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Sample records for monitoring laboratory detection

  1. Laboratory monitoring of haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A; Perry, D J

    2015-01-01

    Peri-operative coagulation monitoring should begin with the assessment of individual bleeding risk using a standardised bleeding history before the surgical procedure. Laboratory testing should be performed if this history is abnormal or peri-operative bleeding is anticipated. This process sensitively identifies those at risk of peri-operative bleeding and therefore minimises their peri-operative risk, without costly and time-consuming population testing. There are multiple potential causes of haemostatic derangement within the peri-operative period, and an understanding of both normal haemostasis and the coagulation tests available to detect coagulopathy is required to optimise patient management. In bleeding patients, routine coagulation tests should be requested, but one should be aware of the major limitations that exist. Delay whilst waiting for these laboratory results, which, in turn, aggravates coagulopathy, bleeding, blood product requirements, length of surgery and overall morbidity and mortality.

  2. Laboratory Connections. Gas Monitoring Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three types of sensors; pressure, gas detection, and relative humidity. Explains their use for laboratory measurements of gas pressure and detection of specific gaseous species. Shows diagrams of devices and circuits along with examples and applications including microcomputer interfacing. (RT)

  3. Current practices in laboratory monitoring of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Vajpayee, Madhu; Mohan, Teena

    2011-01-01

    After a diagnosis of HIV infection is made, the patient needs to be monitored using both clinical assessment and laboratory markers. HIV/AIDS monitoring is essential in guiding when to recommend initiation of therapy. Clinical monitoring will include staging of the HIV/AIDS disease using either the presence or absence of HIV-related signs and symptoms using the WHO staging system. Various laboratory methods can be used to monitor the disease progression and to guide whether the patient will need antiretroviral therapy or not. Laboratory monitoring for patients who are not on drugs is done to provide information about the stage of illness; to enable the clinician to make decisions on treatment and to give information on prognosis of the patient. Patients on drugs are monitored to assess their response to treatment with antiretroviral drugs and to detect any possible toxicity and improvement associated with the antiretroviral drugs. PMID:22310815

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2012-08-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  5. Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2008-04-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Joanne L. Knight

    2010-10-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  7. Laboratory preparedness for detection and monitoring of Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Europe and response to the 2011 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Rosin, P; Niskanen, T; Palm, D; Struelens, M; Takkinen, J

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid strain of enteroaggregative and Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli (EAEC-STEC) serotype O104:H4 strain caused a large outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and bloody diarrhoea in 2011 in Europe. Two surveys were performed in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries to assess their laboratory capabilities to detect and characterise this previously uncommon STEC strain. Prior to the outbreak, 11 of the 32 countries in this survey had capacity at national reference laboratory (NRL) level for epidemic case confirmation according to the EU definition. During the outbreak, at primary diagnostic level, nine countries reported that clinical microbiology laboratories routinely used Shiga toxin detection assays suitable for diagnosis of infections with EAEC-STEC O104:H4, while 14 countries had NRL capacity to confirm epidemic cases. Six months after the outbreak, 22 countries reported NRL capacity to confirm such cases following initiatives taken by NRLs and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) Food- and Waterborne Disease and Zoonoses laboratory network. These data highlight the challenge of detection and confirmation of epidemic infections caused by atypical STEC strains and the benefits of coordinated EU laboratory networks to strengthen capabilities in response to a major outbreak. PMID:23806297

  8. The electrical conductivity of CO2-bearing pore waters at elevated pressure and temperature: a laboratory study and its implications in CO2 storage monitoring and leakage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, Jana H.; Herdegen, Volker; Repke, Jens-Uwe; Spitzer, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    The electrical rock conductivity is a sensitive indicator for carbon dioxide (CO2) injection and migration processes. For a reliable balancing of the free CO2 in pore space with petrophysical models such as Archie's law or for the detection of migrating CO2, detailed knowledge of the pore water conductivity during interaction with CO2 is essential but not available yet. Contrary to common assumptions, pore water conductivity cannot be assumed constant since CO2 is a reactive gas that dissolves into the pore water in large amounts and provides additional charge carriers due to the dissociation of carbonic acid. We consequently carried out systematic laboratory experiments to quantify and analyse the changes in saline pore water conductivity caused by CO2 at thermodynamic equilibrium. Electrical conductivity is measured on pore water samples for pressures up to 30 MPa and temperatures up to 80 °C. The parameter range covers the gaseous, liquid and supercritical state of the CO2 involved. Pore water salinities from 0.006 up to 57.27 g L-1 sodium chloride were investigated as well as selective other ion species. At the same time, the CO2 concentration in the salt solution was determined by a wet-chemical procedure. A two-regime behaviour appears: for small salinities, we observe an increase of up to more than factor 3 in the electrical pore water conductivity, which strongly depends on the solution salinity (low-salinity regime). This is an expected behaviour, since the additional ions originating from the dissociation of carbonic acid positively contribute to the solution conductivity. However, when increasing salinities are considered this effect is completely diminished. For highly saline solutions, the increased mutual impeding causes the mobility of all ions to decrease, which may result in a significant reduction of conductivity by up to 15 per cent despite the added CO2 (high-salinity regime). We present the data set covering the pressure, temperature, salinity

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  10. Intra and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a monoclonal antibody cocktail based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE in dogs: proficiency monitoring of macELISA in six laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kenneth W; Blankenship, Karen D; McCurry, Zachary M; McKinney, Brennan; Ruffner, Rick; Esch, Robert E; Tambone, Cecilia; Faas, Rebecca; Hermes, Darren; Brazis, Pilar; Drouet, Laurent

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of results yielded using a monoclonal antibody based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE when run in six separate affiliated laboratories. On two separate occasions, duplicate samples of 15 different sera pools were independently evaluated by each laboratory in a single blinded fashion. The average intra-assay variance among reactive assay calibrators in all laboratories was 6.2% (range 2.6-18.2%), while the average intra-laboratory inter-assay variance was 12.1% (range 8.0-17.1%). The overall inter-assay inter-laboratory variance was consistent among laboratories and averaged 15.6% (range 15.1-16.6%). All laboratories yielded similar profiles and magnitudes of responses for replicate unknown samples; dose-response profiles observed in each of the laboratories were indistinguishable. Considering positive/negative results, inter-assay inter-laboratory concordance of results exceeded 95%. Correlation of OD values between and among all laboratories was strong (r>0.9, p<0.001). Correlation of OD values between the two separate evaluations was also high for all allergens except olive, which was attributed to lot-to-lot differences of allergen coated wells. Collectively, the results demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody based ELISA for measuring allergen specific canine IgE is reproducible, and documents that consistency of results can be achieved not only in an individual laboratory, but between laboratories using the same monoclonal-based ELISA.

  11. USGS Blind Sample Project: monitoring and evaluating laboratory analytical quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludtke, Amy S.; Woodworth, Mark T.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects and disseminates information about the Nation's water resources. Surface- and ground-water samples are collected and sent to USGS laboratories for chemical analyses. The laboratories identify and quantify the constituents in the water samples. Random and systematic errors occur during sample handling, chemical analysis, and data processing. Although all errors cannot be eliminated from measurements, the magnitude of their uncertainty can be estimated and tracked over time. Since 1981, the USGS has operated an independent, external, quality-assurance project called the Blind Sample Project (BSP). The purpose of the BSP is to monitor and evaluate the quality of laboratory analytical results through the use of double-blind quality-control (QC) samples. The information provided by the BSP assists the laboratories in detecting and correcting problems in the analytical procedures. The information also can aid laboratory users in estimating the extent that laboratory errors contribute to the overall errors in their environmental data.

  12. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data on air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring for 1980 are presented, and general trends are discussed.

  13. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1986 are presented and general trends are discussed. Topics include radiation monitoring, wastewater discharge monitoring, dose distribution estimates, and ground water monitoring. 9 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Gravitational wave detection in the laboratory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. T.; Kawashima, N.; Othman, M.; Chia, S. P.; Karim, M.; Sanugi, B.; Lim, B. H.; Chong, K. K.

    1998-09-01

    After reviewing the research work of gravitational wave detection in the laboratory, particularly long base laser interferometer detectors, the authors report on the recent progress of gravitational wave detection using laser interferometer (Tianyin-100) in Malaysia. The authors also outline the brief plan for Tianyin-500 in the future as a full-scale observatory competitive to other projects such as Ligo, Geo600, etc.

  15. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  16. Structural health monitoring activities at National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W.; James, G.H.; Simmermacher, T.

    1997-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory have on-going programs to assess damage in structures and mechanical systems from changes in their dynamic characteristics. This paper provides a summary of how both institutes became involved with this technology, their experience in this field and the directions that their research in this area will be taking in the future.

  17. Environmental monitoring at Ames Laboratory: Calendar year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The results and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring programs for the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) are presented. The major areas of radiological monitoring were ALRR effluent air, environmental air, effluent water and environmental water. Analysis of air samples collected at the ALRR site showed detectable amounts of /sup 60/Co. This isotope was 1.5 x 10/sup -4/% of the concentration guide (1) and was probably due to ALRR operations. The radioisotope of significance in the ALRR stack effluent was tritium. The average yearly individual dose from /sup 3/H at the exclusion fence was estimated to 0.0038 mRem and the estimated dose to the entire population within an 80 Km (50 mile) radius of the ALRR was 6.31 man-Rem. These values are 0.00076% and 0.0063%, respectively, of the doses derived from the concentration guides. In the radioactive liquid waste released to the City of Ames sewage system from the ALRR complex, /sup 3/H was the predominant isotope. After dilution with other waste water from the ALRR complex, the potential dose was not more than 0.59% of the dose derived from the concentration guide.

  18. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.; Pauer, R.O.

    1990-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a multiprogram national laboratory managed by the University of California (UC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). LBL's major role is to conduct basic and applied science research that is appropriate for an energy research laboratory. The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described. Data for 1989 are presented, and general trends are discussed. 17 refs., 12 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, D.; White, D. )

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  20. Improving the laboratory monitoring of absorbent oil

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; S.S. Sychev; I.V. Safina; S.A. Klykov

    2009-05-15

    The performance of absorbent coal tar oil is analyzed as a function of the constituent and group composition. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the oil that ensures the required absorbent properties is determined. Operative monitoring may be based on absorbent characteristics that permit regulation of the beginning and end of regeneration.

  1. Self-Monitoring Procedures: Basic Laboratory Skills, Instructional Package Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, William T.; And Others

    This manual contains instructional worksheets for a course in basic laboratory skills. It has been designed to meet the needs of the treatment plant technician who has little or no previous laboratory experience and is required to monitor effluent discharges. The manual is prepared on a modular basis and includes basic mathematics, weighing…

  2. Optimiziing the laboratory monitoring of biological wastewater-purification systems

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Gerasimov

    2009-05-15

    Optimization of the laboratory monitoring of biochemical wastewater-treatment systems at coke plants is considered, for the example of OAO Koks. By adopting a methodological approach to determine the necessary data from chemical analysis, it is possible to reduce the time, labor, and materials required for monitoring, without impairing the purification process or compromising the plant's environmental policies.

  3. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, W.J.; Lindeken, C.L.; White, J.H.; Buddemeir, R.W.

    1980-04-25

    Information on monitoring activities is reported in two sections for EDB/ERA/INIS. The first section covers all information reported except Appendix D, which gives details of sampling and analytical procedures for environmental monitoring used at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. A separate abstract was prepared for Appendix D. (JGB)

  4. Pollution monitoring system. [photographic laboratory by-products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodding, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to identify those photographic laboratory by-products which can produce harmful reactions if released untreated. After identification of these by-products, specific monitoring systems for each of the offending ions were investigated and recommendations for implementation are presented. Appropriate monitoring systems are discussed.

  5. CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT BREAKS IN CLADDING OF FUEL ELEMENTS. COUNT-RATE METER IN TOP PANEL INDICATES AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVITY. LOWER PANELS SUPPLY POWER AND AMPLIFICATION OF SIGNALS GENERATED BY SCINTILLATION COUNTER/PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE COMBINATION IN RESPONSE TO RADIOACTIVITY IN A SAMPLE OF THE COOLING WATER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-771. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 3/15/1956. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Miniature Laboratory for Detecting Sparse Biomolecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Yu, Nan

    2005-01-01

    A miniature laboratory system has been proposed for use in the field to detect sparsely distributed biomolecules. By emphasizing concentration and sorting of specimens prior to detection, the underlying system concept would make it possible to attain high detection sensitivities without the need to develop ever more sensitive biosensors. The original purpose of the proposal is to aid the search for signs of life on a remote planet by enabling the detection of specimens as sparse as a few molecules or microbes in a large amount of soil, dust, rocks, water/ice, or other raw sample material. Some version of the system could prove useful on Earth for remote sensing of biological contamination, including agents of biological warfare. Processing in this system would begin with dissolution of the raw sample material in a sample-separation vessel. The solution in the vessel would contain floating microscopic magnetic beads coated with substances that could engage in chemical reactions with various target functional groups that are parts of target molecules. The chemical reactions would cause the targeted molecules to be captured on the surfaces of the beads. By use of a controlled magnetic field, the beads would be concentrated in a specified location in the vessel. Once the beads were thus concentrated, the rest of the solution would be discarded. This procedure would obviate the filtration steps and thereby also eliminate the filter-clogging difficulties of typical prior sample-concentration schemes. For ferrous dust/soil samples, the dissolution would be done first in a separate vessel before the solution is transferred to the microbead-containing vessel.

  7. GPS Monitor Station Upgrade Program at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galysh, Ivan J.; Craig, Dwin M.

    1996-01-01

    One of the measurements made by the Global Positioning System (GPS) monitor stations is to measure the continuous pseudo-range of all the passing GPS satellites. The pseudo-range contains GPS and monitor station clock errors as well as GPS satellite navigation errors. Currently the time at the GPS monitor station is obtained from the GPS constellation and has an inherent inaccuracy as a result. Improved timing accuracy at the GPS monitoring stations will improve GPS performance. The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing hardware and software for the GPS monitor station upgrade program to improve the monitor station clock accuracy. This upgrade will allow a method independent of the GPS satellite constellation of measuring and correcting monitor station time to US Naval Observatory (USNO) time. THe hardware consists of a high performance atomic cesium frequency standard (CFS) and a computer which is used to ensemble the CFS with the two CFS's currently located at the monitor station by use of a dual-mixer system. The dual-mixer system achieves phase measurements between the high-performance CFS and the existing monitor station CFS's to within 400 femtoseconds. Time transfer between USNO and a given monitor station is achieved via a two way satellite time transfer modem. The computer at the monitor station disciplines the CFS based on a comparison of one pulse per second sent from the master site at USNO. The monitor station computer is also used to perform housekeeping functions, as well as recording the health status of all three CFS's. This information is sent to the USNO through the time transfer modem. Laboratory time synchronization results in the sub nanosecond range have been observed and the ability to maintain the monitor station CFS frequency to within 3.0 x 10 (sup minus 14) of the master site at USNO.

  8. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick W.; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Follistein, Duke W.

    2004-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab (HGDL) at Kennedy Space Center is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response times and detection limits. A Table lists common gases monitored for aerospace applications. The first five gases, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are historically the focus of the HGDL.

  9. Blood glucose monitors: a laboratory and patient assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, D J; Lovesay, J M; Ellis, A; Knight, A H

    1980-01-01

    The four blood glucose monitors available in the United Kingdom were compared by asking the opinions of 24 patients who used each monitor for two weeks, by correlating their blood glucose results with those obtained in the laboratory, and by having the monitors examined by an electronics engineer. Of the battery-operated monitors, patients preferred the Hypocount (15) to the Glucochek (9). The mains-operated units were less popular, with little to choose between Eyetone and Reflomat. Under field conditions the blood glucose results obtained with the Glucochek correlated poorly with the standard reference method. In contrast the Hypocount, Eyetone, and Reflomat machines produced good correlations. Poor results with the Glucochek were mainly due to faulty timing systems. The patients' preference for the Hypocount was supported by tests of performance under laboratory conditions and by the electronics engineer's report. PMID:7362972

  10. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1989-06-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is described. Data for 1988 are presented and general trends are discussed. In order to establish whether LBL research activities produced any impact on the population surrounding the laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1988, as in the previous several years, dose equivalents attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of both the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG) and of the natural radiation background. 16 refs., 7 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. LABORATORY DETECTION OF THIOCYANIC ACID HSCN

    SciTech Connect

    Bruenken, S.; Yu, Z.; Gottlieb, C. A.; McCarthy, M. C.; Thaddeus, P. E-mail: cgottlieb@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: pthaddeus@cfa.harvard.ed

    2009-12-01

    The rotational spectrum of thiocyanic acid HSCN, a highly polar isomer of the well-known astronomical molecule isothiocyanic acid HNCS, has been measured in two radio bands: in the centimeter-wave band by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in a molecular beam, and in the millimeter-wave band by long-path absorption spectroscopy in a low-pressure glow discharge. Twelve spectroscopic constants were derived from more than 60 a-type rotational transitions between 11 and 346 GHz with J up to 30 and K{sub a} <= 6, including seven centimeter-wave transitions with resolved hyperfine structure. With these constants the rotational spectrum in the K{sub a} = 0 and K{sub a} = 1 ladders-those most likely to be observed in space-can now be calculated up to 400 GHz with formal uncertainties of less than 0.2 km s{sup -1} in equivalent radial velocity. Thiocyanic acid was recently identified in Sgr B2 by Halfen et al. following the laboratory measurements, and there is possible evidence for it in cold dark clouds, with the implication that HSCN may be detectable in many galactic sources.

  12. Test plan for demonstration of Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This plan describes tests to demonstrate the capability of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) to monitor airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides and analyze soil, smear, and filter samples for alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides under field conditions. The RTML will be tested during June 1993 at a site adjacent to the Cold Test Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Measurement systems installed in the RTML that will be demonstrated include two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, an x-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer, and four alpha continuous air monitors. Test objectives, requirements for data quality, experimental apparatus and procedures, and safety and logistics issues are described.

  13. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  14. 1992 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, H.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Matz, B.; Molley, K.; Rhodes, W.; Stermer, D.; Wolff, T.

    1993-09-01

    This 1992 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0034 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.019 person-rem during 1992 from the laboratories` operations. As in the previous year, the 1992 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  15. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  16. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  17. TEST PLAN FOR MONITORING COOLING COILS IN A LABORATORY SETTING

    SciTech Connect

    Don B. Shirey, III

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand and quantify the moisture removal performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. The project will include a comprehensive literature review, detailed measurement of cooling coil performance in a laboratory facility, monitoring cooling systems at several field test sites, and development/validation of engineering models that can be used in energy calculations and building simulations. This document contains the detailed test plan for monitoring cooling coil performance in a laboratory setting. Detailed measurements will be taken on up to 10 direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling coils in various configurations to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation.

  18. Detection of respiratory compromise by acoustic monitoring, capnography, and brain function monitoring during monitored anesthesia care.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Pedro P; Tanaka, Maria; Drover, David R

    2014-12-01

    Episodes of apnea in sedated patients represent a risk of respiratory compromise. We hypothesized that acoustic monitoring would be equivalent to capnography for detection of respiratory pauses, with fewer false alarms. In addition, we hypothesized that the patient state index (PSI) would be correlated with the frequency of respiratory pauses and therefore could provide information about the risk of apnea during sedation. Patients undergoing sedation for surgical procedures were monitored for respiration rate using acoustic monitoring and capnography and for depth of sedation using the PSI. A clinician blinded to the acoustic and sedation monitor observed the capnograph and patient to assess sedation and episodes of apnea. Another clinician retrospectively reviewed the capnography and acoustic waveform and sound files to identify true positive and false positive respiratory pauses by each method (reference method). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio for detection of respiratory pause was calculated for acoustic monitoring and capnography. The correlation of PSI with respiratory pause events was determined. For the 51 respiratory pauses validated by retrospective analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio positive for detection were 16, 96 %, and 3.5 for clinician observation; 88, 7 %, and 1.0 for capnography; and 55, 87 %, and 4.1 for acoustic monitoring. There was no correlation between PSI and respiratory pause events. Acoustic monitoring had the highest likelihood ratio positive for detection of respiratory pause events compared with capnography and clinician observation and, therefore, may provide the best method for respiration rate monitoring during these procedures. PMID:24420342

  19. Tritium monitor calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bjork, C.J.; Aikin, D.J.; Houlton, T.W.

    1997-08-01

    Tritium in air is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with air breathing instruments based on ionization chambers. Stack emissions are continuously monitored from sample tubes which each connect to a Tritium bubble which differentially collects HTO and HT. A set of glass vials of glycol capture the HTO. The HT is oxidized with a palladium catalyst and the resultant HTO is captured in a second set of vials of glycol. The glycol is counted with a liquid scintillation counter. All calibrations are performed with tritium containing gas. The Radiation Instrumentation and Calibration (RIC) Team has constructed and maintains two closed loop gas handling systems based on femto TECH model U24 tritium ion chamber monitors: a fixed system housed in a fume hood and a portable system mounted on two two wheeled hand trucks. The U24 monitors are calibrated against tritium in nitrogen gas standards. They are used as standard transfer instruments to calibrate other ion chamber monitors with tritium in nitrogen, diluted with air. The gas handling systems include a circulation pump which permits a closed circulation loop to be established among the U24 monitor and typically two to four other monitors of a given model during calibration. Fixed and portable monitors can be calibrated. The stack bubblers are calibrated in the field by: blending a known concentration of tritium in air within the known volume of the two portable carts, coupled into a common loop; releasing that gas mixture into a ventilation intake to the stack; collecting oxidized tritium in the bubbler; counting the glycol; and using the stack and bubbler flow rates, computing the bubbler`s efficiency. Gas calibration has become a convenient and quality tool in maintaining the tritium monitors at LANL.

  20. Environmental monitoring and assessment program forest health monitoring quality assurance project plan for detection monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.P.; Alexander, S.A.; Barnard, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAP) is written specifically for the Detection Minitoring project of the interagency Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program. Sections 1 through 3 briefly explain key features of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), the FHM program, and their interrelationship, respectively. Section 4 describes the general quality assurance (QA) requirements for the FHM Detection Monitoring project. Section 5 contains the separate QAPs for each forest condition indicator: site condition and tree growth and regeneration, tree crown condition, tree damage assessment, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vegetation structure, ozone bioindicator plants, and lichen communities.

  1. An inexpensive dual-chamber particle monitor: laboratory characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rufus Edwards; Kirk R. Smith; Brent Kirby; Tracy Allen; Charles D. Litton; Susanne Hering

    2006-06-15

    In developing countries, high levels of particle pollution from the use of coal and biomass fuels for household cooking and heating are a major cause of ill health and premature mortality. Existing monitoring equipment makes routine quantification of household particle pollution levels difficult. Recent advances have enabled the development of a small, portable, data-logging particle monitor modified from commercial smoke alarm technology that can meet the needs of surveys in the developing world at reasonable cost. Laboratory comparisons of a prototype particle monitor developed at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) with gravimetric filters, a tapered element oscillating microbalance, and a TSI DustTrak to quantify the UCB particle monitor response as a function of both concentration and particle size and to examine sensor response in relation to changes in temperature, relative humidity, and elevation are presented. UCB particle monitors showed good linearity in response to different concentrations of laboratory-generated oleic acid aerosols with a coarse and fine size distributions. The photoelectric and ionization chamber showed a wide range of responses based on particle size and, thus, require calibration with the aerosol of interest. The ionization chamber was five times more sensitive to fine rather than coarse particles, whereas the photoelectric chamber was five times more sensitive to coarse than fine. The ratio of the response between the two sensors has the potential for mass calibration of individual data points based on estimated parameters of the size distribution. The results demonstrate the significant potential of this monitor, which will facilitate the evaluation of interventions (improved fuels, stoves, and ventilation) on indoor air pollution levels and research on the impacts of indoor particle levels on health in developing countries. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Spectral detection and monitoring of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Wells, Tami; Gilbert, Gary; Podobna, Yuliya; Petrosyuk, Irina; Dirbas, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    This note presents an airborne spectral imaging system and methodology used to detect, track and monitor marine mammal populations. The system is a four band multispectral imaging system using spectral bands tailored for maritime imaging. This low cost, low volume, imaging sensor can be deployed on either a small unmanned air vehicle (UAV) or any other cost efficient aircraft. Results of recent multispectral data collects over marine mammals in St. Lawrence Seaway are presented. Species present included beluga whales as well as various species of larger baleen whales.

  3. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999.

  4. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000.

  5. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick; Follistein, Duke

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response and limits of detection. Unfortunately, these systems are large, heavy and expensive. This feature limits the ability to perform gas analysis in certain applications. Smaller and lighter mass spectrometer systems could be used in many more applications primarily due to the portability of the system. Such applications would include air analysis in confined spaces, in-situ environmental analysis and emergency response. In general, system cost is lowered as size is reduced. With a low cost air analysis system, several systems could be utilized for monitoring large areas. These networked systems could be deployed at job-sites for worker safety, throughout a community for pollution warnings, or dispersed in a battlefield for early warning of chemical or biological threats. Presented will be information on the first prototype of this type of system. Included will be field trial data, with this prototype performing air analysis autonomously from an aircraft.

  6. Improved capabilities for area environmental monitoring at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Bauer, M.L.; Pudelek, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent increased concern for environmental safety hazards resulting from releases of radioactivity and other hazardous materials have necessitated the installation of improved monitoring instruments and methods at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Over the past several years a number of important instrument projects have been initiated to improve plant monitoring systems (both inside the Laboratory and in adjacent East Tennessee areas) and to enhance operational capabilities for detecting releases of hazardous and/or radioactive materials. These measures will significantly modernize and increase the number of monitoring stations measuring activity levels in (1) plant effluent gases, (2) plant effluent liquid wastes, and (3) local streams and rivers. Monitoring instruments within the operating buildings of the Laboratory are being upgraded, and three instrumented meteorological towers are in service to provide information for calculating deposition patterns over surrounding areas. Advanced, on-line central data collection systems supply continuous information for programmable alarm-level circuits, for display at remote terminals throughout ORNL, and for scientific long-term data base purposes. When these improvements are completed in about two years, the number of environmentally derived signals will significantly exceed 750 monitored values.

  7. Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitor Measurements at the High Temperature Test Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) temperature monitors are now available for use as temperature sensors in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) irradiation test capsules. Melt wires or paint spots, which are typically used as temperature sensors in ATR static capsules, are limited in that they can only detect whether a single temperature is or is not exceeded. SiC monitors are advantageous because a single monitor can be used to detect for a range of temperatures that may have occurred during irradiation. As part of the efforts initiated by the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to make SiC temperature monitors available, a capability was developed to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. As discussed in this report, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. This document describes the INL efforts to develop the capability to complete these resistance measurements. In addition, the procedure is reported that was developed to assure that high quality measurements are made in a consistent fashion.

  8. Environmental monitoring at Ames Laboratory: calendar year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, M.D.

    1981-04-01

    The results and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring programs for the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) and other Laboratory facilities are presented. The major areas of radiological monitoring were ALRR effluent air, environmental air, effluent water and environmental water. A summary of the radioactivity found in the environment is presented. The ALRR ceased operation on December 1, 1977. Decommissioning activities began January 3, 1978, and are scheduled for completion October 1, 1981. Analysis of air samples collected at the ALRR on-site station showed no radioactivity that could be attributed to ALRR operations. The radiosotope of significance in the ALRR stack effluent was tritium (H-3). The yearly individual dose from H-3 at the exclusion fence was estimated to be 0.016 mRem and the estimated dose to the entire population within an 80 Km (50 mile) radius of the ALRR was 26.6 man-Rem. These values are 0.0032% and 0.026%, respectively, of the doses derived from the concentration guides. On September 1, 1978, the ALRR site was connected to the City of Ames sanitary sewage system. All liquids (except building foundation and roof water) from the ALRR complex are now discharged to the sewage system negating the requirement for monitoring chemical constituents of effluent and environmental waters. In the radioactive liquid waste released to the City of Ames sewage system from the ALRR complex, H-3 was the predominant isotope. After dilution with other waste water from the ALRR complex, the potential dose was not more than 0.68% of the dose derived from the concentration guide. Building foundation and roof water are discharged to a drainage gulch on site.

  9. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1983-04-01

    In order to establish whether LBL research activities produces any impact on the population surrounding the Laboratory, a program of environmental air and water sampling and continuous radiation monitoring was carried on throughout the year. For 1982, as in the previous several years, doses attributable to LBL radiological operations were a small fraction of the relevant radiation protection guidelines (RPG). The maximum perimeter dose equivalent was less than or equal to 24.0 mrem (the 1982 dose equivalent measured at the Building 88 monitoring station B-13A, about 5% of the RPG). The total population dose equivalent attributable to LBL operations during 1982 was less than or equal to 16 man-rem, about 0.002% of the RPG of 170 mrem/person to a suitable sample of the population.

  10. Cable condition monitoring research activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Zigler, G.L.; Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is currently conducting long-term aging research on representative samples of nuclear power plant cables. The objectives of the program are to determine the suitability of these cables for extended life (beyond 40 year design basis) and to assess various cable condition monitoring techniques for predicting remaining cable life. The cables are being aged for long times at relatively mild exposure conditions with various condition monitoring techniques to be employed during the aging process. Following the aging process, the cables will be exposed to a sequential accident profile consisting of high dose rate irradiation followed by a simulated design basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) steam exposure. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. 1987 environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, T.K.

    1988-04-01

    Sandia National Labortories conduct various research activities related to Department of Energy interests which have the potential for release of hazardous materials or radionuclides to the environment. A strict environmental control program places maximum emphasis on limiting releases. The environmental monitoring program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and augmented by Sandia is designed to measure the performance of the environmental controls. The program includes analysis of air, water, soil, vegetation, sewer effluent, ground water, and foodstuffs for various toxic, hazardous, or radioactive materials. Based on these studies, the releases of materials of concern at Sandia during 1987 were well below applicable Department of Energy standards. 8 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting a program to monitor the waste water from PNL-operated research and development facilities on the Hanford Site. The purpose of the program is to collect data to assess administrative controls and to determine whether discharges to the process sewer meet sewer criteria. Samples have been collected on a regular basis from the major PNL facilities on the Hanford Site since March 1994. A broad range of analyses has been performed to determine the primary constituents in the liquid effluent. The sampling program is briefly summarized in the paper. Continuous monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow also provides data on the liquid effluent streams. In addition to sampling and monitoring, the program is evaluating the dynamics of the waste stream with dye studies and is evaluating the use of newer technologies for potential deployment in future sampling/monitoring efforts. Information collected to date has been valuable in determining sources of constituents that may be higher than the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This facility treats the waste streams before discharge to the Columbia River.

  13. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  14. ISS Destiny Laboratory Smoke Detection Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoke transport and detection were modeled numerically in the ISS Destiny module using the NIST, Fire Dynamics Simulator code. The airflows in Destiny were modeled using the existing flow conditions and the module geometry included obstructions that simulate the currently installed hardware on orbit. The smoke source was modeled as a 0.152 by 0.152 m region that emitted smoke particulate ranging from 1.46 to 8.47 mg/s. In the module domain, the smoke source was placed in the center of each Destiny rack location and the model was run to determine the time required for the two smoke detectors to alarm. Overall the detection times were dominated by the circumferential flow, the axial flow from the intermodule ventilation and the smoke source strength.

  15. Laboratory detection of the elusive HSCO+ isomer.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M C; Thaddeus, P

    2007-12-14

    The rotational spectrum of protonated carbonyl sulfide, HSCO(+), has now been detected in the centimeter-wave band in a molecular beam by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants have been determined from transitions in the K(a)=0 ladder of the normal isotopic species, and DSCO(+) and H(34)SCO(+). HSCO(+) is systematically more abundant by a factor of three than HOCS(+), the isomer obtained by attaching the H(+) to the other end of the molecule, which ab initio calculations long predicted to be higher in energy by 4-5 kcalmol. Because HSCO(+) is comparable in polarity to HOCS(+) and is apparently more stable and because OCS is widely distributed in astronomical sources, HSCO(+) is a good candidate for detection with radio telescopes. PMID:18081381

  16. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1984-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1983 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. 19 references, 8 figures, 49 tables.

  17. 1989 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Chavez, G.; Phelan, J.; Parsons, A.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; Schwartz, B.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Gray, C.; Thompson, D.

    1990-05-01

    This 1989 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem. The total Albuquerque population received a collective dose of 0.097 person-rem during 1989 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, SNL, Albuquerque, operations in 1989 had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. 46 refs., 20 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1982-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1981 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  19. 1991 Environmental monitoring report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, S.; Jones, A.; Longley, S.; Parsons, A.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Ward, S.

    1992-11-01

    This 1991 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration (ER), and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of SNL, Albuquerque, received a collective dose of 0.53 person-rem during 1991 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1991 operations at SNL, Albuquerque, had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  20. 1990 Environmental Monitoring Report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Yeager, G.; Wolff, T.; Parsons, A.; Dionne, D.; Massey, C.; Schwartz, B.; Fish, J.; Thompson, D. ); Goodrich, M. )

    1991-05-01

    This 1990 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mrem. The total 50-mile population received a collective dose of 0.82 person-rem during 1990 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1990 SNL operations had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1. 97 refs., 30 figs., 137 tabs.

  1. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1985-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1984 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, ground water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and measurements were made on the site, at the site boundary, and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. 20 refs., 8 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. Environmental monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory. Annual report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Sedlet, J.

    1983-03-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne Ntaional Laboratory for 1982 are presented and discussed. To evaluate the effect of Argonne operations on the environment, measurements were made for a variety of radionuclides in air, surface water, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk; for a variety of chemical constituents in air, surface water, ground water, and Argonne effluent water; and of the environmental penetrating radiation dose. Sample collections and masurements were made at the site boundary and off the Argonne site for comparison purposes. Some on-site measurements were made to aid in the interpretation of the boundary and off-site data. The results of the program are interpreted in terms of the sources and origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, Argonne, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. The potential radiation dose to off-site population groups is also estimated.

  3. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  4. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls. PMID:20056744

  5. Damage detection in bridges through fiber optic structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornink, J. D.; Phares, B. M.; Wipf, T. J.; Wood, D. L.

    2006-10-01

    A fiber optic structural health monitoring (SHM) system was developed and deployed by the Iowa State University (ISU) Bridge Engineering Center (BEC) to detect gradual or sudden damage in fracture-critical bridges (FCBs). The SHM system is trained with measured performance data, which are collected by fiber optic strain sensors to identify typical bridge behavior when subjected to ambient traffic loads. Structural responses deviating from the trained behavior are considered to be signs of structural damage or degradation and are identified through analytical procedures similar to control chart analyses used in statistical process control (SPC). The demonstration FCB SHM system was installed on the US Highway 30 bridge near Ames, IA, and utilizes 40 fiber bragg grating (FBG) sensors to continuously monitor the bridge response when subjected to ambient traffic loads. After the data is collected and processed, weekly evaluation reports are developed that summarize the continuous monitoring results. Through use of the evaluation reports, the bridge owner is able to identify and estimate the location and severity of the damage. The information presented herein includes an overview of the SHM components, results from laboratory and field validation testing on the system components, and samples of the reduced and analyzed data.

  6. Novel Monitoring Techniques for Characterizing Frictional Interfaces in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Selvadurai, Paul A.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive film was used to characterize the asperity contacts along a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) interface in the laboratory. The film has structural health monitoring (SHM) applications for flanges and other precision fittings and train rail condition monitoring. To calibrate the film, simple spherical indentation tests were performed and validated against a finite element model (FEM) to compare normal stress profiles. Experimental measurements of the normal stress profiles were within −7.7% to 6.6% of the numerical calculations between 12 and 50 MPa asperity normal stress. The film also possessed the capability of quantifying surface roughness, an important parameter when examining wear and attrition in SHM applications. A high definition video camera supplied data for photometric analysis (i.e., the measure of visible light) of asperities along the PMMA-PMMA interface in a direct shear configuration, taking advantage of the transparent nature of the sample material. Normal stress over individual asperities, calculated with the pressure-sensitive film, was compared to the light intensity transmitted through the interface. We found that the luminous intensity transmitted through individual asperities linearly increased 0.05643 ± 0.0012 candelas for an increase of 1 MPa in normal stress between normal stresses ranging from 23 to 33 MPa. PMID:25923930

  7. Novel monitoring techniques for characterizing frictional interfaces in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Selvadurai, Paul A; Glaser, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive film was used to characterize the asperity contacts along a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) interface in the laboratory. The film has structural health monitoring (SHM) applications for flanges and other precision fittings and train rail condition monitoring. To calibrate the film, simple spherical indentation tests were performed and validated against a finite element model (FEM) to compare normal stress profiles. Experimental measurements of the normal stress profiles were within -7.7% to 6.6% of the numerical calculations between 12 and 50 MPa asperity normal stress. The film also possessed the capability of quantifying surface roughness, an important parameter when examining wear and attrition in SHM applications. A high definition video camera supplied data for photometric analysis (i.e., the measure of visible light) of asperities along the PMMA-PMMA interface in a direct shear configuration, taking advantage of the transparent nature of the sample material. Normal stress over individual asperities, calculated with the pressure-sensitive film, was compared to the light intensity transmitted through the interface. We found that the luminous intensity transmitted through individual asperities linearly increased 0.05643 ± 0.0012 candelas for an increase of 1 MPa in normal stress between normal stresses ranging from 23 to 33 MPa. PMID:25923930

  8. Polygraph lie detection on real events in a laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M T; Cullen, M C

    1993-06-01

    This laboratory study dealt with real-life intense emotional events. Subjects generated embarrassing stories from their experience, then submitted to polygraph testing and, by lying, denied their stories and, by telling the truth, denied a randomly assigned story. Money was given as an incentive to be judged innocent on each story. An interrogator, blind to the stories, used Control Question Tests and found subjects more deceptive when lying than when truthful. Stories interacted with order such that lying on the second story was more easily detected than lying on the first. Embarrassing stories provide an alternative to the use of mock crimes to study lie detection in the laboratory.

  9. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B.

  10. Design of a instrumentation module for monitoring ingestive behavior in laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Juan M; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    The development of accurate and objective tools for monitoring of ingestive behavior (MIB) is one of the most important needs facing studies of obesity and eating disorders. This paper presents the design of an instrumentation module for non-invasive monitoring of food ingestion in laboratory studies. The system can capture signals from a variety of sensors that characterize ingestion process (such as acoustical and other swallowing sensors, strain sensor for chewing detection and self-report buttons). In addition to the sensors, the data collection system integrates time-synchronous video footage that can be used for annotation of subject's activity. Both data and video are simultaneously and synchronously acquired and stored by a LabVIEW-based interface specifically developed for this application. This instrumentation module improves a previously developed system by eliminating the post-processing stage of data synchronization and by reducing the risks of operator's error.

  11. [The clinical immunology laboratory in diagnosis and monitoring of systemic lupus erythematosus and connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Sinico, R A; Radice, A

    2005-01-01

    The laboratory and particularly clinical immunology laboratories have an essential role in diagnosing and monitoring systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as well as other connective tissue diseases. The role of the clinical immunology laboratory in these diseases is to confirm or exclude diagnosis, to monitor disease activity, and to identify subgroup of patients. To obtain the best results in terms of diagnostic performance and clinical usefulness, the following recommendations should be fulfilled: anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) determination by indirect immunofluorescence on Hep-2 cells is an effective screening assay in patients with clinical features of SLE. A negative ANA test makes the diagnosis of SLE unlikely. Anti-dsDNA antibodies are highly specific for SLE and are associated with renal involvement. The method of choice for anti-dsDNA is the Farr assay; however, the necessity of using radioactive materials reduces its applicability. As an alternative, immunofluorescence on Crithidia Luciliae can be used in the diagnostic phase due to its high specificity. The detection of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) and to phospholipids (lupus anticoagulant and anti-cardiolipin antibodies) is useful in identifying subgroups of patients at risk for some clinical manifestations. Anti-dsDNA measurement with a quantitative assay (the Farr assay or ELISA) is currently the best method to monitor disease activity along with complement levels. New assays (anti-C1q and anti-nucleosome antibodies) have been recently proposed for the diagnosis (anti-nucleosome) and monitoring of SLE patients (anti-C1q and anti-nucleosome antibodies), with promising results.

  12. Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H.; Morgan, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

  13. Monitoring Sensitive Bat Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, Kari M.

    2014-01-15

    Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as “threatened” by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as “sensitive” and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a

  14. Rankine cycle leak detection via continuous monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, Cecil H.

    1982-10-08

    Rankine cycle power plants operate on a closed cycle in which heat is transferred from a high temperature reservoir to a low temperature sink while performing useful work. leaks in this cycle cause the loss of working fluid and/or corrosion of the power plant. Both of these constitute a loss of capital assets. A severe leak can reduce the efficiency of the cycle to the extent of creating an operating loss. PNL is undertaking the development of continuous monitoring techniques to protect rankine cycle plants from such losses. The location of these continuous monitors on an organic rankine cycle is described and shown schematically.

  15. Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental monitoring plan for Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Paquette, D.; Lee, R.

    1996-10-01

    As required by DOE Order 5400.1, each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials shall provide a written Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) covering effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, provides specific guidance regarding environmental monitoring activities.

  16. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  17. Laboratory Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Automated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Pedrosa-Corral, Irene; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Navarro-Marí, José-María

    2012-01-01

    Advances in clinical virology for detecting respiratory viruses have been focused on nucleic acids amplification techniques, which have converted in the reference method for the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections of viral aetiology. Improvements of current commercial molecular assays to reduce hands-on-time rely on two strategies, a stepwise automation (semi-automation) and the complete automation of the whole procedure. Contributions to the former strategy have been the use of automated nucleic acids extractors, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR and/or DNA arrays for detection of amplicons. Commercial fully-automated molecular systems are now available for the detection of respiratory viruses. Some of them could convert in point-of-care methods substituting antigen tests for detection of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A and B viruses. This article describes laboratory methods for detection of respiratory viruses. A cost-effective and rational diagnostic algorithm is proposed, considering technical aspects of the available assays, infrastructure possibilities of each laboratory and clinic-epidemiologic factors of the infection PMID:23248735

  18. Resistance to antiplatelet drugs: molecular mechanisms and laboratory detection.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, M

    2007-07-01

    The definition 'resistance to antiplatelet drugs' should be limited to situations in which failure of the drug to hit its pharmacological target has been documented by specific laboratory tests. Aspirin resistance, as determined by specific tests (e.g. serum thromboxane B(2)), appears to be rare (1-2%) and, in most instances, is caused by poor compliance. In contrast to aspirin, studies that used specific tests to measure the pharmacological effect of thienopyridines [e.g. vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP)] showed a wide variability of responses to these drugs, with significant proportions of subjects (15-30%) who are very poor responders. Inter-individual differences in the extent of metabolism of thienopyridines to their active metabolites is the most plausible mechanism for the observed inter-individual variability in platelet inhibition. The demonstration that some patients may be 'resistant' or 'poor responders' to the pharmacological effect of antiplatelet drugs, has prompted the need of laboratory monitoring of antiplatelet therapy. However, many published studies have been performed using unspecific tests of platelet function, which identify patients on antiplatelet treatment with high residual platelet reactivity, which is not necessarily because of resistance to antiplatelet drugs. Despite this drawback, identification of patients with high residual platelet reactivity may be useful to predict their risk of atherothrombotic events. However, many studies still need to be carried out to identify the ideal laboratory test and to answer basic questions on its clinical utility and cost-effectiveness, before monitoring antiplatelet therapy can be recommended in the clinical practise. Until then, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy should be considered for investigational purposes only. PMID:17635731

  19. The use of laboratory tests in diagnosis and monitoring of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Sinico, Renato Alberto; Bollini, Bruna; Sabadini, Ettore; Di Toma, Luca; Radice, Antonella

    2002-01-01

    Clinical immunology laboratories play an essential role in diagnosis and monitoring of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To obtain the best results in terms of diagnostic performance and clinical usefulness, the following recommendations should be fulfilled: Indirect immunofluorescence on Hep-2 cells remains the method of choice for the detection of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The sensitivity of ANA test for SLE is very high (almost 100%) but its specificity low since ANA can be present in a number of different clinical conditions and even in normal controls. Anti-dsDNA antibodies are highly specific for SLE and present in a high proportion of SLE patients (40-80%). The method of choice for anti-ds DNA is the Farr assay; however, the necessity of using radioactive material decreases its applicability. As an alternative, immunofluorescence on Crithidia Luciliae can be used in the diagnostic phase for its high specificity. It is not advisable to use ELISA, in the diagnostic phase, due to its low specificity. The quantitative determination of anti-dsDNA is useful for monitoring patients, in particular in the presence of nephritis. For monitoring, a quantitative method should be used (Farr assay or ELISA). The detection of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) and to phospholipids (Lupus anticoagulant and anti-cardiolipin antibodies with a beta2 glycoprotein I-dependent method) are useful to identify subgroups of patients at risk for some clinical manifestations (i.e. anti-phospholipid syndrome). New assays (anti-C1q and anti-nucleosome antibodies) have been recently proposed for diagnosis (anti-nucleosome) and monitoring SLE patients (anti-C1q and anti-nucleosome antibodies), with promising results. Among biological parameters, urinary levels of monocyte chemoattranct protein 1 (MCP1) seem to be the most useful to monitor nephritis activity in lupus patients.

