Science.gov

Sample records for monitors failed elements

  1. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  2. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  3. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

    2005-07-01

    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  4. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the continuous... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? 141.561 Section 141.561 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  5. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  6. Checklists and Monitoring in the Cockpit: Why Crucial Defenses Sometimes Fail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Berman, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Checklists and monitoring are two essential defenses against equipment failures and pilot errors. Problems with checklist use and pilots failures to monitor adequately have a long history in aviation accidents. This study was conducted to explore why checklists and monitoring sometimes fail to catch errors and equipment malfunctions as intended. Flight crew procedures were observed from the cockpit jumpseat during normal airline operations in order to: 1) collect data on monitoring and checklist use in cockpit operations in typical flight conditions; 2) provide a plausible cognitive account of why deviations from formal checklist and monitoring procedures sometimes occur; 3) lay a foundation for identifying ways to reduce vulnerability to inadvertent checklist and monitoring errors; 4) compare checklist and monitoring execution in normal flights with performance issues uncovered in accident investigations; and 5) suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of checklists and monitoring. Cognitive explanations for deviations from prescribed procedures are provided, along with suggestions for countermeasures for vulnerability to error.

  7. Preparation of Metal Filter Element for Fail Safety in IGCC Filter Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J-H.; Ahn, I-S.; Bak, Y-C.; Bae, S-Y.; Ha, S-J.; Jang, H-J.

    2002-09-18

    Metal filter elements as the fail safety filter are fabricated by the methods using cold isostatic pressure (compress method) and binder (binder method) to form the filter element and tested in a experimental and bench units. The fail safety filter on the filtration system is mounted additionally in order to intercept the particle leak when the main filter element is broken. So it should have two contrary functions of a high permeability and being plugged easily. The filter element having high porosity and high plugging property was fabricated by the bind method. It has the porosity more than 50%, showed very small pressure drop less than 10mmH2O at the face velocity of 0.15m/s, and plugged within 5 minutes with the inhibition of the particle leak larger than 4 {micro}m. The test result of corrosion tendency in IGCC gas stream at 500 C shows SUS310L material is very reasonable among SUS310, SUS316, Inconel 600, and Hastelloy X.

  8. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.561 What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the...

  9. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.561 What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the...

  10. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.561 What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the...

  11. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity... Disinfection-Systems Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.561 What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the...

  12. Metacognitive Monitoring in University Classes: Anticipating a Graded vs. a Pass-Fail Test Affects Monitoring Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenberg, Jonathan; Dutke, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Three field studies tested the hypothesis that anticipating a graded test as opposed to a pass-fail test enhances metacognitive monitoring. Participants were teacher candidates who completed a mid-term and a final test in psychology courses. Each participant chose whether the result of the final test should be evaluated with one of five grades or…

  13. Experience with failed LMR oxide fuel element performance in European fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plitz, H.; Crittenden, G. C.; Languille, A.

    1993-09-01

    The performance of failed fuel has great significance for the safe and economic operation of LMR's, and considerable experience has accrued from experimental defect pin irradiations and naturally occurring failures in European test and prototype reactors. To data 60 natural fuel element failures have been recorded in PFR, Phénix and KNK II, 41 with exposed fuel and 19 as gas leakers. The various failures occurred during all stages of pin lifetimes, i.e. at the very beginning (0.3 at% burn-up) as well as at medium and at very high burn-up. The present experience extends up to 190 GWd/t and up to 135 dpaNRT. Based on the experience we can state: (i) Even large defects at end-of-life pins resulted in limited fuel loss (ii) No pin-to-pin failure propagation has been observed (iii) The reaction produces formed by the chemical reaction sodium/mixed oxide and the kinetics act beneficially and may protect open cracks. For the European Fast Reactor (EFR) project additional work is being performed, with regard to the EFR requirements of pin design (covering normal operation and incidental events) and the behaviour of failed pins under storage conditions.

  14. Monitoring of live and woody elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with surveys operated on crib walls in Casentino and Versilia (Tuscany), where Salix alba cuttings did not develop as expected from literature data. After more then 10 years since realization and and an initial very high survival rate, a few plants are yet alive among those put in place and the root strengthening is localized in the first 0.30 m just below the structure front face, while at further depth the detected root area ratio (R.A.R.) does not determine a noticeable increase in soil cohesion (Guastini et al., 2012). Mortality curve in willow cuttings is comparable with growing curve in Alnus nigra plants born in front of the structure, due to shading as failing cause. Assessing quantitatively the residual strength of the timber elements and estimating their possible duration allow comparison with the time needed for a complete stabilisation of the para-natural succession. The two spans of time must be almost similar to avoid unexpected collapse of the frame or unacceptable costs for oversized structures. Since the realization of a new live crib-wall in Casentino we sampled Alnus and Salix cuttings to compare rooting, survivability and evolution in randomized block design. Tests with Resistograph carried out on timber elements gives a good relationship between test results and density; through the non-destructive test it is possible to differentiate portions of wood with a noticeable residual strength from the decayed parts without any more load bearing capacity. MOR value (flexural strength) of timber elements has been estimated on the basis of the effective section verified by the Resistograph (Guastini et al., 2012), and then confirmed through rupture in bending of the same elements (Wood Technology DEISTAF lab), by proving the non-destructive test utility.

  15. Failed fuel monitoring and surveillance techniques for liquid metal cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Mikaili, R.; Gross, K.C.; Strain, R.V.; Aoyama, T.; Ukai, S.; Nomura, S.; Nakae, N.

    1995-05-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been used as a facility for irradiation of LMR fuels and components for thirty years. During this time many tests of experimental fuel were continued to cladding breach in order to study modes of element failure; the methods used to identify such failures are described in a parallel paper. This paper summarizes experience of monitoring the delayed-neutron (DN) and fission-gas (FG) release behavior of a smaller number of elements that continued operation in the run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) mode. The scope of RBCB testing, the methods developed to characterize failures on-line, and examples of DN/FG behavior are described.

  16. Elements of an integrated health monitoring framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Michael; Elgamal, Ahmed; Conte, Joel P.; Masri, Sami; Fountain, Tony; Gupta, Amarnath; Trivedi, Mohan; El Zarki, Magda

    2003-07-01

    Internet technologies are increasingly facilitating real-time monitoring of Bridges and Highways. The advances in wireless communications for instance, are allowing practical deployments for large extended systems. Sensor data, including video signals, can be used for long-term condition assessment, traffic-load regulation, emergency response, and seismic safety applications. Computer-based automated signal-analysis algorithms routinely process the incoming data and determine anomalies based on pre-defined response thresholds and more involved signal analysis techniques. Upon authentication, appropriate action may be authorized for maintenance, early warning, and/or emergency response. In such a strategy, data from thousands of sensors can be analyzed with near real-time and long-term assessment and decision-making implications. Addressing the above, a flexible and scalable (e.g., for an entire Highway system, or portfolio of Networked Civil Infrastructure) software architecture/framework is being developed and implemented. This framework will network and integrate real-time heterogeneous sensor data, database and archiving systems, computer vision, data analysis and interpretation, physics-based numerical simulation of complex structural systems, visualization, reliability & risk analysis, and rational statistical decision-making procedures. Thus, within this framework, data is converted into information, information into knowledge, and knowledge into decision at the end of the pipeline. Such a decision-support system contributes to the vitality of our economy, as rehabilitation, renewal, replacement, and/or maintenance of this infrastructure are estimated to require expenditures in the Trillion-dollar range nationwide, including issues of Homeland security and natural disaster mitigation. A pilot website (http://bridge.ucsd.edu/compositedeck.html) currently depicts some basic elements of the envisioned integrated health monitoring analysis framework.

  17. Structural health monitoring using time reversal and cracked rod spectral element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucena, R. L.; Dos Santos, J. M. C.

    2016-10-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) has received substantial attention in the last decades. Damage detection methods based on dynamic analysis seem to be appropriate to detect large damages, but fail for small ones. Alternative methods use elastic wave propagation allowing a quick and long range test. In this paper, a new approach based on the combination of Time Reversal Method (TRM) and Spectral Element Method (SEM) is proposed to perform structural damage detection. The main novelty is to combine wave-based spectral element model together with time reversal signal processing. Although the methodology is evaluated by numerical simulation, this combination of numerical modeling and time reversal signal processing can be applied as an experimental approach to provide a useful tool for damage detection. Simulated examples of the damage detection method using rod-like structures are illustrated and the results discussed and compared with those from literature.

  18. Structural health monitoring system design using finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stinemates, D. W.; Bennett, J. G.

    2002-01-01

    The project described in this report was performed to couple experimental and analytical techniques in the field of structural health monitoring and damage identification. To do this, a finite element model was constructed of a simulated three-story building used for damage identification experiments. The model was used in conjunction with data from the physical structure to research damage identification algorithms. Of particular interest was modeling slip in joints as a function of bolt torque and predicting the smallest change of torque that could be detected experimentally. After being validated with results from the physical structure, the model was used to produce data to test the capabilities of damage identification algorithms. This report describes the finite element model constructed, the results obtained, and proposed future use of the model.

  19. Biventricular Finite Element Modeling of the Acorn CorCap Cardiac Support Device on a Failing Heart

    PubMed Central

    Wenk, Jonathan F.; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Zhihong; Mojsejenko, Dimitri; Potter, D. Dean; Tseng, Elaine E.; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Acorn CorCap Cardiac Support Device (CSD; Acorn Cardiovascular Inc, St. Paul, MN) is a woven polyester jacket that is placed around the heart and designed to reverse the progressive remodeling associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the effects of the Acorn CSD on myofiber stress and ventricular function remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the Acorn CSD reduces end-diastolic (ED) myofiber stress. Methods A previously described weakly coupled biventricular finite element (FE) model and circulatory model based on magnetic resonance images of a dog with dilated cardiomyopathy was used. Virtual applications of the CSD alone (Acorn), CSD with rotated fabric fiber orientation (rotated), CSD with 5% prestretch (tight), and CSD wrapped only around the left ventricle (LV; LV-only) were performed, and the effect on myofiber stress at ED and pump function was calculated. Results The Acorn CSD has a large effect on ED myofiber stress in the LV free wall, with reductions of 55%, 79%, 92%, and 40% in the Acorn, rotated, tight, and LV-only cases, respectively. However, there is a tradeoff in which the Acorn CSD reduces stroke volume at LV end-diastolic pressure of 8 mm Hg by 23%, 25%, 30%, and 7%, respectively, in the Acorn, rotated, tight, and LV-only cases. Conclusions The Acorn CSD significantly reduces ED myofiber stress. However, CSD wrapped only around the LV was the only case with minimal negative effect on pump function. Findings suggest that LV-only CSD and Acorn fabric orientation should be optimized to allow maximal myofiber stress reduction with minimal reduction in pump function. PMID:23643546

  20. Identification of failed fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Fryer, Richard M.; Matlock, Robert G.

    1976-06-22

    A passive fission product gas trap is provided in the upper portion of each fuel subassembly in a nuclear reactor. The gas trap consists of an inverted funnel of less diameter than the subassembly having a valve at the apex thereof. An actuating rod extends upwardly from the valve through the subassembly to a point where it can be contacted by the fuel handling mechanism for the reactor. Interrogation of the subassembly for the presence of fission products is accomplished by lowering the fuel handling machine onto the subassembly to press down on the actuating rod and open the valve.

  1. Design Elements of Monitoring Programs: The Necessary Ingredients for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes methods of designing natural resource monitoring programs to provide indications of ecosystem health, define limits of normal variation, identify abnormal conditions, and suggest potential agent of abnormal change. (MDH)

  2. A summary of fault modelling and predictive health monitoring of rolling element bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Thalji, Idriss; Jantunen, Erkki

    2015-08-01

    The rolling element bearing is one of the most critical components that determine the machinery health and its remaining lifetime in modern production machinery. Robust Predictive Health Monitoring tools are needed to guarantee the healthy state of rolling element bearing s during the operation. A Predictive Health Monitoring tool indicates the upcoming failures which provide sufficient lead time for maintenance planning. The Predictive Health Monitoring tool aims to monitor the deterioration i.e. wear evolution rather than just detecting the defects. The Predictive Health Monitoring procedures contain detection, diagnosis and prognosis analysis, which are required to extract the features related to the faulty rolling element bearing and estimate the remaining useful lifetime. The purpose of this study is to review the Predictive Health Monitoring methods and explore their capabilities, advantages and disadvantage in monitoring rolling element bearings. Therefore, the study provides a critical review of the Predictive Health Monitoring methods of the entire defect evolution process i.e. over the whole lifetime and suggests enhancements for rolling element bearing monitoring.

  3. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  4. MONITORING CYCLICAL AIR-WATER ELEMENTAL MERCURY EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experimental work has demonstrated that elemental mercury evasion from natural water displays a diel cycle; evasion rates during the day can be two to three times evasion rates observed at night. A study with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) found that diurnal PCB air/wa...

  5. On a Monitoring Network of Territory Elements for Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramo, A.; Marino, A.; Termini, D.; Teramo, M.; Saccà, C.; Romeo, M.; de Domenico, D.; Lupò, D.

    2010-12-01

    The proposed methodological approach, based on the implementation of innovative monitoring networks of territories falling within high seismicity areas, aims at the arrangement of tools for a reduction of urban and territorial seismic vulnerability through procedures of territorial diagnostics with early warning thresholds. In this preliminary phase of the study, several problems have been analysed and solved related to wireless sensor typology to be used and data to be acquired for the realization of a expert system for a real time check of escape route conditions in case of a catastrophe, and the structural reliability of buildings, also strategic type, for preliminary damage evaluations. Specific analysis tools of acquired data by monitoring networks have been arranged for an analysis in relation to main territorial risk factors of a given area, arranging GIS maps in real time for the reduction of territorial system criticalities also during the emergencies.

  6. The real-time monitoring surface figure of optical elements in continuous polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Xueke; Wei, Chaoyang; Gu, Jianxun; Dun, Aihuan; Shao, Jianda

    2014-08-01

    Continuous ring polishing is the key process in large aperture optical elements. The surface figure of polishing pad is inferred by the offline testing surface figure of workpiece. The defects, low processing efficiency and uncertainty processing time in traditional continuous polishing, the real-time monitoring method of polishing is proposed. The realtime monitoring system is set up based on the computer, the dynamic interferometer, a beam expanding system and a beam reflecting system. There are a workpiece and a glass monitoring plate placing in same ring. The surface figure of workpiece, monitored by the monitoring plate, synchronize with the surface of glass monitoring plate in Peak-Valley (PV) and POWER. The new method with simple structure is fast measuring and judgmental directly to the changes of surface figures. The results of real-time monitoring and surface figure converging on the workpiece are valid for continuous polishing through experimental validation.

  7. Rapid detection of delamination areas in laminated structural elements by means of optically monitored strain solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, I. V.; Belashov, A. V.; Dreiden, G. V.; Petrov, N. V.; Samsonov, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    Modern structural elements are often made of laminated polymer materials or composites on the base of polymer matrices. The proper functioning of these elements may be of vital importance especially in automotive and aerospace industries, in gas and oil transportation. The major problem in their performance is a possibility of a sudden and irreversible delamination caused by various factors. We propose and study a NDT approach aimed to detect delamination areas in adhesively bonded layered structural elements made of different materials. The proposed approach is evaluated by use of holographic detection and monitoring of the evolution of bulk strain solitons generated in such structures.

  8. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements, which are regulated for aquatic life protection, are a primary concern in highway- and urban-runoff studies because stormwater runoff may transport these constituents from the land surface to receiving waters. Many of these trace elements are essential for biological activity and become detrimental only when geologic or anthropogenic sources exceed concentrations beyond ranges typical of the natural environment. The Federal Highway Administration and State Transportation Agencies are concerned about the potential effects of highway runoff on the watershed scale and for the management and protection of watersheds. Transportation agencies need information that is documented as valid, current, and scientifically defensible to support planning and management decisions. There are many technical issues of concern for monitoring trace elements; therefore, trace-element data commonly are considered suspect, and the responsibility to provide data-quality information to support the validity of reported results rests with the data-collection agency. Paved surfaces are fundamentally different physically, hydraulically, and chemically from the natural surfaces typical of most freshwater systems that have been the focus of many traceelement- monitoring studies. Existing scientific conceptions of the behavior of trace elements in the environment are based largely upon research on natural systems, rather than on systems typical of pavement runoff. Additionally, the logistics of stormwater sampling are difficult because of the great uncertainty in the occurrence and magnitude of storm events. Therefore, trace-element monitoring programs may be enhanced if monitoring and sampling programs are automated. Automation would standardize the process and provide a continuous record of the variations in flow and water-quality characteristics. Great care is required to collect and process samples in a manner that will minimize potential contamination or attenuation of trace

  9. SEASONAL MONITORING OF ELEMENTS AT THREE CONSTRUCTED TREATMENT WETLANDS: 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A suite of major, minor, and trace elements in sediment, pore water, and overlying water were monitored during winter and summer over a three year period at three different types of constructed treatment wetlands to evaluate their efficacy with season. Acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)...

  10. Structural Health Monitoring Using High-Density Fiber Optic Strain Sensor and Inverse Finite Element Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alexander; Quach, Cuong C.; Cooper, Eric G.; Parks, Jeffrey; Spangler, Jan L.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to mitigate accidents due to system and component failure, NASA s Aviation Safety has partnered with industry, academia, and other governmental organizations to develop real-time, on-board monitoring capabilities and system performance models for early detection of airframe structure degradation. NASA Langley is investigating a structural health monitoring capability that uses a distributed fiber optic strain system and an inverse finite element method for measuring and modeling structural deformations. This report describes the constituent systems that enable this structural monitoring function and discusses results from laboratory tests using the fiber strain sensor system and the inverse finite element method to demonstrate structural deformation estimation on an instrumented test article

  11. Optimal design of river monitoring network in Taizihe River by matter element analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Zhe; Sun, Lina; Luo, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to optimize the river monitoring network in Taizihe River, Northeast China. The situation of the network and water characteristics were studied in this work. During this study, water samples were collected once a month during January 2009 - December 2010 from seventeen sites. Futhermore, the 16 monitoring indexes were analyzed in the field and laboratory. The pH value of surface water sample was found to be in the range of 6.83 to 9.31, and the average concentrations of NH4(+)-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile phenol and total phosphorus (TP) were found decreasing significantly. The water quality of the river has been improved from 2009 to 2010. Through the calculation of the data availability and the correlation between adjacent sections, it was found that the present monitoring network was inefficient as well as the optimization was indispensable. In order to improve the situation, the matter element analysis and gravity distance were applied in the optimization of river monitoring network, which were proved to be a useful method to optimize river quality monitoring network. The amount of monitoring sections were cut from 17 to 13 for the monitoring network was more cost-effective after being optimized. The results of this study could be used in developing effective management strategies to improve the environmental quality of Taizihe River. Also, the results show that the proposed model can be effectively used for the optimal design of monitoring networks in river systems.

