Science.gov

Sample records for monitoring invasive species

  1. Invasive Plant Species. Inventory, Mapping, and Monitoring - A National Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of... invasive species could exceed $ 138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch...thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the

  2. Invasive Species

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  3. 5.0 Monitoring methods for forests vulnerable to non-native invasive pest species

    Treesearch

    David W. Williams; Michael E. Montgomery; Kathleen S. Shields; Richard A. Evans

    2008-01-01

    Non-native invasive species pose a serious threat to forest resources, requiring programs to monitor their spatial spread and the damage they inflict on forest ecosystems. Invasive species research in the Delaware River Basin (DRB) had three primary objectives: to develop and evaluate monitoring protocols for selected pests and resulting ecosystem damage at the IMRAs...

  4. Invasive Plant Species: Inventory, Mapping, and Monitoring - A National Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  5. Using Environmental DNA for Invasive Species Surveillance and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    The method employed for environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance for detection and monitoring of rare species in aquatic systems has evolved dramatically since its first large-scale applications. Both active (targeted) and passive (total diversity) surveillance methods provide helpful information for management groups, but each has a suite of techniques that necessitate proper equipment training and use. The protocols described in this chapter represent some of the latest iterations in eDNA surveillance being applied in aquatic and marine systems.

  6. EARLY DETECTION MONITORING OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES HARBORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Ships Initiative (GSI) has asked for a presentation on designing harbor monitoring. Our research/development project on early detection provides some examples and lessons for GSI to consider in evaluating effectiveness of ballast water treatments; the presentation allo...

  7. Non-invasive monitoring of inorganic species in water

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.R.; Iles, A.

    1995-12-31

    Results of the UV absorption properties of nitrate in waters and the effects of potential inorganic and organic species on these properties are presented. The attenuation of the water Raman and Rayleigh back-scattered light of appropriate wavelengths by nitrate distributed along the probed water column is correlated with nitrate concentration. An analysis of the results in terms of an extended source in the water column and integrated absorption (over a certain depth) is presented. The feasibility of using a differential absorption and scattering technique utilizing water Raman and Rayleigh back scattered signals without any optical contact wit cell walls is examined, so that the problem of cell fouling in conventional absorption measurements is avoided.

  8. An assessment of invasive plant species monitored by the Northern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, 2005 through 2010

    Treesearch

    Cassandra M. Kurtz

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plant species are a worldwide concern due to the high ecological and economic costs associated with their presence. This document describes the plant characteristics and regional distribution of the 50 invasive plant species monitored from 2005 through 2010 on forested Phase 2 (P2) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots in the 24 states of the Northern...

  9. Invasive forest species

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Illman

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  10. An eDNA Assay to Monitor a Globally Invasive Fish Species from Flowing Freshwater.

    PubMed

    Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Ponto-Caspian gobies are a flock of five invasive fish species that have colonized freshwaters and brackish waters in Europe and North America. One of them, the round goby Neogobius melanostomus, figures among the 100 worst invaders in Europe. Current methods to detect the presence of Ponto-Caspian gobies involve catching or sighting the fish. These approaches are labor intense and not very sensitive. Consequently, populations are usually detected only when they have reached high densities and when management or containment efforts are futile. To improve monitoring, we developed an assay based on the detection of DNA traces (environmental DNA, or eDNA) of Ponto-Caspian gobies in river water. The assay specifically detects invasive goby DNA and does not react to any native fish species. We apply the assay to environmental samples and demonstrate that parameters such as sampling depth, sampling location, extraction protocol, PCR protocol and PCR inhibition greatly impact detection. We further successfully outline the invasion front of Ponto-Caspian gobies in a large river, the High Rhine in Switzerland, and thus demonstrate the applicability of the assay to lotic environments. The eDNA assay requires less time, equipment, manpower, skills, and financial resources than the conventional monitoring methods such as electrofishing, angling or diving. Samples can be taken by untrained individuals, and the assay can be performed by any molecular biologist on a conventional PCR machine. Therefore, this assay enables environment managers to map invaded areas independently of fishermen's' reports and fish community monitorings.

  11. Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Olden, Julian D.; Smith, Scott S.; Graham, Jim; Burkett, Virginia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Piorkowski, Robert J.; Mcphedran, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic drivers and sea-level rise will affect populations of existing native and non-native aquatic species and the vulnerability of aquatic environments to new invasions. Monitoring surveys provide the foundation for assessing the combined effects of climate change and invasions by providing baseline biotic and environmental conditions, although the utility of a survey depends on whether the results are quantitative or qualitative, and other design considerations. The results from a variety of monitoring programs in the United States are available in integrated biological information systems, although many include only non-native species, not native species. Besides including natives, we suggest these systems could be improved through the development of standardized methods that capture habitat and physiological requirements and link regional and national biological databases into distributed Web portals that allow drawing information from multiple sources. Combining the outputs from these biological information systems with environmental data would allow the development of ecological-niche models that predict the potential distribution or abundance of native and non-native species on the basis of current environmental conditions. Environmental projections from climate models can be used in these niche models to project changes in species distributions or abundances under altered climatic conditions and to identify potential high-risk invaders. There are, however, a number of challenges, such as uncertainties associated with projections from climate and niche models and difficulty in integrating data with different temporal and spatial granularity. Even with these uncertainties, integration of biological and environmental information systems, niche models, and climate projections would improve management of aquatic ecosystems under the dual threats of biotic invasions and climate change

  12. An eDNA Assay to Monitor a Globally Invasive Fish Species from Flowing Freshwater

    PubMed Central

    Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Ponto-Caspian gobies are a flock of five invasive fish species that have colonized freshwaters and brackish waters in Europe and North America. One of them, the round goby Neogobius melanostomus, figures among the 100 worst invaders in Europe. Current methods to detect the presence of Ponto-Caspian gobies involve catching or sighting the fish. These approaches are labor intense and not very sensitive. Consequently, populations are usually detected only when they have reached high densities and when management or containment efforts are futile. To improve monitoring, we developed an assay based on the detection of DNA traces (environmental DNA, or eDNA) of Ponto-Caspian gobies in river water. The assay specifically detects invasive goby DNA and does not react to any native fish species. We apply the assay to environmental samples and demonstrate that parameters such as sampling depth, sampling location, extraction protocol, PCR protocol and PCR inhibition greatly impact detection. We further successfully outline the invasion front of Ponto-Caspian gobies in a large river, the High Rhine in Switzerland, and thus demonstrate the applicability of the assay to lotic environments. The eDNA assay requires less time, equipment, manpower, skills, and financial resources than the conventional monitoring methods such as electrofishing, angling or diving. Samples can be taken by untrained individuals, and the assay can be performed by any molecular biologist on a conventional PCR machine. Therefore, this assay enables environment managers to map invaded areas independently of fishermen’s’ reports and fish community monitorings. PMID:26814998

  13. Advancing capability for bioassessment using DNA metabarcoding: Application to aquatic invasive species monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing biological communities by their constituent species is fundamental to biological monitoring and ecological condition assessment. Finding and identifying rare species is a long-standing challenge for monitoring programs. Nevertheless, conducting surveys that can des...

  14. Advancing capability for bioassessment using DNA metabarcoding: Application to aquatic invasive species monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing biological communities by their constituent species is fundamental to biological monitoring and ecological condition assessment. Finding and identifying rare species is a long-standing challenge for monitoring programs. Nevertheless, conducting surveys that can des...

  15. National invasive species program

    Treesearch

    Anna Rinick; Hilda Diaz-Soltero

    2007-01-01

    The structure and function of the National Invasive Species Council was presented below. The names and contact information for the USDA Invasive Species coordinators as of February 2006 were presented on the next page.

  16. Monitoring population and environmental parameters of invasive mosquito species in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334

  17. Invasive species in agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  18. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  19. Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Chris Dionigi, Assistant Director, Domestic Policy National Invasive Species Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts Report...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CouncilCoordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ADDRESS(ES) National Invasive Species Council (NISC) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  20. Monitoring and Surveillance of Marine Invasive Species in Californian Waters by DNA Barcoding: Methodological and Analytical Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, T. L.; Geller, J. B.; Heller, P.; Ruiz, G.; Chang, A.; McCann, L.; Ceballos, L.; Marraffini, M.; Ashton, G.; Larson, K.; Havard, S.; Meagher, K.; Wheelock, M.; Drake, C.; Rhett, G.

    2016-02-01

    The Ballast Water Management Act, the Marine Invasive Species Act, and the Coastal Ecosystem Protection Act require the California Department of Fish and Wildlife to monitor and evaluate the extent of biological invasions in the state's marine and estuarine waters. This has been performed statewide, using a variety of methodologies. Conventional sample collection and processing is laborious, slow and costly, and may require considerable taxonomic expertise requiring detailed time-consuming microscopic study of multiple specimens. These factors limit the volume of biomass that can be searched for introduced species. New technologies continue to reduce the cost and increase the throughput of genetic analyses, which become efficient alternatives to traditional morphological analysis for identification, monitoring and surveillance of marine invasive species. Using next-generation sequencing of mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU), we analyzed over 15,000 individual marine invertebrates collected in Californian waters. We have created sequence databases of California native and non-native species to assist in molecular identification and surveillance in North American waters. Metagenetics, the next-generation sequencing of environmental samples with comparison to DNA sequence databases, is a faster and cost-effective alternative to individual sample analysis. We have sequenced from biomass collected from whole settlement plates and plankton in California harbors, and used our introduced species database to create species lists. We can combine these species lists for individual marinas with collected environmental data, such as temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen to understand the ecology of marine invasions. Here we discuss high throughput sampling, sequencing, and COASTLINE, our data analysis answer to challenges working with hundreds of millions of sequencing reads from tens of thousands of specimens.

  1. Remote sensing of California estuaries: Monitoring climate change and invasive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulitsch, Melinda Jennifer

    The spread of invasive species and climate change are among the most serious global environmental threats. The goal of this dissertation was to link inter-annual climate change and biological invasions at a landscape scale using novel remote sensing techniques applied to the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta Estuary. I evaluated the use of hyperspectral imagery for detecting invasive aquatic species in the Delta using 3 m HyMap hyperspectral imagery. The target invasive aquatics weeds were the emergent water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and the submerged Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa). Data were analyzed using linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA). The results show the weeds were mapped with a classification accuracy of 90.6% compared to 2003 sample sites and 82.6% accuracy compared to 2004 sample sites. Brazilian waterweed locations were successfully mapped but the abundances were overestimated because we did not separate it from other submerged aquatic vegatation (SAV). I evaluated 3 m HyMap imagery, from 2004, for SAV species in the Delta, including: Brazilian waterweed ( Egeria densa), Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum ), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus), coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), American pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus), fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana), and common elodea (Elodea canadensis). Data were analyzed using SMA with a classification accuracy of 84.4%. Spectral simulations of Brazilian waterweed and American pondweed show how spectral properties can change at different water depths and varying water quality. Finally I address the effect of inter-annual climate change on the estuary ecology in the San Francisco Bay by analyzing current (2002) and historical (1994-1996) Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) datasets to map salt marsh species distribution. The species in the estuary, Salicornia virginica, Spartinia foliosa, Scirpus robustus, and Distichlis spicata undergo dramatic changes in

  2. Large-scale feature selection from imaging spectrometer data using a genetic algorithm for invasive species mapping and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, John F.

    Invasive species pose the single greatest threat of natural disaster in this century. With rare exceptions, the estimated annual cost of invasive species to the U.S. exceeds all other natural disasters combined. Invasive plant species can rapidly displace native vegetation and upset the balance in an ecosystem. Accurate and rapid identification and monitoring of effected areas are critical to maintaining control in environments where invasive species have or could develop. The goal of this research is to develop a method for selecting the near-optimal spectral band subset from hyperspectral imagery (HSI) data to improve classification accuracy and feature transparency. The research presented in this dissertation is focused on the implementation and testing of a genetic algorithm (GA) to reduce the number of spectral bands that are needed to produce an accurate and rapid classification map using HSI data. This algorithm was applied to the invasive species mapping and monitoring problem and can be used for similar "needle in a haystack" problems. This research has also provided a sensitivity analysis for a number of the parameters used by a GA including: the chromosome population size; the number of generations required achieve an optimal feature set; the crossover and mutation rates; and the size of the feature subset. This research should provide a base for additional research into the application GA's for feature selection and extraction in high dimensional remote sensing data. Statistics of the time it takes to run the algorithm have also been captured in order to give users a sense of how this algorithm compares to the runtime for other feature extraction methods such as the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) algorithm. The contribution of this research is a demonstrated method to provide a high accuracy feature selection technique to identify invasive species that provides direct feature traceability to class spectra, through the development of a genetic algorithm

  3. USGS invasive species solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing.

  4. Defining an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P P

    2010-04-01

    The definition of an invasive species will depend on the viewpoint of the observer, who in some cases may be responsible for introducing the species. History has taught us that humans are the species that has invaded the largest surface area of the planet. So, before going on to propose a few definitions, this article describes three different examples or types of example in which domestic animal species, wild animal species and microorganisms (for biological pest control) have been transported intentionally. By doing so, this paper uses a variety of situations to support the definitions. A contemporary argument would counter a strictly biogeographical definition with a more ecological definition. The two are probably complementary. In any case, these definitions should remain practical. The consequences of species movements vary. However, their health impacts should not be underestimated.

  5. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  6. Chapter 15: Monitoring the effects of fire on nonnative invasive plant species

    Treesearch

    Steve Sutherland

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring, as defined by Elzinga and others (1998), is "the collection and analysis of repeated observations or measurements to evaluate changes in condition and progress towards meeting a management objective." Analyses of monitoring data may indicate that a project is meeting land management goals, or it may indicate that goals are not being met and...

  7. Species-Specific Identification from Incomplete Sampling: Applying DNA Barcodes to Monitoring Invasive Solanum Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling–through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application. PMID:23409092

  8. Species-specific identification from incomplete sampling: applying DNA barcodes to monitoring invasive solanum plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application.

  9. DNA-BASED METHODS FOR MONITORING INVASIVE SPECIES: A REVIEW AND PROSPECTUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent explosion of interest in DNA-based tools for species identification has prompted widespread speculation on the future availability of inexpensive, rapid and accurate means of identifying specimens and assessing biodiversity. One applied field that may benefit dramatic...

  10. DNA-BASED METHODS FOR MONITORING INVASIVE SPECIES: A REVIEW AND PROSPECTUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent explosion of interest in DNA-based tools for species identification has prompted widespread speculation on the future availability of inexpensive, rapid and accurate means of identifying specimens and assessing biodiversity. One applied field that may benefit dramatic...

  11. [Invasive and minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Advanced hemodynamic monitoring is necessary for adequate management of high-risk patients or patients with derangement of circulation. Studies demonstrate a benefit of early goal directed therapy in unstable cardiopulmonary situations. In these days we have different possibilities of minimally invasive or invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Minimally invasive measurements like pulse conture analysis or pulse wave analysis being less accurate under some circumstances, however only an artery catheter is needed for cardiac output monitoring. Pulmonary artery, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution technology have acceptable accuracy in cardiac output measurement. For therapy of unstable circulation there are additionally parameters to obtain. The pulmonary artery catheter is the device with the largest rate of complications, used by a trained crew and with a correct indication, his use is unchained justified.

  12. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  13. Spread dynamics of invasive species.

    PubMed

    Arim, Matías; Abades, Sebastián R; Neill, Paula E; Lima, Mauricio; Marquet, Pablo A

    2006-01-10

    Species invasions are a principal component of global change, causing large losses in biodiversity as well as economic damage. Invasion theory attempts to understand and predict invasion success and patterns of spread. However, there is no consensus regarding which species or community attributes enhance invader success or explain spread dynamics. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that regulation of spread dynamics is possible; however, the conditions for its existence have not yet been empirically demonstrated. If invasion spread is a regulated process, the structure that accounts for this regulation will be a main determinant of invasion dynamics. Here we explore the existence of regulation underlying changes in the rate of new site colonization. We employ concepts and analytical tools from the study of abundance dynamics and show that spread dynamics are, in fact, regulated processes and that the regulation structure is notably consistent among invasions occurring in widely different contexts. We base our conclusions on the analysis of the spread dynamics of 30 species invasions, including birds, amphibians, fish, invertebrates, plants, and a virus, all of which exhibited similar regulation structures. In contrast to current beliefs that species invasions are idiosyncratic phenomena, here we provide evidence that general patterns do indeed exist.

  14. Spread dynamics of invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Arim, Matías; Abades, Sebastián R.; Neill, Paula E.; Lima, Mauricio; Marquet, Pablo A.

    2006-01-01

    Species invasions are a principal component of global change, causing large losses in biodiversity as well as economic damage. Invasion theory attempts to understand and predict invasion success and patterns of spread. However, there is no consensus regarding which species or community attributes enhance invader success or explain spread dynamics. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that regulation of spread dynamics is possible; however, the conditions for its existence have not yet been empirically demonstrated. If invasion spread is a regulated process, the structure that accounts for this regulation will be a main determinant of invasion dynamics. Here we explore the existence of regulation underlying changes in the rate of new site colonization. We employ concepts and analytical tools from the study of abundance dynamics and show that spread dynamics are, in fact, regulated processes and that the regulation structure is notably consistent among invasions occurring in widely different contexts. We base our conclusions on the analysis of the spread dynamics of 30 species invasions, including birds, amphibians, fish, invertebrates, plants, and a virus, all of which exhibited similar regulation structures. In contrast to current beliefs that species invasions are idiosyncratic phenomena, here we provide evidence that general patterns do indeed exist. PMID:16387862

  15. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery.

  16. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    .../coastal environments in the world, with over 50 invasive species that threaten the Bay's vibrant economy... within invasive species efforts, ballast water related issues, and the development of state invasive...

  17. Invasive plant monitoring for northern U.S. forests

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; Randall S. Morin; Katherine Johnson; W. Keith Moser; James A. Westfall

    2012-01-01

    Invasive plants are monitored through canopy cover estimates for a list of species developed by FIA for the northern region of the U.S. that is integrated with a national list. Nearly all of the invasive plants on the NRS-FIA list are exotic species, but a few native species are listed. Highly invasive native species such as rhizomatous fern are absent, making the list...

  18. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  19. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  20. Simple and Efficient Trap for Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Facilitate Invasive Species Monitoring and Citizen Involvement.

    PubMed

    Steininger, M S; Hulcr, J; Šigut, M; Lucky, A

    2015-06-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae & Platypodinae) are among the most damaging forest pests worldwide, and monitoring is essential to damage prevention. Unfortunately, traps and attractants that are currently used are costly, and agencies rely on limited field personnel for deployment. The situation can be greatly aided by 1) the development of cost-effective trapping techniques, and 2) distribution of the effort through the Citizen Science approach. The goal of this study was to test a simple, effective trap that can be made and deployed by anyone interested in collecting bark and ambrosia beetles. Three trap types made from 2-liter soda bottles and, separately, four attractants were compared. Simple, one-window traps performed comparably at capturing species in traps painted or with multiple windows. A comparison of attractants in two-window traps found that 95% ethanol attracted the highest number of species but that Purell hand sanitizer (70% ethanol) and then Germ-X hand sanitizer (63% ethanol) were also effective. A perforated zip-top plastic bag containing Purell hanging over a trap filled with automobile antifreeze attracted the fewest species and individual specimens. Overall, >4,500 bark and ambrosia beetles, including 30 species were captured, representing a third of the regional species diversity. More than three quarters of the specimens were nonnative, representing nearly half of the known regional exotic species. These results suggest that simple one-window soda bottle traps baited with ethanol-based hand sanitizer will be effective and inexpensive tools for large-scale monitoring of bark and ambrosia beetles.

  1. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  2. Genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive Rattus congeners in south Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background South Africa's long and extensive trade activity has ensured ample opportunities for exotic species introduction. Whereas the rich biodiversity of endemic southern African fauna has been the focus of many studies, invasive vertebrates are generally overlooked despite potential impacts on biodiversity, health and agriculture. Genetic monitoring of commensal rodents in South Africa which uncovered the presence of Rattus tanezumi, a South-East Asian endemic not previously known to occur in Africa, provided the impetus for expanded studies on all invasive Rattus species present. Results To this end, intensified sampling at 28 South African localities and at one site in Swaziland, identified 149 Rattus specimens. Cytochrome b gene sequencing revealed the presence of two R. tanezumi, seven Rattus rattus and five Rattus norvegicus haplotypes in south Africa. Phylogenetic results were consistent with a single, recent R. tanezumi introduction and indicated that R. norvegicus and R. rattus probably became established following at least two and three independent introductions, respectively. Intra- and inter-specific diversity was highest in informal human settlements, with all three species occurring at a single metropolitan township site. Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus each occurred sympatrically with Rattus tanezumi at one and five sites, respectively. Karyotyping of selected R. rattus and R. tanezumi individuals identified diploid numbers consistent with those reported previously for these cryptic species. Ordination of bioclimatic variables and MaxEnt ecological niche modelling confirmed that the bioclimatic niche occupied by R. tanezumi in south Africa was distinct from that occupied in its naturalised range in south-east Asia suggesting that factors other than climate may influence the distribution of this species. Conclusions This study has highlighted the value of genetic typing for detecting cryptic invasive species, providing historical insights into

  3. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    .... The full ISAC will also consider a white paper entitled, Invasive Species and Climate Change, as drafted by the ISAC Task Team on Climate Change. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  4. Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Jessica J; Byers, James E; Bierwagen, Britta G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2008-06-01

    Scientific and societal unknowns make it difficult to predict how global environmental changes such as climate change and biological invasions will affect ecological systems. In the long term, these changes may have interacting effects and compound the uncertainty associated with each individual driver. Nonetheless, invasive species are likely to respond in ways that should be qualitatively predictable, and some of these responses will be distinct from those of native counterparts. We used the stages of invasion known as the "invasion pathway" to identify 5 nonexclusive consequences of climate change for invasive species: (1) altered transport and introduction mechanisms, (2) establishment of new invasive species, (3) altered impact of existing invasive species, (4) altered distribution of existing invasive species, and (5) altered effectiveness of control strategies. We then used these consequences to identify testable hypotheses about the responses of invasive species to climate change and provide suggestions for invasive-species management plans. The 5 consequences also emphasize the need for enhanced environmental monitoring and expanded coordination among entities involved in invasive-species management.

  5. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28743] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the...

  6. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 5)

    Treesearch

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Welcome to the fifth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate outreach of RMRS invasive species science to managers and the public. After publishing the past four newsletters, we...

  7. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 9)

    Treesearch

    Justin Runyon

    2017-01-01

    This newsletter is designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as to highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), a core group of scientists who volunteer to disseminate RMRS invasive species...

  8. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 8)

    Treesearch

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  9. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Treesearch

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  10. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  11. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect dates. This document corrects those.... Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday, March 7, 2013 through Friday, March 8...

  12. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 4)

    Treesearch

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Brian W. Geils

    2010-01-01

    The fourth issue of Invasive Species Science Update has finally arrived. This newsletter has no set publication schedule, but our intent is to deliver invasive species information on a timely basis. The RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG) has been reorganized and recharged. General information on the ISWG is presented in a publication by Butler and others (2009...

  13. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

  14. Invasive species and climate change (Chapter 7)

    Treesearch

    Justin B. Runyon; Jack L. Butler; Megan M. Friggens; Susan E. Meyer; Sharlene E. Sing

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species present one of the greatest threats to the health and sustainability of ecosystems worldwide. Invasive plants, animals, and diseases are known to have significant negative effects on biological diversity and the ecological structure and functions of native ecosystems. Moreover, the economic cost imposed by invasive species is enormous—the damage...

  15. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  16. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  17. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  18. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Treesearch

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  19. Adaptive invasive species distribution models: A framework for modeling incipient invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Corral, Lucia; Fricke, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of species distribution model(s) (SDM) for approximating, explaining, and predicting changes in species’ geographic locations is increasingly promoted for proactive ecological management. Although frameworks for modeling non-invasive species distributions are relatively well developed, their counterparts for invasive species—which may not be at equilibrium within recipient environments and often exhibit rapid transformations—are lacking. Additionally, adaptive ecological management strategies address the causes and effects of biological invasions and other complex issues in social-ecological systems. We conducted a review of biological invasions, species distribution models, and adaptive practices in ecological management, and developed a framework for adaptive, niche-based, invasive species distribution model (iSDM) development and utilization. This iterative, 10-step framework promotes consistency and transparency in iSDM development, allows for changes in invasive drivers and filters, integrates mechanistic and correlative modeling techniques, balances the avoidance of type 1 and type 2 errors in predictions, encourages the linking of monitoring and management actions, and facilitates incremental improvements in models and management across space, time, and institutional boundaries. These improvements are useful for advancing coordinated invasive species modeling, management and monitoring from local scales to the regional, continental and global scales at which biological invasions occur and harm native ecosystems and economies, as well as for anticipating and responding to biological invasions under continuing global change.

  20. Optimal control of an invasive species with imperfect information about the level of infestation

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Haight; Stephen. Polasky

    2010-01-01

    The presence of invasive species is often not realized until well after the species becomes established. Discovering the location and extent of infestation before the invasive species causes widespread damage typically requires intensive monitoring efforts. In this paper, we analyze the problem of controlling an invasive species when there is imperfect information...

  1. Developing Better Environmental Assessment and Protection Strategies: A Case Example on Early Detection Monitoring for Aquatic Invasive Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    A principal theme of our research group is to develop, evaluate, and improve monitoring approaches, ecological assessments, and environmental protection strategies. Over the past decade, we have conducted a number of studies under this general theme, across the Great Lakes basin...

  2. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  3. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 1)

    Treesearch

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jack Butler

    2008-01-01

    This electronic newsletter (Invasive Species Science Update) is published by the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Cross-Program, Interdisciplinary Project team on Invasive Species. This newsletter will be published 3 times per year and is intended to enhance communication among RMRS scientists, wildland managers, other partners, stakeholders, and customers about...

  4. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 6)

    Treesearch

    Paula Fornwalt

    2013-01-01

    The sixth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update is now complete. Published approximately once per year, this newsletter keeps managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, and covers breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by...

  5. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  6. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    FORT is also the administrative home of the National Institute of Invasive Species Science, a growing consortium of partnerships between government and private organizations established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its many cooperators. The Institute was formed to develop cooperative approaches for invasive species science that meet the urgent needs of land managers and the public. Its mission is to work with others to coordinate data and research from many sources to predict and reduce the effects of harmful nonnative plants, animals, and diseases in natural areas and throughout the United States, with a strategic approach to information management, research, modeling, technical assistance, and outreach. The Institute research team will develop local-, regional-, and national- scale maps of invasive species and identify priority invasive species, vulnerable habitats, and pathways of invasion. County-level and point data on occurrence will be linked to plot-level and site-level information on species abundance and spread. FORT scientists and Institute partners are working to integrate remote sensing data and GIS-based predictive models to track the spread of invasive species across the country. This information will be linked to control and restoration efforts to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. Understanding both successes and failures will advance the science of invasive species containment and control as well as restoration of habitats and native biodiversity.

  7. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring plant invasions: Testing the effects of data resolution and image classification approach on the detection of a model plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müllerová, Jana; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr

    2013-12-01

    Plant invasions represent a threat not only to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning but also to the character of traditional landscapes. Despite the worldwide efforts to control and eradicate invasive species, their menace grows. New techniques enabling fast and precise monitoring and providing information on spatial structure of invasions are needed for efficient management strategies to be implemented. We present remote sensing assessment of a noxious invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) that integrates different data sources, spatial and spectral resolutions, and image processing techniques. Panchromatic, multispectral and color very high spatial resolution (VHR) aerial photography (1947-2006, resolution 0.5 m), and medium spatial resolution satellite data (Rapid Eye 2010, resolution 5 m) were analyzed to assess their potential for hogweed monitoring by using pixel- (both supervised and unsupervised) and object-based image analysis (OBIA, automated hierarchical, iterative, and rule-based). Both point and grid based accuracy assessment was carried out. Described methods of object-based image analysis of VHR data enabled monitoring of hogweed at high classification accuracies measured by various means, regardless of the spectral resolution of the data provided that the data came from the species flowering period. Although the proposed automated processing of VHR data is relatively time-effective and standardized, application over large areas would be rather demanding due to the size of datasets, and multispectral satellite data of medium spatial resolution (lower than the size of individuals) was therefore tested. On such imagery, only larger stands could be identified but still the pixel-based supervised classification achieved moderate accuracy. Depending on the size of the area of interest and the detail needed the very high or medium spatial resolution data (acquired at the species flowering period) are to be used. High accuracies

  8. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  9. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-05

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  10. Alien invasive species and international trade

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emergency control measures for invasive species often rely on use of pesticides and other destructive practices. Public concern about pesticide contamination of the ground water and the environment has lead to increased restrictions on the use of pesticides for control of many destructive invasive ...

  11. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ..., ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause. The Council is co-chaired by the Secretary... the Pacific Northwest. A ``systems thinking'' approach to this meeting in both ecological...

  12. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... duty of the Council is to provide national leadership regarding invasive species issues. The purpose of... address below.) Call-in number and access code will be provided upon request by calling 202-208-5978...

  13. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  14. Invasive species management and research using GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcombe, Tracy R.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2007-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are powerful tools in the field of invasive species management. GIS can be used to create potential distribution maps for all manner of taxa, including plants, animals, and diseases. GIS also performs well in the early detection and rapid assessment of invasive species. Here, we used GIS applications to investigate species richness and invasion patterns in fish in the United States (US) at the 6-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) level. We also created maps of potential spread of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in the southeastern US at the 8-digit HUC level using regression and environmental envelope techniques. Equipped with this potential map, resource managers can target their field surveys to areas most vulnerable to invasion. Advances in GIS technology, maps, data, and many of these techniques can be found on websites such as the National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org). Such websites provide a forum for data sharing and analysis that is an invaluable service to the invasive species community.

  15. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  16. Teaching Citizen Science Skills Online: Implications for Invasive Species Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Greg; Crall, Alycia; Laituri, Melinda; Graham, Jim; Stohlgren, Tom; Moore, John C.; Kodrich, Kris; Holfelder, Kirstin A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills…

  17. Teaching Citizen Science Skills Online: Implications for Invasive Species Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Greg; Crall, Alycia; Laituri, Melinda; Graham, Jim; Stohlgren, Tom; Moore, John C.; Kodrich, Kris; Holfelder, Kirstin A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills…

  18. Invasive species overarching priorities to 2029

    Treesearch

    Kerry O. Britton; Marilyn Buford; Kelly Burnett; Mary Ellen Dix; Susan J. Frankel; Melody Keena; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Michael E. Ostry; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest threats to forest, range, aquatic, and urban forest ecosystem health. They contribute to the endangerment of native species and may lead to other severe ecological and financial consequences in our Nation’s wildlands and urban forests. Costs the public pays for damage, losses, and control efforts are estimated at more than $138...

  19. Climate change and invasive species: double jeopardy.

    PubMed

    Mainka, Susan A; Howard, Geoffrey W

    2010-06-01

    Two of the key drivers of biodiversity loss today are climate change and invasive species. Climate change is already having a measurable impact on species distributions, reproduction and behavior, and all evidence suggests that things will get worse even if we act tomorrow to mitigate any future increases in greenhouse gas emissions: temperature will increase, precipitation will change, sea level will rise and ocean chemistry will change. At the same time, biological invasions remain an important threat to biodiversity, causing species loss, changes in distribution and habitat degradation. Acting together, the impacts of each of these drivers of change are compounded and interactions between these two threats present even greater challenges to field conservationists as well as policymakers. Similarly, the social and economic impacts of climate change and invasive species, already substantial, will be magnified. Awareness of the links between the two should underpin all biodiversity management planning and policy. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  20. The Global Invasive Species Information Network: contributing to GEO Task BI-07-01b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, J.; Morisette, J. T.; Simpson, A.

    2009-12-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten biodiversity and exert a tremendous cost on society for IAS prevention and eradication. They endanger natural ecosystem functioning and seriously impact biodiversity and agricultural production. The task definition for the GEO task BI-07-01b: Invasive Species Monitoring System is to characterize, monitor, and predict changes in the distribution of invasive species. This includes characterizing the current requirements and capacity for invasive species monitoring and developing strategies for implementing cross-search functionality among existing online invasive species information systems from around the globe. The Task is being coordinated by members of the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN) and their partners. Information on GISIN and a prototype of the network is available at www.gisin.org. This talk will report on the current status of GISIN and review how researchers can either contribute to or utilize data from this network.

  1. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  2. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  3. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 31 nonfederal invasive species experts and...

  4. Non-invasive glucose monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

  5. Comparing a non-invasive hemodynamic monitor with minimally invasive monitoring during major open abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Lawrence; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract As part of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol, the goal-directed fluid management with hemodynamic monitoring can effectively guide perioperative fluid use and significantly improve the outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing major surgeries. Several minimally invasive and non-invasive monitoring devices are commercially available for clinical use. As part of an internal evaluation, we reported the results from three different hemodynamic monitoring devices used in a patient undergoing a major abdominal surgery. PMID:25050116

  6. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  7. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  8. Projecting rates of spread for invasive species.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Michael G; Parker, Ingrid M

    2004-08-01

    All else being equal, the faster an invading species spreads, the more dangerous its invasion. The projection of spread rate therefore ought to be a central part of the determination of invasion risk. Originally formulated in the 1970s to describe the spatial spread of advantageous alleles, integrodifference equation (IDE) models have since been co-opted by population biologists to describe the spread of populations. More recently, they have been modified to include population structure and environmental variability. We review how IDE models are formulated, how they are parameterized, and how they can be analyzed to project spread rates and the sensitivity of those rates to changes in model parameters. For illustrative purposes, we apply these models to Cytisus scoparius, a large shrub in the legume family that is considered a noxious invasive species in eastern and western North America, Chile, Australia, and New Zealand.

  9. Modelling biological invasions: species traits, species interactions, and habitat heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Cannas, Sergio A; Marco, Diana E; Páez, Sergio A

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we explore the integration of different factors to understand, predict and control ecological invasions, through a general cellular automaton model especially developed. The model includes life history traits of several species in a modular structure interacting multiple cellular automata. We performed simulations using field values corresponding to the exotic Gleditsia triacanthos and native co-dominant trees in a montane area. Presence of G. triacanthos juvenile bank was a determinant condition for invasion success. Main parameters influencing invasion velocity were mean seed dispersal distance and minimum reproductive age. Seed production had a small influence on the invasion velocity. Velocities predicted by the model agreed well with estimations from field data. Values of population density predicted matched field values closely. The modular structure of the model, the explicit interaction between the invader and the native species, and the simplicity of parameters and transition rules are novel features of the model.

  10. Platform Technologies for Minimally Invasive Physiological Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Platform Technologies for Minimally Invasive Physiological Monitoring Mingui Sun1,2,3,4, Steven A. Hackworth1,2,4, Zhide Tang1, Jun Zhao1,4, Daliang...Light, W. G. Berger, “Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine,” Radiographics, Jan-Feb 2004 24(1):257-85. [2] W. Liu, M. Sivaprakasam, G. Wang

  11. Invasive Species - A Threat to the Homeland?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    continent in the 14th century and killed a large portion of the European population or the current problem with leafy spurge , an invasive plant that causes an...and difficult to mitigate. While trying to re-establish native prairie grass and forbs, it was very difficult to eradicate the non-native species and...north it may spread. Total eradication of the species is no longer feasible at this point of its spread and establishment. Government agencies

  12. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  13. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 2)

    Treesearch

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jack Butler

    2008-01-01

    Mee-Sook and I received several favorable comments regarding the first issue of the Invasive Species Science Update. In true Government form, the newsletter is now often referenced by the acronym ISSU. So, this is the second issue of ISSU.

  14. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Treesearch

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  15. Non-invasive monitoring of spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Bastany, Zoya J R; Askari, Shahbaz; Dumont, Guy A; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Spreading depression (SD), a slow propagating depolarization wave, plays an important role in pathophysiology of different neurological disorders. Yet, research into SD-related disorders has been hampered by the lack of non-invasive recording techniques of SD. Here we compared the manifestations of SD in continuous non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings to invasive electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in order to obtain further insights into generator structures and electrogenic mechanisms of surface recording of SD. SD was induced by KCl application and simultaneous SD recordings were performed by scalp EEG as well as ECoG electrodes of somatosensory neocortex of rats using a novel homemade EEG amplifier, AgCl recording electrodes, and high chloride conductive gel. Different methods were used to analyze the data; including the spectrogram, bi-spectrogram, pattern distribution, relative spectrum power, and multivariable Gaussian fit analysis. The negative direct current (DC) shifts recorded by scalp electrodes exhibited a high homogeneity to those recorded by ECoG electrodes. Furthermore, this novel method of recording and analysis was able to separate SD recorded by scalp electrodes from non-neuronal DC shifts induced by other potential generators, such as the skin, muscles, arteries, dura, etc. These data suggest a novel application for continuous non-invasive monitoring of DC potential changes, such as SD. Non-invasive monitoring of SD would allow early intervention and improve outcome in SD-related neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  16. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Stohlgren, Thomas J; Ma, Peter; Kumar, Sunil; Rocca, Monique; Morisette, Jeffrey T; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Benson, Nate

    2010-02-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis.

  18. A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Fischer, Markus

    2010-02-01

    A major aim in ecology is identifying determinants of invasiveness. We performed a meta-analysis of 117 field or experimental-garden studies that measured pair-wise trait differences of a total of 125 invasive and 196 non-invasive plant species in the invasive range of the invasive species. We tested whether invasiveness is associated with performance-related traits (physiology, leaf-area allocation, shoot allocation, growth rate, size and fitness), and whether such associations depend on type of study and on biogeographical or biological factors. Overall, invasive species had significantly higher values than non-invasive species for all six trait categories. More trait differences were significant for invasive vs. native comparisons than for invasive vs. non-invasive alien comparisons. Moreover, for comparisons between invasive species and native species that themselves are invasive elsewhere, no trait differences were significant. Differences in physiology and growth rate were larger in tropical regions than in temperate regions. Trait differences did not depend on whether the invasive alien species originates from Europe, nor did they depend on the test environment. We conclude that invasive alien species had higher values for those traits related to performance than non-invasive species. This suggests that it might become possible to predict future plant invasions from species traits.

  19. Invasive species change detection using artificial neural networks and CASI hyperspectral imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For monitoring and controlling the extent and intensity of an invasive species, a direct multi-date image classification method was applied in invasive species (saltcedar) change detection in the study area of Lovelock, Nevada. With multi-date Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspec...

  20. Complex interactions between spatial pattern of resident species and invasiveness of newly arriving species affect invasibility.

    PubMed

    Thébault, Aurélie; Stoll, Peter; Buttler, Alexandre

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the factors that affect establishment success of new species in established communities requires the study of both the ability of new species to establish and community resistance. Spatial pattern of species within a community can affect plant performance by changing the outcome of inter-specific competition, and consequently community invasibility. We studied the effects of spatial pattern of resident plant communities on fitness of genotypes from the native and introduced ranges of two worldwide invasive species, Centaurea stoebe and Senecio inaequidens, during their establishment stage. We experimentally established artificial plant mixtures with 4 or 8 resident species in intra-specifically aggregated or random spatial patterns, and added seedlings of genotypes from the native and introduced ranges of the two target species. Early growth of both S. inaequidens and C. stoebe was higher in aggregated than randomly assembled mixtures. However, a species-specific interaction between invasiveness and invasibility highlighted more complex patterns. Genotypes from native and introduced ranges of S. inaequidens showed the same responses to spatial pattern. By contrast, genotypes from the introduced range of C. stoebe did not respond to spatial pattern whereas native ones did. Based on phenotypic plasticity, we argue that the two target species adopted different strategies to deal with the spatial pattern of the resident plant community. We show that effects of spatial pattern of the resident community on the fitness of establishing species may depend on the diversity of the recipient community. Our results highlight the need to consider the interaction between invasiveness and invasibility in order to increase our understanding of invasion success.

  1. Coevolution between Native and Invasive Plant Competitors: Implications for Invasive Species Management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely...

  2. Chronic effects of an invasive species on an animal community.

    PubMed

    Doody, J Sean; Rhind, David; Green, Brian; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Clulow, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Invasive species can trigger trophic cascades in animal communities, but published cases involving their removal of top predators are extremely rare. An exception is the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia, which has caused severe population declines in monitor lizards, triggering trophic cascades that facilitated dramatic and sometimes unexpected increases in several prey of the predators, including smaller lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds. Persistence of isolated populations of these predators with a decades-long sympatry with toads suggests the possibility of recovery, but alternative explanations are possible. Confirming predator recovery requires longer-term study of populations with both baseline and immediate post-invasion densities. Previously, we quantified short-term impacts of invasive cane toads on animal communities over seven years at two sites in tropical Australia. Herein, we test the hypothesis that predators have begun to recover by repeating the study 12 yr after the initial toad invasion. The three predatory lizards that experienced 71-97% declines in the short-term study showed no sign of recovery, and indeed a worse fate: two of the three species were no longer detectable in 630 km of river surveys, suggesting local extirpation. Two mesopredators that had increased markedly in the short term due to these predator losses showed diverse responses in the medium term; a small lizard species increased by ~500%, while populations of a snake species showed little change. Our results indicate a system still in ecological turmoil, having not yet reached a "new equilibrium" more than a decade after the initial invasion; predator losses due to this toxic invasive species, and thus downstream effects, were not transient. Given that cane toads have proven too prolific to eradicate or control, we suggest that recovery of impacted predators must occur unassisted by evolutionary means: dispersal into extinction sites from

  3. Optimal invasive species management under multiple uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    The management programs for invasive species have been proposed and implemented in many regions of the world. However, practitioners and scientists have not reached a consensus on how to control them yet. One reason is the presence of various uncertainties associated with the management. To give some guidance on this issue, we characterize the optimal strategy by developing a dynamic model of invasive species management under uncertainties. In particular, focusing on (i) growth uncertainty and (ii) measurement uncertainty, we identify how these uncertainties affect optimal strategies and value functions. Our results suggest that a rise in growth uncertainty causes the optimal strategy to involve more restrained removals and the corresponding value function to shift up. Furthermore, we also find that a rise in measurement uncertainty affects optimal policies in a highly complex manner, but their corresponding value functions generally shift down as measurement uncertainty rises. Overall, a rise in growth uncertainty can be beneficial, while a rise in measurement uncertainty brings about an adverse effect, which implies the potential gain of precisely identifying the current stock size of invasive species.