  20. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten

  1. Statistical Anomaly Detection for Monitoring of Human Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of human dynamics has drawn attention to various areas. Due to the wide spread of positioning technologies that use GPS or public Wi-Fi, location information can be obtained with high spatial-temporal resolution as well as at low cost. By collecting set of individual location information in real time, monitoring of human dynamics is recently considered possible and is expected to lead to dynamic traffic control in the future. Although this monitoring focuses on detecting anomalous states of human dynamics, anomaly detection methods are developed ad hoc and not fully systematized. This research aims to define an anomaly detection problem of the human dynamics monitoring with gridded population data and develop an anomaly detection method based on the definition. According to the result of a review we have comprehensively conducted, we discussed the characteristics of the anomaly detection of human dynamics monitoring and categorized our problem to a semi-supervised anomaly detection problem that detects contextual anomalies behind time-series data. We developed an anomaly detection method based on a sticky HDP-HMM, which is able to estimate the number of hidden states according to input data. Results of the experiment with synthetic data showed that our proposed method has good fundamental performance with respect to the detection rate. Through the experiment with real gridded population data, an anomaly was detected when and where an actual social event had occurred.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 222-S Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.; Warwick, G.J.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable Federal, State, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  3. Monitoring gravity waves detected by I33MG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randrianarinosy, Fanomezana; Andrianaivoarisora, Jean Bernardo; Tahina Rakotoariza, Andriniaina; Rambolamanana, Gérard; Harifidy Ramanantsoa, Andry

    2013-04-01

    Since September 2001, I33MG has recorded and stored data in the National Data Centre which belongs to the Laboratory of Seismology and Infrasound at the Institute and Observatory of Geophysics in Antananarivo (IOGA). The recorded data allowed us to monitor different sources of infrasound such as microbaroms, lightning, volcanoes, cyclones, mountain associated waves, explosions, etc which can be distinguished as acoustic waves. Besides, in the framework of the ARISE project, atmospheric waves having frequency below the acoustic cut-off frequency, known as gravity waves, are considered. Buoyancy oscillations are observed that fill the atmosphere and ocean and propagate long distances horizontally and vertically, have length scales from meters to thousands of kilometers, time scales from seconds to weeks, and release energy into turbulence by wave breaking. WinPMCC based on the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) is used to detect and to get the wave parameters. Azimuth variation versus time is observed but events are mostly found from 200° to 360°, 0° to 100° and a few from 100° to 200°.

  4. Detection and quantification system for monitoring instruments

    DOEpatents

    Dzenitis, John M.; Hertzog, Claudia K.; Makarewicz, Anthony J.; Henderer, Bruce D.; Riot, Vincent J.

    2008-08-12

    A method of detecting real events by obtaining a set of recent signal results, calculating measures of the noise or variation based on the set of recent signal results, calculating an expected baseline value based on the set of recent signal results, determining sample deviation, calculating an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, setting an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation, and determining whether the signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

  5. Online Monitoring System for Performance Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gioiosa, Roberto; Kestor, Gokcen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-05-19

    To achieve the exaFLOPS performance within a contain power budget, next supercomputers will feature hundreds of millions of components operating at low- and near-threshold voltage. As the probability that at least one of these components fails during the execution of an application approaches certainty, it seems unrealistic to expect that any run of a scientific application will not experience some performance faults. We believe that there is need of a new generation of light-weight performance and debugging tools that can be used online even during production runs of parallel applications and that can identify performance anomalies during the application execution. In this work we propose the design and implementation of a monitoring system that continuously inspects the evolution of run

  6. Online Monitoring System for Performance Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gioiosa, Roberto; Kestor, Gokcen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-12-31

    To achieve the exaFLOPS performance within a contained power budget, next generation supercomputers will feature hundreds of millions of components operating at low- and near-threshold voltage. As the probability that at least one of these components fails during the execution of an application approaches certainty, it seems unrealistic to expect that any run of a scientific application will not experience some performance faults. We believe that there is need of a new generation of light-weight performance and debugging tools that can be used online even during production runs of parallel applications and that can identify performance anomalies during the application execution. In this work we propose the design and implementation of such a monitoring system.

  7. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  8. Recommendations for the Laboratory-Based Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae — 2014

    PubMed Central

    Papp, John R.; Schachter, Julius; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    . gonorrhoeae culture is required to evaluate suspected cases of gonorrhea treatment failure and to monitor developing resistance to current treatment regimens. Chlamydia culture also should be maintained in some laboratories to monitor future changes in antibiotic susceptibility and to support surveillance and research activities such as detection of lymphogranuloma venereum or rare infections caused by variant or mutated C. trachomatis. PMID:24622331

  9. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-31

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations.

  10. Continuous air monitor correlation to fixed air sample data at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, J.J.

    1993-05-01

    Continuous air monitoring instruments (CAMS) deployed in laboratories in the TA-55 plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) alarmed less than 33 percent of the time when fixed air sample measurements in the same laboratory showed integrated concentrations exceeding 500 DAC-hrs. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of non-instrument variables on alarm sensitivities for properly working CAMS. Non-instrument variables include air flow patterns, particle size of released material, and the energy of the release. Dilution Factors (DFs) for 21 airborne releases in various rooms and of different magnitudes were calculated and compared. The median DF for releases where the CAM alarmed was 13.1 while the median DF for releases where the CAM did not alarm was 179. Particle sizes ranged considerably with many particles larger than 10 {mu}m. The cause of the release was found to be important in predicting if a CAM would alarm with releases from bagouts resulting in the greatest percentage of CAM alarms. The results of this study suggest that a two-component strategy for CAM placement at LANL be utilized. The first component would require CAMs at exhaust points in the rooms to provide for reliable detection for random release locations. The second component would require placing CAMs at locations where releases have historically been seen. Finally, improvements in CAM instrumentation is needed.

  11. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of satisfactory techniques for detecting change in coastal zone environments is required before operational monitoring procedures can be established. In an effort to meet this need a study was directed toward developing and evaluating different types of change detection techniques, based upon computer aided analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data, to monitor these environments. The Matagorda Bay estuarine system along the Texas coast was selected as the study area. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. Each of the four techniques was used to analyze a LANDSAT MSS temporal data set to detect areas of change of the Matagorda Bay region.

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Braun

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year 2009 (FY 2009). Throughout the year, thirty-eight cultural resource localities were revisited including: two locations with Native American human remains, one of which is a cave, two additional caves, twenty-two prehistoric archaeological sites, six historic homesteads, two historic stage stations, two historic trails, and two nuclear resources, including Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, which is a designated National Historic Landmark. Several INL project areas were also monitored in FY 2009 to assess project compliance with cultural resource recommendations and monitor the effects of ongoing project activities. Although impacts were documented at a few locations and trespassing citations were issued in one instance, no significant adverse effects that would threaten the National Register eligibility of any resources were observed. Monitoring also demonstrated that several INL projects generally remain in compliance with recommendations to protect cultural resources.

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Julie B. Williams; Brenda Pace

    2013-10-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during 2013. Throughout the year, thirty-eight cultural resource localities were revisited including: two locations with Native American human remains, one of which is also a cave; fourteen additional caves; seven prehistoric archaeological sites ; four historic archaeological sites; one historic trail; one nuclear resource (Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, a designated National Historic Landmark); and nine historic structures located at the Central Facilities Area. Of the monitored resources, thirty-three were routinely monitored, and five were monitored to assess project compliance with cultural resource recommendations along with the effects of ongoing project activities. On six occasions, ground disturbing activities within the boundaries of the Power Burst Facility/Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (PBF/CITRC) were observed by INL CRM staff prepared to respond to any additional finds of Native American human remains. In addition, two resources were visited more than once as part of the routine monitoring schedule or to monitor for additional damage. Throughout the year, most of the cultural resources monitored had no visual adverse changes resulting in Type 1determinations. However, Type 2 impacts were noted at eight sites, indicating that although impacts were noted or that a project was operating outside of culturally cleared limitations, cultural resources retained integrity and noted impacts did not threaten National Register eligibility. No new Type 3 or any Type 4 impacts that adversely impacted cultural resources and threatened National Register eligibility were observed at cultural resources monitored in 2013.

  14. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1982-06-01

    Results for 1981 of the LBL Environmental Monitoring Program are given. Data include monitoring results for accelerator-produced radiation, airborne and waterborne radionuclides, and nonradioactive pollutants. Population doses resulting from LBL operations are given in terms of accelerator-produced and airborne radioactivities. Trends in the environmental impacts of LBL operations are discussed in terms of accelerator-produced, airborne, and waterborne radionuclides. (ERB)

  15. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2007-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2006 program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  16. Crack-Detection Experiments on Simulated Turbine Engine Disks in NASA Glenn Research Center's Rotordynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The development of new health-monitoring techniques requires the use of theoretical and experimental tools to allow new concepts to be demonstrated and validated prior to use on more complicated and expensive engine hardware. In order to meet this need, significant upgrades were made to NASA Glenn Research Center s Rotordynamics Laboratory and a series of tests were conducted on simulated turbine engine disks as a means of demonstrating potential crack-detection techniques. The Rotordynamics Laboratory consists of a high-precision spin rig that can rotate subscale engine disks at speeds up to 12,000 rpm. The crack-detection experiment involved introducing a notch on a subscale engine disk and measuring its vibration response using externally mounted blade-tip-clearance sensors as the disk was operated at speeds up to 12 000 rpm. Testing was accomplished on both a clean baseline disk and a disk with an artificial crack: a 50.8-mm- (2-in.-) long introduced notch. The disk s vibration responses were compared and evaluated against theoretical models to investigate how successful the technique was in detecting cracks. This paper presents the capabilities of the Rotordynamics Laboratory, the baseline theory and experimental setup for the crack-detection experiments, and the associated results from the latest test campaign.

  17. A Laboratory Investigation of Turbulence Detection Using a Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourquin, Kent; Shigemoto, Fred H.

    1965-01-01

    Calculations and experiments have been undertaken to determine the property of the backscattered laser-return signal that undergoes the most significant change in a turbulent region as compared with a nonturbulent region. If the turbulent region is composed mainly of air molecules, the detection of a shift in the frequency property appears to be the most promising. Therefore at this time the main effort at the Ames Research Center is focused on the implementation and laboratory evaluation of a clear-air turbulence detector utilizing a laser source and observing the frequency change.

  18. Modeling Behavioral Measures of Error Detection in Choice Tasks: Response Monitoring versus Conflict Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Marco; Maier, Martin; Hubner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying error detection in the error signaling response. The authors tested between a response monitoring account and a conflict monitoring account. By implementing each account within the neural network model of N. Yeung, M. M. Botvinick, and J. D. Cohen (2004), they demonstrated that both accounts…

  19. Retrofitting Laboratory Fume Hoods With Face Velocity Monitors at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Ingrid E.; Bold, Margaret D.; Diamond, David B.; Kall, Phillip M.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive use and reliance on laboratory fume hoods exist at LeRC for the control of chemical hazards (nearly 175 fume hoods). Flow-measuring devices are necessary to continually monitor hood performance. The flow-measuring device should he tied into an energy management control system to detect problems at a central location without relying on the users to convey information of a problem. Compatibility concerns and limitations should always be considered when choosing the most effective flow-measuring device for a particular situation. Good practice on initial hood design and placement will provide a system for which a flow-measuring device may be used to its full potential and effectiveness.

  20. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2010

    SciTech Connect

    INL Cultural Resource Management Office

    2010-10-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year 2010 (FY 2010). Throughout the year, thirty-three cultural resource localities were revisited, including somethat were visited more than once, including: two locations with Native American human remains, one of which is a cave, two additional caves, twenty-six prehistoric archaeological sites, two historic stage stations, and Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, which is a designated National Historic Landmark. The resources that were monitored included seventeen that are routinely visited and sixteen that are located in INL project areas. Although impacts were documented at a few locations and one trespassing incident (albeit sans formal charges) was discovered, no significant adverse effects that would threaten the National Register eligibility of any resources were observed. Monitoring also demonstrated that several INL projects generally remain in compliance with recommendations to protect cultural resources.

  2. Intrusion detection and monitoring for wireless networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Eric D.; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lee, Erik J.; Stephano, Amanda; Tabriz, Parisa; Pelon, Kristen; McCoy, Damon (University of Colorado, Boulder); Lodato, Mark; Hemingway, Franklin; Custer, Ryan P.; Averin, Dimitry; Franklin, Jason; Kilman, Dominique Marie

    2005-11-01

    municipal agencies. In short, these Wi-Fi networks are being deployed everywhere. Much thought has been and is being put into evaluating cost-benefit analyses of wired vs. wireless networks and issues such as how to effectively cover an office building or municipality, how to efficiently manage a large network of wireless access points (APs), and how to save money by replacing an Internet service provider (ISP) with 802.11 technology. In comparison, very little thought and money are being focused on wireless security and monitoring for security purposes.

  3. Recent Advances in Nanoplasmonic Sensors for Environmental Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inhee

    2016-05-01

    The great attention in environmental pollution urges the development of innovative monitoring system enabling rapid, sensitive, specific detection and easy operation. Recent progress in nanoplasmonic sensors allowing real-time, highly-sensitive, label-free and multiplex detection provides a promising alternative to conventional environmental analyzing techniques. This review summarizes novel nanoplasmonic approaches categorized by optical detection technologies, which include surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, dark-field nanospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and even naked eyes. The focus of this review will be on how plasmonic nanostructures can be utilized to detect environmental pollutants, and remarkable accomplishments to enhance the detection performances. In addition, we discuss current challenge and future direction for ubiquitous environmental sensing and monitoring. PMID:27483747

  4. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment failure detection depends on monitoring interval and microbiological method

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard A.; Lu, Chunling; Rodriguez, Carly A.; Bayona, Jaime; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Burgos, Marcos; Centis, Rosella; Cohen, Theodore; Cox, Helen; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Danilovitz, Manfred; Falzon, Dennis; Gelmanova, Irina Y.; Gler, Maria T.; Grinsdale, Jennifer A.; Holtz, Timothy H.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Leimane, Vaira; Menzies, Dick; Milstein, Meredith B.; Mishustin, Sergey P.; Pagano, Marcello; Quelapio, Maria I.; Shean, Karen; Shin, Sonya S.; Tolman, Arielle W.; van der Walt, Martha L.; Van Deun, Armand; Viiklepp, Piret

    2016-01-01

    Debate persists about monitoring method (culture or smear) and interval (monthly or less frequently) during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We analysed existing data and estimated the effect of monitoring strategies on timing of failure detection. We identified studies reporting microbiological response to MDR-TB treatment and solicited individual patient data from authors. Frailty survival models were used to estimate pooled relative risk of failure detection in the last 12 months of treatment; hazard of failure using monthly culture was the reference. Data were obtained for 5410 patients across 12 observational studies. During the last 12 months of treatment, failure detection occurred in a median of 3 months by monthly culture; failure detection was delayed by 2, 7, and 9 months relying on bimonthly culture, monthly smear and bimonthly smear, respectively. Risk (95% CI) of failure detection delay resulting from monthly smear relative to culture is 0.38 (0.34–0.42) for all patients and 0.33 (0.25–0.42) for HIV-co-infected patients. Failure detection is delayed by reducing the sensitivity and frequency of the monitoring method. Monthly monitoring of sputum cultures from patients receiving MDR-TB treatment is recommended. Expanded laboratory capacity is needed for high-quality culture, and for smear microscopy and rapid molecular tests. PMID:27587552

  5. Effluent-Monitoring Procedures: Basic Laboratory Skills. Student Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, William T.; And Others

    This is one of several short-term courses developed to assist in the training of waste water treatment plant operational personnel in the tests, measurements, and report preparation required for compliance with their NPDES Permits. This Student Reference Manual provides a review of basic mathematics as it applies to the chemical laboratory. The…

  6. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  7. Monitoring programs need to take into account imperfect species detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Schmid, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Biodiversiry monitoring is important to identify biological units in need of conservation and to check the effectiveness of conservation actions. Programs generally monitor species richness and its changes (trend). Usually, no correction is made for imperfect species detectability. Instead, it is assumed that each species present has the same probability of being recorded and that there is no difference in this detectability across space and time, e.g. among observers and habitats. Consequently, species richness is determined by enumeration as the sum of species recorded. In Switzerland, the federal government has recently launched a comprehensive program that aims at detecting changes in biodiversity at all levels of biological integration. Birds are an important part of that program. Since 1999, 23 visits per breeding season are made to each of >250 1 km2 squares to map the territories of all detected breeding bird species. Here, we analyse data from three squares to illustrate the use of capture-recapture models in monitoring to obtain detectability-corrected estimates of species richness and trend. Species detectability averaged only 85%. Hence an estimated 15% of species present remained overlooked even after three visits. Within a square, changes in detectability for different years were of the same magnitude when surveys were conducted by the same observer as when they were by different observers. Estimates of trend were usually biased and community turnover was overestimated when based on enumeration. Here we use bird data as an illustration of methods. However, species detectability for any taxon is unlikely ever to be perfect or even constant across categories to be compared. Therefore, monitoring programs should correct for species detectability.

  8. Environmental monitoring and assessment program (EMAP) laboratory methods manual estuaries. Volume 1. Biological and physical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Klemm, D.J.; Lobring, L.B.; Eichelberger, J.W.; Alford-Stevens, A.

    1995-08-01

    This document is intended to document analytical methods for use by laboratories conducting analyses for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Estuaries. This document is volume I of a two-part series. The second volume of the EMAP-Estuaries Laboratory Methods Manual presents methods for the chemical analyses of sediments and tissue.

  9. Development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system suitable for use in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Witz, S.; Hartung, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system for use in the evaluation of candidate water recovery systems and for study of techniques for measuring potability parameters is reported. Sensing techniques for monitoring of the most desirable parameters are reviewed in terms of their sensitivities and complexities, and their recommendations for sensing techniques are presented. Rationale for selection of those parameters to be monitored (pH, specific conductivity, Cr(+6), I2, total carbon, and bacteria) in a next generation water monitor is presented along with an estimate of flight system specifications. A master water monitor development schedule is included.

  10. Potential detection systems for monitoring UF{sub 6} releases

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.E.; Bostick, W.D.; Armstrong, D.P.; McNeely, J.R.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1994-09-01

    In the near future, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will begin to regulate the gaseous diffusion plants. Them is a concern that the smoke detectors currently used for uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) release detection will not meet NRC safety system requirements such as high reliability and rapid response. The NRC`s position is that licensees should utilize state-of-the-art equipment such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) detectors that would provide more dependable detection of a UF{sub 6} release. A survey of the literature and current vendor information was undertaken to define the state-of-the-art and commercial availability of HF (or other appropriate) detection systems. For the purpose of this report, classification of the available HF detection systems is made on the basis of detection principle (e.g., calorimetric, electrochemical, separational, or optical). Emphasis is also placed on whether the device is primarily sensitive to response from a point source (e.g., outleakage in the immediate vicinity of a specific set of components), or whether the device is potentially applicable to remote sensing over a larger area. Traditional HF point source monitoring typically uses gas sampling tubes or coated paper tapes with color developing indicator, portable and small area HF monitors are often based upon electrochemical or extractive/separational systems; and remote sensing by optical systems holds promise for indoor and outdoor large area monitoring (including plant boundary/ambient air monitoring).

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year 2008 (FY 2008). Throughout the year, 45 cultural resource localities were revisited including: two locations of heightened Shoshone-Bannock tribal sensitivity, four caves, one butte, twenty-eight prehistoric archaeological sites, three historic homesteads, two historic stage stations, one historic canal construction camp, three historic trails, and Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, which is a designated National Historic Landmark. Several INL project areas were also monitored in FY 2008 to assess project compliance with cultural resource recommendations, confirm the locations of previously recorded cultural resources in relation to project activities, to assess the damage caused by fire-fighting efforts, and to watch for cultural materials during ground disturbing activities. Although impacts were documented at a few locations, no significant adverse effects that would threaten the National Register eligibility of any resource were observed. Monitoring also demonstrated that INL projects generally remain in compliance with recommendations to protect cultural resources

  12. Rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS): a fatigue crack detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.

    1996-05-01

    The Rotor Acoustic Monitoring System (RAMS) is an embedded structural health monitoring system to demonstrate the ability to detect rotor head fatigue cracks and provide early warning of propagating fatigue cracks in rotor components of Navy helicopters. The concept definition effort was performed to assess the feasibility of detecting rotor head fatigue cracks using bulk- wave wide-bandwidth acoustic emission technology. A wireless piezo-based transducer system is being designed to capture rotor fatigue data in real time and perform acoustic emission (AE) event detection, feature extraction, and classification. A flight test effort will be performed to characterize rotor acoustic background noise and flight environment characteristics. The long- term payoff of the RAMS technology includes structural integrity verification and leak detection for large industrial tanks, and nuclear plant cooling towers could be performed using the RAMS AE technology. A summary of the RAMS concept, bench-level AE fatigue testing, and results are presented.

  13. MOBLAB: a mobile laboratory for testing real-time vision-based systems in path monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumani, Aldo; Denasi, Sandra; Grattoni, Paolo; Guiducci, Antonio; Pettiti, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Giorgio

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS European Project, a Mobile Laboratory (MOBLAB) has been equipped for studying, implementing and testing real-time algorithms which monitor the path of a vehicle moving on roads. Its goal is the evaluation of systems suitable to map the position of the vehicle within the environment where it moves, to detect obstacles, to estimate motion, to plan the path and to warn the driver about unsafe conditions. MOBLAB has been built with the financial support of the National Research Council and will be shared with teams working in the PROMETHEUS Project. It consists of a van equipped with an autonomous power supply, a real-time image processing system, workstations and PCs, B/W and color TV cameras, and TV equipment. This paper describes the laboratory outline and presents the computer vision system and the strategies that have been studied and are being developed at I.E.N. `Galileo Ferraris'. The system is based on several tasks that cooperate to integrate information gathered from different processes and sources of knowledge. Some preliminary results are presented showing the performances of the system.

  14. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1980-06-01

    Monitoring data obtained for the calendar year 1979 are described, and general trends are discussed. The following areas are covered: accelerator produced radiation; radionuclide measurements and release (atmospheric, water, and sewer sampling); population dose equivalent resulting from LBL operations; and nonradioactive pollutants. Over the past several years the atmospheric sampling program has, with the exception of occasional known releases, yielded data which are within the range of normal background. The surface water program always yields results within the range of normal background. As no substantial changes in the quantities of radionuclides used are anticipated, no changes are expected in these observations.

  15. 10 CFR 37.49 - Monitoring, detection, and assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (ii) Electronic devices for intrusion detection alarms that will alert nearby facility personnel; or... capability must be provided by: (A) Electronic sensors linked to an alarm; or (B) Continuous monitored video... verification through physical checks, tamper indicating devices, use, or other means to ensure that...

  16. Biofouling detection monitoring devices: status assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hillman, R.E.; Anson, D.; Corliss, J.M.; Vigon, B.W.; Gray, R.H.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-03-01

    An inventory of devices to detect and monitor biofouling in power plant condenser systems was prepared. The inventory was developed through a review of manufacturers' product information brochures, a general literature review, and limited personal contact with users and manufacturers. Two macrofouling and seventeen microfouling detection devices were reviewed. A summary analysis of the principal features of each device was prepared. Macrofouling devices are generally simple devices located at or near cooling water intakes. They monitor the growth of larger organisms such as mussels, barnacles, and large seaweeds. Microfouling detectors are usually located in or near the condenser tubes. They detect and monitor the growth of slime films on the tubes. Some of the devices measure changes in heat transfer or pressure drop in the condenser tubes. Other types include condenser simulators, biofilm samplers, or devices that measure the acoustic properties of the fouling films. Most devices are still in the development stage. Of the few available for general use, the type that measures heat transfer and/or pressure drop are developed to a greater degree than the other types. Recommendations for further research into development of a biofouling detection and monitoring devices include a side-by-side field comparison of selected devices, and the continued development of an effective acoustic device.

  17. 1999 Leak Detection and Monitoring and Mitigation Strategy Update

    SciTech Connect

    OHL, P.C.

    1999-09-23

    This document is a complete revision of WHC-SD-WM-ES-378, Rev 1. This update includes recent developments in Leak Detection, Leak Monitoring, and Leak Mitigation technologies, as well as, recent developments in single-shell tank retrieval technologies. In addition, a single-shell tank retrieval release protection strategy is presented.

  18. Attention focusing and anomaly detection in systems monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Any attempt to introduce automation into the monitoring of complex physical systems must start from a robust anomaly detection capability. This task is far from straightforward, for a single definition of what constitutes an anomaly is difficult to come by. In addition, to make the monitoring process efficient, and to avoid the potential for information overload on human operators, attention focusing must also be addressed. When an anomaly occurs, more often than not several sensors are affected, and the partially redundant information they provide can be confusing, particularly in a crisis situation where a response is needed quickly. The focus of this paper is a new technique for attention focusing. The technique involves reasoning about the distance between two frequency distributions, and is used to detect both anomalous system parameters and 'broken' causal dependencies. These two forms of information together isolate the locus of anomalous behavior in the system being monitored.

  19. Deformation Monitoring of Materials Under Stress in Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarlatos, D.; Yiatros, S.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry is a valid alternative solution to linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) measurements in structural testing in laboratory conditions. Although the use of LVDTs boasts a high degree of accuracy, on the other hand it is limiting as it offers measurements between two points and it thus might be unable to capture localized deformations and strains over a bigger area of a structural specimen. In this aspect photogrammetry seems to offer certain advantages. Commercial solutions provide limited testing envelopes, while on the other hand, the wide range on new materials need more versatile techniques. Based on the need to develop an in-house photogrammetric toolbox to support several structural and material experiments in the department Advanced Pore Morphology (APM) aluminium foam specimens developed at Fraunhofer IFAM in Germany and cured at CUT, were tested under monotonic compressive load. Data acquisition, analysis and results, along with lessons learnt from the process are presented in this work.

  20. Remote sensing and laboratory techniques for monitoring ocean dumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.; Johnson, R. W.; Meyer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of field experiments conducted in the Atlantic Coastal Zone indicate that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge have distinguishable spectral characteristics when the radiance of the pollutant is normalized (ratioed to) background ocean water. Acid waste spectra peak between 550-650 nm while sewage sludge spectra have peak values at wavelengths of about 700 nm or greater. Results indicate that identification of acid waste and sewage sludge plumes may be independent of geographical location in the Atlantic Coastal Zone. Radiance ratio curves obtained in the laboratory qualitatively agree with those obtained from field experiments. Results from the July 25, 1977, Galveston Deep Ocean Dump Site experiment show the radiance ratio curve of the biodigested industrial waste to be fairly flat and similar to the radiance ratio curves of sewage sludge line dumps and sewage sludge spot dumps that have been in the water for several hours.

  1. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    PubMed

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  2. 1996 LMITCO environmental monitoring program report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1996 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs are included in this report. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1996 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends.

  3. Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-11

    During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 {micro}g/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 {micro}g/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 {micro}g/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted.

  4. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  5. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  6. Detection and Processing Techniques of FECG Signal for Fetal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) signal contains potentially precise information that could assist clinicians in making more appropriate and timely decisions during labor. The ultimate reason for the interest in FECG signal analysis is in clinical diagnosis and biomedical applications. The extraction and detection of the FECG signal from composite abdominal signals with powerful and advance methodologies are becoming very important requirements in fetal monitoring. The purpose of this review paper is to illustrate the various methodologies and developed algorithms on FECG signal detection and analysis to provide efficient and effective ways of understanding the FECG signal and its nature for fetal monitoring. A comparative study has been carried out to show the performance and accuracy of various methods of FECG signal analysis for fetal monitoring. Finally, this paper further focused some of the hardware implementations using electrical signals for monitoring the fetal heart rate. This paper opens up a passage for researchers, physicians, and end users to advocate an excellent understanding of FECG signal and its analysis procedures for fetal heart rate monitoring system. PMID:19495912

  7. Sepsis Patient Detection and Monitor Based on Auto-BN.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Sha, Lui; Rahmaniheris, Maryam; Wan, Binhua; Hosseini, Mohammad; Tan, Pengliu; Berlin, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by an inappropriate immune response to infection, and is a leading cause of elderly death globally. Early recognition of patients and timely antibiotic therapy based on guidelines improve survival rate. Unfortunately, for those patients, it is often detected late because it is too expensive and impractical to perform frequent monitoring for all the elderly. In this paper, we present a risk driven sepsis screening and monitoring framework to shorten the time of onset detection without frequent monitoring of all the elderly. Within this framework, the sepsis ultimate risk of onset probability and mortality is calculated based on a novel temporal probabilistic model named Auto-BN, which consists of time dependent state, state dependent property, and state dependent inference structures. Then, different stages of a patient are encoded into different states, monitoring frequency is encoded into the state dependent property, and screening content is encoded into different state dependent inference structures. In this way, the screening and monitoring frequency and content can be automatically adjusted when encoding the sepsis ultimate risk into the guard of state transition. This allows for flexible manipulation of the tradeoff between screening accuracy and frequency. We evaluate its effectiveness through empirical study, and incorporate it into existing medical guidance system to improve medical healthcare.

  8. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scherdel, Pauline; Dunkel, Leo; van Dommelen, Paula; Goulet, Olivier; Salaün, Jean-François; Brauner, Raja; Heude, Barbara; Chalumeau, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic review to address two key and interconnected questions underlying growth monitoring: which conditions should be targeted, and how should abnormal growth be defined? We systematically searched for studies reporting algorithms for growth monitoring in children and studies comparing the performance of new WHO growth charts with that of other growth charts. Among 1556 identified citations, 69 met the inclusion criteria. Six target conditions have mainly been studied: Turner syndrome, coeliac disease, cystic fibrosis, growth hormone deficiency, renal tubular acidosis, and small for gestational age with no catch-up after 2 or 3 years. Seven algorithms to define abnormal growth have been proposed in the past 20 years, but their level of validation is low, and their overall sensitivities and specificities vary substantially; however, the Grote and Saari clinical decision rules seem the most promising. Two studies reported that WHO growth charts had poorer performance compared with other existing growth charts for early detection of target conditions. Available data suggest a large gap between the widespread implementation of growth monitoring and its level of evidence or the clinical implications of early detection of serious disorders in children. Further investigations are needed to standardise the practice of growth monitoring, with a consensus on a few priority target conditions and with internationally validated clinical decision rules to define abnormal growth, including the selection of appropriate growth charts.

  9. Statistical power for detecting trends with applications to seabird monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.

    2003-01-01

    Power analysis is helpful in defining goals for ecological monitoring and evaluating the performance of ongoing efforts. I examined detection standards proposed for population monitoring of seabirds using two programs (MONITOR and TRENDS) specially designed for power analysis of trend data. Neither program models within- and among-years components of variance explicitly and independently, thus an error term that incorporates both components is an essential input. Residual variation in seabird counts consisted of day-to-day variation within years and unexplained variation among years in approximately equal parts. The appropriate measure of error for power analysis is the standard error of estimation (S.E.est) from a regression of annual means against year. Replicate counts within years are helpful in minimizing S.E.est but should not be treated as independent samples for estimating power to detect trends. Other issues include a choice of assumptions about variance structure and selection of an exponential or linear model of population change. Seabird count data are characterized by strong correlations between S.D. and mean, thus a constant CV model is appropriate for power calculations. Time series were fit about equally well with exponential or linear models, but log transformation ensures equal variances over time, a basic assumption of regression analysis. Using sample data from seabird monitoring in Alaska, I computed the number of years required (with annual censusing) to detect trends of -1.4% per year (50% decline in 50 years) and -2.7% per year (50% decline in 25 years). At ??=0.05 and a desired power of 0.9, estimated study intervals ranged from 11 to 69 years depending on species, trend, software, and study design. Power to detect a negative trend of 6.7% per year (50% decline in 10 years) is suggested as an alternative standard for seabird monitoring that achieves a reasonable match between statistical and biological significance.

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Alien Plant Species Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, J.; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, J.

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  11. Quarry detection monitoring wells completion report WP-166

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the activities undertaken during implementation of Work Package 166, Quarry Detection Monitoring Wells, for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial action project, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The subcontract specifications should be consulted for specific details regarding this work effort. Analytical parameters for soil samples collected for all but one borehole were analyzed for uranium, thorium, cyanide, nitroaromatics, and all Hazardous Substance List parameters including volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals. No soil samples were collected at other borehole as per specifications. With Z exceptions, uranium results for all boreholes sampled were at background levels. Nitroaromatics and cyanide were not detected in any of the samples collected. Volatile and semivolatile organics were not detected in the soil samples collected from the boreholes, with the exception of common lab contaminants such as methylene chloride, toluene, acetone, and pathalates. All metals results were either within their natural background ranges or below the detection limit of the instrument. PCB's were not detected within any of the boreholes. Pesticides detected (aldrin and methoxychlor) at one borehole near the surface may be attributed to previous spraying of pesticides on the highway right-of-way. In conclusion, the analytical results show that only uranium was detected in significant quantities; all other results were below the detection limit, very near the detection limit, or within natural background ranges. 1 fig.

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for {approximately} 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring.

  13. Online change detection: Monitoring land cover from remotely sensed data

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yi; Ganguly, Auroop R; Singh, Nagendra; Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Feierabend, Robert Neal; Potere, David T

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast and statistically principled approach to land cover change detection. A reference statistical distribution is fitted to prior data based on off-line analysis, and an adaptive metric based on the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) of normal scores derived from p-values are tracked for new or streaming data, leading to alarms for large or sustained change. Methods which can track the origin of the change are also discussed. The approach is illustrated with a geographic application which involves monitoring remotely sensed data to detect changes in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in near real-time. We use Wal-Mart store openings as a nontraditional way to monitor and validate known cases of NDVI change. The proposed approach performs well on this validation dataset.

  14. The Cloud Detection and UV Monitoring Experiment (CLUE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, L.; Loh, E.; Sokolsky, P.; Streitmatter, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a large-area, low-power instrument to perform CLoud detection and Ultraviolet monitoring, CLUE. CLUE will combine the W detection capabilities of the NIGHTGLOW payload, with an array of infrared sensors to perform cloud slicing measurements. Missions such as EUSO and OWL which seek to measure UHE cosmic-rays at 1W20 eV use the atmosphere as a fluorescence detector. CLUE will provide several important correlated measurements for these missions, including: monitoring the atmospheric W emissions &om 330 - 400 nm, determining the ambient cloud cover during those W measurements (with active LIDAR), measuring the optical depth of the clouds (with an array of narrow band-pass IR sensors), and correlating LIDAR and IR cloud cover measurements. This talk will describe the instrument as we envision it.

  15. Landsat change detection can aid in water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H. C.; Steele, K. F.; Waite, W. P.; Shinn, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Comparison between Landsat-1 and -2 imagery of Arkansas provided evidence of significant land use changes during the 1972-75 time period. Analysis of Arkansas historical water quality information has shown conclusively that whereas point source pollution generally can be detected by use of water quality data collected by state and federal agencies, sampling methodologies for nonpoint source contamination attributable to surface runoff are totally inadequate. The expensive undertaking of monitoring all nonpoint sources for numerous watersheds can be lessened by implementing Landsat change detection analyses.

  16. Microchip-based electrochemical detection for monitoring cellular systems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alicia S; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R Scott

    2013-04-01

    The use of microchip devices to study cellular systems is a rapidly growing research area. There are numerous advantages of using on-chip integrated electrodes to monitor various cellular processes. The purpose of this review is to give examples of advancements in microchip-based cellular analysis, specifically where electrochemistry is used for the detection scheme. These examples include on-chip detection of single-cell quantal exocytosis, electrochemical analysis of intracellular contents, the ability to integrate cell culture/immobilization with electrochemistry, and the use of integrated electrodes to ensure cell confluency in longer-term cell culture experiments. A perspective on future trends in this area is also given.

  17. Local Leak Detection and Health Monitoring of Pressurized Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt; Witherow, William; Korman, Valentin; Sinko, John; Hendrickson, Adam

    2011-01-01

    An optical gas-detection sensor safely monitors pressurized systems (such as cryogenic tanks) and distribution systems for leaks. This sensor system is a fiber-coupled, solid optical body interferometer that allows for the miniaturized sensing element of the device to be placed in the smallest of recesses, and measures a wide range of gas species and densities (leaks). The deflection of the fringe pattern is detected and recorded to yield the time-varying gas density in the gap. This technology can be used by manufacturers or storage facilities with toxic, hazardous, or explosive gases. The approach is to monitor the change in the index of refraction associated with low-level gas leaks into a vacuum environment. The completion of this work will provide NASA with an enabling capability to detect gas system leaks in space, and to verify that pressurized systems are in a safe (i.e. non-leaking) condition during manned docking and transit operations. By recording the output of the sensor, a time-history of the leak can be constructed to indicate its severity. Project risk is mitigated by having several interferometric geometries and detection techniques available, each potentially leveraging hardware and lessons learned to enhance detectability.

  18. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    SciTech Connect

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  19. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    Liquefaction is loss of shear strength in fully saturated loose sands caused by build-up of excess pore water pressure, during moderate to large earthquakes, leading to catastrophic failures of structures. Currently used liquefaction mitigation measures are often costly and cannot be applied at sites with existing structures. An innovative, practical, and cost effective liquefaction mitigation technique titled "Induced Partial Saturation" (IPS) was developed by researchers at Northeastern University. The IPS technique is based on injection of sodium percarbonate solution into fully saturated liquefaction susceptible sand. Sodium percarbonate dissolves in water and breaks down into sodium and carbonate ions and hydrogen peroxide which generates oxygen gas bubbles. Oxygen gas bubbles become trapped in sand pores and therefore decrease the degree of saturation of the sand, increase the compressibility of the soil, thus reduce its potential for liquefaction. The implementation of IPS required the development and validation of a monitoring and evaluation technique that would help ensure that the sands are indeed partially saturated. This dissertation focuses on this aspect of the IPS research. The monitoring system developed was based on using electric conductivity fundamentals and probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, calculate degree of saturation of sand, and determine the final zone of partial saturation created by IPS. To understand the fundamentals of electric conductivity, laboratory bench-top tests were conducted using electric conductivity probes and small specimens of Ottawa sand. Bench-top tests were used to study rate of generation of gas bubbles due to reaction of sodium percarbonate solution in sand, and to confirm a theory based on which degree of saturation were calculated. In addition to bench-top tests, electric conductivity probes were used in a relatively large sand specimen prepared in a specially manufactured glass tank. IPS was

  20. RCS propulsion functional path analysis for performance monitoring fault detection and annunciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keesler, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    The operational flight instrumentation required for performance monitoring and fault detection are presented. Measurements by the burn through monitors are presented along with manifold and helium source pressures.

  1. How minimum detectable displacement in a GNSS Monitoring Network change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmi Erkoç, Muharrem; Doǧan, Uǧur; Aydın, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    The minimum detectable displacement in a geodetic monitoring network shows the displacement magnitude which may be just discriminated with known error probabilities. This displacement, which is originally deduced from sensitivity analysis, depends on network design, observation accuracy, datum of the network, direction of the displacement and power of the statistical test used for detecting the displacements. One may investigate how different scenarios on network design and observation accuracies influence the minimum detectable displacements for the specified datum, a-priorly forecasted directions and assumed power of the test and decide which scenario is the best or most optimum. It is sometimes difficult to forecast directions of the displacements. In that case, the minimum detectable displacements in a geodetic monitoring network are derived on the eigen-directions associated with the maximum eigen-values of the network stations. This study investigates how minimum detectable displacements in a GNSS monitoring network change depending on the accuracies of the network stations. For this, CORS-TR network in Turkey with 15 stations (a station fixed) is used. The data with 4h, 6h, 12 h and 24 h observing session duration in three sequential days of 2011, 2012 and 2013 were analyzed with Bernese 5.2 GNSS software. The repeatabilities of the daily solutions belonging to each year were analyzed carefully to scale the Bernese cofactor matrices properly. The root mean square (RMS) values for daily repeatability with respect to the combined 3-day solution are computed (the RMS values are generally less than 2 mm in the horizontal directions (north and east) and < 5 mm in the vertical direction for 24 h observing session duration). With the obtained cofactor matrices for these observing sessions, the minimum detectable displacements along the (maximum) eigen directions are compared each other. According to these comparisons, more session duration less minimum detectable

  2. GAAT dry well conductivity monitoring report, July 1997 through January 1998, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-13

    A waste removal program is being implemented for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The waste is being removed by means of remotely operated, in-tank, confined sluicing equipment. The waste removal operations in Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the North Tank Farm (NTF) have been completed and the equipment is being moved to the South Tank Farm (STF), where it will be used to remove the sludges from the six STF tanks (W-5, W-6, W-7, W-8, W-9, and W-10) beginning later this year. During sluicing operations the dry wells adjacent to each of the tanks are instrumented so that potential releases can be detected by means external to the tank. The method of detection is by monitoring the electrical conductivity of the water in the dry well associated with each tank. This report documents the dry well conductivity monitoring data for the period from July 1997 through January 1998. The dry wells monitored during this period include DW-3, DW-4, DW-8, DW-9, and DW-10. The conductivity of the water passing through Pump Station 1 (PS 1) was also monitored. The principal activities that occurred during this period were the sluicing of Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the NTF, transfer of tank liquids from the NTF to the STF, and the installation of new risers, tank dome leveling, and emplacement of stabilized base backfill in the STF. Presented in this report are the dry well conductivity, rainfall, tank level, and STF construction information that is relevant to the analysis and interpretation of the monitoring data for the reporting period. A thorough analysis of the monitoring results for the period indicates that no releases have occurred from the gunite tanks being monitored.

  3. Optical Monitoring and Detection of Spinal Cord Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Rickson C.; D’Souza, Angela; Bilfinger, Thomas V.; Galler, Robert M.; Emanuel, Asher; Schenkel, Steven S.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Floyd, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord ischemia can lead to paralysis or paraparesis, but if detected early it may be amenable to treatment. Current methods use evoked potentials for detection of spinal cord ischemia, a decades old technology whose warning signs are indirect and significantly delayed from the onset of ischemia. Here we introduce and demonstrate a prototype fiber optic device that directly measures spinal cord blood flow and oxygenation. This technical advance in neurological monitoring promises a new standard of care for detection of spinal cord ischemia and the opportunity for early intervention. We demonstrate the probe in an adult Dorset sheep model. Both open and percutaneous approaches were evaluated during pharmacologic, physiological, and mechanical interventions designed to induce variations in spinal cord blood flow and oxygenation. The induced variations were rapidly and reproducibly detected, demonstrating direct measurement of spinal cord ischemia in real-time. In the future, this form of hemodynamic spinal cord diagnosis could significantly improve monitoring and management in a broad range of patients, including those undergoing thoracic and abdominal aortic revascularization, spine stabilization procedures for scoliosis and trauma, spinal cord tumor resection, and those requiring management of spinal cord injury in intensive care settings. PMID:24358279

  4. Impact of Laboratory Practices on Interlaboratory Variability in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Immunosuppressive Drugs.