  12. Optimal Design of River Monitoring Network in Taizihe River by Matter Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Zhe; Sun, Lina; Luo, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to optimize the river monitoring network in Taizihe River, Northeast China. The situation of the network and water characteristics were studied in this work. During this study, water samples were collected once a month during January 2009 - December 2010 from seventeen sites. Futhermore, the 16 monitoring indexes were analyzed in the field and laboratory. The pH value of surface water sample was found to be in the range of 6.83 to 9.31, and the average concentrations of NH4+-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile phenol and total phosphorus (TP) were found decreasing significantly. The water quality of the river has been improved from 2009 to 2010. Through the calculation of the data availability and the correlation between adjacent sections, it was found that the present monitoring network was inefficient as well as the optimization was indispensable. In order to improve the situation, the matter element analysis and gravity distance were applied in the optimization of river monitoring network, which were proved to be a useful method to optimize river quality monitoring network. The amount of monitoring sections were cut from 17 to 13 for the monitoring network was more cost-effective after being optimized. The results of this study could be used in developing effective management strategies to improve the environmental quality of Taizihe River. Also, the results show that the proposed model can be effectively used for the optimal design of monitoring networks in river systems. PMID:26023785

  13. Robust condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings using improved EEMD and statistical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhu, Zhencai; Li, Wei; Chen, Guoan; Zhou, Gongbo

    2014-02-01

    Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis play an important role in the health management of mechanical equipment. However, the robust performance of data-driven-based methods with unknown fault inputs remains to be further improved. In this paper, a novel approach of condition monitoring and fault diagnosis is proposed for rolling element bearings based on an improved ensemble empirical mode decomposition (IEEMD), which is able to solve the non-intrinsic mode function problem of EEMD. In this method, IEEMD is applied to process the primordial vibration signals collected from rolling element bearings at first. Then the correlation analysis and data fusion technology are introduced to extract statistical features from these decomposition results of IEEMD. Finally, a complete self-zero space model is constructed for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. Experiments are implemented on a mechanical fault simulator to demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed method can not only diagnose known faults but also monitor unknown faults with strong robust performance.

  14. Mathematical modeling and remote monitoring of ion-exchange separation of transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tselishchev, I.V.; Elesin, A.A.

    1988-07-01

    A mathematical model and calculational algorithms for the elution curves for ion-exchange separation of transplutonium elements (TPE) and the limits of optimal fractionation of the substances being separated, based on indicators of the process (yield, purification), are presented. The calculational programs are part of the programming provision of a small informational-calculational system based on the microcomputer Elektronika DZ-28, intended for remote monitoring of TPE separation. The elaborated programs can be implemented in the preliminary choice of necessary conditions of the TPE separation process, and also during and after the separation process for comparison of calculated results with the results of continuous, on-line remote monitoring and with the results of laboratory sample analysis. The possible application of the programs has been checked in the instance of the separation of curium and americium, and einsteinium and californium, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with the results of remote and laboratory-analytical monitoring.

  15. Seismic monitoring of heavy oil reservoirs: Rock physics and finite element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theune, Ulrich

    In the past decades, remote monitoring of subsurface processes has attracted increasing attention in geophysics. With repeated geophysical surveys one attempts to detect changes in the physical properties in the underground without directly accessing the earth. This technique has been proven to be very valuable for monitoring enhanced oil recovery programs. This thesis presents an modelling approach for the feasibility analysis for monitoring of a thermal enhanced oil recovery technique applied to heavy oil reservoirs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to produce heavy oil from shallow reservoirs thermal oil recovery techniques such as the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are often employed. As these techniques are expensive and technically challenging, early detection of operational problems is without doubt of great value. However, the feasibility of geophysical monitoring depends on many factors such as the changes in the rock physical properties of the target reservoir. In order to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs, a fluid-substitutional rock physical study has been carried out to simulate the steam injection. The second modelling approach is based on a modified finite element algorithm to simulate the propagation of elastic waves in the earth, which has been developed independently in the framework of this thesis. The work summarized in this thesis shows a possibility to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs through an extensive rock-physical study. Seismic monitoring is a useful tool in reservoir management decision process. However, the work reported here suggests that seismic monitoring of SAGD processes in the heavy oil reservoirs of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is only feasible in shallow, unconsolidated deposits. For deeper, but otherwise geological similar reservoirs, the SAGD does not create a sufficient change in the rock physical properties to be

  16. How Does a Failing School Stop Failing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Gross, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The author's school had just been labeled a failing school by No Child Left Behind when its new principal arrived in the fall of 2007. In this demoralizing climate, teachers can get frustrated and choose to give up, or they can rise to the challenge, create a plan for improvement, and plunge into uncharted waters. This article discusses how the…

  17. Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1977-01-01

    The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

  18. A Spectral Element Approach for Modeling of Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Rolf T.; Fritzen, Claus-Peter

    2010-09-30

    During the last decades, guided waves have shown great potential for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. These waves can be excited and sensed by piezoelectric elements that can be permanently attached onto a structure offering online monitoring capability. As the setup of wave based SHM systems may be very difficult and time consuming there is a growing demand for efficient simulation tools providing the opportunity to design wave based SHM systems in a virtual environment. As usually high frequency waves are used, the associated short wavelength leads to the necessity of a very dense mesh, which makes conventional finite elements not well suited for this purpose. Therefore a flat shell spectral element approach is presented in this contribution. By including electromechanical coupling an SHM system can be simulated entirely from actuator voltage to sensor voltage. The focus of this contribution is the analysis of the effect of delaminations on propagating waves. A forward increment Lagrange multiplier method is used to simulate contact within the delaminated area. A model validation is performed using measured data of an anisotropic CFRP-plate.

  19. Failed induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Navathe, Reshama

    2015-10-01

    Induction of labor will affect almost a quarter of all pregnancies, but historically there has been no generally accepted definition of failed induction of labor. Only recently have studies analyzed the lengths of latent labor that are associated with successful labor induction ending in a vaginal delivery, and recommendations for uniformity in the diagnosis of failed induction have largely resulted from this data. This review assesses the most recent and inclusive definition for failed induction, risk factors associated with failure, complications, and special populations that may be at risk for a failed induction.

  20. Danube catchment water chemistry monitoring - elemental pattern determination from source to mouth using ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovsky, Anastassiya; Zitek, Andreas; Irrgeher, Johanna; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the elemental composition of river water is an important tool to determine the chemical status of a river. However, currently many studies are limited to the analysis of heavy metals included in the EU Water Framework Directive Priority Substances List (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb). Yet, the assessment of further elements (e.g. Ca, Mg, Si) can give additional relevant information for understanding catchment processes such as soil erosion, weathering, hydrological changes or glacial melting. In addition, site specific "elemental pattern" can be used as tracer for ecological studies, like habitat and migration studies of fish or birds. Elemental information is of particular interest complementary to isotopic data where only little variability in the isotopic signatures can be observed. In this work, we investigated water samples collected from 68 sampling sites along the longitudinal course of the river Danube including the major tributaries during the Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3) in 2013. Water samples were obtained as triplicates in the middle of the river and analyzed using Inductively Coupled - Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method validation was performed using riverine water (NRC SLRS-5) certified reference material as well as in-house prepared quality control standards. Due to the diverse geology and changing natural and anthropogenic factors along the longitudinal course of the Danube, pronounced elemental variations among the water samples were documented. For instance, especially some major elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) together with some minor elements (Si, Sr) are known to reflect in particular regional geological morphologies. In addition, the variation in Si/Ca ratios can be used as an indicator for weathering conditions, especially in the mountainous areas along the Danube. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb downstream of some large cities and industrial areas are signs of significant anthropogenic impact. In combination, the chemical

  1. Speed of sound estimation with active PZT element for thermal monitoring during ablation therapy: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younsu; Guo, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Alexis; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-04-01

    Controlling the thermal dose during ablation therapy is instrumental to successfully removing the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy tissue. In the practical scenario, surgeons must be able to determine the ablation completeness in the tumor region. Various methods have been proposed to monitor it, one of which uses ultrasound since it is a common intraoperative imaging modality due to its non-invasive, cost-effective, and convenient natures. In our approach, we propose to use time of flight (ToF) information to estimate speed of sound changes. Accurate speed of sound estimation is crucial because it is directly correlated with temperature change and subsequent determination of ablation completeness. We divide the region of interest in a circular fashion with a variable radius from the ablator tip. We introduce the concept of effective speed of sound in each of the sub-regions. Our active PZT element control system facilitates this unique approach by allowing us to acquire one-way ToF information between the PZT element and each of the ultrasound elements. We performed a simulation and an experiment to verify feasibility of this method. The simulation result showed that we could compute the effective speed of sound within 0.02m/s error in our discrete model. We also perform a sensitivity analysis for this model. Most of the experimental results had less than 1% error. Simulation using a Gaussian continuous model with multiple PZT elements is also demonstrated. We simulate the effect of the element location one the optimization result.

  2. Bridge Deformation Monitoring: Instight From InSAR Time-Series And Finite Element Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshiri, Roghayeh; Motagh, Mahdi; Baes, Marzieh; Sharifi, Mohammad-Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the capability of advanced InSAR time-series techniques such as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) for monitoring of civil engineering structures like bridge. Deformation monitoring of bridges are essential to mitigate not only the financial and human losses, but also ecological and environmental-related problems. Assessment of deformation during bridge lifespan can provide invaluable insight for better planning and management. The study area, Lake Urmia Causeway (LUC) in northwest Iran, consists of one bridge and two embankments on both sides of it. The difference between the deformation rate of the embankments on both sides of the bridge may seriously damage the bridge itself, so it is very important to accurately monitor them in space and time in order to assess the state of the bridge concerning deformations. In this study we apply the InSAR time-series technique of SBAS for 58 SAR images including 10 ALOS, 30 Envisat and 18 TerraSAR-X (TSX) to assess deflation of embankments of Urmia bridge during 2003-2013. The InSAR results are used in a 2D Finite Element Model (FEM) to assess structural stability of the embankments.

  3. Monitoring Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 Expression During Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bodak, Maxime; Ciaudo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Long Interspersed Elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1) are a class of transposable elements which account for almost 19 % of the mouse genome. This represents around 600,000 L1 fragments, among which it is estimated that 3000 intact copies still remain capable to retrotranspose and to generate deleterious mutation by insertion into genomic coding region. In differentiated cells, full length L1 are transcriptionally repressed by DNA methylation. However at the blastocyst stage, L1 elements are subject to a demethylation wave and able to be expressed and to be inserted into new genomic locations. Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (mESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Mouse ESCs can be maintained undifferentiated under controlled culture conditions or induced into the three primary germ layers, therefore they represent a suitable model to follow mechanisms involved in L1 repression during the process of differentiation of mESCs. This protocol presents how to maintain culture of undifferentiated mESCs, induce their differentiation, and monitor L1 expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. L1 transcriptional levels are assessed by real-time qRT-PCR performed on total RNA extracts using specific L1 primers and translation levels are measured by Western blot analysis of L1 protein ORF1 using a specific L1 antibody.

  4. Microwave plasma monitoring system for the elemental composition analysis of high temperature process streams

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, high temperature capability refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. The invention may be incorporated into a high temperature process device and implemented in situ for example, such as with a DC graphite electrode plasma arc furnace. The invention further provides a system for the elemental analysis of process streams by removing particulate and/or droplet samples therefrom and entraining such samples in the gas flow which passes through the plasma flame. Introduction of and entraining samples in the gas flow may be facilitated by a suction pump, regulating gas flow, gravity or combinations thereof.

  5. Elemental and morphological analyses of filter tape deposits from a beta attenuation monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, John G.; Chow, Judith C.; Chen, L.-W. Antony; Kohl, Steven D.; Casuccio, Gary S.; Lersch, Traci L.; Langston, Rodney

    2012-03-01

    An hourly average PM 10 concentration of 1402 μg m -3 was registered at 1400 Pacific Standard Time (PST), 1/11/2007, on the beta attenuation monitor (BAM) at a North Las Vegas, Nevada sampling site. The high PM 10 concentration at ~ 1245-~1331 PST was a microscale event, limited strictly to the PM 10 sampler; it did not affect the adjacent PM 2.5 concentrations. A method was developed for retrospective compositional analysis of BAM glass-fiber filter tape sample deposits. Sample punches were submitted for optical examination, followed by elemental and morphological analyses with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses, respectively. Geological samples surrounding the sampling site were acquired to establish source profiles and identify source markers. Although blank levels for many elements were high on the glass-fiber filter tape from the BAM, they were consistent enough to allow background subtraction from the deposit concentrations for most chemical components. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model source apportionment for the event closely matched the paved road dust sample collected adjacent to the sampling site. It is likely that this high mass event was the result of environmental vandalism. This study demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing BAM filter tape deposits for source attribution, especially for short-duration fugitive dust events. Filter tapes should be time-stamped and immediately retained after an event for future analysis.

  6. Noninvasive arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using two- element ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joohyun; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Lee, Hae-Seung; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-04-01

    This work details noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform estimation based on an arterial vessel cross-sectional area measurement combined with an elasticity measurement of the vessel, represented by pulse wave velocity (PWV), using a two-element ultrasound system. The overall ABP waveform estimation is validated in a custom-designed experimental setup mimicking the heart and an arterial vessel segment with two single element transducers, assuming a constant hemodynamic system. The estimation of local PWV using the flow-area method produces unbiased elasticity estimation of the tube in a pressure waveform comparison. The measured PWV using 16 cardiac cycles of data is 8.47 + 0.63 m/s with an associated scaling error of -1.56 + 14.0% in a direct pressure waveform comparison, showing negligible bias error on average. The distension waveform obtained from a complex cross-correlation model estimator (C3M) reliably traces small pressure changes reflected by the diameter change. The excellent agreement of an estimated pressure waveform to the reference pressure waveform suggests the promising potential of a readily available, inexpensive, and portable ABP waveform monitoring device.

  7. Spectral-element simulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration time-lapse monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morency, C.; Luo, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2, a green house gas, represents an effort to reduce the large amount of CO2 generated as a by-product of fossil fuels combustion and emitted into the atmosphere. This process of sequestration involves CO2 storage deep underground. There are three main storage options: injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs, injection into methane-bearing coal beds, or injection into deep saline aquifers, that is, highly permeable porous media. The key issues involve accurate monitoring of the CO2, from the injection stage to the prediction & verification of CO2 movement over time for environmental considerations. A natural non-intrusive monitoring technique is referred to as ``4D seismics'', which involves 3D time-lapse seismic surveys. The success of monitoring the CO2 movement is subject to a proper description of the physics of the problem. We propose to realize time-lapse migrations comparing acoustic, elastic, and poroelastic simulations of 4D seismic imaging to characterize the storage zone. This approach highlights the influence of using different physical theories on interpreting seismic data, and, more importantly, on extracting the CO2 signature from the seismic wave field. Our simulations are performed using a spectral-element method, which allows for highly accurate results. Biot's equations are implemented to account for poroelastic effects. Attenuation associated with the anelasticity of the rock frame and frequency-dependent viscous resistance of the pore fluid are accommodated based upon a memory variable approach. The sensitivity of observables to the model parameters is quantified based upon finite-frequency sensitivity kernels calculated using an adjoint method.

  8. Monitoring of jökulhlaups and element fluxes in proglacial Icelandic rivers using osmotic samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Gałeczka, Iwona M.; Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Palmer, Martin R.; Mowlem, Matthew C.; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Jónsson, Þorsteinn; Gislason, Sigurður R.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of volatile emissions from volcanoes is an integral part of understanding magmatic systems, with the exsolution and extent of volcanic degassing having a large impact on the nature of an eruption. Measurements of volatiles have traditionally focused on gas emissions into the atmosphere, but volatiles can also become dissolved in proximal water bodies en route to the surface. Thus the monitoring of rivers draining active volcanic areas can provide insights to identifying changes in activity. This process is particularly important for sub-glacial volcanoes in Iceland, where much of the volatile release is transported within glacial outbreak floods, termed jökulhlaups. Monitoring and characterising these phenomena is hampered by the dependence on spot sampling of stochastic events under challenging field conditions, which often leads to bias in the collected data. A recent technological advance is the osmotic sampler, an electricity-free pump that continuously collects water that can subsequently be divided into time-averaged samples. This technique allows for continued and unsupervised deployment of a sampler for weeks to months, representing a cost-efficient form of chemical monitoring. In this study we deployed osmotic samplers in two rivers in southern Iceland. Skálm is a proglacial river from Mýrdalsjökull glacier and Katla volcano, while Skaftá is a larger drainage system from the western part of Vatnajökull glacier. Both rivers are prone to jökulhlaups from geothermal and volcanic sources, and a small jökulhlaup of geothermal origin occurred during the second deployment in Skaftá in January 2014. The two deployments show that osmotic samplers are capable of delivering accurate chemical data in turbulent conditions for several key elements. Total dissolved fluxes for the deployment at Skaftá are calculated to be Na = 9.9 tonnes/day, Mg = 10.5 t/d, Si = 34.7 t/d, Cl = 11.0 t/d, Ca = 31.6 t/d, DIC = 50.8 t/d, and SO4 = 28.3 t/d, with

  9. ELLA Fails Four Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Graham

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that ELLA (English Language and Literacy Assessment ) implemented in New South Wales, Australia, fails four tests for sound diagnostic assessment set out in a standard reference (K.W. Howell et al. "Curriculum Based Evaluation")--tests for logicality, reliability, validity, and accuracy and practicality. (RS)

  10. Fail safe logic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shield, I.

    1983-03-01

    Ideally, a circuit is said to be fail safe, if for every possible failure configuration, the circuit results in a safe side output. In order to guarantee safe side failures, it is imperative that the circuit detects any faults within it. A suitable procedure for doing this can be based on an error detecting code, such as the K out of N code. A number of circuit types are considered, taking into account a fault tolerant circuit, a fault secure circuit, a self testing circuit, a self checking circuit, a self checking checker, and a fail safe circuit. Attention is given to the realization of combinational circuits, aspects of safety and reliability, sequential circuits, the realization of sequential circuits, the occurrence of clock failure, and the design procedure.

  11. Who fails lantern tests?

    PubMed

    Cole, B L; Vingrys, A J

    1983-05-01

    A battery of clinical colour vision tests was given to a group of 100 observers with abnormal colour vision who were also tested on the Farnsworth lantern and the Holmes-Wright lanterns types A and B. It was found that clinical colour vision tests are imperfect predictors of lantern test performance. However, observers classified as having a 'severe' colour vision defect were found to fail the lantern tests but only one half to two-thirds of those who fail the lantern tests can be identified in this way. It is not possible to identify with certainty any of the people likely to pass the lantern tests: about one-third to two-thirds of observers classified as being mildly affected fail the lantern tests. The Farnsworth D-15 and City University tests were found to be the best predictors of lantern test performance but other tests such as the Nagel anomaloscope, the H-16, L'Anthony's desaturated test can also be used. The lack of a strong correlation between clinical tests and the recognition of the small coloured stimuli presented by the lantern tests suggests that clinical tests do not test the same aspect of colour vision that is important to the recognition of signal lights. For this reason lantern tests should be retained for occupational testing of colour vision.