  4. Testing basic ecological, evolutionary, and biogeographical principles using invasive species

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2006-01-01

    Sax et al. argue in Species Invasions: Insights into Ecology, Evolution, and Biogeography that species invasion is an on-going experiment and a research tool with which to test fundamental ecology, evolution, and biogeography tenets.

  5. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  6. Invasive haemodynamic monitoring: concepts and practical approaches.

    PubMed

    Jalonen, J

    1997-08-01

    The goal of haemodynamic care is to ensure adequate organ blood flow and oxygen supply. Clinical signs of organ perfusion have limited value in estimation of tissue perfusion, but invasive haemodynamic monitoring is needed to gain information of the underlying pathological condition and to guide oxygen delivery and haemodynamic therapy. Many of the available haemodynamic measurements involve pulmonary artery (PA) catheterization. Pressure measurements from PA catheters require meticulous attention to the dynamic properties of the transducer-pressure line system and appreciation of pressure variation owing to respiration. New techniques of continuous measurement of mixed venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output provide valuable trend data, allowing immediate diagnosis and treatment of pathological changes. Fast-response thermistor PA catheters are useful tools for estimating right ventricular function. Although clinicians generally regard PA-catheter data as a valuable therapy guide, few studies showing the beneficial influence on overall outcome have been carried out, and some studies have reported suboptimal understanding and utilization of these data. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is also a valuable monitor of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and myocardial ischaemia in anaesthetized patients and in intensive care settings, but it requires a trained operator and is time-consuming. Continuously displayed TEE data, obtainable with automatic border detection, will make TEE even more useful in the near future. More effective monitors of perfusion and oxygenation of individual organs are needed. Less invasive techniques are also constantly sought. Combining data from several noninvasive monitors, including measurements of pulse oximetric O2 saturation, transthoracic impedance cardiac output and transcutaneous oxygen tension, has been reported to reflect closely changes obtained with more invasive monitoring.

  7. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics.

  8. A Landscape Approach to Invasive Species Management.

    PubMed

    Lurgi, Miguel; Wells, Konstans; Kennedy, Malcolm; Campbell, Susan; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are not only a major threat to biodiversity, they also have major impacts on local economies and agricultural production systems. Once established, the connection of local populations into metapopulation networks facilitates dispersal at landscape scales, generating spatial dynamics that can impact the outcome of pest-management actions. Much planning goes into landscape-scale invasive species management. However, effective management requires knowledge on the interplay between metapopulation network topology and management actions. We address this knowledge gap using simulation models to explore the effectiveness of two common management strategies, applied across different extents and according to different rules for selecting target localities in metapopulations with different network topologies. These management actions are: (i) general population reduction, and (ii) reduction of an obligate resource. The reduction of an obligate resource was generally more efficient than population reduction for depleting populations at landscape scales. However, the way in which local populations are selected for management is important when the topology of the metapopulation is heterogeneous in terms of the distribution of connections among local populations. We tested these broad findings using real-world scenarios of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infesting agricultural landscapes in Western Australia. Although management strategies targeting central populations were more effective in simulated heterogeneous metapopulation structures, no difference was observed in real-world metapopulation structures that are highly homogeneous. In large metapopulations with high proximity and connectivity of neighbouring populations, different spatial management strategies yield similar outcomes. Directly considering spatial attributes in pest-management actions will be most important for metapopulation networks with heterogeneously distributed links. Our

  9. A Landscape Approach to Invasive Species Management

    PubMed Central

    Lurgi, Miguel; Wells, Konstans; Kennedy, Malcolm; Campbell, Susan; Fordham, Damien A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are not only a major threat to biodiversity, they also have major impacts on local economies and agricultural production systems. Once established, the connection of local populations into metapopulation networks facilitates dispersal at landscape scales, generating spatial dynamics that can impact the outcome of pest-management actions. Much planning goes into landscape-scale invasive species management. However, effective management requires knowledge on the interplay between metapopulation network topology and management actions. We address this knowledge gap using simulation models to explore the effectiveness of two common management strategies, applied across different extents and according to different rules for selecting target localities in metapopulations with different network topologies. These management actions are: (i) general population reduction, and (ii) reduction of an obligate resource. The reduction of an obligate resource was generally more efficient than population reduction for depleting populations at landscape scales. However, the way in which local populations are selected for management is important when the topology of the metapopulation is heterogeneous in terms of the distribution of connections among local populations. We tested these broad findings using real-world scenarios of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infesting agricultural landscapes in Western Australia. Although management strategies targeting central populations were more effective in simulated heterogeneous metapopulation structures, no difference was observed in real-world metapopulation structures that are highly homogeneous. In large metapopulations with high proximity and connectivity of neighbouring populations, different spatial management strategies yield similar outcomes. Directly considering spatial attributes in pest-management actions will be most important for metapopulation networks with heterogeneously distributed links. Our

  10. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Treesearch

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  11. 78 FR 14351 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancellation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Invasive Species....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The ISAC is comprised of 31 nonfederal invasive species experts...

  12. Optimal detection and control strategies for invasive species management

    Treesearch

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans; Stephen Polasky; Robert C. Venette

    2007-01-01

    The increasing economic and environmental losses caused by non-native invasive species amplify the value of identifying and implementing optimal management options to prevent, detect, and control invasive species. Previous literature has focused largely on preventing introductions of invasive species and post-detection control activities; few have addressed the role of...

  13. Morphological features to distinguish the larval stage of invasive Ruffe from native fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval fish surveys are used in a variety of research and monitoring activities, including identification of nursery habitat and invasive species early detection. Morphologically-based taxonomic identification of larvae collected from these surveys, however, is often challenging....

  14. Morphological features to distinguish the larval stage of invasive Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) from native fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval fish surveys are used in a variety of research and monitoring activities, including identification of nursery habitat and invasive species early detection. Morphologically-based taxonomic identification of larvae collected from these surveys, however, is often challenging....

  15. Morphological features to distinguish the larval stage of invasive Ruffe from native fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval fish surveys are used in a variety of research and monitoring activities, including identification of nursery habitat and invasive species early detection. Morphologically-based taxonomic identification of larvae collected from these surveys, however, is often challenging....

  16. Morphological features to distinguish the larval stage of invasive Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) from native fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval fish surveys are used in a variety of research and monitoring activities, including identification of nursery habitat and invasive species early detection. Morphologically-based taxonomic identification of larvae collected from these surveys, however, is often challenging....

  17. Control effort exacerbates invasive-species problem.

    PubMed

    Rinella, Matthew J; Maxwell, Bruce D; Fay, Peter K; Weaver, Theodore; Sheley, Roger L

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem managers face a difficult decision when managing invasive species. If they use aggressive practices to reduce invader abundances, they will likely reduce invaders' competitive impacts on natives. But it is often difficult or impossible to reduce invaders without damaging natives. So a critical question becomes: Which is worse for native biota, invaders or things done to control invaders? We attempted to answer this question for a common scenario. We studied several grassland natives exhibiting long-term coexistence with an invader and asked how aggressive management (herbicide use) affected the natives. Whether or not grazing was excluded, one-time herbicide use made two native forbs exceedingly rare for our entire 16-year study period. Herbicide also made several other native forbs rare, but only when grazing was excluded, and there is evidence that the dominant invader became more abundant in response to the decreases in native-forb abundances. Throughout the world, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are receiving herbicide applications for exotic-species control. Some of the applications are doubtless warranted because they target small invader patches or larger areas with virtually no remaining natives. However, other herbicide applications occur where large native populations occur, and our data suggest that these applications can be ill advised. Our cautionary tale is told using an herbicide-treated grassland, but our results should be considered wherever invasive-species management damages native species.

  18. The stock of invasive insect species and its economic determinants.

    PubMed

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Invasions of nonindigenous organisms have long been linked to trade, but the contribution of individual trade pathways remains poorly understood, because species are not observed immediately upon arrival and the number of species arriving annually is unknown. Species interception records may count both new arrivals and species long introduced. Furthermore, the stock of invasive insect species already present is unknown. In this study, a state-space model is used to infer the stock of detected as well as undetected invasive insect species established in the United States. A system of equations is estimated jointly to distinguish the patterns of introduction, identification, and eradication. Introductions of invasive species are modeled as dependent on the volume of trade and arrival of people. Identifications depend on the public efforts at invasive species research, as well as on the established stock of invasive species that remain undetected. Eradications of both detected and undetected invasive species depend on containment and quarantine efforts, as well as on the stock of all established invasive species. These patterns are estimated by fitting the predicted number of invasive species detections to the observed record in the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database. The results indicate that agricultural imports are the most important pathway of introduction, followed by immigration of people. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service are found to explain the species identification record well. Between three and 38 invasive insect species are estimated to be established in the United States undetected.

  19. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  20. Biology and invasive species in the western U.S

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of environments that characterizes the West is responsible for the region's rich biological heritage. This ecological diversity also means that opportunities for invasive species are many, varied, and complex. Island ecosystems are notoriously vulnerable to invaders as demonstrated in Hawaii and West Coast offshore islands. Aquatic invaders impose high economic and environmental costs in systems as varied as San Francisco Bay and desert springs in the Great Basin. Although the West's arid and montane ecosystems may seem resistant to plant and animal invaders, we now know that ex-otic species have altered physical processes related to fire and hydrology in a manner favoring further expansion and persis-tence of invaders. Natural resource managers value analytical, mapping, and genetics tools developed by USGS scientists to monitor invasive species and help conserve biological systems. USGS biologists conduct research to assist land and water managers' efforts to control invasive species and restore natural systems. Throughout the West, the USGS carries out studies for early detection and rapid assessment of invaders. The following are some examples of how the USGS is making a difference in the western United States.

  1. Limiting invasive species in ballast water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-06-01

    Ballast water is often intentionally loaded onto cargo ships and other vessels to provide weight necessary for safe maneuvering. However, this practice can unintentionally transport exotic organisms to parts of the world where populations of these organisms can establish themselves in new habitats as invasive and environmentally and economically disruptive species. Each year, an estimated 196 million metric tons of ballast water are discharged into U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes alone from an average of more than 90,000 visits of commercial ships greater than 300 metric tons, according to a 2 June report by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies.

  2. Microneedle-mediated minimally invasive patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ryan F; Mooney, Karen; Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Torrisi, Barbara M; Eltayib, Eyman; McElnay, James C

    2014-02-01

    The emerging field of microneedle-based minimally invasive patient monitoring and diagnosis is reviewed. Microneedle arrays consist of rows of micron-scale projections attached to a solid support. They have been widely investigated for transdermal drug and vaccine delivery applications since the late 1990s. However, researchers and clinicians have recently realized the great potential of microneedles for extraction of skin interstitial fluid and, less commonly, blood, for enhanced monitoring of patient health. We reviewed the journal and patent literature, and summarized the findings and provided technical insights and critical analysis. We describe the basic concepts in detail and extensively review the work performed to date. It is our view that microneedles will have an important role to play in clinical management of patients and will ultimately improve therapeutic outcomes for people worldwide.

  3. The evolutionary impact of invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, H. A.; Cleland, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    Since the Age of Exploration began, there has been a drastic breaching of biogeographic barriers that previously had isolated the continental biotas for millions of years. We explore the nature of these recent biotic exchanges and their consequences on evolutionary processes. The direct evidence of evolutionary consequences of the biotic rearrangements is of variable quality, but the results of trajectories are becoming clear as the number of studies increases. There are examples of invasive species altering the evolutionary pathway of native species by competitive exclusion, niche displacement, hybridization, introgression, predation, and ultimately extinction. Invaders themselves evolve in response to their interactions with natives, as well as in response to the new abiotic environment. Flexibility in behavior, and mutualistic interactions, can aid in the success of invaders in their new environment. PMID:11344292

  4. Mapping, Monitoring and Modeling Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Species and Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartis, Brett Michael

    Aquatic macrophyte communities are critically important habitat species in aquatic systems worldwide. None are more important than those found beneath the water's surface, commonly referred to as submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although vital to such systems, many native submersed plants have shown near irreversible declines in recent decades as water quality impairment, habitat destruction, and encroachment by invasive species have increased. In the past, aquatic plant science has emphasized the restoration and protection of native species and the management of invasive species. Comparatively little emphasis has been directed toward adequately mapping and monitoring these resources to track their viability over time. Modeling the potential intrusion of certain invasive plant species has also been given little attention, likely because aquatic systems in general can be difficult to assess. In recent years, scientists and resource managers alike have begun paying more attention to mapping SAV communities and to address the spread of invasive species across various regions. This research attempts to provide new, cutting-edge techniques to improve SAV mapping and monitoring efforts in coastal regions, at both community and individual species levels, while also providing insights about the establishment potential of Hydrilla verticillata, a noxious, highly invasive submersed plant. Technological advances in satellite remote sensing, interpolation and spatial analysis in geographic information systems, and state-of-the-art climate envelope modeling techniques were used to further assess the dynamic nature of SAV on various scales. This work contributes to the growing science of mapping, monitoring, and modeling of SAV

  5. INVASIVE SPECIES: PREDICTING GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS USING ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Present approaches to species invasions are reactive in nature. This scenario results in management that perpetually lags behind the most recent invasion and makes control much more difficult. In contrast, spatially explicit ecological niche modeling provides an effective solut...

  6. INVASIVE SPECIES: PREDICTING GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS USING ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Present approaches to species invasions are reactive in nature. This scenario results in management that perpetually lags behind the most recent invasion and makes control much more difficult. In contrast, spatially explicit ecological niche modeling provides an effective solut...

  7. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Don A.; Catford, Jane A.; Barney, Jacob N.; Hulme, Philip E.; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M.; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  8. Implementation of non-invasive brain physiological monitoring concepts.

    PubMed

    Ragauskas, Arminas; Daubaris, Gediminas; Ragaisis, Vytautas; Petkus, Vytautas

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents innovative methods and technology for non-invasive intracranial hemodynamics monitoring based on the measurement of brain parenchyma acoustic properties. The clinical investigation of new technology shows the similarity between the invasively recorded intracranial pressure (ICP) and non-invasively recorded intracranial blood volume (IBV) pulse waves, slow waves and slow trends under intensive care unit (ICU) conditions. Also, the applicability of the non-invasive IBV slow wave monitoring technique for cerebrovascular autoregulation non-invasive long-term monitoring is demonstrated by theoretical and experimental studies.

  9. Using multi-date satellite imagery to monitor invasive grass species distribution in post-wildfire landscapes: An iterative, adaptable approach that employs open-source data and software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, Amanda M.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Kumar, Sunil; Swallow, Aaron; Luizza, Matthew; Chignell, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Among the most pressing concerns of land managers in post-wildfire landscapes are the establishment and spread of invasive species. Land managers need accurate maps of invasive species cover for targeted management post-disturbance that are easily transferable across space and time. In this study, we sought to develop an iterative, replicable methodology based on limited invasive species occurrence data, freely available remotely sensed data, and open source software to predict the distribution of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) in a post-wildfire landscape. We developed four species distribution models using eight spectral indices derived from five months of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data in 2014. These months corresponded to both cheatgrass growing period and time of field data collection in the study area. The four models were improved using an iterative approach in which a threshold for cover was established, and all models had high sensitivity values when tested on an independent dataset. We also quantified the area at highest risk for invasion in future seasons given 2014 distribution, topographic covariates, and seed dispersal limitations. These models demonstrate the effectiveness of using derived multi-date spectral indices as proxies for species occurrence on the landscape, the importance of selecting thresholds for invasive species cover to evaluate ecological risk in species distribution models, and the applicability of Landsat 8 OLI and the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling for targeted invasive species management.

  10. Using multi-date satellite imagery to monitor invasive grass species distribution in post-wildfire landscapes: An iterative, adaptable approach that employs open-source data and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Amanda M.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Kumar, Sunil; Swallow, Aaron; Luizza, Matthew W.; Chignell, Stephen M.

    2017-07-01

    Among the most pressing concerns of land managers in post-wildfire landscapes are the establishment and spread of invasive species. Land managers need accurate maps of invasive species cover for targeted management post-disturbance that are easily transferable across space and time. In this study, we sought to develop an iterative, replicable methodology based on limited invasive species occurrence data, freely available remotely sensed data, and open source software to predict the distribution of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) in a post-wildfire landscape. We developed four species distribution models using eight spectral indices derived from five months of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data in 2014. These months corresponded to both cheatgrass growing period and time of field data collection in the study area. The four models were improved using an iterative approach in which a threshold for cover was established, and all models had high sensitivity values when tested on an independent dataset. We also quantified the area at highest risk for invasion in future seasons given 2014 distribution, topographic covariates, and seed dispersal limitations. These models demonstrate the effectiveness of using derived multi-date spectral indices as proxies for species occurrence on the landscape, the importance of selecting thresholds for invasive species cover to evaluate ecological risk in species distribution models, and the applicability of Landsat 8 OLI and the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling for targeted invasive species management.

  11. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability. PMID:25567917

  12. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management.

    PubMed

    Leger, Elizabeth A; Espeland, Erin K

    2010-03-01

    Invasive species may establish in communities because they are better competitors than natives, but in order to remain community dominants, the competitive advantage of invasive species must be persistent. Native species that are not extirpated when highly invasive species are introduced are likely to compete with invaders. When population sizes and genetic diversity of native species are large enough, natives may be able to evolve traits that allow them to co-occur with invasive species. Native species may also evolve to become significant competitors with invasive species, and thus affect the fitness of invaders. Invasive species may respond in turn, creating either transient or continuing coevolution between competing species. In addition to demographic factors such as population size and growth rates, a number of factors including gene flow, genetic drift, the number of selection agents, encounter rates, and genetic diversity may affect the ability of native and invasive species to evolve competitive ability against one another. We discuss how these factors may differ between populations of native and invasive plants, and how this might affect their ability to respond to selection. Management actions that maintain genetic diversity in native species while reducing population sizes and genetic diversity in invasive species could promote the ability of natives to evolve improved competitive ability.

  13. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2014-12-03

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion-in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  14. Evaluating plant invasions from both habitat and species perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chong, G.W.; Otsuki, Y.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Guenther, D.; Evangelista, P.; Villa, C.; Waters, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach to quantitatively assess nonnative plant invasions at landscape scales from both habitat and species perspectives. Our case study included 34 nonnative species found in 142 plots (0.1 ha) in 14 vegetation types within the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah. A plot invasion index, based on nonnative species richness and cover, showed that only 16 of 142 plots were heavily invaded. A species invasive index, based on frequency, cover, and number of vegetation types invaded, showed that only 7 of 34 plant species were highly invasive. Multiple regressions using habitat characteristics (moisture index, elevation, soil P, native species richness, maximum crust development class, bare ground, and rock) explained 60% of variation in nonnative species richness and 46% of variation in nonnative species cover. Three mesic habitats (aspen, wet meadow, and perennial riparian types) were particularly invaded (31 of 34 nonnative species studied were found in these types). Species-specific logistic regression models for the 7 most invasive species correctly predicted occurrence 89% of the time on average (from 80% for Bromus tectorum, a habitat generalist, to 93% for Tamarix spp., a habitat specialist). Even with such a modest sampling intensity (<0.1% of the landscape), this multiscale sampling scheme was effective at evaluating habitat vulnerability to invasion and the occurrence of the 7 most invasive nonnative species. This approach could be applied in other natural areas to develop strategies to document invasive species and invaded habitats.

  15. Aquatic plant community invasibility and scale-dependent patterns in native and invasive species richness.

    PubMed

    Capers, Robert S; Selsky, Roslyn; Bugbee, Gregory J; White, Jason C

    2007-12-01

    Invasive species richness often is negatively correlated with native species richness at the small spatial scale of sampling plots, but positively correlated in larger areas. The pattern at small scales has been interpreted as evidence that native plants can competitively exclude invasive species. Large-scale patterns have been understood to result from environmental heterogeneity, among other causes. We investigated species richness patterns among submerged and floating-leaved aquatic plants (87 native species and eight invasives) in 103 temperate lakes in Connecticut (northeastern USA) and found neither a consistently negative relationship at small (3-m2) scales, nor a positive relationship at large scales. Native species richness at sampling locations was uncorrelated with invasive species richness in 37 of the 60 lakes where invasive plants occurred; richness was negatively correlated in 16 lakes and positively correlated in seven. No correlation between native and invasive species richness was found at larger spatial scales (whole lakes and counties). Increases in richness with area were uncorrelated with abiotic heterogeneity. Logistic regression showed that the probability of occurrence of five invasive species increased in sampling locations (3 m2, n = 2980 samples) where native plants occurred, indicating that native plant species richness provided no resistance against invasion. However, the probability of three invasive species' occurrence declined as native plant density increased, indicating that density, if not species richness, provided some resistance with these species. Density had no effect on occurrence of three other invasive species. Based on these results, native species may resist invasion at small spatial scales only in communities where density is high (i.e., in communities where competition among individuals contributes to community structure). Most hydrophyte communities, however, appear to be maintained in a nonequilibrial condition by

  16. [Invasive cardiovascular monitoring--four methods compared].

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Henning; Schmidt, Christoph; Hinder, Frank

    2006-09-01

    The impact of invasive hemodynamic monitoring on patient safety and outcome in perioperative medicine remains inadequately tested and unproven. The indications for the use of these tools should, therefore, be evaluated according to an individual risk-benefit analysis. The measurement of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) is of little invasiveness as most high-risk patients are instrumented with central venous catheters, and ScvO2 has been shown to improve outcome in patients with septic shock. Transpulmonary thermodilution (e.g. PiCCO-system) delivers information not only on global cardiac function and intravascular volume status but also helps to define the pulmonary consequences of cardiovascular therapy. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable tool in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and represents the beside-method of choice for rapid assessment of acute life-threatening cardiovascular instability. Apart from special indications, these tools tend to replace the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) which has been shown to be of little value in various patient populations.

  17. Depletion of heterogeneous source species pools predicts future invasion rates

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Mark Kimberley; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Predicting how increasing rates of global trade will result in new establishments of potentially damaging invasive species is a question of critical importance to the development of national and international policies aimed at minimizing future invasions. Centuries of historical movement and establishment of invading species may have depleted the supply of species...

  18. Remote sensing of native and invasive species in Hawaiian forests

    Treesearch

    Gregory P. Asner; Matthew O. Jones; Roberta E. Martin; David E. Knapp; R. Flint Hughes

    2008-01-01

    Detection and mapping of invasive species is an important component of conservation and management efforts in Hawai'i, but the spectral separability of native, introduced, and invasive species has not been established. We used high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to analyze the canopy hyperspectral reflectance properties of 37 distinct species or...

  19. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  20. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys.

    PubMed

    Crall, Alycia W; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P < 0.01), and targeted sampling did detect more species than nontargeted sampling with less

  1. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    PubMed

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  2. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P 2) = 47.42, P < 0.01). From these findings, we conclude that habitat suitability models can be

  3. Priority setting for invasive species management: risk assessment of Ponto-Caspian invasive species into Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Belinda; Aldridge, David C

    2013-03-01

    Invasive species drive important ecological and economic losses across wide geographies, with some regions supporting especially large numbers of nonnative species and consequently suffering relatively high impacts. For this reason, integrated risk assessments able to screen a suite of multiple invaders over large geographic areas are needed for prioritizing the allocation of limited resources. A total of 16 Ponto-Caspian aquatic species (10 gammarids, one isopod, two mysids, and three fishes) have been short-listed as recent or potential future invaders of British waters, whose introduction and spread is of high concern. In this study, we use multiple modeling techniques to assess their risk of establishment and spread into Great Britain. Climate suitability maps for these 16 species differed depending on the eastern and western distribution of species in continental Europe, which was related to their respective migration corridor: southern (Danube-Rhine rivers), and northern (Don and Volga rivers and Baltic lakes). Species whose suitability was high across large parts of Great Britain included four gammarids (Cheliorophium robustum, Dikerogammarus bispinosus, D. villosus, and Echinogammarus trichiatus) and a mysid (Hemimysis anomala). A climatic "heat map" combining the results of all 16 species together pointed to the southeast of England as the area most vulnerable to multiple invasions, particularly the Thames, Anglian, Severn, and Humber river basin districts. Regression models further suggested that alkalinity concentration > 120 mg/L in southeast England may favor the establishment of Ponto-Caspian invaders. The production of integrated risk maps for future invaders provides a means for the scientifically informed prioritization of resources toward particular species and geographic regions. Such tools have great utility in helping environmental managers focus efforts on the most effective prevention, management, and monitoring programs.

  4. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression—a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold—is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms. PMID:27293666

  5. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression-a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold-is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms.

  6. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  7. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  8. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  9. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  10. Detection and monitoring of invasive exotic plants: a comparison of four sampling methods

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor exotic invasive plants is likely to vary depending on the sampling method employed. Methods with strong qualitative thoroughness for species detection often lack the intensity necessary to monitor vegetation change. Four sampling methods (systematic plot, stratified-random plot, modified Whittaker, and timed meander) in hemlock and red...

  11. Identifying Invasive Species Educational Needs in Florida: Opportunities for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    Florida's ecology has been adversely affected by invasive species. In Florida, a study was conducted to explore opportunities for Extension educators to contribute to combating the issue of invasive species. Florida residents' responses were captured through the use of an online public opinion survey. The findings revealed a need for invasive…

  12. Identifying Invasive Species Educational Needs in Florida: Opportunities for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    Florida's ecology has been adversely affected by invasive species. In Florida, a study was conducted to explore opportunities for Extension educators to contribute to combating the issue of invasive species. Florida residents' responses were captured through the use of an online public opinion survey. The findings revealed a need for invasive…

  13. 76 FR 32135 - National Forest System Invasive Species Management Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC77 National Forest System Invasive Species Management... and terrestrial areas of the National Forest System (NFS). The directive articulates broad objectives..., National Invasive Species Program Coordinator, National Forest System, USDA Forest Service, Mailstop 1103...

  14. Predicting the dynamics of local adaptation in invasive species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An invasive plant species may restrict its spread to only one habitat, or, after some time, may continue to spread into a different, secondary, habitat. The question of whether evolution is required for an invasive species to spread from one habitat to another is currently hotly debated. In order fo...

  15. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  16. Invasive Species Working Group: Research Summary and Expertise Directory

    Treesearch

    Jack Butler; Dean Pearson; Mee-Sook Kim

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) personnel have scientific expertise in widely ranging disciplines and conduct multidisciplinary research on invasive species issues with emphasis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats throughout the Interior West, Great Plains, and related areas (fig. 1; Expertise Directory; appendix). RMRS invasive species research covers an array...

  17. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  18. Science priorities for reducing the threat of invasive species

    Treesearch

    E. A. Chornesky; A. M. Bartuska; G. H. Aplet; K. O. Britton; J. Cummings-Carlson; F. W. Davis; J. Eskow; D. R. Gordon; K. W. Gottschalk; R. A. Haack; A. J. Hansen; R. N. Mack; F. J. Rahel; M. A. Shannon; L. A. Wainger; T. B. Wigley

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species pose a major, yet poorly addressed, threat to sustainable forestry. Here we set forth an interdisciplinary science strategy of research, development, and applications to reduce this threat. To spur action by public and private entities that too often are slow, reluctant, or unable to act, we recommend (a) better integrating invasive species into...

  19. Multidimensional approach to invasive species prevention.

    PubMed

    Briski, Elizabeta; Allinger, Lisa E; Balcer, Mary; Cangelosi, Allegra; Fanberg, Lana; Markee, Tom P; Mays, Nicole; Polkinghorne, Christine N; Prihoda, Kelsey R; Reavie, Euan D; Regan, Deanna H; Reid, Donald M; Saillard, Heidi J; Schwerdt, Tyler; Schaefer, Heidi; TenEyck, Matthew; Wiley, Chris J; Bailey, Sarah A

    2013-02-05

    Nonindigenous species (NIS) cause global biotic homogenization and extinctions, with commercial shipping being a leading vector for spread of aquatic NIS. To reduce transport of NIS by ships, regulations requiring ballast water exchange (BWE) have been implemented by numerous countries. BWE appears to effectively reduce risk for freshwater ports, but provides only moderate protection of marine ports. In the near future, ships may be required to undertake ballast water treatment (BWT) to meet numeric performance standards, and BWE may be phased out of use. However, there are concerns that BWT systems may not operate reliably in fresh or turbid water, or both. Consequently, it has been proposed that BWE could be used in combination with BWT to maximize the positive benefits of both management strategies for protection of freshwater ports. We compared the biological efficacy of "BWE plus BWT" against "BWT alone" at a ballast water treatment experimental test facility. Our comparative evaluation showed that even though BWT alone significantly reduced abundances of all tested organism groups except total heterotrophic bacteria, the BWE plus BWT strategy significantly reduced abundances for all groups and furthermore resulted in significantly lower abundances of most groups when compared to BWT alone. Our study clearly demonstrates potential benefits of combining BWE with BWT to reduce invasion risk of freshwater organisms transported in ships' ballast water, and it should be of interest to policy makers and environmental managers.

  20. Exotic taxa less related to native species are more invasive

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Sharon Y.; Webb, Campbell O.; Salamin, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Some species introduced into new geographical areas from their native ranges wreak ecological and economic havoc in their new environment. Although many studies have searched for either species or habitat characteristics that predict invasiveness of exotic species, the match between characteristics of the invader and those of members of the existing native community may be essential to understanding invasiveness. Here, we find that one metric, the phylogenetic relatedness of an invader to the native community, provides a predictive tool for invasiveness. Using a phylogenetic supertree of all grass species in California, we show that highly invasive grass species are, on average, significantly less related to native grasses than are introduced but noninvasive grasses. The match between the invader and the existing native community may explain why exotic pest species are not uniformly noxious in all novel habitats. Relatedness of invaders to the native biota may be one useful criterion for prioritizing management efforts of exotic species. PMID:16581902

  1. Vision of a cyberinfrastructure for nonnative, invasive species management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2008-01-01

    Although the quantity of data on the location, status, and management of invasive species is ever increasing, invasive species data sets are often difficult to obtain and integrate. A cyberinfrastructure for such information could make these data available for Internet users. The data can be used to create regional watch lists, to send e-mail alerts when a new species enters a region, to construct models of species' current and future distributions, and to inform management. Although the exchange of environmental data over the Internet in the form of raster data is maturing, and the exchange of species occurrence data is developing quickly, there is room for improvement. In this article, we present a vision for a comprehensive invasive species cyberinfrastructure that is capable of accessing data effectively, creating models of invasive species spread, and distributing this information.

  2. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. The Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health: tools and information available to support invasive species and forest health education

    Treesearch

    G.K. Douce; D.J. Moorhead; C.T. Bargeron; J.H. LaForest; K.A. Rawlins; J.E. Griffin

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia (www.bugwood.org) is to serve a lead role in developing, consolidating, and disseminating formation and programs focused on invasive species, forest health, natural resource and agricultural management through technology development, program implementation, training,...

  4. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates finding new invaders before they are common. Here we outline our research (2005 present) approach and findings, including strategies to increase detection efficiency by optimizing specimen collection and identification methods. Initial surveys were designed to over-sample to amass data as the basis for numerical experiments to investigate to the effort required for a given detection probability. Later surveys tested the outcome of implementing these strategies, examined the potential benefits of sampling larval fish instead of adults and explored the prospect of using advanced DNA based methods as an alternative to traditional taxonomy. To date we have identified several previously undetected invertebrate invaders, developed survey design and gear recommendations and have refined the search strategy for systems beyond the SLRE. In addition, because we’ve accumulated such a large body of data we now have the basis to show spatial-temporal trends for native and non-native species in the SLRE. not applicable

  5. Lianas as invasive species in North America: Chapter 28

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Liana diversity is typically low in the temperate zones; however, the influx of non-native invasive liana species in North America has increased local diversity at the expense of native habitats and species. Some of the most illustrative studies of invasive lianas in temperate North America compared the biological traits of invasive lianas with native congeners or ecological analogs. The majority of these studies focused on two species, Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle). Temperate zone lianas generally have higher photosynthetic rates than other early successional species and their host trees. Invasive lianas are having an increasing impact on the dynamics and trajectories of North American plant communities. They often exhibit superior growth and survival compared to their native counterparts, and in some cases, invasive lianas may directly contribute to the decline of their native correlates.

  6. Towards a Wearable Non-invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Joseph Thomas; Solanki, J.; Choudhary, Om P.; Chouksey, S.; Malvia, N.; Chaturvedi, P.; Sen, P.

    2012-05-01

    Every day, about 150 Million people worldwide face the problem of diabetic metabolic control. Both the hypo- and hyper- glycaemic conditions of patients have fatal consequences and warrant blood glucose monitoring at regular interval. Existing blood glucose monitors can be widely classified into three classes viz., invasive, minimally invasive, and noninvasive. Invasive monitoring requires small volume of blood and are inappropriate for continuous monitoring of blood glucose. Minimally invasive monitors analyze tissue fluid or extract few micro litre of blood only. Also the skin injury is minimal. On the other hand, noninvasive devices are painless and void of any skin injury. We use an indigenously developed polarization sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography to measure the blood glucose levels. Current trends and recent results with the device are discussed.

  7. Placing invasive species management in a spatiotemporal context.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christopher M; Bode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species are a worldwide issue, both ecologically and economically. A large body of work focuses on various aspects of invasive species control, including how to allocate control efforts to eradicate an invasive population as cost effectively as possible: There are a diverse range of invasive species management problems, and past mathematical analyses generally focus on isolated examples, making it hard to identify and understand parallels between the different contexts. In this study, we use a single spatiotemporal model to tackle the problem of allocating control effort for invasive species when suppressing an island invasive species, and for long-term spatial suppression projects. Using feral cat suppression as an illustrative example, we identify the optimal resource allocation for island and mainland suppression projects. Our results demonstrate how using a single model to solve different problems reveals similar characteristics of the solutions in different scenarios. As well as illustrating the insights offered by linking problems through a spatiotemporal model, we also derive novel and practically applicable results for our case studies. For temporal suppression projects on islands, we find that lengthy projects are more cost effective and that rapid control projects are only economically cost effective when population growth rates are high or diminishing returns on control effort are low. When suppressing invasive species around conservation assets (e.g., national parks or exclusion fences), we find that the size of buffer zones should depend on the ratio of the species growth and spread rate.

  8. Carcasses of invasive species are predominantly utilized by invasive scavengers in an island ecosystem

    DOE PAGES

    Abernethy, Erin F.; Turner, Kelsey L.; Beasley, James C.; ...

    2016-10-01

    Invasive species have significantly affected ecosystems, particularly islands, and species invasions continue with increasing globalization. Largely unstudied, the influence of invasive species on island ecosystem functions, especially scavenging and decomposition, could be substantive. Quantifying carcass utilization by different scavengers and shifts in community dynamics in the presence of invasive animals is of particular interest for understanding impacts on nutrient recycling. Invasive species could benefit greatly from carcass resources within highly invaded island ecosystems, through increased invasion success and population growth, subsequently exacerbating their impacts on native species. Here, we quantified how experimentally placed invasive amphibian, reptile, small mammal, and birdmore » carcasses were utilized by vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers on the Big Island of Hawai’i in three island habitats: a barren lava field, a vegetated lava field, and a rainforest. We used camera traps to record vertebrate scavengers removing carcasses and elapsed time until removal. We evaluated differences in cavenging between vertebrates and invertebrates and within the vertebrate community across different habitats and carcass types. Despite the small carcass sizes (<1 kg) used in this study, 55% of carcasses were removed by vertebrate scavengers, all invasive: mongoose, rodents, cats, pigs, and a common myna. Our data indicate that invasive vertebrate scavengers in this island ecosystem are highly efficient at assimilating a range of carrion resources across a variety of habitats. Carcasses of invasive animals could contribute substantially to energy budgets of other invasive vertebrate species. Finally, this may be a critical component contributing to successful invasions especially on islands and subsequent impacts on ecosystem function.« less

  9. Contrasting phenotypic plasticity in the photoprotective strategies of the invasive species Carpobrotus edulis and the coexisting native species Crithmum maritimum.

    PubMed

    Fenollosa, Erola; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta

    2017-01-05

    Photoprotective strategies vary greatly within the plant kingdom and reflect a plant's physiological status and capacity to cope with environment variations. The plasticity and intensity of these responses may determine plant success. Invasive species are reported to show increased vigor to displace native species. Describing the mechanisms that confer such vigor is essential to understanding the success of invasive species. We performed an experiment whereby two species were monitored: Carpobrotus edulis, an aggressive invasive species in the Mediterranean basin, and Crithmum maritimum, a coexisting native species in the Cap de Creus Natural Park (NE Spain). We analyzed their photoprotective responses to seasonal environmental dynamics by comparing the capacity of the invader to respond to the local environmental stresses throughout the year. Our study analyses ecophysiological markers and photoprotective strategies to gain an insight into the success of invaders. We found that both species showed completely different but effective photoprotective strategies: in summer, C. edulis took special advantage of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the success of C. maritimum in summer stemmed from morphological changes and alterations on β-carotene content. Winter also presented differences between the species, as the native showed reduced Fv /Fm ratios. Our experimental design allowed us to introduce a new approach to compare phenotypic plasticity: the integrated phenotypic plasticity index (PPint ), defined as the maximum Euclidian distance between phenotypes, using a combination of different variables to describe them. This index revealed significantly greater phenotypic plasticity in the invasive species compared to the native species.

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Alien Plant Species Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, J.; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, J.

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  11. Evolutionary responses to global change: lessons from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Moran, Emily V; Alexander, Jake M

    2014-05-01

    Biologists have recently devoted increasing attention to the role of rapid evolution in species' responses to environmental change. However, it is still unclear what evolutionary responses should be expected, at what rates, and whether evolution will save populations at risk of extinction. The potential of biological invasions to provide useful insights has barely been realised, despite the close analogies to species responding to global change, particularly climate change; in both cases, populations encounter novel climatic and biotic selection pressures, with expected evolutionary responses occurring over similar timescales. However, the analogy is not perfect, and invasive species are perhaps best used as an upper bound on expected change. In this article, we review what invasive species can and cannot teach us about likely evolutionary responses to global change and the constraints on those responses. We also discuss the limitations of invasive species as a model and outline directions for future research.

  12. Accounting for complementarity to maximize monitoring power for species management.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Chadès, Iadine; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-10-01

    To choose among conservation actions that may benefit many species, managers need to monitor the consequences of those actions. Decisions about which species to monitor from a suite of different species being managed are hindered by natural variability in populations and uncertainty in several factors: the ability of the monitoring to detect a change, the likelihood of the management action being successful for a species, and how representative species are of one another. However, the literature provides little guidance about how to account for these uncertainties when deciding which species to monitor to determine whether the management actions are delivering outcomes. We devised an approach that applies decision science and selects the best complementary suite of species to monitor to meet specific conservation objectives. We created an index for indicator selection that accounts for the likelihood of successfully detecting a real trend due to a management action and whether that signal provides information about other species. We illustrated the benefit of our approach by analyzing a monitoring program for invasive predator management aimed at recovering 14 native Australian mammals of conservation concern. Our method selected the species that provided more monitoring power at lower cost relative to the current strategy and traditional approaches that consider only a subset of the important considerations. Our benefit function accounted for natural variability in species growth rates, uncertainty in the responses of species to the prescribed action, and how well species represent others. Monitoring programs that ignore uncertainty, likelihood of detecting change, and complementarity between species will be more costly and less efficient and may waste funding that could otherwise be used for management. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Reuben P.; Lodge, David M.; Finnoff, David C.

    2007-01-01

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10–500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits. PMID:17190819

  14. Monitoring of space invasions: the historical aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudinin, B. A.; Kruchinenko, V. G.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Steklov, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The article presents the basic historical stages of creation and development of Network for registration of fireballs invasion into Earth's atmosphere, and perspectives of research of these phenomena in Ukraine.

  15. Complex genetic patterns in closely related colonizing invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic activities frequently result in both rapidly changing environments and translocation of species from their native ranges (i.e., biological invasions). Empirical studies suggest that many factors associated with these changes can lead to complex genetic patterns, par...

  16. Possibility to implement invasive species control in Swedish forests.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Maria; Strömberg, Caroline; Keskitalo, E Carina H

    2016-02-01

    Invasive alien species constitute an increasing risk to forestry, as indeed to natural systems in general. This study reviews the legislative framework governing invasive species in the EU and Sweden, drawing upon both a legal analysis and interviews with main national level agencies responsible for implementing this framework. The study concludes that EU and Sweden are limited in how well they can act on invasive species, in particular because of the weak interpretation of the precautionary principle in the World Trade Organisation and Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements. In the Swedish case, this interpretation also conflicts with the stronger interpretation of the precautionary principle under the Swedish Environmental Code, which could in itself provide for stronger possibilities to act on invasive species.

  17. Complex genetic patterns in closely related colonizing invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic activities frequently result in both rapidly changing environments and translocation of species from their native ranges (i.e., biological invasions). Empirical studies suggest that many factors associated with these changes can lead to complex genetic patterns, par...

  18. Invasive Species: Federal and Selected State Funding to Address Harmful, Nonnative Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Invasive species -harmful nonnative plants, animals, and microorganisms - pose a serious threat to U.S. agriculture and the environment, with...estimated damages exceeding billions of dollars annually. Invasive species are found in all 50 states, with some states, such as Florida and Hawaii, more...seriously affected than others. Examples of well-known invasive species include the zebra mussel (a mollusk that clogs water intake pipes and filtration

  19. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Darling, John A; Mahon, Andrew R

    2011-10-01

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to improve on traditional monitoring approaches by enhancing detection sensitivity, reducing analytical turnaround times and monitoring costs, and increasing specificity of target identifications. However, despite the promise of DNA-based monitoring methods, the adoption of these tools in decision-making frameworks remains challenging. Here, rather than explore technical aspects of method development, we examine impediments to effective translation of those methods into management contexts. In addition to surveying current use of DNA-based tools for aquatic invasive species monitoring, we explore potential sources of uncertainty associated with molecular technologies and possibilities for limiting that uncertainty and effectively communicating its implications for decision-making. We pay particular attention to the recent adoption of DNA-based methods for detection of invasive Asian carp species in the United States Great Lakes region, as this example illustrates many of the challenges associated with applying molecular tools to achieve desired management outcomes. Our goal is to provide a useful assessment of the obstacles associated with integrating DNA-based methods into aquatic invasive species management, and to offer recommendations for future efforts aimed at overcoming those obstacles.

  20. Effects of nonindigenous invasive species on water quality and quantity

    Treesearch

    Frank H. McCormick; Glen C. Contreras; Sherri L. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Physical and biological disruptions of aquatic systems caused by invasive species alter water quantity and water quality. Recent evidence suggests that water is a vector for the spread of Sudden Oak Death disease and Port-Orfordcedar root disease. Since the 1990s, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of invasive species in the Nation’s waters. Media...