    PubMed

    Christians, Uwe; Vinks, Alexander A; Langman, Loralie J; Clarke, William; Wallemacq, Pierre; van Gelder, Teun; Renjen, Varun; Marquet, Pierre; Meyer, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    The immunosuppressants cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, and probably also mycophenolic acid require therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-guided dosing to ensure that blood concentrations are kept within the target range in transplant patients. Reliable, accurate, and precise test methods are therefore essential to effectively monitor levels and to make proper dose adjustments. Data from proficiency testing programs have shown substantial interlaboratory variability. Only few attempts have been made to study the underlying causes. The aim of this study was to systematically document current practices used for immunosuppressant drug TDM in clinical laboratories and identify methodological and practice differences, which may cause the variability observed among laboratories. Data collection was primarily conducted by a structured Web-based survey. Invitations to participate in the survey were distributed to clinical laboratories providing immunosuppressant drug TDM. Surveys were completed by 76 laboratories in 14 countries. The results of our survey suggest that there are 3 main reasons for interlaboratory variability: (1) lack of standardization of laboratory procedures and workflows starting with sample collection and handling, (2) lack of use of appropriate reference materials (eg, isotope-labeled internal standards for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy), and (3) poor compliance with internationally accepted good laboratory practice guidelines (eg, related to quality control, quality assurance, validation, training of personnel). The results of the survey also suggest that interlaboratory variability is a multifactorial problem. Technical-level consensus on laboratory operational procedures, quality systems, and personnel training will be of great importance to improve quality and interlaboratory comparability.

  5. Improvements in atrial fibrillation detection for real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Babaeizadeh, Saeed; Gregg, Richard E; Helfenbein, Eric D; Lindauer, James M; Zhou, Sophia H

    2009-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring plays an important role in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Automated real-time AF detection algorithm is an integral part of ECG monitoring during AF therapy. Before and after antiarrhythmic drug therapy and surgical procedures require ECG monitoring to ensure the success of AF therapy. This article reports our experience in developing a real-time AF monitoring algorithm and techniques to eliminate false-positive AF alarms. We start by designing an algorithm based on R-R intervals. This algorithm uses a Markov modeling approach to calculate an R-R Markov score. This score reflects the relative likelihood of observing a sequence of R-R intervals in AF episodes versus making the same observation outside AF episodes. Enhancement of the AF algorithm is achieved by adding atrial activity analysis. P-R interval variability and a P wave morphology similarity measure are used in addition to R-R Markov score in classification. A hysteresis counter is applied to eliminate short AF segments to reduce false AF alarms for better suitability in a monitoring environment. A large ambulatory Holter database (n = 633) was used for algorithm development and the publicly available MIT-BIH AF database (n = 23) was used for algorithm validation. This validation database allowed us to compare our algorithm performance with previously published algorithms. Although R-R irregularity is the main characteristic and strongest discriminator of AF rhythm, by adding atrial activity analysis and techniques to eliminate very short AF episodes, we have achieved 92% sensitivity and 97% positive predictive value in detecting AF episodes, and 93% sensitivity and 98% positive predictive value in quantifying AF segment duration. PMID:19608194

  6. Damage detection and health monitoring of operational structures

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.; Reese, G.

    1994-09-01

    Initial damage detection/health monitoring experiments have been performed on three different operational structures: a fracture critical bridge, a composite wind turbine blade, and an aging aircraft. An induced damage test was performed on the Rio Grande/I40 bridge before its demolition. The composite wind turbine test was fatgued to failure with periodic modal testing performed throughout the testing. The front fuselage of a DC-9 aircraft was used as the testbed for an induced damage test. These tests have yielded important insights into techniques for experimental damage detection on real structures. Additionally, the data are currently being used with current damage detection algorithms to further develop the numerical technology. State of the art testing technologies such as, high density modal testing, scanning laser vibrometry and natural excitation testing have also been utilized for these tests.

  7. Monitoring Whooping Crane Abundance Using Aerial Surveys: Influences on Detectability

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Bradley N; Butler, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana), an endangered species, has been counted on its winter grounds in Texas, USA, since 1950 using fixed-wing aircraft. Many shortcomings of the traditional survey technique have been identified, calling into question its efficacy, defensibility, repeatability, and usefulness into the future. To improve and standardize monitoring effort, we began investigating new survey techniques. Here we focus on efficacy of line transect-based distance sampling during aerial surveys. We conducted a preliminary test of distance sampling during winter 2010–2011 while flying the traditional survey, which indicated that detectability within 500 m of transects was 0.558 (SE = 0.031). We then used an experimental decoy survey to evaluate impacts of observer experience, sun position, distance from transect, and group size on detectability. Our results indicated decoy detectability increased with group size and exhibited a quadratic relationship with distance likely due to pontoons on the aircraft. We found that detectability was 2.704 times greater when the sun was overhead and 3.912 times greater when the sun was at the observer's back than when it was in the observer's eyes. We found that an inexperienced observer misclassified non-target objects more often than an experienced observer. During the decoy experiment we used marks on the struts to categorize distances into intervals, but we found that observers misclassified distances 46.7% of the time (95% CI = 37.0–56.6%). Also, we found that detectability of individuals within detected groups was affected by group size and distance from transect. We discuss how these results inform design and implementation of future whooping crane monitoring efforts. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26388657

  8. Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    A Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program, required by the California Environmental Quality Act, was developed by UC as part of the Final EIS/EIR process. This document describing the program is a companion to the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). The Final EIS/EIR analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action, which for the purposes of NEPA is: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 1 0 years) proposed projects, of LLNL and SNL, Livermore. The proposed action for the EIR is the renewal of the contract between DOE and UC for UC`s continued operation and management of LLNL. The Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program is for implementing and monitoring progress of measures taken to mitigate the significant impacts of the proposed action. A complete description of the impacts and proposed mitigations is in Section 5 of Volume I of the Final EIS/EIR. This report summarizes the mitigation measures, identifies the responsible party at the Laboratory for implementing the mitigation measure, states when monitoring will be implemented, when the mitigation measure will be in place and monitoring completed, and who will verify that the mitigation measure was implemented.

  9. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  10. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  11. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    SciTech Connect

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  12. AC methods for detection and monitoring of crevice corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Ashwani Kumar

    Crevice corrosion represents one of the most deleterious forms of localized corrosion which can lead to unpredicted catastrophic failures of structural and engineering components. Crevice corrosion is typically encountered in metals and alloys which exhibit a passive behavior (e.g. stainless steels, aluminum and aluminum alloys, nickel base alloys, and titanium and titanium base alloys) in electrolytic solutions. Due to the extensive application of these metals and alloys in chemical, petrochemical, marine environments, and power industries, crevice corrosion has been a subject of intense investigation in the past two decades. Most of the studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of crevice corrosion and the control measures for specific engineering structures. However, there are few, if any, commercially available methods for the detection of initiation or monitoring of crevice corrosion propagation. This is due to the fact that crevice corrosion often takes place in shielded areas of metal/alloy surfaces which are optically inaccessible and the visual examination of the metal in crevice is extremely difficult. Most of the research efforts in this area have been directed towards comparative evaluation of crevice corrosion resistance of different alloys in a variety of electrolytes. In order to detect initiation and monitor the propagation rate of crevice corrosion in highly passivated alloys, an innovative, non-destructive, in situ research methodology based on the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been developed. This research technique is based on the fact that (i) crevice corroding sites possess lower interfacial impedance compared to the passivated surfaces (ii) the crevice has a very high solution resistance, resulting in an extremely high iR drop from the crevice to the bulk solution (iii) placement of the probing electrodes (e.g. Counter Electrode and Reference Electrode) directly inside the crevice environment drastically

  13. In Vivo Monitoring of Hemodynamic Changes during Clogging and Unclogging of Blood Supply for the Application of Clinical Shock Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Stelzle, Florian; Schmidt, Michael

    This paper presents a novel methodology in early detection of clinical shock by monitoring hemodynamic changes using diffuse reflectance measurement technique. Detailed prototype of the reflectance measurement system and data analysis technique of hemodynamic monitoring was carried out in our laboratory. The real time in-vivo measurements were done from the index finger. This study demonstrates preliminary results of real time monitoring of reduced/- oxyhemoglobin changes during clogging and unclogging of blood flow in the finger tip. The obtained results were verified with pulse-oximeter values, connected to the tip of the same index finger.

  14. Damage monitoring and impact detection using optical fiber vibration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. C.; Han, K. S.

    2002-06-01

    Intensity-based optical fiber vibrations sensors (OFVSs) are used in damage monitoring of fiber-reinforced plastics, in vibration sensing, and location of impacts. OFVSs were constructed by placing two cleaved fiber ends in a capillary tube. This sensor is able to monitor structural vibrations. For vibration sensing, the optical fiber sensor was mounted on the carbon fiber reinforced composite beam, and its response was investigated for free and forced vibration. For locating impact points, four OFVSs were placed at chosen positions and the different arrival times of impact-generated vibration signals were recorded. The impact location can be determined from these time delays. Indentation and tensile tests were performed with the measurement of the optical signal and acoustic emission (AE). The OFVSs accurately detected both free and forced vibration signals. Accurate locations of impact were determined on an acrylate plate. It was found that damage information, comparable in quality to AE data, could be obtained from the OFVS signals.

  15. System and process for detecting and monitoring surface defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Mark K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system and process for detecting and monitoring defects in large surfaces such as the field joints of the container segments of a space shuttle booster motor. Beams of semi-collimated light from three non-parallel fiber optic light panels are directed at a region of the surface at non-normal angles of expected incidence. A video camera gathers some portion of the light that is reflected at an angle other than the angle of expected reflectance, and generates signals which are analyzed to discern defects in the surface. The analysis may be performed by visual inspection of an image on a video monitor, or by inspection of filtered or otherwise processed images. In one alternative embodiment, successive predetermined regions of the surface are aligned with the light source before illumination, thereby permitting efficient detection of defects in a large surface. Such alignment is performed by using a line scan gauge to sense the light which passes through an aperture in the surface. In another embodiment a digital map of the surface is created, thereby permitting the maintenance of records detailing changes in the location or size of defects as the container segment is refurbished and re-used. The defect detection apparatus may also be advantageously mounted on a fixture which engages the edge of a container segment.

  16. Quantitative corrosion monitoring and detection using ultrasonic Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Grant A.; Braunling, Russ

    2005-05-01

    Corrosion is a major problem for airframe operators. For the aircraft industry in general, the direct costs of corrosion are estimated at $2.2 billion. As part of their strategy to control corrosion, airframe operators constantly seek to improve their ability to anticipate, manage and identify corrosion activity. Motivated by the need for an on-line real-time corrosion-monitoring tool for industry and aircraft a prototype system and analysis approach is presented. The tool employs ultrasonic Lamb waves along with a dispersion compensated synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) to detect emerging pitting damage. In order to develop an automated detection approach the noise sources of the SAFT processed defect maps were examined and modeled. The random noise was found to be neither stationary nor normally distributed. Locally varying Weibull distribution parameters are used to characterize the image noise. An algorithm is developed to quantify the uncertainty in the corrosion detection and to allow assignment of a constant false alarm probability to any region of the monitored area.

  17. Environmental radioactivity monitoring at the deep undeground Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastino, W.; Povinec, P. P.

    2009-12-01

    The neutron flux background plays a key-role in several research activities for Neutrino Physics and Dark Matter detection in underground environment. The neutron sources considered at deep underground are (α,n) reactions on light elements (e.g., Li, F, Na, etc.), spontaneous fission, mainly of 238U, and those induced by cosmic ray muons. The Gran Sasso National Laboratory—National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNGS-INFN) is located inside the largest aquifer of central Italy. The natural radioactivity in rock and materials used for the internal structures of the LNGS-INFN has been studied in detail, and the specific activities of natural radionuclides are known with high accuracy for the characterization of neutron background at the LNGS-INFN. Moreover, numerical simulations and neutron flux measurements were carried out inside the LNGS-INFN. Nevertheless, the contribution of the natural radioactivity in the ground water and its spatial-temporal variations induced by the water-rock interaction and the hydrological properties of the Gran Sasso aquifer have never been considered. Within the framework of the INFN scientific program ERMES (Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring for Earth Sciences) environmental radioactivity measurements were performed inside the LNGS-INFN: particularly, radon [1, 2], radiocarbon [3], tritium [4], and new detectors independent of environmental noise parameters such as temperature, acid concentrations, humidity, and air pressure were tested [5]. These measurements have shown the existence of different chemical-physical and fluid dynamical characteristics in the ground water. The results of the ground water radioactivity monitoring show temporal modulations induced by ground water variations due to percolation effect related to snow melting, rainfall and/or diffusive processes through the structural discontinuities [6]. Furthermore, monitoring of chemical and physical groundwater parameters has been carried out worldwide in

  18. Quality Assurance of Reference Standards From Nine European Solar Uv Monitoring Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröbner, J.; Bais, A.; Blumthaler, M.; Cabot, T.; Josefsson, W.; Koskela, T.; Thorseth, T.; Webb, A. R.; Wester, U.; Rembges, D.

    A quality assurance of reference standards has been initiated between nine solar UV monitoring laboratories. By means of a travelling lamp package comprising two to three seasoned 1000W DXW quartz-halogen lamps, a 0.1 Ohm shunt and a 6 1/2 digit voltmeter, the irradiance scales used by the laboratories were intercompared with an accuracy of 1%. During the 12 month study, the irradiance of the two travelling lamps was stable to within 1% and showed no ageing trend. The current measured by the travelling shunt and voltmeter compared favourably with the measurements at the home laboratories, being within 0.5mA out of the nominal current of 8.0 A. The re- sults so far indicate differences between the respective reference standards of up to 9%, even though the average difference of all the lamps to the global mean is 2.5, 2.4, and 2.1% at 300, 330, and 360 nm respectively. Also the differences between the four standard institutes NIST, PTB, NPL, and HUT are less than 3% and are thus within the uncertainties stated by the standard institutes. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a travelling lamp package to compare reference standards of laboratories in- volved in solar UV monitoring. This study has allowed to build-up a robust reference combining the irradiance scales from 15 different reference standards traceable to four different primary standards which creates the possibility to share reference standards between widely-spaced laboratories. Furthermore, a common irradiance scale trace- able to a large number of reference standards and used by a large number of solar UV monitoring laboratories represents a valuable basis with which spatial distribution climatologies could be extracted from the archived data record. The lamp study is still progressing and is open to all interested laboratories that wish to collaborate.

  19. A monitor for the laboratory evaluation of control integrity in digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for dynamically monitoring digital controllers in the laboratory for susceptibility to electromagnetic disturbances that compromise control integrity. The integrity of digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments can be compromised by upsets caused by induced transient electrical signals. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. The motivation for this work is the need to develop tools and techniques that can be used in the laboratory to validate and/or certify critical aircraft controllers operating in electromagnetically adverse environments that result from lightning, high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The detection strategy presented in this paper provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity resulting from redundancy management errors, control calculation errors, and control correctness/effectiveness errors. In particular, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and statistical decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors.

  20. Laboratory Experiments of Radar-Detected Layering in Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Koenig, L. S.; Courville, Z. R.; Ghent, R. R.; Koutnik, M. R.

    2016-09-01

    In a cold room at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, we constructed layered ice with a variety of layer types and thicknesses to investigate how the layers appear to ground-penetrating radar at a variety of frequencies.

  1. 1997 LMITCO Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.; Street, L.; Wilhelmsen, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1997 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs and compares 1997 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standard, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends indicating a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. With the exception of one nitrogen sample in the disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond, compliance with permits and applicable regulations was achieved. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that public health and the environment were protected.

  2. Adapting Raman Spectra from Laboratory Spectrometers to Portable Detection Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherall, James; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Su, Yin-Fong; Ball, Christopher D.; Smith, Barry; Cox, Rick; Steinke, Robert; McDaniel, Patricia; Wasserzug, Louis

    2013-02-01

    Raman spectral data collected with high-resolution laboratory spectrometers are processed into a for- mat suitable for importing as a user library on a 1064nm DeltaNu rst generation, eld-deployable spectrometer prototype. The two laboratory systems used are a 1064nm Bruker spectrometer and a 785nm Kaiser spectrometer. The steps taken to compensate for device-dependent spectral resolution, wavenumber shifts between instruments, and wavenumber sensitivity variation are described.

  3. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Jager, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  4. Oil spill disasters detection and monitoring by optical satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livia Grimaldi, Caterina Sara; Coviello, Irina; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Marine oil spill disasters may be related to natural hazards, when storms and hurricanes cause the sinking of tankers carrying crude or refined oil, as well as to human action, as illegal discharges, assessment errors (failures or collisions) or acts of warfare. Their consequence has a devastating effects on the marine and coastal environment. In order to reduce the environmental impact of such kind of hazard, giving to local authorities necessary information of pollution entity and evolution, timely detection and continuously updated information are fundamental. Satellite remote sensing can give a significant contribution in such a direction. Nowadays, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology has been recognized as the most efficient for oil spill detection and description, thanks to the high spatial resolution and all-time/weather capability of the present operational sensors. Anyway, the actual SARs revisiting time does not allow a rapid detection and near real-time monitoring of these phenomena at global scale. The COSMO-Skymed Italian dual-mission (expected in the 2010) will overcome this limitation improving the temporal resolution until 12 hours by a SAR constellation of four satellites, but several open questions regarding costs and global delivery policy of such data, might prevent their use in an operational context. Passive optical sensors, on board meteorological satellites, thanks to their high temporal resolution (from a few hours to 15 minutes, depending on the characteristics of the platform/sensor), may represent, at this moment, a suitable SAR alternative/complement for oil spill detection and monitoring. Up to now, some techniques have been proposed for mapping known oil spill discharges monitoring using optical satellite data, on the other hand, reliable satellite methods for an automatic and timely detection of oil spill are still currently missing. Existing methods, in fact, can localize the presence of an oil spill only after an alert and

  5. Microchip-based electrochemical detection for monitoring cellular systems

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The use of microchip devices to study cellular systems is a rapidly growing research area. There are numerous advantages of using on-chip integrated electrodes to monitor various cellular processes. The purpose of this review article is to give examples of advancements in microchip-based cellular analysis, specifically where electrochemistry is used for the detection scheme. These examples include on-chip detection of single cell quantal exocytosis, electrochemical analysis of intracellular contents, the ability to integrate cell culture/immobilization with electrochemistry, and the use of integrated electrodes to ensure cell confluency in longer term cell culture experiments. A perspective on future trends in this area is also given. PMID:23340999

  6. Use of ArcGIS in Environmental Monitoring at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    oertel; giles

    2007-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy site located in southeastern Idaho. The INL is required to perform environmental monitoring of anthropogenically introduced contaminants. One primary contaminant of interest is radioactive Cs-137 which is resident in INL soils due to past operational activities and atmospheric weapons testing. Collection of field data is performed using vehicle mounted and portable radiation detector units. All data is combined in ArcGIS and displayed over georeferenced satellite images and digital elevation models. The use of the ArcGIS geostatistical analysis package enhances the ability to look for areas of higher Cs-137 concentration. Combining current monitoring results with meteorological wind pattern maps allows for siting of new and improved monitoring locations. Use of the ArcGIS package provides an integrated analysis and mapping protocol for use in radioactive contaminant monitoring.

  7. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne sup 239 Pu

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  8. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  9. Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European solar-ultraviolet monitoring laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobner, Julian; Rembges, Diana; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Blumthaler, Mario; Cabot, Thierry; Josefsson, Weine; Koskela, Tapani; Thorseth, Trond M.; Webb, Ann R.; Wester, Ulf

    2002-07-01

    A program for quality assurance of reference standards has been initiated among nine solar-UV monitoring laboratories. By means of a traveling lamp package that comprises several 1000-W ANSI code DXW-type quartz-halogen lamps, a 0.1-Omega shunt, and a 6-1/2 digit voltmeter, the irradiance scales used by the nine laboratories were compared with one another; a relative uncertainty of 1.2% was found. The comparison of 15 reference standards yielded differences of as much as 9% the average difference was less than 3%.

  10. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-09-01

    During second quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), and pH and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant which was first compared to its final PDWS during first quarter 1993, was elevated in three wells.

  11. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555

  12. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages.

  13. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555

  14. Use of the UNCLE Facility to Assess Integrated Online Monitoring Systems for Detection of Diversions at Uranium Conversion Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, Shaheen A; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Lee, Denise L; Rauch, Eric; Hertel, Nolan

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the approach to safeguarding nuclear material in the front end of the fuel cycle was implemented only at the stage when UF6 was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. Recent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) circulars and policy papers have sought to implement safeguards when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exist. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility to simulate the full-scale operating conditions for a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process conducted in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP) operating at 6000 MTU/year. Monitoring instruments, including the 3He passive neutron detector developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Endress+Hauser Promass 83F Coriolis meter, have been tested at UNCLE and field tested at Springfields. The field trials demonstrated the need to perform full-scale equipment testing under controlled conditions prior to field deployment of operations and safeguards monitoring at additional plants. Currently, UNCLE is testing neutron-based monitoring for detection of noncompliant activities; however, gamma-ray source term monitoring is currently being explored complementary to the neutron detector in order to detect undeclared activities in a more timely manner. The preliminary results of gamma-ray source term modeling and monitoring at UNCLE are being analyzed as part of a comprehensive source term and detector benchmarking effort. Based on neutron source term detection capabilities, alternative gamma-based detection and monitoring methods will be proposed to more effectively monitor NUCP operations in verifying or detecting deviations from declared conversion activities.

  15. 1992 Effluent and environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The results of the radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs for 1992 at the Bettis-Pittsburgh Site are presented. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that environmental releases during 1992 were in accordance with applicable Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that operation of the Laboratory continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Laboratory operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  17. The laboratory of clinical virology in monitoring patients undergoing monoclonal antibody therapy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, R

    2011-12-01

    The relevant efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has resulted in the successful treatment of several diseases, although susceptibility to infections remains a major problem. This review summarizes aspects of the literature regarding viral infections and mAbs, specifically addressing the risk of infection/reactivation, the measures that can reduce this risk, and the role played by the laboratory of clinical virology in monitoring patients undergoing mAb therapy.

  18. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. This report details the groundwater sampling activities for third quarter 1992.

  19. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were visited for sampling. Groundwater samples were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. This report describes the results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site flagging criteria during the quarter.

  20. The radioanalytical laboratory at Pelindaba. Some applications for environmental and health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fouché, F J; Faanhof, A

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the radioanalytical work performed at Pelindaba, Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa. It reports on the activities of a commercial laboratory, employing analytical techniques, such as total alpha/beta counting, alpha spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting, gamma spectrometry, and neutron activation analysis. Techniques discussed in more detail include semicyclic activation analysis for the determination of fluorine in vitamin mixes, as well as the determination of uranium and radium in urine samples for personnel monitoring.

  1. Above-ground Antineutrino Detection for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sweany, Melinda; Brennan, James S.; Cabrera-Palmer, Belkis; Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2014-08-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times, however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detector media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surrounded by 6LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of lithium-6. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron’s annihilation gammas, which are absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described.

  2. Medical radar considerations for detecting and monitoring Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sonny; Narayanan, Ram M.; Messaris, Evangelos

    2014-05-01

    Crohn's disease is a condition that causes inflammation and associated complications along any section of the digestive tract. Over the years, numerous radiological and endoscopic methods as well as the use of ultrasound have been developed to examine and diagnose inflammatory bowel disorders such as Crohn's disease. While such techniques have much merit, an alternative medical solution that is safe, non-invasive, and inexpensive is proposed in this paper. Reflections from electromagnetic signals transmitted by an ultra-wide band (UWB) radar allow for not only range (or extent) information but also spectral analysis of a given target of interest. Moreover, the radar cross-section (RCS) of an object measures how detectable the electromagnetic return energy of such an object is to the radar. In the preliminary phase of research, we investigate how disparities in the dielectric properties of diseased versus non-diseased portions of the intestines can aid in the detection of Crohn's disease. RCS analysis from finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method simulations using a simple 3D model of the intestines are presented. The ultimate goal of our research is to design a UWB radar system using a suitable waveform to detect and monitor Crohn's disease.

  3. Weak signal detection using multiscale morphology in microseismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huijian; Wang, Runqiu; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Yangkang; Tian, Nan; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2016-10-01

    Microseismic events caused by hydraulic fracturing are usually very weak. The magnitude range of microseismic signals is usually from - 3 to 1 Mw. Processing techniques such as band-pass filtering, are widely adopted to improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of microseismic data, while with a degradation of signal quality. We propose a multi-scale morphological method to detect weak micro-seismic signals. This approach decomposes data set into multi-scale components based on the mathematical morphology theory using structuring element that is similar to the wavelet basis in the well-known wavelet decomposition. The method can help us obtain more information by detecting more waves, like P-wave, S-wave and their reflections, which can be much more valuable in processing and interpretation of microseismic data during microseismic monitoring. The proposed approach is not amplitude preserving and not mathematically reversible. It can offer enhancement of arrivals for picking (and thus can subsequently offer benefits for event detection and location) but at the expense of estimates of magnitude or moment-tensor inversion.

  4. Above-ground Antineutrino Detection for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sweany, Melinda; Brennan, James S.; Cabrera-Palmer, Belkis; Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2014-08-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times, however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detector media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surroundedmore » by 6LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of lithium-6. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron’s annihilation gammas, which are absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described.« less

  5. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  6. Environmental monitoring programs vs Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) programs: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R E

    1995-12-01

    Environmental monitoring and Good Laboratory Practice programs are similar when looked at empirically. Both address quality issues, human or environmental safety, and have set procedures to assure the concomitant results. However, when compared at the operational level, they can be best described as very different. Good Laboratory Practice programs deal basically with two governmental agencies and their divisions- the Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration. These are administered from the federal level involving no state resources. These programs are objective driven with the procedures being defined in study plans, protocols, and standard operating procedures. The environmental monitoring testing programs deal with a profusion of federal legislation including CERCLA (also known as CLP), RCRA, CWA, CAA, SDWA, NPDES and others. These acts require analysis by specific procedures mandated by the statutes. States operate many of these programs and have been given the authority by the federal government. Many of the states require separate certifications to conduct these analyses. Environmental monitoring testing laboratories often must acquire multiple state certifications to participate in multiple state programs. This is not cost effective and often leads to conflicting requirements. Much of the direction for having a national certification program comes from problems associated with these state-operated programs.

  7. Environmental monitoring programs vs Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) programs: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R E

    1995-12-01

    Environmental monitoring and Good Laboratory Practice programs are similar when looked at empirically. Both address quality issues, human or environmental safety, and have set procedures to assure the concomitant results. However, when compared at the operational level, they can be best described as very different. Good Laboratory Practice programs deal basically with two governmental agencies and their divisions- the Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration. These are administered from the federal level involving no state resources. These programs are objective driven with the procedures being defined in study plans, protocols, and standard operating procedures. The environmental monitoring testing programs deal with a profusion of federal legislation including CERCLA (also known as CLP), RCRA, CWA, CAA, SDWA, NPDES and others. These acts require analysis by specific procedures mandated by the statutes. States operate many of these programs and have been given the authority by the federal government. Many of the states require separate certifications to conduct these analyses. Environmental monitoring testing laboratories often must acquire multiple state certifications to participate in multiple state programs. This is not cost effective and often leads to conflicting requirements. Much of the direction for having a national certification program comes from problems associated with these state-operated programs. PMID:8890354

  8. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration`s remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for {sup 90}Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs.

  9. Environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG 6) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This document updates a draft monitoring plan developed in 1993. The draft plan was never finalized awaiting resolution of the mechanisms for addressing RCRA concerns at a site where the CERCLA process resulted in a decision to defer action, i.e., postpone closure indefinitely. Over the past two years the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), US Department of Energy (DOE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, have agreed that RCRA authority at the site will be maintained through a post- closure permit; ``closure`` in this case referring to deferred action. Both a Revised Closure Plan (DOE 1995a) and a Post-Closure Permit Application (DOE 1995b) have been developed to document this agreement; relevant portions of the EMP will be included in the RCRA Post-Closure Permit Application. As the RCRA issues were being negotiated, DOE initiated monitoring at WAG 6. The purpose of the monitoring activities was to (1) continue to comply with RCRA groundwater quality assessment requirements, (2) install new monitoring equipment, and (3) establish the baseline conditions at WAG 6 against which changes in contaminant releases could be measured. Baseline monitoring is scheduled to end September 30, 1995. Activities that have taken place over the past two years are summarized in this document.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories, California Quality Assurance Project Plan for Environmental Monitoring Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2005-09-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) applies to the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Sandia National Laboratories/California. This QAPP follows DOE Quality Assurance Management System Guide for Use with 10 CFR 830 Subpart A, Quality Assurance Requirements, and DOE O 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE G 414.1-2A June 17, 2005). The Environmental Monitoring Program is located within the Environmental Operations Department. The Environmental Operations Department is responsible for ensuring that SNL/CA operations have minimal impact on the environment. The Department provides guidance to line organizations to help them comply with applicable environmental regulations and DOE orders. To fulfill its mission, the department has groups responsible for waste management; pollution prevention, air quality; environmental planning; hazardous materials management; and environmental monitoring. The Environmental Monitoring Program is responsible for ensuring that SNL/CA complies with all Federal, State, and local regulations and with DOE orders regarding the quality of wastewater and stormwater discharges. The Program monitors these discharges both visually and through effluent sampling. The Program ensures that activities at the SNL/CA site do not negatively impact the quality of surface waters in the vicinity, or those of the San Francisco Bay. The Program verifies that wastewater and stormwater discharges are in compliance with established standards and requirements. The Program is also responsible for compliance with groundwater monitoring, and underground and above ground storage tanks regulatory compliance. The Program prepares numerous reports, plans, permit applications, and other documents that demonstrate compliance.

  11. Rocketdyne division environmental monitoring annual report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, De Soto, and Canoga Sites, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1991-06-20

    This annual report discuses environmental monitoring at three manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Southern California area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL.), the De Soto site, and the Canoga site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto and Canoga sites are essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and have little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling operations with nuclear and radioactive materials, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS), Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major realm of interest is radiological, this report also includes some discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL

  12. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1993 and 1993 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The AMB wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) are monitored for selected constituents to comply with the Natural Resources Defense council et al. Consent Decree of May 1988 that identifies the Met Lab HWMF as subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In addition, the wells are monitored, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During the fourth quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; pH, specific conductance, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters.

  13. A laboratory-developed TaqMan Array Card for simultaneous detection of 19 enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Kibiki, Gibson; Becker, Stephen; Janaki, Lalitha; Verweij, Jaco J; Taniuchi, Mami; Sobuz, Shihab U; Haque, Rashidul; Haverstick, Doris M; Houpt, Eric R

    2013-02-01

    The TaqMan Array Card (TAC) system is a 384-well singleplex real-time PCR format that has been used to detect multiple infection targets. Here we developed an enteric TaqMan Array Card to detect 19 enteropathogens, including viruses (adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus GII, rotavirus, and sapovirus), bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains including enteroaggregative E. coli [EAEC], enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC], enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC], and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), protozoa (Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica), and helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura), as well as two extrinsic controls to monitor extraction and amplification efficiency (the bacteriophage MS2 and phocine herpesvirus). Primers and probes were newly designed or adapted from published sources and spotted onto microfluidic cards. Fecal samples were spiked with extrinsic controls, and DNA and RNA were extracted using the QiaAmp Stool DNA minikit and the QuickGene RNA Tissue kit, respectively, and then mixed with Ag-Path-ID One Step real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) reagents and loaded into cards. PCR efficiencies were between 90% and 105%, with linearities of 0.988 to 1. The limit of detection of the assays in the TAC was within a 10-fold difference from the cognate assays performed on plates. Precision testing demonstrated a coefficient of variation of below 5% within a run and 14% between runs. Accuracy was evaluated for 109 selected clinical specimens and revealed an average sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 77%, respectively, compared with conventional methods (including microscopy, culture, and immunoassay) and 98% and 96%, respectively, compared with our laboratory-developed PCR-Luminex assays. This TAC allows fast, accurate, and quantitative detection of a broad spectrum of enteropathogens and

  14. Monitor for detecting nuclear waste leakage in a subsurface repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klainer, S.; Hirschfeld, T.; Bowman, H.; Milanovich, F.; Perry, D.; Johnson, D.

    1980-11-01

    A remote fiber optics system is employed in conjunction with the coprecipitation enhanced fluorimetry technique to detect radioactive waste leakage. An in situ monitoring capability using fiber optics to effect communication between the instrumentation and the sample is demonstrated. The sample is an actinide or a tracer material leaking from an underground nuclear waste repository into the ground water. A lanthanide (which is an excellent fluorescent agent), actinide or other species which does not radiation damage is chosen as the tracer to maximize sensitivity, specificity, and relevance. Taggants having variable excitation and emission wavelengths create a need for an acromatic retroreflective fiber coupler. This was done using the geometrical properties of the fiber to design a coupler requiring no dichroics or glossy energy splitting surfaces.

  15. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  17. A novel mobile system for radiation detection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    A novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance has been developed within the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). The REWARD sensing units are small, mobile portable units with low energy consumption, which consist of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit is integrated by a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station as well as a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system also incorporates middleware and high-level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information. A central monitoring and decision support system has been designed to process the data from the sensing units and to compare them with historical record in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. A security framework ensures protection against unauthorized access to the network and data, ensuring the privacy of the communications and contributing to the overall robustness and reliability of the REWARD system. The REWARD system has been designed for many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. It can be deployed in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment, but also inside public/private buildings or infrastructures. The complete system is scalable in terms of complexity and cost and offers very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system allows for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a basic, low cost system and increase the complexity based on their

  18. Above-ground antineutrino detection for nuclear reactor monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweany, M.; Brennan, J.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Kiff, S.; Reyna, D.; Throckmorton, D.

    2015-01-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times (Klimov et al., 1994 [1]; Bowden et al., 2009 [2]; Oguri et al., 2014 [3]), however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detection media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surrounded by 6LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of 6Li. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron's annihilation gammas, a signature that is absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe that this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described by Huber et al. (2014) [4,5].

  19. Electrical Resistance Technique to Monitor SiC Composite Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Morscher, Gregory; Xia, Zhenhai

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are suitable for high temperature structural applications such as turbine airfoils and hypersonic thermal protection systems. The employment of these materials in such applications is limited by the ability to process components reliable and to accurately monitor and predict damage evolution that leads to failure under stressed-oxidation conditions. Current nondestructive methods such as ultrasound, x-ray, and thermal imaging are limited in their ability to quantify small scale, transverse, in-plane, matrix cracks developed over long-time creep and fatigue conditions. Electrical resistance of SiC/SiC composites is one technique that shows special promise towards this end. Since both the matrix and the fibers are conductive, changes in matrix or fiber properties should relate to changes in electrical conductivity along the length of a specimen or part. The effect of matrix cracking on electrical resistivity for several composite systems will be presented and some initial measurements performed at elevated temperatures under stress-rupture conditions. The implications towards electrical resistance as a technique applied to composite processing, damage detection (health monitoring), and life-modeling will be discussed.

  20. Hierarchical effects on target detection and conflict monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bihua; Gao, Feng; Ren, Maofang; Li, Fuhong

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated a hierarchical functional structure of the frontal cortices of the human brain, but the temporal course and the electrophysiological signature of the hierarchical representation remains unaddressed. In the present study, twenty-one volunteers were asked to perform a nested cue-target task, while their scalp potentials were recorded. The results showed that: (1) in comparison with the lower-level hierarchical targets, the higher-level targets elicited a larger N2 component (220-350 ms) at the frontal sites, and a smaller P3 component (350-500 ms) across the frontal and parietal sites; (2) conflict-related negativity (non-target minus target) was greater for the lower-level hierarchy than the higher-level, reflecting a more intensive process of conflict monitoring at the final step of target detection. These results imply that decision making, context updating, and conflict monitoring differ among different hierarchical levels of abstraction. PMID:27561989

  1. Hierarchical effects on target detection and conflict monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bihua; Gao, Feng; Ren, Maofang; Li, Fuhong

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated a hierarchical functional structure of the frontal cortices of the human brain, but the temporal course and the electrophysiological signature of the hierarchical representation remains unaddressed. In the present study, twenty-one volunteers were asked to perform a nested cue-target task, while their scalp potentials were recorded. The results showed that: (1) in comparison with the lower-level hierarchical targets, the higher-level targets elicited a larger N2 component (220–350 ms) at the frontal sites, and a smaller P3 component (350–500 ms) across the frontal and parietal sites; (2) conflict-related negativity (non-target minus target) was greater for the lower-level hierarchy than the higher-level, reflecting a more intensive process of conflict monitoring at the final step of target detection. These results imply that decision making, context updating, and conflict monitoring differ among different hierarchical levels of abstraction. PMID:27561989

  2. Misuse and intrusion detection at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1995-04-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic auditing and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in system audit records, in system vulnerability postures, and in other evidence found through active system testing. Since 1989 we have implemented a misuse and intrusion detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter, or NADIR. NADIR currently audits a Kerberos distributed authentication system, file activity on a mass, storage system, and four Cray supercomputers that run the UNICOS operating system. NADIR summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations, As NADIR is constantly evolving, this paper reports its development to date.

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory?s Book of Minimum Detectable Activity for Direct Measurement of Internally Deposited Radionuclides in Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P

    2008-10-08

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control.

  4. LABORATORY DETECTION OF PLASTICS IN SEEDCOTTON WITH ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US cotton industry wants to increase market share and value by supplying pure cotton. Removing contamination requires developing a means to detect plastics in seedcotton. This study was conducted to determine if Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) could be used to find small amounts of plastic in ...

  5. Acoustic Methods to Monitor Protein Crystallization and to Detect Protein Crystals in Suspensions of Agarose and Lipidic Cubic Phase.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Daniel L; Yin, Xingyu; Scalia, Alexander; Samara, Yasmin N; Stearns, Richard; Vlahos, Harry; Ellson, Richard; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

    2016-02-01

    Improvements needed for automated crystallography include crystal detection and crystal harvesting. A technique that uses acoustic droplet ejection to harvest crystals was previously reported. Here a method is described for using the same acoustic instrument to detect protein crystals and to monitor crystal growth. Acoustic pulses were used to monitor the progress of crystallization trials and to detect the presence and location of protein crystals. Crystals were detected, and crystallization was monitored in aqueous solutions and in lipidic cubic phase. Using a commercially available acoustic instrument, crystals measuring ~150 µm or larger were readily detected. Simple laboratory techniques were used to increase the sensitivity to 50 µm by suspending the crystals away from the plastic surface of the crystallization plate. This increased the sensitivity by separating the strong signal generated by the plate bottom that can mask the signal from small protein crystals. It is possible to further boost the acoustic reflection from small crystals by reducing the wavelength of the incident sound pulse, but our current instrumentation does not allow this option. In the future, commercially available sound-emitting transducers with a characteristic frequency near 300 MHz should detect and monitor the growth of individual 3 µm crystals.

  6. Measurement of biomarker proteins for point-of-care early detection and monitoring of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Challa V.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Patel, Vyomesh

    2010-01-01

    This critical review evaluates progress toward viable point-of-care protein biomarker measurements for cancer detection and diagnostics. The ability to measure panels of specific, selective cancer biomarker proteins in physicians’ surgeries and clinics has the potential to revolutionize cancer detection, monitoring, and therapy. The dream envisions reliable, cheap, automated, technically undemanding devices that can analyze a patient’s serum or saliva in a clinical setting, allowing on-the-spot diagnosis. Existing commercial products for protein assays are reliable in laboratory settings, but have limitations for point-of-care applications. A number of ultrasensitive immunosensors and some arrays have been developed, many based on nanotechnology. Multilabel detection coupled with high capture molecule density in immunosensors and arrays seems to be capable of detecting a wide range of protein concentrations with sensitivity ranging into the sub pg mL−1 level. Multilabel arrays can be designed to detect both high and ultralow abundance proteins in the same sample. However, only a few of the newer ultrasensitive methods have been evaluated with real patient samples, which is key to establishing clinical sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:20614087

  7. Reference materials and intercomparison samples available from the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, E.J.; Laska, P.R.

    1985-06-01

    Reference materials and intercomparison samples may be obtained by laboratories involved in the analysis of environmental samples containing radioactivity, pesticides, toxic inorganic species, or toxic organic species. These reference materials and intercomparison samples are available from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Quality Assurance Division located at the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). These materials are useful for incorporation into a laboratory's quality control program for the evaluation of the precision and accuracy of analytical work. Media used for radiation reference materials are pitchblende, Monazite ore, uranium mill tailings, Mancos shale, fly ash, and water spiked with radionuclides. Radioactivity intercomparison samples consist of water, milk, air, urine, and a simulated diet slurry spiked with radionuclides. Media available for toxic organic reference materials are sludge, shale oil, and rag oil, and for intercomparison samples are soil and water. Characterized fly ash, foundry sludge, and river sediment serve as reference materials for toxic inorganics, while spiked soil and water serve as intercomparison samples. Finally, spiked adipose tissue, blood plasma, urine, and water comprise the pesticide intercomparison samples, and, after the disclosure of the true pesticide compositions and concentrations of these samples, the laboratory can use the samples as reference materials. The reference materials are generally available continuously, but the intercomparison samples are distributed on a scheduled basis and in some cases only to certain laboratories. 9 tables.

  8. Generic protease detection technology for monitoring periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinwei; Cook, Joseph P; Watkinson, Michael; Yang, Shoufeng; Douglas, Ian; Rawlinson, Andrew; Krause, Steffi

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting tissues of teeth and can lead to destruction of the bone support and ultimately tooth loss if untreated. Progression of periodontitis is usually site specific but not uniform, and currently there are no accurate clinical methods for distinguishing sites where there is active disease progression from sites that are quiescent. Consequently, unnecessary and costly treatment of periodontal sites that are not progressing may occur. Three proteases have been identified as suitable markers for distinguishing sites with active disease progression and quiescent sites: human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and MMP8. Generic sensor materials for the detection of these three proteases have been developed based on thin dextran hydrogel films cross-linked with peptides. Degradation of the hydrogel films was monitored using impedance measurements. The target proteases were detected in the clinically relevant range within a time frame of 3 min. Good specificity for different proteases was achieved by choosing appropriate peptide cross-linkers.

  9. Runway Safety Monitor Algorithm for Runway Incursion Detection and Alerting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F., Jr.; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) is an algorithm for runway incursion detection and alerting that was developed in support of NASA's Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) research conducted under the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision System element. The RSM algorithm provides pilots with enhanced situational awareness and warnings of runway incursions in sufficient time to take evasive action and avoid accidents during landings, takeoffs, or taxiing on the runway. The RSM currently runs as a component of the NASA Integrated Display System, an experimental avionics software system for terminal area and surface operations. However, the RSM algorithm can be implemented as a separate program to run on any aircraft with traffic data link capability. The report documents the RSM software and describes in detail how RSM performs runway incursion detection and alerting functions for NASA RIPS. The report also describes the RIPS flight tests conducted at the Dallas-Ft Worth International Airport (DFW) during September and October of 2000, and the RSM performance results and lessons learned from those flight tests.

  10. Promoting early exposure monitoring for respirable crystalline silica: Taking the laboratory to the mine site.

    PubMed

    Cauda, Emanuele; Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in the mining industry is a recognized occupational hazard. The assessment and monitoring of the exposure to RCS is limited by two main factors: (1) variability of the silica percent in the mining dust and (2) lengthy off-site laboratory analysis of collected samples. The monitoring of respirable dust via traditional or real-time techniques is not adequate. A solution for on-site quantification of RCS in dust samples is being investigated by the Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, a division of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The use of portable Fourier transform infrared analyzers in conjunction with a direct-on-filter analysis approach is proposed. The progress made so far, the necessary steps in progress, and the application of the monitoring solution to a small data set is presented. When developed, the solution will allow operators to estimate RCS immediately after sampling, resulting in timelier monitoring of RCS for self-assessment of compliance at the end of the shift, more effective engineering monitoring, and better evaluation of control technologies.