  12. Finite Element Method (FEM) Modeling of Freeze-drying: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Product Robustness During Lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Sadineni, Vikram; Maity, Mita; Quan, Yong; Enterline, Matthew; Mantri, Rao V

    2015-12-01

    Lyophilization is an approach commonly undertaken to formulate drugs that are unstable to be commercialized as ready to use (RTU) solutions. One of the important aspects of commercializing a lyophilized product is to transfer the process parameters that are developed in lab scale lyophilizer to commercial scale without a loss in product quality. This process is often accomplished by costly engineering runs or through an iterative process at the commercial scale. Here, we are highlighting a combination of computational and experimental approach to predict commercial process parameters for the primary drying phase of lyophilization. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are determined experimentally either by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) or sublimation tests and used as inputs for the finite element model (FEM)-based software called PASSAGE, which computes various primary drying parameters such as primary drying time and product temperature. The heat and mass transfer coefficients will vary at different lyophilization scales; hence, we present an approach to use appropriate factors while scaling-up from lab scale to commercial scale. As a result, one can predict commercial scale primary drying time based on these parameters. Additionally, the model-based approach presented in this study provides a process to monitor pharmaceutical product robustness and accidental process deviations during Lyophilization to support commercial supply chain continuity. The approach presented here provides a robust lyophilization scale-up strategy; and because of the simple and minimalistic approach, it will also be less capital intensive path with minimal use of expensive drug substance/active material.

  13. Finite Element Method (FEM) Modeling of Freeze-drying: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Product Robustness During Lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Sadineni, Vikram; Maity, Mita; Quan, Yong; Enterline, Matthew; Mantri, Rao V

    2015-12-01

    Lyophilization is an approach commonly undertaken to formulate drugs that are unstable to be commercialized as ready to use (RTU) solutions. One of the important aspects of commercializing a lyophilized product is to transfer the process parameters that are developed in lab scale lyophilizer to commercial scale without a loss in product quality. This process is often accomplished by costly engineering runs or through an iterative process at the commercial scale. Here, we are highlighting a combination of computational and experimental approach to predict commercial process parameters for the primary drying phase of lyophilization. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are determined experimentally either by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) or sublimation tests and used as inputs for the finite element model (FEM)-based software called PASSAGE, which computes various primary drying parameters such as primary drying time and product temperature. The heat and mass transfer coefficients will vary at different lyophilization scales; hence, we present an approach to use appropriate factors while scaling-up from lab scale to commercial scale. As a result, one can predict commercial scale primary drying time based on these parameters. Additionally, the model-based approach presented in this study provides a process to monitor pharmaceutical product robustness and accidental process deviations during Lyophilization to support commercial supply chain continuity. The approach presented here provides a robust lyophilization scale-up strategy; and because of the simple and minimalistic approach, it will also be less capital intensive path with minimal use of expensive drug substance/active material. PMID:25791415

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A COMMUNITY MONITOR AND PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO PM 2.5 MASS AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between a community monitor and personal exposures to PM2.5 mass and trace elements was investigated for 28 days during the summer of 1998 in a retirement home in Baltimore, Maryland. Daily community, outdoor, and indoor PM2.5 were measured with a URG Versatile...

  15. Selection of Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Sites based on Geographic Parameters Extraction of GIS and Fuzzy Matter-Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianfa; Peng, Dahao; Ma, Jianhao; Zhao, Li; Sun, Ce; Ling, Huanzhang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively monitor the atmospheric quality of small-scale areas, it is necessary to optimize the locations of the monitoring sites. This study combined geographic parameters extraction by GIS with fuzzy matter-element analysis. Geographic coordinates were extracted by GIS and transformed into rectangular coordinates. These coordinates were input into the Gaussian plume model to calculate the pollutant concentration at each site. Fuzzy matter-element analysis, which is used to solve incompatible problems, was used to select the locations of sites. The matter element matrices were established according to the concentration parameters. The comprehensive correlation functions KA (xj) and KB (xj), which reflect the degree of correlation among monitoring indices, were solved for each site, and a scatter diagram of the sites was drawn to determine the final positions of the sites based on the functions. The sites could be classified and ultimately selected by the scatter diagram. An actual case was tested, and the results showed that 5 positions can be used for monitoring, and the locations conformed to the technical standard. In the results of this paper, the hierarchical clustering method was used to improve the methods. The sites were classified into 5 types, and 7 locations were selected. Five of the 7 locations were completely identical to the sites determined by fuzzy matter-element analysis. The selections according to these two methods are similar, and these methods can be used in combination. In contrast to traditional methods, this study monitors the isolated point pollutant source within a small range, which can reduce the cost of monitoring.

  16. Selection of Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Sites based on Geographic Parameters Extraction of GIS and Fuzzy Matter-Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianfa; Peng, Dahao; Ma, Jianhao; Zhao, Li; Sun, Ce; Ling, Huanzhang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively monitor the atmospheric quality of small-scale areas, it is necessary to optimize the locations of the monitoring sites. This study combined geographic parameters extraction by GIS with fuzzy matter-element analysis. Geographic coordinates were extracted by GIS and transformed into rectangular coordinates. These coordinates were input into the Gaussian plume model to calculate the pollutant concentration at each site. Fuzzy matter-element analysis, which is used to solve incompatible problems, was used to select the locations of sites. The matter element matrices were established according to the concentration parameters. The comprehensive correlation functions KA (xj) and KB (xj), which reflect the degree of correlation among monitoring indices, were solved for each site, and a scatter diagram of the sites was drawn to determine the final positions of the sites based on the functions. The sites could be classified and ultimately selected by the scatter diagram. An actual case was tested, and the results showed that 5 positions can be used for monitoring, and the locations conformed to the technical standard. In the results of this paper, the hierarchical clustering method was used to improve the methods. The sites were classified into 5 types, and 7 locations were selected. Five of the 7 locations were completely identical to the sites determined by fuzzy matter-element analysis. The selections according to these two methods are similar, and these methods can be used in combination. In contrast to traditional methods, this study monitors the isolated point pollutant source within a small range, which can reduce the cost of monitoring. PMID:25923911

  17. Selection of Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Sites based on Geographic Parameters Extraction of GIS and Fuzzy Matter-Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianfa; Peng, Dahao; Ma, Jianhao; Zhao, Li; Sun, Ce; Ling, Huanzhang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively monitor the atmospheric quality of small-scale areas, it is necessary to optimize the locations of the monitoring sites. This study combined geographic parameters extraction by GIS with fuzzy matter-element analysis. Geographic coordinates were extracted by GIS and transformed into rectangular coordinates. These coordinates were input into the Gaussian plume model to calculate the pollutant concentration at each site. Fuzzy matter-element analysis, which is used to solve incompatible problems, was used to select the locations of sites. The matter element matrices were established according to the concentration parameters. The comprehensive correlation functions KA (xj) and KB (xj), which reflect the degree of correlation among monitoring indices, were solved for each site, and a scatter diagram of the sites was drawn to determine the final positions of the sites based on the functions. The sites could be classified and ultimately selected by the scatter diagram. An actual case was tested, and the results showed that 5 positions can be used for monitoring, and the locations conformed to the technical standard. In the results of this paper, the hierarchical clustering method was used to improve the methods. The sites were classified into 5 types, and 7 locations were selected. Five of the 7 locations were completely identical to the sites determined by fuzzy matter-element analysis. The selections according to these two methods are similar, and these methods can be used in combination. In contrast to traditional methods, this study monitors the isolated point pollutant source within a small range, which can reduce the cost of monitoring. PMID:25923911

  18. Failing by design.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2011-04-01

    It's hardly news that business leaders work in increasingly uncertain environments, where failures are bound to be more common than successes. Yet if you ask executives how well, on a scale of one to 10, their organizations learn from failure, you'll often get a sheepish "Two-or maybe three" in response. Such organizations are missing a big opportunity: Failure may be inevitable but, if managed well, can be very useful. A certain amount of failure can help you keep your options open, find out what doesn't work, create the conditions to attract resources and attention, make room for new leaders, and develop intuition and skill. The key to reaping these benefits is to foster "intelligent failure" throughout your organization. McGrath describes several principles that can help you put intelligent failure to work. You should decide what success and failure would look like before you start a project. Document your initial assumptions, test and revise them as you go, and convert them into knowledge. Fail fast-the longer something takes, the less you'll learn-and fail cheaply, to contain your downside risk. Limit the number of uncertainties in new projects, and build a culture that tolerates, and sometimes even celebrates, failure. Finally, codify and share what you learn. These principles won't give you a means of avoiding all failures down the road-that's simply not realistic. They will help you use small losses to attain bigger wins over time.

  19. Concentrations of Elements in Hellbender Blood and Fish Fillets from the Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Mike J.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of contaminant monitoring surveys conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) blood and fish. Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus, Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), redhorse (Moxostoma anisorum, Moxostoma erythrurum), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus punctulatus, Micropterus Lacepede, Ambloplites rupestris), walleye (Sander vitreus), and sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) were collected from 17 sites as part of the Department's General Contaminant Monitoring Program. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and other sunfish (Lepomis megalotis, Lepomis cyanellus) were collected from 18 sites as part of the Department's Resource Assessment and Monitoring Program. Blood from hellbenders was collected from seven sites as part of the Department's Hellbender Monitoring Program.

  20. Do ICP-MS based methods fulfill the EU monitoring requirements for the determination of elements in our environment?

    PubMed

    Tirez, Kristof; Vanhoof, Chris; Bronders, Jan; Seuntjens, Piet; Bleux, Nico; Berghmans, Patrick; De Brucker, Nicole; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Undoubtedly, the most important advance in the environmental regulatory monitoring of elements of the last decade is the widespread introduction of ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) due to standards developed by the European Committee for Standardization. The versatility of ICP-MS units as a tool for the determination of major, minor and trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Ti, V and Zn) in surface water, groundwater, river sediment, topsoil, subsoil, fine particulates and atmospheric deposition is illustrated in this paper. Ranges of background concentrations for major, minor and trace elements obtained from a regional case study (Flanders, Belgium) are summarized for all of these environmental compartments and discussed in the context of a harmonized implementation of European regulatory monitoring requirements. The results were derived from monitoring programs in support of EU environmental quality directives and were based on a selection of (non-polluted) background locations. Because of the availability of ICP-MS instruments nowadays, it can be argued that the main hindrance for meeting the European environmental monitoring requirements is no longer the technical feasibility of analysis at these concentration levels, but rather (i) potential contamination during sampling and analysis, (ii) too limited implementation of quality control programs, validating the routinely applied methods (including sampling and low level verification) and (iii) lack of harmonization in reporting of the chemical environmental status between the individual member states.

  1. Do ICP-MS based methods fulfill the EU monitoring requirements for the determination of elements in our environment?

    PubMed

    Tirez, Kristof; Vanhoof, Chris; Bronders, Jan; Seuntjens, Piet; Bleux, Nico; Berghmans, Patrick; De Brucker, Nicole; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Undoubtedly, the most important advance in the environmental regulatory monitoring of elements of the last decade is the widespread introduction of ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) due to standards developed by the European Committee for Standardization. The versatility of ICP-MS units as a tool for the determination of major, minor and trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Ti, V and Zn) in surface water, groundwater, river sediment, topsoil, subsoil, fine particulates and atmospheric deposition is illustrated in this paper. Ranges of background concentrations for major, minor and trace elements obtained from a regional case study (Flanders, Belgium) are summarized for all of these environmental compartments and discussed in the context of a harmonized implementation of European regulatory monitoring requirements. The results were derived from monitoring programs in support of EU environmental quality directives and were based on a selection of (non-polluted) background locations. Because of the availability of ICP-MS instruments nowadays, it can be argued that the main hindrance for meeting the European environmental monitoring requirements is no longer the technical feasibility of analysis at these concentration levels, but rather (i) potential contamination during sampling and analysis, (ii) too limited implementation of quality control programs, validating the routinely applied methods (including sampling and low level verification) and (iii) lack of harmonization in reporting of the chemical environmental status between the individual member states. PMID:26487336

  2. [Comparison of Monitoring Methods of Organic Carbon and Element Carbon in Atmospheric Fine Particles].

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Ji, Dong-sheng; Liu, Zi-rui; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yue-si

    2016-04-15

    Accurate measurement of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in atmospheric fine particulate is an important scientific basis for studying the formation and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol. The selection of different analysis programs will lead to difference in the OC and EC concentrations, and further result in the misjudgment of the results. The OC and EC concentrations observed using three temperature protocols including RT-Quartz ( R) , NIOSH 5040 (N) and Fast-TC (F) were compared and analyzed in combination with the degree of air pollution in Beijing. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the TC (TC = OC + EC), OC and EC concentrations observed using R, N and F protocols and certain deviation was found among the TC (TC = OC + EC) , OC and EC concentrations. For TC, the results observed using R protocol were 5% lower than those using N protocol; hut 1% higher than those using F protocol. For OC, the results obtained using R were 9% lower than those using N protocol and 1% higher than those using F protocol. For EC, the results obtained using R were 20% higher than those using N protocol and 11% lower than those using F protocol. The variation coefficients for TC, OC and EC obtained based on R protocol were less than the other two temperature protocols under different air quality degrees. The slopes of regression curves of TC, OC and EC between on-line analysis using R protocol and off-line analysis were 1.21,1. 14 and 1.35, respectively. The correlation coefficients of TC, OC and EC were 0.99, 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. In contrast with the Black carbon ( BC) concentrations monitored by multi-angle absorption spectrophotometer (MAAP), the EC concentrations measured by on-line OC/EC analyzer using R protocol were obviously lower. When the BC concentrations were less than or equal to 8 gg*m3, the EC/BC ratio was 0.39. While the EC/BC ratio was 0.88, when the BC concentrations were greater than 8 ggm3. The variation

  3. [Comparison of Monitoring Methods of Organic Carbon and Element Carbon in Atmospheric Fine Particles].

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Ji, Dong-sheng; Liu, Zi-rui; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yue-si

    2016-04-15

    Accurate measurement of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in atmospheric fine particulate is an important scientific basis for studying the formation and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol. The selection of different analysis programs will lead to difference in the OC and EC concentrations, and further result in the misjudgment of the results. The OC and EC concentrations observed using three temperature protocols including RT-Quartz ( R) , NIOSH 5040 (N) and Fast-TC (F) were compared and analyzed in combination with the degree of air pollution in Beijing. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the TC (TC = OC + EC), OC and EC concentrations observed using R, N and F protocols and certain deviation was found among the TC (TC = OC + EC) , OC and EC concentrations. For TC, the results observed using R protocol were 5% lower than those using N protocol; hut 1% higher than those using F protocol. For OC, the results obtained using R were 9% lower than those using N protocol and 1% higher than those using F protocol. For EC, the results obtained using R were 20% higher than those using N protocol and 11% lower than those using F protocol. The variation coefficients for TC, OC and EC obtained based on R protocol were less than the other two temperature protocols under different air quality degrees. The slopes of regression curves of TC, OC and EC between on-line analysis using R protocol and off-line analysis were 1.21,1. 14 and 1.35, respectively. The correlation coefficients of TC, OC and EC were 0.99, 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. In contrast with the Black carbon ( BC) concentrations monitored by multi-angle absorption spectrophotometer (MAAP), the EC concentrations measured by on-line OC/EC analyzer using R protocol were obviously lower. When the BC concentrations were less than or equal to 8 gg*m3, the EC/BC ratio was 0.39. While the EC/BC ratio was 0.88, when the BC concentrations were greater than 8 ggm3. The variation

  4. Using laser micro mass spectrometry with the LAMMA-1000 instrument for monitoring relative elemental concentrations in vitrinite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lyons, P.C.; Palmer, C.A.; Fletcher, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The variation in relative elemental concentrations among a series of coal macerals belonging to the vitrinite maceral group was determined using laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Variations in Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V concentrations among the coals were determined using the LAMM A-1000 instrument. LAMMS analysis is not limited to these elements; their selection illustrates the application of the technique. Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V have minimal site-to-site variance in the vitrinite macerals of the studied coals as measured by LAMMS. The LAMMS data were compared with bulk elemental data obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and D. C. arc optical emission spectroscopy (DCAS) in order to determine the reliability of the LAMMS data. The complex nature of the ionization phenomena in LAMMS and the lack of standards characterized on a microscale makes obtaining quantitative elemental data within the ionization microvolume difficult; however, we demonstrate that the relative variation of an element among vitrinites from different coal beds in the eastern United States can be observed using LAMMS in a "bulk" mode by accumulating signal intensities over several microareas of each vitrinite. Our studies indicate gross changes (greater than a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the element) can be monitored when the elemental concentration is significantly above the detection limit. "Bulk" mode analysis was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of future elemental LAMMS microanalyses. The primary advantage of LAMMS is the inherent spatial resolution, ~ 20 ??m for coal. Two different vitrite bands in the Lower Bakerstown coal bed (CLB-1) were analyzed. The analysis did not establish any certain concentration differences in Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V between the two bands. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Fibre Bragg grating vibration transducer based on novel mechanical sensing element for monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Søren; Nielsen, Finn K.; Licht, Torben R.; Rasmussen, Martin N.; Kirkelund, Morten

    2011-05-01

    We present a fibre optical accelerometer based on a balanced double cantilever design that offers improved performance in terms of sensitivity, frequency range and reliability in general. Within a three year project funded by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, we have developed a rugged prototype with a wavelength sensitivity of 20 pm/g within +/-1dB over a frequency range from DC to 1 kHz. These units are currently undergoing field tests in monitoring applications, e.g. for wind turbines, energy services, aerospace etc. In particular, we consider sensitive and reliable accelerometers essential for future condition monitoring and structural health monitoring applications.

  6. Monitoring aerosol elemental composition in particle size fractions of long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metternich, P.; Georgii, H.-W.; Groeneveld, K. O.

    1983-04-01

    Collection of atmospheric samples was performed at Malta, a semi-remote environment in the Mediterranean, in case of long-range transport studies of pollutants and natural substances. Using PIXE as a non-destructive trace-element analytical tool, the elemental composition of these samples was determined. Atmospheric concentrations obtained in this study were of one magnitude higher than those observed over the open North Alantic in purely marine air. For most of the anomalously enriched elements in the Mediterranean aerosol, the high concentrations can be explained by long-range transport.

  7. ESA Data User Element PERMAFROST: a spaceborne permafrost monitoring and information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Heim, B.; Boike, J.; Elger, K.; Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Westermann, S.; Sobiech, J.

    2010-12-01

    Permafrost is a subsurface phenomenon whose ground thermal regime is mainly influenced by air temperature, land cover, soil and rock properties and snow parameters. Many spaceborne applications are potentially indicative for the thermal state of Permafrost, such as ‘land surface temperature’, ‘surface moisture’, ‘freeze/thaw’, ‘terrain’, ‘vegetation’ and ‘changes of surface waters’. The major task of the ESA Data User Element Permafrost project is to develop circumarctic/-boreal Earth Observation services of these parameters with extensive involvement of the permafrost research community The DUE PERMAFROST datasets will be processed in the EO-PERMAFROST Information System and provided via a WebGIS-interface. Further information is available at www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/ permafrost. In order to set up the required validation tasks and information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Most of the foreseen DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing applications are well established and can optimally become operational. The goal of DUE PERMAFROST is to lend confidence in their scientific utility for high-latitude permafrost landscapes. Therefore, a major component is the evaluation of the DUE PERMAFROST products. Ground measurements in the high-latitude landscapes involve challenging logistics and are networked on multidisciplinary and circum-arctic level by the Permafrost community. The International Permafrost Association (IPA) has built up the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) that is a network of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) and the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) projects. A major part of the DUE PERMAFROST core User group is contributing to GTN-P. Additional members of these programs and circum-arctic networks have also been involved in the consulting process and ground data providing process. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and

  8. Investigation of an 11mm diameter twin screw granulator: Screw element performance and in-line monitoring via image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ridade; Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Osorio, Juan G; Cruise, Paul; Jones, Ian; Halbert, Gavin W; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Litster, James D

    2015-12-30

    As twin screw granulation (TSG) provides one with many screw element options, characterization of each screw element is crucial in optimizing the screw configuration in order to obtain desired granule attributes. In this study, the performance of two different screw elements - distributive feed screws and kneading elements - was studied in an 11 mm TSG at different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios. The kneading element configuration was found to break large granules more efficiently, leading to narrower granule size distributions. While pharmaceutical industry shifts toward continuous manufacturing, inline monitoring and process control are gaining importance. Granules from an 11 mm TSG were analysed using the Eyecon™, a real-time high speed direct imaging system, which has been used to capture accurate particle size distribution and particle count. The size parameters and particle count were then assessed in terms of their ability to be a suitable control measure using the Shewhart control charts. d10 and particle count were found to be good indicators of the change in L/S ratio. However, d50 and d90 did not reflect the change, due to their inherent variability even when the process is at steady state.

