-09-01

    This article provides environmental information on acrolein including environmental fate, potential for human exposure, analytical methods, and a listing of regulations and advisories. Acrolein may be released to the environment in emissions and effluents from its manufacturing and use facilities, in emissions from combustion processes (including cigarette smoking and combustion of petrochemical fuels), from direct application to water and waste water as a slimicide and aquatic herbicide, as a photooxidation product of various hydrocarbon pollutants found in air (including propylene and 1,3-butadiene), and from land disposal of some organic waste materials. Acrolein is a reactive compound and is unstable in the environment. The general population may be exposed to acrolein through inhalation of contaminated air and through ingestion of certain foods. Important sources of acrolein exposure are via inhalation of tobacco smoke and environmental tobacco smoke and via the overheating of fats contained in all living matter. There is potential for exposure to acrolein in many occupational settings as the result of its varied uses and its formation during the combustion and pyrolysis of materials such as wood, petrochemical fuels, and plastics. PMID:19039083

  17. Human exposure to large solar particle events in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Curtis, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Whenever energetic solar protons produced by solar particle events traverse bulk matter, they undergo various nuclear and atomic collision processes which significantly alter the physical characteristics and biologically important properties of their transported radiation fields. These physical interactions and their effect on the resulting radiation field within matter are described within the context of a recently developed deterministic, coupled neutron-proton space radiation transport computer code (BRYNTRN). Using this computer code, estimates of human exposure in interplanetary space, behind nominal (2 g/sq cm) and storm shelter (20 g/sq cm) thicknesses of aluminum shielding, are made for the large solar proton event of August 1972. Included in these calculations are estimates of cumulative exposures to the skin, ocular lens, and bone marrow as a function of time during the event. Risk assessment in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is discussed for these organs. Also presented are estimates of organ exposures for hypothetical, worst-case flare scenarios. The rate of dose equivalent accumulation places this situation in an interesting region of dose rate between the very low values of usual concern in terrestrial radiation environments and the high-dose-rate values prevalent in radiation therapy.

  18. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    PubMed

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD <10%). The accuracy was assessed using recoveries (%), which ranged between 68-118% (LQ) and 70-121% (HQ). The instrumental limit of detection (LODi) and limit of quantification (LOQi) were between 1-4 pg/g hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA

  19. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    PubMed

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD <10%). The accuracy was assessed using recoveries (%), which ranged between 68-118% (LQ) and 70-121% (HQ). The instrumental limit of detection (LODi) and limit of quantification (LOQi) were between 1-4 pg/g hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA

  20. Monitoring of Occupational Exposure of Mild Steel Welders to Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Morteza; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Salehpour, Sousan

    2011-01-01

    Background Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding are widely used for mild steel segments in basic metal industries. Pulmonary problems such as asthma, pulmonary inflammation, hyper-responsiveness of airways and higher susceptibility to infections are reported as the result of occupational exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen oxides. Potent oxidizing agents like ozone and nitrogen oxides are also reported to be a precursor for respiratory problems and cause lipid peroxidation of membranes. Materials and Methods A total of 43 nonsmoking MIG and TIG welders and 41 nonsmoking workers without appreciable exposure to any chemicals as the control population were chosen to participate in this study. Occupational exposure to ozone was monitored according to the validated methods. Malondialdehyde (MDA) of blood serum as a biomarker for lipid peroxidation was analyzed using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 88.4% and 74.4% of welders had exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide higher than the permissible limit of occupational exposure, respectively. Generally, exposure of MIG welders to ozone was significantly higher than TIG welders (P = 0.006). However, exposure to nitrogen dioxide gas was comparable in both groups. Serum MDA of welders was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was detected between ozone exposure and level of serum malondialdehyde. Such correlation was not observed for nitrogen dioxide exposure. Conclusion Considering the high exposure of welders to ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and higher level of serum malondialdehyde in them compared to controls, risk management is recommended for this group of workers. PMID:25191389

  1. Monitoring agricultural rodenticide use and secondary exposure of raptors in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Sharp, E; Taylor, M J; Melton, L; Hartley, G

    2013-08-01

    Despite the documented risk of secondary poisoning to non-target species by anticoagulant rodenticides there is no statutory post-approval monitoring of their use in the UK. This paper presents results from two Scottish monitoring schemes for the period 2000-2010; recording rodenticide use on arable farms and the presence of residues in raptor carcasses. More than three quarters of arable farms used anticoagulant rodenticides; predominately the second generation compounds difenacoum and bromadiolone. There was widespread exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides in liver tissues of the raptor species tested and the residues encountered generally reflected agricultural use patterns. As found in other studies, Red Kites (Milvus milvus) appeared to be particularly vulnerable to rodenticide exposure, 70 % of those sampled (n = 114) contained residues and 10 % died as a result of rodenticide ingestion. More unexpectedly, sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), which prey almost exclusively on birds, had similar exposure rates to species which prey on rodents. Although, with the exception of kites, confirmed mortality from rodenticides was low, the widespread exposure recorded is concerning. Particularly when coupled with a lack of data about the sub-lethal effects of these compounds. This raises questions regarding whether statutory monitoring of use is needed; both to address whether there are deficiencies in compliance with approval conditions or whether the recommended risk management procedures are themselves adequate to protect non-target wildlife. PMID:23595554

  2. Assessment of human exposure to environmental sources of nickel in Europe: Inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Buekers, Jurgen; De Brouwere, Katleen; Lefebvre, Wouter; Willems, Hanny; Vandenbroele, Marleen; Van Sprang, Patrick; Eliat-Eliat, Maxime; Hicks, Keegan; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2015-07-15

    The paper describes the inhalation nickel (Ni) exposure of humans via the environment for the regional scale in the EU, together with a tiered approach for assessing additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach was designed, in the context of REACH, for the purpose of assessing and controlling emissions and air quality in the neighbourhood of Ni producers and downstream users. Two Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) values for chronic inhalation exposure to total Ni in PM10 (20 and 60ngNi/m(3)) were considered. The value of 20ngNi/m(3) is the current EU air quality guidance value. The value of 60ngNi/m(3) is derived here based on recently published Ni data (Oller et al., 2014). Both values are protective for respiratory toxicity and carcinogenicity but differ in the application of toxicokinetic adjustments and cancer threshold considerations. Estimates of air Ni concentrations at the European regional scale were derived from the database of the European Environment Agency. The 50th and 90th percentile regional exposures were below both DNEL values. To assess REACH compliance at the local scale, measured ambient air data are preferred but are often unavailable. A tiered approach for the use of modelled ambient air concentrations was developed, starting with the application of the default EUSES model and progressing to more sophisticated models. As an example, the tiered approach was applied to 33 EU Ni sulphate producers' and downstream users' sites. Applying the EUSES model demonstrates compliance with a DNEL of 60ngNi/m(3) for the majority of sites, while the value of the refined modelling is demonstrated when a DNEL of 20ngNi/m(3) is considered. The proposed approach, applicable to metals in general, can be used in the context of REACH, for refining the risk characterisation and guiding the selection of risk management measures. PMID:25863314

  3. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  4. Development of a urinary biomarker of human exposure to deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Meky, F A; Turner, P C; Ashcroft, A E; Miller, J D; Qiao, Y-L; Roth, M J; Wild, C P

    2003-02-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently found as a contaminant of cereal crops and may be etiologically associated with adverse health effects in developing countries where considerable quantities of contaminated crops are consumed. We investigated the metabolism of DON in rats as a basis to establish methodology for a candidate biomarker of human exposure to this toxin and tested this methodology on urine samples from a potentially highly exposed population. Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of [14C]DON (5.0+/-0.1 mg/kg body weight, 5.5+/-0.1 microCi/kg) and the distribution of DON in body fluids was investigated over 72 h. DON and its metabolites were detectable in the plasma of rats with the highest levels at 8 h, at which time approximately 9% was bound to plasma protein. A total of 37% of the administered DON was excreted in the urine and DON-glucuronide was implicated as the major urinary metabolite based on reverse-phase HPLC analysis of beta-glucuronidase- and sulphatase-treated samples. An immunoaffinity column (IAC)-HPLC method was subsequently developed to measure urinary metabolites, with a view to establishing a urine-based human biomarker. Urine samples were collected from female inhabitants of Linxian County, China, a high risk region for oesophageal cancer (OC) and an area of potentially high DON exposure, and Gejiu, a low risk region in China. DON was detected in all 15 samples following beta-glucuronidase treatment and IAC enrichment with the identity of DON being confirmed by mass spectrometry. The mean levels of DON from the suspected high and low exposure regions of China were 37 ng/ml (range 14-94 ng/ml) and 12 ng/ml (range 4-18 ng/ml), respectively. This is estimated to correspond to daily exposures of 1.1-7.4 microg/kg/day and 0.3-1.4 microg/kg/day, respectively. This is the first reported measurement of a urinary biomarker for DON in both animals and humans and should facilitate epidemiological studies of disease

  5. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system. User`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, R.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1993-06-01

    The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the revised 10 CFR 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in R.G. 8.7, Rev. 1, ``Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data.`` REMIT is a personal computer (PC) based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of R. G. 8.7, Rev. 1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5, REMIT allows the user to view the individual`s exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and alerts the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files.

  6. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Ellen Stephanie; Liberda, Eric Nicholas; Tsuji, Leonard James S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT), other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling) from 3 plots (A, B, and C) in Fort Albany (on the mainland), subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusion Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes. PMID:26025557

  7. Ozone exposure alters tracheobronchial mucociliary function in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, W.M.; Costa, D.L.; Langenback, E.G.

    1987-09-01

    Mucociliary function is a primary defense mechanism of the tracheobronchial airways, and yet the response of this system to an inhalational hazard, such as ozone, is undefined in humans. Utilizing noninvasive techniques to measure deposition and retention of insoluble radiolabeled particles on airway mucous membranes, we studied the effect on mucus transport of 0.2 and 0.4 ppm ozone compared with filtered air (FA) in seven healthy males. During 2-h chamber exposures, subjects alternated between periods of rest and light exercise with hourly spirometric measurement of lung function. Mechanical and mucociliary function responses to ozone by lung airways appeared concentration dependent. Reduction in particle retention was significant (P less than 0.005) (i.e., transport of lung mucus was increased during exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone and was coincident with impaired lung function; e.g., forced vital capacity and midmaximal flow rate fell by 12 and 16%, respectively, and forced expiratory volume at 1 s by 5%, of preexposure values). Regional analysis indicated that mucus flow from distal airways into central bronchi was significantly increased (P less than 0.025) by 0.2 ppm ozone. This peripheral effect, however, was buffered by only a marginal influence of 0.2 ppm ozone on larger bronchi, such that the resultant mucus transport for all airways of the lung in aggregate differed only slightly from FA exposures. These data may reflect differences in regional diffusion of ozone along the respiratory tract, rather than tissue sensitivity. In conclusion, mucociliary function of humans is acutely stimulated by ozone and may result from fluid additions to the mucus layer from mucosal and submucosal secretory cells and/or alteration of epithelial permeability.

  8. Ozone exposure alters tracheobronchial mucociliary function in humans.

    PubMed

    Foster, W M; Costa, D L; Langenback, E G

    1987-09-01

    Mucociliary function is a primary defense mechanism of the tracheobronchial airways, and yet the response of this system to an inhalational hazard, such as ozone, is undefined in humans. Utilizing noninvasive techniques to measure deposition and retention of insoluble radiolabeled particles on airway mucous membranes, we studied the effect on mucus transport of 0.2 and 0.4 ppm ozone compared with filtered air (FA) in seven healthy males. During 2-h chamber exposures, subjects alternated between periods of rest and light exercise with hourly spirometric measurement of lung function. Mechanical and mucociliary function responses to ozone by lung airways appeared concentration dependent. Reduction in particle retention was significant (P less than 0.005) (i.e., transport of lung mucus was increased during exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone and was coincident with impaired lung function; e.g., forced vital capacity and midmaximal flow rate fell by 12 and 16%, respectively, and forced expiratory volume at 1 s by 5%, of preexposure values). Regional analysis indicated that mucus flow from distal airways into central bronchi was significantly increased (P less than 0.025) by 0.2 ppm ozone. This peripheral effect, however, was buffered by only a marginal influence of 0.2 ppm ozone on larger bronchi, such that the resultant mucus transport for all airways of the lung in aggregate differed only slightly from FA exposures. These data may reflect differences in regional diffusion of ozone along the respiratory tract, rather than tissue sensitivity. In conclusion, mucociliary function of humans is acutely stimulated by ozone and may result from fluid additions to the mucus layer from mucosal and submucosal secretory cells and/or alteration of epithelial permeability.

  9. Monitoring Training for Human Performance Optimization.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; Deuster, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness can significantly impact the mission success of Special Operations Forces (SOF). Much like athletes, Operators have multiple training components including technical, tactical, physical and mental conditioning, which must simultaneously be developed for mission success. Balancing multiple physical stressors to ensure positive results from training can be achieved through periodization?the intentional planning for success. Monitoring the training load can assist SOF in managing training stress and designing periodization that minimizes fatigue. The present article provides an overview of modern technology developed to quantify the stress of training. The training load maintained by SOF consists of external loads created through physical work and internal units of load determined by the rate of perceived effort during training that must be integrated in a manner that minimizes the accumulation of fatigue. Methods for determining training load are discussed in this article and examples are provided for determining training load, developing conditioning sessions and utilizing training load to maintain physical fitness, and improve return from injury.

  10. Monitoring diurnal changes in exhaled human breath.

    PubMed

    Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Kohler, Malcolm; Zenobi, Renato

    2013-01-01

    The development of noninvasive analytical techniques is of interest to the field of chronobiology, in order to reveal the human metabolome that seems to show temporal patterns and to predict internal body time. We report on the real-time mass spectrometric analysis of human breath as a potential method to be used in this field. The breath of 12 subjects was analyzed during 9 days by secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS). The samples were collected during four time slots: morning (8:00-11:00), before lunch (11:00-13:00), after lunch (13:00-15:00), and late afternoon (15:00-18:00). A total of 203 mass spectra were statistically analyzed. Univariate analysis revealed a number of features with a marked temporal behavior. Principal component analysis/canonical analysis showed a clear temporal evolution of the breath patterns. A blind cross-validation yielded 84% of correct classifications of the time slot at which the breath samples were collected. We conclude that this approach seems to have potential for the investigation of biological clocks, including the description of internal body time, which may have important implications for the timing of pharmacotherapy. PMID:23198821

  11. Effects of subchronic exposures to concentrated ambient particles in mice. IX. Integral assessment and human health implications of subchronic exposures of mice to CAPs.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Morton; Gordon, Terry; Chen, Lung Chi

    2005-04-01

    In order to examine the biologic plausibility of adverse chronic cardiopulmonary effects in humans associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure, we exposed groups of normal mice (C57) and knockout mice that develop atherosclerotic plaque (ApoE-/- and ApoE-/- LDLr-/-) for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 5 or 6 mo during the spring/summer of 2003 to either filtered air or 10-fold concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in Tuxedo, NY (average PM2.5 concentration during exposure = 110 microg/m3). Some of the mice had implanted electrocardiographic monitors. We demonstrated that: (1) this complex interdisciplinary study was technically feasible in terms of daily exposure, collection of air quality monitoring data, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of continuous data on cardiac function, and the collection and analyses of tissues of the animals sacrificed at the end of the study; (2) the daily variations in CAPs were significantly associated, in ApoE-/- mice, with daily variations in cardiac functions; (3) there were significant differences between CAPs and sham-exposed ApoE-/- mice in terms of cardiac function after the end of exposure period, as well as small differences in atherosclerotic plaque density, coronary artery disease, and cell density in the substantia nigra in the brain in the ApoE-/- mice; (4) there are suggestive indications of gene expression changes for genes associated with the control of circadian rhythm in the ApoE-/- LDLr-/- double knockout (DK) mice. These various CAPs-related effects on cardiac function and the development of histological evidence of increased risk of clinically significant disease at the end of exposures in animal models of atherosclerosis provide biological plausibility for the premature mortality associated with PM2.5 exposure in human subjects and provide suggestive evidence for neurogenic disease as well.

  12. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-06-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin ("Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry" [1], "UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis" [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, followed by purification and digestion using the filter-aided sample preparation method. The tryptic peptides were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC/ESI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/MS. The MS/MS data were generated to confirm amino acid sequences and oxidation sites of tryptic peptides D(290)VDGAYMTK(298) (P1) and N(258)MQDMVEDYR(267) (P2), which contain the most susceptible oxidation sites (Met(259), Met(262), and Met(296) in K1 keratin) upon UVA irradiation [2]. Subsequently, quantitative determination of the relative oxidation levels of P1 and P1 [2] was achieved by LC/ESI-SRM/MS analyses of P1 and P2 together with their oxidized forms after exposure to UVA radiation or treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

  13. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin (“Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry” [1], “UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis” [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, followed by purification and digestion using the filter-aided sample preparation method. The tryptic peptides were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC/ESI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/MS. The MS/MS data were generated to confirm amino acid sequences and oxidation sites of tryptic peptides D290VDGAYMTK298 (P1) and N258MQDMVEDYR267 (P2), which contain the most susceptible oxidation sites (Met259, Met262, and Met296 in K1 keratin) upon UVA irradiation [2]. Subsequently, quantitative determination of the relative oxidation levels of P1 and P1 [2] was achieved by LC/ESI-SRM/MS analyses of P1 and P2 together with their oxidized forms after exposure to UVA radiation or treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:26958637

  14. A Cell Kinetic Model of Granulocytopoiesis Under Radiation Exposure: Extension from Murines to Canines and Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Space radiation poses significant challenges to space travel, and it is essential to understand the possible adverse effects from space radiation exposure to the radiosensitive organ systems that are important for immediate survival of human, e.g., the hematopoietic system. In this presentation a biomathematical model of granulocytopoiesis is described and used to analyze the blood granulocyte changes seen in the blood of mammalians under continuous and acute radiation exposure. This is one of a set of hematopoietic models that have been successfully utilized to simulate and interpret the experimental data of acute and chronic radiation on rodents. We discuss the underlying implicit regulation mechanism and the biological relevance of the kinetic parameters estimation method. Extension of the model to predictions in dogs and humans systems indicates that the modeling results are consistent with the cumulative experimental and empirical data from various sources. This implies the potential to integrate the models into one united system for monitoring the hematopoietic response of various species under irradiation. Based on the evidence of threshold responses of dogs to extended periods of low daily dose exposures, we discuss the potential health risks of the space traveler under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation and the possibly encountered Solar Particle Events.