  11. 1998 Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1998 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1998 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The INEEL complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the exception of nitrogen samples in a disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  12. Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciello, D.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    Discharge of oil into the sea is one of the most dangerous, among technological hazards, for the maritime environment. In the last years maritime transport and exploitation of marine resources continued to increase; as a result, tanker accidents are nowadays increasingly frequent, continuously menacing the maritime security and safety. Satellite remote sensing could contribute in multiple ways, in particular for what concerns early warning and real-time (or near real-time) monitoring. Several satellite techniques exist, mainly based on the use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology, which are able to recognise, with sufficient accuracy, oil spills discharged into the sea. Unfortunately, such methods cannot be profitably used for real-time detection, because of the low observational frequency assured by present satellite platforms carrying SAR sensors (the mean repetition rate is something like 30 days). On the other hand, potential of optical sensors aboard meteorological satellites, was not yet fully exploited and no reliable techniques have been developed until now for this purpose. Main limit of proposed techniques can be found in the ``fixed threshold'' approach which makes such techniques difficult to implement without operator supervision and, generally, without an independent information on the oil spill presence that could drive the choice of the best threshold. A different methodological approach (RAT, Robust AVHRR Techniques) proposed by Tramutoli (1998) and already successfully applied to several natural and environmental emergencies related to volcanic eruptions, forest fires and seismic activity. In this paper its extension to near real-time detection and monitoring of oil spills by means of NOAA-AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) records will be described. Briefly, RAT approach is an automatic change-detection scheme that considers a satellite image as a space-time process, described at each place (x,y) and time t, by the value of

  13. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report. Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations. KAPL environmental controls are subject to applicable state and federal regulations governing use, emission, treatment, storage and/or disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous materials. Some non-radiological water and air emissions are generated and treated on-site prior to discharge to the environment. Liquid effluents and air emissions are controlled and monitored in accordance with permits issued by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) for the Windsor Site and by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) for the Knolls and Kesselring Sites. The liquid effluent monitoring data show that KAPL has maintained a high degree of compliance with permit requirements. Where required, radionuclide air emission sources are authorized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The non-radiological air emissions, with the exception of opacity for the boilers, are not required to be monitored.

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  15. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  16. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network laboratory guidelines for the use of direct tests to detect syphilis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Raymond Sw; Morshed, Muhammad; Chernesky, Max A; Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kadkhoda, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and/or its nucleic acid can be detected by various methods such as microscopy, rabbit infectivity test or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The rabbit infectivity test for T. pallidum, although very sensitive, has been discontinued from most laboratories due to ethical issues related to the need for animal inoculation with live T. pallidum, the technically demanding procedure and long turnaround time for results, thus making it impractical for routine diagnostic use. Dark-field and phase-contrast microscopy are still useful at clinic- or hospital-based laboratories for near-bedside detection of T. pallidum in genital, skin or mucous lesions although their availability is decreasing. The lack of reliable and specific anti-T. pallidum antibodies and its inferior sensitivity to PCR may explain why the direct fluorescent antibody test for T. pallidum is not widely available for clinical use. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum also depends on the availability of specific antibodies, and the method is only applicable for histopathological examination of biopsy and autopsy specimens necessitating an invasive specimen collection approach. With recent advances in molecular diagnostics, PCR is considered to be the most reliable, versatile and practical for laboratories to implement. In addition to being an objective and sensitive test for direct detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA in skin and mucous membrane lesions, the resulting PCR amplicons from selected gene targets can be further characterized for antimicrobial (macrolide) susceptibility testing, strain typing and identification of T. pallidum subspecies.

  17. Detection and monitoring of CWA and BWA using LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landström, L.; Larsson, A.; Gradmark, P.-Å.; Örebrand, Lillermor; Andersson, P. O.; Wästerby, Pär.; Tjärnhage, Torbjörn

    2014-05-01

    Results related to laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical tool for applications regarding CWA and BWA detection/monitoring will be presented and discussed in this paper. A `real-time' aerosol analysis set-up using LIBS on single μm-sized particles (sampled from ambient air into a particle stream) has been developed and evaluated. Here, a two-stage triggering unit ensures a high hit-rate of the sampled aerosol particles and the optical emission from the laser induced plasma is collected and coupled into an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD detector. Each CCD image (echellogram), optimally originating from a single μm-sized particle, is then analyzed and the result treated by an alarm algorithm built from a database using multivariate data analysis. The database signatures of simulant agents and interferents were obtained in controlled atmospheres (aerosol chamber/wind tunnel) as well as from measurements in different ambient background. The LIBS bioaerosol system with alarm algorithm was also tested in `real-life' settings (subway station) during simulant dispersions. Painted surfaces have also been analyzed by LIBS to obtain information about residues of organophosphates on, or within, the paint. Depth analysis has been performed, which illustrated the possibility to monitor diffusion and penetration behavior of neat CWAs and simulant chemicals in the paint layer by following the intensity of phosphorous emission lines in single shot LIBS spectra as function of number of laser pulses. In addition, LIBS analysis was also performed after simple ethanol decontamination procedures, after which P emission lines still could be observed. The possibilities and challenges associated with the different set-ups and applications will be briefly discussed in connection with the presented results.

  18. Using EEG To Detect and Monitor Mental Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Leslie; Luna, Bernadette; Trejo, Leonard J.; Montgomery, Richard

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to develop EEG-based methods for detecting and monitoring mental fatigue. Mental fatigue poses a serious risk, even when performance is not apparently degraded. When such fatigue is associated with sustained performance of a single type of cognitive task it may be related to the metabolic energy required for sustained activation of cortical areas specialized for that task. The objective of this study was to adapt EEG to monitor cortical energy over a long period of performance of a cognitive task. Multielectrode event related potentials (ERPs) were collected every 15 minutes in nine subjects who performed a mental arithmetic task (algebraic sum of four randomly generated negative or positive digits). A new problem was presented on a computer screen 0.5 seconds after each response; some subjects endured for as long as three hours. ERPs were transformed to a quantitative measure of scalp electrical field energy. The average energy level at electrode P3 (near the left angular gyrus), 100-300 msec latency, was compared over the series of ERPs. For most subjects, scalp energy density at P3 gradually fell over the period of task performance and dramatically increased just before the subject was unable to continue the task. This neural response can be simulated for individual subjects using, a differential equation model in which it is assumed that the mental arithmetic task requires a commitment of metabolic energy that would otherwise be used for brain activities that are temporarily neglected. Their cumulative neglect eventually requires a reallocation of energy away from the mental arithmetic task.

  19. Detecting and defining air pollutants: one laboratory's experiences and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, J.L.; Krauss, H.J.; Mgebroff, J.S.

    1980-08-01

    The Texas Air Control Board is the agency responsible for maintaining the quality of the ambient air of Texas. An extensive network of continuous and noncontinuous monitors is used to defect air quality trends in the state. The samples submitted may be gaseous, liquid, or solid. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) is used for various elements. XRF was used specifically for lead emissions, sulfur dioxide emissions and toxic metals. However, atomic absorption is better for beryllium and arsenic. Gas chromatography (GC), high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are employed in organic analysis as complements to each other. HPLC has been effectively used in the analysis of samples for herbicides. The defection of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is accomplished with a photoionization defector (PID) and flame ionization detector (FID) in series. There are many examples of a multi-instrument approach to analysis of samples. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy were used for nitrobenzene analysis. The complexity of ambient air sampler often requires a multinstrumental approach if the sample is to be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed so that the information can be used for corrective action or to identify potential problems of air pollution. 2 figures. (DP)

  20. RADIOLOGICAL EMISSIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR BROOKHAV EN NATIONAL LABORATORY, 1947 - 1961.

    SciTech Connect

    MEINHOLD,C.B.; MEINHOLD,A.F.

    2001-05-30

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has monitored its releases to the environment since its inception in 1947. From 1962 to 1966 and from 1971 to the present, annual reports,were published that recorded the emissions and releases to the environment from Laboratory operations. In 1998, a report was written to summarize the environmental data for the years 1967 to 1970. One of the purposes of the current report is to complete BNL's environmental history by covering the period from 1948 through 1961. The activities in 1947 were primarily organizational and there is no information on the use of radiation at the Laboratory before 1948. An additional objective of this report is to provide environmental data to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The report does not provide an estimate of the doses associated with BNL operations. The report is comprised of two parts. The first part is a summary of emissions, releases, and environmental monitoring information including a discussion of the uncertainties in these data. Part two contains the detailed information on the approach taken to estimate the releases from the fuel cartridge failures at the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR). A series of appendices present more detailed information on these events in tabular form. The approach in this report is to be reasonable, conservative, (pessimistic), and transparent in estimating releases from fuel cartridge ruptures. Clearly, reactor stack monitoring records and more extensive records would have greatly improved this effort, but in accordance with Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Appendix 0230 Annex C-9, many of the detailed records from this time were not retained.

  1. Hypercoagulable states: an algorithmic approach to laboratory testing and update on monitoring of direct oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Megan O.

    2014-01-01

    Hypercoagulability can result from a variety of inherited and, more commonly, acquired conditions. Testing for the underlying cause of thrombosis in a patient is complicated both by the number and variety of clinical conditions that can cause hypercoagulability as well as the many potential assay interferences. Using an algorithmic approach to hypercoagulability testing provides the ability to tailor assay selection to the clinical scenario. It also reduces the number of unnecessary tests performed, saving cost and time, and preventing potential false results. New oral anticoagulants are powerful tools for managing hypercoagulable patients; however, their use introduces new challenges in terms of test interpretation and therapeutic monitoring. The coagulation laboratory plays an essential role in testing for and treating hypercoagulable states. The input of laboratory professionals is necessary to guide appropriate testing and synthesize interpretation of results. PMID:25025009

  2. Hypercoagulable states: an algorithmic approach to laboratory testing and update on monitoring of direct oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Megan O; Rogers, Heesun J

    2014-06-01

    Hypercoagulability can result from a variety of inherited and, more commonly, acquired conditions. Testing for the underlying cause of thrombosis in a patient is complicated both by the number and variety of clinical conditions that can cause hypercoagulability as well as the many potential assay interferences. Using an algorithmic approach to hypercoagulability testing provides the ability to tailor assay selection to the clinical scenario. It also reduces the number of unnecessary tests performed, saving cost and time, and preventing potential false results. New oral anticoagulants are powerful tools for managing hypercoagulable patients; however, their use introduces new challenges in terms of test interpretation and therapeutic monitoring. The coagulation laboratory plays an essential role in testing for and treating hypercoagulable states. The input of laboratory professionals is necessary to guide appropriate testing and synthesize interpretation of results.

  3. Radiological environmental monitoring report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1967--1970

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, C.B.; Hull, A.P.

    1998-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was established in 1947 on the former Army Camp Upton site located in central Long Island, New York. From the very beginning, BNL has monitored the environment on and around the Laboratory site to assess the effects of its operations on the environment. This document summarizes the environmental data collected for the years 1967, 1968, 1969, and 1970. Thus, it fills a gap in the series of BNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1962. The data in this document reflect measurements for those four years of concentrations and/or amounts of airborne radioactivity, radioactivity in streams and ground water, and external radiation levels in the vicinity of BNL. Also included are estimates, made at that time, of BNL`s contribution to radioactivity in the environment. Among the major scientific facilities operated at BNL are the High Flux Beam Reactor, Medical Research Reactor, Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, and the 60-inch Cyclotron.

  4. Laboratory detection of Clostridium difficile in piglets in Australia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Daniel R; Squire, Michele M; Riley, Thomas V

    2014-11-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian), a real-time PCR for tcdB (GeneOhm Cdiff; Becton Dickinson), two-component enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EIA-GDH) and TcdA/TcdB (EIA-TcdA/TcdB) (C. diff Quik Chek; Alere), and direct culture (DC) (C. difficile chromID agar; bioMérieux). The assays for detection of the organism were compared against enrichment culture (EC), and assays for detection of toxins/toxin genes were compared against EC followed by PCR for toxin genes (toxigenic EC [TEC]). The recovery of C. difficile by EC was 39.5% (n = 62/157), and TEC revealed that 58.1% (n = 36/62) of isolates were positive for at least one toxin gene (tcdA/tcdB). Compared with those for EC/TEC, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were, respectively, as follows: DC, 91.9, 100.0, 100.0, and 95.0%; EIA-GDH, 41.9, 92.6, 78.8, and 71.0%; EIA-TcdA/TcdB, 5.6, 99.2, 66.7, and 77.9%; real-time PCR, 42.9, 96.7, 78.9, and 85.4% and LMIA-PCR, 25.0, 95.9, 64.3, and 81.1%. The performance of the molecular methods was poor, suggesting that the current commercially available assays for diagnosis of C. difficile in humans are not suitable for use in piglets. C. difficile recovery by the DC provides a cost-effective alternative.

  5. Laboratory Detection of Clostridium difficile in Piglets in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Daniel R.; Squire, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian), a real-time PCR for tcdB (GeneOhm Cdiff; Becton Dickinson), two-component enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EIA-GDH) and TcdA/TcdB (EIA-TcdA/TcdB) (C. diff Quik Chek; Alere), and direct culture (DC) (C. difficile chromID agar; bioMérieux). The assays for detection of the organism were compared against enrichment culture (EC), and assays for detection of toxins/toxin genes were compared against EC followed by PCR for toxin genes (toxigenic EC [TEC]). The recovery of C. difficile by EC was 39.5% (n = 62/157), and TEC revealed that 58.1% (n = 36/62) of isolates were positive for at least one toxin gene (tcdA/tcdB). Compared with those for EC/TEC, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were, respectively, as follows: DC, 91.9, 100.0, 100.0, and 95.0%; EIA-GDH, 41.9, 92.6, 78.8, and 71.0%; EIA-TcdA/TcdB, 5.6, 99.2, 66.7, and 77.9%; real-time PCR, 42.9, 96.7, 78.9, and 85.4% and LMIA-PCR, 25.0, 95.9, 64.3, and 81.1%. The performance of the molecular methods was poor, suggesting that the current commercially available assays for diagnosis of C. difficile in humans are not suitable for use in piglets. C. difficile recovery by the DC provides a cost-effective alternative. PMID:25122859

  6. Quality management system and accreditation of the in vivo monitoring laboratory at Karslruhe Institute of Technology.

    PubMed

    Breustedt, B; Mohr, U; Biegard, N; Cordes, G

    2011-03-01

    The in vivo monitoring laboratory (IVM) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), with one whole body counter and three partial-body counters, is an approved lab for individual monitoring according to German regulation. These approved labs are required to prove their competencies by accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025:2005. In 2007 a quality management system (QMS), which was successfully audited and granted accreditation, was set up at the IVM. The system is based on the ISO 9001 certified QMS of the central safety department of the Research Centre Karlsruhe the IVM belonged to at that time. The system itself was set up to be flexible and could be adapted to the recent organisational changes (e.g. founding of KIT and an institute for radiation research) with only minor effort.

  7. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2007-07-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  8. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2001-07-05

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2000 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  9. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2002-07-08

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2001 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  10. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2006-06-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  11. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2004-08-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2003 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  12. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2003-07-09

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2002 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  13. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Bivens, Steven A.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2005-06-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2004 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  14. Process monitoring concepts for safeguards and demonstrations at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility has been constructed to demonstrate advanced equipment, processes, and controls for use in future reprocessing plants. The facility contains full-size plant equipment for shear and dissolution, feed preparation solvent extraction and product recovery. The facility is integrated with chemical recovery systems to allow continuous operation using depleted uranium feed solutions to simulate operations. The IET facility features computer interface to instrumentation and equipment for process control and information. Part of the CFRP has been the development of a safeguards systems to make use of extensive process monitoring data available from ''next-generation'' reprocessing and fuel facilities. This paper describes the IET facility and tests conducted to demonstrate sensitivities of process monitoring safeguards applications.

  15. Process monitoring concepts for safeguards and demonstrations at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility has been constructed to demonstrate advanced equipment, processes, and controls for use in future reprocessing plants. The facility contains full-size plant equipment for shear and dissolution, feed preparation solvent extraction, and product recovery. The facility is integrated with chemical recovery systems to allow continuous operation using depleted uranium feed solutions to simulate operations. The IET facility features computer interface to instrumentation and equipment for process control and information. Part of the CFRP has been the development of a safeguards system to make use of extensive process monitoring data available from ''next-generation'' reprocessing and fuel facilities. This paper describes the IET facility and tests conducted to demonstrate sensitivities of process monitoring safeguards applications.

  16. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Nine parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in fourth quarter 1992, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards in 4 and 7 wells, respectively. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride), not previously compared to a standard in the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program, was elevated in one well. Aluminum, iron, manganese, pH, specific conductance, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria; all of these parameters, with the exception of aluminum, were reported as elevated in AMB wells during previous quarters. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the water-table unit and the upper section of the Congaree were similar to previous quarters.

  17. Quality management system and accreditation of the in vivo monitoring laboratory at Karslruhe Institute of Technology.

    PubMed

    Breustedt, B; Mohr, U; Biegard, N; Cordes, G

    2011-03-01

    The in vivo monitoring laboratory (IVM) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), with one whole body counter and three partial-body counters, is an approved lab for individual monitoring according to German regulation. These approved labs are required to prove their competencies by accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025:2005. In 2007 a quality management system (QMS), which was successfully audited and granted accreditation, was set up at the IVM. The system is based on the ISO 9001 certified QMS of the central safety department of the Research Centre Karlsruhe the IVM belonged to at that time. The system itself was set up to be flexible and could be adapted to the recent organisational changes (e.g. founding of KIT and an institute for radiation research) with only minor effort. PMID:21075765

  18. Detection of intestinal protozoa in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    McHardy, Ian H; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Humphries, Romney M

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa.

  19. Establishment of the Radiation Detection Laboratory at Fisk University

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold Burger, Ph.D.

    2008-02-28

    Synthetic CdZnTe (CZT) semiconducting crystals are highly suitable for the room temperature-based detection of gamma radiation. The surface preparation of Au contacts on surfaces of CZT detectors is typically conducted after (1) polishing to remove artifacts from crystal sectioning and (2) chemical etching, which removes residual mechanical surface damage however etching results in a Te rich surface layer that is prone to oxidize. Our studies show that CZT surfaces that are only polished (as opposed to polished and etched) can be contacted with Au and will yield lower surface currents. Due to their decreased dark currents, these as-polished surfaces can be used in the fabrication of gamma detectors exhibiting a higher performance than polished and etched surfaces with relatively less peak tailing and greater energy resolution.032}

  20. Detection of Intestinal Protozoa in the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    McHardy, Ian H.; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa. PMID:24197877

  1. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; and aluminum, iron, lead, manganese, pH, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters.

  2. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. First quarter, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    During first quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Nine parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylne and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS); in addition, gross alpha and lead exceeded final PDWS during first quarter 1994. Aluminum, iron, manganese, pH, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters.

  3. Testing the Floor Scale Designated for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's UF6 Cylinder Portal Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2009-03-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) obtained a Mettler Toledo floor scale for the purpose of testing it to determine whether it can replace the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) cumbersome, hanging load cell. The floor scale is intended for use as a subsystem within PNNL’s nascent UF6 Cylinder Portal Monitor. The particular model was selected for its accuracy, size, and capacity. The intent will be to use it only for 30B cylinders; consequently, testing did not proceed beyond 8,000 lb.

  4. Implementation. Improving caries detection, assessment, diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    This chapter deals with improving the detection, assessment, diagnosis and monitoring of caries to ensure optimal personalized caries management. This can be achieved by delivering what we have (synthesized evidence and international consensus) better and more consistently, as well as driving research and innovation in the areas where we need them. There is a need to better understand the interrelated pieces of the jigsaw that makes up evidence-based dentistry, i.e. the linkages between (a) research and synthesis, (b) dissemination of research results and (c) the implementation of research findings which should ensure that research findings change practice at the clinician-patient level. The current situation is outlined; it is at the implementation step where preventive caries control seems to have failed in some countries but not others. Opportunities for implementation include: capitalizing on the World Health Organization's global policy for improvement of oral health, which sets out an action plan for health promotion and integrated disease prevention; utilizing the developments around the International Caries Detection and Assessment System wardrobe of options and e-learning; building on initiatives from the International Dental Federation and the American Dental Association and linking these to patients' preferences, the wider moves to wellbeing and health maintenance. Challenges for implementation include the slow pace of evolution around dental remuneration systems and some groups of dentists failing to embrace clinical prevention. In the future, implementation of current and developing evidence should be accompanied by research into getting research findings into routine practice, with impacts on the behaviour of patients, professionals and policy makers.

  5. Second annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, R.B.; Watts, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of environmental monitoring and field investigations conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report focuses on the watershed scale, striving to provide an ORNL site-wide perspective on types, distribution, and transport of contamination. Results are used to enhance the conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This report summarizes the efforts of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and Site Investigations (SI) program. WAG 2 is the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) system which drains the major contaminated sites at ORNL and discharges to the Clinch River where public access is allowed. The remedial investigation for WAG 2 includes a long-term multimedia environmental monitoring effort that takes advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator and conduit of contaminants from the ORNL site. This report also includes information from other site-specific remedial investigations and feasibility studies (RI/FS) for contaminated sites at ORNL and data from other ongoing monitoring programs conducted by other organizations [e.g., the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) compliance monitoring conducted by the Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section]. This information is included to provide an integrated basis to support ER decision making. This report summarizes information gathered through early 1993. Annual data, such as annual discharges of contaminants, are reported for calendar year 1992.

  6. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, S R; Stoetzel, G A

    1997-06-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993, 1994, and 1995 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 108 area TLDs were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1996. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  7. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    SR Bivins; GA Stoetzel

    1999-06-17

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-1997 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 97 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during calendar year 1998. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  8. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)--(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years (CY) 1993--1996 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 93 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1997. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusions that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  9. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B. D.; Kitchings, J. T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D. A.; Olsen, C. R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  10. Thunderstorm detection and warning system atmospheric potential monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An new type of electric field instrumentation was developed for lighting prediction at KSC. Currently, it is being installed at several government laboratories and is being made available to the public. It has important advantages over the previous method for measuring electric fields with motor driven field mills: (1) it has no moving parts and requires little maintenance compared to rotating machinery; (2) it is unaffected by rain, snow, sand, or insects, all of which can influence field mills; and (3) the lightweight sensor can be mounted easily on a tall mast. By mounting the instrumentation on a tall mast the instrumentation is placed above much of the blanket of point discharge ions that are emitted from objects on the ground during thunderstorms. This space charge limits the ability of any ground based electric field sensor to accurately measure cloud electric fields which produce lightning. The elevated mounting was demonstrated to significantly improve monitoring of thunderstorm electric fields. This instrumentation measures the atmospheric potential relative to earth at a corona needle sensor on top of a mast which normally is mounted on a tower or roof. The needle is kept in corona at all times by a low power high voltage power supply. This produces a small cloud of ions around the needle allowing a current to flow. Measurement of the current provides the atmospheric potential. The potential divided by the height of the needle above the ground is proportional to the average electric field between the needle and earth. The potential on top of a tall pole or above a rooftop is more representative of the intensity of cloud electrification than electric field measurements made at ground level. Photographs that depict the computer terminal, video display of a two sensor system, and the individual components installed on a tower are presented.

  11. Singularity detection for structural health monitoring using holder exponents.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A. N.; Farrar, C. R.; Sohn, H.

    2003-01-01

    The majority of structural health monitoring studies reported in the technical literature focus on identifying damage sensitive features that can be extracted from dynamic response data . However, many of these studies assume the structure can be modeled as a linear system before and after damage and use parameters of these models as the damage sensitive features. The study summarized in this paper proposes a damage sensitive feature that takes advantage of the nonlinearities associated with discontinuities introduced into the dynamic response data as a result of certain types of damage. Specifically, the Holder exponent, a measure of the degree to which a signal is differentiable, is the feature that is used to detect the presence of damage and when that damage occurred . A procedure for capturing the time varying nature of the Holder exponent based on wavelet transforms is demonstrated through applications to non-stationary random signals with underlying discontinuities and then to a harmonically excited mechanical system that contains a loose part . Also, a classification procedure is developed to quantify when changes in the Holder exponent are significant . The results presented herein show the Holder exponent to be an effective feature for identifying damage that introduces discontinuities into the measured dynamic response data .

  12. Impact detection and analysis/health monitoring system for composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Child, James E.; Kumar, Amrita; Beard, Shawn; Qing, Peter; Paslay, Don G.

    2006-05-01

    This manuscript includes information from test evaluations and development of a smart event detection system for use in monitoring composite rocket motor cases for damaging impacts. The primary purpose of the system as a sentry for case impact event logging is accomplished through; implementation of a passive network of miniaturized piezoelectric sensors, logger with pre-determined force threshold levels, and analysis software. Empirical approaches to structural characterizations and network calibrations along with implementation techniques were successfully evaluated, testing was performed on both unloaded (less propellants) as well as loaded rocket motors with the cylindrical areas being of primary focus. The logged test impact data with known physical network parameters provided for impact location as well as force determination, typically within 3 inches of actual impact location using a 4 foot network grid and force accuracy within 25%of an actual impact force. The simplistic empirical characterization approach along with the robust / flexible sensor grids and battery operated portable logger show promise of a system that can increase confidence in composite integrity for both new assets progressing through manufacturing processes as well as existing assets that may be in storage or transportation.

  13. Online monitoring of aluminium in drinking water with fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Mateos, A; Almendral-Parra, M J; Curto-Serrano, Y; Rodríguez-Martín, F J

    2008-01-01

    We report a procedure for the online monitoring of aluminium in drinking water by flow injection analysis. The reaction used is the formation of a complex with morin. Under the working conditions, this can be accomplished in an ethanol-rich hydroalcoholic medium, which modifies the fluorescent characteristics of the complex, allowing the determination of aluminium concentrations higher than 3.1 microgl(-1), with a linear application range between 2 and 250 microgl(-1), an R.S.D. of 2.3% (n=10, 120 microgl(-1)) and a sampling frequency of 90 h(-1). The method can thus be considered one of the most sensitive and fastest for the continuous determination of aluminium. In the presence of anionic surfactants, the sensitivity of the determination is increased. In this form, aluminium is detected at concentrations higher than 2.8 microgl(-1), with a linear application range of 2-50 microgl(-1). The procedure was applied to the analysis of aluminium in drinking, river, and underground water. Under the proposed working conditions, only Fe(III), fluoride and phosphates interfere. The interference of Fe(III) can be avoided with hydroxylamine and that of phosphates and polyphosphates by acid digestion of the samples.

  14. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  15. Current limitations and challenges in nanowaste detection, characterisation and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Part, Florian; Zecha, Gudrun; Causon, Tim; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • First review on detection of nanomaterials in complex waste samples. • Focus on nanoparticles in solid, liquid and gaseous waste samples. • Summary of current applicable methods for nanowaste detection and characterisation. • Limitations and challenges of characterisation of nanoparticles in waste. - Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are already extensively used in diverse consumer products. Along the life cycle of a nano-enabled product, ENMs can be released and subsequently accumulate in the environment. Material flow models also indicate that a variety of ENMs may accumulate in waste streams. Therefore, a new type of waste, so-called nanowaste, is generated when end-of-life ENMs and nano-enabled products are disposed of. In terms of the precautionary principle, environmental monitoring of end-of-life ENMs is crucial to allow assessment of the potential impact of nanowaste on our ecosystem. Trace analysis and quantification of nanoparticulate species is very challenging because of the variety of ENM types that are used in products and low concentrations of nanowaste expected in complex environmental media. In the framework of this paper, challenges in nanowaste characterisation and appropriate analytical techniques which can be applied to nanowaste analysis are summarised. Recent case studies focussing on the characterisation of ENMs in waste streams are discussed. Most studies aim to investigate the fate of nanowaste during incineration, particularly considering aerosol measurements; whereas, detailed studies focusing on the potential release of nanowaste during waste recycling processes are currently not available. In terms of suitable analytical methods, separation techniques coupled to spectrometry-based methods are promising tools to detect nanowaste and determine particle size distribution in liquid waste samples. Standardised leaching protocols can be applied to generate soluble fractions stemming from solid wastes, while

  16. A New Meteo-oceanographic and Environmental Monitoring Laboratory in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Roberto F. C.; Dottori, Marcelo; Silveira, Ilson C. A.; Castro, Belmiro M.

    2013-04-01

    The newer oil provinces in the pre-salt regions off the Brazilian Coast have raised the necessity of the creation of monitoring and observational centers, regarding the best comprehension on the ocean and atmosphere dynamics. The relation between industry and university is a concept based on collaboration, and it is an innovative social experiment in Brazil. The sustainability of that collaboration depends on the balance of mutual interests on private business and public academic institutions. The entrepreneur needs continuous accesses to the new academic researches, and the greatest benefit, for the academy, are funding complementation and personnel qualification. We need to establish a thread of new challenges, some of them based on disruption of paradigms in the Brazilian academic culture, and removal of obstructive clauses from the entrepreneur. Questioning and methods revalidation, in the oceanic environment areas, also requires a collaborative and interdisciplinary effort, congregating the physical aspects along with others compartments of the environmental monitoring. We proposed the creation of a Meteo-oceanographic and Environmental Monitoring Laboratory - LAMMOA (Portuguese acronym), which will be installed in a new facility funded by PETROBRAS (the Brazilian leading oil company) and ruled by USP, UNESP and UNICAMP, the state public universities in Santos (São Paulo State, Brazil). The new facility will be a research center in oil and gas activities, named CENPEG-BS (Portuguese acronym for Research Center of Oil and Gas in the Bay of Santos). Several laboratories and groups will work together, in a highly collaborative environment and so, capable of quickly respond to sudden demands on offshore activities and logistic operations, as well as in contingency situations. LAMMOA will continuous monitor oceanic regions where the pre-salt activities of oil exploitation occur. It will monitor meteo-oceanographic parameters like winds, waves and currents

  17. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  18. Accelerometry-based home monitoring for detection of nocturnal hypermotor seizures based on novelty detection.

    PubMed

    Cuppens, Kris; Karsmakers, Peter; Van de Vel, Anouk; Bonroy, Bert; Milosevic, Milica; Luca, Stijn; Croonenborghs, Tom; Ceulemans, Berten; Lagae, Lieven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Vanrumste, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Nocturnal home monitoring of epileptic children is often not feasible due to the cumbersome manner of seizure monitoring with the standard method of video/EEG-monitoring. We propose a method for hypermotor seizure detection based on accelerometers attached to the extremities. From the acceleration signals, multiple temporal, frequency, and wavelet-based features are extracted. After determining the features with the highest discriminative power, we classify movement events in epileptic and nonepileptic movements. This classification is only based on a nonparametric estimate of the probability density function of normal movements. Such approach allows us to build patient-specific models to classify movement data without the need for seizure data that are rarely available. If, in the test phase, the probability of a data point (event) is lower than a threshold, this event is considered to be an epileptic seizure; otherwise, it is considered as a normal nocturnal movement event. The mean performance over seven patients gives a sensitivity of 95.24% and a positive predictive value of 60.04%. However, there is a noticeable interpatient difference. PMID:24122607

  19. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G; Manatt, Kenneth S; Mowrey, Victoria S; Jackson, Shannon P; Kisor, Adam K; Shevade, Abhijit V; Homer, Margie L

    2004-06-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  20. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  1. Application of High Resolution Multispectral Imagery for Levee Slide Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, A. K. M. Azad; Easson, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to detect and monitor levee slides using commercially available high resolution multispectral imagery. High resolution multispectral imagery like IKONOS and QuickBird are suitable for detecting and monitoring levee slides. IKONOS is suitable for visual inspection, image classification and Tasseled Cap transform based slide detection. Tasseled Cap based model was found to be the best method for slide detection. QuickBird was suitable for visual inspection and image classification.

  2. Active and passive seismic methods for characterization and monitoring of unstable rock masses: field surveys, laboratory tests and modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombero, Chiara; Baillet, Laurent; Comina, Cesare; Jongmans, Denis; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate characterization and monitoring of potentially unstable rock masses may provide a better knowledge of the active processes and help to forecast the evolution to failure. Among the available geophysical methods, active seismic surveys are often suitable to infer the internal structure and the fracturing conditions of the unstable body. For monitoring purposes, although remote-sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical measurements are successfully tested on landslides, they may not be suitable to early forecast sudden rapid rockslides. Passive seismic monitoring can help for this purpose. Detection, classification and localization of microseismic events within the prone-to-fall rock mass can provide information about the incipient failure of internal rock bridges. Acceleration to failure can be detected from an increasing microseismic event rate. The latter can be compared with meteorological data to understand the external factors controlling stability. On the other hand, seismic noise recorded on prone-to-fall rock slopes shows that the temporal variations in spectral content and correlation of ambient vibrations can be related to both reversible and irreversible changes within the rock mass. We present the results of the active and passive seismic data acquired at the potentially unstable granitic cliff of Madonna del Sasso (NW Italy). Down-hole tests, surface refraction and cross-hole tomography were carried out for the characterization of the fracturing state of the site. Field surveys were implemented with laboratory determination of physico-mechanical properties on rock samples and measurements of the ultrasonic pulse velocity. This multi-scale approach led to a lithological interpretation of the seismic velocity field obtained at the site and to a systematic correlation of the measured velocities with physical properties (density and porosity) and macroscopic features of the granitic cliff (fracturing, weathering and anisotropy). Continuous

  3. Validity of a heart rate monitor during work in the laboratory and on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, A. D. Jr; Lee, S. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Bishop, P.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate heart rate measurement during work is required for many industrial hygiene and ergonomics situations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of heart rate measurements obtained by a simple, lightweight, commercially available wrist-worn heart rate monitor (HRM) during work (cycle exercise) sessions conducted in the laboratory and also during the particularly challenging work environment of space flight. Three different comparisons were made. The first compared HRM data to simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of varying heart rates that were generated by an ECG simulator. The second compared HRM data to ECG recordings collected during work sessions of 14 subjects in the laboratory. Finally, ECG downlink and HRM data were compared in four astronauts who performed cycle exercise during space flight. The data were analyzed using regression techniques. The results were that the HRM recorded virtually identical heart rates compared with ECG recordings for the data set generated by an ECG simulator. The regression equation for the relationship between ECG versus HRM heart rate data during work in the laboratory was: ECG HR = 0.99 x (HRM) + 0.82 (r2 = 0.99). Finally, the agreement between ECG downlink data and HRM data during space flight was also very high, with the regression equation being: Downlink ECG HR = 1.05 x (HRM) -5.71 (r2 = 0.99). The results of this study indicate that the HRM provides accurate data and may be used to reliably obtain valid data regarding heart rate responses during work.

  4. Lessons Learned from Implementing a Wet Laboratory Molecular Training Workshop for Beach Water Quality Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Verhougstraete, Marc Paul; Brothers, Sydney; Litaker, Wayne; Blackwood, A. Denene; Noble, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Rapid molecular testing methods are poised to replace many of the conventional, culture-based tests currently used in fields such as water quality and food science. Rapid qPCR methods have the benefit of being faster than conventional methods and provide a means to more accurately protect public health. However, many scientists and technicians in water and food quality microbiology laboratories have limited experience using these molecular tests. To ensure that practitioners can use and implement qPCR techniques successfully, we developed a week long workshop to provide hands-on training and exposure to rapid molecular methods for water quality management. This workshop trained academic professors, government employees, private industry representatives, and graduate students in rapid qPCR methods for monitoring recreational water quality. Attendees were immersed in these new methods with hands-on laboratory sessions, lectures, and one-on-one training. Upon completion, the attendees gained sufficient knowledge and practice to teach and share these new molecular techniques with colleagues at their respective laboratories. Key findings from this workshop demonstrated: 1) participants with no prior experience could be effectively trained to conduct highly repeatable qPCR analysis in one week; 2) participants with different desirable outcomes required exposure to a range of different platforms and sample processing approaches; and 3) the collaborative interaction amongst newly trained practitioners, workshop leaders, and members of the water quality community helped foster a cohesive cohort of individuals which can advocate powerful cohort for proper implementation of molecular methods. PMID:25822486

  5. Lessons learned from implementing a wet laboratory molecular training workshop for beach water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Verhougstraete, Marc Paul; Brothers, Sydney; Litaker, Wayne; Blackwood, A Denene; Noble, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Rapid molecular testing methods are poised to replace many of the conventional, culture-based tests currently used in fields such as water quality and food science. Rapid qPCR methods have the benefit of being faster than conventional methods and provide a means to more accurately protect public health. However, many scientists and technicians in water and food quality microbiology laboratories have limited experience using these molecular tests. To ensure that practitioners can use and implement qPCR techniques successfully, we developed a week long workshop to provide hands-on training and exposure to rapid molecular methods for water quality management. This workshop trained academic professors, government employees, private industry representatives, and graduate students in rapid qPCR methods for monitoring recreational water quality. Attendees were immersed in these new methods with hands-on laboratory sessions, lectures, and one-on-one training. Upon completion, the attendees gained sufficient knowledge and practice to teach and share these new molecular techniques with colleagues at their respective laboratories. Key findings from this workshop demonstrated: 1) participants with no prior experience could be effectively trained to conduct highly repeatable qPCR analysis in one week; 2) participants with different desirable outcomes required exposure to a range of different platforms and sample processing approaches; and 3) the collaborative interaction amongst newly trained practitioners, workshop leaders, and members of the water quality community helped foster a cohesive cohort of individuals which can advocate powerful cohort for proper implementation of molecular methods.

  6. Laboratory coda wave interferometry for the monitoring of rock property variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittbuhl, Jean; Chaintreuil, Marie; Lengliné, Olivier; Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Mike; Baud, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    A significant effort is on-going in the community to continuously monitor deep geothermal reservoirs using ambient seismic noise tomography (e.g. Calo et al, 2013; Lehujeur et al, 2015). It is a method that determines the Green's function between a pair of receivers by correlating sufficiently long seismic noise records. Very small changes of the medium are accessible using this new monitoring technique (significantly smaller than those deduced from direct arrivals). In particular, very small variations of seismic velocities are shown to appear both in time and space during the stimulation of the reservoir. A central question is how to interpret these transient or lateral variations of the seismic velocities for a precise 4D tomography of the reservoir properties. In this study, we address the direct problem of monitoring small variations in seismic velocities when small variations in stress or temperature are slowly applied to the sample. We use a network of piezo-electric sensors on laboratory samples (sandstone and granite from Soultz-sous-Forêts core samples) to perform coda wave interferometry from the multiple scattering of well-controlled seismic pulses (Grêt et al, 2006). The data collected are estimates of the relative variation of travel time. We combine acoustic measurements and strain gauges to differentiate between travel time variations due to seismic velocity changes and those due to deformation effects. We expect this approach to provide useful information for large scale seismic tomography despite the significant difference of considered wavelengths.

  7. Is Comprehension Necessary for Error Detection? A Conflict-Based Account of Monitoring in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Dell, Gary S.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the existence of speech errors, verbal communication is successful because speakers can detect (and correct) their errors. The standard theory of speech-error detection, the perceptual-loop account, posits that the comprehension system monitors production output for errors. Such a comprehension-based monitor, however, cannot explain the…

  8. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, K.S.; Myers, D.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    A strict effluent-control program that emphasizes controlling effluents at the source has been in effect since LLNL began operation. The Environmental Monitoring program evaluates the effectiveness of these measures, documents whether effluents from LLNL and Site 300 operations are within applicable standards, and estimates the impact of these operations on the environment. Sensitive monitoring equipment is used that can detect radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants at environmental background levels. The program includes the collection and analysis of air, soil, water, sewer effluent, vegetation, foodstuffs, and milk samples. Also, environmental background radiation is measured at numerous locations in the vicinity of LLNL using gamma and neutron dosimeters. This report summarizes the results of the 1984 program. 28 refs, 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  9. Detection Limit of Smectite by Chemin IV Laboratory Instrument: Preliminary Implications for Chemin on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archilles, Cherie; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is an miniature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument capable of detecting the mineralogical and elemental compositions of rocks, outcrops and soils on the surface of Mars. CheMin uses a microfocus-source Co X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell, and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D XRD patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray histograms from powdered samples. CRISM and OMEGA have identified the presence of phyllosilicates at several locations on Mars including the four candidate MSL landing sites. The objective of this study was to conduct preliminary studies to determine the CheMin detection limit of smectite in a smectite/olivine mixed mineral system.

  10. Detecting laboratory DNA contamination using polyester-rayon wipes: a method validation study.

    PubMed

    Remillard, E Marielle; Taylor, Laura K; Layshock, Julie; Van Cuyk, Sheila; Omberg, Kristin M

    2013-03-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of many PCR assays, extraneous target DNA in a laboratory setting can lead to false positive results. To assess the presence of extraneous DNA, many laboratories use gauze wipes to sample laboratory surfaces. The accuracy, precision, limits of detection, linearity, and robustness of a wipe test method and each associated wipe processing step were evaluated using E. coli genomic DNA. The method demonstrated a limit of detection of 108 copies of DNA, which equates to detectable surface concentration of 4.5×10(5) copies of DNA per area sampled. Recovery efficiency or accuracy is 22±10% resulting from a >58% loss of DNA occurring at the wipe wash step. The method is robust, performing consistently despite deliberate modifications of the protocol.

  11. 40 CFR 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring for the constituents listed in appendix I of 40 CFR part 258. (1) The Director of an approved State may delete any of the appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) monitoring parameters for a unit... to 40 CFR part 258, if the alternative parameters provide a reliable indication of releases from...

  12. 40 CFR 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monitoring for the constituents listed in appendix I of 40 CFR part 258. (1) The Director of an approved State may delete any of the appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) monitoring parameters for a unit... to 40 CFR part 258, if the alternative parameters provide a reliable indication of releases from...

  13. 40 CFR 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monitoring for the constituents listed in appendix I of 40 CFR part 258. (1) The Director of an approved State may delete any of the appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) monitoring parameters for a unit... to 40 CFR part 258, if the alternative parameters provide a reliable indication of releases from...

  14. 40 CFR 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring for the constituents listed in appendix I of 40 CFR part 258. (1) The Director of an approved State may delete any of the appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) monitoring parameters for a unit... alternative list of indicator parameters for a unit, in lieu of some or all of the constituents in appendix...

  15. 40 CFR 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitoring for the constituents listed in appendix I of 40 CFR part 258. (1) The Director of an approved State may delete any of the appendix I (Appendix I of 40 CFR part 258) monitoring parameters for a unit... to 40 CFR part 258, if the alternative parameters provide a reliable indication of releases from...

  16. Application of cabin atmosphere monitors to rapid screening of breath samples for the early detection of disease states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, J. L.; Bryant, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of human breath is a nonintrusive method to monitor both endogenous and exogenous chemicals found in the body. Several technologies were investigated and developed which are applicable to monitoring some organic molecules important in both physiological and pathological states. Two methods were developed for enriching the organic molecules exhaled in the breath of humans. One device is based on a respiratory face mask fitted with a polyethylene foam wafer; while the other device is a cryogenic trap utilizing an organic solvent. Using laboratory workers as controls, two organic molecules which occurred in the enriched breath of all subjects were tentatively identified as lactic acid and contisol. Both of these substances occurred in breath in sufficient amounts that the conventional method of gas-liquid chromatography was adequate for detection and quantification. To detect and quantitate trace amounts of chemicals in breath, another type of technology was developed in which analysis was conducted using high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

  17. GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR COAL FIRE DETECTION AND MONITORING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Gundelach, V.; Vasterling, M.; Lambrecht, A.; Rueter, H.; Lindner, H.