  9. Investigation of an 11mm diameter twin screw granulator: Screw element performance and in-line monitoring via image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ridade; Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Osorio, Juan G; Cruise, Paul; Jones, Ian; Halbert, Gavin W; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Litster, James D

    2015-12-30

    As twin screw granulation (TSG) provides one with many screw element options, characterization of each screw element is crucial in optimizing the screw configuration in order to obtain desired granule attributes. In this study, the performance of two different screw elements - distributive feed screws and kneading elements - was studied in an 11 mm TSG at different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios. The kneading element configuration was found to break large granules more efficiently, leading to narrower granule size distributions. While pharmaceutical industry shifts toward continuous manufacturing, inline monitoring and process control are gaining importance. Granules from an 11 mm TSG were analysed using the Eyecon™, a real-time high speed direct imaging system, which has been used to capture accurate particle size distribution and particle count. The size parameters and particle count were then assessed in terms of their ability to be a suitable control measure using the Shewhart control charts. d10 and particle count were found to be good indicators of the change in L/S ratio. However, d50 and d90 did not reflect the change, due to their inherent variability even when the process is at steady state. PMID:26385406

  10. Trace element contamination in industrial regions of Poland studied by moss monitoring.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Frontasyeva, M; Szarek-Lukaszewska, G; Klich, M; Kucharska-Fabiś, A; Gundorina, S F; Ostrovnaya, T M

    2003-09-01

    The use of terrestrial mosses as biomonitors in large-scale multi-element studies of heavy metal deposition from the atmosphere is a well established technique in Europe. In such studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to distinguish between different source categories. A combination of INAA and AAS has been found very useful in this respect, in particular when epithermal activation is used for instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 33 elements (Al, Cl, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th, and U) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. moss samples from the Silesia-Kraków Industrial Region and Legnica-Głogów Copper Basin and from the control (background) area in Northeast Poland were identified. The highest concentrations of the majority of trace elements were found in mosses growing in the Silesia-Kraków Industrial Region, only Cu and As concentrations were higher in mosses in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Basin. These results are in conformity with the load of trace elements emissions in these areas. PMID:12952355

  11. Automated measurement and monitoring of bioprocesses: key elements of the M(3)C strategy.

    PubMed

    Sonnleitner, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-routine monitoring items established in the bioprocess industry as well as some important state-of-the-art methods are briefly described and the potential pitfalls discussed. Among those are physical and chemical variables such as temperature, pressure, weight, volume, mass and volumetric flow rates, pH, redox potential, gas partial pressures in the liquid and molar fractions in the gas phase, infrared spectral analysis of the liquid phase, and calorimetry over an entire reactor. Classical as well as new optical versions are addressed. Biomass and bio-activity monitoring (as opposed to "measurement") via turbidity, permittivity, in situ microscopy, and fluorescence are critically analyzed. Some new(er) instrumental analytical tools, interfaced to bioprocesses, are explained. Among those are chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry, flow and sequential injection analyses, field flow fractionation, capillary electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. This chapter surveys the principles of monitoring rather than compiling instruments.

  12. Heat transfer monitoring by means of the hot wire technique and finite element analysis software.

    PubMed

    Hernández Wong, J; Suarez, V; Guarachi, J; Calderón, A; Rojas-Trigos, J B; Juárez, A G; Marín, E

    2014-01-01

    It is reported the study of the radial heat transfer in a homogeneous and isotropic substance with a heat linear source in its axial axis. For this purpose, the hot wire characterization technique has been used, in order to obtain the temperature distribution as a function of radial distance from the axial axis and time exposure. Also, the solution of the transient heat transport equation for this problem was obtained under appropriate boundary conditions, by means of finite element technique. A comparison between experimental, conventional theoretical model and numerical simulated results is done to demonstrate the utility of the finite element analysis simulation methodology in the investigation of the thermal response of substances.

  13. [Biological monitoring of exposure to carcinogenic metallic elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in four secondary metallurgical sectors].

    PubMed

    De Palma, G; Corsini, A; Gilberti, E; Gabusi, V; Tagliani, G; Tomasi, C; Gandellini, A; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at evaluating in a large sample of male foundry workers the current exposure levels to carcinogenic compounds, including metallic elements [arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni)] and aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH) by a biological monitoring approach, using validated biomarkers of exposure. Workers were recruited from 15 aluminium, copper alloy, electric steel and cast iron foundries and provided an end-of-shift urine sample to determine urinary concentrations of As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP). Metallic elements were determined either by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Be, Cd and Cr) or by atomic absorption spectrometry (As, Ni), whereas 1-OHP was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. Most of the determinations fell within the laboratory's reference values. Age and lifestyle habits (smoking, alcohol, diet) played a significant interfering role.

  14. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  15. Monitoring of cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer membrane using streptolysin O as a sensing and signal transduction element.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Atsushi; Ikeya, Kana; Aoyagi, Miki; Takatsuji, Ryutaro; Yanagida, Akio; Shibusawa, Yoichi; Sugawara, Masao

    2016-09-01

    Streptolysin O (SLO), which recognizes sterols and forms nanopores in lipid membranes, is proposed as a sensing element for monitoring cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer. The structural requirements of eight sterols for forming nanopores by SLO confirmed that a free 3-OH group in the β-configuration of sterols is required for recognition by SLO in a lipid bilayer. The extent of nanopore formation by SLO in lipid bilayers increased in the order of cholestanolmonitoring of cholesterol oxidase-mediated oxidation of cholesterol in a lipid bilayer. The potential of the SLO nanopore-based method for monitoring cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer by other oxidative enzymes is also discussed.

  16. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.

    1991-01-01

    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  17. Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace elements in PM10 monitored in urban and rural sites of Piedmont Region.

    PubMed

    Padoan, Elio; Malandrino, Mery; Giacomino, Agnese; Grosa, Mauro M; Lollobrigida, Francesco; Martini, Sara; Abollino, Ornella

    2016-02-01

    The results on elemental composition of aerosol (PM10) sampled during 2011 in Piedmont region (Italy) are interpreted using meteorological data, Enrichment Factors (EF), chemometric processing by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Factor Analysis (FA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Daily concentrations of about 30 elements were measured using HR-ICP-MS in five monitoring sites. A clear seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations in autumn and winter, was observed, particularly in the urban sites. Levels of As, Cd, Ni and Pb in most of the samples were within the limits imposed by the European legislation. Spatial differences in PM10 and metal concentrations were significant, with rural and urban sites showing different metal patterns, indicating different sources. K and Ca were used, respectively, as marker of biomass burning and industrial marker (cement plant); EFs showed that Ca was enriched just in one area and K was enriched only in the winter period considered and in some stations. Data analysis through PCA, FA and HCA allowed us to identify correlations among the investigated elements and similarities between sampling sites in order to individuate specific emission sources, such as non-exhaust vehicle emission.

  18. Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (So), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

  19. Who Really Failed New Orleans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Thomas D.

    2008-09-01

    I read with unusual interest the Forum ``Earth Scientists and Public Policy: Have We Failed New Orleans?'' in the 4 March issue of Eos (89(10), 2008). As an Earth scientist who lived in New Orleans during most of the early 1960s, I believe strongly that Earth scientists did not fail to recognize infrastructure problems. Further, they tried to communicate these problems and potential dangers to civic leaders in New Orleans and to government officials in Baton Rouge and Washington.

  20. Comparision of photogrammetric point clouds with BIM building elements for construction progress monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2014-08-01

    For construction progress monitoring a planned state of the construction at a certain time (as-planed) has to be compared to the actual state (as-built). The as-planed state is derived from a building information model (BIM), which contains the geometry of the building and the construction schedule. In this paper we introduce an approach for the generation of an as-built point cloud by photogrammetry. It is regarded that that images on a construction cannot be taken from everywhere it seems to be necessary. Because of this we use a combination of structure from motion process together with control points to create a scaled point cloud in a consistent coordinate system. Subsequently this point cloud is used for an as-built - as-planed comparison. For that voxels of an octree are marked as occupied, free or unknown by raycasting based on the triangulated points and the camera positions. This allows to identify not existing building parts. For the verification of the existence of building parts a second test based on the points in front and behind the as-planed model planes is performed. The proposed procedure is tested based on an inner city construction site under real conditions.

  1. Monitoring trace elements generated by automobiles: air pollutants with possible health impacts.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Khaleeq; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nisar; Javeed, Aqeel

    2013-07-01

    Major transformations in the environmental composition are principally attributable to the combustion of fuels by automobiles. Motorized gasoline-powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA) are potential source of air pollution in south Asia and produce toxic amount of particulate matter (PM) to the environment. In this study, we attempted to characterize elemental pollutants from the PM of TSA and FSA using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The observations of the existing investigation recognized significant increase in Al (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.01), and Zn (P < 0.01) from the PM samples of FSA. In addition, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and S were also observed exceeding the recommended National Institute for Environmental Studies limits. On the contrary, increased concentration of Sr and V were observed in the PM samples from TSA. It is generally believed that FSA generates smaller amount of PM but data obtained from FSA are clearly describing that emissions from FSA comprised potentially more toxic substances than TSA. The current research is specific to metropolitan population and has evidently revealed an inconsistent burden of exposure to air pollutants engendered by FSA in urban communities, which could lead to the disruption of several biological activities and may cause severe damage to entire ecological system. PMID:23263758

  2. Monitoring trace elements generated by automobiles: air pollutants with possible health impacts.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Khaleeq; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nisar; Javeed, Aqeel

    2013-07-01

    Major transformations in the environmental composition are principally attributable to the combustion of fuels by automobiles. Motorized gasoline-powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA) are potential source of air pollution in south Asia and produce toxic amount of particulate matter (PM) to the environment. In this study, we attempted to characterize elemental pollutants from the PM of TSA and FSA using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The observations of the existing investigation recognized significant increase in Al (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.01), and Zn (P < 0.01) from the PM samples of FSA. In addition, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and S were also observed exceeding the recommended National Institute for Environmental Studies limits. On the contrary, increased concentration of Sr and V were observed in the PM samples from TSA. It is generally believed that FSA generates smaller amount of PM but data obtained from FSA are clearly describing that emissions from FSA comprised potentially more toxic substances than TSA. The current research is specific to metropolitan population and has evidently revealed an inconsistent burden of exposure to air pollutants engendered by FSA in urban communities, which could lead to the disruption of several biological activities and may cause severe damage to entire ecological system.

  3. The spatial distribution, accumulation and potential source of seldom monitored trace elements in sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Huaidong; Xu, Dongyu; Wei, Xin; Gao, Li

    2015-01-01

    The alteration of hydrologic condition of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) after impoundment has caused numerous environmental changes. This study investigated the distribution, accumulation and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs) in sediments from three tributaries (ZY, MX and CT) and one mainstream (CJ) in TGR during different seasons. The average contents of most SMTEs excluding Sb in the winter were similar to that in the summer. For Sb, its average concentrations in the summer and winter were roughly six and three times higher than its background value, respectively. Contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediments were obviously contaminated by Sb. The enrichment factors (EF) of Ga and Sb were higher than 2.0, revealing the possible anthropogenic inputs; However, the EFs of other SMTEs were lower than 1.5, indicating the natural inputs. Correlation and principal component analysis suggested the most SMTEs were positively correlated with major elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) and clay contents, which implies that SMTEs had the same sources with these major metals, and the fine particles might be a major carrier for transporting SMTEs from the rivers to the TGR. PMID:26538153

  4. The spatial distribution, accumulation and potential source of seldom monitored trace elements in sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Huaidong; Xu, Dongyu; Wei, Xin; Gao, Li

    2015-11-05

    The alteration of hydrologic condition of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) after impoundment has caused numerous environmental changes. This study investigated the distribution, accumulation and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs) in sediments from three tributaries (ZY, MX and CT) and one mainstream (CJ) in TGR during different seasons. The average contents of most SMTEs excluding Sb in the winter were similar to that in the summer. For Sb, its average concentrations in the summer and winter were roughly six and three times higher than its background value, respectively. Contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediments were obviously contaminated by Sb. The enrichment factors (EF) of Ga and Sb were higher than 2.0, revealing the possible anthropogenic inputs; However, the EFs of other SMTEs were lower than 1.5, indicating the natural inputs. Correlation and principal component analysis suggested the most SMTEs were positively correlated with major elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) and clay contents, which implies that SMTEs had the same sources with these major metals, and the fine particles might be a major carrier for transporting SMTEs from the rivers to the TGR.

  5. The spatial distribution, accumulation and potential source of seldom monitored trace elements in sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Huaidong; Xu, Dongyu; Wei, Xin; Gao, Li

    2015-01-01

    The alteration of hydrologic condition of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) after impoundment has caused numerous environmental changes. This study investigated the distribution, accumulation and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs) in sediments from three tributaries (ZY, MX and CT) and one mainstream (CJ) in TGR during different seasons. The average contents of most SMTEs excluding Sb in the winter were similar to that in the summer. For Sb, its average concentrations in the summer and winter were roughly six and three times higher than its background value, respectively. Contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediments were obviously contaminated by Sb. The enrichment factors (EF) of Ga and Sb were higher than 2.0, revealing the possible anthropogenic inputs; However, the EFs of other SMTEs were lower than 1.5, indicating the natural inputs. Correlation and principal component analysis suggested the most SMTEs were positively correlated with major elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) and clay contents, which implies that SMTEs had the same sources with these major metals, and the fine particles might be a major carrier for transporting SMTEs from the rivers to the TGR. PMID:26538153

  6. Monitoring transmission routes of Listeria spp. in smoked salmon production with repetitive element sequence-based PCR techniques.

    PubMed

    Zunabovic, M; Domig, K J; Pichler, I; Kneifel, W

    2012-03-01

    Various techniques have been used for tracing the transmission routes of Listeria species and for the assessment of hygiene standards in food processing plants. The potential of repetitive element sequence-based PCR (Rep-PCR) methods (GTG₅ and REPI + II) for the typing of Listeria isolates (n = 116), including Listeria monocytogenes (n = 46), was evaluated in a particular situation arising from the relocation of a company producing cold-smoked salmon. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using three restriction enzymes (ApaI, AscI, and SmaI) was used for comparison. Identical transmission scenarios among two companies could be identified by cluster analysis of L. monocytogenes isolates that were indistinguishable by both Rep-PCR and PFGE. The calculated diversity index (DI) indicates that Rep-PCR subtyping of Listeria species with primer sets GTG₅ and REPI + II has a lower discrimination power than does PFGE. When concatenated Rep-PCR cluster analysis was used, the DI increased from 0.934 (REPI + II) and 0.923 (GTG₅) to 0.956. The discrimination power of this method was similar to that of PFGE typing based on restriction enzyme Apa I (DI = 0.955). Listeria welshimeri may be useful as an indicator for monitoring smoked salmon processing environments. Rep-PCR meets the expectations of a reasonable, fast, and low-cost molecular subtyping method for the routine monitoring of Listeria species. The discriminatory power as characterized by the DI sufficiently quantifies the probability of unrelated isolates being characterized as different subtypes. Therefore, Rep-PCR typing based on two primer systems (GTG₅ and REPI + II) may be a useful tool for monitoring industrial hygiene. PMID:22410224

  7. Monitoring transmission routes of Listeria spp. in smoked salmon production with repetitive element sequence-based PCR techniques.

    PubMed

    Zunabovic, M; Domig, K J; Pichler, I; Kneifel, W

    2012-03-01

    Various techniques have been used for tracing the transmission routes of Listeria species and for the assessment of hygiene standards in food processing plants. The potential of repetitive element sequence-based PCR (Rep-PCR) methods (GTG₅ and REPI + II) for the typing of Listeria isolates (n = 116), including Listeria monocytogenes (n = 46), was evaluated in a particular situation arising from the relocation of a company producing cold-smoked salmon. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using three restriction enzymes (ApaI, AscI, and SmaI) was used for comparison. Identical transmission scenarios among two companies could be identified by cluster analysis of L. monocytogenes isolates that were indistinguishable by both Rep-PCR and PFGE. The calculated diversity index (DI) indicates that Rep-PCR subtyping of Listeria species with primer sets GTG₅ and REPI + II has a lower discrimination power than does PFGE. When concatenated Rep-PCR cluster analysis was used, the DI increased from 0.934 (REPI + II) and 0.923 (GTG₅) to 0.956. The discrimination power of this method was similar to that of PFGE typing based on restriction enzyme Apa I (DI = 0.955). Listeria welshimeri may be useful as an indicator for monitoring smoked salmon processing environments. Rep-PCR meets the expectations of a reasonable, fast, and low-cost molecular subtyping method for the routine monitoring of Listeria species. The discriminatory power as characterized by the DI sufficiently quantifies the probability of unrelated isolates being characterized as different subtypes. Therefore, Rep-PCR typing based on two primer systems (GTG₅ and REPI + II) may be a useful tool for monitoring industrial hygiene.

  8. The Child Who is Failing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Valerie

    1974-01-01

    Provides case studies of Australian children who fail for social reasons. The role of social factors operating within the schools is stressed along with the lost curriculum. That factors operating in school failure are in fact social problems is suggested. [Available from Publications Branch, Education Department of Victoria, 234 Queensberry…

  9. Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part I: Elemental Carbon and Iron–Soot Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Birch, M. Eileen; Ku, Bon-Ki; Evans, Douglas E.; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010;54:514–31.)] Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this Issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported here, in Part I, while results for PAHs are reported in Part II [Birch ME. (Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Ann. Occup. Hyg 2011; 55: 1037–47.)]. Respirable EC area concentrations inside the facility were about 6–68 times higher than outdoors, while personal breathing zone samples were up to 170 times higher. PMID:21965464

  10. Development of a standard protocol for monitoring trace elements in continental waters with moss bags: inter- and intraspecific differences.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Mattia; Bertossi, Alberto; Cherubini, Giovanni; Gava, Emanuele; Mazzilis, Denis; Piccoli, Elisa; Verardo, Pierluigi; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2015-04-01

    This paper is a contribution for validating a standard method for trace element monitoring based on transplants and analysis of aquatic bryophytes, in the framework of the EC Directive 2000/60. It presents the results of an experiment carried out to assess significant differences in the amount and variability of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in three moss species (Cinclidotus aquaticus, Fontinalis antipyretica, Platyhypnidium riparioides) and two different parts of the moss (whole plant vs apical tips). Mosses were caged in bags made of a plastic net and transplanted for 2 weeks to an irrigation canal impacted by a waste water treatment plant. Trace element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) before and after exposure to the experimental and control sites in five samples. Enrichment factors >2 were found for Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in all moss species, lower in C. aquaticus, intermediate in F. antipyretica and higher in P. riparioides (the species we recommend to use). The analysis of apical tips after exposure instead of the whole plant led to (I) lower concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Fe and Zn in C. aquaticus (-7 to -30%) and of Fe and Pb (-13, -18%) in P. riparioides, (II) higher concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn (+14 to +18%) in P. riparioides, while (III) no significant difference (p > 0.05) in F. antipyretica. Data variability after exposure was generally lower in apical tips, especially in C. aquaticus and in F. antipyretica, less in P. riparioides. In the aim of standardizing the moss-bag technique, the analysis of apical tips is recommended.