  15. Promoting early exposure monitoring for respirable crystalline silica: Taking the laboratory to the mine site.

    PubMed

    Cauda, Emanuele; Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in the mining industry is a recognized occupational hazard. The assessment and monitoring of the exposure to RCS is limited by two main factors: (1) variability of the silica percent in the mining dust and (2) lengthy off-site laboratory analysis of collected samples. The monitoring of respirable dust via traditional or real-time techniques is not adequate. A solution for on-site quantification of RCS in dust samples is being investigated by the Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, a division of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The use of portable Fourier transform infrared analyzers in conjunction with a direct-on-filter analysis approach is proposed. The progress made so far, the necessary steps in progress, and the application of the monitoring solution to a small data set is presented. When developed, the solution will allow operators to estimate RCS immediately after sampling, resulting in timelier monitoring of RCS for self-assessment of compliance at the end of the shift, more effective engineering monitoring, and better evaluation of control technologies.

  16. Monitoring of occupational exposure to cyclohexanone by diffusive sampling and urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Toshio Kawai Yoko Nakahara Shun'inchi Horiguchi Zuo-Wen Zhang Kae Higashikawa Masayuki Ikeda

    1999-01-01

    The present study was initiated in order to identify the best marker of occupational exposure to cyclohexanone among cyclohexanone and its metabolites in urine. To examine if diffusive samplers are applicable to personal monitoring of exposure to cyclohexanone in workroom air, the performance of carbon cloth to adsorb cyclohexanone in air was studied by experimental exposure of the cloth to cyclohexanone at 5, 10, 25 or 50 ppm (i.e. 20, 40, 100 or 200 mg m-3) for up to 8 h. Cyclohexanone in the exposed cloth was extracted with carbon disulphide followed by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. The cloth adsorbed cyclohexanone in proportion to the concentration (up to 50 ppm) and the duration (up to 8 h), and responded quantitatively to a 15 min exposure at 100 ppm. In a field survey, end-of-shift urine samples were collected from 24 factory workers occupationally exposed to cyclohexanone (up to 9 ppm) in combination with toluene and other solvents. Urine samples were also collected from 10 subjects with no occupational exposure to solvents. The urine samples were treated with acid or an enzyme preparation for hydrolysis, and extracted with dichloromethane or ethyl acetate. The extracts were analysed by GC for cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, and trans- and cis-isomers of 1,2- and 1,4-cyclohexanediol. Both cyclohexanol and trans-1,2-cyclohexanediol in urine correlated significantly with time-weighted average intensity of exposure to cyclohexanone. Although trans -1,4-isomer was also excreted, its quantitative relation with cyclohexanone exposure could not be established, because the solvent extraction rate was low and unstable. Excretion of cis-isomers was not confirmed. The two analytes, cyclohexanol and trans-1,2-cyclohexanediol, appeared to be equally valid as exposure markers, but the latter may be superior to the former in the sense that it is sensitive enough to separate the exposed from the non-exposed at 1 ppm or less cyclohexanone exposure.

  17. Development and application of quantitative methods for monitoring dermal and inhalation exposure to propiconazole.

    PubMed

    Flack, Sheila; Goktepe, Ipek; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2008-03-01

    Quantitative methods to measure dermal and inhalation exposure to the fungicide propiconazole were developed in the laboratory and applied in the occupational exposure setting for monitoring five farm workers' exposure during pesticide preparation and application to peach crops. Dermal exposure was measured with tape-strips applied to the skin, and the amount of propiconazole was normalized to keratin content in the tape-strip. Inhalation exposure was measured with an OVS tube placed in the worker's breathing-zone during pesticide handling. Samples were analyzed by GC-MS in EI+ mode (limit of detection 6 pg microl(-1)). Dermal exposure ranged from non-detectable to 32.1 +/- 22.6 ng per microg keratin while breathing-zone concentrations varied from 0.2 to 2.2 microg m(-3). A positive correlation was observed between breathing-zone concentrations and ambient air temperature (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.01). Breathing-zone concentrations did not correlate with dermal exposure levels (r2 = 0.11, p = 0.52). Propiconazole levels were below limit of detection when rubber gloves, coveralls, and full-face mask were used. The total-body propiconazole dose, determined for each worker by summing the estimated dermal dose and inhalation dose, ranged from 0.01 to 12 microg per kg body weight per day. Our results show that tape-stripping of the skin and the OVS can be effectively utilized to measure dermal and inhalation exposure to propiconazole, respectively, and that the dermal route of exposure contributed substantially more to the total dose than the inhalation route.

  18. 40 CFR 158.250 - Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure. 158.250 Section 158.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure. No data for applicator exposure and...

  19. 40 CFR 158.250 - Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure. 158.250 Section 158.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure. No data for applicator exposure and...

  20. 40 CFR 158.250 - Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure. 158.250 Section 158.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure. No data for applicator exposure and...

  1. 40 CFR 158.250 - Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure. 158.250 Section 158.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for human exposure. No data for applicator exposure and...

  2. HEDS - EPA DATABASE SYSTEM FOR PUBLIC ACCESS TO HUMAN EXPOSURE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) is an Internet-based system developed to provide public access to human-exposure-related data from studies conducted by EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). HEDS was designed to work with the EPA Office of Research and Devel...

  3. THE HUMAN EXPOSURE DATABASE SYSTEM (HEDS)-PUTTING THE NHEXAS DATA ON-LINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed an Internet accessible Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) to provide the results of NERL human exposure studies to both the EPA and the external scientific communities. The first data sets that will be ava...

  4. Statistical Anomaly Detection for Monitoring of Human Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of human dynamics has drawn attention to various areas. Due to the wide spread of positioning technologies that use GPS or public Wi-Fi, location information can be obtained with high spatial-temporal resolution as well as at low cost. By collecting set of individual location information in real time, monitoring of human dynamics is recently considered possible and is expected to lead to dynamic traffic control in the future. Although this monitoring focuses on detecting anomalous states of human dynamics, anomaly detection methods are developed ad hoc and not fully systematized. This research aims to define an anomaly detection problem of the human dynamics monitoring with gridded population data and develop an anomaly detection method based on the definition. According to the result of a review we have comprehensively conducted, we discussed the characteristics of the anomaly detection of human dynamics monitoring and categorized our problem to a semi-supervised anomaly detection problem that detects contextual anomalies behind time-series data. We developed an anomaly detection method based on a sticky HDP-HMM, which is able to estimate the number of hidden states according to input data. Results of the experiment with synthetic data showed that our proposed method has good fundamental performance with respect to the detection rate. Through the experiment with real gridded population data, an anomaly was detected when and where an actual social event had occurred.

  5. Human Brucella canis Infection and Subsequent Laboratory Exposures Associated with a Puppy, New York City, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Dentinger, Catherine M.; Jacob, Kathleen; Lee, Lillian V.; Mendez, Herman A.; Chotikanatis, Kobkul; McDonough, Patrick L.; Chico, David M.; De, Barun K.; Traxler, Rita M.; Campagnolo, Enzo R.; Schmitt, David; Guerra, Marta A.; Slavinski, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Human Brucella canis infection incidence is unknown. Most identified cases are associated with pet dogs. Contact with pathogenic Brucella spp. can lead to laboratory-acquired infections. We identified a pediatric B. canis case, the source, and other exposed persons. A three-year-old New York City child with fever and dyspnea was hospitalized for 48 hours for bronchiolitis. After her admission blood culture grew B. canis, she was prescribed antimicrobials and recovered. B. canis was isolated from blood of the child's pet dog. Isolates from the child and the dog were genetically similar. The dog originated from an Iowa breeding facility which was quarantined after identification of the puppy's infection. Thirty-one laboratory workers were exposed and subsequently monitored for symptoms; 15 completed post-exposure prophylaxis. This first report strongly suggesting B. canis transmission from a canine to a child in the United States highlights the need for coordinated control policies to minimize human illness. PMID:25363807

  6. Demonstration of real-time monitoring of a photolithographic exposure process using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mowry, C.D.

    1998-02-01

    Silicon wafers are coated with photoresist and exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light in a laboratory to simulate typical conditions expected in an actual semiconductor manufacturing process tool. Air is drawn through the exposure chamber and analyzed using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI/MS). Species that evaporate or outgas from the wafer are thus detected. The purpose of such analyses is to determine the potential of CI/MS as a real-time process monitoring tool. Results demonstrate that CI/MS can remotely detect the products evolved before, during, and after wafer UV exposure; and that the quantity and type of products vary with the photoresist coated on the wafer. Such monitoring could provide semiconductor manufacturers benefits in quality control and process analysis. Tool and photoresist manufacturers could also realize benefits from this measurement technique with respect to new tool, method, or photoresist development. The benefits realized can lead to improved device yields and reduced product and development costs.

  7. Human nasal mucosal changes after exposure to urban pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Garcia, R; Sanchez, G; Barragan, G; Camacho, R; Ramirez, L

    1994-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are living in areas where ozone (O3) concentrations exceed health standards (an hourly average of 235 micrograms/m3/0.12 ppm, not to be exceeded more than once per year). Ozone induces acute nasal inflammatory responses and significant epithelial lesions in experimental animals and humans. To determine the nasal effects of a 15-day exposure to an urban polluted atmosphere with O3 as the main pollutant, we studied a population of healthy, young males newly arrived to southwest metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC). The study included 49 non-smoking residents in an unpolluted port, Veracruz City; 14 subjects stayed in the port and served as controls, while 35 subjects traveled to SWMMC and had serial nasal lavages at different times after arriving in SWMMC. Subjects had exposures to ambient O3 an average of 10.2 hr/day, with a total cumulative O3 exposure of 10.644 ppm.hr. Nasal inflammatory responses, polymorphonuclear leukocyte PMN-CD11b surface expression, rhinoscopic changes, and respiratory symptoms were evaluated. Exposed subjects had massive nasal epithelial shedding and significant responses in PMN nasal influx (p < 0.00001) and in PMN-CD11b expression (p < 0.05). Cumulative O3 exposure correlated with respiratory symptoms, PMNs (rs = 0.2374, p < 0.01), and CD11b (rs = 0.3094, p < 0.01); 94% of exposed subjects experienced respiratory symptoms, and 97% left the city with an abnormal nasal mucosa by rhinoscopy. Nasal epithelial changes persisted 2 weeks after the exposed subjects returned to their nonpolluted environment. Exposure to an urban polluted atmosphere induces significant and persistent nasal epithelial alterations in healthy subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 2. E Figure 2. F Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:7713020

  8. Sociopsychological factors affecting the human response to noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Borsky, P N

    1979-08-01

    Community noise is reported to be the most often mentioned undesirable neighborhood condition in a recent U.S. Census survey. Understanding community response to noise involves the measurement of a number of complex acoustic and nonacoustic variables and establishing the chain of relationships between physical exposure, perception, annoyance, and acceptability responses and finally complaint behavior. The perceived loudness of a noise is the most important acoustic parameter influencing annoyance and complaints, and the simple dBA unit can be used to integrate spectral characteristics of complex sounds in community studies. Although energy averaging such as Leq or Ldn can be used to describe multiple noise exposures over time, the variable trade-off relationships between number and level of exposures are somewhat obscured by such summary measures. However, they are still the best available descriptors and, until more accurate ones are developed, can be used to measure community noise environments. Perception of an identical noise exposure can vary according to the physiological noise sensitivity of a person and the activity context in which the noise is heard. Although the acoustic quality of the noise itself usually explains about 10 to 25 per cent of the variability in annoyance responses, sociopsychological variables measured in field studies account for 35 to 50 per cent of the variations in human annoyance responses. Three of the most important nonacoustic factors are the connotative fear effects of the noise signal, the feeling that those responsible for the noise are misfeasant in not reducing the noise, and the feeling that harmful health effects are produced by the noise. When residents report great fear, a high misfeasance, and marked health effects, about 90 per cent report a high annoyance level whether their noise exposure level is above 90 Ldn or 65 to 70 Ldn. In contrast, if the feelings are a low fear level, a low degree of misfeasance, and minimal

  9. Biological monitoring to assess dermal exposure to ethylene oxide vapours during an incidental release.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, Peter J; van Puijvelde, Mathieu J P; Urbanus, Jan H

    2014-12-15

    During a short incident in an ethylene oxide (EO) producing plant, EO vapour was released under high pressure. Operators wore full respiratory protection during repairs to fix the leak. To check the adequacy of the applied personal protective equipment and to address concerns about potential dermal exposure and subsequent uptake of EO, biological monitoring was applied by determination of the haemoglobin adducts of EO in blood. Based on the results of the biomonitoring, a risk assessment of dermal exposure to EO vapour was made. Calculations to estimate dermal exposure, based on two recently published models and using the relevant physical-chemical properties of EO, indicate that the dermal contribution to total exposure is expected to be negligible under normal operating circumstances. However, the models indicate that under accidental circumstances of product spillage, when high air concentrations can build up quickly and where incident response is conducted under respiratory protection with independently supplied air, the systemic exposure resulting from dermal absorption may reach levels of concern. The model estimates were compared to the actual biomonitoring data in the operators involved in the accidental release of EO vapour. The results suggest that when incidental exposures to high EO vapour concentrations (several thousand ppm) occur during periods in excess of 20-30 min, additional risk management measures, such as wearing chemical impervious suits, should be considered to control dermal uptake of EO.

  10. Energy monitoring based on human activity in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Human behavior is the most important factor in order to manage energy usage. Nowadays, smart house technology offers a better quality of life by introducing automated appliance control and assistive services. However, human behaviors will contribute to the efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior atb the workplace. Then, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy in efficient ways based on human behaviours. This scenario will lead to the positive impact in order to achieve the energy saving in the building and support the green environment.

  11. Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaners.

    PubMed

    Verma, Y; Rana, S V

    2001-10-01

    Exposure to benzene has been monitored in petrol-pump workers and dry cleaners of Meerut City (India) by measuring phenol content of their urine samples. Average values for phenol in urine were higher in petrol-pump workers than dry cleaners. Alcoholic subjects excreted more phenol than smokers and non-vegetarians. It is concluded that alcohol can alter the susceptibility of man to benzene toxicity by affecting its metabolism.

  12. Usability of a Daily Noise Exposure Monitoring Device for Industrial Workers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Steven C.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Usability is an important but often overlooked aspect of personal protective equipment technology. As part of a worksite intervention trial of a new technology for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss that allows workers to monitor their noise exposure inside of hearing protection on a daily basis, we studied the usability of the daily noise exposure monitoring device. Methods: We conducted surveys and focus groups for workers enrolled in an intervention trial of daily use of a noise dosimeter with a microphone fitted inside of an individual’s hearing protector (QuietDose). Volunteers completed a baseline and annual survey that included questions about perceived usability of the QuietDose device. Responses to usability questions on the annual survey were abstracted and compared to whether the individual was still using the device. Finally, 16 in-depth focus groups were conducted with subjects to qualitatively explore common themes regarding the usability of the technology. Results: Reported problems downloading data or starting and stopping the monitoring device and/or ear discomfort were associated with whether individuals chose to continue monitoring and downloading their noise exposure data. Perceived benefits of the technology included the perception that it could help preserve hearing. Conclusions: A novel technology that allows workers to record noise exposures inside of hearing protectors on a daily basis has been developed. Current users of the device report positive perception about how the device is helping them prevent noise-induced hearing loss. However, in its current version, users reported a number of usability barriers that are associated with stopping use of the device. These barriers to use should be addressed as the technology progresses. PMID:22459319

  13. Use of mixed-function oxygenases to monitor contaminant exposure in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Marn, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    This overview examines the utility of mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes as a bioeffects monitor for wildlife (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) in view of their widespread use as indicators of contaminant exposure in aquatic invertebrates and fish. Phylogenetic trends in MFO activity, toxicological implications of induction and the relationship between contaminant exposure and MFO activity are discussed. Field studies using avian embryos and hatchlings suggest that MFO induction has utility for documenting contaminant exposure; however, findings in adult birds and mammals are equivocal. Age, sex and season are sources of variation that require consideration when undertaking field trials. Further understanding of MFO inducibility among species and application of recently developed analytical techniques including quantification of specific cytochrome P-450 isozymes are warranted.

  14. Air pollution dispersion models for human exposure predictions in London.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Sean D; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Williams, Martin L; Kelly, Frank J; Ross Anderson, H; Carslaw, David C

    2013-01-01

    The London household survey has shown that people travel and are exposed to air pollutants differently. This argues for human exposure to be based upon space-time-activity data and spatio-temporal air quality predictions. For the latter, we have demonstrated the role that dispersion models can play by using two complimentary models, KCLurban, which gives source apportionment information, and Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ)-urban, which predicts hourly air quality. The KCLurban model is in close agreement with observations of NO(X), NO(2) and particulate matter (PM)(10/2.5), having a small normalised mean bias (-6% to 4%) and a large Index of Agreement (0.71-0.88). The temporal trends of NO(X) from the CMAQ-urban model are also in reasonable agreement with observations. Spatially, NO(2) predictions show that within 10's of metres of major roads, concentrations can range from approximately 10-20 p.p.b. up to 70 p.p.b. and that for PM(10/2.5) central London roadside concentrations are approximately double the suburban background concentrations. Exposure to different PM sources is important and we predict that brake wear-related PM(10) concentrations are approximately eight times greater near major roads than at suburban background locations. Temporally, we have shown that average NO(X) concentrations close to roads can range by a factor of approximately six between the early morning minimum and morning rush hour maximum periods. These results present strong arguments for the hybrid exposure model under development at King's and, in future, for in-building models and a model for the London Underground.

  15. Monitoring of Occupational Exposures in Albania Using TLD-100 cards (2003-2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Qafmolla, Luan; Hoxhaj, Enver

    2010-01-21

    In our paper is described the monitoring of occupational staff that works in ionising radiation field of the diagnostic centres in Albania for 2003-2007, and is analysed and discussed the mean annual dose rate recorded for above-mentioned period. The monitoring was based in TLD-100 dosimetric cards and the control was performed all over the country on bimonthly basis covering main and important cities like: Tirana, Durresi, Shkodra, Fieri, Vlora, Korca etj. The Department of Human and Environment Protection, at the Centre of Applied Nuclear Physics, through the dosimetric service carried out the monitoring for around 350 radiation workers.

  16. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  17. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 μM cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell’s ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. PMID:23811327

  18. Human exposure to fipronil from dogs treated with frontline.

    PubMed

    Jennings, K A; Canerdy, T D; Keller, R J; Atieh, B H; Doss, R B; Gupta, R C

    2002-10-01

    This investigation determined fipronil residues on gloves worn while petting dogs after Frontline application. Frontline contains 9.8% fipronil, which controls fleas and ticks on dogs for at least 30 d. Frontline (1.34 ml) was applied topically on adult household dogs and gloves worn for 5 min during pettingwere collected 24 hr and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 w post-Frontline application for fipronil residue determinations using GC/MS. The highest concentration of fipronil (589.3 +/- 205.7ppm) was detected 24 h after Frontline application and was undetectable in the gloves collected at 5w. Repeated exposure to such contamination can pose human health risks.

  19. Fracture of human femur tissue monitored by acoustic emission sensors.

    PubMed

    Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure.