    2009-12-01

    Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" a number of different geophysical methods have been applied to determine their use on coal fire detecting, accompanying the extinguishing processes, controlling of the extinction and finally monitoring the extinction success. It is known that the heating of coal resp. coal host rocks changes its electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Hence the methods of choice are airborne magnetics and frequency electromagnetics (AEM) for surveying large and inaccessible areas and ground based magnetics, transient electromagnetics (TEM), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and temperature measurements to obtain detailed local information. Ground based and airborne magnetics show positive anomalies on coal fire areas. Susceptibility of sandstone, coal and (burnt) clay samples were determined in-situ. The magnetisation was strikingly high for thermally altered clay and slightly increased for thermally influenced sandstone. They get remanently magnetised according to the earth’s recent magnetic field when cooling down below Curie temperature as the fire propagates. Additionally, at a certain temperature non-magnetic minerals like pyrite chemically react to magnetic minerals like magnetite. Thus the observed magnetic anomalies indicate burnt areas. From ground based magnetics the anomalies were more distinct whereas using an airborne system a larger area and also inaccessible terrain can be surveyed. Performing TEM measurements a change in data curves can be observed where the profiles cross the hot burning zone. Heat and fluid transport included in the burning processes presumably change the permittivity of the rock. The electrical resistivity of thermally influenced coal is strongly decreased. Furthermore, the condensed mineralised process water in the rocks above the burning seams forms a layer of low resistivity

  18. Current limitations and challenges in nanowaste detection, characterisation and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Part, Florian; Zecha, Gudrun; Causon, Tim; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2015-09-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are already extensively used in diverse consumer products. Along the life cycle of a nano-enabled product, ENMs can be released and subsequently accumulate in the environment. Material flow models also indicate that a variety of ENMs may accumulate in waste streams. Therefore, a new type of waste, so-called nanowaste, is generated when end-of-life ENMs and nano-enabled products are disposed of. In terms of the precautionary principle, environmental monitoring of end-of-life ENMs is crucial to allow assessment of the potential impact of nanowaste on our ecosystem. Trace analysis and quantification of nanoparticulate species is very challenging because of the variety of ENM types that are used in products and low concentrations of nanowaste expected in complex environmental media. In the framework of this paper, challenges in nanowaste characterisation and appropriate analytical techniques which can be applied to nanowaste analysis are summarised. Recent case studies focussing on the characterisation of ENMs in waste streams are discussed. Most studies aim to investigate the fate of nanowaste during incineration, particularly considering aerosol measurements; whereas, detailed studies focusing on the potential release of nanowaste during waste recycling processes are currently not available. In terms of suitable analytical methods, separation techniques coupled to spectrometry-based methods are promising tools to detect nanowaste and determine particle size distribution in liquid waste samples. Standardised leaching protocols can be applied to generate soluble fractions stemming from solid wastes, while micro- and ultrafiltration can be used to enrich nanoparticulate species. Imaging techniques combined with X-ray-based methods are powerful tools for determining particle size, morphology and screening elemental composition. However, quantification of nanowaste is currently hampered due to the problem to differentiate engineered from

  19. Current limitations and challenges in nanowaste detection, characterisation and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Part, Florian; Zecha, Gudrun; Causon, Tim; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2015-09-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are already extensively used in diverse consumer products. Along the life cycle of a nano-enabled product, ENMs can be released and subsequently accumulate in the environment. Material flow models also indicate that a variety of ENMs may accumulate in waste streams. Therefore, a new type of waste, so-called nanowaste, is generated when end-of-life ENMs and nano-enabled products are disposed of. In terms of the precautionary principle, environmental monitoring of end-of-life ENMs is crucial to allow assessment of the potential impact of nanowaste on our ecosystem. Trace analysis and quantification of nanoparticulate species is very challenging because of the variety of ENM types that are used in products and low concentrations of nanowaste expected in complex environmental media. In the framework of this paper, challenges in nanowaste characterisation and appropriate analytical techniques which can be applied to nanowaste analysis are summarised. Recent case studies focussing on the characterisation of ENMs in waste streams are discussed. Most studies aim to investigate the fate of nanowaste during incineration, particularly considering aerosol measurements; whereas, detailed studies focusing on the potential release of nanowaste during waste recycling processes are currently not available. In terms of suitable analytical methods, separation techniques coupled to spectrometry-based methods are promising tools to detect nanowaste and determine particle size distribution in liquid waste samples. Standardised leaching protocols can be applied to generate soluble fractions stemming from solid wastes, while micro- and ultrafiltration can be used to enrich nanoparticulate species. Imaging techniques combined with X-ray-based methods are powerful tools for determining particle size, morphology and screening elemental composition. However, quantification of nanowaste is currently hampered due to the problem to differentiate engineered from

  20. Life Detection System DTIVA for Monitoring Parameter in Fossilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Garcia-Descalzo, L.; Cockell, C. S.; Schwendner, P.; Rettberg, P.; Beblo-Vranesevic, K.; Bohmeier, M.; Rabbow, E.; Westall, F.; Gaboyer, F.; Walter, N.; Moissl-Eichinger, M.; Perras, A.; Amils, R.; Malki, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Monaghan, E.; Marteinsson, V.; Vannier, P.

    2016-05-01

    Using Life Detection System LDS we followed the physicochemical parameter in a growth culture under fossilization/mineralization-induced process with the objectives of biomarkers detection. Biomarkers study is crucial for the search for life on Mars.

  1. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.; Brekke, D.D.

    1988-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) for 1987. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements were made of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, sewage effluents, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, foodstuff, and milk at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. Evaluations were made of LLNL's compliance with the applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicates that the only releases in excess of applicable standards were four releases to the sanitary sewer. LLNL operations had no adverse impact on the environment during 1987. 65 refs., 24 figs.

  2. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Brekke, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental monitoring program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 1986. To evaluate the effect of LLNL operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation and a variety of radionuclides and chemical pollutants in ambient air, soil, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, milk, foodstuff, and sewage effluents were made at both the Livermore site and nearby Site 300. This report was prepared to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5484.1. Evaluations are made of LLNL's compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and nonradiological releases to the environment. The data indicate that no releases in excess of the applicable standards were made during 1986, and that LLNL operations had no adverse environmental impact.

  3. Laboratory real-time and in situ monitoring of mechanochemical milling reactions by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gracin, Davor; Štrukil, Vjekoslav; Friščić, Tomislav; Halasz, Ivan; Užarević, Krunoslav

    2014-06-10

    Mechanistic understanding of mechanochemical reactions is sparse and has been acquired mostly by stepwise ex situ analysis. We describe herein an unprecedented laboratory technique to monitor the course of mechanochemical transformations at the molecular level in situ and in real time by using Raman spectroscopy. The technique, in which translucent milling vessels are used that enable the collection of a Raman scattering signal from the sample as it is being milled, was validated on mechanochemical reactions to form coordination polymers and organic cocrystals. The technique enabled the assessment of the reaction dynamics and course under different reaction conditions as well as, for the first time, direct insight into the behavior of liquid additives during liquid-assisted grinding.

  4. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, field measurements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Total organic halogens exceeded its Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criterion during first quarter 1995 as in fourth quarter 1994. Aluminum, iron, and manganese, which were not analyzed for during fourth quarter 1994, exceeded the Flag 2 criteria in at least two wells each during first quarter 1995. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting the determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters.

  5. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Three parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards. Total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria in two of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received SCDHEC approval for five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. Field work has begun on this project.

  6. Seismic Monitoring at the Underground Nuclear Research Laboratory in Mol, Belgium - 12461

    SciTech Connect

    Areias, Lou

    2012-07-01

    Micro-seismic piezoelectric transmitters installed in the Boom Clay at HADES produce predominantly high frequency signals, above 5 kHz, which favour the generation of P waves. However, above 5 kHz shear (S) waves are not detected by the installation. Recent studies at HADES indicate that it is possible to detect S waves with the current setup when applying a low (5 kHz) cut-off filter. The results also show that S waves have frequencies mainly below 1 kHz, while P waves are detectable at all of the eight transmitted frequencies but show optimum resolution in the range of 7 to 23 kHz. Although the system offers great potential for monitoring the evolution of a geological disposal site, further improvements in signal generation and treatment are necessary. One of these includes the design and testing of a new S-wave source at HADES planned in the framework of the EC MoDeRn project (http://www.modern-fp7.eu/). The seismic installation at HADES continues to provide useful information on the changing properties of the Boom Clay in the near and far field around the PRACLAY gallery since its start of operation in 2006. In the future, the system will also monitor the PRACLAY heater experiment that will start in 2012 and go on for 10 years. So far, the results of long term seismic monitoring show that S waves contain frequencies mainly below 1 kHz. The P waves are detectable at all of the eight transmitted frequencies but show optimum resolution in the range of 7 to 23 kHz. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio and detection of S waves at HADES it is, therefore, necessary to apply a strong low-pass filter that matches the S-wave frequency content. Due to the different frequency ranges observed for the P and S waves, it is recommended to treat them separately. The evolution of both P and S wave velocities in the EDZ around the PRACLAY gallery show continued recovery since its construction in 2007. Modelling results of the variation in crack density obtained from the inversion

  7. Method for evaluation of laboratory craters using crater detection algorithm for digital topography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamunićcar, Goran; Vinković, Dejan; Lončarić, Sven; Vučina, Damir; Pehnec, Igor; Vojković, Marin; Gomerčić, Mladen; Hercigonja, Tomislav

    In our previous work the following has been done: (1) the crater detection algorithm (CDA) based on digital elevation model (DEM) has been developed and the GT-115225 catalog has been assembled [GRS, 48 (5), in press, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2009.2037750]; and (2) the results of comparison between explosion-induced laboratory craters in stone powder surfaces and GT-115225 have been presented using depth/diameter measurements [41stLPSC, Abstract #1428]. The next step achievable using the available technology is to create 3D scans of such labo-ratory craters, in order to compare different properties with simple Martian craters. In this work, we propose a formal method for evaluation of laboratory craters, in order to provide objective, measurable and reproducible estimation of the level of achieved similarity between these laboratory and real impact craters. In the first step, the section of MOLA data for Mars (or SELENE LALT for Moon) is replaced with one or several 3D-scans of laboratory craters. Once embedment was done, the CDA can be used to find out whether this laboratory crater is similar enough to real craters, as to be recognized as a crater by the CDA. The CDA evaluation using ROC' curve represents how true detection rate (TDR=TP/(TP+FN)=TP/GT) depends on the false detection rate (FDR=FP/(TP+FP)). Using this curve, it is now possible to define the measure of similarity between laboratory and real impact craters, as TDR or FDR value, or as a distance from the bottom-right origin of the ROC' curve. With such an approach, the reproducible (formally described) method for evaluation of laboratory craters is provided.

  8. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. The post classification comparison technique reliably identified areas of change and was used as the standard for qualitatively evaluating the other three techniques. The layered spectral/temporal change classification and the delta data change detection results generally agreed with the post classification comparison technique results; however, many small areas of change were not identified. Major discrepancies existed between the post classification comparison and spectral/temporal change detection results.

  9. SHynergie: Development of a virtual project laboratory for monitoring hydraulic stimulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Jörg; Friederich, Wolfgang; Meschke, Günther; Müller, Thomas; Steeb, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic stimulations are the primary means of developing subsurface reservoirs regarding the extent of fluid transport in them. The associated creation or conditioning of a system of hydraulic conduits involves a range of hydraulic and mechanical processes but also chemical reactions, such as dissolution and precipitation, may affect the stimulation result on time scales as short as hours. In the light of the extent and complexity of these processes, the steering potential for the operator of a stimulation critically depends on the ability to integrate the maximum amount of site-specific information with profound process understanding and a large spectrum of experience. We report on the development of a virtual project laboratory for monitoring hydraulic stimulations within the project SHynergie (http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/shynergie/). The concept of the laboratory envisioned product that constitutes a preparing and accompanying rather than post-processing instrument ultimately accessible to persons responsible for a project over a web-repository. The virtual laboratory consists of a data base, a toolbox, and a model-building environment. Entries in the data base are of two categories. On the one hand, selected mineral and rock properties are provided from the literature. On the other hand, project-specific entries of any format can be made that are assigned attributes regarding their use in a stimulation problem at hand. The toolbox is interactive and allows the user to perform calculations of effective properties and simulations of different types (e.g., wave propagation in a reservoir, hydraulic test). The model component is also hybrid. The laboratory provides a library of models reflecting a range of scenarios but also allows the user to develop a site-specific model constituting the basis for simulations. The laboratory offers the option to use its components following the typical workflow of a stimulation project. The toolbox incorporates simulation

  10. Radon Monitoring and Emanation Studies at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keenan; Mei, Dongming; Heise, Jaret; Durben, Dan; Homestake Background Char. Team

    2011-10-01

    In anticipation of low-background nuclear and particle astrophysics experiments to be situated underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake our group has been researching factors relevant to radon underground at the Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Continuous airborne monitoring of radon concentrations have been performed along the primary ventilation routes underground. Such measurements are useful for understanding the behavior of radon underground with respect to various ventilation conditions and will be of use in the design of experiments and underground laboratory infrastructure. In addition, iron oxide has been found to enhance the emanation of radon due to the co-precipitation of radium in the oxide layer. After decommissioning in 2003, the lower levels of the mine were allowed to fill with water, which prompted the formation of iron oxide upon submerged rock surfaces. A series of measurements including radon emanation tests have been performed upon rock and iron oxide samples to demonstrate this effect upon the airborne radon underground at Homestake. Supported by NSF PHY-0758120 and 0919278.

  11. Mitigation Monitoring Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory FY00 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mcguff, R R

    2003-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has completed eight years of implementing the mitigation measures from the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Continued Operation of LLNL and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Livermore. This eighth annual report documents LLNL's implementation of the mitigation measures during the fiscal year ending September 30, 2000 (FY00). It provides background information on the mitigation measures, describes activities undertaken during FY00, and documents changes in the monitoring program. Table 1 on page 12, provides a numerical listing of each mitigation measure, the department responsible for implementing it, and the location within this report where the status is discussed. The discussion of the mitigation measures is organized by the University of California (UC)'s three categories of approaches to implementation: project-specific, service-level and administrative. Table 2 on page 19, Table 6 on page 55, and Table 7 on page 63 provide a detailed discussion of each mitigation measure, including LLNL's implementation strategy and the status as of the end of the fiscal year. Table 3 on page 37, Table 4 on page 46, and Table 5 on page 47 list each construction project undertaken in FY00 and the mitigation measures implemented.

  12. 1996 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The 1996 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The primary mission of the Bettis Laboratory has been directed toward the design, development, testing, and operation of nuclear reactor propulsion plants for naval surface and submarine vessels. The results obtained from the monitoring programs demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 1996 were in accordance with applicable federal, state, county, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicated that the current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrated that these residues do not pose any significant health risk.

  13. Development and laboratory evaluation of chemically-based baited ovitrap for the monitoring of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Américo D; García-Rejón, Julián E; Ríos-Delgado, Silvany; Torres-Estrada, José L

    2013-06-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is considered to be the most important dengue vector worldwide. Studies were conducted to design and evaluate a chemically-based baited ovitrap for monitoring Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions. Several known chemical attractants and three types of ovitraps (ovitraps A, B, and C) were evaluated throughout the oviposition bioassays. Oviposition responses of gravid female Ae. aegypti were evaluated to n-heneicosane, 3-methylindole (skatole), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and phenol. Female Ae. aegypti were attracted to all the evaluated compounds. Among them, n-heneicosane at a concentration of 10 ppm (mg/l), skatole from 50 to 1000 ppm, p-cresol at 100 ppm, and phenol at 50 ppm showed a significant positive oviposition response. A blend of the four chemical attractants increased the oviposition response; 67% of the eggs were deposited in the treatment compared to the control. Female Ae. aegypti were significantly more attracted to ovitrap A loaded with the four-component synthetic blend compared to the standard ovitrap in the oviposition bioassays. The compound used in ovitrap A retained its attractant property for up to three days. The chemically-based baited ovitrap may be considered as an option to be integrated during the monitoring of dengue virus vectors in México. PMID:23701623

  14. The evolution of satellite-monitored radio tags for large whales: One laboratory's experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mate, Bruce; Mesecar, Roderick; Lagerquist, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Despite several centuries of whaling and directed research, there are only a few whale stocks whose year-round whereabouts are reasonably well known. For the vast majority of depleted populations, the link between seasonal feeding and breeding concentrations remains unknown. This lack of information on range, seasonal distribution, stock structure, and migration routes makes it difficult to design and implement effective conservation measures to promote recovery. The use of such information would have been valuable to develop stock-specific quotas for whaling, but now it may be even more important for recovery of depleted stocks and identifying anthropogenic threats throughout a depleted stock's range. Building upon the preliminary findings of Discovery tags and more recent photo identification studies, satellite-monitored radio tags are now providing range and seasonal distribution information for many stocks of depleted large whales. These parameters are important to better estimate population abundance, characterize habitats, identify threats to recovery, and design effective protection measures when needed. This paper traces one laboratory's experience with the development of satellite-monitored radio tag technology for large whales, including attachment mechanisms and delivery systems, in the hope that others will profit from our successes and our mistakes. Selected examples are used to demonstrate how such tags contribute to new insights about whales' habitats, migrations, behaviour, and management.

  15. Dig-face monitoring during excavation of a radioactive plume at Mound Laboratory, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Gehrke, R.J.; Carpenter, M.V.

    1995-12-01

    A dig-face monitoring system consists of onsite hardware for collecting information on changing chemical, radiological, and physical conditions in the subsurface soil during the hazardous site excavation. A prototype dig-face system was take to Mount Laboratory for a first trial. Mound Area 7 was the site of historical disposals of {sup 232}Th, {sup 227}Ac, and assorted debris. The system was used to monitor a deep excavation aimed at removing {sup 227}Ac-contaminated soils. Radiological, geophysical, and topographic sensors were used to scan across the excavation dig-face at four successive depths as soil was removed. A 3-D image of the contamination plumes was developed; the radiation sensor data indicated that only a small portion of the excavated soil volume was contaminated. The spatial information produced by the dig-face system was used to direct the excavation activities into the area containing the {sup 227}Ac and to evaluate options for handling the separate {sup 232}Th plume.

  16. NRC Job Code V6060: Extended in-situ and real time monitoring. Task 4: Detection and monitoring of leaks at nuclear power plants external to structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S. H.

    2012-08-01

    In support of Task 4 of the NRC study on compliance with 10 CFR part 20.1406, minimization of contamination, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a one-year scoping study, in concert with a parallel study performed by NRC/NRR staff, on monitoring for leaks at nuclear power plants (NPPs) external to structures. The objective of this task-4 study is to identify and assess those sensors and monitoring techniques for early detection of abnormal radioactive releases from the engineered facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) to the surrounding underground environment in existing NPPs and planned new reactors. As such, methods of interest include: (1) detection of anomalous water content of soils surrounding SSCs, (2) radionuclides contained in the leaking water, and (3) secondary signals such as temperature. ANL work scope includes mainly to (1) identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, the sensors and techniques that have most promise to detect radionuclides and/or associated chemical releases from SSCs of existing NPPs and (2) review and provide comments on the results of the NRC/NRR staff scoping study to identify candidate technologies. This report constitutes the ANL deliverable of the task-4 study. It covers a survey of sensor technologies and leak detection methods currently applied to leak monitoring at NPPs. The survey also provides a technology evaluation that identifies their strength and deficiency based on their detection speed, sensitivity, range and reliability. Emerging advanced technologies that are potentially capable of locating releases, identifying the radionuclides, and estimating their concentrations and distributions are also included in the report along with suggestions of required further research and development.

  17. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    During second quarter 1995, samples from seven new AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for a comprehensive list of constituents. Two parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. Lead and nickel appear to exceed final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in AMB-18A. These data were suspect and a rerun of the samples showed levels below flagging criteria. This data will be monitored in 3Q95. Aluminum, iron, manganese, boron, silver and total organic halogens exceeded Flag 2 criteria in at least one well each during second quarter 1995. This data, as well, will be confirmed by 3Q95 testing. Groundwater flow directions in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters; the flow rate estimate, however, differs because of an error noted in the scales of measurements used for previous estimates. The estimate was 470 ft/year during second quarter 1995. Reliable estimates of flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone could not be determined in previous quarters because data were insufficient. The first estimate from second quarter 1995 shows a 530 ft/year rate. Reliable estimates of flow directions and rates in the Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone and in the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the CBCU could not be calculated because of the low horizontal gradient and the near-linear distribution of the monitoring wells. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. This project began in July 1994 and was completed in March of this year. Analytical data from these wells are presented in this report for the first time.

  18. Rain-induced increase in background radiation detected by Radiation Portal Monitors.

    PubMed

    Livesay, R J; Blessinger, C S; Guzzardo, T F; Hausladen, P A

    2014-11-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to enhance partner country capability to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit movement of special nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma-ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates primarily from the wet-deposition of two radioactive daughters of (222)Rn, namely, (214)Pb and (214)Bi. In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and high-purity germanium spectra. The data verify that these radionuclides are responsible for the largest environmental background fluctuations in RPMs. Analytical expressions for the detector response function in Poly-Vinyl Toluene have been derived. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  19. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  20. Laboratory scale electrokinetic remediation and geophysical monitoring of metal-contaminated marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Matteo; Pazzi, Veronica; Losito, Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology that can be used to remove contaminants from soils and sediments. This technique relies on the application of a low-intensity electric field to extract heavy metals, radionuclides and some organic compounds. When the electric field is applied three main transport processes occur in the porous medium: electromigration, electroosmosis and electrophoresis. Monitoring of electrokinetic processes in laboratory and field is usually conducted by means of point measurements and by collecting samples from discrete locations. Geophysical methods can be very effective in obtaining high spatial and temporal resolution mapping for an adequate control of the electrokinetic processes. This study investigates the suitability of electrokinetic remediation for extracting heavy metals from dredged marine sediments and the possibility of using geophysical methods to monitor the remediation process. Among the geophysical methods, the spectral induced polarization technique was selected because of its capability to provide valuable information about the physico-chemical characteristics of the porous medium. Electrokinetic remediation experiments in laboratory scale were made under different operating conditions, obtained by varying the strength of the applied electric field and the type of conditioning agent used at the electrode compartments in each experiment. Tap water, 0.1M citric acid and 0.1M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively as processing fluids. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as conditioning agent and the electric potential was increased, as these two factors promoted the electroosmotic flow which is considered to be the key transport mechanism. The removal efficiencies ranged from 9.5% to 27% depending on the contaminant concerned. These percentages are likely to be raised by a further increase of the applied electric field. Furthermore, spectral induced polarization

  1. Improved Detection of Staphylococcus intermedius Group in a Routine Diagnostic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Aimee; Bendall, Richard; Gaze, William; Zhang, Lihong; Vos, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) includes zoonotic pathogens traditionally associated with dog bites. We describe a simple scheme for improved detection of SIG using routine laboratory methods, report its effect on isolation rates, and use sequencing to confirm that, apart from one atypical SIG strain, most isolates are Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. PMID:25502532

  2. Improved detection of Staphylococcus intermedius group in a routine diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lee, John; Murray, Aimee; Bendall, Richard; Gaze, William; Zhang, Lihong; Vos, Michiel

    2015-03-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) includes zoonotic pathogens traditionally associated with dog bites. We describe a simple scheme for improved detection of SIG using routine laboratory methods, report its effect on isolation rates, and use sequencing to confirm that, apart from one atypical SIG strain, most isolates are Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

  3. [SWOT analysis of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan-hong; Zheng, Bin

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases by SWOT analysis comprehensively, and it puts forward some development strategies specifically, in order to provide some indicative references for the further development. PMID:25051844

  4. Review and Identification of DOE Laboratory Technologies for Countermine/Unexploded Ordnance Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    2002-04-03

    Several Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have worked and/or are working on technologies that are applicable to the detection of landmines and/or unexploded ordnance. This report is a compilation of technical summaries for many of these technologies. For additional information on any technology, appropriate points of contact are provided for each technology.

  5. [SWOT analysis of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan-hong; Zheng, Bin

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases by SWOT analysis comprehensively, and it puts forward some development strategies specifically, in order to provide some indicative references for the further development.

  6. Transmission of a Viral Disease (AIDS) Detected by a Modified ELISA Reaction: A Laboratory Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, William J.; Chambers, Linda; Kubo, Kenneth M.; Narro, Martha L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise that simulates the spread of an infectious agent among students in a classroom. Uses a modified Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) to provide students with experience using an authentic diagnostic tool for detecting human infections. (DDR)

  7. Air monitoring and detection of chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Leonelli, J.; Althouse, M.L.

    1999-06-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held November 2--3, 1998 in Boston, Massachusetts. Topics of discussion include the following: system simulations, atmospheric modeling, and performance prediction studies of chemical warfare remote sensing technologies; ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence and aerosol detection methods for remote sensing of biological warfare agents; passive detection methods for remote detection of chemical warfare agents; and lidar-based system performance assessments, demonstrations, and new concepts for chemical warfare/biological warfare detection.

  8. Evaluation of field and laboratory protocols used to detect avian influenza viruses in wild aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, T V; Giambrone, J J; Guo, K; Hepp, G R

    2009-09-01

    Careful selection and observance of standard field and laboratory protocols are critical for successful detection and characterization of avian influenza viruses (AIV) from wild birds. Cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-killed or nesting waterfowl and shorebirds from wildlife refuges in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida during 2006 to 2008. Swab samples were inoculated into embryonated eggs followed by hemagglutination (HA) test to determine the presence of hemagglutinating agents. Antigen capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA) and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RRT-PCR) were used to detect AIV from both allantoic fluids (AF) and swab specimens of HA-positive samples. Hemagglutination inhibition test was used to detect Newcastle disease virus, another hemagglutinating virus common in wild birds. The HA-positive AF were sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory for subtyping of the isolates. Out of 825 samples tested, 19 AIV and 3 avian paramyxovirus subtypes were identified by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory. Without egg passage, AC-ELISA did not detect virus, whereas matrix gene of 13 AIV were detected using RRT-PCR. When testing was done on AF, 14 were positive for influenza A by AC-ELISA and 20 by RRT-PCR. Antigen capture-ELISA did not detect influenza A when the HA titer was lower than 125, whereas RRT-PCR detected AIV from AF with HA titer as low as 4. The highest isolation rate was from Florida, where out of 109 samples analyzed, 14 AIV were detected by RRT-PCR from AF. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was more sensitive, specific, and cost-effective than AC-ELISA. However, to avoid false-negative results, testing should be performed on AF and not directly from cloacal swabs. Our procedures to detect AIV directly from cloacal swabs need further optimization for improved sensitivity.

  9. Is comprehension necessary for error detection? A conflict-based account of monitoring in speech production

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Dell, Gary S.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the existence of speech errors, verbal communication is successful because speakers can detect (and correct) their errors. The standard theory of speech-error detection, the perceptual-loop account, posits that the comprehension system monitors production output for errors. Such a comprehension-based monitor, however, cannot explain the double dissociation between comprehension and error-detection ability observed in the aphasic patients. We propose a new theory of speech-error detection which is instead based on the production process itself. The theory borrows from studies of forced-choice-response tasks the notion that error detection is accomplished by monitoring response conflict via a frontal brain structure, such as the anterior cingulate cortex. We adapt this idea to the two-step model of word production, and test the model-derived predictions on a sample of aphasic patients. Our results show a strong correlation between patients’ error-detection ability and the model’s characterization of their production skills, and no significant correlation between error detection and comprehension measures, thus supporting a production-based monitor, generally, and the implemented conflict-based monitor in particular. The successful application of the conflict-based theory to error-detection in linguistic, as well as non-linguistic domains points to a domain-general monitoring system. PMID:21652015

  10. RAPTOR: Closed-Loop monitoring of the night sky and the earliest optical detection of GRB 021211

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestrand, W. T.; Borozdin, K.; Casperson, D. J.; Fenimore, E.; Galassi, M.; McGowan, K.; Starr, D.; White, R. R.; Wozniak, P.; Wren, J.

    2004-10-01

    We discuss the RAPTOR (Rapid Telescopes for Optical Response) sky monitoring system at Los Alamos National Laboratory. RAPTOR is a fully autonomous robotic system that is designed to identify and make follow-up observations of optical transients with durations as short as one minute. The RAPTOR design is based on Biomimicry of Human Vision. The sky monitor is composed of two identical arrays of telescopes, separated by 38 kilometers, which stereoscopically monitor a field of about 1300 square-degrees for transients. Both monitoring arrays are carried on rapidly slewing mounts and are composed of an ensemble of wide-field telescopes clustered around a more powerful narrow-field telescope called the ``fovea'' telescope. All telescopes are coupled to real-time analysis pipelines that identify candidate transients and relay the information to a central decision unit that filters the candidates to find real celestial transients and command a response. When a celestial transient is found, the system can point the fovea telescopes to any position on the sky within five seconds and begin follow-up observations. RAPTOR also responds to Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) alerts generated by GRB monitoring spacecraft. Here we present RAPTOR observations of GRB 021211 that constitute the earliest detection of optical emission from that event and are the second fastest achieved for any GRB. The detection of bright optical emission from GRB021211, a burst with modest gamma-ray fluence, indicates that prompt optical emission, detectable with small robotic telescopes, is more common than previously thought. Further, the very fast decline of the optical afterglow from GRB 021211 suggests that some so-called ``optically dark'' GRBs were not detected only because of the slow response of the follow-up telescopes.

  11. Monitoring for multiple malformations in the detection of epidemics of birth defects.

    PubMed

    Khoury, M J; Adams, M M; Rhodes, P; Erickson, J D

    1987-12-01

    Although most known human teratogens often produce a combination of birth defects in an affected infant, surveillance programs aimed at detecting epidemics of birth defects usually only monitor rates of individual defects. A drawback to this approach is that an increase in the rate of infants affected with a specific combination of defects may lead to little or no increase in the rates of component defects. Using the Poisson distribution, we show that, compared with monitoring for individual defects, monitoring for combinations of two and three defects may require fewer numbers of births to detect an epidemic. In general, an increase can be detected more rapidly by monitoring the rates of defect combinations than by monitoring the rates of individual defects if most affected infants have combinations of defects rather than isolated defects. For example, in the case of Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), monitoring for the combination of cataracts with deafness and/or patent ductus arteriosus could have led to earlier detection of an epidemic than could monitoring for cataracts alone. In contrast, in the case of thalidomide embryopathy, monitoring for reduction defects of upper limbs in combination with reduction defects of lower limbs and/or microtia/anotia would not have led to earlier detection of an epidemic than would monitoring for reduction defects of upper limbs alone. This is due mainly to the low frequency of defect combinations among affected cases. When used with regular monitoring for individual defects, surveillance of defect combinations can enhance the ability of monitoring programs to detect epidemics of birth defects.

  12. Annual report of the Environmental Restoration Monitoring and Assessment Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, R.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the salient features of the annual efforts of the investigations and monitoring, conducted to support the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented can be used to develop a conceptual understanding of the key contaminants and the sources, fluxes, and processes affecting their distribution and movement. This information forms a basis for prioritizing sites and for selecting, implementing, and evaluating remedial actions. Groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface water monitoring results are described.

  13. MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

    2003-09-01

    Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound over the strip. The MsS probe is relatively inexpensive compared to other guided wave approaches

  14. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  15. Development of a novel optical remote sensing monitor for fenceline monitoring and enhancement of existing leak detection and repair programs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manual leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs are currently implemented on a regular basis at refinery sites to limit fugitive emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). However, LDAR surveys can be time-consuming and are not always cost-effective. Fence line monitoring of...

  16. Power analysis and trend detection for water quality monitoring data. An application for the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Manlove, Kezia; Hollimon, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    An important consideration for long term monitoring programs is determining the required sampling effort to detect trends in specific ecological indicators of interest. To enhance the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network’s water resources protocol(s) (O’Ney 2006 and O’Ney et al. 2009 [under review]), we developed a set of tools to: (1) determine the statistical power for detecting trends of varying magnitude in a specified water quality parameter over different lengths of sampling (years) and different within-year collection frequencies (monthly or seasonal sampling) at particular locations using historical data, and (2) perform periodic trend analyses for water quality parameters while addressing seasonality and flow weighting. A power analysis for trend detection is a statistical procedure used to estimate the probability of rejecting the hypothesis of no trend when in fact there is a trend, within a specific modeling framework. In this report, we base our power estimates on using the seasonal Kendall test (Helsel and Hirsch 2002) for detecting trend in water quality parameters measured at fixed locations over multiple years. We also present procedures (R-scripts) for conducting a periodic trend analysis using the seasonal Kendall test with and without flow adjustment. This report provides the R-scripts developed for power and trend analysis, tutorials, and the associated tables and graphs. The purpose of this report is to provide practical information for monitoring network staff on how to use these statistical tools for water quality monitoring data sets.

  17. Annual Groundwater Detection Monitoring Report for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorie Cahn

    2009-07-31

    This report presents the data collected for groundwater detection monitoring at the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) during calendar year 2008. The detection-monitoring program developed for the ICDF groundwater-monitoring wells is applicable to six wells completed in the uppermost portion of the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Five wells downgradient of the ICDF and one well upgradient. The ICDF detection-monitoring program was established to meet the substantive requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 264.97 and 264.98, which are applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements under CERCLA. Semiannal groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters in March and September. The indicator parameters focus on constituents that are found in higher concentrations in ICDF leachate than in groundwater (bicarbonate alkalinity, sulfate, U-233, and U-238). The only detection monitoring limits that were exceeded were for bicarbonate alkalinity. Bicarbonate alkalinity is naturally occuring in groundwater. Bicarbonate alkalinity found in ICDF detection monitoring wells is not a result of waste migration from the ICDF landfill or the evaporation pond. The U.S. Department of Energy will continue with detection monitoring for the ICDF, which is semiannual sampling for indicator parameters.

  18. Annual Groundwater Detection Monitoring Report for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, Lorie

    2009-07-31

    This report presents the data collected for groundwater detection monitoring at the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) during calendar year 2008. The detection-monitoring program developed for the ICDF groundwater-monitoring wells is applicable to six wells completed in the uppermost portion of the Snake River Plain Aquifer - five wells downgradient of the ICDF and one well upgradient. The ICDF detection-monitoring program was established to meet the substantive requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 264.97 and 264.98, which are applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements under CERCLA. Semiannual groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters in March and September. The indicator parameters focus on constituents that are found in higher concentrations in ICDF leachate than in groundwater (bicarbonate alkalinity, sulfate, U-233, U-234, and U-238). The only detection monitoring limits that were exceeded were for bicarbonate alkalinity. Bicarbonate alkalinity is naturally occurring in groundwater. Bicarbonate alkalinity found in ICDF detection monitoring wells is not a result of waste migration from the ICDF landfill or the evaporation pond. The U.S. Department of Energy will continue with detection monitoring for the ICDF, which is semiannual sampling for indicator parameters.

  19. Validation of gamma-ray detection techniques for safeguards monitoring at natural uranium conversion facilities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dewji, Shaheen A.; Lee, Denise L.; Croft, Stephen; Hertel, Nolan E.; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; McElroy, Jr., Robert Dennis; Cleveland, S.

    2016-03-28

    Recent IAEA circulars and policy papers have sought to implement safeguards when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exists. Under the revised policy, IAEA Policy Paper 18, the starting point for nuclear material under safeguards was reinterpreted, suggesting that purified uranium compounds should be subject to safeguards procedures no later than the first point in the conversion process. In response to this technical need, a combination of simulation models and experimental measurements were employed to develop and validate concepts of nondestructive assay monitoring systems in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP).more » In particular, uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO3)2) solution exiting solvent extraction was identified as a key measurement point (KMP), where gamma-ray spectroscopy was selected as the process monitoring tool. The Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was employed to simulate the full-scale operating conditions of a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in an NUCP. Nondestructive assay techniques using gamma-ray spectroscopy were evaluated to determine their viability as a technical means for drawing safeguards conclusions at NUCPs, and if the IAEA detection requirements of 1 significant quantity (SQ) can be met in a timely way. This work investigated gamma-ray signatures of uranyl nitrate circulating in the UNCLE facility and evaluated various gamma-ray detector sensitivities to uranyl nitrate. These detector validation activities include assessing detector responses to the uranyl nitrate gamma-ray signatures for spectrometers based on sodium iodide, lanthanum bromide, and high-purity germanium detectors. The results of measurements under static and dynamic operating conditions at concentrations ranging from 10–90 g U/L of natural uranyl nitrate are presented. A range of gamma

  20. Validation of gamma-ray detection techniques for safeguards monitoring at natural uranium conversion facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewji, S. A.; Lee, D. L.; Croft, S.; Hertel, N. E.; Chapman, J. A.; McElroy, R. D.; Cleveland, S.

    2016-07-01

    Recent IAEA circulars and policy papers have sought to implement safeguards when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exists. Under the revised policy, IAEA Policy Paper 18, the starting point for nuclear material under safeguards was reinterpreted, suggesting that purified uranium compounds should be subject to safeguards procedures no later than the first point in the conversion process. In response to this technical need, a combination of simulation models and experimental measurements were employed to develop and validate concepts of nondestructive assay monitoring systems in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). In particular, uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO3)2) solution exiting solvent extraction was identified as a key measurement point (KMP), where gamma-ray spectroscopy was selected as the process monitoring tool. The Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was employed to simulate the full-scale operating conditions of a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in an NUCP. Nondestructive assay techniques using gamma-ray spectroscopy were evaluated to determine their viability as a technical means for drawing safeguards conclusions at NUCPs, and if the IAEA detection requirements of 1 significant quantity (SQ) can be met in a timely way. This work investigated gamma-ray signatures of uranyl nitrate circulating in the UNCLE facility and evaluated various gamma-ray detector sensitivities to uranyl nitrate. These detector validation activities include assessing detector responses to the uranyl nitrate gamma-ray signatures for spectrometers based on sodium iodide, lanthanum bromide, and high-purity germanium detectors. The results of measurements under static and dynamic operating conditions at concentrations ranging from 10-90 g U/L of natural uranyl nitrate are presented. A range of gamma-ray lines is

  1. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  2. Can we detect, monitor, and characterize volcanic activity using 'off the shelf' webcams and low-light cameras?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrild, M.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to detect and monitor precursory events, thermal signatures, and ongoing volcanic activity in near-realtime is an invaluable tool. Volcanic hazards often range from low level lava effusion to large explosive eruptions, easily capable of ejecting ash to aircraft cruise altitudes. Using ground based remote sensing to detect and monitor this activity is essential, but the required equipment is often expensive and difficult to maintain, which increases the risk to public safety and the likelihood of financial impact. Our investigation explores the use of 'off the shelf' cameras, ranging from computer webcams to low-light security cameras, to monitor volcanic incandescent activity in near-realtime. These cameras are ideal as they operate in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, are relatively cheap to purchase, consume little power, are easily replaced, and can provide telemetered, near-realtime data. We focus on the early detection of volcanic activity, using automated scripts that capture streaming online webcam imagery and evaluate each image according to pixel brightness, in order to automatically detect and identify increases in potentially hazardous activity. The cameras used here range in price from 0 to 1,000 and the script is written in Python, an open source programming language, to reduce the overall cost to potential users and increase the accessibility of these tools, particularly in developing nations. In addition, by performing laboratory tests to determine the spectral response of these cameras, a direct comparison of collocated low-light and thermal infrared cameras has allowed approximate eruption temperatures to be correlated to pixel brightness. Data collected from several volcanoes; (1) Stromboli, Italy (2) Shiveluch, Russia (3) Fuego, Guatemala (4) Popcatépetl, México, along with campaign data from Stromboli (June, 2013), and laboratory tests are presented here.

  3. Quality indicators to detect pre-analytical errors in laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Plebani, M; Sciacovelli, L; Aita, A; Padoan, A; Chiozza, M L

    2014-05-15

    The identification of reliable quality indicators (QIs) is a crucial step in enabling users to quantify the quality of laboratory services. The current lack of attention to extra-laboratory factors is in stark contrast to the body of evidence pointing to the multitude of errors that continue to occur, particularly in the pre-analytical phase. The ISO 15189: 2012 standard for laboratory accreditation defines the pre-analytical phase, and recognizes the need to evaluate, monitor and improve all the procedures and processes in the initial phase of the testing cycle, including those performed in the phase of requesting tests and collecting samples, the so-called "pre-pre-analytical phase". Therefore, QIs should allow the identification of errors and non-conformities that can occur in all steps of the pre-analytical phase. Traditionally, pre-analytical errors are grouped into identification and sample problems. However, appropriate test requesting and complete request forms are now recognized as fundamental components in providing valuable laboratory services. The model of QIs developed by the Working Group of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) includes indicators related to both identification and sample problems as well as all other pre-analytical defects, including those in test requesting and request forms. It, moreover, provides the framework (with objective criteria) necessary for promoting the harmonization of available QIs in the pre-analytical phase.

  4. Effectiveness of a Sugar-Yeast Monitor and a Chemical Lure for Detecting Bed Bugs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Effective bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) monitors have been actively sought in the past few years to help detect bed bugs and measure the effectiveness of treatments. Most of the available active monitors are either expensive or ineffective. We designed a simple and affordable active bed bug monitor that uses sugar-yeast fermentation and an experimental chemical lure to detect bed bugs. The sugar-yeast mixture released carbon dioxide at a similar rate (average 405.1 ml/min) as dry ice (average 397.0 ml/min) during the first 8 h after activation. In naturally infested apartments, the sugar-yeast monitor containing an experimental chemical lure (nonanal, L-lactic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and spearmint oil) was equally effective as the dry ice monitor containing the same lure in trapping bed bugs. Placing one sugar-yeast monitor per apartment for 1-d was equally effective as 11-d placement of 6-18 Climbup insect interceptors (a commonly used bed bug monitor) under furniture legs for trapping bed bugs. When carbon dioxide was present, pair-wise comparisons showed the experimental lure increased trap catch by 7.2 times. This sugar-yeast monitor with a chemical lure is an affordable and effective tool for monitoring bed bugs. This monitor is especially useful for monitoring bed bugs where a human host is not present. PMID:26470258

  5. Effectiveness of a Sugar-Yeast Monitor and a Chemical Lure for Detecting Bed Bugs.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Effective bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) monitors have been actively sought in the past few years to help detect bed bugs and measure the effectiveness of treatments. Most of the available active monitors are either expensive or ineffective. We designed a simple and affordable active bed bug monitor that uses sugar-yeast fermentation and an experimental chemical lure to detect bed bugs. The sugar-yeast mixture released carbon dioxide at a similar rate (average 405.1 ml/min) as dry ice (average 397.0 ml/min) during the first 8 h after activation. In naturally infested apartments, the sugar-yeast monitor containing an experimental chemical lure (nonanal, L-lactic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and spearmint oil) was equally effective as the dry ice monitor containing the same lure in trapping bed bugs. Placing one sugar-yeast monitor per apartment for 1-d was equally effective as 11-d placement of 6-18 Climbup insect interceptors (a commonly used bed bug monitor) under furniture legs for trapping bed bugs. When carbon dioxide was present, pair-wise comparisons showed the experimental lure increased trap catch by 7.2 times. This sugar-yeast monitor with a chemical lure is an affordable and effective tool for monitoring bed bugs. This monitor is especially useful for monitoring bed bugs where a human host is not present.

  6. Software Detection of R-Wave in Ambulatory Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Le Huy, P.; Yvroud, E.; Gilgenkrantz, J.M.; Baille, N.; Aliot, E.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a simple algorithm for the detection of R-wave in ECGs using a CMOS microprocessor is described. No filterings are performed, so that the total frequency spectrum is preserved. The gradient and duration of a single positive or negative slope are used as primary detection criteria. Experimental results show that the functionning of R-wave detection algorithm is reliable, even when artefacts are present. This detection scheme is therefore suitable to be implemented in portable recorder of cardiac events, performing the analysis in real-time. At the same time, the presence of a complex and burden analog detector circuit could be eliminated, as it would be in conventional recorder. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4

  7. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  8. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  9. Population size influences amphibian detection probability: implications for biodiversity monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Tanadini, Lorenzo G; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size). The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the conservation of

  10. Population Size Influences Amphibian Detection Probability: Implications for Biodiversity Monitoring Programs

    PubMed Central

    Tanadini, Lorenzo G.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size). The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the conservation of

  11. Population size influences amphibian detection probability: implications for biodiversity monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Tanadini, Lorenzo G; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size). The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the conservation of

  12. Functions and requirements for Hanford single-shell tank leakage detection and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatate, D.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This document applies the System Engineering process to define the functions and requirements for single shell tank (SST) leakage detection, monitoring and mitigation during the initial SST retrieval sequence.

  13. A Distance Measure for Attention Focusing and Anaomaly Detection in Systems Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Any attempt to introduce automation into the monitoring of complex physical systems must start from a robust anomaly detection capability. This task is far from straightforward, for a single definition of what constitutes an anomaly is difficult to come by.