  11. Trace element concentration in wheat grain: results from the Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments and national monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Kirchmann, Holger; Mattsson, Lennart; Eriksson, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in wheat grain sampled between 1967 and 2003 from the Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments were analyzed using ICP-MS. The long-term effect of inorganic and organic fertilization on trace metal concentrations was investigated including the impact of atmospheric deposition and myccorhiza, whereas other factors such as soil conditions, crop cultivar, etc. are not discussed in this paper. Mean values derived from 10 experimental sites were reported. Significantly declining Pb and Cd concentrations in wheat grain could be explained by lower atmospheric deposition. Mean Se contents in all samples were 0.031 mg kg(-1) grain dry weight. No samples had sufficiently high Se concentrations for human (0.05 mg Se kg(-1)) or animal demand (0.1 mg Se kg(-1)). Concentrations of Co in wheat grain were extremely low, 0.002-0.005 mg Co kg(-1) grain dry weight, and far below the minimum levels required by animals, which applied to all fertilizer treatments. A doubling of Mo concentrations in grain since 1975 resulted in Cu/Mo ratios often below one, which may cause molybdenosis in ruminants. The increase in Mo concentrations in crops correlated with the decline in sulfur deposition. Concentrations of Cu and Fe declined in NPK-fertilized wheat as compared to unfertilized or manure-treated wheat. Very low concentrations of Se and Co and low concentrations of Fe and Cu require attention to counteract risks for deficiencies. The main characteristic of the study is that there are few significant changes over time between different fertilizer treatments, but throughout there are low concentrations of most trace elements in all treatments. In general, good agreement between concentrations in wheat from the long-term fertility experiments and the national monitoring program indicate that values are representative. PMID:19263225

  12. Effects of sampling artifacts and operating parameters on the performance of a semicontinuous particulate elemental carbon/organic carbon monitor.

    PubMed

    Arhami, Mohammad; Kuhn, Thomas; Fine, Philip M; Delfino, Ralph J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2006-02-01

    The carbonaceous component of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is considered very important with respect to the observed adverse health effects of PM. Particulate organic and elemental carbon have traditionally been measured off-line after daily, time-integrated particle collection on filters. However, the subdaily or hourly variability of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) can help to assess the variability of sources, ambient levels, and human exposure. In this study, the performance of the Sunset Laboratory Inc. semicontinuous EC/OC monitorwas assessed in a Los Angeles location representing typical urban pollution. An intermonitor comparison showed high precision (R2 of 0.98 and 0.97 for thermal OC and EC, respectively). By changing the inlet configurations of one of the monitors (adding a denuder, a Teflon filter, or both), the influences of positive and negative sampling artifacts were investigated. The positive artifact was found to be relatively large (7.59 microg/m3 on average), more than 50% of measured OC, but it was practically eliminated with a denuder. The negative artifact was much smaller (less than 20% of the positive artifact) and may be neglected in most cases. A comparison of different temperature profiles, including a fast 4-min analysis using optical EC correction, showed good agreement among methods. Finally, a novel configuration using a size selective inlet impactor removing particles greater than 250 nm in diameter allowed for semicontinuous size-fractionated EC/OC measurements. Evolution of OC at different temperatures of the thermal analysis showed higher volatility OC in larger particles.

  13. Development of a standard protocol for monitoring trace elements in continental waters with moss bags: inter- and intraspecific differences.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Mattia; Bertossi, Alberto; Cherubini, Giovanni; Gava, Emanuele; Mazzilis, Denis; Piccoli, Elisa; Verardo, Pierluigi; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2015-04-01

    This paper is a contribution for validating a standard method for trace element monitoring based on transplants and analysis of aquatic bryophytes, in the framework of the EC Directive 2000/60. It presents the results of an experiment carried out to assess significant differences in the amount and variability of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in three moss species (Cinclidotus aquaticus, Fontinalis antipyretica, Platyhypnidium riparioides) and two different parts of the moss (whole plant vs apical tips). Mosses were caged in bags made of a plastic net and transplanted for 2 weeks to an irrigation canal impacted by a waste water treatment plant. Trace element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) before and after exposure to the experimental and control sites in five samples. Enrichment factors >2 were found for Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in all moss species, lower in C. aquaticus, intermediate in F. antipyretica and higher in P. riparioides (the species we recommend to use). The analysis of apical tips after exposure instead of the whole plant led to (I) lower concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Fe and Zn in C. aquaticus (-7 to -30%) and of Fe and Pb (-13, -18%) in P. riparioides, (II) higher concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn (+14 to +18%) in P. riparioides, while (III) no significant difference (p > 0.05) in F. antipyretica. Data variability after exposure was generally lower in apical tips, especially in C. aquaticus and in F. antipyretica, less in P. riparioides. In the aim of standardizing the moss-bag technique, the analysis of apical tips is recommended. PMID:25647488

  14. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  15. The distribution, accumulation and potential source of seldom monitored trace elements in sediments of Beijiang River, South China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Zhou, Huai-Dong; Yin, Shu-Hua; Hao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    A geochemical study of Beijiang River sediments was carried out to analyze the concentrations, distribution, accumulation and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs: Sc, V, Co, Ga, Y, Sn and Sb). The mean concentrations of Sc, V, Co, Ga, Y, Sn and Sb were 8.2, 60.3, 9.6, 17.2, 28.6, 85.6 and 39.0 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of the SMTEs, together with their spatial distribution showed that the SMTEs were mainly due to anthropogenic inputs from the metal smelting industries and local mining activities in the upper region of the river. The assessment by geoaccumulation index indicates that Sc, V, Co, Ga and Y are at the unpolluted level, Sn is at the 'strongly contaminated' level, and Sb is at the 'extremely contaminated' level. The pollution level of the SMTEs is: Sb > Sn > Y > Ga > Co > V > Sc. The results of correlation analysis and principal component analysis indicated the Sn and Sb were positively correlated with each other, indicating a common source in sediments. In conclusion, our results indicate that the sediments in Beijiang River have been severely contaminated by Sn and Sb.

  16. Pollution characteristics and possible sources of seldom monitored trace elements in surface sediments collected from Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Wei, Xin; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Wan, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical study of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) sediments was carried out to analyze the concentrations, distribution, accumulation, and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs). The mean concentrations of Li, B, Be, Bi, V, Co, Ga, Sn, Sb, and Tl were 47.08, 2.47, 59.15, 0.50, 119.20, 17.83, 30.31, 3.25, 4.14, and 0.58 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of total SMTEs, together with their spatial distribution, showed that the SMTEs were mainly due to anthropogenic inputs in the region of TGR. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicates that Tl, Be, V, Co, and Fe are at the unpolluted level; Bi, Li, Ga, and Sn were at the "uncontaminated to moderately contaminated" level. However, B was classified as "moderately contaminated" level and Sb was ranked as "strongly contaminated" level. The pollution level of the SMTEs is Sb > B > Bi > Li > Ga > Sn > Tl > Be > V > Co > Fe. The results of Correlation Analysis and Principal Component Analysis indicated Be, V, Co, Ga, Sn, Tl, Bi, and Fe in sediments have a natural source. B and Li were positively correlated with each other and mainly attributed into similar anthropogenic input. In addition, Sb has less relationship with other SMTEs, indicating that Sb has another kind of anthropogenic source.

  17. Pollution Characteristics and Possible Sources of Seldom Monitored Trace Elements in Surface Sediments Collected from Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Wei, Xin; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Wan, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical study of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) sediments was carried out to analyze the concentrations, distribution, accumulation, and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs). The mean concentrations of Li, B, Be, Bi, V, Co, Ga, Sn, Sb, and Tl were 47.08, 2.47, 59.15, 0.50, 119.20, 17.83, 30.31, 3.25, 4.14, and 0.58 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of total SMTEs, together with their spatial distribution, showed that the SMTEs were mainly due to anthropogenic inputs in the region of TGR. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicates that Tl, Be, V, Co, and Fe are at the unpolluted level; Bi, Li, Ga, and Sn were at the “uncontaminated to moderately contaminated” level. However, B was classified as “moderately contaminated” level and Sb was ranked as “strongly contaminated” level. The pollution level of the SMTEs is Sb > B > Bi > Li > Ga > Sn > Tl > Be > V > Co > Fe. The results of Correlation Analysis and Principal Component Analysis indicated Be, V, Co, Ga, Sn, Tl, Bi, and Fe in sediments have a natural source. B and Li were positively correlated with each other and mainly attributed into similar anthropogenic input. In addition, Sb has less relationship with other SMTEs, indicating that Sb has another kind of anthropogenic source. PMID:25136647

  18. High elastic polyurethane/carbon nanotube composite laminate for structure health monitoring by gain shifting of antenna sensing element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejnik, Robert; Slobodian, Petr; Matyas, Jiri; Gorakh Babar, Dipak

    2016-03-01

    The composite of carbon nanotubes and polyurethane (PU) was prepared by simple filtration technique. The PU nonwoven filtration membrane was prepared by electrospinning. A layer of carbon nanotubes was prepared by vacuum filtration on the surface of PU membrane. The resulting composite was subsequently placed on highly elastic polyurethane substrate. The contribution shows an efficient method of preparing the sensing element for monitoring the state of strain of loaded structures by using highly elastic polyurethane / carbon nanotubes composite. This sensor has been involved as passive antenna with stable resonance frequency of 650 MHz. When it is get deformed in the range from 0 to 3.5% the sensor gain was changing from -39 dB to - 19.45 dB. But if it is get deformed by 15% and again measured strain from 0 to 3.5%, sensor gain was changing from -33 dB to -12.3 dB, which clearly indicates the damage of structure.

  19. Bioenergetics of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir; Joubert, Frédéric

    2011-07-01

    The heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels to the periphery by repeated, rhythmic contractions at variable intensity. As such the heart should permanently adjust energy production to energy utilization and is a high-energy consumer. For this the heart mainly depends on oxidative metabolism for adequate energy production and on efficient energy transfer systems. In heart failure, there is disequilibrium between the work the heart has to perform and the energy it is able to produce to fulfill its needs. This has led to the concept of energy starvation of the failing heart. This includes decreased oxygen and substrate supply, altered substrate utilization, decreased energy production by mitochondria and glycolysis, altered energy transfer and inefficient energy utilization. Mitochondrial biogenesis and its transcription cascade are down-regulated. Disorganization of the cytoarchitecture of the failing cardiomyocyte also participates in energy wastage. Finally, the failing of the cardiac pump, by decreasing oxygen and substrate supply, leads to a systemic energy starvation. Metabolic therapy has thus emerged as an original and promising approach in the treatment heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria and Cardioprotection. PMID:20869993

  20. Accumulation of airborne trace elements in mosses, lichens and synthetic materials exposed at urban monitoring stations: towards a harmonisation of the moss-bag technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Adamo, P; Spagnuolo, V; Tretiach, M; Bargagli, R

    2013-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and cellulose filters were exposed for 17 weeks at four urban monitoring stations in Naples (S Italy) to assess the accumulation of airborne Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn. In each site, the element accumulation was significantly higher in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme than in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Acid washed mosses accumulated the highest amount of trace elements, but the differences in element concentrations among the moss samples exposed after water washing and different devitalisation treatments (acid washing, oven drying and water boiling) and between the lichen samples exposed with and without the nylon bag were not statistically significant. The cellulose filters showed the lowest accumulation capability. The reciprocal ordination of sites and exposed materials showed an increasing contamination gradient (especially for Pb, Cu and Zn) from the background site to the trafficked city streets; this pattern was undetectable from PM(10) data recorded by the automatic monitoring devices operating in the four exposure sites. The element profile in exposed materials did not change substantially throughout the urban area and particles of polluted urban soils seem the main source of airborne metals in Naples. Through a comprehensive evaluation of the results from this and previous studies, a protocol is suggested for the moss-bag monitoring of trace element deposition in urban environments.

  1. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  2. Why good projects fail anyway.

    PubMed

    Matta, Nadim F; Ashkenas, Ronald N

    2003-09-01

    Big projects fail at an astonishing rate--more than half the time, by some estimates. It's not hard to understand why. Complicated long-term projects are customarily developed by a series of teams working along parallel tracks. If managers fail to anticipate everything that might fall through the cracks, those tracks will not converge successfully at the end to reach the goal. Take a companywide CRM project. Traditionally, one team might analyze customers, another select the software, a third develop training programs, and so forth. When the project's finally complete, though, it may turn out that the salespeople won't enter in the requisite data because they don't understand why they need to. This very problem has, in fact, derailed many CRM programs at major organizations. There is a way to uncover unanticipated problems while the project is still in development. The key is to inject into the overall plan a series of miniprojects, or "rapid-results initiatives," which each have as their goal a miniature version of the overall goal. In the CRM project, a single team might be charged with increasing the revenues of one sales group in one region by 25% within four months. To reach that goal, team members would have to draw on the work of all the parallel teams. But in just four months, they would discover the salespeople's resistance and probably other unforeseen issues, such as, perhaps, the need to divvy up commissions for joint-selling efforts. The World Bank has used rapid-results initiatives to great effect to keep a sweeping 16-year project on track and deliver visible results years ahead of schedule. In taking an in-depth look at this project, and others, the authors show why this approach is so effective and how the initiatives are managed in conjunction with more traditional project activities.

  3. The Effects of Self-Monitoring of Story Elements on the Reading Comprehension of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, Tim; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Konrad, Moira

    2010-01-01

    This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of self-monitoring and active responding on the reading comprehension of three high school seniors with learning disabilities and significant attention problems. The self-monitoring intervention required the participants to read a story and stop reading at three…

  4. Digital and analog readout systems for fiber-optic strain sensors as applied to the monitoring of roller element bearing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Juan C.; Conkey, Andrew P.; Perez, Robert X.; Taylor, Henry F.

    2003-11-01

    A rotating machinery test rig was instrumented with fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensors for condition monitoring of rolling element bearings. Strain variations produced by ball passes were observed and analyzed in the time and frequency domain. Wavelength division multiplexing was utilized to simultaneously monitor the sensors with analog and digital readout systems-analog for high bandwidth and digital for high dynamic range and the monitoring of multiple sensors. The effects of imbalance on the shaft, changes in rotational speed, effects on the rotor system, and detection of bearing defects were investigated. Frequency peaks observed in the bearing sensor spectra closely matched predicted values. Imbalance and rotational speed tests showed good agreement with expected trends, and bearing defects were successfully detected.

  5. Environmental monitoring of the area surrounding oil wells in Val d'Agri (Italy): element accumulation in bovine and ovine organs.

    PubMed

    Miedico, Oto; Iammarino, Marco; Paglia, Giuseppe; Tarallo, Marina; Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, A Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, environmental heavy metal contamination in the Val d'Agri area of Southern Italy was monitored, measuring the accumulation of 18 heavy metals (U, Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Sr, Sn, V, Ni, Cr, Mo, Co, Cu, Zn, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al) in the organs of animals raised in the surrounding area (kidney, lung, and liver of bovine and ovine species). Val d'Agri features various oil processing centers which are potentially a significant source of environmental pollution, making it essential to perform studies that will outline the state of the art on which any recovery plans and interventions may be developed. The analysis was carried out using official and accredited analytical methods based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the measurements were statistically processed in order to give a contribution to risk assessment. Even though five samples showed Pb and Cd concentrations above the limits defined in the European Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006, the mean concentrations of most elements suggest that contamination in this area is low. Consequently, these results also suggest that there is no particular risk for human exposure to toxic trace elements. Nevertheless, the findings of this work confirm that element accumulation in ovine species is correlated with geographical livestock area. Therefore, ovine-specific organs might be used as bioindicators for monitoring contamination by specific toxic elements in exposed areas. PMID:27165602

  6. Why Waveform Correlation Sometimes Fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, J.

    2015-12-01

    Waveform correlation detectors used in explosion monitoring scan noisy geophysical data to test two competing hypotheses: either (1) an amplitude-scaled version of a template waveform is present, or, (2) no signal is present at all. In reality, geophysical wavefields that are monitored for explosion signatures include waveforms produced by non-target sources that are partially correlated with the waveform template. Such signals can falsely trigger correlation detectors, particularly at low thresholds required to monitor for smaller target explosions. This challenge is particularly formidable when monitoring known test sites for seismic disturbances, since uncatalogued natural seismicity is (generally) more prevalent at lower magnitudes, and could be mistaken for small explosions. To address these challenges, we identify real examples in which correlation detectors targeting explosions falsely trigger on both site-proximal earthquakes (Figure 1, below) and microseismic "noise". Motivated by these examples, we quantify performance loss when applying these detectors, and re-evaluate the correlation-detector's hypothesis test. We thereby derive new detectors from more general hypotheses that admit unknown background seismicity, and apply these to real data. From our treatment, we derive "rules of thumb'' for proper template and threshold selection in heavily cluttered signal environments. Last, we answer the question "what is the probability of falsely detecting an earthquake collocated at a test site?", using correlation detectors that include explosion-triggered templates. Figure Top: An eight-channel data stream (black) recorded from an earthquake near a mine. Red markers indicate a detection. Middle: The correlation statistic computed by scanning the template against the data stream at top. The red line indicates the threshold for event declaration, determined by a false-alarm on noise probability constraint, as computed from the signal-absent distribution using

  7. Electrocardiogram of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Vinzenz

    2002-09-01

    In the failing heart general specific (e.g., Q-waves after acute myocardial infarction, persistent ST-elevations in post-myocardial infarction left ventricular aneurysm) and unspecific ECG changes (e.g., left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, ST-T-alterations due to digitalis glycosides or antiarrhythmic drugs) may be seen in the conventional 12-lead ECG. In addition, atrial and ventricular tachy-arrhythmias may be detected and quantified by 24-hour-Holter ECG recordings, that may be relevant for a worse prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure. Heart rate variability as the most relevant derived ECG parameter of sympathetic tone fluctuations may be of important prognostic significance in congestive heart failure patients. An abnormal signal averaged P-wave duration may predict the incidence of atrial fibrillation, as may apply to QRS-prolongation and/or ventricular late potentials in the signal averaged ECG for the incidence of serious life-threatening ventricular tachy-arrhythmias or death from pump failure. Last but not least, cardiac repolarization abnormalities may be detected by QT dispersion-, QT-/QTc-fluctuation- or T-wave alternans studies, but the true prognostic significance of these parameters for predicting sudden cardiac death or death from pump failure in patients with congestive heart failure remains unclear. PMID:12114840

  8. Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for the newborn infant. However, since all infants cannot be breast-fed, there is a need for background data for setting adequate daily intakes. Previously, concentration data on major essential elements and some toxic elements in breast milk, based on different analytical techniques, have been published. There is no recent study on a large number of metals and trace elements in breast milk, using a sensitive analytical method for determination of low element concentrations. Methods Breast milk concentrations of 32 metals and elements in early lactation (days 14-21) were determined in a random sample of first time Swedish mothers (n = 60) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Results There were small inter-individual concentration variations in the macroelements Ca, K, Mg, P and S, and striking similarities across studies and over time, supporting a tight regulation of these elements in breast milk. Large inter-individual and over time differences were detected for Na concentrations, which may reflect an increase in salt consumption in Swedish women. Large inter-individual differences were also detected for the microelements Co, Cr, Mn and Mo, and the toxic metals As, Cd, Pb, Sb and V. Arsenic and B were positively correlated with fish consumption, indicating influence of maternal intake on breast milk concentrations. Observed differences in breast milk element concentrations across studies and over time could be attributed to the timing of sampling and a general decline over time of lactation (Cu, Fe, Mo, Zn), a possible lack of regulation of certain elements in breast milk (As, B, Co, Mn, Se) and time trends in environmental exposure (Pb), or in some cases to differences in analytical performance (Cr, Fe). Conclusions This study provides reliable updated information on a number of metals and elements in breast milk, of which some have not previously been reported. PMID:23241426

  9. Remote detection and ecological monitoring of the industrial and natural nuclei activity of radioactive elements based on passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Chistyakov, Vyacheslav Y.; Losev, Dmitry V.; Penin, Sergei T.; Tarabrin, Yurij K.; Yakubov, Vladimir P.; Yurjev, Igor A.