  20. Fracture of Human Femur Tissue Monitored by Acoustic Emission Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Aggelis, Dimitrios. G.; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure. PMID:25763648

  1. Fracture of human femur tissue monitored by acoustic emission sensors.

    PubMed

    Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure. PMID:25763648

  2. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are associated with severe lead poisoning. Leaded gasoline and lead in food, but not lead-based paint, are strongly associated with population blood lead levels in both young children and adults. Soil lead and house dust, but not lead-based paint, are associated with population blood lead levels in children. Most soil lead and house dust are associated with leaded gasoline. Lead-based paint dust is associated with cases of renovation of either exterior or interior environments in which the paint was pulverized. Based upon the limited data to date, abatement of soil lead is more effective than abatement of lead-based paint in reducing blood lead levels of young children. About equal numbers of children under 7 years of age are exposed to soil lead and lead-based paint. Seasonality studies point to soil lead as the main source of population blood lead levels. Soil lead is a greater risk factor than lead-based paint to children engaged in hand-to-mouth and pica behavior. In summary, soil lead is important for addressing the population of children at risk of lead poisoning. When soil lead is acknowledged by regulators and the public health community as an important pathway of human lead exposure, then more effective opportunities for improving primary lead prevention can become a reality. Images Figure 1 PMID:9539015

  3. Influence of environmental exposure on human epigenetic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Marsit, Carmen J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental toxicants can alter epigenetic regulatory features such as DNA methylation and microRNA expression. As the sensitivity of epigenomic regulatory features may be greatest during the in utero period, when critical windows are narrow, and when epigenomic profiles are being set, this review will highlight research focused on that period. I will focus on work in human populations, where the impact of environmental toxicants in utero, including cigarette smoke and toxic trace metals such as arsenic, mercury and manganese, on genome-wide, gene-specific DNA methylation has been assessed. In particular, arsenic is highlighted, as this metalloid has been the focus of a number of studies and its detoxification mechanisms are well understood. Importantly, the tissues and cells being examined must be considered in context in order to interpret the findings of these studies. For example, by studying the placenta, it is possible to identify potential epigenetic adaptations of key genes and pathways that may alter the developmental course in line with the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm. Alternatively, studies of newborn cord blood can be used to examine how environmental exposure in utero can impact the composition of cells within the peripheral blood, leading to immunological effects of exposure. The results suggest that in humans, like other vertebrates, there is a susceptibility for epigenomic alteration by the environment during intrauterine development, and this may represent a mechanism of plasticity of the organism in response to its environment as well as a mechanism through which long-term health consequences can be shaped. PMID:25568453

  4. TOXICOLOGY LABORATORY ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE TO p-CHLOROANILINE

    PubMed Central

    Pizon, AF; Schwartz, AR; Shum, LR; Rittenberger, JC; Lower, DR; Giannoutsos, S; Virji, MA; Krasowski, MD

    2008-01-01

    Introduction p-Chloroaniline is more potent at producing methemoglobin than aniline in animal models. This case highlights the clinical presentation of an inhalation exposure to p-chloroaniline and associated laboratory analysis. An in-vitro study evaluating the metabolism of p-chloroaniline in human hepatocytes was undertaken to evaluate the metabolic fate more closely. Case Presentation A 20 year-old man was working at a chemical waste plant when he developed dizziness, abdominal pain, and nausea. The exam was remarkable for coma, tachycardia, cyanosis and pulse oximetry of 75%. Arterial blood gases showed a pH 7.38, pCO2 41 mmHg, pO2 497 mmHg, bicarbonate 24 mEq/L and methemoglobin 69%. Methylene blue administration led to complete recovery without sequelae. p-Chloroaniline was later identified as the chemical involved. He denied direct contact with the chemical, but was not wearing a dust mask or respirator. GC/MS confirmed p-chloroaniline and metabolites in the patient’s urine. Methods Human hepatocytes were incubated with 100 µM p-chloroaniline for 24 hours, in both rifampicin- and vehicle only-treated cells. The cell culture medium was collected for GC/MS analysis for p-chloroaniline metabolites. Results Similar to the patient sample, both p-chloroaniline and p-chloroacetanilide were identified by GC/MS in hepatocytes incubated with p-chloroaniline. Neither p-chloroaniline incubated in empty cell culture nor direct GC/MS injection of p-chloroaniline generated any p-chloroacetanilide via non-enzymatic degradation. Discussion/Conclusion The seemingly innocuous dermal and inhalation exposure to p-chloroaniline dust can lead to life-threatening methemoglobinemia. The diagnosis can be confirmed with GC/MS analysis of the patient’s urine, searching for p-chloroaniline and its primary metabolite p-chloroacetanilide. PMID:18608262

  5. Computer subroutines for estimation of human exposure to radiation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computer subroutines to calculate human exposure to trapped radiations in low Earth orbit (LEO) on the basis of a simple approximation of the human geometry by spherical shell shields of varying thickness are presented and detailed. The subroutines calculate the dose to critical body organs and the fraction of exposure limit reached as a function of altitude of orbit, degree of inclination, shield thickness, and days in mission. Exposure rates are compared with current exposure limits.

  6. Effects of subchronic exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in mice. II. The design of a CAPs exposure system for biometric telemetry monitoring.

    PubMed

    Maciejczyk, Polina; Zhong, Mianhua; Li, Qian; Xiong, Judy; Nadziejko, Christine; Chen, Lung Chi

    2005-04-01

    We modified, assembled, tested, and validated the versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) developed by Sioutas et al. (1999) for use in a subchronic experiment that involved exposure of mice in vivo and of respiratory epithelial cells in vitro to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Since the labor-intensive nose-only exposure regimen is not an option in a long-term experiment, a whole-body exposure mouse chamber was designed specifically for use with the VACES. The exposure system concsists of a stainless-steel (SS) tub with 32 cubicles (1 mouse per cubicle) separated by perforated SS sheets. The tops of these cubicles are covered with perforated plastic sheets to allow telemetry monitoring during the exposure. In each exposure chamber, perforated aluminum tubes are used to distribute CAPs evenly (within 2% difference) throughout the exposure chamber. The exhaust consists of perforated aluminum tubes covered with a urine shield. The modification to the original design of the VACES facilitated the operation of the system in a subchronic study. Mass flow controllers maintain a constant flow rate into the exposure chambers. For a sham control exposure, the identical system is used, except that a HEPA filter at the inlet to the VACES removes 98% of ambient particles. The entire system allow for simultaneous exposure of 64 mice to CAPs, with an equal number of sham-expose mice as controls. Telemetry receives have been modified so that 16 mice per group with electrocardiograph (EKG) transmitters can be monitored during exposure. Furthermore, a BioSampler is used to collect CAPs (one sample per day) for the in vitro exposures. In this article, the assessments of flow and particle distribution of the exposure chamber as well as the performance of the system during the subchronic exposure experiment are described. PMID:15804936

  7. The use of mammals as sentinels for human exposure to toxic contaminants in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, D J; Kaneene, J B; Poppenga, R H

    1993-01-01

    The use of sentinel species shows the potential to bridge the gap between animal-based and human-based environmental health research. With regard to the assessment of environmental contamination, the use of the terms "indicator," "monitor," and "sentinel" has often been confusing and ambiguous. A set of definitions is proposed as a standard to rectify this situation. The advantages of the use of sentinel species are provided, as well as criteria for sentinel selection, based on species characteristics. The recent use of mammals as sentinels for human exposure to toxic environmental contaminants is reviewed. A tabulated review of mammals proposed as indicators or monitors is included, as these may act as a database for the selection of sentinel species for future research efforts. The complexity and subtlety of factors interacting between an organism and its environment make it imperative that one provide a focused definition of what one wants the sentinel to assess and for what particular aspect of human health. Some examples of how sentinels might be selected for particular research questions are provided. While the potential for sentinel use in the field of environmental health is enormous, future investigators need to choose sentinels carefully, based on well-defined research questions, and confine conclusions drawn to the particular problem the sentinel was chosen to assess. PMID:8319652

  8. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Ngalame, Ntube N. Olive; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2013-12-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 μM cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell's ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Chronic cadmium exposure induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells. • This provides an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung cell transformation. • This occurred with general and lung specific changes typical for cancer cells. • These findings add insight to the relationship

  9. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    PubMed Central

    Timchalk, Charles; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or transcellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa, and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human populations. PMID

  10. Assessing human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petrochemical region utilizing data from environmental biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Pereira, Maria João; Máguas, Cristina; Soares, Amílcar; Branquinho, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are toxic compounds that have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as probable or possible human carcinogens. Human exposure to PAH is usually assessed by considering data from a single air monitoring station as being representative of a large region; however, air pollution levels change on small spatial scales and thus also affect environmental exposure. The use of environmental biomonitors is a useful tool to assess the levels of PAH with high spatial resolution. The aims of this study were to (1) assess human exposure to PAH in a petrochemical region in Portugal, integrating data from environmental biomonitors (lichens), air, and soil in a regional area, and (2) determine the health risks associated with exposure to PAH with high spatial resolution. Bearing this in mind, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations in samples of soil, air, and lichens collected in the study region were used to assess human exposure through different pathways, including inhalation of air and soil particles, ingestion of soil, and dermal contact with soil. Human health risk was calculated through the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR). BaP equivalent concentrations found in the region ranged from 6.9 to 46.05 ng BaPeq/g in lichens, from 16.45 to 162.02 ng BaPeq/g in soils, and from 0.02 to 0.16 ng BaPeq/m³ in air, indicative of high variability in this regional area. Human exposure to PAH varied between 976 and 42,877 ng BaPeq/d. When considering all exposure pathways, ILCR values were between 10⁻⁴ and 10⁻³. Considering only inhalation, ILCR values were between 10⁻⁶ and 10⁻⁵. The main risk seemed to arise from soil (either ingestion or inhalation of resuspended soil particles). The high spatial resolution of our environmental data allowed for detection of critical exposure levels at unexpected sites. Our results identified important areas where health studies on local populations need to be

  11. Human milk as a source of methylmercury exposure in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P. ); Jorgensen, P.J. ); Weihe, P. )

    1994-01-01

    As methylmercury is excreted in human milk and infants are particularly susceptible to toxicity due to this compound, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible transfer of methylmercury to infants via breast-feeding. In a community with a high intake of seafood, 583 children from a birth cohort were followed. The duration of nursing was recorded, and hair samples were obtained for mercury analysis at approximately 12 months of age. The hair mercury concentrations increased with the length of the nursing period, and those nursed throughout the first year showed the highest geometric mean (9.0 nmol/g or 1.8 [mu]g/g). Human milk therefore seems to be an important source of methylmercury exposure in infants. As increasing time interval from weaning to hair sample collection was not associated with any detectable decrease in mercury concentrations. A slow or absent elimination of methylmercury during the first year after birth could explain this finding. In certain fishing communities, infants nursed for long periods may be at increased risk of developing methylmercury toxicity. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Guide to the evaluation of human exposure to noise from large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.; Grosveld, F.

    1982-01-01

    Guidance for evaluating human exposure to wind turbine noise is provided and includes consideration of the source characteristics, the propagation to the receiver location, and the exposure of the receiver to the noise. The criteria for evaluation of human exposure are based on comparisons of the noise at the receiver location with the human perception thresholds for wind turbine noise and noise-induced building vibrations in the presence of background noise.

  13. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources of Ethylene and the potential for human exposure: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Morgott, David A

    2015-11-01

    This review examines available published information on ethylene emission sources, emission magnitudes, and inhalation exposures in order to assess those factors and circumstances that can affect human contact with this omnipresent gas. The results reveal that airborne ethylene concentrations at the ppb levels are commonplace and can arise in the vicinity of traffic corridors, forest fires, indoor kitchens, horticultural areas, oil fields, house fires, and petrochemical sites. The primary biogenic sources of ethylene derive from microbial activity in most soil and marine environments as well as its biological formation in wide variety of plant species. Sizable amounts of ethylene can also result from the burning of fossil fuels, forest and savanna fires, and crop residue combustion. Motor vehicle exhaust is the largest contributor to urban ethylene levels under most circumstances, but industrial flare releases and fugitive emissions may also be of relevance. Occupational exposures generally range up to about 50-100 ppm and have been documented for those working in the horticultural, petrochemical, and fire and rescue industries. Continuous personal monitoring at the community level has documented exposures of 3-4 ppb. These levels are more closely associated with the ethylene concentrations found indoors rather than outdoors indicating the importance of exposure sources found within the home. Indoor air sources of ethylene are associated with environmental tobacco smoke, wood or propane fuel use, fruit and vegetable storage, and cooking. Ethylene is not found in any consumer or commercial products and does not off-gas from building products to any appreciable extent. The review indicates that outdoor sources located some distance from the home do not make an appreciable contribution to personal exposures given the strength and variety of sources found in the immediate living environment.

  14. A liquid crystal-based passive badge for personal monitoring of exposure to hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sheila E; Grinwald, Bart A; Bremer, Laura L; Kupcho, Kurt A; Acharya, Bharat R; Owens, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    A new liquid crystal (LC)-based passive dosimeter badge for personal monitoring of exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is reported. When a thin film of LC supported on a surface functionalized with lead perchlorate Pb(ClO4)2 (the LC sensor) is exposed to H2S, the orientation of LC molecules in the film changes from perpendicular to parallel. This reorientation induces a change in the appearance of the LC film when viewed between crossed polarizers. A H2S dosimeter was fabricated by pairing a LC sensor with a glass substrate forming a headspace between the two surfaces, to control diffusion of H2S across the LC film. When the dosimeter is exposed to H2S, a bright front appears as a function of exposure time. An algorithm has been developed to correlate this response length and exposure dose. The dosimeters are functionally stable when subjected to extreme temperature and humidity fluctuations, and are immune to a number of potentially interfering chemicals, except mercaptans. These dosimeters detect H2S at 0.2 ppm TWA (8 hr) with ±20% overall accuracy. The dosimeters were used to monitor the personal exposure of personnel working in an oil refinery. The TWA concentrations measured by the LC-based dosimeters correlate strongly with the NIOSH 1063 method that uses a sorbent tube and a pump followed by laboratory analysis. Thus, the LC-based dosimeters can provide a sensitive tool for on-site assessment of personal exposure to H2S in different environments. PMID:24766440

  15. A liquid crystal-based passive badge for personal monitoring of exposure to hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sheila E; Grinwald, Bart A; Bremer, Laura L; Kupcho, Kurt A; Acharya, Bharat R; Owens, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    A new liquid crystal (LC)-based passive dosimeter badge for personal monitoring of exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is reported. When a thin film of LC supported on a surface functionalized with lead perchlorate Pb(ClO4)2 (the LC sensor) is exposed to H2S, the orientation of LC molecules in the film changes from perpendicular to parallel. This reorientation induces a change in the appearance of the LC film when viewed between crossed polarizers. A H2S dosimeter was fabricated by pairing a LC sensor with a glass substrate forming a headspace between the two surfaces, to control diffusion of H2S across the LC film. When the dosimeter is exposed to H2S, a bright front appears as a function of exposure time. An algorithm has been developed to correlate this response length and exposure dose. The dosimeters are functionally stable when subjected to extreme temperature and humidity fluctuations, and are immune to a number of potentially interfering chemicals, except mercaptans. These dosimeters detect H2S at 0.2 ppm TWA (8 hr) with ±20% overall accuracy. The dosimeters were used to monitor the personal exposure of personnel working in an oil refinery. The TWA concentrations measured by the LC-based dosimeters correlate strongly with the NIOSH 1063 method that uses a sorbent tube and a pump followed by laboratory analysis. Thus, the LC-based dosimeters can provide a sensitive tool for on-site assessment of personal exposure to H2S in different environments.

  16. The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply-Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Debora Regina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Garcia, Juan Esquivel; Costa, Daniele Dietrich Moura; Liebel, Samuel; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge concerning associations between chronic chemical exposure and many disorders with complex etiology involving gene-environment interactions is increasing, and new methods must be developed to improve water quality monitoring. The complexity of chemical mixtures in polluted aquatic environments makes the evaluation of toxic potential in those sites difficult, but the use of biomarkers and bioindicators has been recognized as a reliable tool to assess risk of exposure to biota and also the human population. In order to evaluate the use of fish and biomarkers to assess toxic potential and bioavailability of chemicals in human-related hydric resources, an in situ experiment was accomplished in two water reservoirs designated for human supply, which were previously evaluated by the local environmental regulatory agency through a set of physical, chemical, and classical biological parameters. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers were performed in caged Oreochromis niloticus kept for 6 months in the studied reservoirs to assess potentially useful biomarkers to evaluate the quality of water for human supply. Chemical analysis of toxic metals in liver and muscle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile was considered to assess the bioavailability of pollutants and highlight human activity impact. The reservoir previously classified by a governmental agency as less impacted presented more risk of exposure to biota. These results were supported by chemical analysis, vitellogenin expression, histopathological findings (gonads, liver, and gills), as well as indicators of neurotoxic effects and oxidative stress in liver. The inclusion of some biomarkers as parameters in regulatory monitoring programs in reservoirs designated for human supply is strongly suggested to evaluate the risks of exposure to the human population. Thus, a revision of the traditional biological and physicochemical analysis utilized to establish the conditions of

  17. The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply-Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Debora Regina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Garcia, Juan Esquivel; Costa, Daniele Dietrich Moura; Liebel, Samuel; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge concerning associations between chronic chemical exposure and many disorders with complex etiology involving gene-environment interactions is increasing, and new methods must be developed to improve water quality monitoring. The complexity of chemical mixtures in polluted aquatic environments makes the evaluation of toxic potential in those sites difficult, but the use of biomarkers and bioindicators has been recognized as a reliable tool to assess risk of exposure to biota and also the human population. In order to evaluate the use of fish and biomarkers to assess toxic potential and bioavailability of chemicals in human-related hydric resources, an in situ experiment was accomplished in two water reservoirs designated for human supply, which were previously evaluated by the local environmental regulatory agency through a set of physical, chemical, and classical biological parameters. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers were performed in caged Oreochromis niloticus kept for 6 months in the studied reservoirs to assess potentially useful biomarkers to evaluate the quality of water for human supply. Chemical analysis of toxic metals in liver and muscle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile was considered to assess the bioavailability of pollutants and highlight human activity impact. The reservoir previously classified by a governmental agency as less impacted presented more risk of exposure to biota. These results were supported by chemical analysis, vitellogenin expression, histopathological findings (gonads, liver, and gills), as well as indicators of neurotoxic effects and oxidative stress in liver. The inclusion of some biomarkers as parameters in regulatory monitoring programs in reservoirs designated for human supply is strongly suggested to evaluate the risks of exposure to the human population. Thus, a revision of the traditional biological and physicochemical analysis utilized to establish the conditions of

  18. Integration of Air Quality Modeling and Monitoring Data for Enhanced Health Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to assess the environmental impact of air pollution on human health it is necessary to establish the concentrations to which the population is exposed. The obvious way to determine this is to measure these quantities. However, given the limited number of monitoring stati...