  1. Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species.

    PubMed

    Rahel, Frank J; Olden, Julian D

    2008-06-01

    Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed independently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. Climate change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures, shorter duration of ice cover, altered streamflow patterns, increased salinization, and increased demand for water storage and conveyance structures. These changes will alter the pathways by which non-native species enter aquatic systems by expanding fish-culture facilities and water gardens to new areas and by facilitating the spread of species during floods. Climate change will influence the likelihood of new species becoming established by eliminating cold temperatures or winter hypoxia that currently prevent survival and by increasing the construction of reservoirs that serve as hotspots for invasive species. Climate change will modify the ecological impacts of invasive species by enhancing their competitive and predatory effects on native species and by increasing the virulence of some diseases. As a result of climate change, new prevention and control strategies such as barrier construction or removal efforts may be needed to control invasive species that currently have only moderate effects or that are limited by seasonally unfavorable conditions. Although most researchers focus on how climate change will increase the number and severity of invasions, some invasive coldwater species may be unable to persist under the new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between climate change and invasive species that will influence how aquatic ecosystems and their biota will respond to novel environmental conditions.

  2. Plant invasion across space and time: factors affecting nonindigenous species success during four stages of invasion.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Kathleen A; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    Invasive nonindigenous plant species (NIPS) threaten native diversity, alter ecosystem processes, and may interact with other components of global environmental change. Here, a general framework is outlined that attempts to connect patterns of plant invasion to processes underlying these patterns at four well-established spatio-temporal stages of the invasion process: transport, colonization, establishment, and landscape spread. At each stage we organize findings and ideas about the filters that limit NIPS success and the interaction of these filters with historical aspects of introduction events, NIPS traits, and ecosystem properties. While it remains difficult to draw conclusions about the risk of invasion across ecosystems, to delineate universal 'invader traits', or to predict large-scale extinctions following invasions, this review highlights the growing body of research that suggests that the success of invasive NIPS is controlled by a series of key processes or filters. These filters are common to all invasion events, and will interact throughout the stages of plant invasion, although the relative importance of a filter may be stage, species or location specific. It is suggested that both research and management programs may benefit from employing multiscale and stage approaches to studying and controlling invasion. We further use the framework to briefly examine potential interactions between climate change and filters that limit NIPS invasion.

  3. What can decision analysis do for invasive species management?

    PubMed

    Maguire, Lynn A

    2004-08-01

    Decisions about management of invasive species are difficult for all the reasons typically addressed by multiattribute decision analysis: uncertain outcomes, multiple and conflicting objectives, and many interested parties with differing views on both facts and values. This article illustrates how the tools of multiattribute analysis can improve management of invasive species, with an emphasis on making explicit the social values and preferences that must inform invasive species management. Risk assessment protocols developed previously for invasive species management typically suffer from two interacting flaws: (1) separating risk assessment from risk management, thus disrupting essential connections between the social values at stake in invasive species decisions and the scientific knowledge necessary to predict the likely impacts of management actions, and (2) relying on expert judgment about risk framed in qualitative and value-laden terms, inadvertently mixing the expert's judgment about what is likely to happen with personal preferences. Using the values structuring and probability-modeling elements of formal decision analysis can remedy these difficulties and make invasive species management responsive to both good science and public values. The management of feral pigs in Hawaiian ecosystems illustrates the need for such an integrated approach.

  4. Monitoring high-risk patients: minimally invasive and non-invasive possibilities.

    PubMed

    Renner, Jochen; Grünewald, Matthias; Bein, Berthold

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, there has been considerable progress in the field of less invasive haemodynamic monitoring technologies. Substantial evidence has accumulated, which supports the continuous measurement and optimization of flow-based variables such as stroke volume, that is, cardiac output, in order to prevent occult hypoperfusion and consequently to improve patients' outcome in the perioperative setting. However, there is a striking gap between the developments in haemodynamic monitoring and the increasing evidence to implement defined treatment protocols based on the measured variables, and daily clinical routine. Recent trials have shown that perioperative morbidity and mortality is higher than anticipated. This emphasizes the need for the anaesthesia community to address this issue and promotes the implementation of proven concepts into clinical practice in order to improve patients' outcome, especially in high-risk patients. The advances in minimally invasive and non-invasive monitoring techniques can be seen as a driving force in this respect, as the degree of invasiveness of any monitoring tool determines the frequency of its application, especially in the operating room (OR). From this point of view, we are very confident that some of these minimally invasive and non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring technologies will become an inherent part of our monitoring armamentarium in the OR and in the intensive care unit (ICU).

  5. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Miguel; Hamilton, Healy

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range.

  6. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  7. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  8. Near term climate projections for invasive species distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and invasive species pose important conservation issues separately, and should be examined together. We used existing long term climate datasets for the US to project potential climate change into the future at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than the climate change scenarios generally available. These fine scale projections, along with new species distribution modeling techniques to forecast the potential extent of invasive species, can provide useful information to aide conservation and invasive species management efforts. We created habitat suitability maps for Pueraria montana (kudzu) under current climatic conditions and potential average conditions up to 30 years in the future. We examined how the potential distribution of this species will be affected by changing climate, and the management implications associated with these changes. Our models indicated that P. montana may increase its distribution particularly in the Northeast with climate change and may decrease in other areas. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Essential elements of online information networks on invasive alien species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, A.; Sellers, E.; Grosse, A.; Xie, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to be effective, information must be placed in the proper context and organized in a manner that is logical and (preferably) standardized. Recently, invasive alien species (IAS) scientists have begun to create online networks to share their information concerning IAS prevention and control. At a special networking session at the Beijing International Symposium on Biological Invasions, an online Eastern Asia-North American IAS Information Network (EA-NA Network) was proposed. To prepare for the development of this network, and to provide models for other regional collaborations, we compare four examples of global, regional, and national online IAS information networks: the Global Invasive Species Information Network, the Invasives Information Network of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network, the Chinese Species Information System, and the Invasive Species Information Node of the US National Biological Information Infrastructure. We conclude that IAS networks require a common goal, dedicated leaders, effective communication, and broad endorsement, in order to obtain sustainable, long-term funding and long-term stability. They need to start small, use the experience of other networks, partner with others, and showcase benefits. Global integration and synergy among invasive species networks will succeed with contributions from both the top-down and the bottom-up. ?? 2006 Springer.

  10. Invasion dynamics of competing species with stage-structure.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Sharon; Wang, Guoqing; Younes, Hannah; Li, Bingtuan; Fagan, William F

    2017-08-03

    The spread of an invasive species often results in a decline and subsequent disappearance of native competitors. Several models, primarily based on spatially explicit Lotka-Volterra competition dynamics, have been developed to understand this phenomenon. In general, the goal of these models is to relate fundamental life history traits, for example dispersal ability and competition strength, to the rate of spread of the invasive species, which is also the rate at which the invasive species displaces its native competitor. Stage-structure is often an important determinant of population dynamics, but it has received little attention within the context of Lotka-Volterra invasion models. For many species, behaviors like dispersal and competition depend on life-stage. To describe the processes of invasion in these species, it is important to understand how behaviors that vary as a function of life-stage can impact spread rate. In this paper, we develop a spatially explicit, stage-structured Lotka-Volterra competition model. By comparing spread speed predictions from this model to spread speed predictions from an analogous single-stage model, we are able to determine when stage-structure is important and how stage-dependent behavior can alter the characteristics of an invasion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Population-specific responses to an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Martin; Douda, Karel; Przybyłski, Mirosław; Popa, Oana P; Karbanová, Eva; Matasová, Klára; Rylková, Kateřina; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Smith, Carl

    2015-08-07

    Predicting the impacts of non-native species remains a challenge. As populations of a species are genetically and phenotypically variable, the impact of non-native species on local taxa could crucially depend on population-specific traits and adaptations of both native and non-native species. Bitterling fishes are brood parasites of unionid mussels and unionid mussels produce larvae that parasitize fishes. We used common garden experiments to measure three key elements in the bitterling-mussel association among two populations of an invasive mussel (Anodonta woodiana) and four populations of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). The impact of the invasive mussel varied between geographically distinct R. amarus lineages and between local populations within lineages. The capacity of parasitic larvae of the invasive mussel to exploit R. amarus was higher in a Danubian than in a Baltic R. amarus lineage and in allopatric than in sympatric R. amarus populations. Maladaptive oviposition by R. amarus into A. woodiana varied among populations, with significant population-specific consequences for R. amarus recruitment. We suggest that variation in coevolutionary states may predispose different populations to divergent responses. Given that coevolutionary relationships are ubiquitous, population-specific attributes of invasive and native populations may play a critical role in the outcome of invasion. We argue for a shift from a species-centred to population-centred perspective of the impacts of invasions.

  12. Population-specific responses to an invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Martin; Douda, Karel; Przybyłski, Mirosław; Popa, Oana P.; Karbanová, Eva; Matasová, Klára; Rylková, Kateřina; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Smith, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the impacts of non-native species remains a challenge. As populations of a species are genetically and phenotypically variable, the impact of non-native species on local taxa could crucially depend on population-specific traits and adaptations of both native and non-native species. Bitterling fishes are brood parasites of unionid mussels and unionid mussels produce larvae that parasitize fishes. We used common garden experiments to measure three key elements in the bitterling–mussel association among two populations of an invasive mussel (Anodonta woodiana) and four populations of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). The impact of the invasive mussel varied between geographically distinct R. amarus lineages and between local populations within lineages. The capacity of parasitic larvae of the invasive mussel to exploit R. amarus was higher in a Danubian than in a Baltic R. amarus lineage and in allopatric than in sympatric R. amarus populations. Maladaptive oviposition by R. amarus into A. woodiana varied among populations, with significant population-specific consequences for R. amarus recruitment. We suggest that variation in coevolutionary states may predispose different populations to divergent responses. Given that coevolutionary relationships are ubiquitous, population-specific attributes of invasive and native populations may play a critical role in the outcome of invasion. We argue for a shift from a species-centred to population-centred perspective of the impacts of invasions. PMID:26180070

  13. Global phylogenetics of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae), an invasive aphid species: Evidence for multiple invasions into North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Critical to the study of an invasive species is understanding the number and origin of invasions that have occurred, as well as the rate or potential of post-invasion adaptation and geographic range expansion. One virulent, invasive insect species that has caused much damage in the United States is...

  14. Developing monitoring techniques for the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California

    Treesearch

    Tom W. Coleman; Yigen Chen; Andrew D. Graves; Stacy M. Hishinuma; Nancy E. Grulke; Mary Louise Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2014-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring...

  15. Do invasive species perform better in their new ranges?

    PubMed

    Parker, John D; Torchin, Mark E; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Alba, Christina; Blumenthal, Dana M; Bossdorf, Oliver; Byers, James E; Dunn, Alison M; Heckman, Robert W; Hejda, Martin; Jarosík, Vojtech; Kanarek, Andrew R; Martin, Lynn B; Perkins, Sarah E; Pysek, Petr; Schierenbeck, Kristina; Schlöder, Carmen; van Klinken, Rieks; Vaughn, Kurt J; Williams, Wyatt; Wolfe, Lorne M

    2013-05-01

    A fundamental assumption in invasion biology is that most invasive species exhibit enhanced performance in their introduced range relative to their home ranges. This idea has given rise to numerous hypotheses explaining "invasion success" by virtue of altered ecological and evolutionary pressures. There are surprisingly few data, however, testing the underlying assumption that the performance of introduced populations, including organism size, reproductive output, and abundance, is enhanced in their introduced compared to their native range. Here, we combined data from published studies to test this hypothesis for 26 plant and 27 animal species that are considered to be invasive. On average, individuals of these 53 species were indeed larger, more fecund, and more abundant in their introduced ranges. The overall mean, however, belied significant variability among species, as roughly half of the investigated species (N=27) performed similarly when compared to conspecific populations in their native range. Thus, although some invasive species are performing better in their new ranges, the pattern is not universal, and just as many are performing largely the same across ranges.

  16. Pushing the envelope in genetic analysis of species invasion

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2015-01-01

    How a species spreads once introduced into a new environment is a major question in landscape genetics. When the species in question is a potential disease vector, the findings are important not only for fundamental science, but can impact applied science and public health as well. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Medley et al. (2014) study, the invasion...

  17. GSD Update: Strategies for understanding and controlling species invasions

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are significant environmental and economic threats to our Nation's and the world's ecosystems and natural resources. They impact wildlife habitat, endanger native species, threaten ecosystem services, damage lakes and rivers, reduce recreational opportunities, affect production of wood products, jeopardize human health and safety and reduce...

  18. Non-invasive monitoring of physiological markers in primates.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    The monitoring of endocrine markers that inform about an animal's physiological state has become an invaluable tool for studying the behavioral ecology of primates. While the collection of blood samples usually requires the animal to be caught and immobilized, non-invasively collected samples of saliva, urine, feces or hair can be obtained without any major disturbance of the subject of interest. Such samples enable repeated collection which is required for matching behavioral information over long time periods with detailed information on endocrine markers. We start our review by giving an overview of endocrine and immune markers that have been successfully monitored in relation to topics of interest in primate behavioral ecology. These topics include reproductive, nutritional and health status, changes during ontogeny, social behavior such as rank relationships, aggression and cooperation as well as welfare and conservation issues. We continue by explaining which hormones can be measured in which matrices, and potential problems with measurements. We then describe different methods of hormone measurements and address their advantages and disadvantages. We finally emphasize the importance of thorough validation procedures when measuring a specific hormone in a new species or matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection method development in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates findi...

  20. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection method development in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates findi...

  1. Hybridization can facilitate species invasions, even without enhancing local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mesgaran, Mohsen B; Lewis, Mark A; Ades, Peter K; Donohue, Kathleen; Ohadi, Sara; Li, Chengjun; Cousens, Roger D

    2016-09-06

    The founding population in most new species introductions, or at the leading edge of an ongoing invasion, is likely to be small. Severe Allee effects-reductions in individual fitness at low population density-may then result in a failure of the species to colonize, even if the habitat could support a much larger population. Using a simulation model for plant populations that incorporates demography, mating systems, quantitative genetics, and pollinators, we show that Allee effects can potentially be overcome by transient hybridization with a resident species or an earlier colonizer. This mechanism does not require the invocation of adaptive changes usually attributed to invasions following hybridization. We verify our result in a case study of sequential invasions by two plant species where the outcrosser Cakile maritima has replaced an earlier, inbreeding, colonizer Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae). Observed historical rates of replacement are consistent with model predictions from hybrid-alleviated Allee effects in outcrossers, although other causes cannot be ruled out.

  2. Managing aquatic species of conservation concern in the face of climate change and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Rahel, Frank J; Bierwagen, Britta; Taniguchi, Yoshinori

    2008-06-01

    The difficult task of managing species of conservation concern is likely to become even more challenging due to the interaction of climate change and invasive species. In addition to direct effects on habitat quality, climate change will foster the expansion of invasive species into new areas and magnify the effects of invasive species already present by altering competitive dominance, increasing predation rates, and enhancing the virulence of diseases. In some cases parapatric species may expand into new habitats and have detrimental effects that are similar to those of invading non-native species. The traditional strategy of isolating imperiled species in reserves may not be adequate if habitat conditions change beyond historic ranges or in ways that favor invasive species. The consequences of climate change will require a more active management paradigm that includes implementing habitat improvements that reduce the effects of climate change and creating migration barriers that prevent an influx of invasive species. Other management actions that should be considered include providing dispersal corridors that allow species to track environmental changes, translocating species to newly suitable habitats where migration is not possible, and developing action plans for the early detection and eradication of new invasive species.

  3. Native species dispersal reduces community invasibility by increasing species richness and biotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Howeth, Jennifer G

    2017-08-03

    Recent studies indicate that diversity-invasibility relationships can depend on spatial scale, but the contributing role of native species dispersal among local communities in mediating these relationships remains unaddressed. Metacommunity ecology highlights the effects of species dispersal rates on local diversity, thereby suggesting that native species dispersal may influence local biotic resistance to invasion by non-native species. However, the effects of native species dispersal rates on local native diversity and invasibility could depend on any intraspecific differences of the invader that may alter establishment success. Here, I experimentally tested for the influence of native dispersal-diversity relationships on the invasibility of native communities by a non-native species represented by core, midrange and peripheral regions of the introduced geographic range. In mesocosms, native plankton communities were connected by low or moderate rates of dispersal to yield dispersal rate-driven differences in native species richness prior to invasion by a non-native zooplankter, Daphnia lumholtzi. After invasion, establishment success and effects of the non-native species on native community structure and ecosystem properties were evaluated as a function of dispersal rate and invader source region relative to a control without native species. Native species richness was greater at the moderate dispersal rate than the low dispersal rate and yielded a dispersal rate-dependent diversity-invasibility relationship that was robust to invader source region. There was almost no establishment success of the non-native species at moderate dispersal and reduced success at low dispersal relative to the control. Invader population growth rates were negative only at the moderate dispersal rate. Effects of species dispersal on native community and ecosystem response were more influential than effects of invasion and impacts associated with invader source region. The results

  4. Spatial dynamics of invasion: the geometry of introduced species.

    PubMed

    Korniss, Gyorgy; Caraco, Thomas

    2005-03-07

    Many exotic species combine low probability of establishment at each introduction with rapid population growth once introduction does succeed. To analyse this phenomenon, we note that invaders often cluster spatially when rare, and consequently an introduced exotic's population dynamics should depend on locally structured interactions. Ecological theory for spatially structured invasion relies on deterministic approximations, and determinism does not address the observed uncertainty of the exotic-introduction process. We take a new approach to the population dynamics of invasion and, by extension, to the general question of invasibility in any spatial ecology. We apply the physical theory for nucleation of spatial systems to a lattice-based model of competition between plant species, a resident and an invader, and the analysis reaches conclusions that differ qualitatively from the standard ecological theories. Nucleation theory distinguishes between dynamics of single- and multi-cluster invasion. Low introduction rates and small system size produce single-cluster dynamics, where success or failure of introduction is inherently stochastic. Single-cluster invasion occurs only if the cluster reaches a critical size, typically preceded by a number of failed attempts. For this case, we identify the functional form of the probability distribution of time elapsing until invasion succeeds. Although multi-cluster invasion for sufficiently large systems exhibits spatial averaging and almost-deterministic dynamics of the global densities, an analytical approximation from nucleation theory, known as Avrami's law, describes our simulation results far better than standard ecological approximations.

  5. Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA.

    PubMed

    Gavier-Pizarro, Gregorio I; Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Huebner, Cynthia D; Keuler, Nicholas S

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the factors related to invasive exotic species distributions at broad spatial scales has important theoretical and management implications, because biological invasions are detrimental to many ecosystem functions and processes. Housing development facilitates invasions by disturbing land cover, introducing nonnative landscaping plants, and facilitating dispersal of propagules along roads. To evaluate relationships between housing and the distribution of invasive exotic plants, we asked (1) how strongly is housing associated with the spatial distribution of invasive exotic plants compared to other anthropogenic and environmental factors; (2) what type of housing pattern is related to the richness of invasive exotic plants; and (3) do invasive plants represent ecological traits associated with specific housing patterns? Using two types of regression analysis (best subset analysis and hierarchical partitioning analysis), we found that invasive exotic plant richness was equally or more strongly related to housing variables than to other human (e.g., mean income and roads) and environmental (e.g., topography and forest cover) variables at the county level across New England. Richness of invasive exotic plants was positively related to area of wildland-urban interface (WUI), low-density residential areas, change in number of housing units between 1940 and 2000, mean income, plant productivity (NDVI), and altitudinal range and rainfall; it was negatively related to forest area and connectivity. Plant life history traits were not strongly related to housing patterns. We expect the number of invasive exotic plants to increase as a result of future housing growth and suggest that housing development be considered a primary factor in plans to manage and monitor invasive exotic plant species.

  6. GSD Update: What are invasive species? ... And do we really need to worry about them?

    Treesearch

    Catherine Dold

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are the focus of the September 2011 issue of GSDUpdate: What Are Invasive Species? And Do We Really Need to Worry About Them? An invasive species is any species - non-native or native to a region - that could cause economic or ecological harm to an area. Invasives can be weeds, shrubs and trees, insects, mollusks, vertebrates and even microorganisms...

  7. Emergence and accumulation of novel pathogens suppress an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Harmon, Philip F; Goss, Erica M; Clay, Keith; Luke Flory, S

    2016-04-01

    Emerging pathogens are a growing threat to human health, agriculture and the diversity of ecological communities but may also help control problematic species. Here we investigated the diversity, distribution and consequences of emerging fungal pathogens infecting an aggressive invasive grass that is rapidly colonising habitats throughout the eastern USA. We document the recent emergence and accumulation over time of diverse pathogens that are members of a single fungal genus and represent multiple, recently described or undescribed species. We also show that experimental suppression of these pathogens increased host performance in the field, demonstrating the negative effects of emerging pathogens on invasive plants. Our results suggest that invasive species can facilitate pathogen emergence and amplification, raising concerns about movement of pathogens among agricultural, horticultural, and wild grasses. However, one possible benefit of pathogen accumulation is suppression of aggressive invaders over the long term, potentially abating their negative impacts on native communities.

  8. Using genetic research to inform imperiled and invasive species management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Pawlitz, Rachel J.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term viability of species and populations is related to their potential to migrate, reproduce, and adapt to environmental changes. In the southeast United States, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are providing resource managers with genetic information to improve the long-term survival and sustainability of the Nation's aquatic species. Research focused on native and imperiled species can assess the genetic factors influencing their survival and recovery, while work on invasive species can provide information on their proliferation, dispersal, and impacts on native species.

  9. Remote sensing to test distrubution models of invasive species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a noxious invasive weed that infests over 1.2 million hectares of land in North America. One of the fundamental needs in leafy spurge management is cost-effective, large-scale, and long-term documentation and monitoring of plant populations. Leafy spurge is a g...

  10. Teaching citizen science skills online: Implications for invasive species training programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, G.; Crall, A.; Laituri, M.; Graham, J.; Stohlgren, T.; Moore, J.C.; Kodrich, K.; Holfelder, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills and reach large numbers of remote sentinel volunteers critical to early detection and rapid response. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of online static and multimedia tutorials to teach citizen science volunteers (n = 54) how to identify invasive plants; establish monitoring plots; measure percent cover; and use Global Positioning System (GPS) units. Participants trained using static and multimedia tutorials provided less (p <.001) correct species identifications (63% and 67%) than did professionals (83%) across all species, but they did not differ (p =.125) between each other. However, their ability to identify conspicuous species was comparable to that of professionals. The variability in percent plant cover estimates between static (??10%) and multimedia (??13%) participants did not differ (p =.86 and.08, respectively) from those of professionals (??9%). Trained volunteers struggled with plot setup and GPS skills. Overall, the online approach used did not influence conferred field skills and abilities. Traditional or multimedia online training augmented with more rigorous, repeated, and hands-on, in-person training in specialized skills required for more difficult tasks will likely improve volunteer abilities, data quality, and overall program effectiveness. ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Behavioral syndrome in a native and an invasive hymenoptera species.

    PubMed

    Monceau, Karine; Moreau, Jérôme; Poidatz, Juliette; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiéry, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have focused on the role of behavior in biological invasions. Individuals may differ consistently in time for several behavioral traits (personality) which covary (behavioral syndrome) resulting in different behavioral types, some of them favoring invasion. Social hymenopterans have a strong potential to be invaders and their success depends primarily on the foundresses' ability to found viable colonies. They are expected to be active, explorative and bold for optimally establishing their nest. In Europe, 2 hornet species coexist: the native Vespa crabro and the invasive Vespa velutina. These 2 species may compete for nesting sites and we suggest that the initial success of V. velutina has been favored by its behavior in outperforming V. crabro for the traits involved in nest initiation. Here, we (i) defined the personality of V. crabro and V. velutina, (ii) tested for the existence of behavioral syndrome in these species, and (iii) compared their performances using an open-field test. Our results show that V. crabro foundresses behave consistently but not V. velutina; this lack of consistency being mainly due to reduced variance among individuals. This result questions the possibility of detecting consistent behavioral differences in species having recently undergone a strong bottleneck. Both species exhibit the same correlations between activity, boldness and exploration and V. velutina clearly outperforms V. crabro for all traits. Our results suggest that activity, boldness, and exploration are implicated in both hornet nest initiation and invasion process which contributed to explain why social hymenopterans are so successful at colonization.

  12. Mechanistic species distribution modeling reveals a niche shift during invasion.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Daniel S; Scalone, Romain; Štefanić, Edita; Bullock, James M

    2017-04-02

    Niche shifts of non-native plants can occur when they colonize novel climatic conditions. However, the mechanistic basis for niche shifts during invasion is poorly understood and has rarely been captured within species distribution models. We quantified the consequence of between-population variation in phenology for invasion of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) across Europe. Ragweed is of serious concern because of its harmful effects as a crop weed and because of its impact on public health as a major aeroallergen. We developed a forward mechanistic species distribution model based on responses of ragweed development rates to temperature and photoperiod. The model was parameterized and validated from the literature and by re-analyzing data from a reciprocal common garden experiment in which native and invasive populations were grown within and beyond the current invaded range. It could therefore accommodate between-population variation in the physiological requirements for flowering, and predict the potentially-invaded ranges of individual populations. Northern-origin populations that were established outside the generally-accepted climate envelope of the species had lower thermal requirements for bud development, suggesting local adaptation of phenology had occurred during the invasion. The model predicts that this will extend the potentially-invaded range northwards and increase the average suitability across Europe by 90% in the current climate and 20% in the future climate. Therefore, trait variation observed at the population scale can trigger a climatic niche shift at the biogeographic scale. For ragweed, earlier flowering phenology in established northern populations could allow the species to spread beyond its current invasive range, substantially increasing its risk to agriculture and public health. Mechanistic species distribution models offer the possibility to represent niche shifts by varying the traits and niche responses of individual

  13. Non-native invasive species and novel ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Invasions by non-native species have caused many extinctions and greatly modified many ecosystems and are among the major anthropogenic global changes transforming the earth. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a dramatic burst of research in invasion biology has revealed a plethora of previously unrecognized impacts and laid bare the scope of the phenomenon. Similarly, research on various methods of managing invasions has expanded enormously, yielding incremental improvements in traditional methods and the advent of several new approaches, including the use of species-specific genetic and pheromonal methods. This research has advanced the field of restoration ecology, of which invasion management is a key component. Amidst this research progress, a group of critics has attempted to cast doubt on the extent of damaging impacts caused by non-native invasive species, the feasibility of counteracting them and restoring ecosystems, and the motives of scientists engaged in such endeavors. The criticisms are misguided but can potentially impede management of this pressing problem. PMID:26097720

  14. Non-native invasive species and novel ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Simberloff, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Invasions by non-native species have caused many extinctions and greatly modified many ecosystems and are among the major anthropogenic global changes transforming the earth. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a dramatic burst of research in invasion biology has revealed a plethora of previously unrecognized impacts and laid bare the scope of the phenomenon. Similarly, research on various methods of managing invasions has expanded enormously, yielding incremental improvements in traditional methods and the advent of several new approaches, including the use of species-specific genetic and pheromonal methods. This research has advanced the field of restoration ecology, of which invasion management is a key component. Amidst this research progress, a group of critics has attempted to cast doubt on the extent of damaging impacts caused by non-native invasive species, the feasibility of counteracting them and restoring ecosystems, and the motives of scientists engaged in such endeavors. The criticisms are misguided but can potentially impede management of this pressing problem.

  15. Cancer Cell Invasion: Treatment and Monitoring Opportunities in Nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Veiseh, Omid; Kievit, Forrest; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    Cell invasion is an intrinsic cellular pathway whereby cells respond to extracellular stimuli to migrate through and modulate the structure of their extracellular matrix (ECM) in order to develop, repair, and protect the body’s tissues. In cancer cells this process can become aberrantly regulated and lead to cancer metastasis. This cellular pathway contributes to the vast majority of cancer related fatalities, and therefore has been identified as a critical therapeutic target. Researchers have identified numerous potential molecular therapeutic targets of cancer cell invasion, yet delivery of therapies remains a major hurdle. Nanomedicine is a rapidly emerging technology which may offer a potential solution for tackling cancer metastasis by improving the specificity and potency of therapeutics delivered to invasive cancer cells. In this review we examine the biology of cancer cell invasion, its role in cancer progression and metastasis, molecular targets of cell invasion, and therapeutic inhibitors of cell invasion. We then discuss how the field of nanomedicine can be applied to monitor and treat cancer cell invasion. We aim to provide a perspective on how the advances in cancer biology and the field of nanomedicine can be combined to offer new solutions for treating cancer metastasis. PMID:21295093

  16. The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Heike; Brandt, Patric; Fischer, Joern; Welk, Erik; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density and population size) remain poorly understood. It is assumed that invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the differences in abundance of invasive species are found between regions because population expansion is reduced in some regions through continuous land management and associated cutting of the invasive species. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability.

  17. The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Heike; Brandt, Patric; Fischer, Joern; Welk, Erik; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density and population size) remain poorly understood. It is assumed that invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the differences in abundance of invasive species are found between regions because population expansion is reduced in some regions through continuous land management and associated cutting of the invasive species. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability. PMID:25352979

  18. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  19. AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC WETLANDS PLANT SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  20. Ecology of cryptic invasions: latitudinal segregation among Watersipora (Bryozoa) species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersipora is an invasive genus of bryozoans, easily dispersed by fouled vessels. We examined Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes from introduced populations on the US Pacific coastline to investigate geographic segregation of species and/or haplotypes. In California, the ...

  1. 77 FR 23494 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Council, proposes to appoint new members to the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). The Secretary..., the Secretary of the Interior will actively solicit new nominees and appoint members to ISAC... education; science and environmental journalism and outreach; natural resource economics; tribal...

  2. Insect Eradication and Containment of Invasive Alien Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect eradication programs are nearly always targeted at recently arrived invasive species with significant pest potential. They attempt to contain a pest to a defined area and then completely eliminate the pest from that area. From a Federal regulatory standpoint, eradication programs are undert...

  3. CLIMATE CHANGE AND AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management activities came from publicly available information, was analyzed with respect to climate-change effects, a...

  4. Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft report reviews available literature on climate change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state level AIS management activities. This draft report assesses the state of the science of climate change effects on AIS and examines state level AIS management activities.

  5. AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC WETLANDS PLANT SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  6. Factors affecting people's response to invasive species management

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster

    2011-01-01

    Natural areas managers contend with an increasingly diverse array of invasive species in their mission to conserve the health and integrity of ecosystems under their charge. As users, nearby neighbours and de facto 'owners' of the lands where many significant natural areas reside, the public is often highly supportive of broad programme goals for management...

  7. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4] (Executive Summary)

    Treesearch

    Matthew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C.. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones that are emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity, but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species. In...

  8. Ecology of cryptic invasions: latitudinal segregation among Watersipora (Bryozoa) species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersipora is an invasive genus of bryozoans, easily dispersed by fouled vessels. We examined Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes from introduced populations on the US Pacific coastline to investigate geographic segregation of species and/or haplotypes. In California, the ...

  9. The importance of education in managing invasive plant species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive plant species can establish in diverse environments and with the increase in human mobility, they are no longer restricted to isolated pockets in remote parts of the world. Cheat grass (Bromus tectorum L.) in rangelands, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) in wet lands and Canada this...

  10. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although corridors have become commonplace in conservation to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, concerns persist that they may facilitate spread of invasive species. In a large-scale experiment, we measured effects of corridors on invasive fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, and on comm...

  11. Decisionmaking under risk in invasive species management: risk management theory and applications

    Treesearch

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species management is closely entwined with the assessment and management of risk that arises from the inherently random nature of the invasion process. The theory and application of risk management for invasive species with an economic perspective is reviewed in this synthesis. Invasive species management can be delineated into three general categories:...

  12. Effective control of aquatic invasive species in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Sydes, Damon

    2011-09-01

    Often ecologists and natural resource managers can easily access data on invasive species occurrence across a region. Yet, collecting species abundance data over a large area is arguably more important for decision making, but inherently costly, so methods which can provide robust information at low-cost are particularly valuable. Studies of species distribution often use occurrence data to build models of the environmental niche. Environmental suitability derived from such models may be used to predict the potential distributions of species. The ability of such models to predict spatial patterns in abundance have recently been demonstrated. Here we tested the relationship of environmental suitability with local abundance of an aquatic invasive species, olive hymenachne (Hymenachne amplexicaulis) in the Wet Tropics of Australia. Ordinary least squares and quantile regressions revealed a positive relationship between environmental suitability and local abundance of olive hymenachne. We expand on this and use the relationship between environmental suitability and local abundance to quantify the effectiveness of management (reduction in local abundance) under four different management investments. We show that the upper limit of abundance can be used to evaluate management effectiveness based on varying investments, and that ongoing management is the most effective at reducing local abundance. We discuss implications of this in addressing important problems in invasive species management.

  13. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring: Invasive versus Non-Invasive Methods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Raboel, P. H.; Bartek, J.; Andresen, M.; Bellander, B. M.; Romner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods as well as assess whether noninvasive techniques (transcranial Doppler, tympanic membrane displacement, optic nerve sheath diameter, CT scan/MRI and fundoscopy) can be used as reliable alternatives to the invasive techniques (ventriculostomy and microtransducers). Ventriculostomy is considered the gold standard in terms of accurate measurement of pressure, although microtransducers generally are just as accurate. Both invasive techniques are associated with a minor risk of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. Furthermore, zero drift is a problem with selected microtransducers. The non-invasive techniques are without the invasive methods' risk of complication, but fail to measure ICP accurately enough to be used as routine alternatives to invasive measurement. We conclude that invasive measurement is currently the only option for accurate measurement of ICP. PMID:22720148

  14. Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.

    2007-01-01

    the invasive. In fact, in one year fruit set of S. alba was significantly greater in the presence of L. salicaria. The number of invasive pollen grains on native stigmas was extremely low; on average less than one grain per stigma. These fruit set and pollen deposition findings indicate that native plant reproduction was not adversely affected in the short term by these invasive species and that therefore competition between the native and invasive species for pollinators did not occur. Native bee populations monitored in 2004-2005 at sites with and without B. thunbergii and/or F. alnus indicated a greater abundance of native bees at sites with these invasives present. Native bees collected from the native and invasive plants were compared with historical records to assess whether invasive plants favor different bee species than those that formerly predominated on Mount Desert Island. This does not appear to be the case. Several species of bumble bees (Bombus spp.) as well as nine solitary bee species were found that were not documented by the Procter surveys of 1917-1940. Collecting of native bees was limited to the study plants, which may, in part, explain why some bee species documented in the Procter Surveys were not found in the present research. A field guide for identification of native bumble bees has been produced to help Park Natural Resource personnel monitor the status of native bee populations in Acadia. Other educational materials were also developed, aimed at educating Park visitors by exposing them to: 1) the role of native plants and their bee pollinators in terrestrial ecosystems; 2) the effects of invasive plants on native plant-pollinator mutualisms; 3) the need for conserving native bees and other pollinators; and 4) conservation strategies for protecting and enhancing native plant-pollinator mutualisms in the Park. Based on the present findings, Acadia Park Resource Management personnel should continue to closely

  15. Continuous minimally-invasive alcohol monitoring using microneedle sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Mohan, A M Vinu; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Mishra, Rupesh K; Wang, Joseph

    2017-05-15

    The present work describes an attractive skin-worn microneedle sensing device for the minimally invasive electrochemical monitoring of subcutaneous alcohol. The device consists of an assembly of pyramidal microneedle structures integrated with Pt and Ag wires, each with a microcavity opening. The microneedle aperture was modified by electropolymerizing o-phenylene diamine onto the Pt wire microtransducer, followed by the immobilization of alcohol oxidase (AOx) in an intermediate chitosan layer, along with an outer Nafion layer. The resulting microneedle-based enzyme electrode displays an interference-free ethanol detection in artificial interstitial fluid without compromising its sensitivity, stability and response time. The skin penetration ability and the efficaciousness of the biosensor performance towards subcutaneous alcohol monitoring was substantiated by the ex vivo mice skin model analysis. Our results reveal that the new microneedle sensor holds considerable promise for continuous non-invasive alcohol monitoring in real-life situations.

  16. Historic land use influences contemporary establishment of invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, W Brett; Orrock, John L

    2013-08-01

    The legacy of agricultural land use can have widespread and persistent effects on contemporary landscapes. Although agriculture can lead to persistent changes in soil characteristics and plant communities, it remains unclear whether historic agricultural land use can alter the likelihood of contemporary biological invasions. To understand how agricultural land-use history might interact with well-known drivers of invasion, we conducted factorial manipulations of soil disturbance and resource additions within non-agricultural remnant sites and post-agricultural sites invaded by two non-native Lespedeza species. Our results reveal that variation in invader success can depend on the interplay of historic land use and contemporary processes: for both Lespedeza species, establishment was greater in remnant sites, but soil disturbance enhanced establishment irrespective of land-use history, demonstrating that contemporary processes can help to overcome legacy constraints on invader success. In contrast, additions of resources known to facilitate seedling recruitment (N and water) reduced invader establishment in post-agricultural but not in remnant sites, providing evidence that interactions between historic and contemporary processes can also limit invader success. Our findings thus illustrate that a consideration of historic land use may help to clarify the often contingent responses of invasive plants to known determinants of invasibility. Moreover, in finding significantly greater soil compaction at post-agricultural sites, our study provides a putative mechanism for historic land-use effects on contemporary invasive plant establishment. Our work suggests that an understanding of invasion dynamics requires knowledge of anthropogenic events that often occur decades before the introduction of invasive propagules.

  17. Functional morphology underlies performance differences among invasive and non-invasive ruderal Rubus species.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Joshua S; Yeakley, J Alan

    2013-10-01

    The ability of some introduced plant species to outperform native species under altered resource conditions makes them highly productive in ecosystems with surplus resources. However, ruderal native species are also productive when resources are available. The differences in abundance among invasive and non-invasive ruderal plants may be related to differences in ability to maintain access to or store resources for continual use. For a group of ruderal species in the Pacific Northwest of North America (invasive Rubus armeniacus; non-invasive R. ursinus, R. parviflorus, R. spectabilis, and Rosa nutkana), we sought to determine whether differences in functional morphological traits, especially metrics of water access and storage, were consistent with differences in water conductance and growth rate. We also investigated the changes in these traits in response to abundant vs. limited water availability. Rubus armeniacus had among the largest root systems and cane cross-sectional areas, the lowest cane tissue densities, and the most plastic ratios of leaf area to plant mass and of xylem area to leaf area, often sharing its rank with R. ursinus or Rosa nutkana. These three species had the highest water conductance and relative growth rates, though Rubus armeniacus grew the most rapidly when water was not limited. Our results suggest that water access and storage abilities vary with morphology among the ruderal species investigated, and that these abilities, in combination, are greatest in the invasive. In turn, functional morphological traits allow R. armeniacus to maintain rapid gas exchange rates during the dry summers in its invaded range, conferring on it high productivity.

  18. Monitoring invasive plants using hand-held GIS technology

    Treesearch

    Theresa M. Mau-Crimmins; Barron J. Orr

    2005-01-01

    Successful control of invasive species requires a clear picture of the spatial extent of infestations. The latest mapping technology involves coupling global position systems and handheld computers running geographic information systems software in the field. A series of workshops applying this technology to mapping weeds was developed and presented to Weed Management...

  19. Ecosystem Change in California Grasslands: Impacts of Species Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koteen, L. E.; Harte, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Grassland ecosystems of California have undergone dramatic changes, resulting in the almost complete replacement of native perennial grasses by non-native annuals across millions of hectares of grassland habitat. Our research investigates the effects of this community shift on carbon, water and energy cycles at two sites in northern coastal California. Our goal was to understand how changes to California’s grasslands have affected climate through 1. shifting the balance of carbon storage between terrestrial stocks and the atmosphere, and 2. altering the water and energy regimes that heat or cool the earth's surface. To compare the processes that govern material exchange before and after annual grass invasion, we made use of sites where native vegetation is found adjacent to locations that have undergone non-native invasion. In plots of each vegetation type, we monitored whole plant productivity, root and litter decay rates and soil respiration, as well as soil climatic controls on these processes. At one site, we also measured surface albedo and the components of the surface energy balance in each grass community, using the surface renewal method. Although seemingly subtle, the shift in California grassland communities from native perennial to non-native annual grass dominance has had profound consequences for ecosystem biogeochemical, radiative and hydrological cycles. Soil carbon storage was found to be significantly greater in native perennial grass communities. Across both study sites, we found that non-native grass invasion has resulted in the transfer of from 3 to 6 tons of carbon per hectare from the soil to the atmosphere, dependent on site and species. A soil density fractionation and a radiocarbon analysis also revealed the carbon to be more recalcitrant in native grass dominated locations. The primary plant traits that help explain why soil carbon losses follow annual grass invasion are: 1. differences between annual and perennial grasses in above

  20. Contribution of climate, soil, and MODIS predictors when modeling forest inventory invasive species distribution using forest inventory data

    Treesearch

    Dumitru Salajanu; Dennis Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Forest inventory and analysis data are used to monitor the presence and extent of certain non-native invasive species. Effective control of its spread requires quality spatial distribution information. There is no clear consensus why some ecosystems are more favorable to non-native species. The objective of this study is to evaluate the reelative contribution of geo-...

  1. Drivers of Non-Native Aquatic Species Invasions across the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background/Question/Methods Mapping the geographic distribution of non-native aquatic species is a critically important precursor to understanding the anthropogenic and environmental factors that drive freshwater biological invasions. Such efforts are often limited to local scales and/or to a single taxa, missing the opportunity to observe and understand the drivers of macroscale invasion patterns at sub-continental or continental scales. Here we map the distribution of exotic freshwater species richness across the continental United States using publicly accessible species occurrence data (e.g GBIF) and investigate the role of human activity in driving macroscale patterns of aquatic invasion. Using a dasymetric model of human population density and a spatially explicit model of recreational freshwater fishing demand, we analyzed the effect of these metrics of human influence on non-native aquatic species richness at the watershed scale, while controlling for spatial and sampling bias. We also assessed the effects that a temporal mismatch between occurrence data (collected since 1815) and cross-sectional predictors (developed using 2010 data) may have on model fit. Results/Conclusions Our results indicated that non-native aquatic species richness exhibits a highly patchy distribution, with hotspots in the Northeast, Great Lakes, Florida, and human population centers on the Pacific coast. These richness patterns are correlated with population density, but are m

  2. Novel organisms: comparing invasive species, GMOs, and emerging pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Jonathan M; Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    Invasive species, range-expanding species, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), synthetic organisms, and emerging pathogens increasingly affect the human environment. We propose a framework that allows comparison of consecutive stages that such novel organisms go through. The framework provides a common terminology for novel organisms, facilitating knowledge exchange among researchers, managers, and policy makers that work on, or have to make effective decisions about, novel organisms. The framework also indicates that knowledge about the causes and consequences of stage transitions for the better studied novel organisms, such as invasive species, can be transferred to more poorly studied ones, such as GMOs and emerging pathogens. Finally, the framework advances understanding of how climate change can affect the establishment, spread, and impacts of novel organisms, and how biodiversity affects, and is affected by, novel organisms.