    1998-12-01

    The passive remote method of microwave radiometry and its instrumental realization for express diagnostics of radioactive elements in the atmosphere have been discussed. Analysis of the microwave radiation due to ionization and dissociation of atmospheric components interacting with radioactive elements is carried out. The photochemical processes resulting in background microwave radiation power have been discussed. As an example, the results of natural experiment of detecting the atomic hydrogen radiation in the plume of emissions of nuclear cycle processing plants have been presented.

  10. Identifying the origin of atmospheric inputs of trace elements in the Prades Mountains (Catalonia) with bryophytes, lichens, and soil monitoring.

    PubMed

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Sardans, Jordi; Ribas, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The biomonitors Hypnum cupressiforme and Xanthoria parietina were used to assess the deposition of trace elements and their possible origin in the Prades Mountains, a protected Mediterranean forest area of NE Spain with several pollution sources nearby. Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 16 locations within this protected area. Soil trace element concentrations were also ascertained to calculate enrichment factors (EF) and use them to distinguish airborne from soilborne trace element inputs. In addition, lichen richness was measured to further assess atmospheric pollution. EF demonstrated to be useful not only for the moss but also for the lichen. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn presented values higher than three in both biomonitors. These trace elements were also the main ones emitted by the potential sources of pollutants. The distance between sampling locations and potential pollution sources was correlated with the concentrations of Cu, Sb, and Zn in the moss and with Cr, Ni, and Sb in the lichen. Lichen richness was negatively correlated with lichen Cu, Pb, and V concentrations on dry weight basis. The study reflected the remarkable influence that the pollution sources have on the presence of trace elements and on lichen species community composition in this natural area. The study highlights the value of combining the use of biomonitors, enrichment factors, and lichen diversity for pollution assessment to reach a better overview of both trace elements' impact and the localization of their sources.

  11. Ballooning osteolysis in 71 failed total ankle arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpal; Reichard, Theresa; Hameister, Rita; Awiszus, Friedemann; Schenk, Katja; Feuerstein, Bernd; Roessner, Albert; Lohmann, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Aseptic loosening is a major cause of failure in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). In contrast to other total joint replacements, large periarticular cysts (ballooning osteolysis) have frequently been observed in this context. We investigated periprosthetic tissue responses in failed TAA, and performed an element analysis of retrieved tissues in failed TAA. Patients and methods - The study cohort consisted of 71 patients undergoing revision surgery for failed TAA, all with hydroxyapatite-coated implants. In addition, 5 patients undergoing primary TAA served as a control group. Radiologically, patients were classified into those with ballooning osteolysis and those without, according to defined criteria. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and elemental analysis of tissues was performed. Von Kossa staining and digital microscopy was performed on all tissue samples. Results - Patients without ballooning osteolysis showed a generally higher expression of lymphocytes, and CD3+, CD11c+, CD20+, and CD68+ cells in a perivascular distribution, compared to diffuse expression. The odds of having ballooning osteolysis was 300 times higher in patients with calcium content >0.5 mg/g in periprosthetic tissue than in patients with calcium content ≤0.5 mg/g (p < 0.001). Interpretation - There have been very few studies investigating the pathomechanisms of failed TAA and the cause-effect nature of ballooning osteolysis in this context. Our data suggest that the hydroxyapatite coating of the implant may be a contributory factor.

  12. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  13. Use of the lichen Xanthoria mandschurica in monitoring atmospheric elemental deposition in the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Hu, Jian-Sen; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern in China. Lichens are a useful biomonitor for atmospheric elemental deposition but have rarely been used in North China. The aim of this study was to investigate the atmospheric depositions of 30 trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in a region of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province, China using lichens as biomonitors. Epilithic foliose lichen Xanthoria mandschurica was sampled from 21 sites and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that 1) eight elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb and Zn) are of atmospheric origin and are highly influenced by the atmospheric transportation from the North China Plain, as well as local mining activities, while 2) the remaining 22 elements are primarily of crustal origin, the concentration of which has been enhanced by local mining and quarrying activities. These results clearly validate the applicability of lichens in biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition and demonstrate the spatial pattern for air pollution in the region. PMID:27089945

  14. Use of the lichen Xanthoria mandschurica in monitoring atmospheric elemental deposition in the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Hu, Jian-Sen; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern in China. Lichens are a useful biomonitor for atmospheric elemental deposition but have rarely been used in North China. The aim of this study was to investigate the atmospheric depositions of 30 trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in a region of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province, China using lichens as biomonitors. Epilithic foliose lichen Xanthoria mandschurica was sampled from 21 sites and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that 1) eight elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb and Zn) are of atmospheric origin and are highly influenced by the atmospheric transportation from the North China Plain, as well as local mining activities, while 2) the remaining 22 elements are primarily of crustal origin, the concentration of which has been enhanced by local mining and quarrying activities. These results clearly validate the applicability of lichens in biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition and demonstrate the spatial pattern for air pollution in the region. PMID:27089945

  15. Use of the lichen Xanthoria mandschurica in monitoring atmospheric elemental deposition in the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Hu, Jian-Sen; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-04-19

    Air pollution is a major concern in China. Lichens are a useful biomonitor for atmospheric elemental deposition but have rarely been used in North China. The aim of this study was to investigate the atmospheric depositions of 30 trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in a region of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province, China using lichens as biomonitors. Epilithic foliose lichen Xanthoria mandschurica was sampled from 21 sites and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that 1) eight elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb and Zn) are of atmospheric origin and are highly influenced by the atmospheric transportation from the North China Plain, as well as local mining activities, while 2) the remaining 22 elements are primarily of crustal origin, the concentration of which has been enhanced by local mining and quarrying activities. These results clearly validate the applicability of lichens in biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition and demonstrate the spatial pattern for air pollution in the region.

  16. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  17. Concentration of Elements in Whole-body Fish, Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Fish Eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  18. Concentrations of Elements in Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  19. [MONITORING OF THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS AND ELEMENTS IN THE SNOW COVER IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS AT THE TERRITORY OF THE MOSCOW REGION].

    PubMed

    Ermakov, A A; Karpova, E A; Malysheva, A G; Mikhaylova, R I; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of snow cover pollution by heavy metals and elements (zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, strontium, manganese, fluorine, lithium) was performed in 20 districts of the Moscow region in 2009, 2012 and 2013. The assessment of the levels of contamination by heavy metals and elements was given by means of comparison of them with the average values in the snow cover near Moscow in the end of the last century and in some areas of the world, that no exposed to technological environmental impact. 7 districts of Moscow region were characterized by a high content of lead and cadmium in the snow water. It requires the control of water, soil and agricultural products pollution. PMID:26625612

  20. [MONITORING OF THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS AND ELEMENTS IN THE SNOW COVER IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS AT THE TERRITORY OF THE MOSCOW REGION].

    PubMed

    Ermakov, A A; Karpova, E A; Malysheva, A G; Mikhaylova, R I; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of snow cover pollution by heavy metals and elements (zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, strontium, manganese, fluorine, lithium) was performed in 20 districts of the Moscow region in 2009, 2012 and 2013. The assessment of the levels of contamination by heavy metals and elements was given by means of comparison of them with the average values in the snow cover near Moscow in the end of the last century and in some areas of the world, that no exposed to technological environmental impact. 7 districts of Moscow region were characterized by a high content of lead and cadmium in the snow water. It requires the control of water, soil and agricultural products pollution.

  1. Use of UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy to monitor label-free interaction between molecular recognition elements and erythropoietin on a gold-coated polycarbonate platform.

    PubMed

    Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tominaga, Junji; Chen, Yeng; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2014-08-01

    Label-free-based detection is pivotal for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions and to eliminate the need for labeling with tags that can occupy important binding sites of biomolecules. One simplest form of label-free-based detection is ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy, which measure changes in reflectivity as a means to monitor immobilization and interaction of biomolecules with their corresponding partners. In biosensor development, the platform used for the biomolecular interaction should be suitable for different molecular recognition elements. In this study, gold (Au)-coated polycarbonate was used as a platform and as a proof-of-concept, erythropoietin (EPO), a doping substance widely abused by the athletes was used as the target. The interaction of EPO with its corresponding molecular recognition elements (anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer) is monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Prior to this, to show that UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy is a suitable method for measuring biomolecular interaction, the interaction between biotin and streptavidin was demonstrated via this strategy and reflectivity of this interaction decreased by 25%. Subsequent to this, interaction of the EPO with anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer resulted in the decrease of reflectivity by 5% and 10%, respectively. The results indicated that Au-coated polycarbonate could be an ideal biosensor platform for monitoring biomolecular interactions using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. A smaller version of the Au-coated polycarbonate substrates can be derived from the recent set-up, to be applied towards detecting EPO abuse among atheletes. PMID:24881539

  2. Use of UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy to monitor label-free interaction between molecular recognition elements and erythropoietin on a gold-coated polycarbonate platform.

    PubMed

    Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tominaga, Junji; Chen, Yeng; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2014-08-01

    Label-free-based detection is pivotal for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions and to eliminate the need for labeling with tags that can occupy important binding sites of biomolecules. One simplest form of label-free-based detection is ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy, which measure changes in reflectivity as a means to monitor immobilization and interaction of biomolecules with their corresponding partners. In biosensor development, the platform used for the biomolecular interaction should be suitable for different molecular recognition elements. In this study, gold (Au)-coated polycarbonate was used as a platform and as a proof-of-concept, erythropoietin (EPO), a doping substance widely abused by the athletes was used as the target. The interaction of EPO with its corresponding molecular recognition elements (anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer) is monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Prior to this, to show that UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy is a suitable method for measuring biomolecular interaction, the interaction between biotin and streptavidin was demonstrated via this strategy and reflectivity of this interaction decreased by 25%. Subsequent to this, interaction of the EPO with anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer resulted in the decrease of reflectivity by 5% and 10%, respectively. The results indicated that Au-coated polycarbonate could be an ideal biosensor platform for monitoring biomolecular interactions using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. A smaller version of the Au-coated polycarbonate substrates can be derived from the recent set-up, to be applied towards detecting EPO abuse among atheletes.

  3. Human placenta as a 'dual' biomarker for monitoring fetal and maternal environment with special reference to potentially toxic trace elements. Part 1: physiology, function and sampling of placenta for elemental characterisation.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Rapp, A

    2001-12-01

    Choice of specimen from human subjects for monitoring pollutants proven to be detrimental to human health depends on the criteria chosen, namely real-time monitoring (RTM) or long-term monitoring (LTM). Specimens such as whole blood, urine, saliva and breast milk are commonly used from living subjects for RTM of toxic metals. However, sampling blood requires an invasive procedure. On the other hand, hair (with some limitations), bone (especially for the assessment of bone seeking elements), adipose tissue (mainly for organic pollutants) and liver (for both organic and inorganic toxicants) are used as specimens for LTM. With the exception of hair, generally these specimens are obtained at post-mortem. In context of health-related biomonitoring, placenta as a specimen has not received as much attention as it deserves. It is a unique sample requiring no invasive procedure, and offers possibilities for RTM, in particular as a dual purpose specimen for evaluating the pollutant burden exerted on the mother as well as on the fetus. Obtaining representative samples of placenta for elemental composition studies is a difficult task, because of heterogeneous mix of placental cells and decidual matter tainted with maternal and fetal blood. Therefore, the present sampling practices for placental tissue, and guidelines to safeguard the validity of the sampled material have been reviewed in part 1 with the following conclusions: medico-legal and ethical matters should be properly addressed before collecting the placenta; it is advisable to collect the entire placenta even if it includes the umbilical cord; further preparatory work is to be carried out in a clean laboratory and depends upon the purpose of the investigation; homogenising the entire sample may prove to be technically challenging but this step is crucial to obtain representative samples, handling the entire sample may be unavoidable; and an alternative method of procuring representative samples would require random

  4. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  5. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  6. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  7. Monitoring impacts of air pollution: PIXE analysis and histopathological modalities in evaluating relative risks of elemental contamination.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Camer, Gerry Amor; Anwar, Khaleeq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    Environmental toxicants invariably affect all biological organisms resulting to sufferings ranging from subclinical to debilitating clinical conditions. This novel research aimed to determine the toxic burdens of increased environmental elements in some vital organs/tissues of the wild animals (starling, owl, crow and pigeon), exposed to air polluted environment were assessed using particle induced X-ray emission and histopathological approaches. The presence of significantly elevated amounts of elemental toxicants namely: Aluminum (Al), Chlorine (Cl), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Silicon (Si) and Vanadium (V) from the skin, muscle, lungs, liver and kidney of sampled animals were in concurrence with the observed histopathological changes. The skin of sampled starling, owl, pigeon and crow spotlighted highly significant increase (P < 0.001) in Al, Cl, Mg and Si. Muscle samples with myodegenerative lesions and mineral depositions highlighted substantial augmentation (P < 0.001) in the amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Si and V. The lungs of starling, owl, and pigeon were severely intoxicated (P < 0.001) with increased amount of Al, Fe, K, Mn and Si producing pulmonary lesions of congestion, edema, pneumonitis and mineral debris depositions. Liver samples revealed that the sampled animals were laden with Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn and V with histopathological profound degenerative changes and hepatic necrosis. Kidney sections presented severe tubular degenerative and necrotic changes that may be attributed to increased amounts of Cl and Fe. These current findings implied that the environmental/elemental toxicants and the accompanying lesions that were discerned in the organs/tissues of sampled birds may as well be afflicting people living within the polluted area. Further assessment to more conclusively demonstrate correlations of current findings to those of the populace within the area is encouraged.

  8. [Monitoring and assessment contamination of toxic elements food in Tatarstan monitoring and evaluation of contamination by toxic elements of food products in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan].

    PubMed

    Frolova, O A; Karpova, M V; Makhmutova, I P; Musin, R A

    2014-01-01

    Actual consumption of toxic elements in the body of an adult human in the Republic of Tatarstan (during the period of the study of the production in 2008-2012) amounts for lead: 0.68 mg/week for cadmium: 0.18 mg/day, arsenic: 0.68 mg/day, mercury: 0.21 mg/week (per 1 kg body weight) or respectively: 22.81%, 18.0%, 13.69%, 4.27% of the allowable levels of the chemical load. We have performed calculations with account of the balance of food resources per capita per year in the Republic of Tatarstan. This analysis showed that the main dietary sources of income for cadmium there are milk and dairy products (48.32%), bakery products (16.07%), meat and meat products (13.22%); for lead there are bakely products (26.85%), potatoes (24.36%), milk and dairy products (23.94%), meat and meat products (7.55%); for mercury there are milk and dairy products (53.72%), meat and meat products (16.82%), potatoes (10.92%); fish and fish products (4.74%); for arsenic there are milk and dairy products (72.51%), meat and meat products (12.8%), bakery products (3.05% ,); fish and fish products (2.23%). It is important to know not only what products are the most contaminated, but what place in the structure of the nutrition they take.

  9. [Monitoring and assessment contamination of toxic elements food in Tatarstan monitoring and evaluation of contamination by toxic elements of food products in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan].

    PubMed

    Frolova, O A; Karpova, M V; Makhmutova, I P; Musin, R A

    2014-01-01

    Actual consumption of toxic elements in the body of an adult human in the Republic of Tatarstan (during the period of the study of the production in 2008-2012) amounts for lead: 0.68 mg/week for cadmium: 0.18 mg/day, arsenic: 0.68 mg/day, mercury: 0.21 mg/week (per 1 kg body weight) or respectively: 22.81%, 18.0%, 13.69%, 4.27% of the allowable levels of the chemical load. We have performed calculations with account of the balance of food resources per capita per year in the Republic of Tatarstan. This analysis showed that the main dietary sources of income for cadmium there are milk and dairy products (48.32%), bakery products (16.07%), meat and meat products (13.22%); for lead there are bakely products (26.85%), potatoes (24.36%), milk and dairy products (23.94%), meat and meat products (7.55%); for mercury there are milk and dairy products (53.72%), meat and meat products (16.82%), potatoes (10.92%); fish and fish products (4.74%); for arsenic there are milk and dairy products (72.51%), meat and meat products (12.8%), bakery products (3.05% ,); fish and fish products (2.23%). It is important to know not only what products are the most contaminated, but what place in the structure of the nutrition they take. PMID:25950053

  10. Finite element modelling of non-bonded piezo sensors for biomedical health monitoring of bones based on EMI technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Shashank; Bhalla, Suresh; Madan, Alok; Gupta, Ashok

    2016-04-01

    Extensive research is currently underway across the world for employing piezo sensors for biomedical health monitoring in view of their obvious advantages such as low cost,fast dynamics response and bio-compatibility.However,one of the limitations of the piezo sensor in bonded mode based on the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique is that it can cause harmful effects to the humans in terms of irritation ,bone and skin disease. This paper which is in continuation of the recent demonstration of non-bonded configuration is a step towards simulating and analyzing the non-bonded configuration of the piezo sensor for gauging its effectiveness using FEA software. It has been noted that the conductance signatures obtained in non-bonded mode are significantly close to the conventional bonded configuration, thus giving a positive indication of its field use.

  11. Role of sediment-trace element chemistry in water-quality monitoring and the need for standard analytical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple linear regression models calculated from readily obtainable chemical and physical parameters can explain a high percentage (70% or greater) of observed sediment trace-element variance for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sb, Se, and Hg. Almost all the factors used in the various models fall into the category of operational definitions (e.g., grain size, surface area, and geochemical substrates such as amorphous iron and manganese oxides). Thus, the concentrations and distributions used in the various models are operationally defined, and are subject to substantial change depending on the method used to determine them. Without standardized procedures, data from different sources are not comparable, and the utility and applicability of the various models would be questionable.