  19. Ultra-trace measurement of Dechloranes to investigate food as a route of human exposure.

    PubMed

    L'Homme, Benjamin; Calaprice, Chiara; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Leardi, Riccardo; Focant, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Dechloranes, including Dechlorane Plus (syn- and anti-isomers), Dechlorane 602, Dechlorane 603, Dechlorane 604, Chlordene Plus, and Mirex are used as flame-retardants and were recently found in human serum of the European population. In order to investigate if food consumption would possibly be a significant route of exposure, we developed a method for the measurement of Dechloranes in food and feed. We showed that it was possible to extend the scope of the regular polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin like (DL-), and non-dioxin like (NDL-) regulated PCBs clean-up and fractionation procedure to Dechloranes and that no compound degradation occurred during the strong acidic treatments used for lipid digestion. Dechloranes were measured by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQMS/MS). We optimized injection parameters by face centered experimental design (FCD). The electron ionization fragmentation was investigated to set appropriate multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. Instrumental and method limits of quantitation (iLOQs and mLOQs) were determined following EU guidelines for dioxin analyses in food. A total of 88 samples were analyzed to assess the prevalence of this route of exposure to humans. Average levels of the sum of Dechloranes ranged from 10 to 31pg/g fat, with the exception of fish, feed additives, and corn that were reported in pg/g wet weight at average levels of 9, 12, and 2pg/g ww. Based on Belgian food habits, a dietary intake was estimated to be 136pg/day. The relatively low reported levels indicate that other routes of human exposure should be considered.

  20. Ultra-trace measurement of Dechloranes to investigate food as a route of human exposure.

    PubMed

    L'Homme, Benjamin; Calaprice, Chiara; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Leardi, Riccardo; Focant, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    Dechloranes, including Dechlorane Plus (syn- and anti-isomers), Dechlorane 602, Dechlorane 603, Dechlorane 604, Chlordene Plus, and Mirex are used as flame-retardants and were recently found in human serum of the European population. In order to investigate if food consumption would possibly be a significant route of exposure, we developed a method for the measurement of Dechloranes in food and feed. We showed that it was possible to extend the scope of the regular polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin like (DL-), and non-dioxin like (NDL-) regulated PCBs clean-up and fractionation procedure to Dechloranes and that no compound degradation occurred during the strong acidic treatments used for lipid digestion. Dechloranes were measured by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQMS/MS). We optimized injection parameters by face centered experimental design (FCD). The electron ionization fragmentation was investigated to set appropriate multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. Instrumental and method limits of quantitation (iLOQs and mLOQs) were determined following EU guidelines for dioxin analyses in food. A total of 88 samples were analyzed to assess the prevalence of this route of exposure to humans. Average levels of the sum of Dechloranes ranged from 10 to 31pg/g fat, with the exception of fish, feed additives, and corn that were reported in pg/g wet weight at average levels of 9, 12, and 2pg/g ww. Based on Belgian food habits, a dietary intake was estimated to be 136pg/day. The relatively low reported levels indicate that other routes of human exposure should be considered. PMID:26313934

  1. Results from the first five years of radiation exposure monitoring aboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Semones, E.; Shelfer, T.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.

    NASA uses a variety of radiation monitoring devices aboard the International Space Station as part of its space flight radiation health program. This operational monitoring system consists of passive dosimeters, internal and external charged particle telescopes, and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). Sixteen passive dosimeters, each consisting of TLD-100, TLD-300, TLD-600, and TLD-700 chips in a small acrylic holder, are placed throughout the habitable volume of the ISS. The TEPC and internal charged particle telescopes are portable and can be relocated to multiple locations in the Lab Module or Service Module. The external charged particle telescopes are mounted to a fixed boom attached to the starboard truss. Passive dosimeters were used in eleven monitoring periods over the period 20 May 1999 to 04 May 2003. Over this period exposure rates from TLD-100 measurements ranged from 0.120-0.300 mGy/d. Exposure rates inside the habitable volume are non-uniform: exposures vary by a factor of ˜ 1.7 from minimum to maximum, with the greatest non-uniformity occurring in the Lab Module. Highest daily exposure rates are near the window in the Lab Module, inside the Joint Airlock, and the sleep stations inside the Service Module, while the lowest rates occur inside the polyethylene-lined Temporary Sleep Station in the Lab Module, adjacent to the port ``arm'' of Node 1, and the aft end of the Service Module. The minimum exposure rates as measured by the passive dosimeters occurred in the spring of 2002, very close to the solar F10.7 emission maximum (Feb 2002), and two years after the sunspot maximum (Apr 2000). Exposure rates have since gradually increased as the sun's activity transitions towards solar minimum conditions. Since 01 Jun 2002, dose rates measured by the IV-CPDS, estimated from the count rate in first detector of the telescope's stack, ranged from ˜ 0.170-0.390 mGy/d. The maximum measured dose rate occurred 28 Oct 2003 during the ``Halloween

  2. Estimating Mercury Exposure of Piscivorous Birds and Sport Fish Using Prey Fish Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Davis, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-11-17

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant of aquatic ecosystems, and monitoring programs need tools to predict mercury exposure of wildlife. We developed equations to estimate methylmercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using mercury concentrations in prey fish. We collected original data on western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and summarized the published literature to generate predictive equations specific to grebes and a general equation for piscivorous birds. We measured mercury concentrations in 354 grebes (blood averaged 1.06 ± 0.08 μg/g ww), 101 grebe eggs, 230 sport fish (predominantly largemouth bass and rainbow trout), and 505 prey fish (14 species) at 25 lakes throughout California. Mercury concentrations in grebe blood, grebe eggs, and sport fish were strongly related to mercury concentrations in prey fish among lakes. Each 1.0 μg/g dw (∼0.24 μg/g ww) increase in prey fish resulted in an increase in mercury concentrations of 103% in grebe blood, 92% in grebe eggs, and 116% in sport fish. We also found strong correlations between mercury concentrations in grebes and sport fish among lakes. Our results indicate that prey fish monitoring can be used to estimate mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish when wildlife cannot be directly sampled. PMID:26449260

  3. Estimating Mercury Exposure of Piscivorous Birds and Sport Fish Using Prey Fish Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Davis, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-11-17

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant of aquatic ecosystems, and monitoring programs need tools to predict mercury exposure of wildlife. We developed equations to estimate methylmercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using mercury concentrations in prey fish. We collected original data on western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and summarized the published literature to generate predictive equations specific to grebes and a general equation for piscivorous birds. We measured mercury concentrations in 354 grebes (blood averaged 1.06 ± 0.08 μg/g ww), 101 grebe eggs, 230 sport fish (predominantly largemouth bass and rainbow trout), and 505 prey fish (14 species) at 25 lakes throughout California. Mercury concentrations in grebe blood, grebe eggs, and sport fish were strongly related to mercury concentrations in prey fish among lakes. Each 1.0 μg/g dw (∼0.24 μg/g ww) increase in prey fish resulted in an increase in mercury concentrations of 103% in grebe blood, 92% in grebe eggs, and 116% in sport fish. We also found strong correlations between mercury concentrations in grebes and sport fish among lakes. Our results indicate that prey fish monitoring can be used to estimate mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish when wildlife cannot be directly sampled.

  4. Estimating mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using prey fish monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Davis, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant of aquatic ecosystems, and monitoring programs need tools to predict mercury exposure of wildlife. We developed equations to estimate methylmercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using mercury concentrations in prey fish. We collected original data on western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark’s grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and summarized the published literature to generate predictive equations specific to grebes and a general equation for piscivorous birds. We measured mercury concentrations in 354 grebes (blood averaged 1.06 ± 0.08 μg/g ww), 101 grebe eggs, 230 sport fish (predominantly largemouth bass and rainbow trout), and 505 prey fish (14 species) at 25 lakes throughout California. Mercury concentrations in grebe blood, grebe eggs, and sport fish were strongly related to mercury concentrations in prey fish among lakes. Each 1.0 μg/g dw (∼0.24 μg/g ww) increase in prey fish resulted in an increase in mercury concentrations of 103% in grebe blood, 92% in grebe eggs, and 116% in sport fish. We also found strong correlations between mercury concentrations in grebes and sport fish among lakes. Our results indicate that prey fish monitoring can be used to estimate mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish when wildlife cannot be directly sampled.

  5. Radiation exposure to human trachea from Xenon-133 procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Prohovnik, I.; Metz, C.D.; Atkins, H.L. ||

    1995-08-01

    The general dosimetry of {sup 133}Xe for human studies is well documented, but the resultant radiation exposure to tracheal tissue is poorly known. This organ is of central relevance because the tracer is primarily eliminated through exhalation. We report actual {sup 133}Xe concentrations in respiratory air during measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), when the tracer is administered both by inhalation and intravenous injection. Data were collected from 102 patients, with equal gender representation and an age range of 18-82 yr. Most of the patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage or Alzheimer`s disease or were normal control subjects. Average administered doses were 18 {plus_minus} 4 mCi by inhalation and 15 {plus_minus} 3 intravenously. We found average respiratory concentrations of about 1.80 mCi/liter during a 1-min inhalation and 0.74 mCi/liter following intravenous injection of standard doses. These activities drop rapidly: average respiratory concentrations during the second minute are 0.70 mCi/liter for inhalation and 0.19 mCi/liter for intravenous injection and reach negligible levels thereafter. We calculate that the tracheal absorbed dose from {sup 133}Xe procedures is approximately 28 mrad following inhalation and about 11 mrad following intravenous injection. These values reflect the full 11-min exposure, but most of the activity is only present initially. These values will agree with previous estimates and indicate an excellent safety margin. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A Review of Human Health and Ecological Risks due to CO2 Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepple, R. P.; Benson, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the human health and ecological consequences of exposure to elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the context of geologic carbon sequestration. The purpose of this effort is to provide a baseline of information to guide future efforts in risk assessment for CO2 sequestration. Scenarios for hazardous CO2 exposure include surface facility leaks, leaks from abandoned or aging wells, and leakage from geologic CO2 storage structures. Amounts of carbon in various reservoirs, systems, and applications were summarized, and the levels of CO2 encountered in nature and everyday life were compared along with physiologically relevant concentrations. Literature pertaining to CO2 occupational exposure limits, regulations, monitoring, and ecological consequences was reviewed. The OSHA, NIOSH, and ACGIH occupational exposure standards are 0.5% CO2 averaged over a 40 hour week, 3% average for a short-term (15 minute) exposure, and 4% as the maximum instantaneous limit considered immediately dangerous to life and health. All three conditions must be satisfied at all times. Any detrimental effects of low-level CO2 exposure are reversible, including the long-term metabolic compensation required by chronic exposure to 3% CO2. Breathing rate doubles at 3% CO2 and is four times the normal rate at 5% CO2. According to occupational exposure and controlled atmosphere research into CO2 toxicology, CO2 is hazardous via direct toxicity at levels above 5%, concentrations not encountered in nature outside of volcanic settings and water-logged soils. Small leaks do not present any danger to people unless the CO2 does not disperse quickly enough through atmospheric mixing but accumulates instead in depressions and confined spaces. These dangers are the result of CO2 being more dense than air. Carbon dioxide is regulated for diverse purposes but never as a toxic substance. Catastrophic incidents involving large amounts and/or rapid release of CO2 such as Lake

  7. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  8. Environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds among workers in Mexico City as assessed by personal monitors and blood concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Ramirez, M; Meneses, F; Ashley, D; Lemire, S; Colome, S; Fung, K; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1999-01-01

    Benzene, an important component in gasoline, is a widely distributed environmental contaminant that has been linked to known health effects in animals and humans, including leukemia. In Mexico City, environmental benzene levels, which may be elevated because of the heavy traffic and the poor emission control devices of older vehicles, may pose a health risk to the population. To assess the potential risk, portable passive monitors and blood concentrations were used to survey three different occupational groups in Mexico City. Passive monitors measured the personal exposure of 45 workers to benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene and m-/p-xylene during a work shift. Blood concentrations of the above volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methyl tert-butyl ether, and styrene were measured at the beginning and the end of a work shift. Passive monitors showed significantly higher (p > 0.0001) benzene exposure levels among service station attendants (median = 330 microg/m3; range 130-770) as compared to street vendors (median = 62 microg/m3; range 49-180) and office workers (median = 44 microg/m3, range 32-67). Baseline blood benzene levels (BBLs) for these groups were higher than those reported for similar populations from Western countries (median = 0.63 microg/L, n = 24 for service station attendants; median = 0.30 microg/L, n = 6 for street vendors; and median = 0.17 microgr;g/L, n = 7 for office workers). Nonsmoking office workers who were nonoccupationally exposed to VOCs had BBLs that were more than five times higher than those observed in a nonsmoking U.S. population. BBLs of participants did not increase during the work shift, suggesting that because the participants were chronically exposed to benzene, complex pharmacokinetic mechanisms were involved. Our results highlight the need for more complete studies to assess the potential benefits of setting environmental standards for benzene and other VOCs in Mexico. Images Figure 1 PMID:10378996

  9. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Personal monitoring coupled with GPS tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia; Schipperijn, Jasper; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Toftum, Jørn; Loft, Steffen; Clausen, Geo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) may have adverse health effects. Central monitoring stations do not represent the personal exposure to UFP accurately. Few studies have previously focused on personal exposure to UFP. Sixty non-smoking residents living in Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to carry a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of ˜48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure occurring in various microenvironments (residence, during active and passive transport, other indoor and outdoor environments) to the total daily exposure. On average, the fractional contribution of each microenvironment to the daily integrated personal exposure roughly corresponded to the fractions of the day the subjects spent in each microenvironment. The home environment accounted for 50% of the daily personal exposure. Indoor environments other than home or vehicles contributed with ˜40%. The highest median UFP concentration was obtained during passive transport (vehicles). However, being in transit or outdoors contributed 5% or less to the daily exposure. Additionally, the subjects recorded in a diary the periods when they were at home. With this approach, 66% of the total daily exposure was attributable to the home environment. The subjects spent 28% more time at home according to the diary, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data.

  10. A cell kinetic model of granulopoiesis under radiation exposure: extension from rodents to canines and humans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2011-02-01

    As significant ionising radiation exposure will occur during prolonged space travel in future, it is essential to understand their adverse effects on the radiosensitive organ systems that are important for immediate survival of humans, e.g. the haematopoietic system. In this paper, a biomathematical model of granulopoiesis is used to analyse the granulocyte changes seen in the blood of mammalians under acute and continuous radiation exposure. This is one of a set of haematopoietic models that have been successfully utilised to simulate and interpret the experimental data of acute and chronic radiation on rodents. Extension to canine and human systems indicates that the results of the model are consistent with the cumulative experimental and empirical data from various sources, implying the potential to integrate them into one united model system to monitor the haematopoietic response of various species under irradiation. The suppression of granulocytes' level of a space traveller under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation as well as the granulopoietic response when encountering a historically large solar particle event is also discussed.

  11. Characterization of a hooded human exposure apparatus for inhalation of gases and aerosols.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Mehaffy, John; Watt, Janet; Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; Kline, Joel N

    2004-03-01

    A human exposure apparatus was designed to administer a gas and/or aerosol directly to the subject's face. This apparatus utilized a hood associated with a powered air-purifying respirator. The design criteria included the need to maximize subject comfort, maintain consistent atmospheres of a gas or dust within the hood, and the accurate use of direct-reading instruments to monitor exposure levels. An 83-L drum was used to pre-mix the gas or aerosol with the main dilution air prior to entering the hood worn by the subject. A clear plastic oxygen tent, ventilated with room exhaust air, was used to contain contaminants exiting the hood. Bypass valves were added to allow for a startup period during which contaminant concentration levels were allowed to stabilize prior to exposing the human subject. Results from characterization studies demonstrated that the system adequately contained contaminants within the oxygen tent, provided adequate mixing of contaminant and dilution air, produced stable contaminant concentrations over time, and was responsive to sudden changes in contaminant generation rate. PMID:15204873

  12. Widespread Decreased Expression of Immune Function Genes in Human Peripheral Blood Following Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sunirmal; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Amundson, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a large-scale reduced expression of genes in pathways related to cell-type specific immunity functions that emerges from microarray analysis 48 h after ex vivo γ-ray irradiation (0, 0.5, 2, 5, 8 Gy) of human peripheral blood from five donors. This response is similar to that seen in patients at 24 h after the start of total-body irradiation and strengthens the rationale for the ex vivo model as an adjunct to human in vivo studies. The most marked response was in genes associated with natural killer (NK) cell immune functions, reflecting a relative loss of NK cells from the population. T- and B-cell mediated immunity genes were also significantly represented in the radiation response. Combined with our previous studies, a single gene expression signature was able to predict radiation dose range with 97% accuracy at times from 6–48 h after exposure. Gene expression signatures that may report on the loss or functional deactivation of blood cell subpopulations after radiation exposure may be particularly useful both for triage biodosimetry and for monitoring the effect of radiation mitigating treatments. PMID:24168352

  13. Occupational Exposure to Ultrafine Particles among Airport Employees - Combining Personal Monitoring and Global Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper; Loft, Steffen; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH). Method 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days distributed over two weeks in October 2012. The overall differences between the groups were assessed using linear mixed model. Results Data showed significant differences in exposure levels among the groups when adjusted for variation within individuals and for effect of time and date (p<0.01). Baggage handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 25–55×103 UFP/cm3) than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 2–11×103 UFP/cm3). Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20×103 UFP/cm3). Conclusion The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees. PMID:25203510

  14. Application of mixed models to assess exposures monitored by construction workers during hot processes.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, S M; Weaver, M; Taylor, D; Kupper, L; Susi, P

    1999-10-01

    Particulate exposures were assessed among construction workers engaged in hot processes in four jobs (boilermakers, ironworkers, pipefitters and welder-fitters) at nine sites in the U.S. After being trained by occupational hygienists, the workers obtained shift-long personal samples at each site for total particulates (TP). Selected samples were also assayed for manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Workers provided information about process- and task-related covariates that were present on the days of monitoring. Data were investigated with mixed-model regression analyses that designated the jobs and covariates as fixed effects and the worker and error terms as random effects. Results indicated that the within-worker variance components, but not the between-worker variance components, could be pooled among jobs. Mean air levels for a given agent varied by roughly six to 100 fold among the jobs, with boilermakers and ironworkers experiencing much higher levels of TP and Mn than pipefitters and welder-fitters. Limited data also suggested that welder-fitters were exposed to greater levels of Ni and Cr than pipefitters. Sufficient sample sizes were available to evaluate the effects of covariates upon exposures to TP and Mn. As expected, processes involving more than 50% hot work led to substantially higher levels of TP and Mn than those involving shorter durations of hot work. Local-exhaust or mechanical ventilation reduced exposure to TP (but not Mn) by as much as 44%, and shielded or manual arc welding increased exposure to Mn (but not TP) by about 80%. Parameters estimated with these mixed models were used to calculate probabilities that workers were exposed at levels above U.S. occupational exposure limits (OELs). Regarding TP and Mn, these calculations suggested that 26-95% of exposures to boilermakers and pipefitters and 2-13% of exposures to pipefitters and welder-fitters exceeded the current Threshold Limit Values. Among welder-fitters, limited data

  15. Computational Strategy for Quantifying Human Pesticide Exposure based upon a Saliva Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-05-27

    The National Research Council of the National Academies report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy, highlighted the importance of quantitative exposure data for evaluating human toxicity risk and noted that biomonitoring is a critical tool for quantitatively evaluating exposure from both environmental and occupational settings. Direct measurement of chemical exposures using personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true exposure, and non-invasive methods have also been advocated for quantifying the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drugs and xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are readily cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach.. The current manuscript describes the use of computational modeling approaches that are closely coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva is thought to involve paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of drugs and xenobiotics cleared from plasma into saliva by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computational modeled using a combination of compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of a modified Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis of key model parameters specifically identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) had the most significant impact on the determination of partitioning and that there were clear species dependent differences based upon physiological variance between

  16. Pharmaceuticals in Tap Water: Human Health Risk Assessment and Proposed Monitoring Framework in China

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Wei, Si; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Zhou, Bingsheng; Jiao, Liping; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. Objectives: We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. Methods: We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. Results: We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at < 50 ng/L. Caffeine (median–maximum, nanograms per liter: 24.4–564), metronidazole (1.8–19.3), salicylic acid (16.6–41.2), clofibric acid (1.2–3.3), carbamazepine (1.3–6.7), and dimetridazole (6.9–14.7) were found in ≥ 20% of samples. Cities within the Yangtze River region and Guangzhou were regarded as contamination hot spots because of elevated levels and frequent positive detections. Of the 17 pharmaceuticals detected, 13 showed very low risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ ≥ 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. Conclusion: Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere. PMID:23665928

  17. PREDICTING POPULATION EXPOSURES TO PM: THE IMPORTANCE OF MICROENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) models being developed by the US EPA/NERL use a probabilistic approach to predict population exposures to pollutants. The SHEDS model for particulate matter (SHEDS-PM) estimates the population distribution of PM exposure...