  3. Controlling the spread of invasive species while sampling: chapter 13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacks, Stewart; Sharon, Steve; Kinnunen, Ronald E.; Britton, David K.; Smith, Scott S.; Bonar, Scott A.; Hubert, Wayne A.; Willis, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on measures that should be taken to present, minimize, or control the spread of invasive species in the routine work we do as natural resource professionals. Inadvertently transporting potentially harmful organisms undermines our purposed as natural resource professionals. It is imperative that we understand that pathways that we create and strive to eliminate (when possible) or minimize the potential damage that may result from our actions. A combination of technologies, education, codes of conduct, and government overshot, as recommended by the Ecological Society of America, can prevent invasive species introductions from pathways that already exist (Lodge et al. 2006). In the long run, a purposeful prevention strategy for stopping unintentional species introductions will promote responsible natural resource management and will help us to acheive agency goals.

  4. Improving and integrating data on invasive species collected by citizen scientists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources make it difficult to effectively document, monitor, and control invasive species across large areas, resulting in large gaps in our knowledge of current and future invasion patterns. We surveyed 128 citizen science program coordinators and interviewed 15 of them to evaluate their potential role in filling these gaps. Many programs collect data on invasive species and are willing to contribute these data to public databases. Although resources for education and monitoring are readily available, groups generally lack tools to manage and analyze data. Potential users of these data also retain concerns over data quality. We discuss how to address these concerns about citizen scientist data and programs while preserving the advantages they afford. A unified yet flexible national citizen science program aimed at tracking invasive species location, abundance, and control efforts could be designed using centralized data sharing and management tools. Such a system could meet the needs of multiple stakeholders while allowing efficiencies of scale, greater standardization of methods, and improved data quality testing and sharing. Finally, we present a prototype for such a system (see www.citsci.org).

  5. Seed bank survival of an invasive species, but not of two native species, declines with invasion.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L; Christopher, Cory C; Dutra, Humberto P

    2012-04-01

    Soil-borne seed pathogens may play an important role in either hindering or facilitating the spread of invasive exotic plants. We examined whether the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) affected fungi-mediated mortality of conspecific and native shrub seeds in a deciduous forest in eastern Missouri. Using a combination of L. maackii removal and fungicide treatments, we found no effect of L. maackii invasion on seed viability of the native Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Caprifoliaceae) or Cornus drummondii (Cornaceae). In contrast, fungi were significant agents of L. maackii seed mortality in invaded habitats. Losses of L. maackii to soil fungi were also significant in invaded habitats where L. maackii had been removed, although the magnitude of the effect of fungi was lower, suggesting that changes in soil chemistry or microhabitat caused by L. maackii were responsible for affecting fungal seed pathogens. Our work suggests that apparent competition via soil pathogens is not an important factor contributing to impacts of L. maackii on native shrubs. Rather, we found that fungal seed pathogens have density-dependent effects on L. maackii seed survival. Therefore, while fungal pathogens may provide little biotic resistance to early invasion by L. maackii, our study illustrates that more work is needed to understand how changes in fungal pathogens during the course of an invasion contribute to the potential for restoration of invaded systems. More generally, our study suggests that increased rates of fungal pathogen attack may be realized by invasive plants, such as L. maackii, that change the chemical or physical environment of the habitats they invade.

  6. Mapping invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody formations in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.

    2015-10-01

    Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and mapping of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for mapping Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody formations, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native formations. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically

  7. Reintroduction of the invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus in Belgium in July 2013

    PubMed Central

    Boukraa, Slimane; Raharimalala, Fara N.; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Schaffner, Francis; Bawin, Thomas; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Since its first report in 2000, the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus was not found any more during the different entomological inspections performed at its place of introduction in Belgium between 2001 and 2012. In July 2013, one adult male was captured at the same site (a platform of imported used tires located in Vrasene, Oost-Vlaanderen Province), during a monitoring using CO2-baited trap. This finding suggests the reintroduction of the species in Belgium via the used tire trade. PMID:24325893

  8. 'Caribbean Creep' chills out: climate change and marine invasive species.

    PubMed

    Canning-Clode, João; Fowler, Amy E; Byers, James E; Carlton, James T; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2011-01-01

    New marine invasions have been recorded in increasing numbers along the world's coasts due in part to the warming of the oceans and the ability of many invasive marine species to tolerate a broader thermal range than native species. Several marine invertebrate species have invaded the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast from the Caribbean and this poleward range expansion has been termed 'Caribbean Creep'. While models have predicted the continued decline of global biodiversity over the next 100 years due to global climate change, few studies have examined the episodic impacts of prolonged cold events that could impact species range expansions. A pronounced cold spell occurred in January 2010 in the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast and resulted in the mortality of several terrestrial and marine species. To experimentally test whether cold-water temperatures may have caused the disappearance of one species of the 'Caribbean Creep' we exposed the non-native crab Petrolisthes armatus to different thermal treatments that mimicked abnormal and severe winter temperatures. Our findings indicate that Petrolisthes armatus cannot tolerate prolonged and extreme cold temperatures (4-6 °C) and suggest that aperiodic cold winters may be a critical 'reset' mechanism that will limit the range expansion of other 'Caribbean Creep' species. We suggest that temperature 'aberrations' such as 'cold snaps' are an important and overlooked part of climate change. These climate fluctuations should be accounted for in future studies and models, particularly with reference to introduced subtropical and tropical species and predictions of both rates of invasion and rates of unidirectional geographic expansion. © 2011 Canning-Clode et al.

  9. Do invasive species show higher phenotypic plasticity than native species and, if so, is it adaptive? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Amy Michelle; Jennions, Michael; Nicotra, Adrienne B

    2011-04-01

    Do invasive plant species have greater phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species? And, if so, how does this affect their fitness relative to native, non-invasive species? What role might this play in plant invasions? To answer these long-standing questions, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 75 invasive/non-invasive species pairs. Our analysis shows that invasive species demonstrate significantly higher phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species. To examine the adaptive benefit of this plasticity, we plotted fitness proxies against measures of plasticity in several growth, morphological and physiological traits to test whether greater plasticity is associated with an improvement in estimated fitness. Invasive species were nearly always more plastic in their response to greater resource availability than non-invasives but this plasticity was only sometimes associated with a fitness benefit. Intriguingly, non-invasive species maintained greater fitness homoeostasis when comparing growth between low and average resource availability. Our finding that invasive species are more plastic in a variety of traits but that non-invasive species respond just as well, if not better, when resources are limiting, has interesting implications for predicting responses to global change.

  10. Allelopathic Potential of Invasive Plantago virginica on Four Lawn Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huatian; Zhou, Yumei; Chen, Yang; Wang, Quanxi; Jiang, Lifen; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-01-01

    Plantago virginica L. has invaded many lawn ecosystems in the Eastern part of China. The invasion has incurred an economic cost to remove them. In order to prevent the invasion, it is critical to understand the invasive mechanisms of this species. However, few studies have been conducted on the allelopathic mechanisms of its invasion. In this study, we examined allelopathic effects of P. virginica on germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of four widely used lawn species. We found extensive allelopathic potential of P. virginica on other lawn species, which varied with species and developmental stage. While most effects of the extracts of P. virginica were inhibitory, some variables in some species were promoted by the addition of the extracts. The extracts of P. virginica significantly inhibited seed germination of Agrostis matsumurae. While the overall differences in seed germination rate of Poa annua were significant among treatments, difference between control and any of the treatments was not significant. The height of seedlings of A. matsumurae and Cynodon dactylon was significantly lower under the treatments of adding extracts of P. virginica. In contrast, growth of seedlings of Festuca elata and P. annua did not show significant differences among treatments. The root length of A. matsumurae, C. dactylon and P. annua was suppressed by the extracts of P. virginica whereas root length of F. elata was not affected. Aboveground biomass of A. matsumurae and F. elata was significantly higher than control, except for F. elata at the concentration of 50mg/mL, whereas aboveground biomass of C. dactylon and P. annua was reduced at higher concentrations of the extracts. Except for A. matsumurae, root biomass of the other three lawn species declined under the treatments with the extracts of P. virginica. Our results revealed that P. virginica had allelopathic potential on four lawn species and supported the theory of “novel weapons hypothesis”. Invasion by P

  11. Mediterranean, invasive, woody species grow larger than their less-invasive counterparts under potential global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Erskine-Ogden, Jennifer; Grotkopp, Eva; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    Revealing biological differences between invasive and noninvasive species is essential for predicting species' distribution changes with global environmental change. While most research has focused on differences between invasive and noninvasive species under favorable conditions using herbaceous species, invasive woody angiosperms are also of great ecological concern. Our study focused on how growth and allocation may change for invasive and noninvasive, mediterranean, woody angiosperms under future conditions caused by global change, specifically increased nitrogen deposition and drought. We tested how seedling functional traits differed between invasive and noninvasive woody angiosperms under different experimental conditions in a greenhouse setting. We compared growth rates and allocation patterns using two levels of soil nitrogen and three levels of watering. We also examined trait log response ratios to increases in nitrogen and increases in water. Our study sampled angiosperm trees and shrubs, incorporating congeneric/confamilial relationships through 13 phylogenetically controlled contrasts. Three functional traits were highly and positively associated with plant invasiveness for most conditions studied: seedling plant mass, leaf area, and height. Invasive species also had significantly higher root mass ratios at low water regardless of nitrogen input. Invasive and noninvasive species had similar log response ratios to increases in nitrogen and watering for studied traits. Mediterranean, woody, invasive species' larger mass, leaf area, and early height advantage under elevated nitrogen input and increased root production in drought conditions may lead to increased invasion of these species with expected global climate change. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Species pools, community completeness and invasion: disentangling diversity effects on the establishment of native and alien species.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jonathan A; Riibak, Kersti; Kook, Ene; Reier, Ülle; Tamme, Riin; Guillermo Bueno, C; Pärtel, Meelis

    2016-12-01

    Invasion should decline with species richness, yet the relationship is inconsistent. Species richness, however, is a product of species pool size and biotic filtering. Invasion may increase with richness if large species pools represent weaker environmental filters. Measuring species pool size and the proportion realised locally (completeness) may clarify diversity-invasion relationships by separating environmental and biotic effects, especially if species' life-history stage and origin are accounted for. To test these relationships, we added seeds and transplants of 15 native and alien species into 29 grasslands. Species pool size and completeness explained more variation in invasion than richness alone. Although results varied between native and alien species, seed establishment and biotic resistance to transplants increased with species pool size, whereas transplant growth and biotic resistance to seeds increased with completeness. Consequently, species pools and completeness represent multiple independent processes affecting invasion; accounting for these processes improves our understanding of invasion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. "Invented Invaders": An Engaging Activity to Teach Characteristics Control of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species, defined as exotic species that reach pest status, are major threats to global biodiversity. Although invasive species can belong to any taxonomic group, general characteristics such as rapid growth and reproduction are shared by many invasive species. "Invented Invaders" is a collaborative activity in which students…

  14. "Invented Invaders": An Engaging Activity to Teach Characteristics Control of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species, defined as exotic species that reach pest status, are major threats to global biodiversity. Although invasive species can belong to any taxonomic group, general characteristics such as rapid growth and reproduction are shared by many invasive species. "Invented Invaders" is a collaborative activity in which students…

  15. Considering native and exotic terrestrial reptiles in island invasive species eradication programmes in the Tropical Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Richard N.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Most island restoration projects with reptiles, either as direct beneficiaries of conservation or as indicators of recovery responses, have been on temperate or xeric islands. There have been decades of research, particularly on temperate islands in New Zealand, on the responses of native reptiles to mammal eradications but very few studies in tropical insular systems. Recent increases in restoration projects involving feral mammal eradications in the tropical Pacific have led to several specific challenges related to native and invasive reptiles. This paper reviews these challenges and discusses some potential solutions to them. The first challenge is that the tropical Pacific herpetofauna is still being discovered, described and understood. There is thus incomplete knowledge of how eradication activities may affect these faunas and the potential risks facing critical populations of these species from these eradication actions. The long term benefit of the removal of invasives is beneficial, but the possible short term impacts to small populations on small islands might be significant. The second challenge is that protocols for monitoring the responses of these species are not well documented but are often different from those used in temperate or xeric habitats. Lizard monitoring techniques used in the tropical Pacific are discussed. The third challenge involves invasive reptiles already in the tropical Pacific, some of which could easily spread accidentally through eradication and monitoring operations. The species posing the greatest threats in this respect are reviewed, and recommendations for biosecurity concerning these taxa are made.

  16. Hybridization can facilitate species invasions, even without enhancing local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen B.; Lewis, Mark A.; Ades, Peter K.; Donohue, Kathleen; Ohadi, Sara; Li, Chengjun

    2016-01-01

    The founding population in most new species introductions, or at the leading edge of an ongoing invasion, is likely to be small. Severe Allee effects—reductions in individual fitness at low population density—may then result in a failure of the species to colonize, even if the habitat could support a much larger population. Using a simulation model for plant populations that incorporates demography, mating systems, quantitative genetics, and pollinators, we show that Allee effects can potentially be overcome by transient hybridization with a resident species or an earlier colonizer. This mechanism does not require the invocation of adaptive changes usually attributed to invasions following hybridization. We verify our result in a case study of sequential invasions by two plant species where the outcrosser Cakile maritima has replaced an earlier, inbreeding, colonizer Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae). Observed historical rates of replacement are consistent with model predictions from hybrid-alleviated Allee effects in outcrossers, although other causes cannot be ruled out. PMID:27601582

  17. Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus - two invasive mosquito species with different temperature niches in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cunze, Sarah; Koch, Lisa K; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-11-04

    Aedes albopictus and Ae. japonicus are two of the most widespread invasive mosquito species that have recently become established in western Europe. Both species are associated with the transmission of a number of serious diseases and are projected to continue their spread in Europe. In the present study, we modelled the habitat suitability for both species under current and future climatic conditions by means of an Ensemble forecasting approach. We additionally compared the modelled MAXENT niches of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus regarding temperature and precipitation requirements. Both species were modelled to find suitable habitat conditions in distinct areas within Europe: Ae. albopictus within the Mediterranean regions in southern Europe, Ae. japonicus within the more temperate regions of central Europe. Only in few regions, suitable habitat conditions were projected to overlap for both species. Whereas Ae. albopictus is projected to be generally promoted by climate change in Europe, the area modelled to be climatically suitable for Ae. japonicus is projected to decrease under climate change. This projection of range reduction under climate change relies on the assumption that Ae. japonicus is not able to adapt to warmer climatic conditions. The modelled MAXENT temperature niches of Ae. japonicus were found to be narrower with an optimum at lower temperatures compared to the niches of Ae. albopictus. Species distribution models identifying areas with high habitat suitability can help improving monitoring programmes for invasive species currently in place. However, as mosquito species are known to be able to adapt to new environmental conditions within the invasion range quickly, niche evolution of invasive mosquito species should be closely followed upon in future studies.

  18. Evaluating the "recovery level" of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion.

    PubMed

    Watari, Yuya; Nishijima, Shota; Fukasawa, Marina; Yamada, Fumio; Abe, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    For maintaining social and financial support for eradication programs of invasive species, quantitative assessment of recovery of native species or ecosystems is important because it provides a measurable parameter of success. However, setting a concrete goal for recovery is often difficult owing to lack of information prior to the introduction of invaders. Here, we present a novel approach to evaluate the achievement level of invasive predator management based on the carrying capacity of endangered species estimated using long-term monitoring data. In Amami-Oshima Island, Japan, where the eradication project of introduced small Indian mongoose is ongoing since 2000, we surveyed the population densities of four endangered species threatened by the mongoose (Amami rabbit, the Otton frog, Amami tip-nosed frog, and Amami Ishikawa's frog) at four time points ranging from 2003 to 2011. We estimated the carrying capacities of these species using the logistic growth model combined with the effects of mongoose predation and environmental heterogeneity. All species showed clear tendencies toward increasing their density in line with decreased mongoose density, and they exhibited density-dependent population growth. The estimated carrying capacities of three endangered species had small confidence intervals enough to measure recovery levels by the mongoose management. The population density of each endangered species has recovered to the level of the carrying capacity at about 20-40% of all sites, whereas no individuals were observed at more than 25% of all sites. We propose that the present approach involving appropriate monitoring data of native organism populations will be widely applicable to various eradication projects and provide unambiguous goals for management of invasive species.

  19. Evaluating the “recovery level” of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Yuya; Nishijima, Shota; Fukasawa, Marina; Yamada, Fumio; Abe, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    For maintaining social and financial support for eradication programs of invasive species, quantitative assessment of recovery of native species or ecosystems is important because it provides a measurable parameter of success. However, setting a concrete goal for recovery is often difficult owing to lack of information prior to the introduction of invaders. Here, we present a novel approach to evaluate the achievement level of invasive predator management based on the carrying capacity of endangered species estimated using long-term monitoring data. In Amami-Oshima Island, Japan, where the eradication project of introduced small Indian mongoose is ongoing since 2000, we surveyed the population densities of four endangered species threatened by the mongoose (Amami rabbit, the Otton frog, Amami tip-nosed frog, and Amami Ishikawa's frog) at four time points ranging from 2003 to 2011. We estimated the carrying capacities of these species using the logistic growth model combined with the effects of mongoose predation and environmental heterogeneity. All species showed clear tendencies toward increasing their density in line with decreased mongoose density, and they exhibited density-dependent population growth. The estimated carrying capacities of three endangered species had small confidence intervals enough to measure recovery levels by the mongoose management. The population density of each endangered species has recovered to the level of the carrying capacity at about 20–40% of all sites, whereas no individuals were observed at more than 25% of all sites. We propose that the present approach involving appropriate monitoring data of native organism populations will be widely applicable to various eradication projects and provide unambiguous goals for management of invasive species. PMID:24363899

  20. Non-Invasive Ultrasonic Diagnosing and Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure/Volume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) absolute value measurement and non-invasive cerebrovascular autoregulation continuous monitoring, to prove the...intracranial and ABP wave correlation methodology was used for cerebrovascular autoregulation monitoring. Prototype of non-invasive slow wave monitor has... cerebrovascular autoregulation, traumatic brain injury 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20

  1. Ecology of cryptic invasions: latitudinal segregation among Watersipora (Bryozoa) species.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Joshua A; Darling, John A; Geller, Jonathan B

    2012-01-01

    Watersipora is an invasive genus of bryozoans, easily dispersed by fouled vessels. We examined Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes from introduced populations on the US Pacific coastline to investigate geographic segregation of species and/or haplotypes. In California, the W. subtorquata group fell into three major sub-groups: W. subtorquata clades A and B, and W. "new sp.". W. subtorquata clades A and B were common in southern California south of Point Conception, a recognized biogeographic boundary, whereas further north, W. subtorquata clade A and W. n. sp. were frequent. The southern California region also had colonies of a morphologically distinct species, W. arcuata, also found in southern Australia and Hawaii; COI variation indicates a common ancestral source(s) in these introductions. The distribution of Watersipora-complex lineages on different coastlines is shown to be temperature correlated. Accordingly, pre-exisitng temperature-based adaptations may play a key role in determining invasion patterns.

  2. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management activities came from publicly available information, was analyzed with respect to climate-change effects, and was reviewed by managers. This report also analyzes state and regional AIS management plans to determine their capacity to incorporate information on changing conditions generally, and climate change specifically. The report is intended for managers and scientists working with AIS to provide them with information on the potential effects of climate change on AIS, strategies for adapting their management to accomodate these environmental changes, and highlight further research needs and gaps.

  3. 76 FR 38598 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... modifications to vessel monitoring system (VMS) requirements in Atlantic Highly Migratory Species...

  4. Origin matters: diversity affects the performance of alien invasive species but not of native species.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Maron, John L; Schaffner, Urs

    2015-06-01

    At local scales, it has often been found that invasibility decreases with increasing resident plant diversity. However, whether resident community diversity similarly resists invasion by alien versus native species is seldom studied. We examined this issue by invading constructed native plant assemblages that varied in species and functional richness with invasive alien or native Asteraceae species. Assemblages were also invaded with spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe, a native European aster that has been previously used in diversity-invasibility experiments in North America. We also conducted a field survey to explore the generality of the patterns generated from our experimental study. Both experimental and observational work revealed that increasing diversity reduced the performance of alien but not native invaders. Centaurea stoebe invading its native community performed poorly regardless of resident diversity, whereas in a parallel, previously published study conducted in North America, C. stoebe easily invaded low-diversity but not high-diversity assemblages. Our results suggest that diversity is an attribute of resident communities that makes them more or less susceptible to invasion by novel invasive alien but not native plant species.

  5. Mechanisms of aquatic species invasions across the SALCC - an update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Our project represents the first attempt to utilize the NAS Database within the context of a Landscape Conservation Cooperative conservation blueprint. A significant amount of effort during the past year was dedicated to determining the most appropriate use of these data for the purposes of identifying the mechanisms and patterns of aquatic species invasions. Descriptive analyses were first undertaken to characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of the SALCC subset of NAS data.

  6. Environment shapes the fecal microbiome of invasive carp species.

    PubMed

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Hamilton, Matthew J; Staley, Christopher; Sadowsky, Michael J; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-08-12

    Although the common, silver, and bighead carps are native and sparsely distributed in Eurasia, these fish have become abundant and invasive in North America. An understanding of the biology of these species may provide insights into sustainable control methods. The animal-associated microbiome plays an important role in host health. Characterization of the carp microbiome and the factors that affect its composition is an important step toward understanding the biology and interrelationships between these species and their environments. We compared the fecal microbiomes of common, silver, and bighead carps from wild and laboratory environments using Illumina sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). The fecal bacterial communities of fish were diverse, with Shannon indices ranging from 2.3 to 4.5. The phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Fusobacteria dominated carp guts, comprising 76.7 % of total reads. Environment played a large role in shaping fecal microbial community composition, and microbiomes among captive fishes were more similar than among wild fishes. Although differences among wild fishes could be attributed to feeding preferences, diet did not strongly affect microbial community structure in laboratory-housed fishes. Comparison of wild- and lab-invasive carps revealed five shared OTUs that comprised approximately 40 % of the core fecal microbiome. The environment is a dominant factor shaping the fecal bacterial communities of invasive carps. Captivity alters the microbiome community structure relative to wild fish, while species differences are pronounced within habitats. Despite the absence of a true stomach, invasive carp species exhibited a core microbiota that warrants future study.

  7. Floristic characteristics of alien invasive seed plant species in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congyan; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhou, Jiawei; DU, Daolin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the floristic characteristics of alien invasive seed plant species (AISPS) in China. There are a total of five hundred and thirteen AISPS, belonging to seventy families and two hundred and eighty-three genera. Seventy families were classified into nine areal types at the family level, and "Cosmopolitan" and "Pantropic" are the two main types. Two hundred and eighty-three genera were classified into twelve areal types at the genus level, and "Pantropic", "Trop. Asia & Amer. disjuncted", and "Cosmopolitan" are the three main types. These results reveal a certain degree of diversity among AISPS in China. The floristic characteristics at the family level exhibit strong pantropic characteristics. Two possible reasons for this are as follows. Firstly, southeastern China is heavily invaded by alien invasive plant species and this region has a mild climate. Secondly, southeastern China is more disturbed by human activities than other regions in China. The floristic characteristics at the genus level display strong pantropic but with abundant temperate characteristics. This may be due to that China across five climatic zones and the ecosystems in which the most alien invasive plant species occur have the same or similar climate with their natural habitat.

  8. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  9. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  10. Current practices and future opportunities for policy on climate change and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Pyke, Christopher R; Thomas, Roxanne; Porter, Read D; Hellmann, Jessica J; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lodge, David M; Chavarria, Gabriela

    2008-06-01

    Climate change and invasive species are often treated as important, but independent, issues. Nevertheless, they have strong connections: changes in climate and societal responses to climate change may exacerbate the impacts of invasive species, whereas invasive species may affect the magnitude, rate, and impact of climate change. We argue that the design and implementation of climate-change policy in the United States should specifically consider the implications for invasive species; conversely, invasive-species policy should address consequences for climate change. The development of such policies should be based on (1) characterization of interactions between invasive species and climate change, (2) identification of areas where climate-change policies could negatively affect invasive-species management, and (3) identification of areas where policies could benefit from synergies between climate change and invasive-species management.

  11. Proceedings, 23rd U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2012

    Treesearch

    Katherine A McManus; Kurt W., eds. Gottschalk

    2013-01-01

    Contains abstracts and papers of 75 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.

  12. Proceedings 19th U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species 2008

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. McManus; Kurt W., eds. Gottschalk

    2009-01-01

    Contains abstracts and papers of 67 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.

  13. Proceedings, 21st U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2010

    Treesearch

    Katherine A McManus; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2010-01-01

    Contains abstracts and papers of 95 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.

  14. Proceedings, 22nd U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on invasive species 2011

    Treesearch

    Katherine A McManus; Kurt W., eds. Gottschalk

    2011-01-01

    Contains abstracts and papers of 62 oral and poster presentations on invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species.

  15. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  16. Do low oxygen environments facilitate marine invasions? Relative tolerance of native and invasive species to low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcelo E; Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-02-17

    Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear. We measured water flow and oxygen availability in marinas and piers at the scales relevant to sessile marine invertebrates (mm). We then measured the capacity of invasive and native marine invertebrates to maintain metabolic rates under decreasing levels of oxygen using standard laboratory assays. We found that marinas reduce water flow relative to piers, and that local oxygen levels can be zero in low flow conditions. We also found that for species with erect growth forms, invasive species can tolerate much lower levels of oxygen relative to native species. Integrating the field and laboratory data showed that up to 30% of available microhabitats within low flow environments are physiologically stressful for native species, while only 18% of the same habitat is physiologically stressful for invasive species. These results suggest that invasive species have adapted to low oxygen habitats associated with manmade habitats, and artificial structures may be creating niche opportunities for invasive species.

  17. Bartonella species in invasive rats and indigenous rodents from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Sarah A; Borchert, Jeff N; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Gage, Kenneth L; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-03-01

    The presence of bartonellae in invasive rats (Rattus rattus) and indigenous rodents (Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus) from two districts in Uganda, Arua and Zombo, was examined by PCR detection and culture. Blood from a total of 228 R. rattus, 31 A. niloticus, and 5 C. gambianus was screened using genus-specific primers targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Furthermore, rodent blood was plated on brain heart infusion blood agar, and isolates were verified as Bartonella species using citrate synthase gene- (gltA) specific primers. One hundred and four fleas recovered from R. rattus were also tested for the presence of Bartonella species using the same gltA primer set. An overall prevalence of 1.3% (three of 228) was obtained in R. rattus, whereas 61.3% of 31 A. niloticus and 60% of five C. gambianus were positive for the presence of Bartonella species. Genotypes related to Bartonella elizabethae, a known zoonotic pathogen, were detected in three R. rattus and one C. gambianus. Bartonella strains, similar to bacteria detected in indigenous rodents from other African countries, were isolated from the blood of A. niloticus. Bartonellae, similar to bacteria initially cultured from Ornithodorus sonrai (soft tick) from Senegal, were found in two C. gambianus. Interestingly, bartonellae detected in fleas from invasive rats were similar to bacteria identified in indigenous rodents and not their rat hosts, with an overall prevalence of 6.7%. These results suggest that if fleas are competent vectors of these bartonellae, humans residing in these two districts of Uganda are potentially at greater risk for exposure to Bartonella species from native rodents than from invasive rats. The low prevalence of bartonellae in R. rattus was quite surprising, in contrast, to the detection of these organisms in a large percentage of Rattus species from other geographical areas. A possible reason for this disparity is discussed.

  18. Invasive Species Undeterred by Increasing Urbanization and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J.; Conway, T. M.; Fortin, M.

    2011-12-01

    The future of many species appears bleak with the realization that continued urbanization and climate change will have significant effects on the earth's ecosystems by changing water cycles, habitat availability and inter-species dynamics, among other effects. Invasive species are likely to thrive in these changing disturbed ecosystems due to their ability to capitalize on marginal habitats, and therefore pose a severe threat. Our study utilizes the invasive mute swan as a model species to examine invasive species' relationship with urban landcover and predict how its distribution will change with increasing urbanization and climate change in its non-native range. We first use generalized linear models and classification trees to determine current landscape correlates of mute swans in Ontario, Canada. We determine that, after percentage water cover, the presence of urban areas is the second most important factor in determining the presence of mute swans. This is especially significant considering that mute swans are an aquatic species utilizing the limited wetlands and waterbodies found in urban areas. We then use the machine learning tool MaxEnt to model mute swan distribution in the future by taking into account different scenarios of urbanization and climate change. As the percentage of land cover occupied by urban areas increases, the probability of mute swan occupancy of these areas also increases. The effects of climate change are varying. Climate change will increase temperatures in Ontario, thereby increasing the possible locations for establishment by the mute swan, but it will also result in lower lake levels, which will somewhat reduce the percentage water cover. However, due to the large amount of shoreline available for mute swan establishment, especially on the Great Lakes, these effects on waterbodies will likely not inhibit mute swan establishment and range expansion in the next century. While climate change is important, it is not the only

  19. Mapping Invasive Plant Species with a Combination of Field and Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronek, S.; Feilhauer, H.; Van De Kerchove, R.; Ewald, M.; Aerts, R.; Somers, B.; Warrie, J.; Kempeneers, P.; Lenoir, J.; Honnay, O.; Asner, G. P.; Schmidtlein, S.; Hattab, T.; Rocchini, D.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced hyperspectral and LIDAR data offer a great potential to map and monitor invasive plant species and their impact on ecosystems. These species are often difficult to detect over large areas with traditional mapping approaches. One challenge is the combination of the remote sensing data with the field data for calibration and validation. Therefore, our goals were to (1) develop an approach that allows to efficiently map species invasions based on presence-only data of the target species and remote sensing data; and (2) use this approach to create distribution maps for invasive plant species in two study areas in western Europe, which offer the basis for further analysis of the impact of invasions and to infer possible management options. For this purpose, on the island of Sylt in Northern Germany, we collected vegetation data on 120 plots with a size of 3 m x 3 m with different cover fractions of two invasive plant species; the moss Campylopus introflexus and the shrub Rosa rugosa. In the forest of Compiègne in Northern France, we sampled a total of 50 plots with a size of 25 x 25 m, targeting the invasive tree Prunus serotina. In both study areas, independent validation datasets containing presence and absence points of the target species were collected. Airborne hyperspectral data (APEX), which were simultaneously acquired for both study areas in summer 2014, provided 285 spectral bands covering the visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared region with a pixel size of 1.8 and 3 m. First results showed that mapping using one-class classifiers is possible: For C. introflexus, AUC value was 0.89 and OAC 0.72, for R. rugosa., AUC was 0.93 and OAC 0.92. However, for both species, a few areas were mapped incorrectly. Possible explanations are the different appearances of the target species in different biotope types underrepresented in the calibration data, and a high cover of species with similar reflectance properties.

  20. Camera Trapping: A Contemporary Approach to Monitoring Invasive Rodents in High Conservation Priority Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rendall, Anthony R.; Sutherland, Duncan R.; Cooke, Raylene; White, John

    2014-01-01

    Invasive rodent species have established on 80% of the world's islands causing significant damage to island environments. Insular ecosystems support proportionally more biodiversity than comparative mainland areas, highlighting them as critical for global biodiversity conservation. Few techniques currently exist to adequately detect, with high confidence, species that are trap-adverse such as the black rat, Rattus rattus, in high conservation priority areas where multiple non-target species persist. This study investigates the effectiveness of camera trapping for monitoring invasive rodents in high conservation areas, and the influence of habitat features and density of colonial-nesting seabirds on rodent relative activity levels to provide insights into their potential impacts. A total of 276 camera sites were established and left in situ for 8 days. Identified species were recorded in discrete 15 min intervals, referred to as ‘events’. In total, 19 804 events were recorded. From these, 31 species were identified comprising 25 native species and six introduced. Two introduced rodent species were detected: the black rat (90% of sites), and house mouse Mus musculus (56% of sites). Rodent activity of both black rats and house mice were positively associated with the structural density of habitats. Density of seabird burrows was not strongly associated with relative activity levels of rodents, yet rodents were still present in these areas. Camera trapping enabled a large number of rodents to be detected with confidence in site-specific absences and high resolution to quantify relative activity levels. This method enables detection of multiple species simultaneously with low impact (for both target and non-target individuals); an ideal strategy for monitoring trap-adverse invasive rodents in high conservation areas. PMID:24599307

  1. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-07-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world's most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers--precipitation and temperature--and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  2. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers—precipitation and temperature—and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  3. Restoration versus invasive species: Bigheaded carps’ use of a rehabilitated backwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A; Schultz, Douglas; Tristano, Elizabeth; Brey, Marybeth; Garvey, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of how invasive species use invaded habitats can aid in developing management practices to exclude them. Swan Lake, a 1100-ha Illinois River (USA) backwater, was rehabilitated to restore ecosystem functions, but may provide valuable habitat for invasive bigheaded carps [bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix)]. Use (residency and passages) of Swan Lake by invasive bigheaded carps was monitored using acoustic telemetry (n = 50 individuals/species) to evaluate the use of a large, restored habitat from 2004 to 2005. Passages (entrances/exits) by bigheaded carps were highest in winter, and residency was highest in the summer. Bighead carp backwater use was associated with the differences in temperature between the main channel and backwater, and passages primarily occurred between 18:00 h and midnight. Silver carp backwater use was positively correlated with water level and main channel discharge, and fewer passages occurred between 12:00 h and 18:00 h than during any other time of day. Harvest occurring during summer or high main channel discharge could reduce backwater abundances while maintenance of low water levels could reduce overall backwater use. Conclusions from this study regarding the timing of bigheaded carps' use of backwater habitats are critical to integrated pest management plans to control invasive species.

  4. Rapid spread of invasive genes into a threatened native species

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M.; Johnson, Jarrett R.; Kump, D. Kevin; Smith, Jeramiah J.; Voss, S. Randal; Shaffer, H. Bradley

    2010-01-01

    When introduced or cultivated plants or animals hybridize with their native relatives, the spread of invasive genes into native populations might have biological, aesthetic, and legal implications. Models suggest that the rate of displacement of native by invasive alleles can be rapid and inevitable if they are favored by natural selection. We document the spread of a few introduced genes 90 km into a threatened native species (the California Tiger Salamander) in 60 years. Meanwhile, a majority of genetic markers (65 of 68) show little evidence of spread beyond the region where introductions occurred. Using computer simulations, we found that such a pattern is unlikely to emerge by chance among selectively neutral markers. Therefore, our results imply that natural selection has favored both the movement and fixation of these exceptional invasive alleles. The legal status of introgressed populations (native populations that are slightly genetically modified) is unresolved by the US Endangered Species Act. Our results illustrate that genetic and ecological factors need to be carefully weighed when considering different criteria for protection, because different rules could result in dramatically different geographic areas and numbers of individuals being protected. PMID:20133596

  5. Rapid spread of invasive genes into a threatened native species.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Johnson, Jarrett R; Kump, D Kevin; Smith, Jeramiah J; Voss, S Randal; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2010-02-23

    When introduced or cultivated plants or animals hybridize with their native relatives, the spread of invasive genes into native populations might have biological, aesthetic, and legal implications. Models suggest that the rate of displacement of native by invasive alleles can be rapid and inevitable if they are favored by natural selection. We document the spread of a few introduced genes 90 km into a threatened native species (the California Tiger Salamander) in 60 years. Meanwhile, a majority of genetic markers (65 of 68) show little evidence of spread beyond the region where introductions occurred. Using computer simulations, we found that such a pattern is unlikely to emerge by chance among selectively neutral markers. Therefore, our results imply that natural selection has favored both the movement and fixation of these exceptional invasive alleles. The legal status of introgressed populations (native populations that are slightly genetically modified) is unresolved by the US Endangered Species Act. Our results illustrate that genetic and ecological factors need to be carefully weighed when considering different criteria for protection, because different rules could result in dramatically different geographic areas and numbers of individuals being protected.

  6. Modeling invasive species spread in Lake Champlain via evolutionary computations.

    PubMed

    Osei, B M; Ellingwood, C D; Hoffmann, J P; Bentil, D E

    2011-06-01

    We use a reaction diffusion equation, together with a genetic algorithm approach for model selection to develop a general modeling framework for biological invasions. The diffusion component of the reaction diffusion model is generalized to include dispersal and advection. The reaction component is generalized to include both linear and non-linear density dependence, and Allee effect. A combination of the reaction diffusion and genetic algorithm is able to evolve the most parsimonious model for invasive species spread. Zebra mussel data obtained from Lake Champlain, which demarcates the states of New York and Vermont, is used to test the appropriateness of the model. We estimate the minimum wave spread rate of Zebra mussels to be 22.5 km/year. In particular, the evolved models predict an average northward advection rate of 60.6 km/year (SD ± 1.9), which compares very well with the rate calculated from the known hydrologic residence time of 60 km/year. A combination of a reaction diffusion model and a genetic algorithm is, therefore, able to adequately describe some of the hydrodynamic features of Lake Champlain and the spread of a typical invasive species--Zebra mussels within the lake.

  7. Complex genetic patterns in closely related colonizing invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Aibin; Darling, John A; Bock, Dan G; Lacoursière-Roussel, Anaïs; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities frequently result in both rapidly changing environments and translocation of species from their native ranges (i.e., biological invasions). Empirical studies suggest that many factors associated with these changes can lead to complex genetic patterns, particularly among invasive populations. However, genetic complexities and factors responsible for them remain uncharacterized in many cases. Here, we explore these issues in the vase tunicate Ciona intestinalis (Ascidiacea: Enterogona: Cionidae), a model species complex, of which spA and spB are rapidly spreading worldwide. We intensively sampled 26 sites (N = 873) from both coasts of North America, and performed phylogenetic and population genetics analyses based on one mitochondrial fragment (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3–NADH dehydrogenase subunit I, COX3-ND1) and eight nuclear microsatellites. Our analyses revealed extremely complex genetic patterns in both species on both coasts. We detected a contrasting pattern based on the mitochondrial marker: two major genetic groups in C. intestinalis spA on the west coast versus no significant geographic structure in C. intestinalis spB on the east coast. For both species, geo-graphically distant populations often showed high microsatellite-based genetic affinities whereas neighboring ones often did not. In addition, mitochondrial and nuclear markers provided largely inconsistent genetic patterns. Multiple factors, including random genetic drift associated with demographic changes, rapid selection due to strong local adaptation, and varying propensity for human-mediated propagule dispersal could be responsible for the observed genetic complexities. PMID:22957143

  8. Mycorrhizal status helps explain invasion success of alien plant species.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas; Hempel, Stefan; Klotz, Stefan; Moora, Mari; Pyšek, Petr; Rillig, Matthias C; Zobel, Martin; Kühn, Ingolf

    2017-01-01

    It is still debated whether alien plants benefit from being mycorrhizal, or if engaging in the symbiosis constrains their establishment and spread in new regions. We analyzed the association between mycorrhizal status of alien plant species in Germany and their invasion success. We compared whether the representation of species with different mycorrhizal status (obligate, facultative, or non-mycorrhizal) differed at several stages of the invasion process. We used generalized linear models to explain the occupied geographical range of alien plants, incorporating interactions of mycorrhizal status with plant traits related to morphology, reproduction, and life-history. Non-naturalized aliens did not differ from naturalized aliens in the relative frequency of different mycorrhizal status categories. Mycorrhizal status significantly explained the occupied range of alien plants; with facultative mycorrhizal species inhabiting a larger range than non-mycorrhizal aliens and obligate mycorrhizal plant species taking an intermediate position. Aliens with storage organs, shoot metamorphoses, or specialized structures promoting vegetative dispersal occupied a larger range when being facultative mycorrhizal. We conclude that being mycorrhizal is important for the persistence of aliens in Germany and constitutes an advantage compared to being non-mycorrhizal. Being facultative mycorrhizal seems to be especially advantageous for successful spread, as the flexibility of this mycorrhizal status may enable plants to use a broader set of ecological strategies. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Applying remote sensing to invasive species science—A tamarisk example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. This fact sheet considers the invasive plant species tamarisk (Tamarix spp), addressing three fundamental questions: *Where is it now? *What are the potential or realized ecological impacts of invasion? *Where can it survive and thrive if introduced? It provides peer-review examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey, working with other federal agencies and university partners, are applying remote-sensing technologies to address these key questions.

  10. Multiple species inventory and monitoring technical guide

    Treesearch

    P.N. Manley; B. Van Horne; J.K. Roth; W.J. Zielinski; M.M. McKenzie; T.J. Weller; F.W. Weckerly; C. Vojta

    2006-01-01

    The National Forest Management Act (1976) recognizes the importance of maintaining species and community diversity on National Forest System (NFS) lands as a critical component of our ecological and cultural heritage. Monitoring is required of land management to assess the success of management activities in meeting legal, regulatory, and policy objectives, including...

  11. Invasive plant species in the West Indies: geographical, ecological, and floristic insights.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Tremblay, Raymond L; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Díaz-Soltero, Hilda

    2017-07-01

    The level of invasion (number or proportion of invasive species) in a given area depends on features of the invaded community, propagule pressure, and climate. In this study, we assess the invasive flora of nine islands in the West Indies to identify invasion patterns and evaluate whether invasive species diversity is related to geographical, ecological, and socioeconomic factors. We compiled a database of invasive plant species including information on their taxonomy, origin, pathways of introduction, habitats, and life history. This database was used to evaluate the similarity of invasive floras between islands and to identify invasion patterns at regional (West Indies) and local (island) scales. We found a total of 516 alien plant species that are invasive on at least one of the nine islands studied, with between 24 to 306 invasive species per island. The invasive flora on these islands includes a wide range of taxonomic groups, life forms, and habitats. We detected low similarity in invasive species diversity between islands, with most invasive species (>60%) occurring on a single island and 6% occurring on at least five islands. To assess the importance of different models in predicting patterns of invasive species diversity among islands, we used generalized linear models. Our analyses revealed that invasive species diversity was well predicted by a combination of island area and economic development (gross domestic product per capita and kilometers of paved roadways). Our results provide strong evidence for the roles of geographical, ecological, and socioeconomic factors in determining the distribution and spread of invasive species on these islands. Anthropogenic disturbance and economic development seem to be the major drivers facilitating the spread and predominance of invasive species over native species.