  14. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  15. Area Monitoring for Detection of Leaks and/or Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mian, Zahid F. (Inventor); Gamache, Ronald W. (Inventor); Glasser, Nick (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A solution for monitoring an area for the presence of a flame and/or a leak, such as from a pressurized fluid, is provided. An imaging device can be used that acquires image data based on electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths only corresponding to at least one region of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic radiation from an ambient light source is less than the electromagnetic radiation emitted by at least one type of flame for which the presence within the area is being monitored. An acoustic device can be used that is configured to acquire acoustic data for the area and enhance acoustic signals in a range of frequencies corresponding to a leak of a pressurized fluid present in the area.

  16. A field and laboratory method for monitoring the concentration and isotopic composition of soil CO2.

    PubMed

    Breecker, Dan; Sharp, Zachary D

    2008-01-01

    The stable isotope composition of nmol size gas samples can be determined accurately and precisely using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We have developed a technique that exploits this capability in order to measure delta13C and delta18O values and, simultaneously, the concentration of CO2 in sub-mL volume soil air samples. A sampling strategy designed for monitoring CO2 profiles at particular locations of interest is also described. This combined field and laboratory technique provides several advantages over those previously reported: (1) the small sample size required allows soil air to be sampled at a high spatial resolution, (2) the field setup minimizes sampling times and does not require powered equipment, (3) the analytical method avoids the introduction of air (including O2) into the mass spectrometer thereby extending filament life, and (4) pCO2, delta13C and delta18O are determined simultaneously. The reproducibility of measurements of CO2 in synthetic tank air using this technique is: +/-0.08 per thousand (delta13C), +/-0.10 per thousand (delta18O), and +/-0.7% (pCO2) at 5550 ppm. The reproducibility for CO2 in soil air is estimated as: +/-0.06 per thousand (delta13C), +/-0.06 per thousand (delta18O), and +/-1.6% (pCO2). Monitoring soil CO2 using this technique is applicable to studies concerning soil respiration and ecosystem gas exchange, the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 (e.g. free air carbon dioxide enrichment) on soil processes, soil water budgets including partitioning evaporation from transpiration, pedogenesis and weathering, diffuse solid-earth degassing, and the calibration of speleothem and pedogenic carbonate delta13C values as paleoenvironmental proxies.

  17. Developing detection and monitoring strategies for Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Roda, Amy; Millar, Jocelyn G; Rascoe, John; Weihman, Scott; Stocks, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A pheromone-based system to locate and monitor Planococcus minor (Maskell), a pest of over 250 plants including citrus, grape, and cacao, was tested. The difficulty in distinguishing P. minor from the citrus mealybug, P. citri, makes finding and evaluating the impact of the pest challenging. Studies conducted in Puerto Rico determined that synthetic P. minor pheromone lures preaged 120 d in the field caught similar number of males as lures not aged (fresh). Molecular analysis of trapped mealybug males using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1, the internal transcriber space two locus, and 28S-D2 gene showed the pheromone traps to be species specific. Traps baited with P. minor pheromone were used to monitor the pest in south Florida and to locate potential infestations. P. minor males were found at all locations studied in South Florida and were present in low numbers (1.03 +/- 0.69 mean +/- SE/trap/14 d). Over 14,000 terminals, fruit, and flowers were visually inspected over a 6 mo period of peak trap catches before the first adult P. minor female was found. The synthetic pheromone lures proved to be an effective tool to locate and monitor this pest new to the continental United States.

  18. Developing detection and monitoring strategies for Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Roda, Amy; Millar, Jocelyn G; Rascoe, John; Weihman, Scott; Stocks, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A pheromone-based system to locate and monitor Planococcus minor (Maskell), a pest of over 250 plants including citrus, grape, and cacao, was tested. The difficulty in distinguishing P. minor from the citrus mealybug, P. citri, makes finding and evaluating the impact of the pest challenging. Studies conducted in Puerto Rico determined that synthetic P. minor pheromone lures preaged 120 d in the field caught similar number of males as lures not aged (fresh). Molecular analysis of trapped mealybug males using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1, the internal transcriber space two locus, and 28S-D2 gene showed the pheromone traps to be species specific. Traps baited with P. minor pheromone were used to monitor the pest in south Florida and to locate potential infestations. P. minor males were found at all locations studied in South Florida and were present in low numbers (1.03 +/- 0.69 mean +/- SE/trap/14 d). Over 14,000 terminals, fruit, and flowers were visually inspected over a 6 mo period of peak trap catches before the first adult P. minor female was found. The synthetic pheromone lures proved to be an effective tool to locate and monitor this pest new to the continental United States. PMID:23356070

  19. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    DOEpatents

    Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  20. Advanced Yellow Fever Virus Genome Detection in Point-of-Care Facilities and Reference Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pranav; Yillah, Jasmin; Weidmann, Manfred; Méndez, Jairo A.; Nakouné, Emmanuel Rivalyn; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reported methods for the detection of the yellow fever viral genome are beset by limitations in sensitivity, specificity, strain detection spectra, and suitability to laboratories with simple infrastructure in areas of endemicity. We describe the development of two different approaches affording sensitive and specific detection of the yellow fever genome: a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and an isothermal protocol employing the same primer-probe set but based on helicase-dependent amplification technology (RT-tHDA). Both assays were evaluated using yellow fever cell culture supernatants as well as spiked and clinical samples. We demonstrate reliable detection by both assays of different strains of yellow fever virus with improved sensitivity and specificity. The RT-qPCR assay is a powerful tool for reference or diagnostic laboratories with real-time PCR capability, while the isothermal RT-tHDA assay represents a useful alternative to earlier amplification techniques for the molecular diagnosis of yellow fever by field or point-of-care laboratories. PMID:23052311

  1. Caged Fish Studies to Detect and Monitor Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects-based monitoring studies were conducted in the St. Louis Harbor, Lake Superior, in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). The overall goal of the research was to develop and validate methods using caged fish exposures to detect and monitor contaminants...

  2. Dry well conductivity monitoring report for Tanks W-8, W-9, and W-10, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    A treatability study and waste removal program are being implemented for the Gunite ad Associated Tanks Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report documents the instrumentation and monitoring efforts to establish baseline conductivity conditions. The simulated liquid release (SLR) testing reported here demonstrates the effectiveness of the Conductivity-monitoring method (CMM) as a liquid-release detection method for consolidation Tanks W-8 and W-9 and Tank W-10 in the South Tank Farm (STF). The results show the remarkable sensitivity of the CMM to even very small simulated releases from the tank. The SLR testing for DW-8, DW-9 and DW-10 show that the dry well conductivity monitoring will be effective in detecting potential releases from the tanks during waste removal operations. The data in this report also make clear statements about the inferred integrity of the tanks, tank pads, and drain system: (1) the data substantiate earlier work and show that Tanks W-8, W-9, and W-10 are not leaking; (2) the data show that the pads under Tanks W-8, W-9, and W-10 are integral and connected to the dry wells; (3) the STF drain system appears to be functioning properly. This report presents these results and describes the release monitoring plan for the consolidation tanks and during waste removal operations at all of the tanks in the STF.

  3. Radon Monitoring and Early Low Background Counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Mei, D.-M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

    2011-04-27

    Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

  4. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year`s data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B.

  5. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Metlab HWMF) at Savannah River Plant were visited for sampling. Groundwater samples were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. This report describes the results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site flagging criteria during the quarter. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 5, and 7A; trichloroethylene exceeded the PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A; and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the PDWS in well AMB 5. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells AMB 4A, 5, 6, 7A, 7B, and IODD; manganese was elevated in wells AMB 4D and TODD; iron was elevated in well AMB TODD; and pH was elevated in well AMB 10A.

  6. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    During third quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exceeded final PDWS in one well. Aluminum, iron, manganese, tin, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. This project began in July 1994 and is complete; however, analytical data from these wells is not available yet.

  7. Radon monitoring and early low background counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.J.; Mei, D.M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

    2010-09-01

    Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

  8. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  9. Retrospective time series analysis of veterinary laboratory data: preparing a historical baseline for cluster detection in syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Revie, Crawford W; McEwen, Beverly J; McNab, W Bruce; Kelton, David; Sanchez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    The practice of disease surveillance has shifted in the last two decades towards the introduction of systems capable of early detection of disease. Modern biosurveillance systems explore different sources of pre-diagnostic data, such as patient's chief complaint upon emergency visit or laboratory test orders. These sources of data can provide more rapid detection than traditional surveillance based on case confirmation, but are less specific, and therefore their use poses challenges related to the presence of background noise and unlabelled temporal aberrations in historical data. The overall goal of this study was to carry out retrospective analysis using three years of laboratory test submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory in the province of Ontario, Canada, in order to prepare the data for use in syndromic surveillance. Daily cases were grouped into syndromes and counts for each syndrome were monitored on a daily basis when medians were higher than one case per day, and weekly otherwise. Poisson regression accounting for day-of-week and month was able to capture the day-of-week effect with minimal influence from temporal aberrations. Applying Poisson regression in an iterative manner, that removed data points above the predicted 95th percentile of daily counts, allowed for the removal of these aberrations in the absence of labelled outbreaks, while maintaining the day-of-week effect that was present in the original data. This resulted in the construction of time series that represent the baseline patterns over the past three years, free of temporal aberrations. The final method was thus able to remove temporal aberrations while keeping the original explainable effects in the data, did not need a training period free of aberrations, had minimal adjustment to the aberrations present in the raw data, and did not require labelled outbreaks. Moreover, it was readily applicable to the weekly data by substituting Poisson regression with moving 95th percentiles

  10. Regional Monitoring Plan for the Detection of Allergens in Food from Campania Region. First Year Monitoring Results

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Loredana; Pellicanò, Roberta; Caligiuri, Vincenzo; Nava, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    Food allergens are substances able to induce an abnormal immunological response in sensitive individuals. The presence of allergens in food must be reported in tables (Directive 2003/89/EC). In this study we report the data of a monitoring plan carried out in the Campania Region during the 2012 for the detection of allergens (ovoalbumine and β-lattoglobulin) in food of different origin. The analisys were performed by means of ELISA assays. The percentage of analyzes with the presence of allegens not declared on the label is 4.3%, out of a total of 208 analyzes. It is therefore important to continue monitoring activities by the competent Authorities. PMID:27800313

  11. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    González-Sánchez, Carlos; Fraile, Juan-Carlos; Pérez-Turiel, Javier; Damm, Ellen; Schneider, Jochen G.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Schmitt, Daniel; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC) sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram). First experimental results are shown. PMID:27399713

  12. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Carlos; Fraile, Juan-Carlos; Pérez-Turiel, Javier; Damm, Ellen; Schneider, Jochen G; Zimmermann, Heiko; Schmitt, Daniel; Ihmig, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing plays a vital role in biomedical research. Stress reduction is important for improving research results and increasing the welfare and the quality of life of laboratory animals. To estimate stress we believe it is of great importance to develop non-invasive techniques for monitoring physiological signals during the transport of laboratory animals, thereby allowing the gathering of information on the transport conditions, and, eventually, the improvement of these conditions. Here, we study the suitability of commercially available electric potential integrated circuit (EPIC) sensors, using both contact and contactless techniques, for monitoring the heart rate and breathing rate of non-restrained, non-sedated laboratory mice. The design has been tested under different scenarios with the aim of checking the plausibility of performing contactless capture of mouse heart activity (ideally with an electrocardiogram). First experimental results are shown. PMID:27399713

  13. Laboratory Tests of Multiplex Detection of PCR Amplicons Using the Luminex 100 Flow Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateswaran, K.S.; Nasarabadi, S.; Langlois, R.G.

    2000-05-05

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated the power of flow cytometry in detecting the biological agents simulants at JFT III. LLNL pioneered in the development of advanced nucleic acid analyzer (ANM) for portable real time identification. Recent advances in flow cytometry provide a means for multiplexed nucleic acid detection and immunoassay of pathogenic microorganisms. We are presently developing multiplexed immunoassays for the simultaneous detection of different simulants. Our goal is to build an integrated instrument for both nucleic acid analysis and immuno detection. In this study we evaluated the Luminex LX 100 for concurrent identification of more than one PCR amplified product. ANAA has real-time Taqman fluorescent detection capability for rapid identification of field samples. However, its multiplexing ability is limited by the combination of available fluorescent labels. Hence integration of ANAA with flow cytometry can give the rapidity of ANAA amplification and the multiplex capability of flow cytometry. Multiplexed flow cytometric analysis is made possible using a set of fluorescent latex microsphere that are individually identified by their red and infrared fluorescence. A green fluorochrome is used as the assay signal. Methods were developed for the identification of specific nucleic acid sequences from Bacillus globigii (Bg), Bacillus thuringensis (Bt) and Erwinia herbicola (Eh). Detection sensitivity using different reporter fluorochromes was tested with the LX 100, and also different assay formats were evaluated for their suitability for rapid testing. A blind laboratory trial was carried out December 22-27, 1999 to evaluate bead assays for multiplex identification of Bg and Bt PCR products. This report summarizes the assay development, fluorochrome comparisons, and the results of the blind trial conducted at LLNL for the laboratory evaluation of the LX 100 flow analyzer.

  14. 40 CFR 264.98 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conductance, total organic carbon, or total organic halogen), waste constituents, or reaction products that... reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste management area; (3) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in ground water; and (4) The...

  15. 40 CFR 264.98 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conductance, total organic carbon, or total organic halogen), waste constituents, or reaction products that... reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste management area; (3) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in ground water; and (4) The...

  16. 40 CFR 264.98 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conductance, total organic carbon, or total organic halogen), waste constituents, or reaction products that... reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste management area; (3) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in ground water; and (4) The...

  17. 40 CFR 258.54 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the MSWLF unit; (iii) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in the ground water; and (iv) The concentration or... zone; (2) Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and unsaturated zone; (3) Ground-water flow rates;...

  18. 40 CFR 264.98 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conductance, total organic carbon, or total organic halogen), waste constituents, or reaction products that... reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste management area; (3) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in ground water; and (4) The...

  19. 40 CFR 258.54 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the MSWLF unit; (iii) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in the ground water; and (iv) The concentration or... zone; (2) Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and unsaturated zone; (3) Ground-water flow rates;...

  20. 40 CFR 258.54 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the MSWLF unit; (iii) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in the ground water; and (iv) The concentration or... zone; (2) Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and unsaturated zone; (3) Ground-water flow rates;...

  1. 40 CFR 264.98 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conductance, total organic carbon, or total organic halogen), waste constituents, or reaction products that... considering the following factors: (1) The types, quantities, and concentrations of constituents in wastes... reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste management area; (3) The detectability...

  2. 40 CFR 258.54 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the MSWLF unit; (iii) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in the ground water; and (iv) The concentration or... indicator parameters for a MSWLF unit, in lieu of some or all of the heavy metals (constituents 1-15...

  3. A rapid detection method using flow cytometry to monitor the risk of Legionella in bath water.

    PubMed

    Taguri, Toshitsugu; Oda, Yasunori; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nishikawa, Toru; Endo, Takuro; Izumiyama, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masayuki; Kura, Fumiaki

    2011-07-01

    Legionella species are the causative agents of human legionellosis, and bathing facilities have been identified as the sources of infection in several outbreaks in Japan. Researchers in Japan have recently reported evidence of significant associations between bacterial counts and the occurrence of Legionella in bathing facilities and in a hot tub model. A convenient and quantitative bacterial enumeration method is therefore required as an indicator of Legionella contamination or disinfection to replace existing methods such as time-consuming Legionella culture and expensive Legionella-DNA amplification. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method (RDM) to monitor the risk of Legionella using an automated microbial analyzing device based on flow cytometry techniques to measure the total number of bacteria in water samples within two minutes, by detecting typical patterns of scattered light and fluorescence. We first compared the results of our RDM with plate counting results for five filtered hot spring water samples spiked with three species of bacteria, including Legionella. Inactivation of these samples by chlorine was also assessed by the RDM, a live/dead bacterial fluorescence assay and plate counting. Using the RDM, the lower limit of quantitative bacterial counts in the spiked samples was determined as 3.0×10(3)(3.48log)counts mL(-1). We then used a laboratory model of a hot tub and found that the RDM could monitor the growth curve of naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria with 1 and 2 days' delayed growth of amoeba and Legionella, respectively, and could also determine the killing curve of these bacteria by chlorination. Finally, samples with ≥3.48 or <3.48log total bacterial counts mL(-1) were tested using the RDM from 149 different hot tubs, and were found to be significantly associated with the positive or negative detection of Legionella with 95% sensitivity and 84% specificity. These findings indicated that the RDM can be used for

  4. Detection and Monitoring of Intense Pyroconvection in Western North America using Remote Sensing and Meteorological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. A.; Solbrig, J. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Fromm, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Fire-triggered thunderstorms, known as pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb), can alter fire behavior, influence smoke plume trajectory, and hinder fire suppression efforts. Intense pyroCb can also inject a significant quantity of aerosol mass into the lower stratosphere. Systematic detection and monitoring of these events is important for wildfire response and aviation applications, as well as understanding climate and air quality implications. The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) recently developed a near-real-time pyroCb detection algorithm using geostationary satellite observations, currently focused on GOES-West. The algorithm is tuned to the microphysics of fire-perturbed thunderstorms over elevated terrain in western North America. By incorporating reanalysis data, NRL has also developed the first observationally-based conceptual model for pyroCb development. Results are focused on 41 large wildfires observed in the United States and Canada during 2013, which produced more than 50 intense pyroCb. The majority of these develop when a layer of increased moisture content and instability is advected over a dry, deep, and unstable mixed layer, typically along the leading edge of an approaching disturbance. The upper-tropospheric dynamics and synoptic pattern must also be conducive for vertical development of convection. Mid- and upper-tropospheric conditions similar to those that produce traditional dry thunderstorms are therefore paramount for development and maintenance of pyroCb. The amount of mid-level moisture and instability required is strongly dependent on the surface elevation of the contributing fire. Surface-based fire weather indices have limited capability for predicting pyroCb development. The intense radiant heat emitted by large wildfires can serve as a potential trigger, suggesting pyroCb may develop in the absence of traditional triggering mechanisms when an otherwise favorable meteorological environment is in place. This conceptual model

  5. Continuing Challenges for the Clinical Laboratory for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    McKinnell, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) can be difficult. In particular, the absence of FDA-cleared automated antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) devices that use revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) carbapenem breakpoints for Enterobacteriaceae and the lack of active surveillance tests hamper the clinical laboratory. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Lau and colleagues (A. F. Lau, G. A. Fahle, M. A. Kemp, A. N. Jassem, J. P. Dekker, and K. M. Frank, J Clin Microbiol 53:3729–3737, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01921-15) evaluate the performance of a research-use-only PCR for the detection of CRE in rectal surveillance specimens. PMID:26468504

  6. Detecting and monitoring aquacultural patterns through multitemporal SAR imagery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profeti, Giuliana; Travaglia, Carlo; Carla, Roberto

    2003-03-01

    The inventory and monitoring of aquaculture areas are essential tools for decision-making at a governmental level in developing countries. With the use of satellite imagery, these tasks can be performed in an accurate, rapid and objective way. This approach is also economically viable, as the worth of aquaculture far outweighs its cost. This paper describes a methodology for identifying and monitoring shrimp farms by means of multi-temporal satellite SAR data. SAR offer all-weather capabilities, an important characteristic since shrimp farms exist in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Moreover, the backscatter effect created by the dykes surrounding the ponds produces a typical pattern which allows the interpreter to distinguish them from other types of water-covered surfaces. However, the presence of speckle noise limits the interpretability of SAR imagery. To increase it, a multi-temporal set of four scenes covering the study area was processed by using a method that enhances time-invariant spatial features and reduces speckle without compromising the geometrical resolution of the images. The enhanced SAR imagery has proved to be valuable in identifying shrimp farm patterns with a field-tested accuracy of more than 90 percent. The methodology reported in this study has been tested with the ground truth obtained under operative conditions in Sri Lanka, thanks to the support of the FAO TCP/SRL/6712 project.

  7. Munchausen syndrome and factitious disorder: the role of the laboratory in its detection and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kinns, H; Housley, D; Freedman, D B

    2013-05-01

    The term Munchausen syndrome is used to describe the patient who chronically fabricates or induces illness with the sole intention of assuming the patient role. Such persons often have a close association with the medical profession and thus use their knowledge to falsify symptoms and laboratory specimens to mimic disease. Cases of factitious disease have appeared in the literature originating from all medical specialties, and include such rare disorders as phaeochromocytoma and Bartter's syndrome. The laboratory can play a key role in the detection and diagnosis of factitious disorders. Indeed discrepant biochemistry results may provide the first clue to the diagnosis. Laboratory staff should be particularly aware of highly variable test results and extreme abnormalities that are not consistent with the wider biochemical profile, suggesting sample tampering. Factitious disorder should also be included in the clinician's differential diagnosis when disease presentation is unusual or an underlying cause cannot be found. Investigation to exclude or confirm factitious disorder at an early stage can prevent unnecessary testing in the search for increasingly rare diseases. Appropriate analyses may include screening tests for the detection of surreptitious drug administration or replication of a fabricated sample to confirm the method used. In all cases close communication between the clinician and laboratory is essential. This will ensure that appropriate tests are conducted particularly with regard to time critical and repeat tests. PMID:23592802

  8. A bead-based multiplex assay for the detection of DNA viruses infecting laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Höfler, Daniela; Nicklas, Werner; Mauter, Petra; Pawlita, Michael; Schmitt, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Association (FELASA) recommends screening of laboratory rodents and biological materials for a broad variety of bacterial agents, viruses, and parasites. Methods commonly used to date for pathogen detection are neither cost-effective nor time- and animal-efficient or uniform. However, an infection even if silent alters experimental results through changing the animals' physiology and increases inter-individual variability. As a consequence higher numbers of animals and experiments are needed for valid and significant results. We developed a novel high-throughput multiplex assay, called rodent DNA virus finder (rDVF) for the simultaneous identification of 24 DNA viruses infecting mice and rats. We detected all 24 DNA viruses with high specificity and reproducibility. Detection limits for the different DNA viruses varied between 10 and 1000 copies per PCR. The validation of rDVF was done with DNA isolated from homogenised organs amplified by pathogen specific primers in one multiplex PCR. The biotinylated amplicons were detected via hybridisation to specific oligonucleotide probes coupled to spectrally distinct sets of fluorescent Luminex beads. In conclusion, rDVF may have the potential to replace conventional testing and may simplify and improve routine detection of DNA viruses infecting rodents.

  9. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LLLW active tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. )

    1993-03-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for leak testing many of the tanks that comprise the active portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC).

  10. Monitoring distant fallout: the role of the Atomic Energy Commission Health and Safety Laboratory during the Pacific tests, with special attention to the events following BRAVO.

    PubMed

    Eisenbud, M

    1997-07-01

    The fallout from test BRAVO in March 1954 has had scientific, political, and social implications that have continued for more than 40 years. The test resulted in serious injury to the people of the Marshall Islands and 23 men on a nearby Japanese fishing boat. Prior to BRAVO there was insufficient appreciation of the dangers of fallout to people living downwind from surface or near-surface explosions of megaton weapons. In the absence of sufficient preplanning for fallout monitoring beyond the test-sites of earlier smaller yield tests, and as a result of the concern of the photographic film manufacturers, the Atomic Energy Commission Health and Safety Laboratory, now the Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory, was requested to develop a program of fallout surveillance. Beginning with Operation IVY in 1952, these surveys included aerial monitoring of the islands of the mid and western Pacific, as well as establishment of fallout monitoring stations in the United States and abroad. The first evidence of the post-BRAVO fallout was detected by a Atomic Energy Commission Health and Safety Laboratory instrument installed on the atoll of Rongerik, where 28 military personnel were stationed. The results of radiation surveys conducted immediately after BRAVO, as well as the reports of medical investigations, radioecological studies, and dose reconstruction that have been conducted by many laboratories over the years have been available from the beginning in unclassified form. However, from the time of the fallout, and continuing to the present, there have been many unanswered questions about what happened during the hours immediately after the fallout was reported. No formal investigation of the circumstances of the fallout was ever conducted, and there were serious misrepresentations of the facts in the official statements made at the time.

  11. Utilizing online monitoring of water wells for detecting earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Y.; Anker, Y.; Inbar, N.; Yellin-Dror, A.; Guttman, J.; Flexer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater reaction to earthquakes is well known and documented, mostly as changes in water levels or springs discharge, but also as changes in groundwater chemistry. During 2004 groundwater level undulations preceded a series of moderate (ML~5) earthquakes, which occurred along the Dead Sea Rift System (DSRS). In order to try and validate these preliminary observations monitoring of several observation wells was initiated. The monitoring and telemetry infrastructure as well as the wells were allocated specifically for the research by the Israeli National Water Company (Mekorot LTD.). Once several earthquake events were skipped due to insufficient sampling frequency and owing to insufficient storage capacity that caused loss of data, it was decided to establish an independent monitoring system. This current stage of research had commenced at 2011 and just recently became fully operative. At present there are four observation wells that are located along major faults, adjacent to the DSRS. The wells must be inactive and with a confined production layer. The wells are equipped with sensors for groundwter level, water conductivity and groundwater temperature measurements. The data acquisition and transfer resolution is of one minute and the dataset is being transferred through a GPRS network to a central database server. Since the start of the present research stage, most of the earthquakes recorded at the vicinity of the DSRS were smaller then ML 5, with groundwater response only after the ground movement. Nonetheless, distant earthquakes occurring as far as 300 km along a DSRS adjacent fault (ML~3), were noticed at the observation wells. A recent earthquake precursory reoccurrence was followed by a 5.5ML earthquake with an epicenter near the eastern shore of the Red Sea about 400km south to the wells that alerted the quake (see figure). In both wells anomalies is water levels and conductivity were found few hours before the quake, although any single anomaly cannot

  12. A new approach for structural health monitoring by applying anomaly detection on strain sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichias, Konstantinos; Pijpers, Richard; Meeuwissen, Erik

    2014-03-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems help to monitor critical infrastructures (bridges, tunnels, etc.) remotely and provide up-to-date information about their physical condition. In addition, it helps to predict the structure's life and required maintenance in a cost-efficient way. Typically, inspection data gives insight in the structural health. The global structural behavior, and predominantly the structural loading, is generally measured with vibration and strain sensors. Acoustic emission sensors are more and more used for measuring global crack activity near critical locations. In this paper, we present a procedure for local structural health monitoring by applying Anomaly Detection (AD) on strain sensor data for sensors that are applied in expected crack path. Sensor data is analyzed by automatic anomaly detection in order to find crack activity at an early stage. This approach targets the monitoring of critical structural locations, such as welds, near which strain sensors can be applied during construction and/or locations with limited inspection possibilities during structural operation. We investigate several anomaly detection techniques to detect changes in statistical properties, indicating structural degradation. The most effective one is a novel polynomial fitting technique, which tracks slow changes in sensor data. Our approach has been tested on a representative test structure (bridge deck) in a lab environment, under constant and variable amplitude fatigue loading. In both cases, the evolving cracks at the monitored locations were successfully detected, autonomously, by our AD monitoring tool.

  13. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

  14. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Vermeulen, Bart; Stuckens, Jan; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Van Ranst, Marc; Coppin, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step. PMID:22319308

  15. Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2007-06-01

    With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

  16. Progress towards an AIS early detection monitoring network for the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the lower St. Louis River system (SLR) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates f...

  17. Single-trial detection for intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Liu, H T; Luk, K D K; Hu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide effective evidence for impairment of the somatosensory system, so that SEPs have been widely used in both clinical diagnosis and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SEPs are generally measured using ensemble averaging across hundreds of trials, thus unavoidably producing a tardiness of SEPs to the potential damages caused by surgical maneuvers and a loss of dynamical information of cortical processing related to somatosensory inputs. Here, we aimed to enhance the SNR of single-trial SEPs using Kalman filtering and time-frequency multiple linear regression (TF-MLR) and measure their single-trial parameters, both in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain. We first showed that, Kalman filtering and TF-MLR can effectively capture the single-trial SEP responses and provide accurate estimates of single-trial SEP parameters in the time domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. Furthermore, we identified significant correlations between the stimulus intensity and a set of indicative single-trial SEP parameters, including the correlation coefficient (between each single-trial SEPs and their average), P37 amplitude, N45 amplitude, P37-N45 amplitude, and phase value (at the zero-crossing points between P37 and N45). Finally, based on each indicative single-trial SEP parameter, we investigated the minimum number of trials required on a single-trial basis to suggest the existence of SEP responses, thus providing important information for fast SEP extraction in intraoperative monitoring. PMID:26557929

  18. Single-trial detection for intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Liu, H T; Luk, K D K; Hu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide effective evidence for impairment of the somatosensory system, so that SEPs have been widely used in both clinical diagnosis and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SEPs are generally measured using ensemble averaging across hundreds of trials, thus unavoidably producing a tardiness of SEPs to the potential damages caused by surgical maneuvers and a loss of dynamical information of cortical processing related to somatosensory inputs. Here, we aimed to enhance the SNR of single-trial SEPs using Kalman filtering and time-frequency multiple linear regression (TF-MLR) and measure their single-trial parameters, both in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain. We first showed that, Kalman filtering and TF-MLR can effectively capture the single-trial SEP responses and provide accurate estimates of single-trial SEP parameters in the time domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. Furthermore, we identified significant correlations between the stimulus intensity and a set of indicative single-trial SEP parameters, including the correlation coefficient (between each single-trial SEPs and their average), P37 amplitude, N45 amplitude, P37-N45 amplitude, and phase value (at the zero-crossing points between P37 and N45). Finally, based on each indicative single-trial SEP parameter, we investigated the minimum number of trials required on a single-trial basis to suggest the existence of SEP responses, thus providing important information for fast SEP extraction in intraoperative monitoring.

  19. Engine rotor health monitoring: an experimental approach to fault detection and durability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Woike, Mark R.; Clem, Michelle; Baaklini, George

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to update and improve turbine engine components in meeting flights safety and durability requirements are commitments that engine manufacturers try to continuously fulfill. Most of their concerns and developments energies focus on the rotating components as rotor disks. These components typically undergo rigorous operating conditions and are subject to high centrifugal loadings which subject them to various failure mechanisms. Thus, developing highly advanced health monitoring technology to screen their efficacy and performance is very essential to their prolonged service life and operational success. Nondestructive evaluation techniques are among the many screening methods that presently are being used to pre-detect hidden flaws and mini cracks prior to any appalling events occurrence. Most of these methods or procedures are confined to evaluating material's discontinuities and other defects that have mature to a point where failure is eminent. Hence, development of more robust techniques to pre-predict faults prior to any catastrophic events in these components is highly vital. This paper is focused on presenting research activities covering the ongoing research efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) rotor dynamics laboratory in support of developing a fault detection system for key critical turbine engine components. Data obtained from spin test experiments of a rotor disk that relates to investigating behavior of blade tip clearance, tip timing and shaft displacement based on measured data acquired from sensor devices such as eddy current, capacitive and microwave are presented. Additional results linking test data with finite element modeling to characterize the structural durability of a cracked rotor as it relays to the experimental tests and findings is also presented. An obvious difference in the vibration response is shown between the notched and the baseline no notch rotor disk indicating the presence of some type of irregularity.

  20. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    DL Edwards; KD Shields; MJ Sula; MY Ballinger

    1999-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP--US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H). In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) on the Hanford Site. Two of the facilities evaluated, 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, and 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory met state and federal criteria for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. One other building, the 3720 Environmental Sciences Laboratory, was recognized as being in transition with the potential for meeting the continuous sampling criteria.

  1. Robust vehicle detection for highway surveillance via rear-view monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2003-11-01

    Vision-based highway monitoring systems play an important role in transportation management and services owing to their powerful ability to extract a variety of information. Detection accuracy of vision-based systems is however sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting, shadow and weather conditions, and it is still a challenging problem to maintain detection robustness at all time. In this research, we present a novel method to enhance detection and tracking accuracy at the nighttime based on rear-view monitoring. In the meanwhile, a method is proposed to improve the background detection and extraction, which usually serves as the first step to moving object region detection. Finally, the effectiveness of the rear-view technique will be analyzed. We compare the tracking accuracy between the front-view and the rear-view techniques, and show that the proposed system can achieve higher detection accuracy at nighttime.

  2. Nonthreshold-based event detection for 3d environment monitoring in sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Liu, Y.H.; Chen, L.

    2008-12-15

    Event detection is a crucial task for wireless sensor network applications, especially environment monitoring. Existing approaches for event detection are mainly based on some predefined threshold values and, thus, are often inaccurate and incapable of capturing complex events. For example, in coal mine monitoring scenarios, gas leakage or water osmosis can hardly be described by the overrun of specified attribute thresholds but some complex pattern in the full-scale view of the environmental data. To address this issue, we propose a nonthreshold-based approach for the real 3D sensor monitoring environment. We employ energy-efficient methods to collect a time series of data maps from the sensor network and detect complex events through matching the gathered data to spatiotemporal data patterns. Finally, we conduct trace-driven simulations to prove the efficacy and efficiency of this approach on detecting events of complex phenomena from real-life records.

  3. Application of open-source photogrammetric software MicMac for monitoring surface deformation in laboratory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Bertelsen, Hâvard S.; Guldstrand, Frank; Girod, Luc; Johannessen, Rikke F.; Bjugger, Fanny; Burchardt, Steffi; Mair, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying deformation is essential in modern laboratory models of geological systems. This paper presents a new laboratory monitoring method through the implementation of the open-source software MicMac, which efficiently implements photogrammetry in Structure-from-Motion algorithms. Critical evaluation is provided using results from two example laboratory geodesy scenarios: magma emplacement and strike-slip faulting. MicMac automatically processes images from synchronized cameras to compute time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthorectified images of model surfaces. MicMac also implements digital image correlation to produce high-resolution displacements maps. The resolution of DEMs and displacement maps corresponds to the pixel size of the processed images. Using 24 MP cameras, the precision of DEMs and displacements is ~0.05 mm on a 40 × 40 cm surface. Processing displacement maps with Matlab® scripts allows automatic fracture mapping on the monitored surfaces. MicMac also offers the possibility to integrate 3-D models of excavated structures with the corresponding surface deformation data. The high resolution and high precision of MicMac results and the ability to generate virtual 3-D models of complex structures make it a very promising tool for quantitative monitoring in laboratory models of geological systems.

  4. Accurate detection of Campylobacter spp. antigens by immunochromatography and enzyme immunoassay in routine microbiological laboratory.

    PubMed

    Regnath, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms, and their detection by culture depends on the freshness of the stool sample and the skills of the laboratory staff. To improve laboratory diagnosis, assays for the detection of specific antigens have been developed. Here, we evaluated two assays for the detection of Campylobacter spp.-specific antigens, i.e., one immunochromatographic test and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA), in 38 frozen Campylobacter spp.-positive specimens and prospectively in 533 fresh stool samples with a conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and culture. Both assays were positive for 36 samples with Campylobacter jejuni and one with Campylobacter coli among 38 Campylobacter spp.-positive frozen samples. One Campylobacter lari-positive sample was identified by the immunochromatographic assay (ICA) only. In a prospective study performed within the course of routine microbiology, both assays were positive for 24/25 C. jejuni culture-positive samples (positive percent agreement, 96.0% [95% CI: 78.9-100%]). ICA and EIA also were positive for 14 and 10 culture-negative samples, respectively (negative percent agreement: ICA, 97.2% [95% CI: 95.4-98.4%]; EIA, 98.0% [95% CI: 96.4-99.0%]). In conclusion, the high agreement between both antigen-detection assays and culture indicates that both assays may be initially performed followed by culture only upon a positive test result.

  5. Meteorological monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at Waste Area Grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses meteorological monitoring activities that wall be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Meteorological monitoring of various climatological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity) will be collected by instruments installed at WAG 6. Data will be recorded electronically at frequencies varying from 5-min intervals to 1-h intervals, dependent upon parameter. The data will be downloaded every 2 weeks, evaluated, compressed, and uploaded into a WAG 6 data base for subsequent use. The meteorological data will be used in water balance calculations in support of the WAG 6 hydrogeological model.

  6. Meteorological Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan for Environmental Monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses meteorological monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Meterological monitoring of various climatological parameters (eg., temperature, wind speed, humidity) will be collected by instruments installed at WAG 6. Data will be recorded electronically at frequencies varying from 5-min intervals to 1-h intervals, dependent upon parameter. The data will be downloaded every 2 weeks, evaluated, compressed, and uploaded into a WAG 6 data base for subsequent use. The meteorological data will be used in water balance calculations in support of the WAG 6 hydrogeological model.

  7. The laboratory investigation of the innovative sensor for torsional effects in engineering structures' monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzych, A.; Kowalski, J. K.; Sakowicz, B.; Krajewski, Z.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to characterize the performance of an interferometric fibre sensor which has been designed in order to register rotational phenomena, both in seismological observatories and engineering constructions. It is based on a well-known Sagnac effect which enables to detect one-axis rotational motions in a direct way and without any reference system. The presented optical fibre sensor - FOSREM allows to measure a component of rotation in a wide range of signal amplitude form 10-8 rad/s to 10 rad/s, as well as frequency from 0 Hz to the upper frequency from 2.56 Hz to 328.12 Hz. The laboratory investigation of our system indicated that it keeps theoretical sensitivity equal to 2·10-8 rad/s/Hz1/2 and accuracy no less than 3·1-8 to 1.6·10-6 rad/s in the above mentioned frequency band. Moreover, system size that equals 0.36×0.36×0.16 m and opportunity to remotely control the system via Internet by special server make FOSREM a mobile and autonomous device.

  8. Detecting and monitoring UCG subsidence with InSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R J; Foxall, W; Yang, X

    2012-03-23

    The use of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to measure surface subsidence caused by Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is tested. InSAR is a remote sensing technique that uses Synthetic Aperture Radar images to make spatial images of surface deformation and may be deployed from satellite or an airplane. With current commercial satellite data, the technique works best in areas with little vegetation or farming activity. UCG subsidence is generally caused by roof collapse, which adversely affects UCG operations due to gas loss and is therefore important to monitor. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of InSAR in measuring surface subsidence related to coal mining and surface deformation caused by a coal mining roof collapse in Crandall Canyon, Utah is imaged as a proof-of-concept. InSAR data is collected and processed over three known UCG operations including two pilot plants (Majuba, South Africa and Wulanchabu, China) and an operational plant (Angren, Uzbekistan). A clear f eature showing approximately 7 cm of subsidence is observed in the UCG field in Angren. Subsidence is not observed in the other two areas, which produce from deeper coal seams and processed a smaller volume. The results show that in some cases, InSAR is a useful tool to image UCG related subsidence. Data from newer satellites and improved algorithms will improve effectiveness.

  9. Vision-based method for detecting driver drowsiness and distraction in driver monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jaeik; Lee, Sung Joo; Jung, Ho Gi; Park, Kang Ryoung; Kim, Jaihie

    2011-12-01

    Most driver-monitoring systems have attempted to detect either driver drowsiness or distraction, although both factors should be considered for accident prevention. Therefore, we propose a new driver-monitoring method considering both factors. We make the following contributions. First, if the driver is looking ahead, drowsiness detection is performed; otherwise, distraction detection is performed. Thus, the computational cost and eye-detection error can be reduced. Second, we propose a new eye-detection algorithm that combines adaptive boosting, adaptive template matching, and blob detection with eye validation, thereby reducing the eye-detection error and processing time significantly, which is hardly achievable using a single method. Third, to enhance eye-detection accuracy, eye validation is applied after initial eye detection, using a support vector machine based on appearance features obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Fourth, we propose a novel eye state-detection algorithm that combines appearance features obtained using PCA and LDA, with statistical features such as the sparseness and kurtosis of the histogram from the horizontal edge image of the eye. Experimental results showed that the detection accuracies of the eye region and eye states were 99 and 97%, respectively. Both driver drowsiness and distraction were detected with a success rate of 98%.

  10. Detection and identification of platelet antibodies and antigens in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Curtis, B R; McFarland, J G

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the unique functional properties of platelets, more-robust methods were required for detection of antibodies raised against them. Immunofluorescence detection by flow cytometry, solid-phase red cell adherence, and antigen capture ELISAs are some of the current tests that have been developed to meet the challenges of platelet antibody detection and identification and antigen phenotyping. Recently developed protein liquid bead arrays are becoming the next-generation platelet antibody tests. Fueled by development of PCR and determination of the molecular basis of the PlA1 human platelet antigen (HPA), serologic platelet typing has now been replaced by genotyping of DNA. Allele-specific PCR, melting curve analysis, and 5'-nuclease assays are now evolving into more high-throughput molecular tests. Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of immune platelet disorders has advanced considerably from its humble beginnings.

  11. Long-term geoelectrical monitoring of laboratory freeze-thaw experiments on bedrock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuras, Oliver; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Murton, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Much attention has recently focussed on the continuous and near-real-time geophysical monitoring of permafrost-affected bedrock with permanently installed sensor arrays. It is hoped that such efforts will enhance process understanding in such environments (permafrost degradation, weathering mechanisms) and augment our capability to predict future instabilities of rock walls and slopes. With regard to electrical methods for example, recent work has demonstrated that temperature-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is capable of imaging recession and re-advance of rock permafrost in response to the ambient temperature regime. However, field experience also shows that several fundamental improvements to ERT methodology are still required to achieve the desired sensitivity, spatial-temporal resolution and long-term robustness that must underpin continuous geophysical measurements. We have applied 4D geoelectrical tomography to monitoring laboratory experiments simulating permafrost growth, persistence and thaw in bedrock over a period of 26 months. Six water-saturated samples of limestone and chalk of varying porosity represented lithologies commonly affected by permafrost-related instability. Time-lapse imaging of the samples was undertaken during multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles, emulating annual seasonal change over several decades. Further experimental control was provided by simultaneous measurements of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture content within the bedrock samples. These experiments have helped develop an alternative methodology for the volumetric imaging of permafrost bedrock and tracking active layer dynamics. Capacitive resistivity imaging (CRI), a technique based upon low-frequency, capacitively-coupled measurements emulates ERT methodology, but without the need for galvanic contact on frozen rock. The latter is perceived as a key potential weakness, which could lead to significant limitations as a result of the variable

  12. On the ability of birth defects monitoring to detect new teratogens.

    PubMed

    Khoury, M J; Holtzman, N A

    1987-07-01

    Recent concerns have been raised about the ability of birth defects monitoring programs to detect increases in the incidence of birth defects following the introduction of new teratogens. The authors illustrate how most monitoring programs in the United States and Europe are limited in their ability to detect new teratogens because of a combination of parameters: the small population size, the low population frequency of exposure to the new teratogen, the weakness of many suspected teratogens (measured in terms of relative risk R), the low background rate, and the etiologic heterogeneity in the measured defects. In a system that monitors 25,000 births per year, it can be shown that although a new teratogen such as thalidomide (R = 175) can lead to a significant increase in the number of observed cases in 1-2 weeks of monitoring, even strong teratogens such as valproic acid and isotretinoin (R = 20-25) require more than 20 years of monitoring to show a significant increase in the number of cases because of low exposure frequency. Also, most mild to moderate teratogens (R = 2-5) can be totally missed. To improve the ability of birth defects monitoring programs to detect new teratogens, it is suggested that surveillance systems ought to examine subsegments of the population with maximal exposure potential, classify birth defects into more etiologically homogeneous groups, and expand the sample size of the monitored population.

  13. Crack detection and leakage monitoring on reinforced concrete pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qian; Kong, Qingzhao; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2015-11-01

    Reinforced concrete underground pipelines are some of the most widely used types of structures in water transportation systems. Cracks and leakage are the leading causes of pipeline structural failures which directly results in economic losses and environmental hazards. In this paper, the authors propose a piezoceramic based active sensing approach to detect the cracks and the further leakage of concrete pipelines. Due to the piezoelectric properties, piezoceramic material can be utilized as both the actuator and the sensor in the active sensing approach. The piezoceramic patch, which is sandwiched between protective materials called ‘smart aggregates,’ can be safely embedded into concrete structures. Circumferential and axial cracks were investigated. A wavelet packet-based energy analysis was developed to distinguish the type of crack and determine the further leakage based on different stress wave energy attenuation propagated through the cracks.