  18. Monitoring and reducing exposure of infants to pollutants in house dust.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John W; Wallace, Lance A; Camann, David E; Dickey, Philip; Gilbert, Steven G; Lewis, Robert G; Takaro, Tim K

    2009-01-01

    most mitigation control. Normal vacuum cleaning allows deep dust to build up in carpets where it can be brought to the surface and become airborne as a result of activity on the carpet. Vacuums with dirt finders allow families to use the three-spot test to monitor deep dust, which can reinforce good cleaning habits. Motivated families that receive home visits from trained outreach workers can monitor and reduce dust exposures by 90% or more in 1 wk. The cost of such visits is low considering the reduction of risks achieved. Improved home cleaning is one of the first results observed among families who receive home visits from MHEs and CHWs. We believe that proven intervention methods can reduce the exposure of infants to pollutants in house dust, while recognizing that much remains to be learned about improving the effectiveness of such methods. PMID:19484587

  19. Cardiovascular impacts and micro-environmental exposure factors associated with continuous personal PM2.5 monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has provided extensive data on human exposures to a wide variety of air pollutants and their impact on human health. Previous analyses in the DEARS revealed select cardiovascul...

  20. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure.

    PubMed

    Paştiu, Anamaria I; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Györke, Adriana; Şuteu, Ovidiu; Balea, Anamaria; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Domşa, Cristian; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-02-01

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in countries where goats are frequently reared in backyards that are also homes to cats (the definitive host of this parasite) elevates such concern. To date, there has been little attention to either the prevalence or genotypic characteristics of T. gondii isolates in young ruminant food animals in Europe. Here, we estimated the prevalence of T. gondii goat-kids raised in backyards and slaughtered for human consumption during Easter. We collected 181 paired samples of serum and diaphragm. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against T. gondii , and muscle tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect T. gondii DNA. Thirty-two diaphragm samples were also bioassayed in mice, and the isolates were genotyped using microsatellite markers. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in goat-kids was 33.1% (60/181; 95% confidence interval [CI] 26.3-40.5%), and T. gondii DNA was found in 6.1% (11/181; 95% CI 3.1-10.6) of the diaphragm samples. We isolated the parasite from 2 of 32 goat-kids, and the T. gondii strains belonged to genotype II. The results showed that 1/3 of 3-mo-old goats may be infected with T. gondii, and their consumption during Easter (as barbecue) may seriously compromise food safety as a result.

  1. Monitoring of human populations at risk by different cytogenetic end points.

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, W A

    1994-01-01

    Humans are exposed to a large number of environmental genotoxic agents. These can increase the probability that somatic mutation will occur. The use of genotoxicity testing is essential for assessment of potential human toxicity so that hazards can be prevented. Cytogenetic monitoring of human populations exposed to chemicals has proved to be a useful tool for detecting the chemical mutagenic effects. Cytogenetic analysis of human chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes allows direct detection of mutation in somatic cells. Cytogenetic monitoring of a group of traffic policemen from Cairo, Egypt, was an example of a human population study. The induction of chromosomal damage was studied in a group of 28 traffic policemen with exposure of over 10 years and a control group of 15 policemen trainers. Blood lead level was significantly higher in the traffic policemen (30 +/- 8.7) unit compared to the control group (18.2 +/- 1.2) unit. The percentage of chromosomal aberrations (7.7 +/- 3.1), as well as the mean sister chromatid exchanges (7.5 +/- 3.4), were significantly higher among the traffic policemen than in the control group. The percentage of chromosomal aberrations was 2.8 +/- 2.1 and the mean sister chromatid exchanges was 4.8 +/- 2.9 in the control group. On the other hand, the increase in chromosome damage among the traffic policemen was enhanced further by smoking. Several problems that are found in biomonitoring studies are discussed. PMID:7529700

  2. On-board predicting algorithm of radiation exposure for the International Space Station radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    Radiation monitoring system (RMS) has worked on-board the International Space Station (ISS) practically continuously beginning from August 2001. In June 2005, the RMS software was updated. New RMS software detects radiation environment worsening due to solar proton events and informs the crew about this. The algorithm of the on-board radiation environment predict is a part of the new software. This algorithm reveals dose rate increments on high-latitude parts of ISS orbit and calculates estimations of time intervals and dose rate values for ulterior crossings of high-latitude areas. A brief description of the on-board radiation exposure-predict algorithm is presented.

  3. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  4. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard J; Cummings, K Michael; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N; Norton, Kaila J; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Shields, Peter G

    2009-12-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduced exposure products (PREP) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state, or national levels in the United States has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This article critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. With the absence of regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs.

  5. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID AFTER SUBSGEMENTAL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Matthew W.; Will Thompson, J.; Que, Loretta G.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.; Arthur Moseley, M.; Marshall, Harvey E.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of airway fluid, as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), provides a minimally invasive route to interrogate lung biology in health and disease. Here, we used immunodepletion, coupled with gel- and label-free LC-MS/MS, for quantitation of the BAL fluid (BALF) proteome in samples recovered from human subjects following bronchoscopic instillation of saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite antigen into three distinct lung subsegments. Among more than 200 unique proteins quantified across nine samples, neutrophil granule-derived and acute phase proteins were most highly enriched in the LPS-exposed lobes. Of these, peptidoglycan response protein 1 was validated and confirmed as a novel marker of neutrophilic inflammation. Compared to a prior transcriptomic analysis of airway cells in this same cohort, the BALF proteome revealed a novel set of response factors. Independent of exposure, the enrichment of tracheal-expressed proteins in right lower lung lobes suggests a potential for constitutive intralobar variability in the BALF proteome; sampling of multiple lung subsegments also appears to aid in the identification of protein signatures that differentiate individuals at baseline. Collectively, this proof-of-concept study validates a robust workflow for BALF proteomics and demonstrates the complementary nature of proteomic and genomic techniques for investigating airway (patho)physiology. PMID:23550723

  6. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement.

    PubMed

    del Rosario, Michael B; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2015-07-31

    Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the "smartphone", a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS) receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and more recently magnetometer and barometer) which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs). As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that "count" steps (i.e., pedometers); gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to "close the loop" by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions.

  7. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario, Michael B.; Redmond, Stephen J.; Lovell, Nigel H.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the “smartphone”, a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS) receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and more recently magnetometer and barometer) which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs). As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that “count” steps (i.e., pedometers); gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to “close the loop” by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions. PMID:26263998

  8. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement.

    PubMed

    del Rosario, Michael B; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2015-01-01

    Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the "smartphone", a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS) receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and more recently magnetometer and barometer) which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs). As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that "count" steps (i.e., pedometers); gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to "close the loop" by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions. PMID:26263998

  9. Correlation between environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrochemical industry operators.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Mariella; Tranfo, Giovanna; Pigini, Daniela; Paci, Enrico; Salamon, Fabiola; Scapellato, Maria L; Fracasso, Maria E; Manno, Maurizio; Bartolucci, Giovanni B

    2010-01-15

    The present work was aimed to study in petrochemical industry operators the correlation, if any, between environmental exposure to low levels of benzene and two biological exposure indexes in end-shift urine, i.e. trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA). Exposure to benzene was assessed in 133 male subjects employed in outdoor operations in a petrochemical plant, using personal passive-diffusive air samplers worn at the breathing zone; adsorbed benzene was determined by GC-FID analysis. S-PMA was determined by a new HPLCMS/MS method, after (quantitative) acidic hydrolysis of the cysteine conjugate precursor. t,t-MA was measured by an HPLC-UV method. Smoking habits were assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both environmental and biological monitoring data showed that benzene exposure of petrochemical industry operators was low (mean values were 0.014ppm, 101mug/g creat, and 2.8mug/g creat, for benzene, t,t-MA, and S-PMA, respectively) if compared with the ACGIH limits. Cigarette smoking was confirmed to be a strong confounding factor for the urinary excretion of both metabolites: statistically significant increases of t,t-MA and S-PMA levels were recorded in smokers when compared to non-smokers (p<0.0001). The best correlation found was that between exposure to benzene and S-PMA levels, particularly in non-smokers. This was partly due to the hydrolysis of the S-PMA precursor N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dihydro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-l-cysteine, a crucial step of the new analytical method used, which indeed reduced the variability of the results by means of an improved standardization of this critical preanalytical factor. A weaker correlation was found between exposure to benzene and t,t-MA, possibly explained by the fact that the latter is also a metabolite of sorbic acid, a common diet component. In summary, even at such low levels of exposure, urinary metabolites proved to be a useful tool for assessing individual occupational

  10. The ESA Topical Team Biomonitors: Monitoring for the Protection of Humans from Environmental Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, C.; Tt-BiomonitorsHumans Team

    Humans in space on board of the ISS as well as in interplanetary missions are confronted to a complex matrix of a multitude of environmental factors of various kinds and intensities with microgravity and cosmic radiation as the most dominant stressors In the endeavour to assess the risks for humans in space -- especially for long-duration missions -- the concerted action of all stimuli has to be known and warning signals about changes of the health status of the environment are required The Topical Team Biomonitors was aimed to identify the potential of the innovative biotechnology research area within a space application program It covers the research area of environmental monitoring and diagnostics for Space and Earth by use of biological systems Monitoring the environment for compounds and factors of concern plays an important role in defining and managing the risks to humans and ecosystems resulting from physical chemical and biological contaminations of the environment Complementary to currently available physical and chemical monitoring techniques bio-analytical methods and the use of biosensors as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis of internal and external biomarkers have the potential of comprehending the versatile biological responses upon exposure to space environments of differing complexities and providing solutions to a number of environmental challenges Acknowledgements The ESA Topical Team Biomonitors was supported by ESTEC Contract Nr 137989 99 NL JS The authors thank R Binot for fruitful discussions

  11. A comparison of human toxics exposure and environmental contamination by census division.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L J

    1992-01-01

    National Human Adipose Tissue Survey (NHATS) data and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) STORET data were used to test for relationships between human exposure and environmental contamination according to census division. Regions were ranked according to the mean concentration of 43 toxic substances (pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, semi-volatiles, and volatiles) in human adipose tissue and environmental media (sediment, fish tissue, and groundwater). Correlation analyses between regional human and environmental ranks indicated that fish tissue data were good predictors of regional pesticide exposure, sediment data were good predictors of PCB exposure, and groundwater data were good predictors of exposure to semi-volatile compounds. None of the environmental data used were good predictors of exposure to volatile chemical compounds. Groundwater appeared to be a better predictor of overall regional toxics exposure than other types of environmental data.

  12. Genotoxicity of inorganic arsenic exposure: Micronuclei frequencies in exfoliated human oral mucosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsebatt, M.E.; Guzman, P.; Salazar, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    Micronuclei (MN) can be formed by acentric chromosome fragments or whole lagging chromosomes. When used in vivo, this assay can potentially detect the clastogenic effect of an exposure. MN are easier to score than chromosome aberrations although both biomarkers of effect are useful tools in risk estimation. We investigated the frequency of MN in exfoliated cells from the oral mucosa in 25-30 volunteers lifetime exposed to approximately 400 {mu}g/L of arsenic in their drinking water. A group of individuals with similar composition with respect to sex, age, and socioeconomic status, but with As levels in the drinking water between 29-32 {mu}g/L, was used as controls. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires and by determining the levels of arsenic in urine and water samples. Oral mucosa cells were collected scraping the mucosa with a premoistened wooden spatula and smeared on microscope slides. Feulgen stained samples were scored blind on slides. The frequency of MN in oral mucosa cells was 0.05% in controls and 0.25% in exposed individuals. Exposed males showed higher frequencies of MN than exposed females. Smoking habits did not account for the observed differences. These results demonstrate that buccal mucosa cells are a target tissue in inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water. Several studies have also reported elevated frequencies of MN in oral mucosa cells from individuals exposed to substances or factors associated with increased cancer risk, which makes this non-invasive technique appropriate and sensitive to monitor human exposure to carcinogens such as inorganic arsenic.

  13. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Scott M; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J; Hughes, Michael F; O'Lone, Raegan B; Robison, Steven H; Schnatter, A Robert

    2013-02-01

    Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

  14. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    PubMed Central

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  15. A molecular dosimetry approach to assess human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pubs.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, A; Maas, L M; Brouwer, E M C; Moonen, E J C; De Kok, T M C M; Wesseling, G J; Loft, S; Kleinjans, J C S; Van Schooten, F J

    2002-07-01

    Although the involvement of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in human lung cancer is no longer a matter of dispute, the magnitude of its impact still is. This is mainly due to the inefficiency of methodology to assess exposure to ETS especially in public places. Setting a real life exposure condition (3 h stay in local pubs) and using a matched-control study design, we quantified smoke-related DNA adducts in induced sputum and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of healthy non-smokers (n = 15) before and after a single pub visit by means of the (32)P-post-labeling assay. For verification, we also measured a spectrum of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the ambient air of the pubs by personal air monitors, and determined the plasma concentrations of nicotine and cotinine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The ambient air concentrations of all PAH were several orders of magnitude higher than those already reported for other indoor environments. The plasma concentrations of both nicotine and cotinine increased significantly after the pub visit (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0007, respectively). Accordingly, the overall DNA adduct profile in induced sputum, but not in PBL, changed quantitatively and qualitatively after the pub visit. Of most significance was the formation of a distinct DNA adduct in induced sputum of three individuals consequent to ETS exposure. This adduct co-migrated with the standard (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adduct, which is known to form at lung cancer mutational hotspots. We conclude that real life exposure to ETS can give rise to pro-mutagenic lesions in the lower airway, and this can be best investigated in a relevant surrogate matrix such as induced sputum. PMID:12117775

  16. DNA strand breaks in human nasal respiratory epithelium are induced upon exposure to urban pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon-Garciduenas, L.; Osnaya-Brizuela, N.; Ramirez-Martinez, L.

    1996-02-01

    All organisms have the ability to respond and adapt to a myriad of environmental insults. The human respiratory epithelium, when exposed to oxidant gases in photochemical smog, is at risk of DNA damage and requires efficient cellular adaptative responses to resist the environmentally induced cell damage. Ozone and its reaction products induce in vitro and in vivo DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. To determine if exposure to a polluted atmosphere with ozone as the main criteria pollutant of 19 children and 13 adult males who lived in a low-polluted Pacific port, 69 males and 16 children who were permanent residents of Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), and 22 young males newly arrived to SWMMC and followed for 12 weeks. Respiratory symptoms, nasal cytology and histopathology, cell viabilities, and single-cell gel electrophoresis were investigated. Atmospheric pollutant data were obtained from a fixed-site monitoring station. SWMMC volunteers spent >7 hr/day outdoors and all had upper respiratory symptoms. A significant difference in the numbers of DNA-damaged nasal cells was observed between control and chronically exposed subjects, both in children (p<0.00001) and in adults (p>0.01). SSBs in newly arrived subjects quickly increased upon arrival to the city, from 39.8 {+-}8.34% in the first week to 67.29 {+-}2.35 by week 2. Thereafter, the number of cells with SSBs remained stable in spite of the continuous increase in cumulative ozone, suggesting a threshold for cumulative DNA nasal damage. Exposure to a polluted urban atmosphere induces SSBs in human nasal respiratory epithelium, and nasal SSBs could serve as a biomarker of ozone exposure. Further, because DNA strand breaks are a threat to cell viability and genome integrity and appear to be a critical lesion responsible for p53 induction, nasal SSBs should be evaluated in ozone-exposed individuals. 43 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Monitoring and Modeling Astronaut Occupational Radiation Exposures in Space: Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyland, Mark; Golightly, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In 1982 astronauts were declared to be radiation workers by OSHA, and as such were subject to the rules and regulations applied to that group. NASA was already aware that space radiation was a hazard to crewmembers and had been studying and monitoring astronaut doses since 1962 at the Johnson Space Center. It was quickly realized NASA would not be able to accomplish all of its goals if the astronauts were subject to the ground based radiation worker limits, and thus received a waiver from OSHA to establish independent limits. As part of the stipulation attached to setting new limits, OSHA included a requirement to perform preflight dose projections for each crew and inform them of the associated risks. Additional requirements included measuring doses from various sources during the flight, making every effort to prevent a crewmember from exceeding the new limits, and keeping all exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (a.k.a. ALARA - a common health physics principle). The assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its initial manned operations will coincide with the 4-5 year period of high space weather activity at the next maximum in the solar cycle. For the first time in NASA's manned program, US astronauts will be in orbit continuously throughout a solar maximum period. During this period, crews are at risk of significantly increased radiation exposures due to solar particle events and trapped electron belt enhancements following geomagnetic storms. The problem of protecting crews is compounded by the difficulty of providing continuous real-time monitoring over a period of a decade in an era of tightly constrained budgets. In order to prepare for ISS radiological support needs, the NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group and the NOAA Space Environment Center have undertaken a multiyear effort to improve and automate ground-based space weather monitoring systems and real-time radiation analysis tools. These improvements include a coupled, automated

  18. MODELING HUMAN EXPOSURES AND DOSE USING A 2-DIMENSIONAL MONTE-CARLO MODEL (SHEDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1998, US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model for various classes of pollutants. SHEDS is a physically-based probabilistic model intended for improving estimates of human ex...