  12. A framework for spatial risk assessments: Potential impacts of nonindigenous invasive species on native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Johnson, A.R.; Parris, L.

    2006-01-01

    Many populations of wild animals and plants are declining and face increasing threats from habitat fragmentation and loss as well as exposure to stressors ranging from toxicants to diseases to invasive nonindigenous species. We describe and demonstrate a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment that allows for the incorporation of a broad array of information that may influence the distribution of an invasive species, toxicants, or other stressors, and the incorporation of landscape variables that may influence the spread of a species or substances. The first step in our analyses is to develop species models and quantify spatial overlap between stressor and target organisms. Risk is assessed as the product of spatial overlap and a hazard index based on target species vulnerabilities to the stressor of interest. We illustrate our methods with an example in which the stressor is the ecologically destructive nonindigenous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and the targets are two declining vertebrate species in the state of South Carolina, USA. A risk approach that focuses on landscapes and that is explicitly spatial is of particular relevance as remaining undeveloped lands become increasingly uncommon and isolated and more important in the management and recovery of species and ecological systems. Effective ecosystem management includes the control of multiple stressors, including invasive species with large impacts, understanding where those impacts may be the most severe, and implementing management strategies to reduce impacts. Copyright ?? 2006 by the author(s).

  13. Predicting plant invasions under climate change: are species distribution models validated by field trials?

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Christine S; Burns, Bruce R; Stanley, Margaret C

    2014-09-01

    Climate change may facilitate alien species invasion into new areas, particularly for species from warm native ranges introduced into areas currently marginal for temperature. Although conclusions from modelling approaches and experimental studies are generally similar, combining the two approaches has rarely occurred. The aim of this study was to validate species distribution models by conducting field trials in sites of differing suitability as predicted by the models, thus increasing confidence in their ability to assess invasion risk. Three recently naturalized alien plants in New Zealand were used as study species (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Psidium guajava and Schefflera actinophylla): they originate from warm native ranges, are woody bird-dispersed species and of concern as potential weeds. Seedlings were grown in six sites across the country, differing both in climate and suitability (as predicted by the species distribution models). Seedling growth and survival were recorded over two summers and one or two winter seasons, and temperature and precipitation were monitored hourly at each site. Additionally, alien seedling performances were compared to those of closely related native species (Rhopalostylis sapida, Lophomyrtus bullata and Schefflera digitata). Furthermore, half of the seedlings were sprayed with pesticide, to investigate whether enemy release may influence performance. The results showed large differences in growth and survival of the alien species among the six sites. In the more suitable sites, performance was frequently higher compared to the native species. Leaf damage from invertebrate herbivory was low for both alien and native seedlings, with little evidence that the alien species should have an advantage over the native species because of enemy release. Correlations between performance in the field and predicted suitability of species distribution models were generally high. The projected increase in minimum temperature and reduced

  14. Citizen science contributes to our knowledge of invasive plant species distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Panke, Brendon; Renz, Mark; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science is commonly cited as an effective approach to expand the scale of invasive species data collection and monitoring. However, researchers often hesitate to use these data due to concerns over data quality. In light of recent research on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we aimed to demonstrate the extent to which citizen science data can increase sampling coverage, fill gaps in species distributions, and improve habitat suitability models compared to professionally generated data sets used in isolation. We combined data sets from professionals and volunteers for five invasive plant species (Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii, Cirsium palustre, Pastinaca sativa, Polygonum cuspidatum) in portions of Wisconsin. Volunteers sampled counties not sampled by professionals for three of the five species. Volunteers also added presence locations within counties not included in professional data sets, especially in southern portions of the state where professional monitoring activities had been minimal. Volunteers made a significant contribution to the known distribution, environmental gradients sampled, and the habitat suitability of P. cuspidatum. Models generated with professional data sets for the other four species performed reasonably well according to AUC values (>0.76). The addition of volunteer data did not greatly change model performance (AUC > 0.79) but did change the suitability surface generated by the models, making them more realistic. Our findings underscore the need to merge data from multiple sources to improve knowledge of current species distributions, and to predict their movement under present and future environmental conditions. The efficiency and success of these approaches require that monitoring efforts involve multiple stakeholders in continuous collaboration via established monitoring networks.

  15. Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being.

    PubMed

    Pejchar, Liba; Mooney, Harold A

    2009-09-01

    Although the effects of invasive alien species (IAS) on native species are well documented, the many ways in which such species impact ecosystem services are still emerging. Here we assess the costs and benefits of IAS for provisioning, regulating and cultural services, and illustrate the synergies and tradeoffs associated with these impacts using case studies that include South Africa, the Great Lakes and Hawaii. We identify services and interactions that are the least understood and propose a research and policy framework for filling the remaining knowledge gaps. Drawing on ecology and economics to incorporate the impacts of IAS on ecosystem services into decision making is key to restoring and sustaining those life-support services that nature provides and all organisms depend upon.

  16. Temperature-dependent performance of competitive native and alien invasive plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-10-01

    To assess the likely impacts of environmental change, the responses of two well-known invasive plant species, native Pueraria lobata and alien Humulus japonicus, to differences in growth temperature were studied in South Korea. Habitat preferences, physiological responses such as photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll contents, growth rates, and nutrient contents were quantified for each species. A competition experiment was conducted to evaluate the temperature preferences of the two species. All results indicated that the alien species H. japonicus can take advantage of elevated temperatures (35 °C) to enhance its competitive advantage against the native species P. lobata. While H. japonicus took advantage of elevated temperatures and preferred high-temperature areas, P. lobata showed reduced performance and dominance in high-temperature areas. Therefore, in future, due to global warming and urbanization, there are possibilities that H. japonicus takes advantage of elevated temperature against P. lobata that could lead to increased H. japonicus coverage over time. Therefore, consistent monitoring of both species especially where P. lobata is dominated are required because both species are found in every continents in the world. Controlling P. lobata requires thorough inspection of H. japonicus presence of the habitat in advance to prevent post P. lobata management invasion of H. japonicus.

  17. Species coexistence and the superior ability of an invasive species to exploit a facilitation cascade habitat.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Irving, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Facilitation cascades generated by co-occurring foundation species can enhance the abundance and diversity of associated organisms. However, it remains poorly understood how differences among native and invasive species in their ability to exploit these positive interactions contribute to emergent patterns of community structure and biotic acceptance. On intertidal shorelines in New England, we examined the patterns of coexistence between the native mud crabs and the invasive Asian shore crab in and out of a facilitation cascade habitat generated by mid intertidal cordgrass and ribbed mussels. These crab species co-occurred in low intertidal cobbles adjacent to the cordgrass-mussel beds, despite experimental findings that the dominant mud crabs can kill and displace Asian shore crabs and thereby limit their successful recruitment to their shared habitat. A difference between the native and invasive species in their utilization of the facilitation cascade likely contributes to this pattern. Only the Asian shore crabs inhabit the cordgrass-mussel beds, despite experimental evidence that both species can similarly benefit from stress amelioration in the beds. Moreover, only Asian shore crabs settle in the beds, which function as a nursery habitat free of lethal mud crabs, and where their recruitment rates are particularly high (nearly an order of magnitude higher than outside beds). Persistence of invasive adult Asian shore crabs among the dominant native mud crabs in the low cobble zone is likely enhanced by a spillover effect of the facilitation cascade in which recruitment-limited Asian shore crabs settle in the mid intertidal cordgrass-mussel beds and subsidize their vulnerable populations in the adjacent low cobble zone. This would explain why the abundances of Asian shore crabs in cobbles are doubled when adjacent to facilitation cascade habitats. The propensity for this exotic species to utilize habitats created by facilitation cascades, despite the lack of a

  18. Species coexistence and the superior ability of an invasive species to exploit a facilitation cascade habitat

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Facilitation cascades generated by co-occurring foundation species can enhance the abundance and diversity of associated organisms. However, it remains poorly understood how differences among native and invasive species in their ability to exploit these positive interactions contribute to emergent patterns of community structure and biotic acceptance. On intertidal shorelines in New England, we examined the patterns of coexistence between the native mud crabs and the invasive Asian shore crab in and out of a facilitation cascade habitat generated by mid intertidal cordgrass and ribbed mussels. These crab species co-occurred in low intertidal cobbles adjacent to the cordgrass–mussel beds, despite experimental findings that the dominant mud crabs can kill and displace Asian shore crabs and thereby limit their successful recruitment to their shared habitat. A difference between the native and invasive species in their utilization of the facilitation cascade likely contributes to this pattern. Only the Asian shore crabs inhabit the cordgrass–mussel beds, despite experimental evidence that both species can similarly benefit from stress amelioration in the beds. Moreover, only Asian shore crabs settle in the beds, which function as a nursery habitat free of lethal mud crabs, and where their recruitment rates are particularly high (nearly an order of magnitude higher than outside beds). Persistence of invasive adult Asian shore crabs among the dominant native mud crabs in the low cobble zone is likely enhanced by a spillover effect of the facilitation cascade in which recruitment-limited Asian shore crabs settle in the mid intertidal cordgrass–mussel beds and subsidize their vulnerable populations in the adjacent low cobble zone. This would explain why the abundances of Asian shore crabs in cobbles are doubled when adjacent to facilitation cascade habitats. The propensity for this exotic species to utilize habitats created by facilitation cascades, despite the lack

  19. Optimal surveillance strategy for invasive species management when surveys stop after detection.

    PubMed

    Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Hauser, Cindy E; McCarthy, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Invasive species are a cause for concern in natural and economic systems and require both monitoring and management. There is a trade-off between the amount of resources spent on surveying for the species and conducting early management of occupied sites, and the resources that are ultimately spent in delayed management at sites where the species was present but undetected. Previous work addressed this optimal resource allocation problem assuming that surveys continue despite detection until the initially planned survey effort is consumed. However, a more realistic scenario is often that surveys stop after detection (i.e., follow a "removal" sampling design) and then management begins. Such an approach will indicate a different optimal survey design and can be expected to be more efficient. We analyze this case and compare the expected efficiency of invasive species management programs under both survey methods. We also evaluate the impact of mis-specifying the type of sampling approach during the program design phase. We derive analytical expressions that optimize resource allocation between monitoring and management in surveillance programs when surveys stop after detection. We do this under a scenario of unconstrained resources and scenarios where survey budget is constrained. The efficiency of surveillance programs is greater if a "removal survey" design is used, with larger gains obtained when savings from early detection are high, occupancy is high, and survey costs are not much lower than early management costs at a site. Designing a surveillance program disregarding that surveys stop after detection can result in an efficiency loss. Our results help guide the design of future surveillance programs for invasive species. Addressing program design within a decision-theoretic framework can lead to a better use of available resources. We show how species prevalence, its detectability, and the benefits derived from early detection can be considered.

  20. Early detection monitoring for aquatic non-indigenous species: optimizing surveillance, incorporating advanced technologies, and identifying research needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following decades of ecologic and economic impacts from a growing list of invasive species, government and management entities are investing in systematic early- detection monitoring (EDM), which has reinvigorated investment in and evaluation of the science underpinning such moni...

  1. Loss of reproductive output caused by an invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Maude E. M.; Morris, Todd J.; Ackerman, Josef D.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether Neogobius melanostomus, an invader of biodiversity ‘hot-spots’ in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, facilitates or inhibits unionid mussel recruitment by serving as a host or sink for their parasitic larvae (glochidia). Infestation and metamorphosis rates of four mussel species with at-risk (conservation) status (Epioblasma torulosa rangiana, Epioblasma triquetra, Lampsilis fasciola and Villosa iris) and one common species (Actinonaias ligamentina) on N. melanostomus were compared with rates on known primary and marginal hosts in the laboratory. All species successfully infested N. melanostomus, but only E. triquetra, V. iris and A. ligamentina successfully metamorphosed into juveniles, albeit at very low rates well below those seen on even the marginal hosts. Neogobius melanostomus collected from areas of unionid occurrence in the Grand and Sydenham rivers (Ontario, Canada) exhibited glochidial infection rates of 39.4% and 5.1%, respectively, with up to 30 glochidia representing as many as six unionid species per fish. A mathematical model suggests that N. melanostomus serve more as a sink for glochidia than as a host for unionids, thereby limiting recruitment success. This represents a novel method by which an invasive species affects a native species. PMID:27152202

  2. Loss of reproductive output caused by an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Maude E M; Morris, Todd J; Ackerman, Josef D

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether Neogobius melanostomus, an invader of biodiversity 'hot-spots' in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, facilitates or inhibits unionid mussel recruitment by serving as a host or sink for their parasitic larvae (glochidia). Infestation and metamorphosis rates of four mussel species with at-risk (conservation) status (Epioblasma torulosa rangiana, Epioblasma triquetra, Lampsilis fasciola and Villosa iris) and one common species (Actinonaias ligamentina) on N. melanostomus were compared with rates on known primary and marginal hosts in the laboratory. All species successfully infested N. melanostomus, but only E. triquetra, V. iris and A. ligamentina successfully metamorphosed into juveniles, albeit at very low rates well below those seen on even the marginal hosts. Neogobius melanostomus collected from areas of unionid occurrence in the Grand and Sydenham rivers (Ontario, Canada) exhibited glochidial infection rates of 39.4% and 5.1%, respectively, with up to 30 glochidia representing as many as six unionid species per fish. A mathematical model suggests that N. melanostomus serve more as a sink for glochidia than as a host for unionids, thereby limiting recruitment success. This represents a novel method by which an invasive species affects a native species.

  3. Early detection of potentially invasive invertebrate species in Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 dominated communities in harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preda, Cristina; Memedemin, Daniyar; Skolka, Marius; Cogălniceanu, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Constanţa harbour is a major port on the western coast of the semi-enclosed Black Sea. Its brackish waters and low species richness make it vulnerable to invasions. The intensive maritime traffic through Constanţa harbour facilitates the arrival of alien species. We investigated the species composition of the mussel beds on vertical artificial concrete substrate inside the harbour. We selected this habitat for study because it is frequently affected by fluctuating levels of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, and by accidental pollution episodes. The shallow communities inhabiting it are thus unstable and often restructured, prone to accept alien species. Monthly samples were collected from three locations from the upper layer of hard artificial substrata (maximum depth 2 m) during two consecutive years. Ten alien macro-invertebrate species were inventoried, representing 13.5% of the total number of species. Two of these alien species were sampled starting the end of summer 2010, following a period of high temperatures that triggered hypoxia, causing mass mortalities of benthic organisms. Based on the species accumulation curve, we estimated that we have detected all benthic alien species on artificial substrate from Constanţa harbour, but additional effort is required to detect all the native species. Our results suggest that monitoring of benthic communities at small depths in harbours is a simple and useful tool in early detection of potentially invasive alien species. The selected habitat is easily accessible, the method is low-cost, and the samples represent reliable indicators of alien species establishment.

  4. Marine fouling invasions in ports of Patagonia (Argentina) with implications for legislation and monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Schwindt, Evangelina; López Gappa, Juan; Raffo, María Paula; Tatián, Marcos; Bortolus, Alejandro; Orensanz, José María; Alonso, Gloria; Diez, María Emilia; Doti, Brenda; Genzano, Gabriel; Lagger, Cristian; Lovrich, Gustavo; Piriz, María Luz; Mendez, María Martha; Savoya, Verónica; Sueiro, María Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Ports are a key factor in the understanding and solving of most problems associated with marine invasive species across regional and global scales. Yet many regions with active ports remain understudied. The aim of this work was to (a) identify and quantify the marine fouling organisms in all Patagonian ports of Argentina classifying them as native, exotic or cryptogenic species through a rapid assessment survey and experimental studies, (b) survey the environmental and anthropogenic variables of these ports and (c) analyze and discuss these results in the light of the South America context for the study of marine invasive species, legislation and commerce. We found 247 fouling species, including 17 introduced, one of which is a new record for the region, and other 15 species currently considered cryptogenic species that will need further attention to clarify their status. The analysis of mobile and sessile taxa, together with the environmental variables measured in this study and the port movement, allow us to discuss individual ports' vulnerability to future introductions. This is the first large scale study performed for this region on this topic, and it will help in developing monitoring programs and early detection plans to minimize new species introductions along the marine coastline of southern South America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence of qualitative differences between soil-occupancy effects of invasive vs. native grassland plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Larson, Diane L.; Huerd, Sheri C.

    2011-01-01

    Diversified grasslands that contain native plant species are being recognized as important elements of agricultural landscapes and for production of biofuel feedstocks as well as a variety of other ecosystem services. Unfortunately, establishment of such grasslands is often difficult, unpredictable, and highly vulnerable to interference and invasion by weeds. Evidence suggests that soil-microbial "legacies" of invasive perennial species can inhibit growth of native grassland species. However, previous assessments of legacy effects of soil occupancy by invasive species that invade grasslands have focused on single invasive species and on responses to invasive soil occupancy in only a few species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that legacy effects of invasive species differ qualitatively from those of native grassland species. In a glasshouse, three invasive and three native grassland perennials and a native perennial mixture were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in soils with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Native species differed categorically from invasives in their response to soil conditioning by native or invasive species, but these differences depended on the presence of AMF. When AMF were present, native species largely had facilitative effects on invasive species, relative to effects of invasives on other invasives. Invasive species did not facilitate native growth; neutral effects were predominant, but strong soil-mediated inhibitory effects on certain native species occurred. Our results support the hypothesis that successful plant invaders create biological legacies in soil that inhibit native growth, but suggest also this mechanism of invasion will have nuanced effects on community dynamics, as some natives may be unaffected by such legacies. Such native species may be valuable as nurse plants that provide cost-effective restoration of

  6. Evidence of qualitative differences between soil-occupancy effects of invasive vs. native grassland plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Diversified grasslands that contain native plant species are being recognized as important elements of agricultural landscapes and for production of biofuel feedstocks as well as a variety of other ecosystem services. Unfortunately, establishment of such grasslands is often difficult, unpredictable, and highly vulnerable to interference and invasion by weeds. Evidence suggests that soil-microbial "legacies" of invasive perennial species can inhibit growth of native grassland species. However, previous assessments of legacy effects of soil occupancy by invasive species that invade grasslands have focused on single invasive species and on responses to invasive soil occupancy in only a few species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that legacy effects of invasive species differ qualitatively from those of native grassland species. In a glasshouse, three invasive and three native grassland perennials and a native perennial mixture were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in soils with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Native species differed categorically from invasives in their response to soil conditioning by native or invasive species, but these differences depended on the presence of AMF. When AMF were present, native species largely had facilitative effects on invasive species, relative to effects of invasives on other invasives. Invasive species did not facilitate native growth; neutral effects were predominant, but strong soil-mediated inhibitory effects on certain native species occurred. Our results support the hypothesis that successful plant invaders create biological legacies in soil that inhibit native growth, but suggest also this mechanism of invasion will have nuanced effects on community dynamics, as some natives may be unaffected by such legacies. Such native species may be valuable as nurse plants that provide cost-effective restoration of

  7. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    PubMed

    Resasco, Julian; Haddad, Nick M; Orrock, John L; Shoemaker, DeWayne; Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Tewksbury, Joshua J; Levey, Douglas J

    2014-08-01

    Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species' traits when assessing corridor utility.

  8. Using environmental DNA to estimate the distribution of an invasive fish species in ponds.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Teruhiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Doi, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the presence of an invasive species is critical to monitoring the sustainability of communities and ecosystems. Environmental DNA (eDNA), DNA fragments that are likely to be bound to organic matters in the water or in shed cells, has been used to monitor the presence of aquatic animals. Using an eDNA-based method, we estimated the presence of the invasive bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in 70 ponds located in seven locales on the Japanese mainland and on surrounding islands. We quantified the concentration of DNA copies in a 1 L water sample using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with a primer/probe set. In addition, we visually observed the bluegill presence in the ponds from the shoreline. We detected bluegill eDNA in all the ponds where bluegills were observed visually and some where bluegills were not observed. Bluegills were also less prevalent on the islands than the mainland, likely owing to limited dispersal and introduction by humans. Our eDNA method simply and rapidly detects the presence of this invasive fish species with less disturbance to the environment during field surveys than traditional methods.

  9. Using Environmental DNA to Estimate the Distribution of an Invasive Fish Species in Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Teruhiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Doi, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the presence of an invasive species is critical to monitoring the sustainability of communities and ecosystems. Environmental DNA (eDNA), DNA fragments that are likely to be bound to organic matters in the water or in shed cells, has been used to monitor the presence of aquatic animals. Using an eDNA-based method, we estimated the presence of the invasive bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, in 70 ponds located in seven locales on the Japanese mainland and on surrounding islands. We quantified the concentration of DNA copies in a 1 L water sample using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with a primer/probe set. In addition, we visually observed the bluegill presence in the ponds from the shoreline. We detected bluegill eDNA in all the ponds where bluegills were observed visually and some where bluegills were not observed. Bluegills were also less prevalent on the islands than the mainland, likely owing to limited dispersal and introduction by humans. Our eDNA method simply and rapidly detects the presence of this invasive fish species with less disturbance to the environment during field surveys than traditional methods. PMID:23437177

  10. Spectral discrimination of an invasive species (Spartina alterniflora) in Min River wetland using field spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Jin-quan; Chen, Wen-hui; Chen, Li-quan

    2013-08-01

    Spartina alterniflora, an invasive plant, has been a threat to the local ecological security since it was introduced to Fujian coastal beach over 30 years ago. How to monitor its dynamic changes effectively is of great significance. Currently, hyperspectral remote sensing technology has become an important way to monitor invasive species dynamic changes. This paper investigates whether S. alterniflora could be discriminated from the other three native species using field spectrometer ranging from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In order to reduce and select the optimal bands for the potential discrimination of S. alterniflora, a hierarchical method is implemented to spectrally discriminate S. alterniflora from the other three native species. In the first level of the analysis using ANOVA, we found that there were statistically significance differences in spectral reflectance between S. alterniflora and the other three native species at different bands. The algorithm of classification and regression trees (CART) were used to further investigate in the second level of analysis to identify the most sensitive bands for spectral discrimination. We found that the greatest discrimination power for S. alterniflora is located in the red-edge, especially in the near infrared, and mid infrared regions. Subsequently, we used Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance to assess spectral separability of bands selected by CART. Overall, results of this study offer the possibility of extending field measurements at canopy level to airborne and hyperspectral data for discriminating S. alterniflora in Min river wetland.

  11. Noninvasive and minimally invasive detection and monitoring of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, David N

    2008-12-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are diverse and require a multidimensional approach for detection and monitoring in a clinical and research setting. This review describes non- and minimally-invasive measures of distal predominantly sensory polyneuropathy (DSP), the most common form of neuropathy. A combination of clinical and electrophysiologic assessment with nerve-conduction studies (NCSs) suffices for the detection and characterization of most DSPs. NCS are insensitive to variants of DSP that predominantly affect small diameter sensory nerve fibers (SFNs) and cutaneous nerve terminals that subserve pain and thermal sensation. Skin biopsy with assessment of epidermal nerve fiber density permits objective detection and monitoring of SFNs. Conventional clinical and NCS measures have limitations as outcomes in experimental therapeutics in DSP. For clinical trials, biopsy evaluation of epidermal innervation and emerging noninvasive imaging approaches (in vivo confocal microscopy of corneal innervation and of Meissner corpuscles in the skin) hold promise as surrogate markers that are complementary to traditional DSP measures.

  12. Predicting the geographical distribution of two invasive termite species from occurrence data.

    PubMed

    Tonini, Francesco; Divino, Fabio; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Hochmair, Hartwig H; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2014-10-01

    Predicting the potential habitat of species under both current and future climate change scenarios is crucial for monitoring invasive species and understanding a species' response to different environmental conditions. Frequently, the only data available on a species is the location of its occurrence (presence-only data). Using occurrence records only, two models were used to predict the geographical distribution of two destructive invasive termite species, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. The first model uses a Bayesian linear logistic regression approach adjusted for presence-only data while the second one is the widely used maximum entropy approach (Maxent). Results show that the predicted distributions of both C. gestroi and C. formosanus are strongly linked to urban development. The impact of future scenarios such as climate warming and population growth on the biotic distribution of both termite species was also assessed. Future climate warming seems to affect their projected probability of presence to a lesser extent than population growth. The Bayesian logistic approach outperformed Maxent consistently in all models according to evaluation criteria such as model sensitivity and ecological realism. The importance of further studies for an explicit treatment of residual spatial autocorrelation and a more comprehensive comparison between both statistical approaches is suggested.

  13. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  14. Founding population size of an aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Benjamin Cox,

    2010-01-01

    Non-native species of fish threaten native fishes throughout North America, and in the Rocky Mountains, introduced populations of lake trout threaten native populations of bull trout. Effective management of lake trout and other exotic species require understanding the dynamics of invasion in order to either suppress non-native populations or to prevent their spread. In this study, we used microsatellite genetic data to estimate the number of lake trout that invaded a population of bull trout in Swan Lake, MT. Examination of genetic diversity and allele frequencies within the Swan Lake populations showed that most of the genes in the lake trout population are descended from two founders. This emphasizes the importance of preventing even a few lake trout from colonizing new territory.

  15. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Rebecca L.; Koprowski, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert’s squirrels (Sciurus aberti) on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert’s squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert’s squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert’s squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert’s squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure. PMID:26650073

  16. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species.

    PubMed

    Minor, Rebecca L; Koprowski, John L

    2015-01-01

    Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti) on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert's squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert's squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert's squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert's squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure.

  17. When can efforts to control nuisance and invasive species backfire?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, E.F.; Kraft, C.E.; Cooch, E.G.; Sullivan, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Population control through harvest has the potential to reduce the abundance of nuisance and invasive species. However, demographic structure and density-dependent processes can confound removal efforts and lead to undesirable consequences, such as overcompensation (an increase in abundance in response to harvest) and instability (population cycling or chaos). Recent empirical studies have demonstrated the potential for increased mortality (such as that caused by harvest) to lead to overcompensation and instability in plant, insect, and fish populations. We developed a general population model with juvenile and adult stages to help determine the conditions under which control harvest efforts can produce unintended outcomes. Analytical and simulation analyses of the model demonstrated that the potential for overcompensation as a result of harvest was significant for species with high fecundity, even when annual stage-specific survivorship values were fairly low. Population instability as a result of harvest occurred less frequently and was only possible with harvest strategies that targeted adults when both fecundity and adult survivorship were high. We considered these results in conjunction with current literature on nuisance and invasive species to propose general guidelines for assessing the risks associated with control harvest based on life history characteristics of target populations. Our results suggest that species with high per capita fecundity (over discrete breeding periods), short juvenile stages, and fairly constant survivorship rates are most likely to respond undesirably to harvest. It is difficult to determine the extent to which overcompensation and instability could occur during real-world removal efforts, and more empirical removal studies should be undertaken to evaluate population-level responses to control harvests. Nevertheless, our results identify key issues that have been seldom acknowledged and are potentially generic across taxa

  18. Non-Invasive Gait Monitoring in a Ubiquitous Computing House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Yuji; Motooka, Nobuhisa; Siio, Itiro; Tsukada, Koji; Kambara, Keisuke

    Computers become smaller and cheaper from day to day, and the utilization, as daily life equipments, is now becoming ubiquitous. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the development of applications, as well as the installation of ubiquitous computing technologies into our daily living environments. Based on this idea, in order to investigate how ubiquitous computing can be used in the most efficient way, an experimental house, Ocha House, has been constructed in the campus of Ochanomizu university in 2009. In this study, we described the feature of the design of the experimental house and proposed a non-invasive gait monitoring technique as a healthcare application. Specifically, five wireless accelerometers were fixed on the floor of the house, and the floor vibration was measured when the subject walked along the accelerometers. As a result, the floor acceleration intensity was found to surge at the ground contact, and the gait cycle could be detected. By combining the simple acceleration sensors and the housing structures, human motion monitoring would become less invasive.

  19. The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change.

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Crowl; Thomas O. Crist; Robert R. Parmenter; Gary Belovsky; Ariel E. Lugo

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, disease vectors, and pathogens affect biodiversity, ecosystem function and services, and human health. Climate change, land use, and transport vectors interact in complex ways to determine the spread of native and non-native invasive species, pathogens, and their effects on ecosystem dynamics. Early detection and in-depth understanding of invasive...

  20. Fire and invasive exotic plant species in eastern oak communities: an assessment of current knowledge

    Treesearch

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2006-01-01

    Successful regeneration of oak-dominated communities in the Eastern United States historically requires disturbance such as fire, making them vulnerable to invasion by exotic plants. Little is currently known about the effects of fire on invasive plant species and the effects of invasive plant species on fire regimes of this region. Seventeen common eastern invaders...

  1. Robust surveillance and control of invasive species using a scenario optimization approach

    Treesearch

    Denys Yemshanov; Robert G. Haight; Frank H. Koch; Bo Lu; Robert C. Venette; Ronald E. Fournier; Jean J. Turgeon

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty about future outcomes of invasions is a major hurdle in the planning of invasive species management programs. We present a scenario optimization model that incorporates uncertainty about the spread of an invasive species and allocates survey and eradication measures to minimize the number of infested or potentially infested host plants on the landscape. We...

  2. Ecological and economic determinants of invasive tree species on Alabama forestland

    Treesearch

    Anwar Hussain; Changyou Sun; Xiaoping Zhou; Ian A. Munn

    2008-01-01

    The spread of invasive tree species has caused increasing harm to the environment. This study was motivated by the considerations that earlier studies generally ignored the role of economic factors related to the occurrence and abundance of invasive species, and empirical analyses of invasive trees on forestland have been inadequate. We assessed the impact of...

  3. Risk analysis and bioeconomics of invasive species to inform policy and management

    Treesearch

    David M. Lodge; Paul W. Simonin; Stanley W. Burgiel; Reuben P. Keller; Jonathan M. Bossenbroek; Christopher L. Jerde; Andrew M. Kramer; Edward S. Rutherford; Matthew A. Barnes; Marion E. Wittmann; W. Lindsay Chadderton; Jenny L. Apriesnig; Dmitry Beletsky; Roger M. Cooke; John M. Drake; Scott P. Egan; David C. Finnoff; Crysta A. Gantz; Erin K. Grey; Michael H. Hoff; Jennifer G. Howeth; Richard A. Jensen; Eric R. Larson; Nicholas E. Mandrak; Doran M. Mason; Felix A. Martinez; Tammy J. Newcomb; John D. Rothlisberger; Andrew J. Tucker; Travis W. Warziniack; Hongyan. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Risk analysis of species invasions links biology and economics, is increasingly mandated by international and national policies, and enables improved management of invasive species. Biological invasions proceed through a series of transition probabilities (i.e., introduction, establishment, spread, and impact), and each of these presents opportunities for...

  4. Ecology of cryptic invasions: latitudinal segregation among Watersipora (Bryozoa) species

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Joshua A.; Darling, John A.; Geller, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Watersipora is an invasive genus of bryozoans, easily dispersed by fouled vessels. We examined Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes from introduced populations on the US Pacific coastline to investigate geographic segregation of species and/or haplotypes. In California, the W. subtorquata group fell into three major sub-groups: W. subtorquata clades A and B, and W. “new sp.”. W. subtorquata clades A and B were common in southern California south of Point Conception, a recognized biogeographic boundary, whereas further north, W. subtorquata clade A and W. n. sp. were frequent. The southern California region also had colonies of a morphologically distinct species, W. arcuata, also found in southern Australia and Hawaii; COI variation indicates a common ancestral source(s) in these introductions. The distribution of Watersipora-complex lineages on different coastlines is shown to be temperature correlated. Accordingly, pre-exisitng temperature-based adaptations may play a key role in determining invasion patterns. PMID:23213354

  5. Successful approaches for battling invasive species in developed countries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological invasions increasingly threaten natural resources and reduce biological diversity worldwide. To curtail biological invasions, developed countries have adopted multitire approaches that systematically address the process of invasion, encompassing introduction, establishment, spread and nat...

  6. Commonly rare and rarely common: comparing population abundance of invasive and native aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Blum, Michael J; Clayton, Murray K; Hain, Ernie F; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S; McIntyre, Peter B; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies.

  7. Commonly Rare and Rarely Common: Comparing Population Abundance of Invasive and Native Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake; Blum, Michael J.; Clayton, Murray K.; Hain, Ernie F.; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D.; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies. PMID:24194883

  8. Identification of invasive and expansive plant species based on airborne hyperspectral and ALS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kuc, Gabriela; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Demarchi, Luca; Chormański, Jarosław; Marcinkowska-Ochtyra, Adriana; Ochtyra, Adrian; Jarocińska, Anna; Sabat, Anita; Zagajewski, Bogdan; Tokarska-Guzik, Barbara; Bzdęga, Katarzyna; Pasierbiński, Andrzej; Fojcik, Barbara; Jędrzejczyk-Korycińska, Monika; Kopeć, Dominik; Wylazłowska, Justyna; Woziwoda, Beata; Michalska-Hejduk, Dorota; Halladin-Dąbrowska, Anna

    2017-04-01

    . Simultaneously to airborne data acquisitions also botanical surveys were performed covering in total 5680 reference plots for 18 alien invasive and native expansive plant species (1886 in first flight campaign, 1907 in second and 1887 in third). The collected data were used to identify species characteristics such as spectral properties among others (percentage cover, growth stage, discoloration, coexisting species, land use, plant litter). The research includes 10 invasive alien species and 8 native expansive plant species. Amongst plant species selected for the purposes of this study were: Robinia pseudoacacia, Padus serotina, Rumex confertus, Erigeron annuus, Spiraea tomentosa, Solidago spp., Lupinus polyphyllus, Reynoutria spp., Echinocystis lobata and Heracleum spp. as alien invasive species, and Urtica dioica, Filipendula ulmaria, Phragmites australis, Rubus spp, Calamagrostis epigejos, Cirsium arvense, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia caespitosa as native expansive species. In this study we present the methodology used for identification of invasive alien and expansive native plant species using hyperspectral and airborne laser data with resulting accuracies using different classification methods and exemplary distribution maps. The research within this study will be continued during growing season of the year 2017. Acknowledgements This research has been carried out under the Biostrateg Programme of the Polish National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR), project No.: DZP/BIOSTRATEG-II/390/2015: The innovative approach supporting monitoring of non-forest Natura 2000 habitats, using remote sensing methods (HabitARS).

  9. Plant functional traits of dominant native and invasive species in mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jennifer L; Standish, Rachel J; Stock, William D; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The idea that dominant invasive plant species outperform neighboring native species through higher rates of carbon assimilation and growth is supported by several analyses of global data sets. However, theory suggests that native and invasive species occurring in low-resource environments will be functionally similar, as environmental factors restrict the range of observed physiological and morphological trait values. We measured resource-use traits in native and invasive plant species across eight diverse vegetation communities distributed throughout the five mediterranean-climate regions, which are drought prone and increasingly threatened by human activities, including the introduction of exotic species. Traits differed strongly across the five regions. In regions with functional differences between native and invasive species groups, invasive species displayed traits consistent with high resource acquisition; however, these patterns were largely attributable to differences in life form. We found that species invading mediterranean-climate regions were more likely to be annual than perennial: three of the five regions were dominated by native woody species and invasive annuals. These results suggest that trait differences between native and invasive species are context dependent and will vary across vegetation communities. Native and invasive species within annual and perennial groups had similar patterns of carbon assimilation and resource use, which contradicts the widespread idea that invasive species optimize resource acquisition rather than resource conservation. .

  10. Using scenarios to assess possible future impacts of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauber, T. Bruce; Stedman, Richard C.; Connelly, Nancy A; Rudstam, Lars G.; Ready, Richard C; Poe, Gregory L; Bunnell, David B.; Hook, Tomas O.; Koops, Marten A.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Rutherford, Edward S; Wittmann, Marion E.

    2016-01-01

    The expected impacts of invasive species are key considerations in selecting policy responses to potential invasions. But predicting the impacts of invasive species is daunting, particularly in large systems threatened by multiple invasive species, such as North America’s Laurentian Great Lakes. We developed and evaluated a scenario-building process that relied on an expert panel to assess possible future impacts of aquatic invasive species on recreational fishing in the Great Lakes. To maximize its usefulness to policy makers, this process was designed to be implemented relatively rapidly and consider a range of species. The expert panel developed plausible, internally-consistent invasion scenarios for 5 aquatic invasive species, along with subjective probabilities of those scenarios. We describe these scenarios and evaluate this approach for assessing future invasive species impacts. The panel held diverse opinions about the likelihood of the scenarios, and only one scenario with impacts on sportfish species was considered likely by most of the experts. These outcomes are consistent with the literature on scenario building, which advocates for developing a range of plausible scenarios in decision making because the uncertainty of future conditions makes the likelihood of any particular scenario low. We believe that this scenario-building approach could contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to address the possible impacts of invasive species. In this case, scenarios could allow policy makers to narrow the range of possible impacts on Great Lakes fisheries they consider and help set a research agenda for further refining invasive species predictions.

  11. Using scenarios to assess possible future impacts of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauber, T. Bruce; Stedman, Richard C.; Connelly, Nancy A; Rudstam, Lars G.; Ready, Richard C; Poe, Gregory L; Bunnell, David; Hook, Tomas O.; Koops, Marten A.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Rutherford, Edward S; Wittmann, Marion E.

    2016-01-01

    The expected impacts of invasive species are key considerations in selecting policy responses to potential invasions. But predicting the impacts of invasive species is daunting, particularly in large systems threatened by multiple invasive species, such as North America’s Laurentian Great Lakes. We developed and evaluated a scenario-building process that relied on an expert panel to assess possible future impacts of aquatic invasive species on recreational fishing in the Great Lakes. To maximize its usefulness to policy makers, this process was designed to be implemented relatively rapidly and consider a range of species. The expert panel developed plausible, internally-consistent invasion scenarios for 5 aquatic invasive species, along with subjective probabilities of those scenarios. We describe these scenarios and evaluate this approach for assessing future invasive species impacts. The panel held diverse opinions about the likelihood of the scenarios, and only one scenario with impacts on sportfish species was considered likely by most of the experts. These outcomes are consistent with the literature on scenario building, which advocates for developing a range of plausible scenarios in decision making because the uncertainty of future conditions makes the likelihood of any particular scenario low. We believe that this scenario-building approach could contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to address the possible impacts of invasive species. In this case, scenarios could allow policy makers to narrow the range of possible impacts on Great Lakes fisheries they consider and help set a research agenda for further refining invasive species predictions.

  12. Timing Is Important: Unmanned Aircraft vs. Satellite Imagery in Plant Invasion Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Müllerová, Jana; Brůna, Josef; Bartaloš, Tomáš; Dvořák, Petr; Vítková, Michaela; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The rapid spread of invasive plants makes their management increasingly difficult. Remote sensing offers a means of fast and efficient monitoring, but still the optimal methodologies remain to be defined. The seasonal dynamics and spectral characteristics of the target invasive species are important factors, since, at certain time of the vegetation season (e.g., at flowering or senescing), plants are often more distinct (or more visible beneath the canopy). Our aim was to establish fast, repeatable and a cost-efficient, computer-assisted method applicable over larger areas, to reduce the costs of extensive field campaigns. To achieve this goal, we examined how the timing of monitoring affects the detection of noxious plant invaders in Central Europe, using two model herbaceous species with markedly different phenological, structural, and spectral characteristics. They are giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum), a species with very distinct flowering phase, and the less distinct knotweeds (Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid F. × bohemica). The variety of data generated, such as imagery from purposely-designed, unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV), and VHR satellite, and aerial color orthophotos enabled us to assess the effects of spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution (i.e., the target species' phenological state) for successful recognition. The demands for both spatial and spectral resolution depended largely on the target plant species. In the case that a species was sampled at the most distinct phenological phase, high accuracy was achieved even with lower spectral resolution of our low-cost UAV. This demonstrates that proper timing can to some extent compensate for the lower spectral resolution. The results of our study could serve as a basis for identifying priorities for management, targeted at localities with the greatest risk of invasive species' spread and, once eradicated, to monitor over time any return. The best mapping strategy

  13. Timing Is Important: Unmanned Aircraft vs. Satellite Imagery in Plant Invasion Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Jana; Brůna, Josef; Bartaloš, Tomáš; Dvořák, Petr; Vítková, Michaela; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The rapid spread of invasive plants makes their management increasingly difficult. Remote sensing offers a means of fast and efficient monitoring, but still the optimal methodologies remain to be defined. The seasonal dynamics and spectral characteristics of the target invasive species are important factors, since, at certain time of the vegetation season (e.g., at flowering or senescing), plants are often more distinct (or more visible beneath the canopy). Our aim was to establish fast, repeatable and a cost-efficient, computer-assisted method applicable over larger areas, to reduce the costs of extensive field campaigns. To achieve this goal, we examined how the timing of monitoring affects the detection of noxious plant invaders in Central Europe, using two model herbaceous species with markedly different phenological, structural, and spectral characteristics. They are giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum), a species with very distinct flowering phase, and the less distinct knotweeds (Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid F. × bohemica). The variety of data generated, such as imagery from purposely-designed, unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV), and VHR satellite, and aerial color orthophotos enabled us to assess the effects of spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution (i.e., the target species' phenological state) for successful recognition. The demands for both spatial and spectral resolution depended largely on the target plant species. In the case that a species was sampled at the most distinct phenological phase, high accuracy was achieved even with lower spectral resolution of our low-cost UAV. This demonstrates that proper timing can to some extent compensate for the lower spectral resolution. The results of our study could serve as a basis for identifying priorities for management, targeted at localities with the greatest risk of invasive species' spread and, once eradicated, to monitor over time any return. The best mapping strategy

  14. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods for early detection of invasive fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzenbuhler, Chelsea; Kelly, John R.; Martinson, John; Okum, Sara; Pilgrim, Erik

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput DNA metabarcoding has gained recognition as a potentially powerful tool for biomonitoring, including early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). DNA based techniques are advancing, but our understanding of the limits to detection for metabarcoding complex samples is inadequate. For detecting AIS at an early stage of invasion when the species is rare, accuracy at low detection limits is key. To evaluate the utility of metabarcoding in future fish community monitoring programs, we conducted several experiments to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of routine metabarcoding methods. Experimental mixes used larval fish tissue from multiple “common” species spiked with varying proportions of tissue from an additional “rare” species. Pyrosequencing of genetic marker, COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) and subsequent sequence data analysis provided experimental evidence of low-level detection of the target “rare” species at biomass percentages as low as 0.02% of total sample biomass. Limits to detection varied interspecifically and were susceptible to amplification bias. Moreover, results showed some data processing methods can skew sequence-based biodiversity measurements from corresponding relative biomass abundances and increase false absences. We suggest caution in interpreting presence/absence and relative abundance in larval fish assemblages until metabarcoding methods are optimized for accuracy and precision.