  14. Monitoring robot actions for error detection and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gini, M.; Smith, R.

    1987-01-01

    Reliability is a serious problem in computer controlled robot systems. Although robots serve successfully in relatively simple applications such as painting and spot welding, their potential in areas such as automated assembly is hampered by programming problems. A program for assembling parts may be logically correct, execute correctly on a simulator, and even execute correctly on a robot most of the time, yet still fail unexpectedly in the face of real world uncertainties. Recovery from such errors is far more complicated than recovery from simple controller errors, since even expected errors can often manifest themselves in unexpected ways. Here, a novel approach is presented for improving robot reliability. Instead of anticipating errors, researchers use knowledge-based programming techniques so that the robot can autonomously exploit knowledge about its task and environment to detect and recover from failures. They describe preliminary experiment of a system that they designed and constructed.

  15. Laboratory Validation of Inertial Body Sensors to Detect Cigarette Smoking Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Karataş, Çağdaş; McClure, Erin A.; Pompili, Dario; Walls, Theodore A.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Traditional in-clinic cessation interventions may fail to intervene and interrupt the rapid progression to relapse that typically occurs following a quit attempt. The ability to detect actual smoking behavior in real-time is a measurement challenge for health behavior research and intervention. The successful detection of real-time smoking through mobile health (mHealth) methodology has substantial implications for developing highly efficacious treatment interventions. The current study was aimed at further developing and testing the ability of inertial sensors to detect cigarette smoking arm movements among smokers. The current study involved four smokers who smoked six cigarettes each in a laboratory-based assessment. Participants were outfitted with four inertial body movement sensors on the arms, which were used to detect smoking events at two levels: the puff level and the cigarette level. Two different algorithms (Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Edge-Detection based learning) were trained to detect the features of arm movement sequences transmitted by the sensors that corresponded with each level. The results showed that performance of the SVM algorithm at the cigarette level exceeded detection at the individual puff level, with low rates of false positive puff detection. The current study is the second in a line of programmatic research demonstrating the proof-of-concept for sensor-based tracking of smoking, based on movements of the arm and wrist. This study demonstrates efficacy in a real-world clinical inpatient setting and is the first to provide a detection rate against direct observation, enabling calculation of true and false positive rates. The study results indicate that the approach performs very well with some participants, whereas some challenges remain with participants who generate more frequent non-smoking movements near the face. Future work may allow for

  16. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  17. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  18. Development of an integrated soils laboratory for modeling and detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folks, William R.; North, Ryan E.; Wakeley, Lillian D.; Jackson, Samuel S.; Kelley, Julie R.; Castellane, Ray M.; McKenna, Jason R.

    2010-04-01

    The Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory at the US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) has developed a near-surface properties laboratory to provide complete characterization of soil. Data from this laboratory is being incorporated into a comprehensive database, to enhance military force projection and protection by providing physical properties for modelers and designers of imaging and detection systems. The database will allow cross-referencing of mineralogical, electromagnetic, thermal, and optical properties to predict surface and subsurface conditions. We present an example data set from recent collection efforts including FTIR in the Near-IR, MWIR, and LWIR bands, magnetic susceptibility (500 Hz to 8 GHz), and soil conductivity and complex permittivity (10 μHz to 8 GHz) measurements. X-ray data is presented along with a discussion of site geology, sample collection and preparation methods, and mineralogy. This type of data-collection effort provides useful constraint information of soil properties for use in modeling and target detection. By establishing real ranges for critical soil properties, we are able to improve algorithms to define anomalies that can indicate the presence of land mines, unexploded ordnance (UXOs), improvised explosive devices (IEDs), tunnels, and other visually obscured threats.

  19. Detection of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Carried Out in the Influenza Project - Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness (I-MOVE).

    PubMed

    Woźniak-Kosek, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The project Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness-Monitoring (I-MOVE) is part of the European research carried out by the ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and Control), aimed at monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination in Europe during the growing incidence of flu and influenza-like illnesses in the coming epidemic seasons. Laboratory studies using molecular RT-PCR biology methods for detection of genetic material of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses were performed by Voivodeship Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations in Poland. The validation of the results of swabs taken from the nose and throat were carried out in the Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Center in Warsaw. The study involved 210 samples from patients across Poland. Positive results were recorded for 72.4 % of the samples; influenza virus type A was detected in 43 and type B in 38 cases, whereas in 71 cases other respiratory viruses were detected, which included Human parainfluenza virus type 1-4; Human respiratory syncytial virus type A and B; Human coronavirus 229E/NL63, OC43; Human rhinovirus type A, B, and C; Human enterovirus; and Human adenovirus. The results show that although influenza viruses predominated in the 2010/2011 season in Poland, other flu-like viruses also abounded.

  20. Monitor for detecting nuclear waste leakage in a subsurface repository

    SciTech Connect

    Klainer, S.; Hirschfeld, T.; Bowman, H.; Milanovich, F.; Perry, D.; Johnson, D.

    1980-11-05

    The remote fiber fluorimetric portion of the program is slightly ahead of schedule and proceeding well technically. Proof of principle has been demonstrated over a 0.2 km path length using an organic tracer material. Performance and design calculations have been made for the fiber optic components of the system. Optimized fibers have been ordered and special jigs and optical couplings are presently being fabricated. Progress on the high-sensitivity analyzer using coprecipitation techniques has proceeded well ahead of schedule with technical results far above expectations. Preliminary measurements in the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +//CaF/sub 2/ detection system has proved sensitivities well beyond the natural background limit. While further improvement of sensitivity (to 10/sup -15/ g) already is planned, emphasis will now be placed on locating and dealing with possible interferences and on determining how to improve and optimize quantitative accuracy. In addition, simplication of the sample preparation procedure and downscaling to use very small (< 1 ml) groundwater samples is planned. In the longer time frame, work on maximum chemical speciation and the possibility of isotopic speciation will be undertaken. Once the coprecipitation procedures, instrumentation, and spectroscopy have been fully refined for uranium, then the process will be repeated for plutonium and perhaps americium and thorium.

  1. Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of wildlife populations commonly rely on indirect, count-based measures of the population in making decisions regarding conservation, harvest, or control. The main appeal in the use of such counts is their low material expense compared to methods that directly measure the population. However, their correct use rests on the rarely-tested but often-assumed premise that they proportionately reflect population size, i.e., that they constitute a population index. This study investigates forest management for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia, U.S.A. Optimal decision policies for a joint species objective were derived for two alternative models of Wood Thrush population dynamics. Policies were simulated under scenarios of unbiasedness, consistent negative bias, and habitat-dependent negative bias in observed Wood Thrush densities. Differences in simulation outcomes between biased and unbiased detection scenarios indicated the expected loss in resource objectives (here, forest habitat and birds) through decision-making based on biased population counts. Given the models and objective function used in our analysis, expected losses were as great as 11%, a degree of loss perhaps not trivial for applications such as endangered species management. Our analysis demonstrates that costs of uncertainty about the relationship between the population and its observation can be measured in units of the resource, costs which may offset apparent savings achieved by collecting uncorrected population counts.

  2. Detection and monitoring of volatile and semivolatile pollutants in soil through different sensing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    Pollutants in environments are more and more threatening the maintenance of health of habitats and their inhabitants. A proper evaluation of the impact of contaminants from several different potential sources on soil quality and health and then on organisms living therein, and the possible and sometime probable related risk of transfer of pollutants, with their toxic effects, to organisms living in different environmental compartments, through the trophic chain up to humans is strongly required by decision makers, in order to promptly take adequate actions to prevent environmental and health damages and monitor the exposure rate of individuals to toxicants. Then, a reliable detection of pollutants in environments and the monitoring of dynamics and fate of contaminants therein are of utmost importance to achieve this goal. In soil, chemical and physical techniques to detect pollutants have been well known for decades, but can often drive to both over- and underestimations of the actual bioavailable (and then toxic) fraction of contaminants, and then of the real risk for organisms, deriving from their presence therein. The use of bioindicators (both living organisms and enzyme activities somehow derived from them) can supply more reliable information about the quantification of the bioavailable fraction of soil pollutants. In the last decades, a physicochemical technique, such as SPME (solid phase microextraction) followed by GC-MS analysis, has been demonstrated to provide similar results to those obtained from some pedofaunal populations, used as bioindicators, as concerns the bioavailable pollutant quantification in soil. More recently, we have applied a sensing technology, namely electronic nose (EN), which comprises several unspecific sensors arranged in an array and that is capable of providing more qualitative than quantitative information about complex air samples, to the study of soils contaminated with semivolatile (SVOCs) pollutants, such as polycyclic

  3. Advanced monitoring of water systems using in situ measurement stations: data validation and fault detection.

    PubMed

    Alferes, Janelcy; Tik, Sovanna; Copp, John; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    In situ continuous monitoring at high frequency is used to collect water quality information about water bodies. However, it is crucial that the collected data be evaluated and validated for the appropriate interpretation of the data so as to ensure that the monitoring programme is effective. Software tools for data quality assessment with a practical orientation are proposed. As water quality data often contain redundant information, multivariate methods can be used to detect correlations, pertinent information among variables and to identify multiple sensor faults. While principal component analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the original variable data set, monitoring of some statistical metrics and their violation of confidence limits can be used to detect faulty or abnormal data and can help the user apply corrective action(s). The developed algorithms are illustrated with automated monitoring systems installed in an urban river and at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Direct detection of resonant electron pitch angle scattering by whistler waves in a laboratory plasma.

    PubMed

    Van Compernolle, B; Bortnik, J; Pribyl, P; Gekelman, W; Nakamoto, M; Tao, X; Thorne, R M

    2014-04-11

    Resonant interactions between energetic electrons and whistler mode waves are an essential ingredient in the space environment, and in particular in controlling the dynamic variability of Earth's natural radiation belts, which is a topic of extreme interest at the moment. Although the theory describing resonant wave-particle interaction has been present for several decades, it has not been hitherto tested in a controlled laboratory setting. In the present Letter we report on the first laboratory experiment to directly detect resonant pitch angle scattering of energetic (∼keV) electrons due to whistler mode waves. We show that the whistler mode wave deflects energetic electrons at precisely the predicted resonant energy, and that varying both the maximum beam energy, and the wave frequency, alters the energetic electron beam very close to the resonant energy.

  5. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  6. Detection of electrically failed photovoltaic modules at selected MIT Lincoln Laboratory test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has set a 20-year lifetime goal for terrestrial photovoltaic modules. In its capacity as a Photovoltaic Field Tests and Applications Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory has established various experimental test sites throughout the United States, ranging in size from 1.5 to 100 kW of peak power. These sites contain modules from several manufacturers and serve as test beds for photovoltaic system components. From May 1977 to date, over 11,000 modules have been placed in service at these sites, of which a total of 250 have suffered electrical failures. In previous reports emphasis has been placed on failure modes and the types of physical and electrical degradation found in modules. The methods used to detect failures in operational photovoltaic power-generating systems are reported for several Lincoln Laboratory test sites.

  7. In vitro amplification techniques for the detection of nucleic acids: new tools for the diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Persing, D H; Landry, M L

    1989-01-01

    The acceptance of nucleic acid probes as diagnostic tools for the clinical laboratory has been hampered by a number of factors, including laborious techniques and limited sensitivity. The focus of this review is on the recent development of amplification techniques to enhance the signal generated by nucleic acid-based detection systems. Three general areas are discussed: (1) amplification of target sequences using the polymerase chain reaction or the transcript amplification system, (2) amplification of the probe sequences using Q beta replicase, and (3) amplification of probe-generated signals with compound or "Christmas tree" probes. The hope of these new technologies is to simplify yet improve on the sensitivity of nucleic acid-based tests to enable them to attain a more prominent place in the diagnostic repertoire of the clinical laboratory.

  8. Laboratory Characterization and Astrophysical Detection in Orion KL of Higher Excited Vibrational States of Vinyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alicia; Tercero, Belén; Cernicharo, Jose; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczółkowski, Lech; Bermúdez, Celina; Alonso, José L.; Medvedev, Ivan; Neese, Christopher F.; Drouin, Brian; Daly, Adam M.; Marcelino, Nuria; Viti, Serena; Calcutt, Hannah

    2014-06-01

    Vinyl cyanide (acrylonitrile, H_2C=CHC≡N) is an interstellar molecule that was classified as a 'weed' since transitions in its isotopic species and vibrationally excited states have already been detected and need to be accounted for in searches for complex organic molecules. Presently we extend the systematic analysis of the laboratory rotational spectrum of vinyl cyanide to 9 new excited vibrational states with vibrational energies above 550 cm-1 (785K). The spectroscopic analysis is based on the broadband 50-1900 GHz spectrum combined from results from the participating spectroscopic laboratories and covering a total of 1235 GHz. The studied states come in the form of polyads of perturbing vibrational states, and such perturbations also affect the strong, low-K_a transitions used for astrophysical detection. It is therefore crucial to account for such effects in order to produce reliable linelists. The experimental data for three new polyads were fitted to experimental accuracy using Coriolis and Fermi perturbation models. Multiple transitions in the lowest of these polyads (and in other excited vibrational states and isotopic species of vinyl cyanide) were detected in the millimetre survey of the Orion-KL Nebula made with the IRAM 30-m radiotelescope.

  9. Monitoring the Ocean Acoustic Environment: A Model-Based Detection Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.

    2000-03-13

    A model-based approach is applied in the development of a processor designed to passively monitor an ocean acoustic environment along with its associated variations. The technique employs an adaptive, model-based processor embedded in a sequential likelihood detection scheme. The trade-off between state-based and innovations-based monitor designs is discussed, conceptually. The underlying theory for the innovations-based design is briefly developed and applied to a simulated data set.

  10. Summary of detection, location, and characterization capabilities of AE for continuous monitoring of cracks in reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.; Friesel, M.A.; Pappas, R.A.; Skorpik, J.R.; Dawson, J.F.

    1984-10-01

    The objective of the program is to develop acoustic emission (AE) methods for continuous monitoring of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate crack growth. The approach involves three phases: develop relationships to identify crack growth AE signals and to use identified crack growth AE data to estimate flaw severity; evaluate and refine AE/flaw relationships through fatigue testing a heavy section vessel under simulated reactor conditions; and demonstrate continuous AE monitoring on a nuclear power reactor system.

  11. Ratiometric spectral imaging for fast tumor detection and chemotherapy monitoring in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Gross, Zeev; Gray, Harry B.; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2011-06-01

    We report a novel in vivo spectral imaging approach to cancer detection and chemotherapy assessment. We describe and characterize a ratiometric spectral imaging and analysis method and evaluate its performance for tumor detection and delineation by quantitatively monitoring the specific accumulation of targeted gallium corrole (HerGa) into HER2-positive (HER2 +) breast tumors. HerGa temporal accumulation in nude mice bearing HER2 + breast tumors was monitored comparatively by a. this new ratiometric imaging and analysis method; b. established (reflectance and fluorescence) spectral imaging; c. more commonly used fluorescence intensity imaging. We also tested the feasibility of HerGa imaging in vivo using the ratiometric spectral imaging method for tumor detection and delineation. Our results show that the new method not only provides better quantitative information than typical spectral imaging, but also better specificity than standard fluorescence intensity imaging, thus allowing enhanced in vivo outlining of tumors and dynamic, quantitative monitoring of targeted chemotherapy agent accumulation into them.

  12. The Detection of Reactor Antineutrinos for Reactor Core Monitoring: an Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fallot, M.

    2014-06-15

    There have been new developments in the field of applied neutrino physics during the last decade. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has expressed interest in the potentialities of antineutrino detection as a new tool for reactor monitoring and has created an ad hoc Working Group in late 2010 to follow the associated research and development. Several research projects are ongoing around the world to build antineutrino detectors dedicated to reactor monitoring, to search for and develop innovative detection techniques, or to simulate and study the characteristics of the antineutrino emission of actual and innovative nuclear reactor designs. We give, in these proceedings, an overview of the relevant properties of antineutrinos, the possibilities of and limitations on their detection, and the status of the development of a variety of compact antineutrino detectors for reactor monitoring.

  13. First Measurements of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Torres, F. J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has sensors recording air and ground temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed in the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as ultraviolet radiation in different bands. Typical daily REMS observations will collect 180 minutes of data from all sensors simultaneously (arranged in 5 minute hourly samples plus 60 additional minutes taken at times to be decided, daily, during the course of the mission). REMS will add significantly to the environmental record collected by prior missions through the range of simultaneous observations including water vapor; the ability to take measurements routinely through the night; the intended minimum of one Martian year of observations; and the first measurement of surface UV irradiation. The capability of multiple, consistent, and simultaneous data is essential for meaningful interpretation of near-surface processes including the characterization of soil thermal properties. The Martian atmosphere is generally transparent to solar radiation, but atmospheric dust absorbs solar radiation and heats the atmosphere, while UV radiation ionizes atmospheric gases and is harmful to any potential Martian organisms (past or present). For this reason, knowledge of the UV radiation flux at the surface of Mars is important for the understanding habitability conditions, one of the main goals of the MSL mission. Moreover UV radiation is a significant driver in the photochemistry of the atmosphere and surface. In this paper we present a first analysis of REMS measurements, the status of the different sensors and the potential of REMS for Mars environmental studies. REMS Team: C. Armiens, I. Carrasco, F. Gómez, A. Lepinette, J. Martín, J. Martínez-Frías, L. Mora, S. Navarro, V. Peinado, J. Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. Romeral, E. Sebastián, J. Torres, J. Verdasca (Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km. 4, 28850 Torrej

  14. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present climatic characteristics of Mars favor the presence of extense permafrost areas in this lonely planet. Therefore environmental parameters that are included in Martian Rover missions are also used for monitoring thermal soil surface evolution in order to study the permafrost active layer thickness and the energy balance in the soil-atmosphere boundary limit layer. The REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) is an environmental station designed by the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB- Spain) with the collaboration of national and international partners (CRISA/EADS, UPC and FMI), which is part of the payload of the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) NASA mission to Mars (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/overview/). This mission is expected to be launched in the final months of 2009, and mainly consists of a Rover, with a complete set of scientific instruments; the Rover will carry the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. Five sensors compose the REMS instrument: ground (GT-REMS) and air temperatures, wind speed and direction, pressure, humidity and ultraviolet radiation (UV-REMS). A simplified setup of the REMS was deployed on Antarctica in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Stations on Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctica), where the permafrost distribution is well-known. The aim of the experiment was to check REMS's sensors response against hard environmental conditions and calibrates their measures with standard Antarctic devices. The experimental apparatuses included some standard meteorological and thermopiles sensors corresponding to the REMS. All the sensors are mounted in a 1.8 m mast and include a Pt100 air temperature sensor with shield solar protection on the mast top, a Kipp and Zonnen CNR1 net radiometer for measuring infrared (5-50 μm) and short wave solar (305-2800 nm) radiation at 1.5 m high, GT-REMS sensor and its amplification box at 0.7 m high and finally

  15. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, K.S.; Gonzalez, M.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1983-03-14

    Environmental monitoring efforts spanned air, water, vegetation and foodstuffs, and radiation doses. Monitoring data collection, analysis, and evaluation are presented for air, soils, sewage, water, vegetation and foodstuffs, milk, and general environmental radioactivity. Non-radioactive monitoring addresses beryllium, chemical effluents in sewage, noise pollution, and storm runoff and liquid discharge site pollutants. Quality assurance efforts are addressed. Five appendices present tabulated data; environmental activity concentration; dose calculation method; discharge limits to sanitary sewer systems of Livermore; and sampling and analytical procedures for environmental monitoring. (PSB)

  16. Effect of monitor luminance on the detection of a solitary pulmonary nodule: ROC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Koun-Sik; Lee, Jin S.; Kim, Hae Y.; Lim, Tae H.

    1999-05-01

    We compared the detectability of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) in chest radiographs displayed on different gray-scale monitor luminance. From the long-term archive of Asan Medical Center PACS 40 normal chest PA images and 40 chest PA images with SPN were fetched into the short-term storage. All Chest PA images were acquired using Fuji FCR 9501 or 9500 HQ and down-sampled from 4k to 2k pixel resolutions, and archived to ODJ with 10:1 compression ratio. Mean diameter of the nodules were 12 mm ranging in size from 8 to 20 mm. Nodules were located within the free lung fields (10 cases), overlapped with rib (13 cases), and overlapped with hilum, heart, or subphrenic areas (17 cases). Gray-scale monitors compared in our study were Image Systems M21P2KHBMAX monitor with 100 fL brightness and M21PMAX monitor with 65 fL brightness. After randomization, eight board-certified radiologists determined the presence or absence of nodules independently using worksheet. All radiologists interpreted the images displayed on low-brightness monitors, then after 10 days interpreted the images displayed on high-brightness monitors. Data were gathered using five rating categories, and ROC analysis was performed. Area under the ROC curve was compared for low and high brightness monitors. Mean area under the ROC curve for low-brightness monitor was 0.8597 and high-brightness monitor was 0.8734. Although high-brightness monitor is slightly superior to low-brightness monitor, there was no statistically significant differences between low-brightness and high- brightness monitors (p equals 0.3). Further studies are required for various other subtle lung diseases, long-term physiological effect.

  17. Field Operations Procedures Manual for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses meteorological monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Meteorological monitoring of various climatological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity) will be collected by instruments installed at WAG 6. Data will be recorded electronically at frequencies varying from 5-min intervals to 1-h intervals, dependent upon parameter. The data will be downloaded every 2 weeks, evaluated, compressed, and uploaded into a WAG 6 data base for subsequent use. The meteorological data will be used in water balance calculations in support of the WAG 6 hydrogeological model.

  18. Laboratory Detection and Analysis of Organic Compounds in Rocks Using HPLC and XRD Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragoi, D.; Kanik, I.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sherrit, S.; Tsapin, A.; Kulleck, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we describe an analytical method for determining the presence of organic compounds in rocks, limestone, and other composite materials. Our preliminary laboratory experiments on different rocks/limestone show that the organic component in mineralogical matrices is a minor phase on order of hundreds of ppm and can be better detected using high precision liquid chromatography (HPLC). The matrix, which is the major phase, plays an important role in embedding and protecting the organic molecules from the harsh Martian environment. Some rocks bear significant amounts of amino acids therefore, it is possible to identify these phases using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) by crystallizing the organic. The method of detection/analysis of organics, in particular amino acids, that have been associated with life will be shown in the next section.

  19. Detection of Mouse Cough Based on Sound Monitoring and Respiratory Airflow Waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyan; Lai, Kefang; Lomask, Joseph Mark; Jiang, Bert; Zhong, Nanshan

    2013-01-01

    Detection for cough in mice has never yielded clearly audible sounds, so there is still a great deal of debates as to whether mice can cough in response to tussive stimuli. Here we introduce an approach for detection of mouse cough based on sound monitoring and airflow signals. 40 Female BALB/c mice were pretreated with normal saline, codeine, capasazepine or desensitized with capsaicin. Single mouse was put in a plethysmograph, exposed to aerosolized 100 µmol/L capsaicin for 3 min, followed by continuous observation for 3 min. Airflow signals of total 6 min were recorded and analyzed to detect coughs. Simultaneously, mouse cough sounds were sensed by a mini-microphone, monitored manually by an operator. When manual and automatic detection coincided, the cough was positively identified. Sound and sound waveforms were also recorded and filtered for further analysis. Body movements were observed by operator. Manual versus automated counts were compared. Seven types of airflow signals were identified by integrating manual and automated monitoring. Observation of mouse movements and analysis of sound waveforms alone did not produce meaningful data. Mouse cough numbers decreased significantly after all above drugs treatment. The Bland-Altman and consistency analysis between automatic and manual counts was 0.968 and 0.956. The study suggests that the mouse is able to present with cough, which could be detected by sound monitoring and respiratory airflow waveform changes. PMID:23555643

  20. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1981 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Auyong, M.; Griggs, K.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-03-11

    This report gives methods and results of the 1981 radiation monitoring program at LLL for both radioactive and non-radioactive contamination from gaseous and liquid effluents. Off-site monitoring includes various radionuclides but especially tritium in the ecosystems. (PSB)

  1. Probabilistic monitoring in intrusion detection module for energy efficiency in mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rango, Floriano; Lupia, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    MANETs allow mobile nodes communicating to each other using the wireless medium. A key aspect of these kind of networks is the security, because their setup is done without an infrastructure, so external nodes could interfere in the communication. Mobile nodes could be compromised, misbehaving during the multi-hop transmission of data, or they could have a selfish behavior to save energy, which is another important constraint in MANETs. The detection of these behaviors need a framework that takes into account the latest interactions among nodes, so malicious or selfish nodes could be detected also if their behavior is changed over time. The monitoring activity increases the energy consumption, so our proposal takes into account this issue reducing the energy required by the monitoring system, keeping the effectiveness of the intrusion detection system. The results show an improvement in the saved energy, improving the detection performance too.

  2. Inter-laboratory optimization of protein extraction, separation, and fluorescent detection of endogenous rice allergens

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Rie; Teshima, Reiko; Kitta, Kazumi; Lang, Gang-Hua; Schegg, Kathleen; Blumenthal, Kenneth; Hicks, Leslie; Labory-Carcenac, Bénédicte; Rouquié, David; Herman, Rod A.; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Ladics, Gregory S.; McClain, Scott; Poulsen, Lars K.; Privalle, Laura; Ward, Jason M.; Doerrer, Nancy; Rascle, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    In rice, several allergens have been identified such as the non-specific lipid transfer protein-1, the α-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors, the α-globulin, the 33 kDa glyoxalase I (Gly I), the 52–63 kDa globulin, and the granule-bound starch synthetase. The goal of the present study was to define optimal rice extraction and detection methods that would allow a sensitive and reproducible measure of several classes of known rice allergens. In a three-laboratory ring-trial experiment, several protein extraction methods were first compared and analyzed by 1D multiplexed SDS-PAGE. In a second phase, an inter-laboratory validation of 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted in five independent laboratories, focusing on three rice allergens (52 kDa globulin, 33 kDa glyoxalase I, and 14–16 kDa α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family members). The results of the present study indicate that a combination of 1D multiplexed SDS-PAGE and 2D-DIGE methods would be recommended to quantify the various rice allergens. PMID:27399872

  3. LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION AND ASTROPHYSICAL DETECTION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED STATES OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, A. M.; Bermudez, C.; Alonso, J. L.; Lopez, A.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Pearson, J. C.; Marcelino, N. E-mail: cbermu@qf.uva.es E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: nmarceli@nrao.edu

    2013-05-01

    Ethyl cyanide, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, is an important interstellar molecule with a very dense rotational-vibrational spectrum. On the basis of new laboratory data in the range of 17-605 GHz and ab initio calculations, two new vibrational states, {nu}{sub 12} and {nu}{sub 20}, have been detected in molecular clouds of Orion. Laboratory data consist of Stark spectroscopy (17-110 GHz) and frequency-modulated spectrometers (GEM laboratory in Valladolid: 17-170, 270-360 GHz; Toyama: 26-200 GHz; Emory: 200-240 GHz; Ohio State: 258-368 GHz; and JPL: 270-318, 395-605 GHz). More than 700 distinct lines of each species were measured in J up to 71 and in K{sub a} up to 25. The states were fitted with Watson's S-reduction Hamiltonian. The two new states have been identified in the interstellar medium toward the Orion Nebula (Orion KL). The ground state, the isotopologues of CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, and the vibrationally excited states have been fitted to obtain column densities and to derive vibrational temperatures. All together, ethyl cyanide is responsible for more than 2000 lines in the observed frequency range of 80-280 GHz.

  4. Distributed temperature monitoring for liquid sodium leakage detection using OFDR-based Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyreva, E.; Cotillard, R.; Laffont, G.; Ferdinand, P.; Cambet, D.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Charvet, P.; Albaladéjo, S.; Rodriguez, G.

    2014-05-01

    For the first time, a gold coated single mode optical fiber has been used to detect a liquid sodium leakage on a pipe of secondary circuit pipe mock-up of nuclear fast reactor (Gen IV) by means of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry-based on Rayleigh backscattering. During 150 min of the experiment we were able to detect and monitor the evolution of a liquid sodium leakage on the surface of the pipe.

  5. Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

  6. Evaluation of laboratory tests for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Coudron, P E; Jones, D L; Dalton, H P; Archer, G L

    1986-11-01

    Few studies evaluating susceptibility testing of methicillin-resistant staphylococci have included isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, a known pathogen in many types of serious infections. We tested 175 S. epidermidis and 95 Staphylococcus aureus isolates to determine the most sensitive procedures for detecting methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Reference procedures included agar dilution with methicillin and 4% NaCl in the agar and broth microdilution with methicillin and 2% NaCl in cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth. After 24 h of incubation, the results from both methods correlated well and were within 1 log2 dilution for all isolates tested. Only one-half of all resistant isolates (92 of 183) were detected at 18 h by using the standard disk diffusion technique with 5-micrograms methicillin disks, and even fewer were detected with 10-micrograms methicillin disks and newly recommended zone-size criteria. However, the standard disk diffusion method with 4% NaCl in the agar increased the sensitivity and specificity for identification of the proper phenotype to greater than 92%. The spread plate and new spot techniques, both using agar with 4% NaCl, were also sensitive methods. Of 47 S. epidermidis isolates tested against oxacillin, 6 (13%) were oxacillin susceptible but methicillin resistant. Two automated systems, the Automicrobic system (Vitek Systems) and MicroScan (American MicroScan), as well as two broth screening systems available from Remel and Austin Biological Laboratories, failed to detect several resistant isolates, depending on the species.

  7. Evaluation of laboratory tests for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Coudron, P E; Jones, D L; Dalton, H P; Archer, G L

    1986-11-01

    Few studies evaluating susceptibility testing of methicillin-resistant staphylococci have included isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, a known pathogen in many types of serious infections. We tested 175 S. epidermidis and 95 Staphylococcus aureus isolates to determine the most sensitive procedures for detecting methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Reference procedures included agar dilution with methicillin and 4% NaCl in the agar and broth microdilution with methicillin and 2% NaCl in cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth. After 24 h of incubation, the results from both methods correlated well and were within 1 log2 dilution for all isolates tested. Only one-half of all resistant isolates (92 of 183) were detected at 18 h by using the standard disk diffusion technique with 5-micrograms methicillin disks, and even fewer were detected with 10-micrograms methicillin disks and newly recommended zone-size criteria. However, the standard disk diffusion method with 4% NaCl in the agar increased the sensitivity and specificity for identification of the proper phenotype to greater than 92%. The spread plate and new spot techniques, both using agar with 4% NaCl, were also sensitive methods. Of 47 S. epidermidis isolates tested against oxacillin, 6 (13%) were oxacillin susceptible but methicillin resistant. Two automated systems, the Automicrobic system (Vitek Systems) and MicroScan (American MicroScan), as well as two broth screening systems available from Remel and Austin Biological Laboratories, failed to detect several resistant isolates, depending on the species. PMID:3639887

  8. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field.

  9. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Clinically Driven versus Routine Laboratory Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Medina Lara, Antonieta; Kigozi, Jesse; Amurwon, Jovita; Muchabaiwa, Lazarus; Nyanzi Wakaholi, Barbara; Mujica Mota, Ruben E.; Walker, A. Sarah; Kasirye, Ronnie; Ssali, Francis; Reid, Andrew; Grosskurth, Heiner; Babiker, Abdel G.; Kityo, Cissy; Katabira, Elly; Munderi, Paula; Mugyenyi, Peter; Hakim, James; Darbyshire, Janet; Gibb, Diana M.; Gilks, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite funding constraints for treatment programmes in Africa, the costs and economic consequences of routine laboratory monitoring for efficacy and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have rarely been evaluated. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in the DART trial (ISRCTN13968779). Adults in Uganda/Zimbabwe starting ART were randomised to clinically-driven monitoring (CDM) or laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM); individual patient data on healthcare resource utilisation and outcomes were valued with primary economic costs and utilities. Total costs of first/second-line ART, routine 12-weekly CD4 and biochemistry/haematology tests, additional diagnostic investigations, clinic visits, concomitant medications and hospitalisations were considered from the public healthcare sector perspective. A Markov model was used to extrapolate costs and benefits 20 years beyond the trial. Results 3316 (1660LCM;1656CDM) symptomatic, immunosuppressed ART-naive adults (median (IQR) age 37 (32,42); CD4 86 (31,139) cells/mm3) were followed for median 4.9 years. LCM had a mean 0.112 year (41 days) survival benefit at an additional mean cost of $765 [95%CI:685,845], translating into an adjusted incremental cost of $7386 [3277,dominated] per life-year gained and $7793 [4442,39179] per quality-adjusted life year gained. Routine toxicity tests were prominent cost-drivers and had no benefit. With 12-weekly CD4 monitoring from year 2 on ART, low-cost second-line ART, but without toxicity monitoring, CD4 test costs need to fall below $3.78 to become cost-effective (<3xper-capita GDP, following WHO benchmarks). CD4 monitoring at current costs as undertaken in DART was not cost-effective in the long-term. Conclusions There is no rationale for routine toxicity monitoring, which did not affect outcomes and was costly. Even though beneficial, there is little justification for routine 12-weekly CD4 monitoring of ART at current test costs in low-income African

  10. Non-destructive monitoring of nitrate concentration in a laboratory flow experiment using time domain reflectometry (TDR).

    PubMed

    Krishnapillai, M; Sri Ranjan, R

    2009-01-01

    Nitrates, when found in excess in the groundwater, are a health hazard. Nitrates can easily be transported by groundwater movement and may eventually reach aquifers located far away from the contamination location. Recent research has focused on developing innovative techniques to remediate nitrate-contaminated soils. It is important to monitor the nitrate movement in the groundwater to predict the extent of nitrate contamination. Traditionally, nitrate movement is monitored by sampling soil pore water and analysing it in the laboratory. In this study a non-destructive method, using time domain reflectometry (TDR) to monitor nitrate movement in laboratory flow experiments, is presented. Three flow cells (replicates) packed with a silty loam soil were subjected to a constant hydraulic gradient inducing saturated water flow through the flow cells. A source of potassium nitrate solution, containing 500 ppm NO3-N, was connected at the inflow end, and the nitrate concentration change with time was monitored along the length of the flow cells by sampling the soil solution and analysing it in the laboratory for NO3-N concentration. At the time of sampling, TDR wave forms were recorded using the TDR mini-probes inserted at regular intervals along the length of the flow cells. The bulk soil electrical conductivity and the water content values extracted from the TDR wave forms were used to predict the nitrate concentrations at different locations. The nitrate concentration values predicted from the TDR-measured bulk electrical conductivity and water content data correlated well with the nitrate concentrations obtained by soil solution sampling method. PMID:19213472

  11. Non-destructive monitoring of nitrate concentration in a laboratory flow experiment using time domain reflectometry (TDR).

    PubMed

    Krishnapillai, M; Sri Ranjan, R

    2009-01-01

    Nitrates, when found in excess in the groundwater, are a health hazard. Nitrates can easily be transported by groundwater movement and may eventually reach aquifers located far away from the contamination location. Recent research has focused on developing innovative techniques to remediate nitrate-contaminated soils. It is important to monitor the nitrate movement in the groundwater to predict the extent of nitrate contamination. Traditionally, nitrate movement is monitored by sampling soil pore water and analysing it in the laboratory. In this study a non-destructive method, using time domain reflectometry (TDR) to monitor nitrate movement in laboratory flow experiments, is presented. Three flow cells (replicates) packed with a silty loam soil were subjected to a constant hydraulic gradient inducing saturated water flow through the flow cells. A source of potassium nitrate solution, containing 500 ppm NO3-N, was connected at the inflow end, and the nitrate concentration change with time was monitored along the length of the flow cells by sampling the soil solution and analysing it in the laboratory for NO3-N concentration. At the time of sampling, TDR wave forms were recorded using the TDR mini-probes inserted at regular intervals along the length of the flow cells. The bulk soil electrical conductivity and the water content values extracted from the TDR wave forms were used to predict the nitrate concentrations at different locations. The nitrate concentration values predicted from the TDR-measured bulk electrical conductivity and water content data correlated well with the nitrate concentrations obtained by soil solution sampling method.

  12. An audit of therapeutic drug monitoring service provision by laboratories participating in an external quality assessment scheme.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A H; Watson, I D; Wilson, J F; Sweeney, G; Dawkins, C E; Smith, B L; Williams, J; Capps, N E; Toseland, P A

    1998-06-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring services were investigated in a questionnaire sent to all subscribers to the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Therapeutic Drug Assays. Questions were posed on assay availability and use, target ranges, and reporting procedures for digoxin, lithium, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, carbamazepine, theophylline, and valproic acid. One hundred fifty-seven laboratories replied and, except for lithium, 45% reported in mass units, 34% in molar units, and 22% a mixture of mass and molar units. Target ranges for lithium, digoxin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbitone were highly variable but ranges for phenytoin, theophylline, and valproic acid were more consistent. Immunoassay was the most popular methodology although high-performance liquid chromatography was commonly used for anticonvulsants. Paper copies of results were provided by 93% of laboratories, 40% reported by telephone, 12% by fax, and 28% by computer. Additional data, mainly dose, time of last dose, and duration of therapy were requested by 55% to 67% of laboratories. Grades of staff authorizing results ranged from nurses to senior consultants, and collaboration with pharmacists occurred in 26% of laboratories. Most laboratories provided a daily analytical service and 73% offered a 24-hour emergency service. This audit unexpectedly identified use of a wide range of target concentrations, particularly for digoxin and lithium. PMID:9631919

  13. Fault detection monitor circuit provides ''self-heal capability'' in electronic modules - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Self-checking technique detects defective solid state modules used in electronic test and checkout instrumentation. A ten bit register provides failure monitor and indication for 1023 comparator circuits, and the automatic fault-isolation capability permits the electronic subsystems to be repaired by replacing the defective module.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 258 - Constituents for Detection Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Constituents for Detection Monitoring I Appendix I to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Pt. 258, App. I Appendix I to Part...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 258 - Constituents for Detection Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Constituents for Detection Monitoring I Appendix I to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Pt. 258, App. I Appendix I to Part...

  16. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring approaches to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost-effective fence line and process monitoring systems to support advanced leak detection and repair (LDAR) strategies can enhance protection of public health, facilitate worker safety, and help companies realize cost savings by reducing lost product. The U.S. EPA Office of Re...

  17. Failure Monitoring and Leakage Detection for Underground Storage of Compressed Air Energy in Lined Rock Caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Dohyun; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Park, Eui-Seob

    2016-02-01

    Underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns (LRCs) provides a promising solution for storing energy on a large scale. One of the essential issues facing underground CAES implementation is the risk of air leakage from the storage caverns. Compressed air may leak through an initial defect in the inner containment liner, such as imperfect welds and construction joints, or through structurally damaged points of the liner during CAES operation for repeated compression and decompression cycles. Detection of the air leakage and identification of the leakage location around the underground storage cavern are required. In this study, we analyzed the displacement (or strain) monitoring method to detect the mechanical failure of liners that provides major pathways of air leakage using a previously developed numerical technique simulating the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical behavior of underground CAES in LRCs. We analyzed the use of pressure monitoring to detect air leakage and characterize the leakage location. From the simulation results, we demonstrated that tangential strain monitoring at the inner face of sealing liners could enable one to detect failure. We also demonstrated that the use of the cross-correlation method between pressure history data measured at various sensors could identify the air leak location. These results may help in the overall design of a monitoring and alarm system for the successful implementation and operation of CAES in LRCs.

  18. Operating a Microwave Radiation Detection Monitor. Module 10. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating a microwave radiation detection monitor. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) testing the…

  19. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 258 - Constituents for Detection Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Constituents for Detection Monitoring I Appendix I to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Pt. 258, App. I Appendix I to Part...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 258 - Constituents for Detection Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Constituents for Detection Monitoring I Appendix I to Part 258 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Pt. 258, App. I Appendix I to Part 258—Constituents...

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. A microprocessor-based digital feeder monitor with high-impedance fault detection

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Tyska, W.; Russell, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    The high impedance fault detection technology developed at Texas A&M University after more than a decade of research, funded in large part by the Electric Power Research Institute, has been incorporated into a comprehensive monitoring device for overhead distribution feeders. This digital feeder monitor (DFM) uses a high waveform sampling rate for the ac current and voltage inputs in conjunction with a high-performance reduced instruction set (RISC) microprocessor to obtain the frequency response required for arcing fault detection and power quality measurements. Expert system techniques are employed to assure security while maintaining dependability. The DFM is intended to be applied at a distribution substation to monitor one feeder. The DFM is packaged in a non-drawout case which fits the panel cutout for a GE IAC overcurrent relay to facilitate retrofits at the majority of sites were electromechanical overcurrent relays already exist.

  3. Fuzzy logic based anaesthesia monitoring systems for the detection of absolute hypovolaemia.

    PubMed

    Mansoor Baig, Mirza; Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Harrison, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Anaesthesia monitoring involves critical diagnostic tasks carried out amongst lots of distractions. Computers are capable of handling large amounts of data at high speed and therefore decision support systems and expert systems are now capable of processing many signals simultaneously in real time. We have developed two fuzzy logic based anaesthesia monitoring systems; a real time smart anaesthesia alarm system (RT-SAAM) and fuzzy logic monitoring system-2 (FLMS-2), an updated version of FLMS for the detection of absolute hypovolaemia. This paper presents the design aspects of these two systems which employ fuzzy logic techniques to detect absolute hypovolaemia, and compares their performances in terms of usability and acceptability. The interpretation of these two systems of absolute hypovolaemia was compared with clinicians' assessments using Kappa analysis, RT-SAAM K=0.62, FLMS-2 K=0.75; an improvement in performance by FLMS-2.

  4. Titration of Alanine Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Francis J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The experiment described here involves simultaneous monitoring of pH and NMR chemical shifts during an aqueous titration of alpha- and beta-alanine. This experiment is designed for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. (MR)

  5. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Phipps, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Monitoring Program annual report for 2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2011-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/California Environmental Monitoring Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/California Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2010 program report describes the activities undertaken during the previous year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/California.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories California Environmental Monitoring Program Annual Report for Calendar Year 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2006-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Environmental Monitoring Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The 2005 Update program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Environmental Monitoring Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  8. Cassette bacteria detection system. [for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system, with a zero-g capability, based on the filter-capable approach, and intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in spacecraft is discussed. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. High signals for the incubated water sample indicate the presence of viable organisms.

  9. Use of hyperspectral remote sensing for detection and monitoring of chemical and biological agents: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Richard B.; Dasgupta, Swarvanu

    2004-12-01

    This paper surveys the potential use of hyperspectral imaging technology for standoff detection of chemical and biological agents in terrorism defense applications. In particular it focuses on the uses of hyperspectral imaging technology to detect and monitor chemical and biological attacks. In so doing it examines current technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, and investigates the possible role of hyperspectral imaging for homeland security applications. The study also addresses and provides applicable solutions for several of the potential challenges that currently create barriers to the full use of hyperspectral technology in the standoff detection of likely available chemical and biological agents.

  10. Clinical validation study of quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection and monitoring of BK virus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kudose, Satoru; Dong, Jianli

    2014-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) causes nephropathy (BKVN) in renal transplant patients, but monitoring of BKV loads provides an opportunity to prevent BKVN. However, because viral load measurement is not standardized, each laboratory must validate their methodology. We performed a retrospective analysis of 1371 plasma and 600 urine BKV loads measured by the laboratory developed real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of BKV DNA and 346 biopsies from 284 patients in our renal transplant program. We assessed the ability of plasma and urine viral loads to predict the presence of BKVN in biopsy using the receiver-operator characteristic curve. We determined that the cut-offs 3.7 and 7.2 log copies/ml have the best sensitivity (100% and 100%) and specificity (97.6% and 97.5%) for the detection of concurrent biopsy with BKVN by plasma and urine viral load, respectively. Also, we determined that the presence of at least two viral loads greater than 2.8 log copies/ml for plasma and 6.4 log copies/ml for urine within 30 days of biopsy can detect BKVN with similar operating characteristics. Lastly, among pairs of urine and plasma viral loads from the same day, we found that 375 of 376 urine viral loads <4 log copies/ml were accompanied by plasma viral loads <2.6 log copies/ml, a finding which can alleviate the need for plasma viral load for most patients. In summary, our RT-PCR of BKV DNA has good operating characteristics, and our findings above can help in development of a better strategy to monitor BKV.