  19. OVERVIEW OF EPA HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS PROJECTS AS APPLIED TO JP-8 JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the many responsibilities of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the development and demonstration of methodology for assessing human exposure to environmental pollutants. As such, personnel from the Human E...

  20. THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) STUDY IN ARIZONA-INTRODUCTION AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in Arizona is to determine the multimedia distribution of total human exposure to environmental pollutants in the classes of metals, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the population of Ari...

  1. COLLECTION AND USE OF EXPOSURE DATA FROM HUMAN MILK BIOMONITORING IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human milk is a unique biological matrix which can be used to estimate exposures in both the mother and the breastfed infant. In addition, the presence of environmental chemicals in human milk may act as a sentinel for exposures to a broader population. Several factors play a r...

  2. Biomarkers of benzene exposure and their interpretation for human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human biomarkers of exposure such as parent or metabolite concentrations in blood or urine are often reported without any context to the sources of exposure or the implications for human risk. The Biomonitoring Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute/Huma...

  3. A NEW METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL DIARY ASSEMBLY FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure time-series modeling requires longitudinal time-activity diaries to evaluate the sequence of concentrations encountered, and hence, pollutant exposure for the simulated individuals. However, most of the available data on human activities are from cross-sectional su...

  4. Overview of EPA CSS Intramural Research on Life Cycle and Human Exposure Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved human exposure modeling in life cycle assessmentsModeling and assessment for chemicals/products with less extensive dataMore rapid and higher throughput assessmentsLife Cycle-Human Exposure Modeling (LC-HEM) tool usable by Offices/Regions and by external stakeholders

  5. Sun exposure, sexual behavior and uterine cervical human papilloma virus.

    PubMed

    Hrushesky, William J M; Sothern, Robert B; Rietveld, Wop J; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Boon, Mathilde E

    2006-01-01

    We have previously observed marked seasonal fluctuations in the frequency of cervical smears positive for human papilloma virus (HPV) in a series of smears obtained in Holland, with a peak in the summer months, especially August. Here, we tested two possible mechanisms that might underlie this summer peak: (1) enhanced transmission of HPV due to increased seasonal sexual activity, or (2) suppression of immunity due to summertime population exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Data derived from a continuous series of >900,000 independent cervical smears obtained from 1983 to 1998 were assessed for histopathologic epithelial changes pathognomonic of HPV. The rate of HPV positivity was then compared to both the rate of sexual activity (using conception frequency as a readily available surrogate) as well as yearly and monthly fluctuations in solar-UV fluency. The rate of HPV positivity was found to be twice as high during the summer months, with a peak in August corresponding with maximal UV fluency. Furthermore, over these 16 consecutive years of continuous observation, maximum HPV detection rate and maximum UV fluency are positively correlated (r=0.59, P<0.01); the sunnier the year, the greater the rate of HPV. Likewise, there is a positive correlation of the monthly UV fluency, and monthly HPV discovery rate (r=0.16, P<0.03). In contrast, conception frequency (and, presumably, population sexual HPV transmission) was maximal near the vernal equinox, with relatively modest (<10%) seasonal fluctuation, i.e., not fully explaining this prominent August peak in HPV discovery. There is a clear relationship between the detection of HPV-positive cervical smears and sunlight exposure. We speculate that the well-known phenomenon of UV-mediated suppression of immune surveillance may be causally related to this unusual increase in cytologically defined active HPV infections during the summer months in northern countries such as Holland. Confirming this relationship

  6. Effects of maglev-spectrum magnetic field exposure on CEM T-lymphoblastoid human cell growth and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, K.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Collart, F.R.; Huberman, E.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to magnetic fields similar to those produced by maglev vehicles (combined ac and dc components) was studied for the ability to alter cell growth and chemically induced cellular differentiation processes in cultured human CEM Tlymphoblastoid leukemia cells. A series of continuous and intermittent magnetic field (MF) exposures for varying lengths of time were tested at intensities up to 7-fold greater than that produced by the German TR07 maglev vehicle. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or mycophenolic acid were used to induce cell differentiation. Changes in cell number, morphology, and fluorescence expression of antigenic markers of differentiation were monitored. The results indicated that maglev-spectrum magnetic field exposures up to 2 gauss had little effect on culture growth or chemically induced cellular differentiation when exposed to maglev-spectrum magnetic fields compared to chemically treated but MF-unexposed controls.

  7. Exposure to sulfosulfuron in agricultural drainage ditches: field monitoring and scenario-based modelling.

    PubMed

    Brown, Colin D; Dubus, Igor G; Fogg, Paul; Spirlet, Marie; Gustin, Christophe

    2004-08-01

    Field monitoring and scenario-based modelling were used to assess exposure of small ditches in the UK to the herbicide sulfosulfuron following transport via field drains. A site in central England on a high pH, clay soil was treated with sulfosulfuron, and concentrations were monitored in the single drain outfall and in the receiving ditch 1 km downstream. Drainflow in the nine months following application totalled 283 mm. Pesticide lost in the first 12.5 mm of flow was 99% of the total loading to drains (0.5% of applied). Significant dilution was observed in the receiving ditch and quantifiable residues were only detected in one sample (0.06 microg litre(-1)). The MACRO model was evaluated against the field data with minimal calibration. The parameterisation over-estimated the importance of macropore flow at the site. As a consequence, the maximum concentration in drainflow (2.3 microg litre(-1)) and the total loading to drains (0.76 g) were over-estimated by factors of 2.4 and 5, respectively. MACRO was then used to simulate long-term fate of the herbicide for each of 20 environmental scenarios. Resulting estimates for concentrations of sulfosulfuron in a receiving ditch were weighted according to the prevalence of each scenario to produce a probability distribution of daily exposure. PMID:15307668

  8. Human Rights Engagement and Exposure: New Scales to Challenge Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…

  9. REAL-TIME AND INTEGRATED MEASUREMENT OF POTENTIAL HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) FROM AIRCRAFT EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitors and low-volume air samplers were used to measure the potential human exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations during various flight-related and ground-support activities of C-130H aircraft at an Air National Guard base. Three...

  10. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents.

  11. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. PMID:25590130

  12. Arsenic exposure of rural populations from the Rift Valley of Ethiopia as monitored by keratin in toenails.

    PubMed

    Merola, R Brittany; Kravchenko, Julia; Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water is a worldwide phenomenon whose effect among vulnerable and rural communities in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia in eastern Africa is not well studied. This study examines As exposure and bioaccumulation from drinking water by monitoring human keratin in the form of toenails from exposed populations. Groundwater samples from drinking water wells (n=34) were collected along with toenail samples (n=58) from local communities and were analyzed for trace metals including As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the total number of wells tested, 53% had As level above the WHO maximum contamination level of 10 p.p.b. Arsenic in toenails was significantly correlated to corresponding drinking water (r=0.72; R(2)=0.52; P<0.001). This correlation improves for drinking water with As concentrations above 2 p.p.b. (r=0.74; R(2)=0.54; P<0.001). Male minors (<18 years old) were found to have greater nail-As concentrations compared with adults consuming equal amounts of As (P<0.05). Estimated As dose specifically from drinking water sources was also associated with nail concentrations (P<0.01). We suggest that As measurement in nails could be a reliable method for detecting As exposure in residents living in rural areas.

  13. Bioindicators of contaminant exposure and effect in aquatic and terrestrial monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    Bioindicators of contaminant exposure presently used in environmental monitoring arc discussed. Some have been extensively field-validated and arc already in routine application. Included are (1) inhibition of brain or blood cholinesterase by anticholinesterase pesticides, (2) induction of hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 by chemicals such as PAHs and PCBs, (3) reproductive problems such as terata and eggshell thinning, and (4) aberrations of hemoglobin synthesis, including the effects of lead and of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons. Many studies on DNA damage and of histopathological effects, particularly in the form of tumors, have already been completed. There are presently numerous other opportunities for field validation. Bile metabolites of contaminants in fish reveal exposure to contaminants that might otherwise be difficult to detect or quantify. Bile analysis is beginning to be extended to species other than fishes. Assessment of oxidative damage and immune competence appear to be valuable biomarkers. needing only additional field validation for wider use. The use of metallothioneins as biomarkers depends on the development of convenient, inexpensive methodology that provides information not available from measurements of metal ions. The use of stress proteins as biomarkers depends on development of convenient, inexpensive methodology and field validation. Gene arrays and proteomics hold promise as bioindicators for contaminant exposure or effect, particularly because of the large amount of data that could be generated, but they still need extensive development and testing.

  14. Monitoring of daily integrated exposure of outdoor workers to respirable particulates in an urban region

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, M.M.; Patil, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    A realization is gradually emerging that estimation of daily integrated exposure of population to air pollutants is more relevant rather than the ambient air quality, since it gives a better indicator of health risk. Outdoor workers in urban region are generally of low income category and suffer from both indoor and outdoor air pollution of high levels. These respondent population sub-group have been selected for this study. The outdoor workers are divided into two categories - stationary and mobile. Stationary outdoor workers are further divided into two groups viz. traffic police and casual outdoor workers like watchman, roadside shopkeeper, etc. The mobile outdoor workers include drivers and workers who have to travel for a majority period of their occupation time. Most of the respondents are from lower income group. The sampling frequency is once a week. The study region is situated in the N-W part of Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation. It can be classified as industrial cum residential area. Ambient air quality monitoring stations are established at three sites viz. Marol, Sakinaka and Jogeshwari in this region and respondents for the exposure measurement are selected from the cluster of residential houses (slums) near these stations. In the present study, outdoor workers residing and working in the study region are selected. This has eliminated the commuting microenvironment. The daily integrated exposure of the outdoor workers consists of two major microenvironments viz. occupation and indoor residential. In addition, activity diary of the respondents is maintained to check whether there are any other major microenvironments.

  15. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Teresa; Younglove, Lisa; Lu, Chensheng; Funez, Aura; Weppner, Sarah; Barr, Dana B; Fenske, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPYand IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0 microg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168 mirog/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: (1) monitor children's activities during applications; (2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; (3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; (4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite. PMID:17168218

  16. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Response Inhibition in the Conflict-monitoring Stage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of high-altitude exposure on response inhibition, event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3 were measured in Go/NoGo task. The participants included an 'immigrant' high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but born at low altitude) and a low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although the behavioural data showed no significant differences between the two groups, a delayed latency of NoGo-N2 was found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group. Moreover, larger N2 and smaller P3 amplitudes were found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group, for both the Go and NoGo conditions. These findings suggest that high-altitude exposure affects response inhibition with regard to processing speed during the conflict monitoring stage. In addition, high altitude generally increases the neural activity in the matching step of information processing and attentional resources. These results may provide some insights into the neurocognitive basis of the effects on high-altitude exposure on response inhibition.

  17. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Response Inhibition in the Conflict-monitoring Stage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high-altitude exposure on response inhibition, event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3 were measured in Go/NoGo task. The participants included an 'immigrant' high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but born at low altitude) and a low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although the behavioural data showed no significant differences between the two groups, a delayed latency of NoGo-N2 was found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group. Moreover, larger N2 and smaller P3 amplitudes were found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group, for both the Go and NoGo conditions. These findings suggest that high-altitude exposure affects response inhibition with regard to processing speed during the conflict monitoring stage. In addition, high altitude generally increases the neural activity in the matching step of information processing and attentional resources. These results may provide some insights into the neurocognitive basis of the effects on high-altitude exposure on response inhibition. PMID:26324166

  18. Solid Phase Extraction for Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Cr (III)

    PubMed Central

    Shahtaheri, S.J.; Khadem, M.; Golbabaei, F.; Rahimi-Froushani, A.

    2007-01-01

    Chromium is an important constituent widely used in different industrial processes for production of various synthetic materials. For evaluation of workers’ exposure to trace toxic metal of Cr (III), environmental and biological monitoring are essential processes, in which, preparation of samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown and is a fertile technique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). SPE using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized regarding to sample pH, ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume, elution volume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences. Chromium was retained on solid sorbent and was eluted with 2 M HNO3 followed by simple determination of analytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of metal ion were more than 92%. The optimized procedure was also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. Through this study, suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation, therefore, it is concluded that, this optimized method can be considered to be successful in simplifying sample preparation for trace residue analysis of Cr in different matrices for evaluation of occupational and environmental exposures. To evaluate occupational exposure to chromium, 16 urine samples were taken, prepared, and analyzed based on optimized procedure. PMID:19662187

  19. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  20. Assessment of two nonnative poeciliid fishes for monitoring selenium exposure in the endangered desert pupfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the suitability of two nonnative poeciliid fishes—western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna)—for monitoring selenium exposure in desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius). Our investigation was prompted by a need to avoid lethal take of an endangered species (pupfish) when sampling fish for chemical analysis. Total selenium (SeTot) concentrations in both poeciliids were highly correlated with SeTot concentrations in pupfish. However, mean SeTot concentrations varied among fish species, with higher concentrations measured in mosquitofish than in mollies and pupfish from one of three sampled agricultural drains. Moreover, regression equations describing the relationship of selenomethionine to SeTot differed between mosquitofish and pupfish, but not between mollies and pupfish. Because selenium accumulates in animals primarily through dietary exposure, we examined fish trophic relationships by measuring stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) and gut contents. According to δ13C measurements, the trophic pathway leading to mosquitofish was more carbon-depleted than trophic pathways leading to mollies and pupfish, suggesting that energy flow to mosquitofish originated from allochthonous sources (terrestrial vegetation, emergent macrophytes, or both), whereas energy flow to mollies and pupfish originated from autochthonous sources (filamentous algae, submerged macrophytes, or both). The δ15N measurements indicated that mosquitofish and mollies occupied similar trophic levels, whereas pupfish occupied a slightly higher trophic level. Analysis of gut contents showed that mosquitofish consumed mostly winged insects (an indication of terrestrial taxa), whereas mollies and pupfish consumed mostly organic detritus. Judging from our results, only mollies (not mosquitofish) are suitable for monitoring selenium exposure in pupfish.

  1. An Immunoassay to Evaluate Human/Environmental Exposure to the Antimicrobial Triclocarban

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Kasagami, Takeo; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Schebb, Nils Helge; Ogunyoku, Temitope; Gee, Shirley J.; Young, Thomas M.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive, competitive indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) was developed. The haptens were synthesized by derivatizing the para position of a phenyl moiety of TCC. The rabbit antisera were screened and the combination of antiserum #1648 and a heterologous competitive hapten containing a piperidine was further characterized. The IC50 and the detection range for TCC in buffer were 0.70 and 0.13–3.60 ng/mL, respectively. The assay was selective for TCC, providing only low cross-reactivity to TCC-related compounds and its major metabolites except for the closely related antimicrobial 3-trifluoromethyl-4,4′-dichlorocarbanilide. A liquid-liquid extraction for sample preparation of human body fluids resulted in an assay that measured low part per billion levels of TCC in small volumes of the samples. The limits of quantification of TCC were 5 ng/mL in blood/serum, and 10 ng/mL in urine, respectively. TCC in human urine was largely the N- or N′-glucuronide. TCC concentrations of biosolids measured by the ELISA were similar to those determined by LC-MS/MS. This immunoassay can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and convenient tool to aid researchers monitoring human/environmental exposure to TCC to better understand the health effects. PMID:22077920

  2. MODELING INHALATION AND MULTIMEDIA MULTIPATHWAY HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of exposures of children and adults to air toxics or multimedia pollutants require careful consideration of sources and concentrations of pollutants that may be present in different media, as well as various routes and pathways of exposures associated with age-specif...

  3. Integration of biological monitoring, environmental monitoring and computational modelling into the interpretation of pesticide exposure data: introduction to a proposed approach.

    PubMed

    Colosio, Claudio; Rubino, Federico M; Alegakis, Athanasios; Ariano, Eugenio; Brambilla, Gabri; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Metruccio, Francesca; Minoia, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo; Somaruga, Chiara; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Turci, Roberta; Vellere, Francesca

    2012-08-13

    Open field, variability of climatic and working conditions, and the use of complex mixtures of pesticides makes biological and environmental monitoring in agriculture, and therefore risk assessment and management, very complicated. A need of pointing out alternative risk assessment approaches, not necessarily based on measures, but simple, user-friendly and reliable, feasible also in the less advanced situations and in particular in small size enterprises, arises. This aim can be reached through a combination of environmental monitoring, biological monitoring and computational modelling. We have used this combination of methods for the creation of "exposure and risk profiles" to be applied in specific exposure scenarios, and we have tested this approach on a sample of Italian rice and maize herbicide applicators. We have given specific "toxicity scores" to the different products used and we have identified, for each of the major working phases, that is mixing and loading, spraying, maintenance and cleaning of equipment, the main variables affecting exposure and inserted them into a simple algorithm, able to produce "exposure indices". Based on the combination of toxicity indices and exposure indices it is possible to obtain semiquantitative estimates of the risk levels experienced by the workers in the exposure scenarios considered. Results of operator exposure data collected under real-life conditions can be used to validate and refine the algorithms; moreover, the AOEL derived from pre-marketing studies can be combined to estimate tentative biological exposure limits for pesticides, useful to perform individual risk assessment based on technical surveys and on simple biological monitoring. A proof of principle example of this approach is the subject of this article. PMID:21903154

  4. Drinking-Water Arsenic Exposure Modulates Gene Expression in Human Lymphocytes from a U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Angeline S.; Jewell, David A.; Mason, Rebecca A.; Whitfield, Michael L.; Moore, Jason H.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure impairs development and can lead to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The mechanism underlying these effects remains unknown. Primarily because of geologic sources of contamination, drinking-water arsenic levels are above the current recommended maximum contaminant level of 10 μg/L in the northeastern, western, and north central regions of the United States. Objectives We investigated the effects of arsenic exposure, defined by internal biomarkers at levels relevant to the United States and similarly exposed populations, on gene expression. Methods We conducted separate Affymetrix microarray-based genomewide analyses of expression patterns. Peripheral blood lymphocyte samples from 21 controls interviewed (1999–2002) as part of a case–control study in New Hampshire were selected based on high- versus low-level arsenic exposure levels. Results The biologic functions of the transcripts that showed statistically significant abundance differences between high- and low-arsenic exposure groups included an overrepresentation of genes involved in defense response, immune function, cell growth, apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle, T-cell receptor signaling pathway, and diabetes. Notably, the high-arsenic exposure group exhibited higher levels of several killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors that inhibit natural killer cell activity. Conclusions These findings define biologic changes that occur with chronic arsenic exposure in humans and provide leads and potential targets for understanding and monitoring the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced diseases. PMID:18414638

  5. The next generation of low-cost personal air quality sensors for quantitative exposure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedrahita, R.; Xiang, Y.; Masson, N.; Ortega, J.; Collier, A.; Jiang, Y.; Li, K.; Dick, R.; Lv, Q.; Hannigan, M.; Shang, L.