  15. Use of DNA barcodes to identify invasive armyworm Spodoptera species in Florida.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Brambila, Julieta; Meagher, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    A critical component for sustaining adequate food production is the protection of local agriculture from invasive pest insects. Essential to this goal is the ability to accurately distinguish foreign from closely related domestic species, a process that has traditionally required identification using diagnostic morphological "keys" that can be both subtle and labor-intensive. This is the case for the Lepidopteran group of insects represented by Spodoptera, a genus of Noctuidae "armyworm" moths that includes several important agricultural pests. Two of the most destructive species, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and S. litura (F.) are not yet established in North America. To facilitate the monitoring for these pests, the feasibility of using DNA barcoding methodology for distinguishing between domestic and foreign Spodoptera species was tested. A DNA barcoding database was derived for a subset of Spodoptera species native to Florida, with an emphasis on those attracted to pheromone blends developed for S. litura or S. littoralis. These were then compared to the barcode sequences of S. litura collected from Taiwan and S. littoralis from Portugal. Consistent discrimination of the different species was obtained with phenetic relationships produced that were generally in agreement with phylogenetic studies using morphological characteristics. The data presented here indicate that DNA barcoding has the potential to be an efficient and accurate supplement to morphological methods for the identification of invasive Spodoptera pests in North America.

  16. Use of DNA Barcodes to Identify Invasive Armyworm Spodoptera Species in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Brambila, Julieta; Meagher, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A critical component for sustaining adequate food production is the protection of local agriculture from invasive pest insects. Essential to this goal is the ability to accurately distinguish foreign from closely related domestic species, a process that has traditionally required identification using diagnostic morphological “keys” that can be both subtle and labor-intensive. This is the case for the Lepidopteran group of insects represented by Spodoptera, a genus of Noctuidae “armyworm” moths that includes several important agricultural pests. Two of the most destructive species, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and S. litura (F.) are not yet established in North America. To facilitate the monitoring for these pests, the feasibility of using DNA barcoding methodology for distinguishing between domestic and foreign Spodoptera species was tested. A DNA barcoding database was derived for a subset of Spodoptera species native to Florida, with an emphasis on those attracted to pheromone blends developed for S. litura or S. littoralis. These were then compared to the barcode sequences of S. litura collected from Taiwan and S. littoralis from Portugal. Consistent discrimination of the different species was obtained with phenetic relationships produced that were generally in agreement with phylogenetic studies using morphological characteristics. The data presented here indicate that DNA barcoding has the potential to be an efficient and accurate supplement to morphological methods for the identification of invasive Spodoptera pests in North America. PMID:22239735

  17. Reintroduction of the invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus in Belgium in July 2013.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Schaffner, Francis; Bawin, Thomas; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Since its first report in 2000, the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus was not found any more during the different entomological inspections performed at its place of introduction in Belgium between 2001 and 2012. In July 2013, one adult male was captured at the same site (a platform of imported used tires located in Vrasene, Oost-Vlaanderen Province), during a monitoring using CO2-baited trap. This finding suggests the reintroduction of the species in Belgium via the used tire trade. © S. Boukraa et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  18. Limits to tree species invasion in pampean grassland and forest plant communities.

    PubMed

    Mazia, Noemí C; Chaneton, Enrique J; Ghersa, Claudio M; León, Rolando J

    2001-08-01

    Factors limiting tree invasion in the Inland Pampas of Argentina were studied by monitoring the establishment of four alien tree species in remnant grassland and cultivated forest stands. We tested whether disturbances facilitated tree seedling recruitment and survival once seeds of invaders were made available by hand sowing. Seed addition to grassland failed to produce seedlings of two study species, Ligustrum lucidum and Ulmus pumila, but did result in abundant recruitment of Gleditsia triacanthos and Prosopis caldenia. While emergence was sparse in intact grassland, seedling densities were significantly increased by canopy and soil disturbances. Longer-term surveys showed that only Gleditsia became successfully established in disturbed grassland. These results support the hypothesis that interference from herbaceous vegetation may play a significant role in slowing down tree invasion, whereas disturbances create microsites that can be exploited by invasive woody plants. Seed sowing in a Ligustrum forest promoted the emergence of all four study species in understorey and treefall gap conditions. Litter removal had species-specific effects on emergence and early seedling growth, but had little impact on survivorship. Seedlings emerging under the closed forest canopy died within a few months. In the treefall gap, recruits of Gleditsia and Prosopis survived the first year, but did not survive in the longer term after natural gap closure. The forest community thus appeared less susceptible to colonization by alien trees than the grassland. We conclude that tree invasion in this system is strongly limited by the availability of recruitment microsites and biotic interactions, as well as by dispersal from existing propagule sources.

  19. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    SciTech Connect

    Resasco, Julian; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species’ traits when assessing corridor utility.

  20. Modeling species invasions in Ecopath with Ecosim: an evaluation using Laurentian Great Lakes models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langseth, Brian J.; Rogers, Mark; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species affect the structure and processes of ecosystems they invade. Invasive species have been particularly relevant to the Laurentian Great Lakes, where they have played a part in both historical and recent changes to Great Lakes food webs and the fisheries supported therein. There is increased interest in understanding the effects of ecosystem changes on fisheries within the Great Lakes, and ecosystem models provide an essential tool from which this understanding can take place. A commonly used model for exploring fisheries management questions within an ecosystem context is the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modeling software. Incorporating invasive species into EwE models is a challenging process, and descriptions and comparisons of methods for modeling species invasions are lacking. We compared four methods for incorporating invasive species into EwE models for both Lake Huron and Lake Michigan based on the ability of each to reproduce patterns in observed data time series. The methods differed in whether invasive species biomass was forced in the model, the initial level of invasive species biomass at the beginning of time dynamic simulations, and the approach to cause invasive species biomass to increase at the time of invasion. The overall process of species invasion could be reproduced by all methods, but fits to observed time series varied among the methods and models considered. We recommend forcing invasive species biomass when model objectives are to understand ecosystem impacts in the past and when time series of invasive species biomass are available. Among methods where invasive species time series were not forced, mediating the strength of predator–prey interactions performed best for the Lake Huron model, but worse for the Lake Michigan model. Starting invasive species biomass at high values and then artificially removing biomass until the time of invasion performed well for both models, but was more complex than starting invasive species

  1. Impacts of invasive nonnative plant species on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, Jordan J.; Boyd, Jennifer N.

    2015-11-01

    Invasive plant species and overabundant herbivore populations have the potential to significantly impact rare plant species given their increased risk for local extirpation and extinction. We used interacting invasive species removal and grazer exclusion treatments replicated across two locations in an occurrence of rare Scutellaria montana (large-flowered skullcap) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, to assess: 1) competition by invasive Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) and 2) the role of invasive species in mediating Oedocoilus virginianus (white-tailed deer) grazing of S. montana. Contrary to our hypothesis that invasive species presence would suppress S. montana directly via competition, S. montana individuals experienced a seasonal increase in stem height when invasive species were intact but not when invasive species were removed. Marginally significant results indicated that invasive species may afford S. montana protection from grazers, and we suggest that invasive species also could protect S. montana from smaller herbivores and/or positively influence abiotic conditions. In contrast to growth responses, S. montana individuals protected from O. virginianus exhibited a decrease in flowering between seasons relative to unprotected plants, but invasive species did not affect this variable. Although it has been suggested that invasive plant species may negatively influence S. montana growth and fecundity, our findings do not support related concerns. As such, we suggest that invasive species eradication efforts in S. montana habitat could be more detrimental than positive due to associated disturbance. However, the low level of invasion of our study site may not be representative of potential interference in more heavily infested habitat.

  2. Limiting similarity and Darwin's naturalization hypothesis: understanding the drivers of biotic resistance against invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Yannelli, F A; Koch, C; Jeschke, J M; Kollmann, J

    2017-03-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain biotic resistance of a recipient plant community based on reduced niche opportunities for invasive alien plant species. The limiting similarity hypothesis predicts that invasive species are less likely to establish in communities of species holding similar functional traits. Likewise, Darwin's naturalization hypothesis states that invasive species closely related to the native community would be less successful. We tested both using the invasive alien Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Solidago gigantea Aiton, and grassland species used for ecological restoration in central Europe. We classified all plant species into groups based on functional traits obtained from trait databases and calculated the phylogenetic distance among them. In a greenhouse experiment, we submitted the two invasive species at two propagule pressures to competition with communities of ten native species from the same functional group. In another experiment, they were submitted to pairwise competition with native species selected from each functional group. At the community level, highest suppression for both invasive species was observed at low propagule pressure and not explained by similarity in functional traits. Moreover, suppression decreased asymptotically with increasing phylogenetic distance to species of the native community. When submitted to pairwise competition, suppression for both invasive species was also better explained by phylogenetic distance. Overall, our results support Darwin's naturalization hypothesis but not the limiting similarity hypothesis based on the selected traits. Biotic resistance of native communities against invasive species at an early stage of establishment is enhanced by competitive traits and phylogenetic relatedness.

  3. Impacts of invasive plants on carbon pools depend on both species' traits and local climate.

    PubMed

    Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Bullock, James M

    2017-04-01

    Invasive plants can alter ecosystem properties, leading to changes in the ecosystem services on which humans depend. However, generalizing about these effects is difficult because invasive plants represent a wide range of life forms, and invaded ecosystems differ in their plant communities and abiotic conditions. We hypothesize that differences in traits between the invader and native species can be used to predict impacts and so aid generalization. We further hypothesize that environmental conditions at invaded sites modify the effect of trait differences and so combine with traits to predict invasion impacts. To test these hypotheses, we used systematic review to compile data on changes in aboveground and soil carbon pools following non-native plant invasion from studies across the World. Maximum potential height (Hmax ) of each species was drawn from trait databases and other sources. We used meta-regression to assess which of invasive species' Hmax , differences in this height trait between native and invasive plants, and climatic water deficit, a measure of water stress, were good predictors of changes in carbon pools following invasion. We found that aboveground biomass in invaded ecosystems relative to uninvaded ones increased as the value of Hmax of invasive relative to native species increased, but that this effect was reduced in more water stressed ecosystems. Changes in soil carbon pools were also positively correlated with the relative Hmax of invasive species, but were not altered by water stress. This study is one of the first to show quantitatively that the impact of invasive species on an ecosystem may depend on differences in invasive and native species' traits, rather than solely the traits of invasive species. Our study is also the first to show that the influence of trait differences can be altered by climate. Further developing our understanding of the impacts of invasive species using this framework could help researchers to identify not only

  4. Toward a global information system for invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricciardi, Anthony; Steiner, William W.M.; Mack, Richard N.; Simberloff, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The growing frequency and impact of biological invasions worldwide threaten biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, resource availability, national economies, and human health (Ruesink et al. 1995, Simberloff 1996, Vitousek et al. 1997). Organisms are spreading into new regions at unprecedented rates. As a result, hundreds to thousands of nonindigenous species of invertebrates, vertebrates, plants, bacteria, and fungi have become established in all but the most remote areas of the planet (Vitousek et al. 1997). Recent examples are abundant and, in some cases, alarming. Cholera bacteria and toxic dinoflagellates have been discovered in the ballast waters of cargo ships (McCarthy and Khambaty 1994, Hallegraeff 1998). Asian tiger mosquitos—vectors of yellow fever and encephalitis—have spread to new continents in imported truck tires (Moore et al. 1988). Pasture and crop lands in Australia are being invaded by Parthenium, an aggressive Caribbean weed that causes severe allergic reactions in livestock and humans (Evans 1997). Rapid and widespread dieoffs of native freshwater mussels are occurring in the wake of the zebra mussel invasion in North America (Ricciardi et al. 1998). [[AQ4]Hardwood trees in American cities are being killed by Asian long-horned beetles introduced with wooden packing crates (Haack et al. 1997).

  5. Spontaneous alternation in marine crabs: invasive versus native species.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Patricia Ann; Teichman, Elizabeth; Oleksiak, Justin; Balci, Fuat

    2009-09-01

    Organisms ranging from paramecia to humans tend to explore places that have been least recently explored, which is referred to as spontaneous alternation. Although organisms rely on different sources of information in alternating between places, the emergent behavioral pattern is likely advantageous during exploration and foraging. Under this rationale, continuous spontaneous alternation performance of the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas was assessed and compared with the native blue crab, Callinectes sapidus in a plus-maze submerged in seawater. For the first time spontaneous alternation behavior was demonstrated in Crustacea (i.e., C. maenas) and significant interspecific differences in alternation performance were observed between the invasive versus the native species. Carcinus maneas exhibited a pronouncedly higher spontaneous alternation performance than C. sapidus. Carcinus maneas on average alternated at levels higher than chance, which was not the case for C. sapidus. These observations point to an additional behavioral mechanism that might result in the competitive success of green crabs over blue crabs in areas where they co-occur. Most of the subjects exhibited asymptotic alternation performance from the onset; there was no improvement in their performance over the course of the experimental session. This finding implies the innate nature of this behavioral policy.

  6. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding assays to detect invasive invertebrate species in the Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Klymus, Katy E.; Marshall, Nathaniel T.

    2017-01-01

    Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA) demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring. We employed careful primer design and in vitro testing with mock communities to assess ability of the markers to amplify and sequence targeted species DNA, while retaining rank abundance information. In our mock communities, read abundances reflected the initial input abundance, with regressions having significant slopes (p<0.05) and high coefficients of determination (R2) for all comparisons. Tests on field environmental samples revealed similar ability of our markers to measure relative abundance. Due to the limited reference sequence data available for these invertebrate species, care must be taken when analyzing results and identifying sequence reads to species level. These markers extend eDNA metabarcoding research for molluscs and appear relevant to other invertebrate taxa, such as rotifers and bryozoans. Furthermore, the sphaeriid mussel assay is group-specific, exclusively amplifying bivalves in the Sphaeridae family and providing species-level identification. Our assays provide useful tools for managers and conservation scientists, facilitating early detection of invasive species as well as improving resolution of mollusc diversity. PMID:28542313

  7. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding assays to detect invasive invertebrate species in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Klymus, Katy E; Marshall, Nathaniel T; Stepien, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA) demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring. We employed careful primer design and in vitro testing with mock communities to assess ability of the markers to amplify and sequence targeted species DNA, while retaining rank abundance information. In our mock communities, read abundances reflected the initial input abundance, with regressions having significant slopes (p<0.05) and high coefficients of determination (R2) for all comparisons. Tests on field environmental samples revealed similar ability of our markers to measure relative abundance. Due to the limited reference sequence data available for these invertebrate species, care must be taken when analyzing results and identifying sequence reads to species level. These markers extend eDNA metabarcoding research for molluscs and appear relevant to other invertebrate taxa, such as rotifers and bryozoans. Furthermore, the sphaeriid mussel assay is group-specific, exclusively amplifying bivalves in the Sphaeridae family and providing species-level identification. Our assays provide useful tools for managers and conservation scientists, facilitating early detection of invasive species as well as improving resolution of mollusc diversity.

  8. Species displacements are common to two invasive species of leafminer fly in China, Japan and the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Under field conditions, species displacements have occurred in different directions between the same invasive species of leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) was displaced by L. trifolii (Burgess) in the western USA, with evidence suggesting that lower insecticide suscept...

  9. An invasive ant species able to counterattack marabunta raids.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the Neotropics where it was introduced, the invasive ant Pheidole megacephala counterattacked raids by the army ants Eciton burchellii or E. hamatum. The Eciton workers that returned to their bivouac were attacked and spread-eagled and most of them killed by their outgoing colony mates. Little by little the zone where returning and outgoing Eciton workers encountered one another moved away from the Pheidole nest which was no longer attacked, so that most of the colony was spared. Using a water-based technique rounded out by bioassays, we show that Pheidole compounds were transferred onto the Eciton cuticle during the counterattacks, so that outgoing workers do not recognize returning colony mates, likely perceived as potential prey. Because P. megacephala is an introduced African species, this kind of protection, which cannot be the result of coevolutive processes, corresponds to a kind of by-product due to its aggressiveness during colony defence.

  10. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Julliard, Romain; Bellingham, Peter J.; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Couvet, Denis; Elmendorf, Sarah; Forsyth, David M.; Moreno, Jaime García; Gregory, Richard D.; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Laura J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pereira, Henrique M.; Proença, Vânia; van Swaay, Chris A.M.; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Convention for Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 envisions that “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” Although 193 parties have adopted these goals, there is little infrastructure in place to monitor global biodiversity trends. Recent international conservation policy requires such data to be up-to-date, reliable, comparable among sites, relevant, and understandable; as is becoming obvious from the work plan adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES: www.ipbes.net/; http://tinyurl.com/ohdnknq). In order to meet the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its 20 accompanying Aichi Targets for 2020 (www.cbd.int/sp/targets/), advances need to be made in coordinating large-scale biodiversity monitoring and linking these with environmental data to develop a comprehensive Global Observation Network, as is the main idea behind GEOSS the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Christian 2005)...Here we identify ten requirements important for the successful implementation of a global biodiversity monitoring network under the flag of GEO BON and especially a global terrestrial species monitoring program.

  11. Hybrid CARS for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Pestov, Dmitry; Zhang, Aihua; Murawski, Robert; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Laane, Jaan; Scully, Marlan

    2007-10-01

    We develop a spectroscopy technique that combines the advantages of both the frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the time-resolved CARS. We use broadband preparation pulses to get an instantaneous coherent excitation of multiplex molecular vibration levels and subsequent optically shaped time-delayed narrowband probing pulse to detect these vibrations. This technique can suppress the nonresonant background and retrieve the molecular fingerprint signal efficiently and rapidly. We employ this technique to glucose detection, the final goal of which is accurate, non-invasive (i.e. painless) and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration in the Diabetes diagnosis to replace the current glucose measurement process, which requires painful fingerpricks and therefore cannot be performed more than a few times a day. We have gotten the CARS spectra of glucose aqueous solution down to 2 mM.

  12. Race to Displace: A Game to Model the Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Jennifer L.; Flowers, Susan K.; Seidler, Katie J.; Hopwood, Erica L.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are a substantial threat to biodiversity. Educating students about invasive species introduces fundamental concepts in biology, ecology, and environmental science. In the Race to Displace game, students assume the characteristics of select native or introduced plants and experience first hand the influences of species interactions…

  13. They're Here: A Coast-to-Coast Investigation of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tracy; Craven, John

    2005-01-01

    According to the National Invasive Species Council, an "invasive species" is defined as a species that is (1) nonnative (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration, and (2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. In this article, the authors describe an activity that can be…

  14. Race to Displace: A Game to Model the Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Jennifer L.; Flowers, Susan K.; Seidler, Katie J.; Hopwood, Erica L.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are a substantial threat to biodiversity. Educating students about invasive species introduces fundamental concepts in biology, ecology, and environmental science. In the Race to Displace game, students assume the characteristics of select native or introduced plants and experience first hand the influences of species interactions…

  15. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  16. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  17. LINKING NITROGEN PARTITIONING AND SPECIES ABUNDANCE TO INVASION RESISTANCE IN THE GREAT BASIN

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resource partitioning among species has been suggested as an important mechanism of invasion resistance. Research to date, however, has not directly linked resource partitioning among species to the ability of a species to quantitatively sequester a limiting resource and contribute to invasion resi...

  18. The challenge of modelling and mapping the future distribution and impact of invasive alien species

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Venette

    2015-01-01

    Invasions from alien species can jeopardize the economic, environmental or social benefits derived from biological systems. Biosecurity measures seek to protect those systems from accidental or intentional introductions of species that might become injurious. Pest risk maps convey how the probability of invasion by an alien species or the potential consequences of that...

  19. They're Here: A Coast-to-Coast Investigation of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tracy; Craven, John

    2005-01-01

    According to the National Invasive Species Council, an "invasive species" is defined as a species that is (1) nonnative (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration, and (2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. In this article, the authors describe an activity that can be…

  20. The role of the Forest Service in aquatic invasive species research

    Treesearch

    Susan B. Adams; Kelly M. Burnett; Peter Bisson; Bret Harvey; Keith H. Nislow; Bruce E. Rieman; John Rinne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems include the most imperiled taxa in the United States, and invasive species are the second leading contributor to this imperilment. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service is legally mandated to sustainably manage aquatic habitats and native species on National Forest System (NFS) lands. Invasive species add complexity and...

  1. Herbicides: an unexpected ally for native plants in the war against invasive species

    Treesearch

    Andrea Watts; Tim Harrington; Dave Peter

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are primarily used for protecting agricultural crops from weeds and controlling vegetation competition in newly planted forest stands. Yet for over 40 years, they have also proven useful in controlling invasive plant species in natural areas. Nonnative invasive plant species, if not controlled, can displace native species and disrupt an ecosystem by changing...

  2. The effect of light radiation and temperature variability on the invasion of marine fouling species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Micheli, F.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change can alter the community structure as species which have adapted to the changed climate can compete better with other species. It can also influence the recruitment and invasion success of marine introduced species. Climate change involves not only global warming but also global dimming. However, it was not tested which of warming or dimming factors more significantly influence the invasion of marine species. To test this, we manipulated both temperature variability and light radiation by deploying different shading devices (black, white, transparent, and no treatment) for recruitment tiles in the warmer region where the species invasion rate is high. We compared the species frequency and coverage between shaded and non-shaded treatments. Interestingly, under opaque white plates where light radiation is lower than under transparent plates but the temperature is higher than under black plates, had the highest frequency and coverage of invasive fouling species. The recruitment tiles under black plates got second higher invasion of exotic species. We also deployed recruitment tiles in 14 different sites to determine if temperature influences the success of invasive species. The coverage of invasive species over native species increased significantly with increasing temperature. The results suggest that both low radiation and higher temperature facilitates the success of species invasion in the intertidal region.

  3. Enhancing the effectiveness of biological control programs of invasive species through a more comprehensive pest management approach.

    PubMed

    DiTomaso, Joseph M; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Nowierski, Robert M; Vollmer, Jennifer L; Lane, Eric; Chilton, Earl; Burch, Patrick L; Cowan, Phil E; Zimmerman, Kenneth; Dionigi, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest economic and ecological threats to agriculture and natural areas in the US and the world. Among the available management tools, biological control provides one of the most economical and long-term effective strategies for managing widespread and damaging invasive species populations of nearly all taxa. However, integrating biological control programs in a more complete integrated pest management approach that utilizes increased information and communication, post-release monitoring, adaptive management practices, long-term stewardship strategies, and new and innovative ecological and genetic technologies can greatly improve the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, expanding partnerships among relevant national, regional, and local agencies, as well as academic scientists and land managers, offers far greater opportunities for long-term success in the suppression of established invasive species. In this paper we direct our recommendations to federal agencies that oversee, fund, conduct research, and develop classical biological control programs for invasive species. By incorporating these recommendations into adaptive management strategies, private and public land managers will have far greater opportunities for long-term success in suppression of established invasive species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Projecting future expansion of invasive species: comparing and improving methodologies for species distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Kumar P; Warren, Dan L; Dhileepan, Kunjithapatham; McConnachie, Andrew; Strathie, Lorraine; Hassan, Gul; Karki, Debendra; Shrestha, Bharat B; Parmesan, Camille

    2015-12-01

    Modeling the distributions of species, especially of invasive species in non-native ranges, involves multiple challenges. Here, we developed some novel approaches to species distribution modeling aimed at reducing the influences of such challenges and improving the realism of projections. We estimated species-environment relationships for Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) with four modeling methods run with multiple scenarios of (i) sources of occurrences and geographically isolated background ranges for absences, (ii) approaches to drawing background (absence) points, and (iii) alternate sets of predictor variables. We further tested various quantitative metrics of model evaluation against biological insight. Model projections were very sensitive to the choice of training dataset. Model accuracy was much improved using a global dataset for model training, rather than restricting data input to the species' native range. AUC score was a poor metric for model evaluation and, if used alone, was not a useful criterion for assessing model performance. Projections away from the sampled space (i.e., into areas of potential future invasion) were very different depending on the modeling methods used, raising questions about the reliability of ensemble projections. Generalized linear models gave very unrealistic projections far away from the training region. Models that efficiently fit the dominant pattern, but exclude highly local patterns in the dataset and capture interactions as they appear in data (e.g., boosted regression trees), improved generalization of the models. Biological knowledge of the species and its distribution was important in refining choices about the best set of projections. A post hoc test conducted on a new Parthenium dataset from Nepal validated excellent predictive performance of our 'best' model. We showed that vast stretches of currently uninvaded geographic areas on multiple continents harbor highly suitable habitats for parthenium

  5. Invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. Species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. I examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. The invasive non-native plant Casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. On Anijima in 2006 and 2009, I examined endemic land snails in the genus Ogasawarana. I compared the density of live specimens and frequency of predation scars (from black rats [Rattus rattus]) on empty shells in native vegetation and Casuarina forests. The density of land snails was greater in native vegetation than in Casuarina forests in 2006. Nevertheless, radical declines in the density of land snails occurred in native vegetation since 2006 in association with increasing predation by black rats. In contrast, abundance of Ogasawarana did not decline in the Casuarina forest, where shells with predation scars from rats were rare. As a result, the density of snails was greater in the Casuarina forest than in native vegetation. Removal of Casuarina was associated with an increased proportion of shells with predation scars from rats and a decrease in the density of Ogasawarana. The thick and dense litter of Casuarina appears to provide refugia for native land snails by protecting them from predation by rats; thus, eradication of rats should precede eradication of Casuarina. Adaptive strategies, particularly those that consider the removal order of non-native species, are crucial to minimizing the unintended effects of eradication on native species. In addition, my results suggested that in some cases a given non-native species can be used to mitigate the impacts of other non-native species on native species.

  6. 78 FR 39310 - Voluntary Guidelines to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), announces the availability of two draft documents for public review: Voluntary Guidelines to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species: Recreational Activities Voluntary Guidelines to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species: Water Gardening These voluntary guidelines are intended to be used by agencies and organizations to develop materials that inform the public and industry about the risks associated with many everyday activities that may spread aquatic invasive species and harm the environment and the economy. The intent of this information is to encourage the public and industry to take precautions to limit the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  7. Research on the fundamental principles of China's marine invasive species prevention legislation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiayu

    2014-12-15

    China's coastal area is severely damaged by marine invasive species. Traditional tort theory resolves issues relevant to property damage or personal injuries, through which plaintiffs cannot cope with the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. Several defects exist within the current legal regimes, such as imperfect management systems, insufficient unified technical standards, and unsound legal responsibility systems. It is necessary to pass legislation to prevent the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. This investigation probes the fundamental principles needed for the administration and legislation of an improved legal framework to combat the problem of invasive species within China's coastal waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient species-level monitoring at the landscape scale

    Treesearch

    Barry R. Noon; Larissa L. Bailey; Thomas D. Sisk; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the population trends of multiple animal species at a landscape scale is prohibitively expensive. However, advances in survey design, statistical methods, and the ability to estimate species presence on the basis of detection­nondetection data have greatly increased the feasibility of species-level monitoring. For example, recent advances in monitoring make...

  9. The need for spatially explicit quantification of benefits in invasive-species management.

    PubMed

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Adams, Vanessa M; Hermoso, Virgilio

    2017-09-22

    Worldwide, invasive species are a leading driver of environmental change across terrestrial, marine, and freshwater environments and cost billions of dollars annually in ecological damages and economic losses. Resources limit invasive-species control, and planning processes are needed to identify cost-effective solutions. Thus, studies are increasingly considering spatially variable natural and socioeconomic assets (e.g., species persistence, recreational fishing) when planning the allocation of actions for invasive-species management. There is a need to improve understanding of how such assets are considered in invasive-species management. We reviewed over 1600 studies focused on management of invasive species, including flora and fauna. Eighty-four of these studies were included in our final analysis because they focused on the prioritization of actions for invasive species management. Forty-five percent (n = 38) of these studies were based on spatial optimization methods, and 35% (n = 13) accounted for spatially variable assets. Across all 84 optimization studies considered, 27% (n = 23) explicitly accounted for spatially variable assets. Based on our findings, we further explored the potential costs and benefits to invasive species management when spatially variable assets are explicitly considered or not. To include spatially variable assets in decision-making processes that guide invasive-species management there is a need to quantify environmental responses to invasive species and to enhance understanding of potential impacts of invasive species on different natural or socioeconomic assets. We suggest these gaps could be filled by systematic reviews, quantifying invasive species impacts on native species at different periods, and broadening sources and enhancing sharing of knowledge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of macroalgal identity on epifaunal assemblages: native species versus the invasive species Sargassum muticum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestoso, Ignacio; Olabarria, Celia; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2012-06-01

    Seaweeds are a refuge from stressful conditions associated with life on rocky intertidal shores, and there is evidence that different macrophytes support different assemblages of mobile epifauna. Introduction of non-indigenous macroalgae may have a great impact on associated epifaunal assemblages and ecosystem processes in coastal areas. Previous studies have reported conflicting evidences for the ability of epifauna to colonize non-indigenous species. Here, we analyzed epifaunal assemblages associated with three species of macroalgae that are very abundant on intertidal shores along the Galician coast: the two native species Bifurcaria bifurcata and Saccorhiza polyschides and the invasive species Sargassum muticum. We collected samples of each species from three different sites at three different times to test whether variability of epifaunal assemblages was consistent over space and time. Epifaunal assemblages differed between the three macroalgae. Results suggested that stability and morphology of habitat played an important role in shaping the structure of epifaunal assemblages. This study also showed that the invasive S. muticum offered a suitable habitat for many invertebrates.

  11. Getting the Right Traits: Reproductive and Dispersal Characteristics Predict the Invasiveness of Herbaceous Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the effect of species traits on plant invasion, we collected comparative data on 20 reproductive and dispersal traits of 93 herbaceous alien species in the Czech Republic, central Europe, introduced after 1500 A. D. We explain plant invasion success, expressed by two measures: invasiveness, i.e. whether the species is naturalized but non-invasive, or invasive; and dominance in plant communities expressed as the mean cover in vegetation plots. We also tested how important reproductive and dispersal traits are in models including other characteristics generally known to predict invasion outcome, such as plant height, life history and residence time. By using regression/classification trees we show that the biological traits affect invasion success at all life stages, from reproduction (seed production) to dispersal (propagule properties), and the ability to compete with resident species (height). By including species traits information not usually available in multispecies analyses, we provide evidence that traits do play important role in determining the outcome of invasion and can be used to distinguish between alien species that reach the final stage of the invasion process and dominate the local communities from those that do not. No effect of taxonomy ascertained in regression and classification trees indicates that the role of traits in invasiveness should be assessed primarily at the species level. PMID:25906399

  12. Invasive species change detection using artificial neural networks and CASI hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Pu, Ruiliang; Gong, Peng; Tian, Yong; Miao, Xin; Carruthers, Raymond I; Anderson, Gerald L

    2008-05-01

    For monitoring and controlling the extent and intensity of an invasive species, a direct multi-date image classification method was applied in invasive species (salt cedar) change detection in the study area of Lovelock, Nevada. With multidate Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral data sets, two types of hyperspectral CASI input data and two classifiers have been examined and compared for mapping and monitoring the salt cedar change. The two types of input data are all two-date original CASI bands and 12 principal component images (PCs) derived from the two-date CASI images. The two classifiers are an artificial neural network (ANN) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The experimental results indicate that (1) the direct multitemporal image classification method applied in land cover change detection is feasible either with original CASI bands or PCs, but a better accuracy was obtained from the CASI PCA transformed data; (2) with the same inputs of 12 PCs, the ANN outperforms the LDA due to the ANN's non-linear property and ability of handling data without a prerequisite of a certain distribution of the analysis data.

  13. Invasive species: Ocean ecosystem case studies for earth systems and environmental sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pam; Brown, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine species are increasingly transferred from areas where they are native to areas where they are not. Some nonnative species become invasive, causing undesirable impacts to environment, economy and/or human health. Nonnative marine species can be introduced through a variety of vectors, including shipping, trade, inland corridors (such as canals), and others. Effects of invasive marine species can be dramatic and irreversible. Case studies of four nonnative marine species are given (green crab, comb jelly, lionfish and Caulerpa algae).

  14. Non-invasive system for monitoring of the manufacturing equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazăre, A. G.; Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Rachieru, N.; Misztal, A.

    2017-08-01

    The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in the world that concerns the economy and the world culture. High demand has resulted in increasing of the pressure on the production lines. In conclusion, it is required more careful in monitoring of the production equipment not only for maintenance but also for staff safety and to increase the quality of production. In this paper, we propose a solution for non-invasive monitoring of the industrial equipment operation by measuring the current consumption on energy supply lines. Thus, it is determined the utilization schedule of the equipment and operation mode. Based on these measurements, it’s built an activity report for that equipment, available to the quality management and maintenance team. The solution consists of the current measuring equipment, with self-harvesting capabilities and radio transceiver, and an embedded system which run a server. The current measuring equipment will transmit data about consumption of each energy supply network line where is placed the industrial equipment. So, we have an internal measuring radio network. The embedded system will collect data for the equipment and put in a local data base and it will provide via an intranet application. The entire system not requires any supplementary energy supply and interventions in the factory infrastructure. It is experimented in a company from the automotive industries.

  15. Invasions by two non-native insects alter regional forest species composition and successional trajectories

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2015-01-01

    While invasions of individual non-native phytophagous insect species are known to affect growth and mortality of host trees, little is known about how multiple invasions combine to alter forest dynamics over large regions. In this study we integrate geographical data describing historical invasion spread of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae...

  16. Trait convergence and plasticity among native and invasive species in resource-poor environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functional trait comparisons provide a framework with which to assess invasibility and invasion resistance. Recent research and meta-analyses have produced equivocal results, finding evidence for both trait convergence and trait divergence among coexisting dominant native and invasive species. Rese...

  17. Public reaction to invasive plant species in a disturbed Colorado landscape

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Daab; Courtney G. Flint

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plant species degrade ecosystems in many ways. Controlling invasive plants is costly for government agencies, businesses, and individuals. North central Colorado is currently experiencing large-scale disturbance, and millions of acres are vulnerable to invasion because of natural and socioeconomic processes. Mountain pine beetles typically endemic to this...

  18. Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA

    Treesearch

    Gregorio I. Gavier-Pizarro; Volker C. Radeloff; Susan I. Stewart; Cynthia D. Huebner; Nicholas S. Keuler

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the factors related to invasive exotic species distributions at broad spatial scales has important theoretical and management implications, because biological invasions are detrimental to many ecosystem functions and processes. Housing development facilitates invasions by disturbing land cover, introducing nonnative landscaping plants, and facilitating...

  19. Invasive plant species and the Joint Fire Science Program.

    Treesearch

    Heather E. Erickson; Rachel White

    2007-01-01

    Invasive nonnative plants may be responsible for serious, long-term ecological impacts, including altering fire behavior and fire regimes. Therefore, knowing how to successfully manage invasive plants and their impacts on natural resources is crucial. We present a summary of research on invasive plants and fire that has been generated through the Joint Fire Science...

  20. Species pool, human population, and global versus regional invasion patterns

    Treesearch

    Qinfeng Guo; Basil V. Iannone III; Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir; Kevin M. Potter; Christopher M. Oswalt; Songlin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Context Biological invasions are among the greatest global and regional threats to biomes in the Anthropocene. Islands, in particular, have been perceived to have higher vulnerability to invasions. Because of the dynamic nature of ongoing invasions, distinguishing regional patterns from global patterns and their underlying determinants remains a challenge. Objectives...

  1. Evolutionary responses of native plant species to invasive plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Oduor, Ayub M O

    2013-12-01

    Strong competition from invasive plant species often leads to declines in abundances and may, in certain cases, cause localized extinctions of native plant species. Nevertheless, studies have shown that certain populations of native plant species can co-exist with invasive plant species,suggesting the possibility of adaptive evolutionary responses of those populations to the invasive plants. Empirical inference of evolutionary responses of the native plant species to invasive plants has involved experiments comparing two conspecific groups of native plants for differences in expression of growth/reproductive traits: populations that have experienced competition from the invasive plant species (i.e. experienced natives) versus populations with no known history of interactions with the invasive plant species (i.e. naıve natives). Here, I employ a meta-analysis to obtain a general pattern of inferred evolutionary responses of native plant species from 53 such studies. In general, the experienced natives had significantly higher growth/reproductive performances than naıve natives, when grown with or without competition from invasive plants.While the current results indicate that certain populations of native plant species could potentially adapt evolutionarily to invasive plant species, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that probably underlie such evolutionary responses remain unexplored and should be the focus of future studies.

  2. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover.

  3. Optimizing study design for multi-species avian monitoring programmes

    Treesearch

    Jamie S. Sanderlin; William M. Block; Joseph L. Ganey

    2014-01-01

    Many monitoring programmes are successful at monitoring common species, whereas rare species, which are often of highest conservation concern, may be detected infrequently. Study designs that increase the probability of detecting rare species at least once over the study period, while collecting adequate data on common species, strengthen programme ability to address...

  4. Genetic diversity of invasive species in the Great Lakes versus their Eurasian source populations: insights for risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Carol A; Brown, Joshua E; Neilson, Matthew E; Tumeo, Mark A

    2005-08-01

    Combining DNA variation data and risk assessment procedures offers important diagnostic and monitoring tools for evaluating the relative success of exotic species invasions. Risk assessment may allow us to understand how the numbers of founding individuals, genetic variants, population sources, and introduction events affect successful establishment and spread. This is particularly important in habitats that are "hotbeds" for invasive species--such as the North American Great Lakes. This study compares genetic variability and its application to risk assessment within and among three Eurasian groups and five species that successfully invaded the Great Lakes during the mid 1980s through early 1990s; including zebra and quagga mussels, round and tubenose gobies, and the ruffe. DNA sequences are compared from exotic and native populations in order to evaluate the role of genetic diversity in invasions. Close relatives are also examined, since they often invade in concert and several are saline tolerant and are likely to spread to North American estuaries. Results show that very high genetic diversity characterizes the invasions of all five species, indicating that they were founded by very large numbers of propagules and underwent no founder effects. Genetic evidence points to multiple invasion sources for both dreissenid and goby species, which appears related to especially rapid spread and widespread colonization success in a variety of habitats. In contrast, results show that the ruffe population in the Great Lakes originated from a single founding population source from the Elbe River drainage. Both the Great Lakes and the Elbe River populations of ruffe have similar genetic diversity levels--showing no founder effect, as in the other invasive species. In conclusion, high genetic variability, large numbers of founders, and multiple founding sources likely significantly contribute to the risk of an exotic species introduction's success and persistence.

  5. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species.

    PubMed

    Mello, Thayná Jeremias; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species.

  6. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  7. Assessment of substratum effect on the distribution of two invasive Caulerpa (Chlorophyta) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantes, Eduardo; Terrados, Jorge; Orfila, Alejandro

    2011-02-01

    Two-year monitoring of the invasive marine Chlorophyta Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea shows the great influence of substratum on their spatial distribution. The cover of C. taxifolia and C. racemosa was measured in shallow (<8 m) areas indicating that these species are more abundant in rocks with photophilic algae and in the dead matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica than in sand or inside the P. oceanica meadow. A short-term experiment comparing the persistence of C. taxifolia and C. racemosa planted either in a model of dead matte of P. oceanica or in sand shows that the persistence of these species was higher in the dead matte model than in sand. Correlative evidence suggests that C. taxifolia and C. racemosa tolerate near-bottom orbital velocities below 15 cm s -1 and that C. taxifolia cover declines at velocities above that value. These results contribute to understand the process of invasion of these Caulerpa species predicting which substrata would be more susceptible to be invaded and to the adoption of appropriate management strategies.

  8. Running a network on a shoestring: the Global Invasive Species Information Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Graham, James J; Newman, Gregory J.; Bargeron, Chuck T.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN) was conceptualized in 2004 to aggregate and disseminate invasive species data in a standardized way. A decade later the GISIN community has implemented a data portal and three of six GISIN data aggregation models in the GISIN data exchange Protocol, including invasive species status information, resource URLs, and occurrence data. The portal is based on a protocol developed by representatives from 15 countries and 27 organizations of the global invasive species information management community. The GISIN has 19 data providers sharing 34,343 species status records, 1,693,073 occurrences, and 15,601 resource URLs. While the GISIN's goal is to be global, much of its data and funding are provided by the United States. Several initiatives use the GISIN as their information backbone, such as the Great Lakes Early Detection Network (GLEDN) and the North American Invasive Species Network (NAISN). Here we share several success stories and organizational challenges that remain.