  11. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gurdita, Akshay; Vovko, Heather; Ungrin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them.

  12. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Gurdita, Akshay; Vovko, Heather; Ungrin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a “Raspberry Pi” single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them. PMID:26771659

  13. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gurdita, Akshay; Vovko, Heather; Ungrin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them. PMID:26771659

  14. The Monitoring of Triphenylmethane Dyes in Aquaculture Products Through the European Union Network of Official Control Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Eric; Bessiral, Melaine; Chotard, Marie-Pierre; Couëdor, Pierrick; Fourmond, Marie-Pierre; Fuselier, Régine; Gaugain, Murielle; Gautier, Sophie; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Laurentie, Michel; Pirotais, Yvette; Roudaut, Brigitte; Sanders, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal production industry for the past four decades, and almost half of the fish eaten in the world are now farmed fish. To prevent diseases in this more intensive aquaculture farming, use of therapeutic chemicals has become a basic choice. The monitoring of malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye and one of the oldest and widely used chemicals in fish production, has gained more interest since the mid 1990s when this substance was finally proven to be toxic enough to be prohibited in seafood products destined for human consumption. The enforcement of the European Union (EU) regulation of this banned substance along with some other triphenylmethane dye congeners and their metabolites in its domestic production and in seafood imports was undertaken through the National Residue Monitoring Plans implemented in nearly all of the 28 EU member states. The reliability of the overall European monitoring of this dye contamination in aquaculture products was assessed by using the results of proficiency testing (PT) studies provided by the EU Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in charge of the network of the EU National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The proficiency of each NRL providing analytical support services for regulating dye residues was carefully checked during three PT rounds. In the process, the analytical methods developed and validated for this purpose have gradually been improved and extended over the last two decades. PMID:26025009

  15. The Monitoring of Triphenylmethane Dyes in Aquaculture Products Through the European Union Network of Official Control Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Eric; Bessiral, Melaine; Chotard, Marie-Pierre; Couëdor, Pierrick; Fourmond, Marie-Pierre; Fuselier, Régine; Gaugain, Murielle; Gautier, Sophie; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Laurentie, Michel; Pirotais, Yvette; Roudaut, Brigitte; Sanders, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal production industry for the past four decades, and almost half of the fish eaten in the world are now farmed fish. To prevent diseases in this more intensive aquaculture farming, use of therapeutic chemicals has become a basic choice. The monitoring of malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye and one of the oldest and widely used chemicals in fish production, has gained more interest since the mid 1990s when this substance was finally proven to be toxic enough to be prohibited in seafood products destined for human consumption. The enforcement of the European Union (EU) regulation of this banned substance along with some other triphenylmethane dye congeners and their metabolites in its domestic production and in seafood imports was undertaken through the National Residue Monitoring Plans implemented in nearly all of the 28 EU member states. The reliability of the overall European monitoring of this dye contamination in aquaculture products was assessed by using the results of proficiency testing (PT) studies provided by the EU Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in charge of the network of the EU National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The proficiency of each NRL providing analytical support services for regulating dye residues was carefully checked during three PT rounds. In the process, the analytical methods developed and validated for this purpose have gradually been improved and extended over the last two decades.

  16. Electromagnetic (EM) earthquake precursor transmission and detection regarding experimental field and laboratory results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth B., II; Saxton, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Aside from understanding the animal kingdom reacting to a per-earthquake signal, a transmission source is apparent. The focus of this investigation is an electromagnetic emission approach and detection capable of becoming both practical and reliable to other plausible earthquake precursors. To better determine this method, several prototype magnetometers were devised and built with each successive version improving upon the next. Two twin (prototype #2) antennae were deployed to field settings outside the NE Texas town of Timpson, TX back in February, 2013 and very recent laboratory tests using the most refined (prototype #4) experimental antenna for detecting unconfined, granitic block fracturing. Field testing encompassed the small NE Texas town of Timpson, TX, which endured an earthquake phenomenon (May, 2012 - September, 2013). A rare sequence of events was strictly attributed to hydraulic fracturing activity in the immediate area all for hydrocarbon capture; thus, a chance to detect and record man-made earthquake activity. By swiveling two directional antennae at three locations, one mobile, the antennae could 'zero' in on a signal source until its pattern was well established and mapped, accordingly. Three signals were detected, two strong and one moderately strong, each with epicenter implications several kilometers from known seismological sites. Six months later, two M4s and a M2.4 earthquake hit over the 2013 Labor Day weekend. Hydraulic pump pressure increased deep Earth pore pressure, reduced friction, and displaced opposing tectonic stresses causing rock to fracture. This was the last earthquake sequence in the Timpson area, due to personal involvement and area citizens in contact with their state representatives. Well and drilling operations have since moved 40-50 miles SE of Timpson, TX and rare earthquake activity has now occurred there. Laboratory testing was next performed using cored granitic blocks and the latest, improved antenna with an

  17. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-08-18

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context.

  18. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Robert S.; Johnston, Joshua M.; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  19. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  20. Modeling anuran detection and site occupancy on North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) routes in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weir, L.A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Nanjappa, P.; Jung, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most fundamental problems in monitoring animal populations is that of imperfect detection. Although imperfect detection can be modeled, studies examining patterns in occurrence often ignore detection and thus fail to properly partition variation in detection from that of occurrence. In this study, we used anuran calling survey data collected on North American Amphibian Monitoring Program routes in eastern Maryland to investigate factors that influence detection probability and site occupancy for 10 anuran species. In 2002, 17 calling survey routes in eastern Maryland were surveyed to collect environmental and species data nine or more times. To analyze these data, we developed models incorporating detection probability and site occupancy. The results suggest that, for more than half of the 10 species, detection probabilities vary most with season (i.e., day-of-year), air temperature, time, and moon illumination, whereas site occupancy may vary by the amount of palustrine forested wetland habitat. Our results suggest anuran calling surveys should document air temperature, time of night, moon illumination, observer skill, and habitat change over time, as these factors can be important to model-adjusted estimates of site occupancy. Our study represents the first formal modeling effort aimed at developing an analytic assessment framework for NAAMP calling survey data.

  1. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France

    PubMed Central

    Kegel, Jessica U.; Del Amo, Yolanda; Costes, Laurence; Medlin, Linda K.

    2013-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae)—an FP7-funded EU project—used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU) as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR) and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3) and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  2. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Jessica U; Del Amo, Yolanda; Costes, Laurence; Medlin, Linda K

    2013-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae)-an FP7-funded EU project-used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU) as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR) and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3) and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts. PMID:27605178

  3. M-Area and Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facilities groundwater monitoring and corrective-action report (U). Third and fourth quarters 1996, Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective-action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) and the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) HWMF at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1996.

  4. Laboratory detection of a new interstellar free radical CH2CN(2B1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Shuji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Irvine, W. M.; Ziurys, L. M.; Suzuki, Hiroko

    1988-01-01

    An asymmetric-top free radical CH2CN with a 2B1 ground state was detected by laboratory microwave spectroscopy. The radical was produced in a free-space absorption cell by a DC glow discharge in pure CH3CN gas. About 60 fine-structure components were observed for the N = 11-10 to 14-13 a-type rotational transitions in the frequency region of 220-260 GHz. Hyperfine resolved components for the N = 4-3 and 5-4 transitions were resolved in the 80 and 100 GHz regions, respectively. Molecular constants were determined and U100602 and U80484 from Sgr B2, and U40240 and U20120 from TMC-1 were assigned to the N = 5-4, 4-3, 2-1, and 1-0 transitions with K(-1) = 0 of the CH2CN radical.

  5. Laboratory Detection and Pure Rotational Spectrum of the CaC Radical (X3Σ-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfen, D. T.; Apponi, A. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2002-09-01

    The calcium carbide radical, CaC, has been observed in the laboratory for the first time using millimeter/submillimeter direct absorption spectroscopy. The species was created in the gas phase by the reaction of calcium vapor and methane under extreme DC discharge conditions. Eleven rotational transitions of CaC in its X3Σ- ground state were recorded in the frequency range 247-536 GHz. Each transition of CaC was found to consist of triplets due to fine-structure interactions that indicate that the ground state is 3Σ-, as opposed to 5Σ-, both of which have been suggested by theory. The data were analyzed in a Hund's case (b) basis, and rotational, spin-spin, and spin-rotation constants have been accurately determined. CaC may be detectable in circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch stars, in particular those that are carbon-rich.

  6. Comprehensive GMO detection using real-time PCR array: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Harada, Mioko; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Noritake, Hiromichi; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Iizuka, Tayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a real-time PCR array method to comprehensively detect genetically modified (GM) organisms. In the method, genomic DNA extracted from an agricultural product is analyzed using various qualitative real-time PCR assays on a 96-well PCR plate, targeting for individual GM events, recombinant DNA (r-DNA) segments, taxon-specific DNAs, and donor organisms of the respective r-DNAs. In this article, we report the single-laboratory validation of both DNA extraction methods and component PCR assays constituting the real-time PCR array. We selected some DNA extraction methods for specified plant matrixes, i.e., maize flour, soybean flour, and ground canola seeds, then evaluated the DNA quantity, DNA fragmentation, and PCR inhibition of the resultant DNA extracts. For the component PCR assays, we evaluated the specificity and LOD. All DNA extraction methods and component PCR assays satisfied the criteria set on the basis of previous reports.

  7. Comprehensive GMO detection using real-time PCR array: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Harada, Mioko; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Noritake, Hiromichi; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Iizuka, Tayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a real-time PCR array method to comprehensively detect genetically modified (GM) organisms. In the method, genomic DNA extracted from an agricultural product is analyzed using various qualitative real-time PCR assays on a 96-well PCR plate, targeting for individual GM events, recombinant DNA (r-DNA) segments, taxon-specific DNAs, and donor organisms of the respective r-DNAs. In this article, we report the single-laboratory validation of both DNA extraction methods and component PCR assays constituting the real-time PCR array. We selected some DNA extraction methods for specified plant matrixes, i.e., maize flour, soybean flour, and ground canola seeds, then evaluated the DNA quantity, DNA fragmentation, and PCR inhibition of the resultant DNA extracts. For the component PCR assays, we evaluated the specificity and LOD. All DNA extraction methods and component PCR assays satisfied the criteria set on the basis of previous reports. PMID:22649939

  8. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: results for CY 1993 and CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A..

    1996-03-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM)(DOE 1994). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. Article 51 1. la of the RCM requires issuance of personnel dosimeters if individuals are likely to receive a dose of at least 100 mrem annually. The area monitoring TLD program was a useful tool in determining exposure trends in work areas located outside of radiological areas. In several situations, the information obtained from this program was used to relocate staff or radioactive material resulting in potential dose reductions for staff.

  9. Laboratory insights into the detection of surface biosignatures by remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Roditi, I.; Frey, J.; Thomas, N.

    2014-03-01

    With the progress of direct imaging techniques, it will be possible in the short or long-term future to retrieve more efficiently the information on the physical properties of the light reflected by rocky exoplanets (Traub et al., 2010). The search for visible-infrared absorption bands of peculiar gases (O2, CH4 etc.) in this light could give clues for the presence of life (Kaltenegger and Selsis, 2007). Even more uplifting would be the direct detection of life itself, on the surface of an exoplanet. Considering this latter possibility, what is the potential of optical remote-sensing methods to detect surface biosignatures? Reflected light from the surface of the Earth exhibits a strong surface biosignature in the form of an abrupt change of reflectance between the visible and infrared range of the spectrum (Seager et al., 2005). This spectral feature called "vegetation red-edge" is possibly the consequence of biological evolution selecting the right chemical structures enabling the plants to absorb the visible energy, while preventing them from overheating by reflecting more efficiently the infrared. Such red-edge is also found in primitive photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, that colonized the surface of the Earth ocean and continents billions of years before multicellular plants (Knacke, 2003). If life ever arose on an Earth-like exoplanet, one could hypothesize that some form of its surface-life evolves into similar photo-active organisms, also exhibiting a red-edge. In this paper, we will present our plan and preliminary results of a laboratory study aiming at precising the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in detecting such surface biosignatures. Using equipment that has been developed in our team for surface photometry studies (Pommerol 2011, Jost 2013, Pommerol 2013), we will investigate the reflectance spectra and bidirectional reflectance function of soils containing bacteria such as cyanobacteria, in various environmental conditions. We will

  10. Measurement of fine particulate matter nonvolatile and semi-volatile organic material with the Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Monitor.

    PubMed

    Grover, Brett D; Kleinman, Michael; Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Delbert J; Cary, Robert A; Hopke, Philip K; Wilson, William E

    2008-01-01

    Semi-volatile organic material (SVOM) in fine particles is not reliably measured with conventional semicontinuous carbon monitors because SVOM is lost from the collection media during sample collection. We have modified a Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Monitor to allow for the determination of SVOM. In a conventional Sunset monitor, gas-phase organic compounds are removed in the sampled airstream by a diffusion denuder employing charcoal-impregnated cellulose filter (CIF) surfaces. Subsequently, particles are collected on a quartz filter and the instrument then determines both the organic carbon and elemental carbon fractions of the aerosol using a thermal/optical method. However, some of the SVOM is lost from the filter during collection, and therefore is not determined. Because the interfering gas-phase organic compounds are removed before aerosol collection, the SVOM can be determined by filtering the particles at the instrument inlet and then replacing the quartz filter in the monitor with a charcoal-impregnated glass fiber filter (CIG), which retains the SVOM lost from particles collected on the inlet filter. The resulting collected SVOM is then determined in the analysis step by measurement of the carbonaceous material thermally evolved from the CIG filter. This concept was tested during field studies in February 2003 in Lindon, UT, and in July 2003 in Rubidoux, CA. The results obtained were validated by comparison with Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS) results. The sum of nonvolatile organic material determined with a conventional Sunset monitor and SVOM determined with the modified Sunset monitor agree with the PC-BOSS results. Linear regression analysis of total carbon concentrations determined by the PC-BOSS and the Sunset resulted in a zero-intercept slope of 0.99 +/- 0.02 (R2 = 0.92) and a precision of sigma = +/- 1.5 microg C/m3 (8%).

  11. Laboratory Detection of the Trans-Gauche Conformer of Ethyl Formate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Pate, Brooks H.; Lattanzi, V.; Spezzano, S.; McCarthy, M. C.

    2010-06-01

    Ethyl formate has two coordinates of conformational flexibility, in the ester (O=C-O-C) and ethyl (C-O-C-C) dihedral angles. Two conformers, one with a cis ester and trans ethyl orientation, the other with a cis ester and gauche ethyl orientation, have been previously detected by rotational spectroscopy. In addition, the cis-trans isomer, the lowest-energy conformer, has recently been detected in the SgrB2(N) hot core. The third conformer of ethyl formate, with a trans ester orientation and gauche ethyl orientation, is significantly higher in energy than the cis-trans conformer according to electronic structure calculations (1900 cm-1, or 1330 K), but there is a barrier of 2870 cm-1 (2000 K) for this conformer to relax into the more stable cis ester potential well, and so local thermodynamic equilibrium between these conformers is not expected in the interstellar medium. Similar behavior is found for the trans ester conformer of methyl formate, for which a tentative detection in SgrB2(N) was presented at this meeting last year, with a column density roughly 1% of that of the more stable cis isomer. Here we report the laboratory detection of trans-gauche ethyl formate using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy; its low population at room temperature equilibrium has been enhanced by the use of a pulsed discharge nozzle. The spectrum is complicated by a low barrier (140 cm-1) to tunneling between equivalent structures. J.M. Riveros and E.B. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4605 (1967). A. Belloche. et al., A&A 499, 215 (2009). M.T. Muckle et al., RH15, 64th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (2009).

  12. Quantitative hopanoid analysis enables robust pattern detection and comparison between laboratories.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-H; Kong, L; Bialecka-Fornal, M; Park, S; Thompson, A L; Kulkarni, G; Conway, S J; Newman, D K

    2015-07-01

    Hopanoids are steroid-like lipids from the isoprenoid family that are produced primarily by bacteria. Hopanes, molecular fossils of hopanoids, offer the potential to provide insight into environmental transitions on the early Earth, if their sources and biological functions can be constrained. Semiquantitative methods for mass spectrometric analysis of hopanoids from cultures and environmental samples have been developed in the last two decades. However, the structural diversity of hopanoids, and possible variability in their ionization efficiencies on different instruments, have thus far precluded robust quantification and hindered comparison of results between laboratories. These ionization inconsistencies give rise to the need to calibrate individual instruments with purified hopanoids to reliably quantify hopanoids. Here, we present new approaches to obtain both purified and synthetic quantification standards. We optimized 2-methylhopanoid production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 and purified 2Me-diplopterol, 2Me-bacteriohopanetetrol (2Me-BHT), and their unmethylated species (diplopterol and BHT). We found that 2-methylation decreases the signal intensity of diplopterol between 2 and 34% depending on the instrument used to detect it, but decreases the BHT signal less than 5%. In addition, 2Me-diplopterol produces 10× higher ion counts than equivalent quantities of 2Me-BHT. Similar deviations were also observed using a flame ionization detector for signal quantification in GC. In LC-MS, however, 2Me-BHT produces 11× higher ion counts than 2Me-diplopterol but only 1.2× higher ion counts than the sterol standard pregnane acetate. To further improve quantification, we synthesized tetradeuterated (D4) diplopterol, a precursor for a variety of hopanoids. LC-MS analysis on a mixture of (D4)-diplopterol and phospholipids showed that under the influence of co-eluted phospholipids, the D4-diplopterol internal standard quantifies diplopterol more accurately than

  13. Quantitative hopanoid analysis enables robust pattern detection and comparison between laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C-H; Kong, L; Bialecka-Fornal, M; Park, S; Thompson, A L; Kulkarni, G; Conway, S J; Newman, D K

    2015-01-01

    Hopanoids are steroid-like lipids from the isoprenoid family that are produced primarily by bacteria. Hopanes, molecular fossils of hopanoids, offer the potential to provide insight into environmental transitions on the early Earth, if their sources and biological functions can be constrained. Semiquantitative methods for mass spectrometric analysis of hopanoids from cultures and environmental samples have been developed in the last two decades. However, the structural diversity of hopanoids, and possible variability in their ionization efficiencies on different instruments, have thus far precluded robust quantification and hindered comparison of results between laboratories. These ionization inconsistencies give rise to the need to calibrate individual instruments with purified hopanoids to reliably quantify hopanoids. Here, we present new approaches to obtain both purified and synthetic quantification standards. We optimized 2-methylhopanoid production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 and purified 2Me-diplopterol, 2Me-bacteriohopanetetrol (2Me-BHT), and their unmethylated species (diplopterol and BHT). We found that 2-methylation decreases the signal intensity of diplopterol between 2 and 34% depending on the instrument used to detect it, but decreases the BHT signal less than 5%. In addition, 2Me-diplopterol produces 10× higher ion counts than equivalent quantities of 2Me-BHT. Similar deviations were also observed using a flame ionization detector for signal quantification in GC. In LC-MS, however, 2Me-BHT produces 11× higher ion counts than 2Me-diplopterol but only 1.2× higher ion counts than the sterol standard pregnane acetate. To further improve quantification, we synthesized tetradeuterated (D4) diplopterol, a precursor for a variety of hopanoids. LC-MS analysis on a mixture of (D4)-diplopterol and phospholipids showed that under the influence of co-eluted phospholipids, the D4-diplopterol internal standard quantifies diplopterol more accurately than

  14. A rapid automated procedure for laboratory and shipboard spectrophotometric measurements of seawater alkalinity: continuously monitored single-step acid additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Byrne, R. H.; Lindemuth, M.; Easley, R. A.; Patsavas, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    An automated system for shipboard and laboratory alkalinity measurements is presented. The simple system, which consists of a Dosimat titrator to deliver acid volumetrically and a USB 4000 spectrophotometer to monitor the titration progress, provides fast, precise and accurate measurements of total alkalinity for oceanographic research. The analytical method is based on single-point HCl titrations of seawater samples of a known volume; bromol cresol purple is used as an indicator to determine the final pH. Field data from an Arctic cruise demonstrates accuracy and precision around 1 micro mol/kg and a sample processing rate of 6 min per sample.

  15. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2003-12-05

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

  16. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  17. Soil disturbance/restoration effects on stream sediment loading in the Tahoe Basin--detection monitoring.

    PubMed

    Grismer, M E

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying the relative impacts of soil restoration or disturbance on watershed daily sediment and nutrients loads is essential towards assessing the actual costs/benefits of the land management. Such quantification requires stream monitoring programs capable of detecting changes in land-use or soil functional and erosive area "connectivity" conditions across the watershed. Previously, use of a local-scale, field-data based runoff and erosion model for three Lake Tahoe west-shore watersheds as a detection monitoring "proof of concept" suggested that analyses of midrange average daily flows can reveal sediment load reductions of relatively small watershed fractional areas (∼5 %) of restored soil function within a few years of treatment. Developing such an effective stream monitoring program is considered for tributaries on the west shore of the Lake Tahoe Basin using continuous (15-min) stream monitoring information from Ward (2,521 ha), Blackwood (2,886 ha), and the Homewood (260 ha, HMR) Creek watersheds. The continuous total suspended sediment (TSS) and discharge monitoring confirmed the hysteretic TSS concentration-flowrate relationship associated with the daily and seasonal spring snowmelt hydrographs at all three creeks. Using the complete dataset, daily loads estimated from 1-h sampling periods during the day indicated that the optimal sampling hours were in the afternoon during the rising limb of the spring snowmelt hydrograph, an observation likely to apply across the Sierra Nevada and other snowmelt driven watersheds. Measured rising limb sediment loads were used to determine if soils restoration efforts (e.g., dirt road removal, ski run rehabilitation) at the HMR creek watershed reduced sediment loads between 2010 and 2011. A nearly 1.5-fold decrease in sediment yields (kg/ha per m(3)/s flow) was found suggesting that this focused monitoring approach may be useful towards development of TMDL "crediting" tools. Further monitoring is needed to verify

  18. Soil disturbance/restoration effects on stream sediment loading in the Tahoe Basin--detection monitoring.

    PubMed

    Grismer, M E

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying the relative impacts of soil restoration or disturbance on watershed daily sediment and nutrients loads is essential towards assessing the actual costs/benefits of the land management. Such quantification requires stream monitoring programs capable of detecting changes in land-use or soil functional and erosive area "connectivity" conditions across the watershed. Previously, use of a local-scale, field-data based runoff and erosion model for three Lake Tahoe west-shore watersheds as a detection monitoring "proof of concept" suggested that analyses of midrange average daily flows can reveal sediment load reductions of relatively small watershed fractional areas (∼5 %) of restored soil function within a few years of treatment. Developing such an effective stream monitoring program is considered for tributaries on the west shore of the Lake Tahoe Basin using continuous (15-min) stream monitoring information from Ward (2,521 ha), Blackwood (2,886 ha), and the Homewood (260 ha, HMR) Creek watersheds. The continuous total suspended sediment (TSS) and discharge monitoring confirmed the hysteretic TSS concentration-flowrate relationship associated with the daily and seasonal spring snowmelt hydrographs at all three creeks. Using the complete dataset, daily loads estimated from 1-h sampling periods during the day indicated that the optimal sampling hours were in the afternoon during the rising limb of the spring snowmelt hydrograph, an observation likely to apply across the Sierra Nevada and other snowmelt driven watersheds. Measured rising limb sediment loads were used to determine if soils restoration efforts (e.g., dirt road removal, ski run rehabilitation) at the HMR creek watershed reduced sediment loads between 2010 and 2011. A nearly 1.5-fold decrease in sediment yields (kg/ha per m(3)/s flow) was found suggesting that this focused monitoring approach may be useful towards development of TMDL "crediting" tools. Further monitoring is needed to verify

  19. On-orbit damage detection and health monitoring of large space trusses: Status and critical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashangaki, Thomas A. L.

    1991-01-01

    The long lifetimes, delicate nature and stringent pointing requirements of large space structures such as Space Station Freedom and geostationary Earth sciences platforms might require that these spacecraft be monitored periodically for possible damage to the load carrying structures. A review of the literature in damage detection and health monitoring of such structures is presented, along with a candidate structure to be used as a testbed for future work in this field. A unified notation and terminology is also proposed to facilitate comparisons between candidate methods.

  20. A LABORATORY BIOASSAY FOR MONITORING RESISTANCE IN TARNISHED PLANT BUG POPULATIONS TO NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory bioassay was developed for testing tarnished plant bug populations for resistance development to the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. The bioassay allows for the determination of LC50 values by feeding known doses of the insecticides to adult tarnished plant bu...

  1. Timely detection and monitoring of oil leakage by satellite optical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, C. S. L.; Coviello, I.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2009-04-01

    Sea oil pollution can derive from different sources. Accidental release of oil into the oceans caused by "human errors" (tankers collisions and/or shipwrecks) or natural hazards (hurricanes, landslides, earthquakes) have remarkable ecological impact on maritime and coastal environments. Katrina Hurricane, for example, hitting oil and gas infrastructures off USA coasts caused the destruction of more than 100 platforms and the release into the sea of more than 10,000 gallons of crude oil. In order to reduce the environmental impact of such kind of technological hazards, timely detection and continuously updated information are fundamental. Satellite remote sensing can give a significant contribution in such a direction. Nowadays, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology has been recognized as the most efficient for oil spill detection and mapping, thanks to the high spatial resolution and all-time/weather capability of the present operational sensors. Anyway, due to their current revisiting cycles, SAR systems cannot be profitably used for a rapid detection and for a continuous and near real-time monitoring of these phenomena. Until COSMO-Skymed SAR constellation, that will be able to improve SAR observational frequency, will not be fully operational, passive optical sensors on board meteorological satellites, thanks to their high temporal resolution, may represent a suitable alternative for early detection and continuous monitoring of oil spills, provided that adequate and reliable data analysis techniques exist. Recently, an innovative technique for oil spill detection and monitoring, based on the general Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach, has been proposed. It exploits the multi-temporal analysis of optical data acquired by both AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors in order to detect, automatically and timely, the presence of oil spill over the sea surface, trying to minimize

  2. A model of human event detection in multiple process monitoring situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstein, J. S.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    It is proposed that human decision making in many multi-task situations might be modeled in terms of the manner in which the human detects events related to his tasks and the manner in which he allocates his attention among his tasks once he feels events have occurred. A model of human event detection performance in such a situation is presented. An assumption of the model is that, in attempting to detect events, the human generates the probability that events have occurred. Discriminant analysis is used to model the human's generation of these probabilities. An experimental study of human event detection performance in a multiple process monitoring situation is described and the application of the event detection model to this situation is addressed. The experimental study employed a situation in which subjects simulataneously monitored several dynamic processes for the occurrence of events and made yes/no decisions on the presence of events in each process. Input to the event detection model of the information displayed to the experimental subjects allows comparison of the model's performance with the performance of the subjects.

  3. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2000-09-19

    In January 1993, PNNL established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. This program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-1998 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 123 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during calendar year 1999. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  4. HUMAN EXPOSURE AIR MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) have a cross-pollination agenda to help share research opportunities between the two institutions. This presentation provides NCCU with an understanding of current air monitoring research the US EPA is involved in and some o...

  5. Laboratory evaluation of dual-frequency multisensor capacitance probes to monitor soil water and salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real-time information on salinity levels and transport of fertilizers are generally missing from soil profile knowledge bases. A dual-frequency multisensor capacitance probe (MCP) is now commercially available for sandy soils that simultaneously monitor volumetric soil water content (VWC, ') and sa...

  6. Assessing interactions among multiple physiological systems during walking outside a laboratory: An Android based gait monitor.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, E; Millecamps, A; Teoli, J; Rothfuss, M A; Franconi, N G; Perera, S; Jones, A K; Brach, J S; Mickle, M H

    2015-12-01

    Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18-35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardiovascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults.

  7. Environmental monitoring at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1985 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, K.S.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1986-02-01

    Results are reported of the Environmental Quality Verification Program, which is an expanded continuation of the program of environmental monitoring previously carried out by the Environmental Measurements Group of the Hazards Control Department. Data are reported on air, soils, water, vegetation, foodstuffs, and annual radiation doses at perimeter of facility.

  8. Twin signal signature sensing: Application to shorted winding monitoring, detection and localization

    SciTech Connect

    Streifel, R.J.; Marks, R.J.; El-Sharkawi, A.E.; Kerszenbaum, I.

    1995-12-31

    Using twin signal sensing we propose a method to monitor, detect and localize shorts in power system devices with windings: including rotors, transformers and motors. There has, to date, been no effective way to do so. The most obvious approach, time domain reflectometry, fails due to the reactive coupling of the windings. Twin signal signature sensing of shorts results from identical signals being simultaneously injected in both sides of the windings. The reflected signals are measured and the difference amplified to produce the signature signal. The signature signal characterizes the current state of the windings. When winding shorts are present, the electrical characteristics of the device will be different and thus the signature signal will also change. The changes in the signature signal can be monitored to detect shorted windings. While a device is in operation, the signature signals can be monitored and the development of winding shorts can be diagnosed through the process of novelty detection. After a device is cleaned or otherwise known to be functioning correctly (no winding shorts), signature signals can be collected which represent the healthy device. If a sufficient number of signals can be collected, the signal space representing healthy windings can be characterized. A detection surface can be placed around the healthy signature signals to provide a partition of the signal space into two regions: healthy and faulty. Any signature signal which is not within the healthy signature partition will indicate a faulted device.

  9. Quantitative Evaluation of an Air-monitoring Network Using Atmospheric Transport Modeling and Frequency of Detection Methods.

    PubMed

    Rood, Arthur S; Sondrup, A Jeffrey; Ritter, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the performance of an air-monitoring network in terms of frequency of detection. Frequency of detection is defined as the fraction of "events" that result in a detection at either a single sampler or network of samplers. An "event" is defined as a release to the atmosphere of a specified amount of activity over a finite duration that begins on a given day and hour of the year. The methodology uses an atmospheric transport model to predict air concentrations of radionuclides at the samplers for a given release time and duration. Another metric of interest determined by the methodology is called the network intensity, which is defined as the fraction of samplers in the network that have a positive detection for a given event. The frequency of detection methodology allows for evaluation of short-term releases that include effects of short-term variability in meteorological conditions. The methodology was tested using the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site ambient air-monitoring network consisting of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations covering a 17,630 km region. Releases from six major facilities distributed over an area of 1,435 km were modeled and included three stack sources and eight ground-level sources. A Lagrangian Puff air dispersion model (CALPUFF) was used to model atmospheric transport. The model was validated using historical Sb releases and measurements. Relevant 1-wk release quantities from each emission source were calculated based on a dose of 1.9×10 mSv at a public receptor (0.01 mSv assuming release persists over a year). Important radionuclides were Am, Cs, Pu, Pu, Sr, and tritium. Results show the detection frequency was over 97.5% for the entire network considering all sources and radionuclides. Network intensity results ranged from 3.75% to 62.7%. Evaluation of individual samplers indicated some samplers were poorly located and added little to the overall

  10. Environment Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

  11. Advanced Oil Spill Detection Algorithms For Satellite Based Maritime Environment Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radius, Andrea; Azevedo, Rui; Sapage, Tania; Carmo, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    During the last years, the increasing pollution occurrence and the alarming deterioration of the environmental health conditions of the sea, lead to the need of global monitoring capabilities, namely for marine environment management in terms of oil spill detection and indication of the suspected polluter. The sensitivity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to the different phenomena on the sea, especially for oil spill and vessel detection, makes it a key instrument for global pollution monitoring. The SAR performances in maritime pollution monitoring are being operationally explored by a set of service providers on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), which has launched in 2007 the CleanSeaNet (CSN) project - a pan-European satellite based oil monitoring service. EDISOFT, which is from the beginning a service provider for CSN, is continuously investing in R&D activities that will ultimately lead to better algorithms and better performance on oil spill detection from SAR imagery. This strategy is being pursued through EDISOFT participation in the FP7 EC Sea-U project and in the Automatic Oil Spill Detection (AOSD) ESA project. The Sea-U project has the aim to improve the current state of oil spill detection algorithms, through the informative content maximization obtained with data fusion, the exploitation of different type of data/ sensors and the development of advanced image processing, segmentation and classification techniques. The AOSD project is closely related to the operational segment, because it is focused on the automation of the oil spill detection processing chain, integrating auxiliary data, like wind information, together with image and geometry analysis techniques. The synergy between these different objectives (R&D versus operational) allowed EDISOFT to develop oil spill detection software, that combines the operational automatic aspect, obtained through dedicated integration of the processing chain in the existing open source NEST

  12. THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER TECHNOLOGY: A PROVEN AND COST EFFECTIVE METHOD TO VERIFY INTEGRITY AND MONITOR LONG TERM PERFORMANCE OF WALLS, FLOORS, CAPS, AND COVER SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER, J.; SULLIVAN, T.

    2002-03-11

    Currently, containment system failures are detected by monitoring wells downstream of the waste site. Clearly this approach is inefficient, as the contaminants will have migrated from the disposal area before they are detected. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict impending cover failure are needed. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Perfluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) technology can measure performance changes and integrity losses as the cover ages. This allows early detection of cover failure or pending failure so that repair or replacement can be made before contaminants leave the disposal cell. The PFT technology has been successfully applied to four subsurface barrier problems, one leak detection problem from underground ducts, and one surface cover problem. Testing has demonstrated that the PFTs are capable of accurately detecting and locating leaks down to fractions of an inch. The PFT technology has several advantages over competing approaches. The ability to simultaneously use multiple PFTs separates it from other gas tracer technologies. Using multiple tracers provides independent confirmation of flaw location, helps to clearly define transport pathways, and can be used for confirmatory testing (e.g., repeat the test using a new tracer). The PFT tests provide a direct measure of flaws in a barrier, whereas other measurements (pressure, moisture content, temperature, subsidence) provide indirect measures that need interpretation. The focus of the six PFT demonstrations has been on engineering aspects of the technology with the intent of finding if a flaw existed in the barrier. Work remains to be done on the scientific basis for this technology. This includes determining PFT diffusion rates through various materials (soils and barrier) as a function of moisture content, determining the effects of barometric pumping on PFT flow for cover systems, and determining wind effects on side slopes of cover systems and

  13. Real Time On-line Space Research Laboratory Environment Monitoring with Off-line Trend and Prediction Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services is to support NASA sponsored investigators in the area of reduced-gravity acceleration data analysis, interpretation and the monitoring of the reduced-gravity environment on-board various carriers. With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked and processed on ground for both the space station onboard environment characterization (and verification) and scientific experiments. Therefore, to help principal investigator teams monitor the acceleration level on-board the International Space Station to avoid undesirable impact on their experiment, when possible, the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services developed an artificial intelligence monitoring system, which detects in near real time any change in the environment susceptible to affect onboard experiments. The main objective of the monitoring system is to help research teams identify the vibratory disturbances that are active at any instant of time onboard the International Space Station that might impact the environment in which their experiment is being conducted. The monitoring system allows any space research scientist, at any location and at any time, to see the current acceleration level on-board the Space Station via the World Wide Web. From the NASA Glenn s Exploration Systems Division web site, research scientists can see in near real time the active disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost, extra-vehicular activity, etc., and decide whether or not to continue operating or stopping (or making note of such activity for later correlation with science results) their experiments based on the g-level associated with that specific event. A dynamic graphical display accessible via the World Wide Web shows the status of all the vibratory disturbance activities with their degree of confidence as well as

  14. Contaminant Detection in Heterogeneous Aquifers: Sampling Frequency and Number of Monitoring Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleologos, E.; Papapetridis, K.

    2012-04-01

    A Monte Carlo stochastic model was developed to simulate contaminant transport from an instantaneous source into a heterogeneous, two-dimensional aquifer in order to evaluate the effectiveness of contaminant detection by a network of monitoring wells. Successful detection is influenced by many uncertainty factors, where the heterogeneity of the geologic environment and inherent contamination dispersion into the geologic medium are the most important. Additional uncertainty arises from the lack of information about the quantity and nature of the contaminants, the time of leakage, the number and location of the contamination sources and monitoring wells, as well as the frequency of sampling. The heterogeneity of the geologic environment was addressed through the hydraulic conductivity, which was simulated as a log-normal, stationary, second order, isotropic stochastic process. The second source of uncertainty arises from the way a pollutant is transported into the subsurface heterogeneous environment. The particle tracking method based on the 'random walk' approach was adopted to simulate a plume's advective and dispersive movement. In this study a conservative and fully water soluble contaminant was assumed, considering different cases of initially released quantities, single or dual random sources inside landfill's boundaries and different facility's dimensions. Several numerical experiments were conducted in order to determine the detection probabilities Pd achieved by monitoring networks, to evaluate the effectiveness of various sampling frequencies and to calculate the contaminated groundwater areas. It was shown that detection decreases as heterogeneity increases. Monitoring with 20 wells provides high detection, while 3 wells result in four out of five contamination cases to remain undetected. For fixed heterogeneity, for each well arrangement, Pd increases up to a certain value with increasing transverse dispersion coefficient and then it decreases. The

  15. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection and potential impacts on groundwater quality at Brackenridge Field Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Y.; Yang, C.; Guzman, N.; Delgado, J.; Mickler, P. J.; Horvoka, S.; Trevino, R.

    2015-12-01

    One concern related to GCS is possible risk of unintended CO2 leakage from the storage formations into overlying potable aquifers on underground sources of drinking water (USDW). Here we present a series of field tests conducted in an alluvial aquifer which is on a river terrace at The University of Texas Brackenridge Field Laboratory. Several shallow groundwater wells were completed to the limestone bedrock at a depth of 6 m and screened in the lower 3 m. Core sediments recovered from the shallow aquifer show that the sediments vary in grain size from clay-rich layers to coarse sandy gravels. Two main types of field tests were conducted at the BFL: single- (or double-) well push-pull test and pulse-like CO2 release test. A single- (or double-) well push-pull test includes three phases: the injection phase, the resting phase and pulling phase. During the injection phase, groundwater pumped from the shallow aquifer was stored in a tank, equilibrated with CO2 gasand then injected into the shallow aquifer to mimic CO2 leakage. During the resting phase, the groundwater charged with CO2 reacted with minerals in the aquifer sediments. During the pulling phase, groundwater was pumped from the injection well and groundwater samples were collected continuously for groundwater chemistry analysis. In such tests, large volume of groundwater which was charged with CO2 can be injected into the shallow aquifer and thus maximize contact of groundwater charged with CO2. Different than a single- (or double-) well push-pull test, a pulse-like CO2 release test for validating chemical sensors for CO2 leakage detection involves a CO2 release phase that CO2 gas was directly bubbled into the testing well and a post monitoring phase that groundwater chemistry was continuously monitored through sensors and/or grounder sampling. Results of the single- (or double-) well push-pull tests conducted in the shallow aquifer shows that the unintended CO2 leakage could lead to dissolution of

  16. Inter-laboratory validation study of two immunochemical methods for detection of processed ruminant proteins.

    PubMed

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; Margry, R J C F; van Kaathoven, R G C; Bremer, M G E G

    2015-10-15

    In order to facilitate safe re-introduction of non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) in aqua feed, two immunoassays have been tested in an interlaboratory study for their capability to detect ruminant PAPs processed under European conditions. The sensitivity of the MELISA-TEK assay was improved by applying a specific extraction kit. Six approved blank pork and poultry samples were adulterated to produce 15 samples spiked at 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% with ruminant material, sterilised at either 133 °C or 137 °C. Fourteen participants investigated the 6 blanks and 15 spiked samples, making 21 samples for the final test. For both assays specificity and sensitivity were at 97% or higher. Concordance and accordance were higher than 95% with one exception. The results indicate that both assays provided correct results at 0.5% and higher for the detecting ruminant PAPs (sterilised at 133 °C) in non-ruminant PAPs. Given the 2% upper limit of ruminant PAPs in non-ruminant PAPs for avoiding an increase in BSE incidents, these methods are fit for monitoring non-ruminant PAPs intended for aqua feed. PMID:25952876

  17. Signal Detection Techniques for Diagnostic Monitoring of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, Thomas; Jong, Jen-Yi

    1986-01-01

    An investigation to develop, implement, and evaluate signal analysis techniques for the detection and classification of incipient mechanical failures in turbomachinery is reviewed. A brief description of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) test/measurement program is presented. Signal analysis techniques available to describe dynamic measurement characteristics are reviewed. Time domain and spectral methods are described, and statistical classification in terms of moments is discussed. Several of these waveform analysis techniques have been implemented on a computer and applied to dynamc signals. A laboratory evaluation of the methods with respect to signal detection capability is described. A unique coherence function (the hyper-coherence) was developed through the course of this investigation, which appears promising as a diagnostic tool. This technique and several other non-linear methods of signal analysis are presented and illustrated by application. Software for application of these techniques has been installed on the signal processing system at the NASA/MSFC Systems Dynamics Laboratory.

  18. Luminance level of a monitor: influence on detectability and detection rate of breast cancer in 2D mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemelmans, Frédéric; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Chesterman, Frédérique; Kimpe, Tom; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate lesion detectability and reading time as a function of luminance level of the monitor. Material and Methods: 3D mass models and microcalcification clusters were simulated into ROIs of for processing mammograms. Randomly selected ROIs were subdivided in three groups according to their background glandularity: high (>30%), medium (15-30%) and low (<15%). 6 non-spiculated masses (9 - 11mm), 6 spiculated masses (5 - 7mm) and 6 microcalcification clusters (2 - 4mm) were scaled in 3D to create a range of sizes. The linear attenuation coefficient (AC) of the masses was adjusted from 100% glandular tissue to 90%, 80%, 70%, to create different contrasts. Six physicists read the full database on Barco's Coronis Uniti monitor for four different luminance levels (300, 800, 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2), using a 4-AFC tool. Percentage correct (PC) and time were computed for all different conditions. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate the effect of luminance on PC and time. A multi-factorial analysis was performed using MANOVA.. Results: Paired t-test indicated a statistically significant difference for the average time per session between 300 and 1200; 800 and 1200; 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2, for all participants combined. There was no effect on PC. MANOVA denoted significantly lower reading times for high glandularity images at 1200 Cd/m2. Both types of masses were significantly faster detected at 1200 Cd/m2, for the contrast study. In the size study, microcalcification clusters and spiculated masses had a significantly higher detection rate at 1200 Cd/m2. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a significant decrease in reading time, while detectability remained constant.

  19. Suggestions for improving the efficiency of ground-based neutron monitors for detecting solar neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.; Signorini, C.; Storini, M.; Villoresi, G.

    1985-01-01

    On the occasion of the June 3, 1982 intense gamma-ray solar flare a significant increase in counting rate due to solar neutrons was observed by the neutron monitors of Junsfraujoch and Lomnicky Stit located at middle latitudes and high altitudes. In spite of a larger detector employed and of the smaller solar zenith angle, the amplitude of the same event observed at Rome was much smaller and the statistical fluctuations of the salactic cosmic ray background higher than the ones registered at the two mountain stations, because of the greater atmospheric depth at which the Rome monitor is located. The effeciency for detecting a solar neutron event by a NM-64 monitor as a function of the Sun zenith angle, atmospheric depth and threshold rigidity of the station was studied.

  20. An overview of temperature monitoring devices for early detection of diabetic foot disorders.

    PubMed

    Roback, Kerstin

    2010-09-01

    Diabetic foot complications are associated with substantial costs and loss of quality of life. This article gives an overview of available and emerging devices for the monitoring of foot temperature as a means of early detection of foot disorders in diabetes. The aim is to describe the technologies and to summarize experiences from experimental use. Studies show that regular monitoring of foot temperature may limit the incidence of disabling conditions such as foot ulcers and lower-limb amputations. Infrared thermometry and liquid crystal thermography were identified as the leading technologies in use today. Both technologies are feasible for temperature monitoring of the feet and could be used as a complement to current practices for foot examinations in diabetes.