    2014-03-01

    Advances in embedded systems and low-cost gas sensors are enabling a new wave of low cost air quality monitoring tools. Our team has been engaged in the development of low-cost wearable air quality monitors (M-Pods) using the Arduino platform. The M-Pods use commercially available metal oxide semiconductor (MOx) sensors to measure CO, O3, NO2, and total VOCs, and NDIR sensors to measure CO2. MOx sensors are low in cost and show high sensitivity near ambient levels; however they display non-linear output signals and have cross sensitivity effects. Thus, a quantification system was developed to convert the MOx sensor signals into concentrations. Two deployments were conducted at a regulatory monitoring station in Denver, Colorado. M-Pod concentrations were determined using laboratory calibration techniques and co-location calibrations, in which we place the M-Pods near regulatory monitors to then derive calibration function coefficients using the regulatory monitors as the standard. The form of the calibration function was derived based on laboratory experiments. We discuss various techniques used to estimate measurement uncertainties. A separate user study was also conducted to assess personal exposure and M-Pod reliability. In this study, 10 M-Pods were calibrated via co-location multiple times over 4 weeks and sensor drift was analyzed with the result being a calibration function that included drift. We found that co-location calibrations perform better than laboratory calibrations. Lab calibrations suffer from bias and difficulty in covering the necessary parameter space. During co-location calibrations, median standard errors ranged between 4.0-6.1 ppb for O3, 6.4-8.4 ppb for NO2, 0.28-0.44 ppm for CO, and 16.8 ppm for CO2. Median signal to noise (S/N) ratios for the M-Pod sensors were higher for M-Pods than the regulatory instruments: for NO2, 3.6 compared to 23.4; for O3, 1.4 compared to 1.6; for CO, 1.1 compared to 10.0; and for CO2, 42.2 compared to 300

  6. Exposure of humans to a volatile organic mixture. 3. Inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S.; Graham, D.E.; Devlin, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades that has been called the sick building syndrome. These symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. It is likely that the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in synthetic materials used in homes and office buildings contribute to these symptoms. However, there have been very few studies in which humans have been exposed to known amounts of VOCs under carefully controlled conditions. In the study, 14 subjects were exposed to a mixture of VOCs (25 mg/sq meter total hydrocarbon) that is representative of what is found in new homes and office buildings. Because irritations of the nose and throat are symptoms often associated with the upper respiratory tract and may result from an inflammatory response in the upper airways, the authors used nasal lavage to monitor neutrophil (PMN) influx into the nasal passages following exposure to VOCs. There were statistically significant increases in PMNs, both immediately after a 4-h exposure to VOCs and 18 h later.

  7. Quantification of metabolites for assessing human exposure to soapberry toxins hypoglycin A and methylenecyclopropylglycine.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, Samantha L; Carter, Melissa D; Graham, Leigh Ann; Mathews, Thomas P; Johnson, Darryl; Thomas, Jerry D; Pirkle, James L; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2015-09-21

    Ingestion of soapberry fruit toxins hypoglycin A and methylenecyclopropylglycine has been linked to public health challenges worldwide. In 1976, over 100 years after Jamaican vomiting sickness (JVS) was first reported, the cause of JVS was linked to the ingestion of the toxin hypoglycin A produced by ackee fruit. A structural analogue of hypoglycin A, methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG), was implicated as the cause of an acute encephalitis syndrome (AES). Much of the evidence linking hypoglycin A and MCPG to these diseases has been largely circumstantial due to the lack of an analytical method for specific metabolites. This study presents an analytical approach to identify and quantify specific urine metabolites for exposure to hypoglycin A and MCPG. The metabolites are excreted in urine as glycine adducts methylenecyclopropylacetyl-glycine (MCPA-Gly) and methylenecyclopropylformyl-glycine (MCPF-Gly). These metabolites were processed by isotope dilution, separated by reverse-phase liquid chromatography, and monitored by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical response ratio was linearly proportional to the concentration of MCPF-Gly and MCPA-Gly in urine from 0.10 to 20 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of r > 0.99. The assay demonstrated accuracy ≥80% and precision ≤20% RSD across the calibration range. This method has been applied to assess exposure to hypoglycin A and MCPG as part of a larger public health initiative and was used to provide the first reported identification of MCPF-Gly and MCPA-Gly in human urine.

  8. Quantification of metabolites for assessing human exposure to soapberry toxins hypoglycin A and methylenecyclopropylglycine.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, Samantha L; Carter, Melissa D; Graham, Leigh Ann; Mathews, Thomas P; Johnson, Darryl; Thomas, Jerry D; Pirkle, James L; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2015-09-21

    Ingestion of soapberry fruit toxins hypoglycin A and methylenecyclopropylglycine has been linked to public health challenges worldwide. In 1976, over 100 years after Jamaican vomiting sickness (JVS) was first reported, the cause of JVS was linked to the ingestion of the toxin hypoglycin A produced by ackee fruit. A structural analogue of hypoglycin A, methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG), was implicated as the cause of an acute encephalitis syndrome (AES). Much of the evidence linking hypoglycin A and MCPG to these diseases has been largely circumstantial due to the lack of an analytical method for specific metabolites. This study presents an analytical approach to identify and quantify specific urine metabolites for exposure to hypoglycin A and MCPG. The metabolites are excreted in urine as glycine adducts methylenecyclopropylacetyl-glycine (MCPA-Gly) and methylenecyclopropylformyl-glycine (MCPF-Gly). These metabolites were processed by isotope dilution, separated by reverse-phase liquid chromatography, and monitored by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical response ratio was linearly proportional to the concentration of MCPF-Gly and MCPA-Gly in urine from 0.10 to 20 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of r > 0.99. The assay demonstrated accuracy ≥80% and precision ≤20% RSD across the calibration range. This method has been applied to assess exposure to hypoglycin A and MCPG as part of a larger public health initiative and was used to provide the first reported identification of MCPF-Gly and MCPA-Gly in human urine. PMID:26328472

  9. Effects of plumbing systems on human exposure to disinfection byproducts in water: a case study.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2016-06-01

    Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water distribution systems (WDS) are monitored for regulatory compliance, while populations are exposed to DBPs in tap water that may be different due to stagnation of water in plumbing pipes (PP) and heating in hot water tanks (HWT). This study investigated the effects of water stagnation in PP and HWT on exposure and risk of DBPs to humans. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in PP and HWT were observed to be 1.1-2.4 and 1.6-3.0 times, respectively, to THMs in the WDS, while haloacetic acids (HAAs) were 0.9-1.8 and 1.2-1.9 times, respectively, to HAAs in the WDS. The chronic daily intakes of DBPs from PP and HWT were 0.6-1.8 and 0.5-2.3 times the intakes from WDS. The cancer risks from PP and HWT were 1.46 (0.40-4.3) and 1.68 (0.35-5.1) times the cancer risks from WDS. The findings may assist in regulating DBPs exposure concentrations. PMID:27280613

  10. Reference values and action levels of biological monitoring in occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Ong, C N

    1999-09-01

    The primary objectives of biological monitoring are (1) to prevent health impairment, (2) to assist in the assessment of risk, and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental controls. An efficient way to achieve these objectives would be to enforce the compliance of biological exposure standards at the workplace. However, biological monitoring should be viewed in the total context of control and prevention of work-related diseases, and not merely to comply with permissible standards. Biological monitoring depends very much on the conditions that the chemical is absorbed and how it is metabolised. Genetic diversity could therefore contribute to significant differences in this aspect. Furthermore, many of the reference values established have so far not been fully validated and therefore their usefulness is rather limited. This paper reviews and illustrates using some recent findings to show that biological reference values are influenced not just by the above mentioned issues, but also factors such as (1) health and nutritional status of the exposed population, (2) social and cultural factors, and (3) climatic conditions. Caution has to be taken when considering having an action level for some of the biological reference value. Biological reference values set without considering people, technology, and working conditions would be fraught with difficulties in implementation. PMID:10511254

  11. Induction of gene expression as a monitor of exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Amundson, S A; Bittner, M; Meltzer, P; Trent, J; Fornace, A J

    2001-11-01

    The complex molecular responses to genotoxic stress are mediated by a variety of regulatory pathways. The transcription factor TP53 plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation, but other pathways also play important roles. In addition, differences in radiation quality, such as the exposure to high-LET radiation that occurs during space travel, may influence the pattern of responses. The premise is developed that stress gene responses can be employed as molecular markers for radiation exposure using a combination of informatics and functional genomics approaches. Published studies from our laboratory have already demonstrated such transcriptional responses with doses of gamma rays as low as 2 cGy, and in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) irradiated ex vivo with doses as low as 20 cGy. We have also found several genes elevated in vivo 24 h after whole-body irradiation of mice with 20 cGy. Such studies should provide insight into the molecular responses to physiologically relevant doses, which cannot necessarily be extrapolated from high-dose studies. In addition, ongoing experiments are identifying large numbers of potential biomarkers using microarray hybridization and various irradiation protocols including expression at different times after exposure to low- and high-LET radiation. Computation-intensive informatics analysis methods are also being developed for management of the complex gene expression profiles resulting from these experiments. With further development of these approaches, it may be feasible to monitor changes in gene expression after low-dose radiation exposure and other physiological stresses that may be encountered during manned space flight, such as the planned mission to Mars.

  12. Wearable real-time direct reading naphthalene and VOC personal exposure monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.

    2012-06-01

    Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.

  13. Current issues in human lead exposure and regulation of lead.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Elias, R W; Grant, L D

    1993-01-01

    Concern about lead as a significant public health problem has increased as epidemiological and experimental evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels of lead exposure. This concern has led to downward revision of criteria for acceptable blood lead concentrations to the 10 micrograms/dL mark now designated by EPA as a target level for regulatory development and enforcement/clean-up purposes. Much progress has been made in reducing lead exposures during the past 10-15 years, with marked declines evident both in air lead and blood lead concentrations in parallel to the phase-down of lead in gasoline and notable decreases in food lead exposure due to elimination of lead soldered cans by U.S. food processors. With the lessening of exposure from these sources, the importance of other components of multimedia exposure pathways has grown and stimulated increasing regulatory attention and abatement efforts to reduce health risks associated with lead exposure from drinking water, from lead-based paint, and from household dust and soil contaminated by deteriorating paint, smelter emissions, or various other sources. Increasing attention is also being accorded to reduction of occupational lead exposures (including those related to lead abatement activities), with particular concern for protection of men and women during their reproductive years.

  14. Chronological trends of emission, environmental level and human exposure of POPs over the last 10 years (1999-2010) in Korea: implication to science and policy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Yoon, Junheon

    2014-02-01

    Despite the first comprehensive reviewing on POPs status in Korea, a previous review chapter (Departments in Environmental Science, Volume 7, Chapter 2) could not discuss and evaluate the temporal trends and the effect of the efforts and policies invested in POPs control and management, since most data were based on individual research results of academic groups in which POPs could not be systematically monitored in terms of time and space. Recently, we have collected monitoring data long enough in time (over 10 years) and wide enough in space (covering various land-use patterns and the Korean peninsula), which were produced at national monitoring stations under the governmental programs. This study aimed to elucidate the temporal trends of POPs emissions, concentrations in multiple compartments (air, water, soil, sediment, organisms, and marine products), and human exposure. The chronological data available for all the subjects investigated were present only for PCDDs/DFs and coPCBs. Their emission reduction with half-lives of ~2 years was followed by contemporaneous decrease of contamination levels in inland compartments, while a considerably slow or slight reduction occurred in human exposure and its related compartments (fishes and shellfishes as foodstuffs consumed, and marine compartments). The findings prove that a lag-time is present for the efforts of emission reduction to be so much effective as to be reflected directly in human exposure, and such a lag-time can be related with the fates connecting inland and marine environments. PCBs showed faster reduction in human exposure than dioxin-like compounds. As for other POPs, chronological trends and half-lives could not be determined owing to low detection frequencies of PCBs and OCPs in environmental compartments, the absence of monitoring data for OCPs in human exposure, and data limitation for emerging POPs present in recent a few years. Monitoring strategies are also recommended based on this meta-analysis.

  15. Guidance for exposure design of human studies addressing health risk evaluations of mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Niels; Schuderer, Jürgen; Christ, Andreas; Futter, Peter; Ebert, Sven

    2004-10-01

    Conflicting results have recently emerged from human provocation studies that addressed the possible health hazards of radio frequency (RF) field exposure from mobile phones. Different findings may have resulted from exposures that are poorly defined and difficult to compare. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines to facilitate the development of exposure systems for human volunteer studies which lead to reproducible results and which provide maximum relevance with respect to the assessment of the safety of mobile technology. The most important exposure parameters are discussed such as the signal, field distribution, and field strength, as well as the minimum requirements for the setup and dosimetry. PMID:15376239

  16. Guidance for exposure design of human studies addressing health risk evaluations of mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Niels; Schuderer, Jürgen; Christ, Andreas; Futter, Peter; Ebert, Sven

    2004-10-01

    Conflicting results have recently emerged from human provocation studies that addressed the possible health hazards of radio frequency (RF) field exposure from mobile phones. Different findings may have resulted from exposures that are poorly defined and difficult to compare. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines to facilitate the development of exposure systems for human volunteer studies which lead to reproducible results and which provide maximum relevance with respect to the assessment of the safety of mobile technology. The most important exposure parameters are discussed such as the signal, field distribution, and field strength, as well as the minimum requirements for the setup and dosimetry.

  17. Specifying the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parental monitoring for younger versus older adolescents: a five year longitudinal test.

    PubMed

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Bolland, John M

    2012-03-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to examine the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parenting during adolescence. Semi-parametric group based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results from these analyses revealed: (1) a trajectory of declining parental monitoring for 48% of youth; and (2) four distinct trajectories of exposure to violence. Multivariate findings were largely consistent with the ecological-transactional model of community violence. Youth with stable and/or increasing trajectories of exposure to violence were more likely than youth with stable-low exposure to violence to have declining parental monitoring, but additional analyses revealed a similar pattern of findings for younger adolescents (age 9-11 T1), but no evidence of linkages between trajectories of exposure to violence and parental monitoring for older adolescents (age 12-16 T1). The theoretical and policy implications of these findings as well as areas for future research are also discussed.

  18. Microbial contamination monitoring and control during human space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Houdt, Rob; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Leys, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquity and resilience of microorganisms makes them unavoidable in most environments including space habitats. The impaired immune system of astronauts in flight raises the level of concern about disease risk during human space missions and additionally these biological contaminants may affect life support systems and hardware. In this review, the microbial contamination observed in manned space stations and in particular the International Space Station ISS will be discussed, demonstrating that it is a microbiologically safe working and living habitat. Microbial contamination levels were in general below the implemented quality standards, although, occasional contamination hazard reports indicate that the current prevention and monitoring strategies are the strict minimum.

  19. Human psychophysiological activity monitoring methods using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Uzieblo-Zyczkowska, B.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of fiber optic sensor system for human psycho-physical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes optical phase interferometry or intensity in modalmetric to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an optical fiber interferometer that includes an optical fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled into the optical fiber. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use.

  20. Continuous monitoring of blood volume changes in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Use of on-line high-precision mass densitometry for the continuous monitoring of blood volume changes in humans was demonstrated by recording short-term blood volume alterations produced by changes in body position. The mass density of antecubital venous blood was measured continuously for 80 min per session with 0.1 g/l precision at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. Additional discrete plasma density and hematocrit measurements gave linear relations between all possible combinations of blood density, plasma density, and hematocrit. Transient filtration phenomena were revealed that are not amenable to discontinuous measurements.

  1. Human dermal absorption of chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants; implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-01-15

    Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP) are organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) widely applied in a plethora of consumer products despite their carcinogenic potential. Human dermal absorption of these PFRs is investigated for the first time using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™ models. Results of human ex vivo skin experiments revealed 28%, 25% and 13% absorption of the applied dose (500 ng/cm(2), finite dose) of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, respectively after 24h exposure. The EPISKIN™ model showed enhanced permeability values (i.e. weaker barrier), that were respectively 16%, 11% and 9% for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP compared to human ex vivo skin. However, this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Estimated permeability constants (Kp, cm/h) showed a significant negative correlation with log Kow for the studied contaminants. The effect of hand-washing on dermal absorption of PFRs was investigated. Washing reduced overall dermal absorption, albeit to varying degrees depending on the physicochemical properties of the target PFRs. Moreover, slight variations of the absorbed dose were observed upon changing the dosing solution from acetone to 20% Tween 80 in water, indicating the potential influence of the dose vehicle on the dermal absorption of PFRs. Finally, estimated dermal uptake of the studied PFRs via contact with indoor dust was higher in UK toddlers (median ΣPFRs=36 ng/kg bw day) than adults (median ΣPFRs=4 ng/kg bw day). More research is required to fully elucidate the toxicological implications of such exposure.

  2. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  3. Climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an abstract for a presentations at the Annual Conference of the International Society on Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. This presentation will serve as an introduction to the symposium.

  4. 3D Case Studies of Monitoring Dynamic Structural Tests using Long Exposure Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. M. J.; Chandler, J. H.; Palmeri, A.

    2014-06-01

    Structural health monitoring uses non-destructive testing programmes to detect long-term degradation phenomena in civil engineering structures. Structural testing may also be carried out to assess a structure's integrity following a potentially damaging event. Such investigations are increasingly carried out with vibration techniques, in which the structural response to artificial or natural excitations is recorded and analysed from a number of monitoring locations. Photogrammetry is of particular interest here since a very high number of monitoring locations can be measured using just a few images. To achieve the necessary imaging frequency to capture the vibration, it has been necessary to reduce the image resolution at the cost of spatial measurement accuracy. Even specialist sensors are limited by a compromise between sensor resolution and imaging frequency. To alleviate this compromise, a different approach has been developed and is described in this paper. Instead of using high-speed imaging to capture the instantaneous position at each epoch, long-exposure images are instead used, in which the localised image of the object becomes blurred. The approach has been extended to create 3D displacement vectors for each target point via multiple camera locations, which allows the simultaneous detection of transverse and torsional mode shapes. The proposed approach is frequency invariant allowing monitoring of higher modal frequencies irrespective of a sampling frequency. Since there is no requirement for imaging frequency, a higher image resolution is possible for the most accurate spatial measurement. The results of a small scale laboratory test using off-the-shelf consumer cameras are demonstrated. A larger experiment also demonstrates the scalability of the approach.

  5. FIELD COLLECTION METHODS USED IN THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM TO EVALUATE CHILDREN'S AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: A TUTORIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tutorial on the field sampling equipment used to collect multimedia samples.

    We conduct observational human exposure measurement studies in order to understand what chemicals people come into contact with, at what levels, what the sources of those chemicals are, and wher...