  9. Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Amy J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Moxcey, Michael; Pepin, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate abundance from removal data accounting for varying levels of effort, and used simulations to assess the conditions under which reliable population estimates are obtained. We applied this model to estimate site-specific abundance of an invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa), using removal data from aerial gunning in 59 site/time-frame combinations (480–19,600 acres) throughout Oklahoma and Texas, USA. Simulations showed that abundance estimates were generally accurate when effective removal rates (removal rate accounting for total effort) were above 0.40. However, when abundances were small (<50) the effective removal rate needed to accurately estimates abundances was considerably higher (0.70). Based on our post-validation method, 78% of our site/time frame estimates were accurate. To use this modeling framework it is important to have multiple removals (more than three) within a time frame during which demographic changes are minimized (i.e., a closed population; ≤3 months for feral swine). Our results show that the probability of accurately estimating abundance from this model improves with increased sampling effort (8+ flight hours across the 3-month window is best) and increased removal rate. Based on the inverse relationship between inaccurate abundances and

  10. Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amy J; Hooten, Mevin B; Miller, Ryan S; Farnsworth, Matthew L; Lewis, Jesse; Moxcey, Michael; Pepin, Kim M

    2016-10-01

    Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate abundance from removal data accounting for varying levels of effort, and used simulations to assess the conditions under which reliable population estimates are obtained. We applied this model to estimate site-specific abundance of an invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa), using removal data from aerial gunning in 59 site/time-frame combinations (480-19,600 acres) throughout Oklahoma and Texas, USA. Simulations showed that abundance estimates were generally accurate when effective removal rates (removal rate accounting for total effort) were above 0.40. However, when abundances were small (<50) the effective removal rate needed to accurately estimates abundances was considerably higher (0.70). Based on our post-validation method, 78% of our site/time frame estimates were accurate. To use this modeling framework it is important to have multiple removals (more than three) within a time frame during which demographic changes are minimized (i.e., a closed population; ≤3 months for feral swine). Our results show that the probability of accurately estimating abundance from this model improves with increased sampling effort (8+ flight hours across the 3-month window is best) and increased removal rate. Based on the inverse relationship between inaccurate abundances and

  11. The impact of invasive plants on tidal-marsh vertebrate species: common reed (Phragmites australis) and smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) as case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Nordby, J. Cully

    2006-01-01

    Large areas of tidal marsh in the contiguous US and the Maritime Provinces of Canada are threatened by invasive plant species. Our understanding of the impact these invasions have on tidal-marsh vertebrates is sparse. In this paper, we focus on two successful invasive plant taxa that have spread outside their native range --common reed (Phragmites australis) and smooth cordgrass (Spartina a/terniflora). A cryptic haplotype of common reed has expanded its range in Atlantic Coast tidal marshes and smooth cordgrass, a native dominant plant of Atlantic Coast low-marsh habitat, has expanded its range and invaded intertidal-marsh habitats of the Pacific Coast. The invasions of common reed in Atlantic Coast tidal marshes and smooth cordgrass in Pacific Coast tidal marshes appear to have similar impacts. The structure and composition of these habitats has been altered and invasion and dominance by these two taxa can lead to profound changes in geomorphological processes, altering the vertical relief and potentially affecting invertebrate communities and the entire trophic structure of these systems. Few studies have documented impacts of invasive plant taxa on tidal-marsh vertebrate species in North America. However, habitat specialists that are already considered threatened or endangered are most likely to be affected. Extensive experimental studies are needed to examine the direct impact of invasive plant species on native vertebrate species. Careful monitoring of sites during the initial stages of plant invasion and tracking ecosystem changes through time are essential. Since tidal marshes are the foci for invasion by numerous species, we also need to understand the indirect impacts of invasion of these habitats on the vertebrate community. We also suggest the initiation of studies to determine if vertebrate species can compensate behaviorally for alterations in their habitat caused by invasive plant species, as well as the potential for adaptation via rapid evolution

  12. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits

    PubMed Central

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value), habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt), and propagule pressure (frequency) were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties. PMID:27187616

  13. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits.

    PubMed

    Klonner, Günther; Fischer, Stefan; Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value), habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt), and propagule pressure (frequency) were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties.

  14. REMOTE DETENTION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  15. Morphology delimits more species than molecular genetic clusters of invasive Pilosella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Premise of the study: Reliable identifications of invasive species are essential for effective management. Several species of Pilosella (syn. Hieracium, Asteraceae) hawkweeds invade North America, where unreliable identification hinders their control. Here we ask (i) do morphological traits dependab...

  16. REMOTE DETENTION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  17. Reply to Spanhove & Lehouck "Don't miss the invasions! A note on forest health monitoring in the Taita Hills, Kenya"

    Treesearch

    Paul C. Rogers

    2008-01-01

    Spanhove and Lehouck raise several excellent points in their critique of "Forest Health Monitoring in the Ngangao Forest, Taita Hills, Kenya: A Five Year Assessment of Change" (JEANH 97(1): 3-17). Their central argument, that Rogers et al. neglected monitoring of invasive alien species in their assessment of 'forest health',...

  18. A Hands-On Activity to Introduce the Effects of Transmission by an Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Barbara Jean

    2013-01-01

    This activity engages students to better understand the impact of transmission by invasive species. Using dice, poker chips, and paper plates, an entire class mimics the spread of an invasive species within a geographic region. The activity can be modified and conducted at the K-16 levels.

  19. Invasive species and disturbances: Current and future roles of Forest Service Research and Development

    Treesearch

    Mary Ellen Dix; Marilyn Buford; Jim Slavicek; Allen M. Solomon; Susan G. Conard

    2010-01-01

    The success of an invasive species is in large part due to favorable conditions resulting from the complex interactions among natural and anthropogenic factors such as native and nonnative pests, fires, droughts, hurricanes, wind storms, ice storms, climate warming, management practices, human travel, and trade. Reducing the negative effects of invasive species and...

  20. THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE: THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S RESPONSE TO INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responding to the scientific and regulatory challenges of invasive species in a variety of ways. One response has been to use existing programs and regulations, as appropriate, to address invasive species. A recent example is th...

  1. Invasive Species as Ecological Threat: Is Restoration an Alternative to Fear-based Resource Management?

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species is a hot topic in the USDA Forest Service these days. Along with wildfire, land conversion and unmanaged recreation, Chief Dale Bosworth has called invasive species one of the `Four Threats` needing the attention of Forest Service land managers and researchers (USDA Forest Service 2004). My unit of the Forest Service, the North Central Research...

  2. There is no silver bullet: the value of diversification in planning invasive species surveillance

    Treesearch

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H. Koch; Bo Lu; D. Barry Lyons; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Taylor Scarr; Klaus Koehler

    2014-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate how the notion of diversification can be used in broad-scale resource allocation for surveillance of invasive species. We consider the problem of short-term surveillance for an invasive species in a geographical environment.Wefind the optimal allocation of surveillance resourcesamongmultiple geographical subdivisions via application of a...

  3. Exotic annual Bromus invasions: Comparisons among species and ecoregions in the western United States [Chapter 2

    Treesearch

    Matthew L. Brooks; Cynthia S. Brown; Jeanne C. Chambers; Carla M. D' Antonio; Jon E. Keeley; Jayne Belnap

    2016-01-01

    Exotic annual Bromus species are widely recognized for their potential to invade, dominate, and alter the structure and function of ecosystems. In this chapter, we summarize the invasion potential, ecosystem threats, and management strategies for different Bromus species within each of five ecoregions of the western United States. We characterize invasion...

  4. The role of the Forest Service in the economics of invasive species research

    Treesearch

    Linda L. Langner; Jeffrey P Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species increasingly influence various sectors of the economy through their effects on agricultural, forest, range, aquatic, and urban ecosystems. Policymakers evaluating the actual and potential effects of invasive species are concerned with allocating scarce taxpayer resources among a variety of competing governmental actions. To make allocation choices,...

  5. A Hands-On Activity to Introduce the Effects of Transmission by an Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Barbara Jean

    2013-01-01

    This activity engages students to better understand the impact of transmission by invasive species. Using dice, poker chips, and paper plates, an entire class mimics the spread of an invasive species within a geographic region. The activity can be modified and conducted at the K-16 levels.

  6. THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE: THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S RESPONSE TO INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responding to the scientific and regulatory challenges of invasive species in a variety of ways. One response has been to use existing programs and regulations, as appropriate, to address invasive species. A recent example is th...

  7. Phenotypic Plasticity and Population Differentiation in an Ongoing Species Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Matesanz, Silvia; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Sultan, Sonia E.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to succeed in diverse conditions is a key factor allowing introduced species to successfully invade and spread across new areas. Two non-exclusive factors have been suggested to promote this ability: adaptive phenotypic plasticity of individuals, and the evolution of locally adapted populations in the new range. We investigated these individual and population-level factors in Polygonum cespitosum, an Asian annual that has recently become invasive in northeastern North America. We characterized individual fitness, life-history, and functional plasticity in response to two contrasting glasshouse habitat treatments (full sun/dry soil and understory shade/moist soil) in 165 genotypes sampled from nine geographically separate populations representing the range of light and soil moisture conditions the species inhabits in this region. Polygonum cespitosum genotypes from these introduced-range populations expressed broadly similar plasticity patterns. In response to full sun, dry conditions, genotypes from all populations increased photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, and allocation to root tissues, dramatically increasing reproductive fitness compared to phenotypes expressed in simulated understory shade. Although there were subtle among-population differences in mean trait values as well as in the slope of plastic responses, these population differences did not reflect local adaptation to environmental conditions measured at the population sites of origin. Instead, certain populations expressed higher fitness in both glasshouse habitat treatments. We also compared the introduced-range populations to a single population from the native Asian range, and found that the native population had delayed phenology, limited functional plasticity, and lower fitness in both experimental environments compared with the introduced-range populations. Our results indicate that the future spread of P. cespitosum in its introduced range will likely be fueled by

  8. Preventing species invasion: A role for integrative taxonomy?

    PubMed

    Mazzamuto, Maria V; Galimberti, Andrea; Cremonesi, Giacomo; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Stuyck, Jan; Amori, Giovanni; Su, Haijun; Aloise, Gaetano; Preatoni, Damiano G; Wauters, Lucas A; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Martinoli, Adriano

    2016-05-01

    Integrative taxonomy, a multi-disciplinary approach adding modern techniques to traditional morphology-based methods (e.g. molecular and morphological criteria), can play an important role in bioinvasion research to identify introduced taxa, discover pathways of introduction and inform authorities to control and prevent future introductions. The present study is the first on introduced populations of Callosciurus, Asiatic tree squirrels, known as potentially invasive species in Europe (Italy, Belgium and France). We combined molecular (mitochondrial DNA markers: CoxI, D-loop) and morphometric analysis on skulls, comparing them to the widest morphological and molecular datasets ever assembled for Callosciurus. Squirrels collected in Italy and Belgium share the same haplotypes and skull characteristics, but are conspicuously different from the French population in Antibes. Genetic data revealed close similarity between French squirrels and Pallas's squirrels, Callosciurus erythraeus, from Taiwan, China. Italian and Belgian squirrels formed an independent taxonomic lineage in genetic analyses, whose taxonomic rank needs further investigation. The morphological and morphometric characteristics of these 2 populations are, however, similar to known specimens assigned to Callosciurus erythraeus. These results may indicate a common origin for the populations found in Belgium and Italy. In contrast, French specimens suggest an independent introduction event of squirrels originating from Asia.

  9. Composting for management and resource recovery of invasive Acacia species.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species was investigated. Pile temperatures exceeded 65ºC for several months, indicating that the composting process was effective at pathogen inactivation and seed destruction. Mineralisation of Acacia biomass was described by a two-component, first-order exponential model; the pool sizes for labile and recalcitrant organic matter (OM) were similar and in the approximate ranges: 360-410 g kg(-1) and 350-390 g kg(-1) of initial OM, respectively. Concentrations of conservative nutrients increased proportionally to OM mineralisation, enriching the compost as an agricultural nutrient source. Nitrogen concentrations also increased, but were more dynamic as nitrogen losses were difficult to control, although we suggest that they may be potentially minimised by restricting the turning frequency. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilised end-product, and the high OM content and low electrical conductivity (<1.2 dS m(-1)), in particular, were suitable for soil improvement or as substrate components.

  10. Evolution of invasive traits in nonindigenous species: increased survival and faster growth in invasive populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus).

    PubMed

    Sargent, Lindsey W; Lodge, David M

    2014-09-01

    The importance of evolution in enhancing the invasiveness of species is not well understood, especially in animals. To evaluate evolution in crayfish invasions, we tested for differences in growth rate, survival, and response to predators between native and invaded range populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus). We hypothesized that low conspecific densities during introductions into lakes would select for increased investment in growth and reproduction in invasive populations. We reared crayfish from both ranges in common garden experiments in lakes and mesocosms, the latter in which we also included treatments of predatory fish presence and food quality. In both lake and mesocosm experiments, O. rusticus from invasive populations had significantly faster growth rates and higher survival than individuals from the native range, especially in mesocosms where fish were present. There was no influence of within-range collection location on growth rate. Egg size was similar between ranges and did not affect crayfish growth. Our results, therefore, suggest that growth rate, which previous work has shown contributes to strong community-level impacts of this invasive species, has diverged since O. rusticus was introduced to the invaded range. This result highlights the need to consider evolutionary dynamics in invasive species mitigation strategies.

  11. Evolution of invasive traits in nonindigenous species: increased survival and faster growth in invasive populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus)

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Lindsey W; Lodge, David M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of evolution in enhancing the invasiveness of species is not well understood, especially in animals. To evaluate evolution in crayfish invasions, we tested for differences in growth rate, survival, and response to predators between native and invaded range populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus). We hypothesized that low conspecific densities during introductions into lakes would select for increased investment in growth and reproduction in invasive populations. We reared crayfish from both ranges in common garden experiments in lakes and mesocosms, the latter in which we also included treatments of predatory fish presence and food quality. In both lake and mesocosm experiments, O. rusticus from invasive populations had significantly faster growth rates and higher survival than individuals from the native range, especially in mesocosms where fish were present. There was no influence of within-range collection location on growth rate. Egg size was similar between ranges and did not affect crayfish growth. Our results, therefore, suggest that growth rate, which previous work has shown contributes to strong community-level impacts of this invasive species, has diverged since O. rusticus was introduced to the invaded range. This result highlights the need to consider evolutionary dynamics in invasive species mitigation strategies. PMID:25469173

  12. Low genetic diversity despite multiple introductions of the invasive plant species Impatiens glandulifera in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Hülskötter, Jennifer; Acharya, Kamal Prasad; Brunet, Jörg; Chabrerie, Olivier; Cousins, Sara A O; Dar, Pervaiz A; Diekmann, Martin; De Frenne, Pieter; Hermy, Martin; Jamoneau, Aurélien; Kolb, Annette; Lemke, Isgard; Plue, Jan; Reshi, Zafar A; Graae, Bente Jessen

    2015-08-20

    Invasive species can be a major threat to native biodiversity and the number of invasive plant species is increasing across the globe. Population genetic studies of invasive species can provide key insights into their invasion history and ensuing evolution, but also for their control. Here we genetically characterise populations of Impatiens glandulifera, an invasive plant in Europe that can have a major impact on native plant communities. We compared populations from the species' native range in Kashmir, India, to those in its invaded range, along a latitudinal gradient in Europe. For comparison, the results from 39 other studies of genetic diversity in invasive species were collated. Our results suggest that I. glandulifera was established in the wild in Europe at least twice, from an area outside of our Kashmir study area. Our results further revealed that the genetic diversity in invasive populations of I. glandulifera is unusually low compared to native populations, in particular when compared to other invasive species. Genetic drift rather than mutation seems to have played a role in differentiating populations in Europe. We find evidence of limitations to local gene flow after introduction to Europe, but somewhat less restrictions in the native range. I. glandulifera populations with significant inbreeding were only found in the species' native range and invasive species in general showed no increase in inbreeding upon leaving their native ranges. In Europe we detect cases of migration between distantly located populations. Human activities therefore seem to, at least partially, have facilitated not only introductions, but also further spread of I. glandulifera across Europe. Although multiple introductions will facilitate the retention of genetic diversity in invasive ranges, widespread invasive species can remain genetically relatively invariant also after multiple introductions. Phenotypic plasticity may therefore be an important component of the

  13. In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella invasion by indigenous chicken Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Tierney, J; Gowing, H; Van Sinderen, D; Flynn, S; Stanley, L; McHardy, N; Hallahan, S; Mulcahy, G

    2004-07-14

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indigenous chicken Lactobacillus species isolates from different parts of the gastrointestinal tract on Eimeria tenella invasion in vitro and to characterise the nature of inhibition, if any. The effects of competitive exclusion, steric interference and bacterial extracellular factors on E. tenella invasion were examined in an MDBK cell model. Several Lactobacillus species were initially isolated from chickens and identified by biochemical characteristics and 16S-rRNA. All Lactobacillus species isolates tested, significantly inhibited E. tenella invasion. Steric interference did not affect parasite invasion. Extracellular metabolic factors secreted by Lactobacillus species isolates into the surrounding media were shown to inhibit parasite invasion and these factors appeared to be heat stable. These results show that the natural microflora of poultry can provide a source of E. tenella-inhibiting Lactobacillus species in vitro, and thus may contribute to the control of Eimeria infection.

  14. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities.

    PubMed

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lawler, Joshua J; Olden, Julian D; Blumenthal, Dana M; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P; Sorte, Cascade J B; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-08-23

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion.

  15. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    PubMed Central

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  16. Performance of One-Class Classifiers for Invasive Species Mapping using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronek, S.; Asner, G. P.; Feilhauer, H.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable distribution maps are crucial for the monitoring and management of invasive plant species. Remote sensing can provide such maps for larger areas. However, most remote sensing approaches focus on species in a prominent phenological stage, and a systematic assessment of the performance of different one-class classifiers for mapping species in a more inconspicuous phenological stage is missing so far. In this study, we used hyperspectral remote sensing data to detect the invasive grass Phalaris aquatica and the invasive herb Centaurea solstitialisin a pre-flowering stage in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in California. We collected presence-only data, 66 plots for C. solstitialis and 30 plots for P. aquatica, to calibrate a distribution model and additional presence-absence data (166 / 173 plots) to validate model performance. All plots have a size of 3 m x 3 m. The hyperspectral remote sensing imagery was acquired using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer (400-2500 nm range) in May 2015 with a ground sampling distance (pixel size) of 1 m x 1 m. To find the best approach for mapping these species, we compared the performance of three different state-of-the-art classifiers working with presence-only data: Maxent, biased support vector machines and boosted regression trees. The resulting overall accuracies were 72 - 74% for C. solstitialis, and 83 - 88% for P. aquatica. For both species the overall performance was slightly better for Maxent and BRT than for biased SVM. The detection rates for low cover plots were considerably higher for C. solstitialis than for P. aquatica. For C. solstitalis, they ranged between 71 and 75% for plots with less than 15% cover, highlighting the potential of remote sensing to contribute to an early detection. The models relied on different areas of the spectrum, but still produced the same general pattern, which implies that more than one property of a species or

  17. Invasion rates increase with species richness in a marine epibenthic community by two mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, Piers K; Johnson, Craig R

    2004-01-01

    It is widely believed that, when extrinsic conditions are similar, the likelihood of species invading established assemblages decreases with increasing species richness of the recipient community. Here we show that, for a sessile marine invertebrate community, invasion of patches increases with richness of the patch. We show that invasions can increase with local species richness by two distinct mechanisms. In the first, opportunistic colonisers with traits typical of invasive species colonise species-rich patches at higher rates because speciose patches are dominated by small colonies and mortality rates of small colonies are greater than that of large ones. Thus, mortality provides bare space for opportunists to colonise more frequently in species-rich patches. In the second, some species avoid colonising open areas of free space but preferentially associate with established colonies of particular other species, and a given preferred associate is more likely to occur in species-rich than in species-poor patches. These patterns are the result of particular properties of individual species and local species dynamics, and show that reduced risk of invasion is not necessarily an intrinsic property of species-rich communities. We conclude that resistance to invasion will be determined by the properties of the particular component species and emergent dynamics of the recipient community, and not by an aggregate community property such as richness.

  18. Ecology of invasive mosquitoes: effects on resident species and on human health

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of biological invasions focus on patterns and processes that are related to introduction, establishment, spread and impacts of introduced species. This review focuses on the ecological interactions operating during invasions by the most prominent group of insect vectors of disease, mosquitoes. First, we review characteristics of non-native mosquito species that have established viable populations, and those invasive species that have spread widely and had major impacts, testing whether biotic characteristics are associated with the transition from established non-native to invasive. Second, we review the roles of interspecific competition, apparent competition, predation, intraguild predation and climatic limitation as causes of impacts on residents or as barriers to invasion. We concentrate on the best-studied invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus, evaluating the application of basic ecological theory to invasions by Aedes albopictus. We develop a model based on observations of Aedes albopictus for effects of resource competition and predation as barriers to invasion, evaluating which community and ecosystem characteristics favour invasion. Third, we evaluate the ways in which invasive mosquitoes have contributed to outbreaks of human and animal disease, considering specifically whether invasive mosquitoes create novel health threats, or modify disease transmission for existing pathogen–host systems. PMID:17637849

  19. Trait Values, Not Trait Plasticity, Best Explain Invasive Species' Performance in a Changing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Matzek, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se. PMID:23119098

  20. Trait values, not trait plasticity, best explain invasive species' performance in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Matzek, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se.

  1. Capacity of management plans for aquatic invasive species to integrate climate change.

    PubMed

    Bierwagen, Britta G; Thomas, Roxanne; Kane, Austin

    2008-06-01

    The consequences of climate change will affect aquatic ecosystems, including aquatic invasive species (AIS) that are already affecting these ecosystems. Effects on AIS include range shifts and more frequent overwintering of species. These effects may create new challenges for AIS management. We examined available U.S. state AIS management plans to assess each program's capacity to adapt to climate-change effects. We scored the adaptive capacity of AIS management plans on the basis of whether they addressed potential impacts resulting from climate change; demonstrated a capacity to adapt to changing conditions; provided for monitoring strategies; provided for plan revisions; and described funding for implementation. Most plans did not mention climate change specifically, but some did acknowledge climatic boundaries of species and ecosystem sensitivities to changing conditions. Just under half the plans mentioned changing environmental conditions as a factor, most frequently as part of research activities. Activities associated with monitoring showed the highest capacity to include information on changing conditions, and future revisions to management plans are likely to be the easiest avenue through which to address climate-change effects on AIS management activities. Our results show that programs have the capacity to incorporate information about climate-change effects and that the adaptive-management framework may be an appropriate approach.

  2. Invasive species and climate change: an agronomic perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increase in the introduction of new, invasive pests (pathogens, fungi, weeds and insects) represents a significant challenge to USDA in maintaining a secure, safe and adequate food supply. Although invasive biology has become the focus of a number of research efforts, no systematic evaluation o...

  3. Do invasive species perform better in their new ranges?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fundamental assumption in invasion biology is that successful invaders exhibit enhanced vigor following introductions to new ranges, including larger size, greater fecundity, and denser populations. This assumption of ‘increased vigour’ underlies most empirical and theoretical studies of invasion ...

  4. Spatial Pattern and Determinants of the First Detection Locations of Invasive Alien Species in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dingcheng; Zhang, Runzhi; Kim, Ke Chung; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2012-01-01

    Background The unintentional transport of species as a result of human activities has reached unprecedented rates. Once established, introduced species can be nearly impossible to eradicate. It is therefore essential to identify and monitor locations where invaders are most likely to establish new populations. Despite the obvious value of early detection, how does an agency identify areas that are most vulnerable to new invaders? Here we propose a novel approach by using the “first detection location” (FDL) of introduced species in China to quantify characteristics of areas where introduced species are first reported. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained FDLs for 166 species (primarily agricultural and forestry pests) that were unintentionally introduced into China prior to 2008 from literature searches. The spatial pattern and determinants of FDLs were examined at the provincial level. The spatial pattern of FDLs varied among provinces with more commerce and trade and economically developed provinces in coastal regions having more FDLs than interior provinces. For example, 74.6% of FDLs were distributed in coastal regions despite that they only cover 15.6% of the total area in China. Variables that may be indicators of “introduction pressure” (e.g. the amount of received commerce) had an overwhelming effect on the number of FDLs in each province (R2 = 0.760). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that “introduction pressure” may be one of the most important factors that determine the locations where newly-introduced species are first detected, and that open and developed provinces in China should be prioritized when developing monitoring programs that focus on locating and managing new introductions. Our study illustrates that FDL approaches can contribute to the study and management of biological invasions not only for China but also for elsewhere. PMID:22363715

  5. DNA in a bottle—Rapid metabarcoding survey for early alerts of invasive species in ports

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Laura; Do Huu, Hoang; Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Biota monitoring in ports is increasingly needed for biosecurity reasons and safeguarding marine biodiversity from biological invasion. Present and future international biosecurity directives can be accomplished only if the biota acquired by maritime traffic in ports is controlled. Methodologies for biota inventory are diverse and now rely principally on extensive and labor-intensive sampling along with taxonomic identification by experts. In this study, we employed an extremely simplified environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling methodology from only three 1-L bottles of water per port, followed by metabarcoding (high-throughput sequencing and DNA-based species identification) using 18S rDNA and Cytochrome oxidase I as genetic barcodes. Eight Bay of Biscay ports with available inventory of fouling invertebrates were employed as a case study. Despite minimal sampling efforts, three invasive invertebrates were detected: the barnacle Austrominius modestus, the tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus and the polychaete Polydora triglanda. The same species have been previously found from visual and DNA barcoding (genetic identification of individuals) surveys in the same ports. The current costs of visual surveys, conventional DNA barcoding and this simplified metabarcoding protocol were compared. The results encourage the use of metabarcoding for early biosecurity alerts. PMID:28873426

  6. DNA in a bottle-Rapid metabarcoding survey for early alerts of invasive species in ports.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Yaisel J; Miralles, Laura; Do Huu, Hoang; Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Biota monitoring in ports is increasingly needed for biosecurity reasons and safeguarding marine biodiversity from biological invasion. Present and future international biosecurity directives can be accomplished only if the biota acquired by maritime traffic in ports is controlled. Methodologies for biota inventory are diverse and now rely principally on extensive and labor-intensive sampling along with taxonomic identification by experts. In this study, we employed an extremely simplified environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling methodology from only three 1-L bottles of water per port, followed by metabarcoding (high-throughput sequencing and DNA-based species identification) using 18S rDNA and Cytochrome oxidase I as genetic barcodes. Eight Bay of Biscay ports with available inventory of fouling invertebrates were employed as a case study. Despite minimal sampling efforts, three invasive invertebrates were detected: the barnacle Austrominius modestus, the tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus and the polychaete Polydora triglanda. The same species have been previously found from visual and DNA barcoding (genetic identification of individuals) surveys in the same ports. The current costs of visual surveys, conventional DNA barcoding and this simplified metabarcoding protocol were compared. The results encourage the use of metabarcoding for early biosecurity alerts.

  7. Species richness and interacting factors control invasibility of a marine community

    PubMed Central

    Marraffini, M. L.; Geller, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic vectors have moved marine species around the world leading to increased invasions and expanded species' ranges. The biotic resistance hypothesis of Elton (in The ecology of invasions by animals and plants, 1958) predicts that more diverse communities should have greater resistance to invasions, but experiments have been equivocal. We hypothesized that species richness interacts with other factors to determine experimental outcomes. We manipulated species richness, species composition (native and introduced) and availability of bare space in invertebrate assemblages in a marina in Monterey, CA. Increased species richness significantly interacted with both initial cover of native species and of all organisms to collectively decrease recruitment. Although native species decreased recruitment, introduced species had a similar effect, and we concluded that biotic resistance is conferred by total species richness. We suggest that contradictory conclusions in previous studies about the role of diversity in regulating invasions reflect uncontrolled variables in those experiments that modified the effect of species richness. Our results suggest that patches of low diversity and abundance may facilitate invasions, and that such patches, once colonized by non-indigenous species, can resist both native and non-indigenous species recruitment. PMID:26203005

  8. Species richness and interacting factors control invasibility of a marine community.

    PubMed

    Marraffini, M L; Geller, J B

    2015-08-07

    Anthropogenic vectors have moved marine species around the world leading to increased invasions and expanded species' ranges. The biotic resistance hypothesis of Elton (in The ecology of invasions by animals and plants, 1958) predicts that more diverse communities should have greater resistance to invasions, but experiments have been equivocal. We hypothesized that species richness interacts with other factors to determine experimental outcomes. We manipulated species richness, species composition (native and introduced) and availability of bare space in invertebrate assemblages in a marina in Monterey, CA. Increased species richness significantly interacted with both initial cover of native species and of all organisms to collectively decrease recruitment. Although native species decreased recruitment, introduced species had a similar effect, and we concluded that biotic resistance is conferred by total species richness. We suggest that contradictory conclusions in previous studies about the role of diversity in regulating invasions reflect uncontrolled variables in those experiments that modified the effect of species richness. Our results suggest that patches of low diversity and abundance may facilitate invasions, and that such patches, once colonized by non-indigenous species, can resist both native and non-indigenous species recruitment.

  9. Economic impacts of invasive species in forest past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Holmes; Juliann E. Aukema; Betsy Von Holle; Andrew Liebhold; Erin Sills

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative species are a by-product of economic activities, with the vast majority of nonnative species introduced by trade and transport of products and people. Although most introduced species are relatively innocuous, a few species ultimately cause irreversible economic and ecological impacts, such as the chestnut blight that functionally...

  10. Recruitment and Retention of Volunteers in a Citizen Science Network to Detect Invasive Species on Private Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andow, David A.; Borgida, Eugene; Hurley, Terrance M.; Williams, Allison L.

    2016-10-01

    Volunteer citizen monitoring is an increasingly important source of scientific data. We developed a volunteer program for early detection of new invasive species by private landowners on their own land. Early detection of an invasive species, however, subjects the landowner to the potentially costly risk of government intervention to control the invasive species. We hypothesized that an adult experiential learning module could increase recruitment and retention because private landowners could learn more about and understand the social benefits of early detection and more accurately gauge the level of personal risk. The experiential learning module emphasized group discussion and individual reflection of risks and benefits of volunteering and included interactions with experts and regulatory personnel. A population of woodland owners with >2 ha of managed oak woodland in central Minnesota were randomly assigned to recruitment treatments: (a) the experiential learning module or (b) a letter inviting their participation. The recruitment and retention rates and data quality were similar for the two methods. However, volunteers who experienced the learning module were more likely to recruit new volunteers than those who merely received an invitation letter. Thus the module may indirectly affect recruitment of new volunteers. The data collection was complex and required the volunteers to complete timely activities, yet the volunteers provided sufficiently high quality data that was useful to the organizers. Volunteers can collect complex data and are willing to assume personal risk to contribute to early detection of invasive species.

  11. Recruitment and Retention of Volunteers in a Citizen Science Network to Detect Invasive Species on Private Lands.

    PubMed

    Andow, David A; Borgida, Eugene; Hurley, Terrance M; Williams, Allison L

    2016-10-01

    Volunteer citizen monitoring is an increasingly important source of scientific data. We developed a volunteer program for early detection of new invasive species by private landowners on their own land. Early detection of an invasive species, however, subjects the landowner to the potentially costly risk of government intervention to control the invasive species. We hypothesized that an adult experiential learning module could increase recruitment and retention because private landowners could learn more about and understand the social benefits of early detection and more accurately gauge the level of personal risk. The experiential learning module emphasized group discussion and individual reflection of risks and benefits of volunteering and included interactions with experts and regulatory personnel. A population of woodland owners with >2 ha of managed oak woodland in central Minnesota were randomly assigned to recruitment treatments: (a) the experiential learning module or (b) a letter inviting their participation. The recruitment and retention rates and data quality were similar for the two methods. However, volunteers who experienced the learning module were more likely to recruit new volunteers than those who merely received an invitation letter. Thus the module may indirectly affect recruitment of new volunteers. The data collection was complex and required the volunteers to complete timely activities, yet the volunteers provided sufficiently high quality data that was useful to the organizers. Volunteers can collect complex data and are willing to assume personal risk to contribute to early detection of invasive species.

  12. Different responses of invasive and native species to elevated CO 2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liying; Wu, Jinrong; Li, Changhan; Li, Furong; Peng, Shaolin; Chen, Baoming

    2009-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration is regarded as an important factor facilitating invasion. However, the mechanisms by which invasive plants spread at the expense of existing native plants are poorly understood. In this study, three invasive species ( Mikania micrantha, Wedelia trilobata and Ipomoea cairica) and their indigenous co-occurring species or congeners ( Paederia scandens, Wedelia chinensis and Ipomoea pescaprae) in South China were exposed to elevated CO 2 concentration (700 μmol mol -1). The invasive species showed an average increase of 67.1% in photosynthetic rate, significantly different from the native species (24.8%). On average the increase of total biomass at elevated CO 2 was greater for invasive species (70.3%) than for the natives (30.5%). Elevated CO 2 also resulted in significant changes in biomass allocation and morphology of invasive M. micrantha and W. trilobata. These results indicate a substantial variation in response to elevated CO 2 between these invasive and native plant species, which might be a potential mechanism partially explaining the success of invasion with ongoing increase in atmospheric CO 2.

  13. An invasive species facilitates the recovery of salt marsh ecosystems on Cape Cod.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Coverdale, Tyler C

    2013-09-01

    With global increases in human impacts, invasive species have become a major threat to ecosystems worldwide. While they have been traditionally viewed as harmful, invasive species may facilitate the restoration of degraded ecosystems outside their native ranges. In New England (USA) overfishing has depleted salt marsh predators, allowing the herbivorous crab Sesarma reticulatum to denude hundreds of hectares of low marsh. Here, using multiple site surveys and field caging experiments, we show that the subsequent invasion of green crabs, Carcinus maenas, into heavily burrowed marshes partially reverses decades of cordgrass die-off. By consuming Sesarma, eliciting a nonlethal escape response, and evicting Sesarma from burrows, Carcinus reduces Sesarma herbivory and promotes cordgrass recovery. These results suggest that invasive species can contribute to restoring degraded ecosystems and underscores the potential for invasive species to return ecological functions lost to human impacts.

  14. Study on species invasion warning modeling using GIS and data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Lijun; Li, Jiatian; Albright, Thomas P.; Guo, Qinfeng; Ma, Li

    2007-11-01

    Biological invasion has been one of the most dramatic ecological even in human history that threatens our economy, public health and ecological integrity. GIS and Remote Sensing technology should be integrated with spatial data mining to recognize the patterns of invasive species over space and time and predict the distribution at the large-scale. Presented with the challenge of problems during the prediction modeling including the uncertainty in biodiversity data, the uncertainty in model selection, and the uncertainty in niche cross the geographic space, this paper used information-theoretic approaches based on a set of GIS/RS environment layers to generate two kinds of species invasion warning models: global species invasion warning model (G-SIWM) and local species invasion warning model (L-SIWM) and illustrated the approach through a habitat-suitability analysis of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.).

  15. Temperature tolerance and stress proteins as mechanisms of invasive species success.

    PubMed

    Zerebecki, Robyn A; Sorte, Cascade J B

    2011-04-26

    Invasive species are predicted to be more successful than natives as temperatures increase with climate change. However, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms that theoretically underlie this differential success. Because correlative evidence suggests that invasiveness is related to the width of a species' latitudinal range, it has been assumed--but largely untested--that range width predicts breadth of habitat temperatures and physiological thermotolerances. In this study, we use empirical data from a marine community as a case study to address the hypotheses that (1) geographic temperature range attributes are related to temperature tolerance, leading to greater eurythermality in invasive species, and (2) stress protein expression is a subcellular mechanism that could contribute to differences in thermotolerance. We examined three native and six invasive species common in the subtidal epibenthic communities of California, USA. We assessed thermotolerance by exposing individuals to temperatures between 14°C and 31°C and determining the temperature lethal to 50% of individuals (LT(50)) after a 24 hour exposure. We found a strong positive relationship between the LT(50) and both maximum habitat temperatures and the breadth of temperatures experience across the species' ranges. In addition, of the species in our study, invasives tended to inhabit broader habitat temperature ranges and higher maximum temperatures. Stress protein expression may contribute to these differences: the more thermotolerant, invasive species Diplosoma listerianum expressed higher levels of a 70-kDa heat-shock protein than the less thermotolerant, native Distaplia occidentalis for which levels declined sharply above the LT(50). Our data highlight differences between native and invasive species with respect to organismal and cellular temperature tolerances. Future studies should address, across a broader phylogenetic and ecosystem scope, whether this physiological mechanism

  16. Invasive species. Part 1: general aspects and biodiversity. Part 2: concrete examples.

    PubMed

    Pastoret, P P; Moutou, F

    2010-04-01

    The problem of invasive species is of interest to researchers in a variety of different fields, including biology, epidemiology, agriculture, public health and even human sciences. It is an issue that affects all regions of the world to a greater or lesser extent. It can also have detrimental effects on animal health and biodiversity. For example, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (lUCN) reported that 625 (51%) of known endangered species are threatened because of invasive (alien) species.

  17. Non-invasive continuous arterial pressure monitoring with Nexfin does not sufficiently replace invasive measurements in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hohn, A; Defosse, J M; Becker, S; Steffen, C; Wappler, F; Sakka, S G

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we tested the reliability of a non-invasive finger-cuff-based continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring device (Nexfin, BMEYE, Amsterdam, NL) in critically ill surgical patients. Invasive intra-arterial and non-invasive arterial pressure measurements from 25 patients during a 4-h period were compared at five time points. Correlation and linear regression analysis were used and mean bias, precision [sd of bias] and limits of agreement (LOA) [bias (2.0 sd)] were calculated using the Bland-Altman method. Eight data pairs were excluded because of error message from the non-invasive technique, and thus a total of 117 data pairs were analysed. Overall, correlation between mean arterial pressure (MAP) was r(2)=0.50. Bias, precision, and LOA between invasive and non-invasive MAP were 6 (12) and -18 to +30 mm Hg. In patients requiring norepinephrine (83 data pairs), correlation was r(2)=0.28 and bias, precision, and LOA were 6 (13) and -20 to +32 mm Hg, whereas in patients not receiving norepinephrine (34 data pairs) r(2) was 0.80 and mean bias, precision, and LOA were 6 (11) and -16 to +28 mm Hg. In patients with peripheral oedema (49 data pairs), r(2) was 0.40 and mean bias, precision and LOA were 7 (15) and -23 to +37 mm Hg. In patients without oedema (64 data pairs), r(2) was 0.66 and mean bias, precision, and LOA were 5 (9) and -13 to +23 mm Hg. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring with Nexfin does not seem to be sufficiently accurate to replace intra-arterial invasive blood pressure measurements in critically ill patients.

  18. Using a novel spatial tool to inform invasive species early detection and rapid response efforts.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Alisha D; Fusaro, Abigail J; Kashian, Donna R

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  19. Using a Novel Spatial Tool to Inform Invasive Species Early Detection and Rapid Response Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Fusaro, Abigail J.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  20. Mutualism between co-introduced species facilitates invasion and alters plant community structure

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Kirsten M.; Robinson, Jennifer M.; Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A.; Frederickson, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized mutualisms are often predicted to be resilient to changes in partner identity. Variation in mutualism-related traits between native and invasive species however, can exacerbate the spread of invasive species (‘invasional meltdown’) if invasive partners strongly interact. Here we show how invasion by a seed-dispersing ant (Myrmica rubra) promotes recruitment of a co-introduced invasive over native ant-dispersed (myrmecochorous) plants. We created experimental communities of invasive (M. rubra) or native ants (Aphaenogaster rudis) and invasive and native plants and measured seed dispersal and plant recruitment. In our mesocosms, and in laboratory and field trials, M. rubra acted as a superior seed disperser relative to the native ant. By contrast, previous studies have found that invasive ants are often poor seed dispersers compared with native ants. Despite belonging to the same behavioural guild, seed-dispersing ants were not functionally redundant. Instead, native and invasive ants had strongly divergent effects on plant communities: the invasive plant dominated in the presence of the invasive ant and the native plants dominated in the presence of the native ant. Community changes were not due to preferences for coevolved partners: variation in functional traits of linked partners drove differences. Here, we show that strongly interacting introduced mutualists can be major drivers of ecological change. PMID:25540283

  1. Novel insights on population and range edge dynamics using an unparalleled spatiotemporal record of species invasion.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Kristine; Johnson, Derek M

    2017-09-11

    Quantifying the complex spatial dynamics taking place at range edges is critical for understanding future distributions of species, yet very few systems have sufficient data or the spatial resolution to empirically test these dynamics. This paper reviews how data from a large-scale pest management program have provided important contributions to the fields of population dynamics and invasion biology. The invasion of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is well-documented from its introduction near Boston, Massachusetts USA in 1869 to its current extent of over 900,000 km(2) in Eastern North America. Over the past two decades, the USDA Forest Service Slow the Spread (STS) program for managing the future spread of gypsy moth has produced unrivaled spatiotemporal data across the invasion front. The STS program annually deploys a grid of 60,000 - 100,000 pheromone-baited traps, currently extending from Minnesota to North Carolina. The data from this program has provided the foundation for investigations of complex population dynamics and the ability to examine ecological hypotheses previously untestable outside of theoretical venues, particularly regarding invasive spread and Allee effects. This system provides empirical data on the importance of long-distance dispersal and time lags on population establishment and spatial spread. Studies showing high rates of spatiotemporal variation of the range edge, from rapid spread to border stasis and even retraction, highlight future opportunities to test mechanisms that influence both invasive and native species ranges. The STS trap data have also created a unique opportunity to study low-density population dynamics and quantify Allee effects with empirical data. Notable contributions include evidence for spatiotemporal variation in Allee effects, demonstrating empirical links between Allee effects and spatial spread, and testing mechanisms of population persistence and growth rates at range edges. There remain several outstanding

  2. Creating a Successful Citizen Science Model to Detect and Report Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Travis; Waitt, Damon

    2011-01-01

    The Invaders of Texas program is a successful citizen science program in which volunteers survey and monitor invasive plants throughout Texas. Invasive plants are being introduced at alarming rates, and our limited knowledge about their distribution is a major cause for concern. The Invaders of Texas program trains citizen scientists to detect the…

  3. Creating a Successful Citizen Science Model to Detect and Report Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Travis; Waitt, Damon

    2011-01-01

    The Invaders of Texas program is a successful citizen science program in which volunteers survey and monitor invasive plants throughout Texas. Invasive plants are being introduced at alarming rates, and our limited knowledge about their distribution is a major cause for concern. The Invaders of Texas program trains citizen scientists to detect the…

  4. Go forth, evolve and prosper: the genetic basis of adaptive evolution in an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Franks, Steven J; Munshi-South, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Invasive species stand accused of a familiar litany of offences, including displacing native species, disrupting ecological processes and causing billions of dollars in ecological damage (Cox 1999). Despite these transgressions, invasive species have at least one redeeming virtue--they offer us an unparalleled opportunity to investigate colonization and responses of populations to novel conditions in the invaded habitat (Elton 1958; Sakai et al. 2001). Invasive species are by definition colonists that have arrived and thrived in a new location. How they are able to thrive is of great interest, especially considering a paradox of invasion (Sax & Brown 2000): if many populations are locally adapted (Leimu & Fischer 2008), how could species introduced into new locations become so successful? One possibility is that populations adjust to the new conditions through plasticity--increasing production of allelopathic compounds (novel weapons), or taking advantage of new prey, for example. Alternatively, evolution could play a role, with the populations adapting to the novel conditions of the new habitat. There is increasing evidence, based on phenotypic data, for rapid adaptive evolution in invasive species (Franks et al. 2012; Colautti & Barrett 2013; Sultan et al. 2013). Prior studies have also demonstrated genetic changes in introduced populations using neutral markers, which generally do not provide information on adaptation. Thus, the genetic basis of adaptive evolution in invasive species has largely remained unknown. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Vandepitte et al. (2014) provide some of the first evidence in invasive populations for molecular genetic changes directly linked to adaptation.