  12. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  13. In-situ monitoring of actinides and rare earth elements by electrothermal hollow cathode discharge spectrometry. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Edelson, M.C.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes an Electrothermal Hollow Cathode Discharge Spectrometry (ET-HCDS) source being constructed for the analytical determination of actinides and rare earth elements. This work was initiated with the support of the Office of Safeguards and Security; the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration began funding work in this area in mid-FY1992 and the work is continuing into FY1993 with funds from both sources. Special features of this instrument should permit it to be used for the determination of individual isotopic species, which is important for safeguard`s materials control and accountancy. ET-HCDS can be achieved using compact instrumentation suitable for use in field laboratories. The technique is capable of determining a suite of environmentally-important species, such as the actinides and the heavy metals, in a variety of physical forms (e.g., in solution, as found on air particulates, or in soils). ET-HCDS should be capable of very sensitive analyses and should require very small samples (e.g., microgram). Since ET-HCDS is possible in an air atmosphere (at reduced pressures), it may be useful for the real-time determination of hazardous materials, both radioactive and non radioactive, contained in dusts released during waste retrieval operations; ET-HCDS should also be useful for the rapid and sensitive analysis of metals in soils.

  14. Use of the light absorption coefficient to monitor elemental carbon and PM2.5--example of Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Gramsch, Ernesto; Ormeño, Isabel; Palma, Guillermo; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Oyola, Pedro

    2004-07-01

    The optical absorption coefficient, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm, and elemental carbon (EC) have been measured simultaneously during winter and spring of 2000 in the western part of Santiago, Chile (Pudahuel district). The optical measurements were carried out with a low-cost instrument recently developed at the University of Santiago. From the data, a site-specific mass absorption coefficient of 4.45+/-0.01 m2/g has been found for EC. In addition, a mass absorption coefficient of 1.02+/-0.03 m2/g has been obtained for PM2.5. These coefficients can be used during the colder months (May-August) to obtain EC concentration or PM2.5 from a measurement of the light absorption coefficient (sigmaa). The high correlation that has been found between these variables indicates that sigmaa is a good indicator of the degree of contamination of urbanized areas. The data also show an increase in PM2.5 and EC concentration during winter and an increase in the ratio of EC to PM2.5. When the EC/PM2.5 ratio is calculated during rush hour (7:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m.) and during part of the night (9:00 p.m.-2:00 a.m.), it is found that the increase is caused by higher concentration levels of EC at night. These results suggest that the rise in the EC concentration is caused by emissions from heating and air mass transport of pollution from other parts of the city, while traffic contribution remains approximately constant.

  15. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  16. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2011 Missouri Department of Conservation general contaminant monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillet samples of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from six sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs were collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at eight of the sites, and crayfish from two sites. Following preparation and analysis of the samples, highlights of the data were as follows: cadmium and lead residues were most elevated in crayfish tissue samples from the Big River at Cherokee Landing, with 1 to 8 micrograms per gram dry weight and 22 to 45 micrograms per gram dry weight, respectively. Some dorsal muscle plugs from largemouth bass collected from Clearwater Lake, Lake St. Louis, Noblett Lake, Hazel Creek Lake, and Harrison County Lake contained mercury residues (1.7 to 4.7 micrograms per gram dry weight) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criterion of 1.5 micrograms per gram dry weight of fish tissue (equivalent to 0.30 micrograms per gram wet weight).

  17. Monitoring urban impacts on suspended sediment, trace element, and nutrient fluxes within the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Program design, methodological considerations, and initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Atlanta, Georgia (City of Atlanta, COA), is one of the most rapidly growing urban areas in the US. Beginning in 2003, the US Geological Survey established a long-term water-quantity/quality monitoring network for the COA. The results obtained during the first 2 years have provided insights into the requirements needed to determine the extent of urban impacts on water quality, especially in terms of estimating the annual fluxes of suspended sediment, trace/major elements, and nutrients. During 2004/2005, suspended sediment fluxes from the City of Atlanta (COA) amounted to about 150 000 t year-1; ??? 94% of the transport occurred in conjunction with storm-flow, which also accounted for ??? 65% of the annual discharge. Typically, storm-flow averaged ??? 20% of theyear. Normally, annual suspended sediment fluxes are determined by summing daily loads based on a single calculation step using mean-daily discharge and a single rating curve-derived suspended sediment concentration. Due to the small and 'flashy' nature of the COAs streams, this approach could produce underestimates ranging from 25% to 64%. Accurate estimates (?? 15%) require calculation time-steps as short as every 2-3 h. Based on annual median base-flow/storm-flow chemical concentrations, the annual fluxes of ??? 75% of trace elements (e.g. Cu, Pb, Zn), major elements (e.g. Fe, Al), and total P occur in association with suspended sediment; in turn, ??? 90% of the transport of these constituents occur in conjunction with storm-flow. As such, base-flow sediment-associated and dissolved contributions represent relatively insignificant portions of the total annual load. An exception is total N, whose sediment-associated fluxes range from 50% to 60%; even so, storm-related transport typically exceeds 80%. Hence, in urban environments, non-point-source appear to be the dominant contributors to the fluxes of these constituents.

  18. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  19. How to Recognize a Failed Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Elisha G; Pham, Tam N; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-10-01

    Failed burn resuscitation can occur at various points. Early failed resuscitation will be largely caused by prehospital factors. During resuscitation, failure will present as a patient's nonresponse to adjunctive therapy. Late failure will occur in the setting of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Burn care providers must be vigilant during the resuscitation to identify a threatened resuscitation so that adjunctive therapies or rescue maneuvers can be used to convert to a successful resuscitation. However, when a patient's resuscitative course becomes unsalvageable, transition to comfort care should be taken to avoid prolongation of suffering. PMID:27600128

  20. Examination of a Failed Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Rachel L.; Penny, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Schools are using various forms of professional learning communities (PLCs) in order to increase student achievement and improve educational practices through enhanced communication and collaboration among teachers. This study examined a PLC that had too narrow a focus and failed therefore to affect student achievement. A critical shortcoming of…

  1. Failed Citizenship, Civic Engagement, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Many racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious groups are denied structural inclusion into their nation-state. Consequently, they do not internalize the values and symbols of the nation-state, develop a strong identity with it, or acquire political efficacy. The author conceptualizes this process as "failed citizenship,"…

  2. Contested Spaces of a "Failing" Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Roi; Serriere, Stephanie; Mitra, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Amid the recent proliferation of teacher-led movements resisting high-stakes testing across the United States, the authors identify how a "failing" elementary school reclaimed local discourse by taking political action against top-down measures. Framed as competing modes of school reform, the authors offer the sociocultural framework of…

  3. Understanding Failing Schools: Perspectives from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidou, Maria; Ainscow, Mel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of so-called "failing schools" in order to develop understandings that can inform improvement efforts. It reports on a study of the experiences of a small number of English primary schools placed in "special measures" as a result of being inspected. The study is unusual in that, in the past, researchers have…

  4. The Art of Saving a Failing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Les

    2012-01-01

    While the debate continues over whether to close failing schools or attempt fixing them, the author asserts that the solution most often lies in assigning strong leaders to them who will take definite and immediate action. Reviewing his own success turning around schools, he says creating a sense of urgency, unloading poor performing staff, and…

  5. Long-term monitoring of arsenic, copper, selenium, and other elements in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) surface water, brine shrimp, and brine flies.

    PubMed

    Adams, William J; DeForest, David K; Tear, Lucinda M; Payne, Kelly; Brix, Kevin V

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents long-term monitoring data for 19 elements with a focus on arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se), in surface water (2002-2011), brine shrimp (2001-2011), and brine flies (1995-1996) collected from Great Salt Lake (GSL, Utah, USA). In open surface waters, mean (±standard deviation [SD]; range; n) As concentrations were 112 (±22.1; 54.0-169; 47) and 112 μg/L (±35.6; 5.1-175; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 16.3 μg/g (±5.6; 5.1-35.2; 62) dry weight (dw) in brine shrimp. Mean (±SD; range; n) Cu concentrations were 4.2 (±2.1; 1.3-12.5; 47) and 6.9 μg/L (±6.6; 1.9-38.1; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 20.6 μg/g (±18.4; 5.4-126; 62) dw in brine shrimp. Finally, mean (±SD; range; n) dissolved and total recoverable Se concentrations were 0.6 (±0.1; 0.4-1.2; 61) and 0.9 μg/L (±0.7; 0.5-3.6; 89), respectively, and 3.6 μg/g (±2.2; 1.1-14.9; 98) dw in brine shrimp. Thus, Se in open lake surface waters was most often in the range of 0.5-1 μg/L, and concentrations in both surface water and brine shrimp were comparable to concentrations measured in other monitoring programs for the GSL. Temporally, the statistical significance of differences in mean dissolved or total recoverable As, Cu, and Se concentrations between years was highly variable depending which test statistic was used, and there was no clear evidence of increasing or decreasing trends. In brine shrimp, significant differences in annual mean concentrations of As, Cu, and Se were observed using both parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches, but, as for water, there did not appear to be a consistent increase or decrease in concentrations of these elements over time. PMID:25690606

  6. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: implications for non-invasive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Colleen E; Christopher, Steven J; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n=51) and skin (n=40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p<0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r=0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  7. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  8. Real-time monitoring of cAMP response element binding protein signaling in porcine granulosa cells modulated by ovarian factors.

    PubMed

    He, Pei Jian; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Masa-Aki

    2006-10-01

    The present study was performed to establish a real-time monitoring of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signalling using granulosa cells, and to assess the modulation of CREB activity by potential ovarian autocrine/paracrine and oocyte-derived factors. Granulosa cells were isolated from porcine follicles and cultured for 2 days, and then transfected with CRE-containing pGL3. The cells were directly stimulated or cultured with FSH, LH, forskolin, or a permeable cAMP analog, and/or IGF-I, EGF, bFGF, TGF-beta2 or TNF-alpha, or cumulus-oocyte complex (COCs) for the real-time monitoring of CREB signaling. The activation pattern of CREB signaling consisted of three distinct phases, i.e., burst, attenuation and refractory. In contrast to FSH, LH, and forskolin, a cAMP analog induced the prolonged activation, although three distinct phases were observed at its high concentration. Of all the autocrine/paracrine factors, only IGF-I slightly induced CREB activity. On the other hand, TGF-beta2 and TNF-alpha significantly repressed FSH-stimulated transcriptional activation of CREB by 30% (P < 0.05) and 45% (P < 0.05), respectively. Additionally, coculture with COCs caused a significant suppression of transcriptional activation of CREB signaling stimulated by FSH. These results indicate that ovarian autocrine/paracrine factors such as IGF-I, TGF-beta2, TNF-alpha and oocyte-derived factors modulate the CREB signaling. The present study provides a new approach for direct signaling study on transcription factors under the influences of potential factors.

  9. Detonating Failed Deflagration Model of Thermonuclear Supernovae. I. Explosion Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plewa, Tomasz

    2007-03-01

    We present a detonating failed deflagration model of Type Ia supernovae. In this model, the thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf follows an off-center deflagration. We conduct a survey of asymmetric ignition configurations initiated at various distances from the stellar center. In all cases studied, we find that only a small amount of stellar fuel is consumed during deflagration phase, no explosion is obtained, and the released energy is mostly wasted on expanding the progenitor. Products of the failed deflagration quickly reach the stellar surface, polluting and strongly disturbing it. These disturbances eventually evolve into small and isolated shock-dominated regions that are rich in fuel. We consider these regions as seeds capable of forming self-sustained detonations that, ultimately, result in the thermonuclear supernova explosion. Preliminary nucleosynthesis results indicate that the model supernova ejecta are typically composed of about 0.1-0.25 Msolar of silicon group elements and 0.9-1.2 Msolar of iron group elements and are essentially carbon-free. The ejecta have a composite morphology, are chemically stratified, and display a modest amount of intrinsic asymmetry. The innermost layers are slightly egg shaped with the axis ratio ~1.2-1.3 and dominated by the products of silicon burning. This central region is surrounded by a shell of silicon group elements. The outermost layers of ejecta are highly inhomogeneous and contain products of incomplete oxygen burning with only small admixture of unburned stellar material. The explosion energies are ~(1.3-1.5)×1051 ergs.

  10. Pass-Fail: How Is It Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Clinton I.; And Others

    This study investigates the pass/fail (P/F) grading system. A sample of 154 Indiana University students was interviewed. Half of the group, 77 students, had not taken any P/F courses. Of the remaining 77 students, 42% had taken only one P/F course and most of the rest from two to five courses. Results of the student interview questionnaire…

  11. Fail-soft turbocharger control system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujawa, C.S.; Masteller, S.B.

    1986-08-05

    A fail-soft turbocharger control system is described for an engine with a first bank and a second bank of cylinders and a first turbocharger and second turbocharger associated therewith. Each turbocharger has a variable output compressor boosting the pressure of an input manifold to the associated bank of cylinders and a variable input turbine driving the compressor powered by the exhaust gases of the bank of cylinders for the control system.

  12. Neurolysis for failed tarsal tunnel surgery.

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, Merter; Ozer, Utku Erdem; Yalcin, M Burak; Bagatur, A Erdem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the causes of failure after tarsal tunnel release and the operative findings in the secondary interventions and the outcomes. The data from 8 patients who had undergone revision surgery for failed tarsal tunnel release at least 12 months earlier were evaluated retrospectively. Only the patients with idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome were included, and all had unilateral symptoms. Neurophysiologic tests confirmed the clinical diagnosis of failed tarsal tunnel release in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed varicose veins within the tarsal tunnel in 1 patient (12.5%) and tenosynovitis in another (12.5%). Open tarsal tunnel release was performed in all patients, and the tibialis posterior nerve, medial and lateral plantar nerves (including the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve), and medial calcaneal nerve were released in their respective tunnels, and the septum between the tunnels was resected. The outcomes were assessed according to subjective patient satisfaction as excellent, good, fair, or poor. During revision surgery, insufficient release of the tarsal tunnel, especially distally, was observed in all the patients, and fibrosis of the tibialis posterior nerve was present in 1 (12.5%). The outcomes according to subjective patient satisfaction were excellent in 5 (62.5%), good in 2 (25%), and fair in 1 (12.5%). The fair outcome was obtained in the patient with fibrosis of the nerve. Insufficient release of the tarsal tunnel was the main cause of failed tarsal tunnel release. Releasing the 4 distinct tunnels and permitting immediate mobilization provided satisfactory results in patients with failed tarsal tunnel release. PMID:25128912

  13. A non-contacting approach for full field dynamic strain monitoring of rotating structures using the photogrammetry, finite element, and modal expansion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad

    Health monitoring of rotating structures such as wind turbines and helicopter rotors is generally performed using conventional sensors that provide a limited set of data at discrete locations near or on the hub. These sensors usually provide no data on the blades or interior locations where failures may occur. Within this work, an unique expansion algorithm was extended and combined with finite element (FE) modeling and an optical measurement technique to identify the dynamic strain in rotating structures. The merit of the approach is shown by using the approach to predict the dynamic strain on a small non-rotating and rotating wind turbine. A three-bladed wind turbine having 2.3-meter long blades was placed in a semi-built-in boundary condition using a hub, a machining chuck, and a steel block. A finite element model of the three wind turbine blades assembled to the hub was created and used to extract resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The FE model was validated and updated using experimental modal tests. For the non-rotating optical test, the turbine was excited using a sinusoidal excitation, a pluck test, arbitrary impacts on three blades, and random force excitations with a mechanical shaker. The response of the structure to the excitations was measured using three-dimensional point tracking. A pair of high-speed cameras was used to measure the displacement of optical targets on the structure when the blades were vibrating. The measured displacements at discrete locations were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the structure to extract the full-field dynamic strain. The results of the work show an excellent correlation between the strain predicted using the proposed approach and the strain measured with strain-gages for all of the three loading conditions. Similar to the non-rotating case, optical measurements were also preformed on a rotating wind turbine. The point tracking technique measured both rigid body displacement and flexible

  14. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  15. SPECTRA AND LIGHT CURVES OF FAILED SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L.; Dahl, Jon A.; Fontes, Christopher J. E-mail: dahl@lanl.go

    2009-12-10

    Astronomers have proposed a number of mechanisms to produce supernova explosions. Although many of these mechanisms are now not considered primary engines behind supernovae (SNe), they do produce transients that will be observed by upcoming ground-based surveys and NASA satellites. Here, we present the first radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the spectra and light curves from three of these 'failed' SNe: SNe with considerable fallback, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs, and energetic helium flashes (also known as type Ia SNe).

  16. Rotordynamic Influence on Rolling ELement Bearing Selection and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queitzsch, Gilbert K., Jr.; Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Three case studies are presented that illustrate the importance of dynamic considerations in the design of machinery supported by rolling element bearings. The first case concerns a milling spindle that experienced internal rubs and high bearing loads, and required retrofit of an additional . damped bearing. The second case deals with a small high-speed generator that suffered high vibration due to flexible mounting. The third case is a propulsion fan simulator rig whose bearings failed catastrophically due to improper bearing installation (which resulted in inadequate dynamic bearing stiffness) and lack of health monitoring instrumentation.

  17. 48 CFR 342.7002 - Procedures to be followed when a contractor fails to perform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures to be followed when a contractor fails to perform. 342.7002 Section 342.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Contract Monitoring...

  18. Mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Julie L.; Martin, Ola J.; Lai, Ling; Richards, Alicia L.; Vega, Rick B.; Leone, Teresa C.; Pagliarini, David J.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Bedi, Kenneth C.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial fuel and energy metabolic derangements contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recent evidence implicates posttranslational mechanisms in the energy metabolic disturbances that contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. We hypothesized that accumulation of metabolite intermediates of fuel oxidation pathways drives posttranslational modifications of mitochondrial proteins during the development of heart failure. Myocardial acetylproteomics demonstrated extensive mitochondrial protein lysine hyperacetylation in the early stages of heart failure in well-defined mouse models and the in end-stage failing human heart. To determine the functional impact of increased mitochondrial protein acetylation, we focused on succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), a critical component of both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory complex II. An acetyl-mimetic mutation targeting an SDHA lysine residue shown to be hyperacetylated in the failing human heart reduced catalytic function and reduced complex II–driven respiration. These results identify alterations in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA homeostasis as a potential driver of the development of energy metabolic derangements that contribute to heart failure. PMID:26998524

  19. The evaluation of the failed shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wiater, Brett P; Moravek, James E; Wiater, J Michael

    2014-05-01

    As the incidence of shoulder arthroplasty continues to rise, the orthopedic shoulder surgeon will be increasingly faced with the difficult problem of evaluating a failed shoulder arthroplasty. The patient is usually dissatisfied with the outcome of the previous arthroplasty as a result of pain, but may complain of poor function due to limited range of motion or instability. A thorough and systematic approach is necessary so that the most appropriate treatment pathway can be initiated. A comprehensive history and physical examination are the first steps in the evaluation. Diagnostic studies are numerous and include laboratory values, plain radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound imaging, joint aspiration, nuclear scans, and electromyography. Common causes of early pain after shoulder arthroplasty include technical issues related to the surgery, such as malposition or improper sizing of the prosthesis, periprosthetic infection, neurologic injury, and complex regional pain syndrome. Pain presenting after a symptom-free interval may be related to chronic periprosthetic infection, component wear and loosening, glenoid erosion, rotator cuff degeneration, and fracture. Poor range of motion may result from inadequate postoperative rehabilitation, implant-related factors, and heterotopic ossification. Instability is generally caused by rotator cuff deficiency and implant-related factors. Unfortunately, determining the cause of a failed shoulder arthroplasty can be difficult, and in many situations, the source of pain and disability is multifactorial.