  6. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  7. Refined Assessment of Human PM2.5 Exposure in Chinese city by Incorporating Time-activity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Since urban residents tend to spend a majority of time indoors throughout a day, it has been widely discussed in recent years, whether fixed-site monitoring PM2.5 ambient concentration is feasible as a surrogate of human PM2.5 exposure. Comprehensive understanding of residents' daily time-activity patterns (TAP) and possible indoor behavior are urgently needed to perform a more accurate estimate of human PM2.5exposure, especially in China, where is experiencing rapid urbanization.Field surveys of TAP were carried out in a Chinese city of Suzhou from 2014 to 2015 to evaluate PM2.5 exposure in various micro-environments (ME, e.g., residence, outdoors and in-transit). We gathered and analyzed urban residents' seasonal time-activity data using 24h retrospective time-location diaries, as well as diversified exposure-related indoor information (e.g. ventilation, environment tobacco smoke and cooking). PM2.5exposure is calculated through the incorporation of ambient concentration data, modified indoor/outdoor empirical functions and TAP. The spatial distributions of TAP-based exposure and static-population based exposure are also compared.Residents in Suzhou urban area spend over 65% of time at home and 90% indoors. There are significant temporal (season, day type) and socioeconomic differences (gender, age, education, living alone, having children at home, employment status, etc.) of time-activity distributions, which makes the sum of PM2.5 ME exposure differs notably from static-population based ambient exposure. People prefer to spend more time at home both in winter (P<0.05) and on weekends (P<0.001), less time outdoors in winter but more on weekends (P<0.001). Gender, education and living alone are negative associated with time spent home, while age, children at home and employment status are positively related. On the other hand, due to lack of monitoring stations in unban Suzhou, the inverse distance squared weighting method is not ideally performed and may be less

  8. Identifying biological monitoring tools to evaluate the chronic effects of chemical exposures in terrestrial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.

    1994-12-31

    When contamination of any habitat, such as a wetland impacted by heavy metals or a high desert disposal area impacted by chlorophenols and chlorophenoxy herbicides, is considered within an ecological risk assessment context, long-term land use goals should be included as part of the decision-making process, especially when remediation options are being considered for the site. If imminent threats to human health and the environment are highly unlikely, and environmental management and projected land use allow, remediation options and monitoring programs for a site should be developed that assure long-term habitat use, while continuing surveillance for evaluating potential chronic ecological effects. For example, at Milltown Reservoir wetlands on the Clark Fork River in western Montana the baseline ecological risk assessment suggested that no current adverse biological or ecological effects warranted extensive remediation at the site. But, given the land use goals currently anticipated for the wetland habitat and the hydroelectric facility located on the Clark Fork River, a program,should be developed that, in part, continues assessing plant communities and sublethal biological effects as cost-effective monitoring tools for evaluating long-term effects associated with metal-contaminated soils. Similarly, high desert sites that have been impacted by past disposal activities like that at Alkali Lake, Oregon, should be monitored using cost-effective methods that continue to monitor terrestrial plants as a field screening tool for evaluating soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorophenols and chlorophenoxy herbicides.

  9. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-04-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  10. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  11. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-03-25

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  12. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  13. Assessment of Two Portable Real-Time Particle Monitors Used in Nanomaterial Workplace Exposure Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuewei; Beaucham, Catherine C.; Pearce, Terri A.; Zhuang, Ziqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Nanoparticle emission assessment technique was developed to semi-quantitatively evaluate nanomaterial exposures and employs a combination of filter based samples and portable real-time particle monitors, including a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an optical particle counter (OPC), to detect nanomaterial releases. This laboratory study evaluated the results from CPC and OPC simultaneously measuring a polydisperse aerosol to assess their variability and accuracy. Methods and Results Two CPCs and two OPCs were used to evaluate a polydisperse sodium chloride aerosol within an enclosed chamber. The measurement results for number concentration versus time were compared between paired particle monitors of the same type, and to results from the Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) which was widely used to measure concentration of size-specific particles. According to analyses by using the Bland-Altman method, the CPCs displayed a constant mean percent difference of −3.8% (95% agreement limits: −9.1 to 1.6%; range of 95% agreement limit: 10.7%) with the chamber particle concentration below its dynamic upper limit (100,000 particles per cubic centimeter). The mean percent difference increased from −3.4% to −12.0% (range of 95% agreement limits: 7.1%) with increasing particle concentrations that were above the dynamic upper limit. The OPC results showed the percent difference within 15% for measurements in particles with size ranges of 300 to 500 and 500 to 1000 regardless of the particle concentration. Compared with SMPS measurements, the CPC gave a mean percent difference of 22.9% (95% agreement limits: 10.5% to 35.2%); whereas the measurements from OPC were not comparable. Conclusions This study demonstrated that CPC and OPC are useful for measuring nanoparticle exposures but the results from an individual monitor should be interpreted based upon the instrument's technical parameters. Future research should challenge these monitors

  14. Effects of bilateral and unilateral laser ocular exposure in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamper, David A.; Lund, David J.; Molchany, Jerome W.; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2003-06-01

    INTRODUCTION: The amount of visual disruption experienced by individuals exposed to a visible laser source at levels, which are below that, which will damage the cornea or retina will depend on laser exposure parameters and task demands. Previous work has evaluated the effects of wavelength, duration, ambient light level, and target variables. One factor that has not received attention is monocular vs. binocular exposure. Whether the exposure is monocular or binocular may alter pupil dynamics, eyelid closure, and ultimately affect visual performance. METHODS: In this study 10 males and females were exposed to 0.1 and 3.0 sec laser flashes while tracking a dynamic target at 0.28 deg/sec through a scope that was capable of selecting binocular or monocular viewing. Bright (430 nits) and dawn/dusk (4.3 nits) ambient light conditions were simulated using ND filters. A collimated 514.5 nm argon laser beam produced corneal radiant exposures of 0.16 and 1.0 mJ/cm2 for the 0.1 and 3.0 sec conditions respectively. For each flash trial total time off target and maximum absolute error scores were calculated. Eye response (changes in pupil diameter) was assessed by evaluation of videotape from an IR eye camera. Tracking error scores (total time off target) were calculated for each flash trial. RESULTS: Analysis of variance results for the total time off target scores found all three main factors (light level, exposure duration, and monocular/binocular to be significant. Earlier studies have previously shown dawn/dusk flash exposures be more disruptive than bright light trials. Also three sec exposures were more disruptive than one sec exposures. Finally, monocular exposures produced significantly higher error scores than did binocular exposures. For the pupil diameters the post-flash diameters were significantly smaller that the pre-flash diameters and monocular diameters larger that binocular pupil sizes. SUMMARY: The Total Time Off Target error scores for the monocular

  15. Uveka: a UV exposure monitoring system using autonomous instruments network for Reunion Island citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sébastien, Nicolas; Cros, Sylvain; Lallemand, Caroline; Kurzrock, Frederik; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Reunion Island is a French oversea territory located in the Indian Ocean. This tropical Island has about 840,000 inhabitants and is visited every year by more than 400,000 tourists. On average, 340 sunny days occurs on this island in a whole year. Beyond these advantageous conditions, exposure of the population to ultraviolet radiation constitutes a public health issue. The number of hospitalisations for skin cancer increased by 50% between 2005 and 2010. Health insurance reimbursements due to ophthalmic anomalies caused by the sun is about two million Euros. Among the prevention measures recommended by public health policies, access to information on UV radiation is one of the basic needs. Reuniwatt, supported by the Regional Council of La Reunion, is currently developing the project Uveka. Uveka is a solution permitting to provide in real-time and in short-term forecast (several hours), the UV radiation maps of the Reunion Island. Accessible via web interface and smartphone application, Uveka informs the citizens about the UV exposure rate and its risk according to its individual characteristics (skin phototype, past exposure to sun etc.). The present work describes this initiative through the presentation of the UV radiation monitoring system and the data processing chain toward the end-users. The UV radiation monitoring system of Uveka is a network of low cost UV sensors. Each instrument is equipped with a solar panel and a battery. Moreover, the sensor is able to communicate using the 3G telecommunication network. Then, the instrument can be installed without AC power or access to a wired communication network. This feature eliminates a site selection constraint. Indeed, with more than 200 microclimates and a strong cloud cover spatial variability, building a representative measurement site network in this island with a limited number of instruments is a real challenge. In addition to these UV radiation measurements, the mapping of the surface solar radiation

  16. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Personal monitoring coupled with GPS tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia; Schipperijn, Jasper; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Toftum, Jørn; Loft, Steffen; Clausen, Geo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) may have adverse health effects. Central monitoring stations do not represent the personal exposure to UFP accurately. Few studies have previously focused on personal exposure to UFP. Sixty non-smoking residents living in Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to carry a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of ∼48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure occurring in various microenvironments (residence, during active and passive transport, other indoor and outdoor environments) to the total daily exposure. On average, the fractional contribution of each microenvironment to the daily integrated personal exposure roughly corresponded to the fractions of the day the subjects spent in each microenvironment. The home environment accounted for 50% of the daily personal exposure. Indoor environments other than home or vehicles contributed with ∼40%. The highest median UFP concentration was obtained during passive transport (vehicles). However, being in transit or outdoors contributed 5% or less to the daily exposure. Additionally, the subjects recorded in a diary the periods when they were at home. With this approach, 66% of the total daily exposure was attributable to the home environment. The subjects spent 28% more time at home according to the diary, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data.

  17. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL IMMUNOCHEMISTRY AT THE U.S. EPA, NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S HUMAN EXPOSURE BRANCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoehemical methods are responding to the changing needs of regulatory and monitoring programs and are meeting new analytical challenges as they arise. Recent advances in environmental immunoehemistry have expanded the role of immunoassays from field screening methods to hig...

  19. A Flexible and Wearable Human Stress Monitoring Patch

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring. PMID:27004608

  20. A Flexible and Wearable Human Stress Monitoring Patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-03-01

    A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring.

  1. Porphyrin Metabolisms in Human Skin Commensal Propionibacterium acnes Bacteria: Potential Application to Monitor Human Radiation Risk

    PubMed Central

    Shu, M.; Kuo, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Liu, Y.-T.; Gallo, R.L.; Huang, C.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is a commensal organism in human skin. Like human cells, the bacteria produce porphyrins, which exhibit fluorescence properties and make bacteria visible with a Wood’s lamp. In this review, we compare the porphyrin biosynthesis in humans and P. acnes. Also, since P. acnes living on the surface of skin receive the same radiation exposure as humans, we envision that the changes in porphyrin profiles (the absorption spectra and/or metabolism) of P. acnes by radiation may mirror the response of human cells to radiation. The porphyrin profiles of P. acnes may be a more accurate reflection of radiation risk to the patient than other biodosimeters/biomarkers such as gene up-/down-regulation, which may be non-specific due to patient related factors such as autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and possible solutions for using the P. acnes response to predict the radiation risk. PMID:23231351

  2. Human exposure and risk from indoor use of chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J E; Peterson, R K; Shurdut, B A

    1998-01-01

    The toxicity, exposure, and risk from chlorpyrifos are briefly discussed in juxtaposition with two recent articles in Environmental Health Perspectives concerning potential exposures to children. In studies conducted according to EPA guidelines, chlorpyrifos has been shown not to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic, nor does it adversely affect reproduction. Chlorpyrifos toxicity does not occur in the absence of significant cholinesterase inhibition. If exposures are less than those that cause significant cholinesterase depression, then no signs or symptoms related to chlorpyrifos exposure occur. The weight of empirical evidence indicates that the risk of adults or children experiencing an adverse health effect from exposure to chlorpyrifos through both nondietary and dietary sources is negligible. Both the research supporting the registration of these products and their long history of widespread use suggest that unless these products are seriously misused, their margins of safety are wide enough to protect everyone with the potential to be exposed. A weight-of-evidence review of the entire scientific knowledge base relating to chlorpyrifos products supports these conclusions. PMID:9618344

  3. Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Electric Steel Foundry in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Hanchi, Mariem; Olgiati, Luca; Polledri, Elisa; Consonni, Dario; Zrafi, Ines; Saidane-Mosbahi, Dalila; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding have been classified as carcinogenic to humans, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this industrial setting may contribute to cancer risk. The occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed in 93 male workers at an electric steel foundry in Tunisia by biomonitoring, with the aims of characterizing the excretion profile and investigating the influence of job title and personal characteristics on the biomarkers. Sixteen 2-6 ring unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) and eight hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OHPAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Among U-PAHs, urinary naphthalene (U-NAP) was the most abundant compound (median level: 643ng l(-1)), followed by phenanthrene (U-PHE, 18.5ng l(-1)). Urinary benzo[a]pyrene (U-BaP) level was <0.30ng l(-1) Among OHPAHs, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNAP) was the most abundant metabolite (2.27 µg l(-1)). Median 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR) was 0.52 µg l(-1) Significant correlations among urinary biomarkers were observed, with Pearson's r ranging from 0.177 to 0.626. 1-OHPYR was correlated to benzo[a]pyrene, but not to five- and six-rings PAHs. A multiple linear regression model showed that job title was a significant determinant for almost all U-PAHs. In particular, employees in the steel smelter workshop had higher levels of high-boiling U-PAHs and lower levels of low-boiling U-PAHs than those of workers with other job titles. Among OHPAHs, this model was significant only for naphthols and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE). Smoking status was a significant predictor for almost all biomarkers. Among all analytes, U-PHE and 1-OHPHE were the less affected by tobacco smoke, and they were significantly correlated with both low- and high-molecular-weight compounds, and their levels were related to job titles, so they could be proposed as suitable

  4. Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Electric Steel Foundry in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Hanchi, Mariem; Olgiati, Luca; Polledri, Elisa; Consonni, Dario; Zrafi, Ines; Saidane-Mosbahi, Dalila; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding have been classified as carcinogenic to humans, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this industrial setting may contribute to cancer risk. The occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed in 93 male workers at an electric steel foundry in Tunisia by biomonitoring, with the aims of characterizing the excretion profile and investigating the influence of job title and personal characteristics on the biomarkers. Sixteen 2-6 ring unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) and eight hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OHPAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Among U-PAHs, urinary naphthalene (U-NAP) was the most abundant compound (median level: 643ng l(-1)), followed by phenanthrene (U-PHE, 18.5ng l(-1)). Urinary benzo[a]pyrene (U-BaP) level was <0.30ng l(-1) Among OHPAHs, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNAP) was the most abundant metabolite (2.27 µg l(-1)). Median 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR) was 0.52 µg l(-1) Significant correlations among urinary biomarkers were observed, with Pearson's r ranging from 0.177 to 0.626. 1-OHPYR was correlated to benzo[a]pyrene, but not to five- and six-rings PAHs. A multiple linear regression model showed that job title was a significant determinant for almost all U-PAHs. In particular, employees in the steel smelter workshop had higher levels of high-boiling U-PAHs and lower levels of low-boiling U-PAHs than those of workers with other job titles. Among OHPAHs, this model was significant only for naphthols and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE). Smoking status was a significant predictor for almost all biomarkers. Among all analytes, U-PHE and 1-OHPHE were the less affected by tobacco smoke, and they were significantly correlated with both low- and high-molecular-weight compounds, and their levels were related to job titles, so they could be proposed as suitable

  5. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  6. Routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure: Czech experience and results since 1998.

    PubMed

    Frantisek, Spurný; Ondrej, Ploc; Ivan, Kovár

    2007-01-01

    ICRP Publication 60 recommended that the radiation exposure due to the cosmic component at high altitudes be considered when appropriate as part of occupational exposure to the radiation. The recommendation was incorporated to the Czech regulation in 1997, and the studies on how to perform individual dosimetry of Czech companies aircraft crew started immediately. The individual monitoring values were calculated using the Transport code CARI. The results obtained since the beginning have been recalculated, now with the version 6. The information on the flight schedules and the participation of aircraft crew in the flight were received from the air company. Routine individual dosimetry had started in 1998. Main results for the period 1998-2003 are as follows: both relative frequencies, as well as, average annual effective doses vary with the company and with the year, without any evident general tendency; the average annual values of E were between 1.5 and 2 mSv; and collective effective dose increased regularly, from approximately 1.5 manSv to >2.2 manSv. More detailed analysis is presented, including the verification of the procedure by a series of onboard experimental measurements.

  7. [Evaluation of an Experimental Production Wireless Dose Monitoring System for Radiation Exposure Management of Medical Staff].

    PubMed

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Murazaki, Hiroo; Kuramoto, Taku; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Ishigaki, Yung

    2015-08-01

    Because of the more advanced and more complex procedures in interventional radiology, longer treatment times have become necessary. Therefore, it is important to determine the exposure doses received by operators and patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an experimental production wireless dose monitoring system for pulse radiation in diagnostic X-ray. The energy, dose rate, and pulse fluoroscopy dependence were evaluated as the basic characteristics of this system for diagnostic X-ray using a fully digital fluoroscopy system. The error of 1 cm dose equivalent rate was less than 15% from 35.1 keV to 43.2 keV with energy correction using metal filter. It was possible to accurately measure the dose rate dependence of this system, which was highly linear until 100 μSv/h. This system showed a constant response to the pulse fluoroscopy. This system will become useful wireless dosimeter for the individual exposure management by improving the high dose rate and the energy characteristics.

  8. Biological monitoring of pyrethroid exposure of pest control workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Kamijima, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kameda, Yohei; Asai, Kazumi; Okamura, Ai; Naito, Hisao; Ueyama, Jun; Saito, Isao; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Eiji; Kondo, Takaaki; Takagi, Kenji; Takagi, Kenzo; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin, which are usually used in pest control operations, are metabolized to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and excreted in urine. Though 3-PBA can be used to assess exposure to pyrethroids, there are few reports describing urinary 3-PBA levels in Japan. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal variation of the exposure levels of pyrethroids and the concentration of urinary 3-PBA among pest control operators (PCOs) in Japan. The study subjects were 78 and 66 PCOs who underwent a health examination in December 2004 and in August 2005, respectively. 3-PBA was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentration of urinary 3-PBA in winter (3.9 microg/g creatinine) was significantly lower than in summer (12.2 microg/g creatinine) (p<0.05). Geometric mean concentrations of urinary 3-PBA in the spraying workers and the not-spraying workers within 2 d before the survey were 5.4 microg/g creatinine and 0.9 microg/g creatinine for winter with a significant difference between the groups (p<0.05), and 12.3 microg/g creatinine and 8.7 microg/g creatinine for summer (p>0.05), respectively. A significant association of 3-PBA levels and pyrethroid spraying was thus observed only in winter. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that the exposure level of pyrethroids among PCOs in Japan assessed by monitoring urinary 3-PBA was higher than that reported in the UK but comparable to that in Germany. Further research should be accumulated to establish an occupational reference value in Japan.

  9. The Effect of Realtime Monitoring on Dose Exposure to Staff Within an Interventional Radiology Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Frederic Katzen, Barry T.; Carelsen, Bart; Diehm, Nicolas; Benenati, James F.; Peña, Constantino S.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to evaluate a new device providing real-time monitoring on radiation exposure during fluoroscopy procedures intending to reduce radiation in an interventional radiology setting.Materials and MethodsIn one interventional suite, a new system providing a real-time radiation dose display and five individual wireless dosimeters were installed. The five dosimeters were worn by the attending, fellow, nurse, technician, and anesthesiologist for every procedure taking place in that suite. During the first 6-week interval the dose display was off (closed phase) and activated thereafter, for a 6-week learning phase (learning phase) and a 10-week open phase (open phase). Du