  5. Differential allocation to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic nitrogen fractions among native and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jennifer L; Glenwinkel, Lori A; Sack, Lawren

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are expected to cluster on the "high-return" end of the leaf economic spectrum, displaying leaf traits consistent with higher carbon assimilation relative to native species. Intra-leaf nitrogen (N) allocation should support these physiological differences; however, N biochemistry has not been examined in more than a few invasive species. We measured 34 leaf traits including seven leaf N pools for five native and five invasive species from Hawaii under low irradiance to mimic the forest understory environment. We found several trait differences between native and invasive species. In particular, invasive species showed preferential N allocation to metabolism (amino acids) rather than photosynthetic light reactions (membrane-bound protein) by comparison with native species. The soluble protein concentration did not vary between groups. Under these low irradiance conditions, native species had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates, possibly as a consequence of a greater investment in membrane-bound protein. Invasive species may succeed by employing a wide range of N allocation mechanisms, including higher amino acid production for fast growth under high irradiance or storage of N in leaves as soluble protein or amino acids.

  6. Differential Allocation to Photosynthetic and Non-Photosynthetic Nitrogen Fractions among Native and Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Jennifer L.; Glenwinkel, Lori A.; Sack, Lawren

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are expected to cluster on the “high-return” end of the leaf economic spectrum, displaying leaf traits consistent with higher carbon assimilation relative to native species. Intra-leaf nitrogen (N) allocation should support these physiological differences; however, N biochemistry has not been examined in more than a few invasive species. We measured 34 leaf traits including seven leaf N pools for five native and five invasive species from Hawaii under low irradiance to mimic the forest understory environment. We found several trait differences between native and invasive species. In particular, invasive species showed preferential N allocation to metabolism (amino acids) rather than photosynthetic light reactions (membrane-bound protein) by comparison with native species. The soluble protein concentration did not vary between groups. Under these low irradiance conditions, native species had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates, possibly as a consequence of a greater investment in membrane-bound protein. Invasive species may succeed by employing a wide range of N allocation mechanisms, including higher amino acid production for fast growth under high irradiance or storage of N in leaves as soluble protein or amino acids. PMID:23700483

  7. Chronological changes in canopy hydrometeorological dynamics may aid invasion of a globally invasive species (Ailanthus altissima Mill. tree of heaven)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, J. T., II; Sadeghi, S. M. M.; Pypker, T. G.; Friesen, J.

    2016-12-01

    We examined the effect of a globally-invasive species, Ailanthus altissima, on canopy hydrometeorological processes. Throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and interception loss (I) were measured in a chronosequence of three A. altissima stands (planted 1975, 1985, 1995). Canopy structural and ecohydrological parameters varied with age: woody area index (WAI), ratio of wet canopy evaporation and rainfall rates, and stem drainage coefficient increased; while leaf area index (LAI), canopy water storage, and gap fraction declined. This corresponded to increased SF and decreased TF across annual, seasonal, and inter-storm scales. Changes in canopy hydrologic flow paths (TF v. SF) may be advantageous to invasive species as the promotion of SF with canopy age may increase water supply to the roots and help distribute allelopathic chemicals through the soil. Further research is needed on the correlation between canopy architecture of A. altissima invasion and the distribution of water and chemicals to soils.

  8. Interaction of Species Traits and Environmental Disturbance Predicts Invasion Success of Aquatic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Mächler, Elvira; Altermatt, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Factors such as increased mobility of humans, global trade and climate change are affecting the range of many species, and cause large-scale translocations of species beyond their native range. Many introduced species have a strong negative influence on the new local environment and lead to high economic costs. There is a strong interest to understand why some species are successful in invading new environments and others not. Most of our understanding and generalizations thereof, however, are based on studies of plants and animals, and little is known on invasion processes of microorganisms. We conducted a microcosm experiment to understand factors promoting the success of biological invasions of aquatic microorganisms. In a controlled lab experiment, protist and rotifer species originally isolated in North America invaded into a natural, field-collected community of microorganisms of European origin. To identify the importance of environmental disturbances on invasion success, we either repeatedly disturbed the local patches, or kept them as undisturbed controls. We measured both short-term establishment and long-term invasion success, and correlated it with species-specific life-history traits. We found that environmental disturbances significantly affected invasion success. Depending on the invading species’ identity, disturbances were either promoting or decreasing invasion success. The interaction between habitat disturbance and species identity was especially pronounced for long-term invasion success. Growth rate was the most important trait promoting invasion success, especially when the species invaded into a disturbed local community. We conclude that neither species traits nor environmental factors alone conclusively predict invasion success, but an integration of both of them is necessary. PMID:23028985

  9. Manage habitat, monitor species [Chapter 10

    Treesearch

    Michael K. Schwartz; Jamie S. Sanderlin; William M. Block

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring is the collection of data over time. We monitor many things: temperatures at local weather stations, daily changes in sea level along the coastline, annual prevalence of specific diseases, sunspot cycles, unemployment rates, inflation, commodity futures-the list is virtually endless. In wildlife biology, we also conduct a lot of monitoring, most commonly...

  10. Investigating the genetic load of an emblematic invasive species: the case of the invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, A; Estoup, A; Hufbauer, R A; Ravigne, V; Goryacheva, I; Zakharov, I A; Lombaert, E; Facon, B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction events can lead to admixture between genetically differentiated populations and bottlenecks in population size. These processes can alter the adaptive potential of invasive species by shaping genetic variation, but more importantly, they can also directly affect mean population fitness either increasing it or decreasing it. Which outcome is observed depends on the structure of the genetic load of the species. The ladybird Harmonia axyridis is a good example of invasive species where introduced populations have gone through admixture and bottleneck events. We used laboratory experiments to manipulate the relatedness among H. axyridis parental individuals to assess the possibility for heterosis or outbreeding depression in F1 generation offspring for two traits related to fitness (lifetime performance and generation time). We found that inter-populations crosses had no major impact on the lifetime performance of the offspring produced by individuals from either native or invasive populations. Significant outbreeding depression was observed only for crosses between native populations for generation time. The absence of observed heterosis is indicative of a low occurrence of fixed deleterious mutations within both the native and invasive populations of H. axyridis. The observed deterioration of fitness in native inter-population crosses most likely results from genetic incompatibilities between native genomic backgrounds. We discuss the implications of these results for the structure of genetic load in H. axyridis in the light of the available information regarding the introduction history of this species. PMID:23610631

  11. Investigating the genetic load of an emblematic invasive species: the case of the invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, A; Estoup, A; Hufbauer, R A; Ravigne, V; Goryacheva, I; Zakharov, I A; Lombaert, E; Facon, B

    2013-04-01

    Introduction events can lead to admixture between genetically differentiated populations and bottlenecks in population size. These processes can alter the adaptive potential of invasive species by shaping genetic variation, but more importantly, they can also directly affect mean population fitness either increasing it or decreasing it. Which outcome is observed depends on the structure of the genetic load of the species. The ladybird Harmonia axyridis is a good example of invasive species where introduced populations have gone through admixture and bottleneck events. We used laboratory experiments to manipulate the relatedness among H. axyridis parental individuals to assess the possibility for heterosis or outbreeding depression in F1 generation offspring for two traits related to fitness (lifetime performance and generation time). We found that inter-populations crosses had no major impact on the lifetime performance of the offspring produced by individuals from either native or invasive populations. Significant outbreeding depression was observed only for crosses between native populations for generation time. The absence of observed heterosis is indicative of a low occurrence of fixed deleterious mutations within both the native and invasive populations of H. axyridis. The observed deterioration of fitness in native inter-population crosses most likely results from genetic incompatibilities between native genomic backgrounds. We discuss the implications of these results for the structure of genetic load in H. axyridis in the light of the available information regarding the introduction history of this species.

  12. Ecology and space: A case study in mapping harmful invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David T. Barnett,; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Chong, Geneva W.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Sunil Kumar,; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Brunn, Stanley D.; Dodge, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The establishment and invasion of non-native plant species have the ability to alter the composition of native species and functioning of ecological systems with financial costs resulting from mitigation and loss of ecological services. Spatially documenting invasions has applications for management and theory, but the utility of maps is challenged by availability and uncertainty of data, and the reliability of extrapolating mapped data in time and space. The extent and resolution of projections also impact the ability to inform invasive species science and management. Early invasive species maps were coarse-grained representations that underscored the phenomena, but had limited capacity to direct management aside from development of watch lists for priorities for prevention and containment. Integrating mapped data sets with fine-resolution environmental variables in the context of species-distribution models allows a description of species-environment relationships and an understanding of how, why, and where invasions may occur. As with maps, the extent and resolution of models impact the resulting insight. Models of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) across a variety of spatial scales and grain result in divergent species-environment relationships. New data can improve models and efficiently direct further inventories. Mapping can target areas of greater model uncertainty or the bounds of modeled distribution to efficiently refine models and maps. This iterative process results in dynamic, living maps capable of describing the ongoing process of species invasions.

  13. Pre-adaptation or genetic shift after introduction in the invasive species Impatiens glandulifera?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elst, Evelyne M.; Acharya, Kamal P.; Dar, Pervaiz A.; Reshi, Zafar A.; Tufto, Jarle; Nijs, Ivan; Graae, Bente J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants often grow fast, reproduce rapidly and display considerable phenotypic plasticity in their invasive range, which may be essential characteristics for successful invasion. However, it remains unclear whether these characteristics are already present in native populations (pre-adaptation hypothesis) or evolve after introduction (genetic shift hypothesis). To test these hypotheses we compared means and phenotypic plasticity of vegetative and reproductive traits between populations of Impatiens glandulifera collected from either the invasive (Norway) or native range (India). Seeds were sown and the resulting plants were exposed to different experimental environments in a glasshouse. We also tested whether trait means and reaction norms harbored genetic variation, as this may promote fitness in the novel environment. We did not find evidence that invasive populations of I. glandulifera grew more vigorously or produced more seeds than native populations. Phenotypic plasticity did not differ between the native and invasive range, except for the number of nodes which was more plastic in the invasive range. Genetic variation in the slope of reaction norms was absent, suggesting that the lack of change in phenotypic plasticity between native and invasive populations resulted from low genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity initially harbored by this species. Post-introduction evolution of traits thus probably did not boost the invasiveness of I. glandulifera. Instead, the species seems to be pre-adapted for invasion. We suggest that differences in habitat between the native and invasive range, more specifically the higher nutrient availability observed in the new environment, are the main factor driving the invasion of this species. Indeed, plants in the more nutrient-rich invasive range had greater seed mass, likely conferring a competitive advantage, while seed mass also responded strongly to nutrients in the glasshouse. Interactions between

  14. The control of invasive species on private property with neighbor-to-neighbor spillovers.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Richards, Timothy J; Shanafelt, David W

    2014-10-01

    Invasive pests cross property boundaries. Property managers may have private incentives to control invasive species despite not having sufficient incentive to fully internalize the external costs of their role in spreading the invasion. Each property manager has a right to future use of his own property, but his property may abut others' properties enabling spread of an invasive species. The incentives for a foresighted property manager to control invasive species have received little attention. We consider the efforts of a foresighted property manager who has rights to future use of a property and has the ability to engage in repeated, discrete control activities. We find that higher rates of dispersal, associated with proximity to neighboring properties, reduce the private incentives for control. Controlling species at one location provides incentives to control at a neighboring location. Control at neighboring locations are strategic complements and coupled with spatial heterogeneity lead to a weaker-link public good problem, in which each property owner is unable to fully appropriate the benefits of his own control activity. Future-use rights and private costs suggest that there is scope for a series of Coase-like exchanges to internalize much of the costs associated with species invasion. Pigouvian taxes on invasive species potentially have qualitatively perverse behavioral effects. A tax with a strong income effect (e.g, failure of effective revenue recycling) can reduce the value of property assets and diminish the incentive to manage insects on one's own property.

  15. The control of invasive species on private property with neighbor-to-neighbor spillovers

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Richards, Timothy J.; Shanafelt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pests cross property boundaries. Property managers may have private incentives to control invasive species despite not having sufficient incentive to fully internalize the external costs of their role in spreading the invasion. Each property manager has a right to future use of his own property, but his property may abut others’ properties enabling spread of an invasive species. The incentives for a foresighted property manager to control invasive species have received little attention. We consider the efforts of a foresighted property manager who has rights to future use of a property and has the ability to engage in repeated, discrete control activities. We find that higher rates of dispersal, associated with proximity to neighboring properties, reduce the private incentives for control. Controlling species at one location provides incentives to control at a neighboring location. Control at neighboring locations are strategic complements and coupled with spatial heterogeneity lead to a weaker-link public good problem, in which each property owner is unable to fully appropriate the benefits of his own control activity. Future-use rights and private costs suggest that there is scope for a series of Coase-like exchanges to internalize much of the costs associated with species invasion. Pigouvian taxes on invasive species potentially have qualitatively perverse behavioral effects. A tax with a strong income effect (e.g, failure of effective revenue recycling) can reduce the value of property assets and diminish the incentive to manage insects on one’s own property. PMID:25346573

  16. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-04-01

    The ability to predict which alien plants will transition from naturalized to invasive prior to their introduction to novel regions is a key goal for conservation and has the potential to increase the efficacy of weed risk assessment (WRA). However, multiple factors contribute to plant invasion success (e.g., functional traits, range characteristics, residence time, phylogeny), and they all must be taken into account simultaneously in order to identify meaningful correlates of invasion success. We compiled 146 pairs of phylogenetically paired (congeneric) naturalized and invasive plant species in Australia with similar minimum residence times (i.e., time since introduction in years). These pairs were used to test for differences in 5 functional traits (flowering duration, leaf size, maximum height, specific leaf area [SLA], seed mass) and 3 characteristics of species' native ranges (biome occupancy, mean annual temperature, and rainfall breadth) between naturalized and invasive species. Invasive species, on average, had larger SLA, longer flowering periods, and were taller than their congeneric naturalized relatives. Invaders also exhibited greater tolerance for different environmental conditions in the native range, where they occupied more biomes and a wider breadth of rainfall and temperature conditions than naturalized congeners. However, neither seed mass nor leaf size differed between pairs of naturalized and invasive species. A key finding was the role of SLA in distinguishing between naturalized and invasive pairs. Species with high SLA values were typically associated with faster growth rates, more rapid turnover of leaf material, and shorter lifespans than those species with low SLA. This suite of characteristics may contribute to the ability of a species to transition from naturalized to invasive across a wide range of environmental contexts and disturbance regimes. Our findings will help in the refinement of WRA protocols, and we advocate the inclusion

  17. Protected areas offer refuge from invasive species spreading under climate change.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Belinda; Aldridge, David C; González-Moreno, Pablo; Pergl, Jan; Pizarro, Manuel; Pyšek, Petr; Thuiller, Wilfried; Yesson, Christopher; Vilà, Montserrat

    2017-07-31

    Protected areas (PAs) are intended to provide native biodiversity and habitats with a refuge against the impacts of global change, particularly acting as natural filters against biological invasions. In practice, however, it is unknown how effective PAs will be in shielding native species from invasions under projected climate change. Here, we investigate the current and future potential distributions of 100 of the most invasive terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species in Europe. We use this information to evaluate the combined threat posed by climate change and invasions to existing PAs and the most susceptible species they shelter. We found that only a quarter of Europe's marine and terrestrial areas protected over the last 100 years have been colonized by any of the invaders investigated, despite offering climatically suitable conditions for invasion. In addition, hotspots of invasive species and the most susceptible native species to their establishment do not match at large continental scales. Furthermore, the predicted richness of invaders is 11%-18% significantly lower inside PAs than outside them. Invasive species are rare in long-established national parks and nature reserves, which are actively protected and often located in remote and pristine regions with very low human density. In contrast, the richness of invasive species is high in the more recently designated Natura 2000 sites, which are subject to high human accessibility. This situation may change in the future, since our models anticipate important shifts in species ranges toward the north and east of Europe at unprecedented rates of 14-55 km/decade, depending on taxonomic group and scenario. This may seriously compromise the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study is the first comprehensive assessment of the resistance that PAs provide against biological invasions and climate change on a continental scale and illustrates their strategic value in safeguarding native

  18. Plant invasions differentially affected by diversity and dominant species in native- and exotic-dominated grasslands.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Polley, H Wayne; Hofmockel, Kirsten; Daneshgar, Pedram P; Wilsey, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Plant invasions are an increasingly serious global concern, especially as the climate changes. Here, we explored how plant invasions differed between native- and novel exotic-dominated grasslands with experimental addition of summer precipitation in Texas in 2009. Exotic species greened up earlier than natives by an average of 18 days. This was associated with a lower invasion rate early in the growing season compared to native communities. However, invasion rate did not differ significantly between native and exotic communities across all sampling times. The predictors of invasion rate differed between native and exotic communities, with invasion being negatively influenced by species richness in natives and by dominant species in exotics. Interestingly, plant invasions matched the bimodal pattern of precipitation in Temple, Texas, and did not respond to the pulse of precipitation during the summer. Our results suggest that we will need to take different approaches in understanding of invasion between native and exotic grasslands. Moreover, with anticipated increasing variability in precipitation under global climate change, plant invasions may be constrained in their response if the precipitation pulses fall outside the normal growing period of invaders.

  19. Non-Invasive Monitoring for Optimization of Therapeutic Drug Delivery by Biodegradable Fiber to Prostate Tumor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    TITLE: Non-Invasive Monitoring for Optimization of Therapeutic Drug Delivery by Biodegradable Fiber to Prostate Tumor PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dan...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Non-Invasive Monitoring for Optimization of Therapeutic Drug Delivery by Biodegradable Fiber to Prostate Tumor 5b...using both biodegradable fibers, and a novel implantable micropump (IDDS). (Aim 4): To study the relationship between drug release rate, tumor oxygen

  20. Non-Invasive Ultrasonic Diagnosing and Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure/Volume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Ultrasonic Diagnosing and Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure/Volume PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Aloyzas Petrikas, Ph.D. Arminas Ragauskas Gediminas...Ultrasonic Diagnosing and Monitoring of DAMD17-00-2-0065 Intracranial Pressure/Volume 6. AUTHOR(S) Aloyzas Petrikas, Ph.D. Arminas Ragauskas Gediminas...Objectives were to verify the innovative concepts of non-invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) absolute value measurement and non- invasive

  1. Recent records of steppe species in Belarus, first indications of a steppe species invasion?

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    BELARUS IS SITUATED AT A CROSSROAD OF NATURAL BORDERS OF SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS: the NE part is situated in a taiga zone, whereas the other part of terrain is in the European forest zone. The distance of Belarus to the steppe zone is about 330 kilometers. This geographical position and the extensive knowledge of its fauna can be used to monitor changes in the distribution of different species. An intensive study of open habitat ground beetles was carried out from 1975-2008 in Belarus, using pitfall traps, quadrate-sampling methods, hand collecting, netting and light traps. In total, more than 130 000 specimens of ground beetles belonging to 169 species were collected from 62 fields and 11 meadows of different types. 217 specimens of Calosoma investigator (Illiger 1798), 2 specimens of Calosoma denticolle (Gebler 1833), and one specimen of Harpalus subcylindricus (Dejean, 1829), Harpalus honestus (Duftschmid 1812) and Zabrus tenebrioides (Goeze 1777) were present in this material. All specimens were macropterous and exclusively caught at fields and waste grounds on sandy soil. Nowadays Belarus is the northernmost location for these species in Eastern Europe. Steppe species most probably migrated to SE Belarus from NE Ukraine, using Dnieper and its river valleys. The shift in the geographic distribution of steppe species during the last thirty years in Belarus have been attributed to a higher frequency of warmer and wetter summers in the last few decades.

  2. Recent records of steppe species in Belarus, first indications of a steppe species invasion?

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrowicz, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Belarus is situated at a crossroad of natural borders of species distributions: the NE part is situated in a taiga zone, whereas the other part of terrain is in the European forest zone. The distance of Belarus to the steppe zone is about 330 kilometers. This geographical position and the extensive knowledge of its fauna can be used to monitor changes in the distribution of different species. An intensive study of open habitat ground beetles was carried out from 1975–2008 in Belarus, using pitfall traps, quadrate-sampling methods, hand collecting, netting and light traps. In total, more than 130 000 specimens of ground beetles belonging to 169 species were collected from 62 fields and 11 meadows of different types. 217 specimens of Calosoma investigator (Illiger 1798), 2 specimens of Calosoma denticolle (Gebler 1833), and one specimen of Harpalus subcylindricus (Dejean, 1829), Harpalus honestus (Duftschmid 1812) and Zabrus tenebrioides (Goeze 1777) were present in this material. All specimens were macropterous and exclusively caught at fields and waste grounds on sandy soil. Nowadays Belarus is the northernmost location for these species in Eastern Europe. Steppe species most probably migrated to SE Belarus from NE Ukraine, using Dnieper and its river valleys. The shift in the geographic distribution of steppe species during the last thirty years in Belarus have been attributed to a higher frequency of warmer and wetter summers in the last few decades. PMID:21738428

  3. Rapid molecular detection of invasive species in ballast and harbor water by integrating environmental DNA and light transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Egan, Scott P; Grey, Erin; Olds, Brett; Feder, Jeffery L; Ruggiero, Steven T; Tanner, Carol E; Lodge, David M

    2015-04-07

    Invasive species introduced via the ballast water of commercial ships cause enormous environmental and economic damage worldwide. Accurate monitoring for these often microscopic and morphologically indistinguishable species is challenging but critical for mitigating damages. We apply eDNA sampling, which involves the filtering and subsequent DNA extraction of microscopic bits of tissue suspended in water, to ballast and harbor water sampled during a commercial ship's 1400 km voyage through the North American Great Lakes. Using a lab-based gel electrophoresis assay and a rapid, field-ready light transmission spectroscopy (LTS) assay, we test for the presence of two invasive species: quagga (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra (D. polymorpha) mussels. Furthermore, we spiked a set of uninfested ballast and harbor samples with zebra mussel tissue to further test each assay's detection capabilities. In unmanipulated samples, zebra mussel was not detected, while quagga mussel was detected in all samples at a rate of 85% for the gel assay and 100% for the LTS assay. In the spiked experimental samples, both assays detected zebra mussel in 94% of spiked samples and 0% of negative controls. Overall, these results demonstrate that eDNA sampling is effective for monitoring ballast-mediated invasions and that LTS has the potential for rapid, field-based detection.

  4. Modalities of Invasive Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jacq, Gwenaëlle; Gritti, Karine; Carré, Cécile; Fleury, Nadège; Lang, Annie; Courau-Courtois, Josette; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Legriel, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Few studies assessed modalities of invasive arterial pressure monitoring (IAPM). We evaluated effects on measured values of various combinations of transducer level, catheter access site, and patient position. Prospective observational study in consecutive adults admitted to a French intensive care unit in 2009 to 2011 and fulfilling our inclusion criteria. Four combinations (B–E) of transducer level, catheter access site, and patient position were compared with a reference combination (A) (A: patient supine with all catheters in the same plane and a single transducer level (M) for zero point reference (Z) aligned on the phlebostatic axis; B: 45° head-of-bed elevation with M and Z aligned on the phlebostatic axis; C: 45° head-of-bed elevation with M aligned on the catheter access site and Z on the phlebostatic axis; D: 45° head-of-bed elevation with M and Z aligned on the catheter access site; and E: 45° head-of-bed elevation with M aligned on the phlebostatic axis and Z on the catheter access site). We included 103 patients, 68 men and 35 women, with a median age of 69 years (interquartile range [IQR], 56–78); at inclusion, 91 (88.3%) received mechanical ventilation, 45 (43.7%) catecholamines, and 66 (64.1%) sedation. The IAPM access site was femoral in 49 (47.6%) and radial in 54 (52.4%) patients, with 62 of 103 (60.2%) catheters on the right side. Measured absolute mean arterial pressure values were significantly higher with 3 study combinations (C–E) than with the reference combination (A). After adjustment, the differences versus A (median, 83 [IQR, 74–92] mm Hg) remained significant for D (median, 91 [IQR, 85–100] mm Hg, P < 0.001) and E (median, 88 [IQR, 77–99] mm Hg, P < 0.001). The difference versus A was not significant for B (median, 85 [IQR, 76–94] mm Hg, P = 0.21) or C (median, 90 [IQR, 84–100] mm Hg, P = 0.006). Several modalities used for zeroing and/or transducer leveling during IAPM may result in

  5. Modelling favourability for invasive species encroachment to identify areas of native species vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Romero, David; Báez, José C; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J; Real, Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider.

  6. Modelling Favourability for Invasive Species Encroachment to Identify Areas of Native Species Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Báez, José C.; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider. PMID:24719577

  7. Indirect effects of an invasive annual grass on seed fates of two native perennial grass species

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer; Katherine T. Merrill; Phil S. Allen; Julie Beckstead; Anna S. Norte

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants exhibit both direct and indirect negative effects on recruitment of natives following invasion. We examined indirect effects of the invader Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) on seed fates of two native grass species, Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata, by removing B. tectorum and by adding inoculum of the shared seed pathogen Pyrenophora...

  8. Invasive species detection in Hawaiian rainforests using airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR

    Treesearch

    Gregory P. Asner; David E. Knapp; Ty Kennedy-Bodoin; Matthew O. Jones; Roberta E. Martin; Joseph Boardman; Flint Hughes

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of invasive species is a critical component of conservation and management efforts, but reliable methods for the detection of invaders have not been widely established. In Hawaiian forests, we recently found that invasive trees often have hyperspectral signatures unique from that of native trees, but mapping based on spectral reflectance properties alone...

  9. Linking nitrogen partitioning and species abundance to invasion resistance in the Great Basin

    Treesearch

    J. J. James; K. W. Davies; R. L. Sheley; Z. T. Aanderud

    2008-01-01

    Resource partitioning has been suggested as an important mechanism of invasion resistance. The relative importance of resource partitioning for invasion resistance, however, may depend on how species abundance is distributed in the plant community. This study had two objectives. First, we quantified the degree to which one resource, nitrogen (N), is partitioned by time...

  10. Globalization and Invasive Species Issues in Hawaii: Role-Playing Some Local Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Alison M.; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as having significant economic and ecological impacts, non-native invasive species have become an important interdisciplinary topic in biological and social science courses. Oceanic island systems like Hawaii have been particularly susceptible to invaders and efforts to prevent further invasions focus on reducing the…

  11. Insecticide-mediated apparent displacement between two invasive species of Leafminer fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Closely related invasive species may often displace one another, but it is often difficult to determine mechanisms because of the historical nature of these events. The leafmining flies Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii have become serious invasive agricultural pests throughout the world. W...

  12. Globalization and Invasive Species Issues in Hawaii: Role-Playing Some Local Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Alison M.; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as having significant economic and ecological impacts, non-native invasive species have become an important interdisciplinary topic in biological and social science courses. Oceanic island systems like Hawaii have been particularly susceptible to invaders and efforts to prevent further invasions focus on reducing the…

  13. Optimal approaches for balancing invasive species eradication and endangered species management.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Adam; Hastings, Alan; Grosholz, Edwin D; Jardine, Sunny L; Sanchirico, James N

    2014-05-30

    Resolving conflicting ecosystem management goals-such as maintaining fisheries while conserving marine species or harvesting timber while preserving habitat-is a widely recognized challenge. Even more challenging may be conflicts between two conservation goals that are typically considered complementary. Here, we model a case where eradication of an invasive plant, hybrid Spartina, threatens the recovery of an endangered bird that uses Spartina for nesting. Achieving both goals requires restoration of native Spartina. We show that the optimal management entails less intensive treatment over longer time scales to fit with the time scale of natural processes. In contrast, both eradication and restoration, when considered separately, would optimally proceed as fast as possible. Thus, managers should simultaneously consider multiple, potentially conflicting goals, which may require flexibility in the timing of expenditures. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Evaluation of a multiple-species approach to monitoring species at the ecoregional scale

    Treesearch

    Patricia N. Manley; William J. Zielinski; Matthew D. Schlesinger; Sylvia R. Mori

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring is required of land managers and conservation practitioners to assess the success of management actions. "Shortcuts" are sought to reduce monitoring costs, most often consisting of the selection of a small number of species that are closely monitored to represent the status of many associated species and environmental correlates. Assumptions...

  15. Effect of the internet commerce on dispersal modes of invasive alien species.

    PubMed

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M H; Moroń, Dawid; Sutherland, William J; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal.

  16. Effect of the Internet Commerce on Dispersal Modes of Invasive Alien Species

    PubMed Central

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Moroń, Dawid; Sutherland, William J.; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal. PMID:24932498

  17. Restoring abandoned agricultural lands in cold desert shrublands: Tradeoffs between water availability and invasive species

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Eric P. Eldredge; Keirith A. Snyder; David I. Board; Tara Forbis de Queiroz; Vada Hubbard

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of abandoned agricultural lands to create resilient ecosystems in arid and semi-arid ecosystems typically requires seeding or transplanting native species, improving plant-soil-water relations, and controlling invasive species. We asked if improving water relations via irrigation or surface mulch would result in negative tradeoffs between native species...

  18. Genetic lineages of the invasive Aegilops triuncialis differ in competitive response to neighboring grassland species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Competitive dynamics between native and exotic species can influence both the success of exotics in the novel environment as well as diversity and abundance of native species. Invasive species are often characterized by multiple introductions in the novel range, which can lead to differentiation in ...

  19. Does seeding after wildfires in rangelands reduce erosion or invasive species?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Beyers, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of ecological damage caused by rangeland wildfires has historically been an issue restricted to the western United States. It has focused on conservation of ecosystem function through reducing soil erosion and spread of invasive plants. Effectiveness of mitigation treatments has been debated recently. We reviewed recent literature to conduct a meta-analysis of seeding after wildfires to determine if seedings may (1) protect ecosystems against soil erosion and (2) reduce invasion or abundance of undesirable nonnative plant species. Effectiveness of postfire seedings was examined in 8 erosion and 19 invasive species cases. Seeding has little effect on erosion during the first year after fire and is highly dependent upon initial establishment and coverage of species in successive years. Among all seeding cases, 28% reduced, 67% were neutral, and 5% increased invasive species abundance. Older seedings were more likely to show reductions in invasives than younger seedings. Seedings with high plant establishment were more likely to reduce invasives than those with low establishment. Studies are needed that examine (1) frequency of adequate establishment of postfire seedings and causal factors of success or failure, (2) long-term impacts of seeding along a range of initial establishment and concomitant plant coverage over time as it relates to erosion and abundance of invasive plant species, and (3) auxiliary treatments designed to increase likelihood of germination and establishment given the inevitable variability of environmental conditions. These studies would aid land managers in deciding when postfire treatments are required and their likely level of success.

  20. The widespread collapse of an invasive species: Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Meghan; Hartley, Stephen; Sim, Dalice A; Lester, Philip J

    2012-06-23

    Synergies between invasive species and climate change are widely considered to be a major biodiversity threat. However, invasive species are also hypothesized to be susceptible to population collapse, as we demonstrate for a globally important invasive species in New Zealand. We observed Argentine ant populations to have collapsed in 40 per cent of surveyed sites. Populations had a mean survival time of 14.1 years (95% CI = 12.9-15.3 years). Resident ant communities had recovered or partly recovered after their collapse. Our models suggest that climate change will delay colony collapse, as increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall significantly increased their longevity, but only by a few years. Economic and environmental costs of invasive species may be small if populations collapse on their own accord.

  1. 77 FR 37064 - Request for Nominations for the Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Extension of Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ..., on behalf of the interdepartmental National Invasive Species Council, proposes to appoint new members..., the Secretary of the Interior will actively solicit new nominees and appoint members to ISAC... education; science and environmental journalism and outreach; natural resource economics; tribal...

  2. 76 FR 18575 - Nominations of New Members to the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... international cooperation in addressing invasive species; facilitates the development of a coordinated network... issues. ISAC provides advice in cooperation with stakeholders and existing organizations addressing..., public health/epidemiology, industry activities, international affairs or trade, tribal or state...

  3. EPA Awards 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants Totaling Over $8 Million to Combat Invasive Species

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    15-OPA124 CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants totaling more than $8 million for projects to combat invasive species in the Great Lakes basin. These Great

  4. The Scirtothrips dorsalis species complex: Endemism and invasion in a global pest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcodi...

  5. EARLY DETECTION OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN VULNERABLE HARBORS AND EMBAYMENTS OF THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our project goal is to define a model cost-effective approach for detecting invasive species in vulnerable coastal systems. This presentation will present recent analysis of field results and describe how they influence development of our model approach.

  6. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods for early detection of invasive fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For early detection biomonitoring of aquatic invasive species, sensitivity to rare individuals and accurate, high-resolution taxonomic classification are critical to minimize detection errors. Given the great expense and effort associated with morphological identification of many...

  7. The widespread collapse of an invasive species: Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Cooling, Meghan; Hartley, Stephen; Sim, Dalice A.; Lester, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Synergies between invasive species and climate change are widely considered to be a major biodiversity threat. However, invasive species are also hypothesized to be susceptible to population collapse, as we demonstrate for a globally important invasive species in New Zealand. We observed Argentine ant populations to have collapsed in 40 per cent of surveyed sites. Populations had a mean survival time of 14.1 years (95% CI = 12.9–15.3 years). Resident ant communities had recovered or partly recovered after their collapse. Our models suggest that climate change will delay colony collapse, as increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall significantly increased their longevity, but only by a few years. Economic and environmental costs of invasive species may be small if populations collapse on their own accord. PMID:22130172

  8. Minimally Invasive, Longitudinal Monitoring of Biomaterial-Associated Inflammation by Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, Shivaram; Kundu, Kousik; Templeman, Kellie L.; Murthy, Niren; García, Andrés J.

    2011-01-01

    Implant-associated inflammation is a major cause for the reduced performance/lifetime and failure of numerous medical devices. Therefore, the ability to non-invasively and quantitatively monitor implant-associated inflammation is critically important. Here we show that implant-associated inflammation can be imaged via fluorescence imaging using near-infrared hydrocyanine dyes delivered either locally or intravenously in living mice. This imaging strategy allowed quantitative longitudinal monitoring of inflammation by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by inflammatory cells in response to implanted poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) disks or injected poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, and exhibited a strong correlation to conventional analysis of inflammation. Furthermore, modulation of inflammatory responses via controlled release of the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone was detected using this sensitive imaging approach. Thus, hydrocyanine-based fluorescence imaging of ROS could serve as a surrogate measure for monitoring implant-associated inflammation as well as evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic approaches to modulate host responses to implanted medical devices. PMID:21813173

  9. A high-throughput detection method for invasive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species based on microfluidic dynamic array.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Fu, Wei; Clarke, Anthony R; Schutze, Mark Kurt; Susanto, Agus; Zhu, Shuifang; Li, Zhihong

    2016-11-01

    Invasive species can be detrimental to a nation's ecology, economy and human health. Rapid and accurate diagnostics are critical to limit the establishment and spread of exotic organisms. The increasing rate of biological invasions relative to the taxonomic expertise available generates a demand for high-throughput, DNA-based diagnostics methods for identification. We designed species-specific qPCR primer and probe combinations for 27 economically important tephritidae species in six genera (Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Carpomya, Ceratitis, Dacus and Rhagoletis) based on 935 COI DNA barcode haplotypes from 181 fruit fly species publically available in BOLD, and then tested the specificity for each primer pair and probe through qPCR of 35 of those species. We then developed a standardization reaction system for detecting the 27 target species based on a microfluidic dynamic array and also applied the method to identify unknown immature samples from port interceptions and field monitoring. This method led to a specific and simultaneous detection for all 27 species in 7.5 h, using only 0.2 μL of reaction system in each reaction chamber. The approach successfully discriminated among species within complexes that had genetic similarities of up to 98.48%, while it also identified all immature samples consistent with the subsequent results of morphological examination of adults which were reared from larvae of cohorts from the same samples. We present an accurate, rapid and high-throughput innovative approach for detecting fruit flies of quarantine concern. This is a new method which has broad potential to be one of international standards for plant quarantine and invasive species detection.

  10. Optimal surveillance and eradication of invasive species in heterogeneous landscapes

    Treesearch

    Rebecca S. Epanchin-Niell; Robert G. Haight; Ludek Berec; John M. Kean; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective surveillance strategies are needed for efficient responses to biological invasions and must account for the trade-offs between surveillance effort and management costs. Less surveillance may allow greater population growth and spread prior to detection, thereby increasing the costs of damages and control. In addition, surveillance strategies are usually...

  11. Invasive species compendium: Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell is an invasive aquatic fern native to a small area of south-eastern Brazil. It has spread throughout the world, forming thick mats of vegetation that decrease dissolved oxygen and pH while outcompeting native vegetation. It has been introduced and established into many...

  12. Monitoring of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata in the subarctic and in alpine areas of southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David C.; Jónsson, Ingi R.; Cypaité, Vaiva; Ognjanova, Nadja; Ólafsson, Jón S.; Trichkova, Teodora

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades invasive species have been spreading across Europe. Although the perceptions of invasive species are divergent among researchers there is a general consent that invasive species endanger the diversity of native biota and hence should be monitored to initiate appropriate counter measures in drastic cases. Anthropogenic activities and climate change are the main cause for the enhanced spreading of non-native species to new environments. In this presentation we will present preliminary results from two aquatic case studies, one located in subarctic Iceland (River Elliðaár) and one in the high mountains of Bulgaria (the Seven Rila lakes), focusing on the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo). The diatom is a single cell algae which's natural habitat is cold fresh water environments with low nutrient content, i.e. mountainous areas in Europe, Asia and North America. In the last decades Didymo has been increasingly observed in new areas, e.g. Iceland, North America and New Zealand. Within the ESENIAS-TOOLS project two field excursions will identify the existence of Didymo in the two study sites and compare current abundance to previous observations. The preliminary results in the Rila Mountains, including both fossil and recent records, confirm that the occurrence of Didymo is restricted to Lake Bliznaka, the largest of the seven lakes located at lower altitude. In River Elliðaár preliminary results indicate a high abundance of Didymo along all sampling locations, confirming the invasive proliferation described in previous studies. The upscaling of the preliminary results from Elliðaár and Rila Mountains can help us to formulate general conclusions about the spreading of this invasive species. Furthermore, this bilateral cooperation can be further extended to other countries and hence contribute to a better management of invasive alien species in Europe. Acknowledgement: This study is part of ESENIAS - The East and South European

  13. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners

    PubMed Central

    Macel, Mirka; de Vos, Ric C H; Jansen, Jeroen J; van der Putten, Wim H; van Dam, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential. PMID:25077026

  14. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners.

    PubMed

    Macel, Mirka; de Vos, Ric C H; Jansen, Jeroen J; van der Putten, Wim H; van Dam, Nicole M

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential.

  15. The Scirtothrips dorsalis Species Complex: Endemism and Invasion in a Global Pest

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Aaron M.; Kumar, Vivek; Hoddle, Mark S.; Funderburk, Joe E.; Morgan, J. Kent; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Shatters, Robert G. Jr.; Osborne, Lance S.; McKenzie, Cindy L.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcoding provided an adequate reference set is available. Scirtothrips dorsalis is a highly polyphagous plant pest with a rapidly expanding global distribution and this species, as currently recognized, may be comprised of cryptic species. Here we report the development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for S. dorsalis and seven nuclear markers via next-generation sequencing for identification use within the complex. We also report the delimitation of nine cryptic species and two morphologically distinguishable species comprising the S. dorsalis species complex using histogram analysis of DNA barcodes, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the multi-species coalescent. One member of the complex, here designated the South Asia 1 cryptic species, is highly invasive, polyphagous, and likely the species implicated in tospovirus transmission. Two other species, South Asia 2, and East Asia 1 are also highly polyphagous and appear to be at an earlier stage of global invasion. The remaining members of the complex are regionally endemic, varying in their pest status and degree of polyphagy. In addition to patterns of invasion and endemism, our results provide a framework both for identifying members of the complex based on their DNA barcode, and for future species delimiting efforts. PMID:25893251

  16. Two additional principles for determining which species to monitor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Howard B; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring to detect population declines is widespread, but also costly. There is, consequently, a need to optimize monitoring to maximize cost-effectiveness. Here we develop a quantitative decision analysis framework for how to optimally allocate resources for monitoring among species. By keeping the framework simple, we analytically establish two new principles about which species are optimal to monitor for detecting declines: (1) those that lie on the boundary between species being allocated resources for conservation action and species that are not and (2) those with the greatest uncertainty in whether they are declining. These two principles are in addition to other factors that are also important in monitoring decisions, such as complementarity. We demonstrate the efficacy of these principles when other factors are not present, and show how the two principles can be combined. This analysis demonstrates that the most cost-effective species to monitor are ones where the information gained from monitoring is most likely to change the allocation of funds for action, not necessarily the most vulnerable or endangered. We suggest these results are general and apply to all ecological monitoring, not just of biological species: monitoring and information are only valuable when they are likely to change how people act.

  17. Flowering phenology of invasive alien plant species compared with native species in three Mediterranean-type ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Oscar; Richardson, David M.; Valladares, Fernando; Castro-Díez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Flowering phenology is a potentially important component of success of alien species, since elevated fecundity may enhance invasiveness. The flowering patterns of invasive alien plant species and related natives were studied in three regions with Mediterranean-type climate: California, Spain and South Africa's Cape region. Methods A total of 227 invasive–native pairs were compared for seven character types across the regions, with each pair selected on the basis that they shared the same habitat type within a region, had a common growth form and pollination type, and belonged to the same family or genus. Key Results Invasive alien plant species have different patterns of flowering phenology from native species in the three regions. Whether the alien species flower earlier, later or at the same time as natives depends on the climatic regime in the native range of the aliens and the proportion of species in the invasive floras originating from different regions. Species invading at least two of the regions displayed the same flowering pattern, showing that flowering phenology is a conservative trait. Invasive species with native ranges in temperate climates flower earlier than natives, those from Mediterranean-type climates at the same time, and species from tropical climates flower later. In California, where the proportion of invaders from the Mediterranean Basin is high, the flowering pattern did not differ between invasive and native species, whereas in Spain the high proportion of tropical species results in a later flowering than natives, and in the Cape region early flowering than natives was the result of a high proportion of temperate invaders. Conclusions Observed patterns are due to the human-induced sympatry of species with different evolutionary histories whose flowering phenology evolved under different climatic regimes. The severity of the main abiotic filters imposed by the invaded regions (e.g. summer drought) has not been