  20. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, G R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  1. Removal of failed crown and bridge.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G R; Poduval, Soorya T; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-07-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  2. A Solution to ``Too Big to Fail''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Its a tricky business to reconcile simulations of our galaxys formation with our current observations of the Milky Way and its satellites. In a recent study, scientists have addressed one discrepancy between simulations and observations: the so-called to big to fail problem.From Missing Satellites to Too Big to FailThe favored model of the universe is the lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) cosmological model. This model does a great job of correctly predicting the large-scale structure of the universe, but there are still a few problems with it on smaller scales.Hubble image of UGC 5497, a dwarf galaxy associated with Messier 81. In the missing satellite problem, simulations of galaxy formation predict that there should be more such satellite galaxies than we observe. [ESA/NASA]The first is the missing satellites problem: CDM cosmology predicts that galaxies like the Milky Way should have significantly more satellite galaxies than we observe. A proposed solution to this problem is the argument that there may exist many more satellites than weve observed, but these dwarf galaxies have had their stars stripped from them during tidal interactions which prevents us from being able to see them.This solution creates a new problem, though: the too big to fail problem. This problem states that many of the satellites predicted by CDM cosmology are simply so massive that theres no way they couldnt have visible stars. Another way of looking at it: the observed satellites of the Milky Way are not massive enough to be consistent with predictions from CDM.Artists illustration of a supernova, a type of stellar feedback that can modify the dark-matter distribution of a satellite galaxy. [NASA/CXC/M. Weiss]Density Profiles and Tidal StirringLed by Mihai Tomozeiu (University of Zurich), a team of scientists has published a study in which they propose a solution to the too big to fail problem. By running detailed cosmological zoom simulations of our galaxys formation, Tomozeiu and

  3. Modern state of cycle chemistry monitoring systems at thermal power stations according to the experience gained at the moscow power engineering institute and Element research and production center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egoshina, O. V.; Voronov, V. N.; Nazarenko, M. P.

    2014-03-01

    Information about the development history of cycle chemistry monitoring systems is presented. The first pilot monitoring system at the Ryazan district power station is briefly described including the characteristics of the analyzers used in the system. The main principles for constructing monitoring systems are formulated. The characteristics of the monitoring systems that were designed and put in operation in the period from 2008 to 2011 are given together with a list of instruments and sample preparation devices used in them. The main advantages of modern analyzers used for chemical monitoring purposes are pointed out. Some problems affecting the operation of monitoring system equipment in the startup and transient operating modes of main power-generating equipment are specially mentioned.

  4. Fail-over file transfer process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  5. The best argument against kidney sales fails.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Luke

    2015-06-01

    Simon Rippon has recently argued against kidney markets on the grounds that introducing the option to vend will result in many people, especially the poor, being subject to harmful pressure to vend. Though compelling, Rippon's argument fails. What he takes to be a single phenomenon-social and legal pressure to vend-is actually two. Only one of these forms of pressure is, by Rippon's own account, harmful. Further, an empirically informed view of the regulated market suggests that this harmful pressure is easily avoided. Thus, the harm that is the lynchpin of Rippon's opposition is neither a necessary feature of the market nor is it likely to play a significant role in its operation.

  6. New approaches to supporting the failing liver.

    PubMed

    Cao, S; Esquivel, C O; Keeffe, E B

    1998-01-01

    With the continued, growing disparity between the numbers of organ donations and patients waiting for liver transplantation, various efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, as well as to devise means to support the failing liver. Over the years, the development of bioartificial liver-assist devices has aimed at replacing the three main functions of hepatocytes, which are synthetic, metabolic, and excretory. The application of porcine hepatocytes in humans to carry out biotransformation, as well as other metabolic functions and refinement of the membrane separator, have yielded some promising results in supporting patients with acute liver failure. Further advances will need to be made before these bioartificial devices can be considered for routine application in clinical settings.

  7. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mohammed, Faraz Ali; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Patients and methods Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19) followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16) and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83). The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1) were noted in the external group only. Conclusion Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. PMID:27555748

  8. Salvage arthrodesis for failed total ankle arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zürcher, Arthur W

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has gained popularity in recent years. If it fails, however, salvage arthrodesis must be reliable as a rescue procedure. We therefore investigated the clinical, radiographic, and subjective outcome after salvage arthrodesis in a consecutive group of patients, and concentrated on the influence of the method of fixation on union rate and on salvage in inflammatory joint disease. Patients and methods Between 1994 and 2005, salvage arthrodesis was performed on 18 ankles (18 patients). Diagnosis was inflammatory joint disease (IJD) in 15 cases and osteoarthritis (OA) in 3. Tibio-talar fusion was performed in 7 ankles, and tibio-talocalcaneal fusion in 11. Serial radiographs were studied for time to union. Clinical outcome at latest follow-up was measured by the AOFAS score, the foot function index (FFI) and by VAS scores for pain, function, and satisfaction. Results Blade plates were used in 7 ankles (4 IJD, 3 OA); all united. Nonunion developed in 7 of the 11 rheumatic ankles stabilized by other methods. 11 patients (8 fused ankles, 3 nonunions) were available for clinical evaluation. Their mean AOFAS score was 62 and mean overall FFI was 70. VAS score for pain was 20, for function 64, and for satisfaction 74. The scores were similar in united and non-united ankles. Interpretation Blade plate fixation is successful in salvage arthrodesis for failed TAA. A high nonunion rate was found after salvage ankle arthrodesis in IJD with other methods of fixation. Clinical results were fair to good. PMID:20175648

  9. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  10. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  11. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  12. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  13. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  14. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  15. NO/redox disequilibrium in the failing heart and cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Joshua M.; Stamler, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the altered production and/or spatiotemporal distribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species creates oxidative and/or nitrosative stresses in the failing heart and vascular tree, which contribute to the abnormal cardiac and vascular phenotypes that characterize the failing cardiovascular system. These derangements at the integrated system level can be interpreted at the cellular and molecular levels in terms of adverse effects on signaling elements in the heart, vasculature, and blood that subserve cardiac and vascular homeostasis. PMID:15765132

  16. Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160906.html Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade International study finds courses ... HealthDay News) -- Teens around the world are getting sex education in schools that fail to address their ...

  17. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  18. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  19. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  20. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  1. 75 FR 76321 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ78 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY... Internal Revenue Code. These regulations set forth the source of income attributable to qualified fails... the treatment of fails charges for purposes of sections 871, 881, 1441 and 1442 by establishing...

  2. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  3. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Orederu, Temidayo A; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-10

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS-). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress.

  4. How to fail at species delimitation.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Bryan C; Pelletier, Tara A; Reid, Noah M; Satler, Jordan D

    2013-09-01

    Species delimitation is the act of identifying species-level biological diversity. In recent years, the field has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of methods available for delimiting species. However, most recent investigations only utilize a handful (i.e. 2-3) of the available methods, often for unstated reasons. Because the parameter space that is potentially relevant to species delimitation far exceeds the parameterization of any existing method, a given method necessarily makes a number of simplifying assumptions, any one of which could be violated in a particular system. We suggest that researchers should apply a wide range of species delimitation analyses to their data and place their trust in delimitations that are congruent across methods. Incongruence across the results from different methods is evidence of either a difference in the power to detect cryptic lineages across one or more of the approaches used to delimit species and could indicate that assumptions of one or more of the methods have been violated. In either case, the inferences drawn from species delimitation studies should be conservative, for in most contexts it is better to fail to delimit species than it is to falsely delimit entities that do not represent actual evolutionary lineages.

  5. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  6. Disorganized junior doctors fail the MRCP (UK).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome. PMID:16627323

  7. Revision of failed humeral head resurfacing arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Streubel, Philipp N.; Simone, Juan P.; Cofield, Robert H.; Sperling, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes of a consecutive series of patients who underwent revision surgery after humeral head resurfacing (HHR). Our joint registry was queried for all patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for failed HHR at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Eleven consecutive patients (average age 54 years; range 38-69 years) that underwent revision of 11 resurfacing arthroplasties were identified. The primary indication for resurfacing had been osteoarthritis in six, glenoid dysplasia in two, a chondral lesion in two, and postinstability arthropathy in one patient. The indication for revision was pain in 10 and infection in one patient. Seven patients had undergone an average of 1.9 surgeries prior to resurfacing (range 1-3). Materials and Methods: All patients were revised to stemmed arthroplasties, including one hemiarthroplasty, two reverse, and eight anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties at a mean 33 months after primary resurfacing (range 10-131 months). A deltopectoral approach was used in seven patients; four patients required an anteromedial approach due to severe scarring. Subscapularis attenuation was found in four cases, two of which required reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Bone grafting was required in one glenoid and three humeri. Results: At a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (range 1.6-6.9 years), modified Neer score was rated as satisfactory in five patients and unsatisfactory in six. Abduction and external rotation improved from 73° to 88° (P = 0.32) and from 23° to 32° (P = 0.28) respectively. Reoperation was required in two patients, including one hematoma and one revision for instability. Conclusion: Outcomes of revision of HHR arthroplasty in this cohort did not improve upon those reported for revision of stemmed humeral implants. A comparative study would be required to allow for definitive conclusions to be made. PMID:26980986

  8. A technique for monitoring SO2 in combustion exhausts: Use of a non-Nernstian sensing element in combination with an upstream catalytic filter

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L; Montgomery, Fred C; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) at high temperature (600 750 oC) in the presence of some interferents found in typical combustion exhausts (oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and NO, "NOx"), CO2, CO, and hydrocarbon (C3H6)) is described. The detection scheme involves use of a catalytic filter in front of a non-Nernstian sensing element. The catalytic filter was a Ni:Cr powder bed operating at 850 oC and the sensing elements were pairs of platinum (Pt) and oxide (Ba-promoted copper chromite ((Ba,Cu)xCryOz) and Sr-modified lanthanum ferrite (LSF)) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia. The Ni:Cr powder bed was capable of reducing the sensing element response to NOx, CO, and C3H6, but the presence of NOx (100 ppm by volume) still interfered with the SO2 response of the Pt-(Ba,Cu)xCryOz sensing element at 600 oC, causing approximately a 7 mV (20%) reduction in the response to 120 ppm SO2 and a response equivalent to about 20 ppm SO2 in the in the absence of SO2. The Pt-LSF sensing element, operated at 750 oC, did not suffer from this NOx interference but at the cost of a reduced SO2 response magnitude (120 ppm SO2 yielded ~10 mV, in contrast to ~30 mV for the Pt-(Ba,Cu)xCryOz sensing element). The powder bed and Pt-LSF sensing element were operated continuously over approximately 350 hours, and the response to SO2 drifted downward by about 7%, with most of this change occurring during the initial 100 hours of operation.

  9. Utilization of laser-assisted analytical methods for monitoring of lead and nutrition elements distribution in fresh and dried Capsicum annuum l. leaves.

    PubMed

    Galiová, Michaela; Kaiser, Jozef; Novotný, Karel; Hartl, Martin; Kizek, Rene; Babula, Petr

    2011-09-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have been applied for high-resolution mapping of accumulation and distribution of heavy metal (lead) and nutrition elements (potassium, manganese) in leaves of Capsicum annuum L. samples. Lead was added in a form of Pb(NO₃)₂ at concentration up to 10 mmol L⁻¹ into the vessels that contained tap water and where the 2-months old Capsicum annuum L. plants were grown another seven days. Two dimensional maps of the elements are presented for both laser-assisted analytical methods. Elemental mapping performed on fresh (frozen) and dried Capsicum annuum L. leaves are compared.

  10. Sediments fail to record geomagnetic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Meynadier, Laure; Bassinot, Franck; Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We have studied four records of the last Matuyama-Brunhes reversal from sediment cores from the equatorial Indian Ocean, west equatorial Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean with deposition rates of 4cm/ka and 2cm/ka for one equatorial core. All measurements were performed using 8cc cubic samples. In three records the demagnetization diagrams of the transitional samples are of bad quality. In the best samples the characteristic component of magnetization is defined with a large error that is reflected by an increase of the MAD value by at least a factor 10 with respect to non-transitional samples. Although not being frequently reported in papers which tend to exhibit the best demagnetization diagrams, this behavior is actually typical of most transitions studied in sedimentary sequences and somehow questions the reliability of the records. It is frequently considered that failure to isolate the initial magnetization component is due to weakly magnetized transitional samples with magnetization about ten times lower than outside the reversal. However, the magnetization intensity of transitional samples is much stronger in two of the present cores than the non-transitional samples of the other cores. The VGP paths that were tentatively derived from these transitions are quite complex and very different from each other. After rescaling all results to the same resolution the length of the transitional intervals remains different between each core suggesting that different magnetization processes were at work and yielded different records of the rapid field changes during the transition. Because similar magnetic grains recorded different directions, demagnetization fails to isolate a characteristic component. The sediment from west equatorial Pacific is an interesting exception with nice univectorial transitional diagrams decreasing towards the origin. The inclination remains close to zero, while the declination rotates smoothly between the two polarities. As a

  11. Experimenting `learn by doing' and `learn by failing'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Rossella; Noè, Carlo; Rossi, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, in recent years, developing experiential learning has fulfilled the requirement of a deep understanding of lean philosophy by engineering students, demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of some of the key principles of lean manufacturing. On the other hand, the literature evidences how some kinds of game-based experiential learning overlook daily difficulties, which play a central role in manufacturing systems. To fill the need of a game overcoming such lack of vision, an innovative game direct in-field, named Kart Factory, has been developed. Actual production shifts are simulated, while keeping all the elements peculiar to a real production set (i.e. complexity, effort, safety). The working environment is a real pedal car assembly department, the products to be assembled have relevant size and weight (i.e. up to 35 kg approximately), and the provided tools are real production equipment (e.g. keys, screwdrivers, trans-pallets, etc.). Due to the need to maximise the impact on students, a labour-intensive process characterises the production department. The whole training process is based on three educational principles: Experience Value Principle, Error Value Principle, and Team Value Principle. As the 'learn by doing' and 'learn by failing' are favoured, the theory follows the practice, while crating the willingness to 'do' instead of just designing or planning. The gathered data prove the Kart Factory's effectiveness in reaching a good knowledge of lean concepts, notwithstanding the students' initial knowledge level.

  12. Comparative surface microanalysis of failed Brånemark implants.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Olivé, J

    1992-01-01

    The chemical composition and topography of an implant surface determine the human immunologic system response. This study compared the surfaces of 13 Brånemark oral implants, 11 that came from retrieved specimens which failed initially or did not osseointegrate and 2 that were never implanted (controls). The period of implantation in human jaws varied between 3 and 20 months. After cleaning and sterilization, the topography, surface chemical composition, and thickness of the oxide layer were studied. The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy did not show any significant topographic differences among the specimens. X-ray spectrographic microanalysis showed very similar composition (titanium and amounts less than 0.5% of other elements) in the outermost layer of the analyzed specimens. The Auger spectroscope revealed considerable percentage differences in the amount of carbon and silicon in the last monolayers, which could be attributed to handling or to an inadequate cleaning process. This places the retrieved specimens out of the acceptable statistical limits of contamination by introducing a factor of doubt for long-term prognosis in the hypothetical situation of their re-use. PMID:1398830

  13. Comparative surface microanalysis of failed Brånemark implants.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Olivé, J

    1992-01-01

    The chemical composition and topography of an implant surface determine the human immunologic system response. This study compared the surfaces of 13 Brånemark oral implants, 11 that came from retrieved specimens which failed initially or did not osseointegrate and 2 that were never implanted (controls). The period of implantation in human jaws varied between 3 and 20 months. After cleaning and sterilization, the topography, surface chemical composition, and thickness of the oxide layer were studied. The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy did not show any significant topographic differences among the specimens. X-ray spectrographic microanalysis showed very similar composition (titanium and amounts less than 0.5% of other elements) in the outermost layer of the analyzed specimens. The Auger spectroscope revealed considerable percentage differences in the amount of carbon and silicon in the last monolayers, which could be attributed to handling or to an inadequate cleaning process. This places the retrieved specimens out of the acceptable statistical limits of contamination by introducing a factor of doubt for long-term prognosis in the hypothetical situation of their re-use.

  14. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  15. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  16. A simplified soil extraction sequence to monitor the main and trace element speciation in soil after compost and mineral fertilizer additions upon the composition of wheat grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred; Erhart, Eva

    2016-04-01

    High quality biological waste treatment aims at producing compost in order to maintain a clean environment and to sustain soil organic carbon levels. Fertilization with compost as a source of organic carbon, nutrients, and accessory elements, as well as fertilization with mineral N- and PK fertilizer have been tested in a field experiment on a calcaric Fluvisol in the Danube wetlands, at 4 levels each. Yields of wheat were recorded, and grains and soils were sampled from each treatment, and analyzed for main and trace element composition. The corresponding soils were characterized by mobile phases, obtained by leaching with 0,16M acetic acid to cover exchangeables plus carbonates, and subsequently by 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3 to dissolve the pedogenic oxides. Total amounts were obtained from digests with perchloric- nitric-hydrofluoric acid. For quasi-total amounts, aqua regia was replaced by pressure decomposition with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid. The proposed extraction sequence permits to analyze and interpret soil for main elements, trace elements, nutrients and anions simultaneously. Factor analyses of soil extracts obtained from dilute acetic acid revealed Ba-Be-Cd-Cu-Li-S (traces), Ca-Mg-Mn (main carbonates), Al-Fe-B, Y, and P-K (nutrients) as chemically feasible principal components. Subsequent soil extracts from oxalate contained Al-B-Co-K-Na-Pb-Si-V-S (maybe acid silicate weathering), Cr-Li-Ni-Sr-Ti (maybe basic silicate weathering), Be-Cu-Fe-P, Co-Mg-Mn-Zn (Mn-oxides) and Ba-Sc as principal components. Factor analyses of total element data distinguished the principal components Ce-La-Li-Sc-Y-P (rare earths), Al-Ca-Fe-K-Mg-Na-P (main elements), Cd-Co-Cr-Cu-Ni-Zn (trace elements), As-Pb (contaminants), Ba-Mn-Sr, and Ti, which looks chemically feasible also. Factor analyses of those soil fractions which presumably form the main fractions of exchangeables, carbonates, pedogenic oxides and silicates, showed no cross connections, except for P. Oxalate

  17. Metasomatic Reaction Zones as Monitors of Trace Element Transfer at the Slab-Mantle Interface: the Case of the Hochwart Peridotite (Ulten Zone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocchi, M.; Hermann, J.; Bargossi, G. M.; Mair, V.; Morten, L.

    2006-12-01

    Ultramafic blocks belonging to the Hochwart peridotite outcrop (Ulten Zone, Italian Alps) preserve a series of metasomatic mineral zones generated by infiltration of Si-rich hydrous fluids which occurred at the gneiss- peridotite interface. The age of the high pressure metamorphism for the Hochwart complex has been constrained at 330 Ma (Tumiati et al., 2003, EPSL, 210, 509-526). The country rocks are stromatic gneisses consisting mainly of quartz, K-feldspar, garnet, kyanite, biotite and muscovite. The ultramafic body consists of strongly serpentinized metaperidotites which are exposed as a hectometre-size lens along a steep gully, associated to monomineralic zones that developed at the contact between the peridotite body and the garnet gneiss country rocks. The composition of the metasomatic zones has been investigated in detail and records an order of metasomatic zoning formed by phlogopite-rich to tremolite-anthophyllite-rich rocks going from the host gneiss towards the peridotite. In some cases, the ultramafics fade into the gneisses developing serpentine and talc which has replaced, presumably at lower temperatures, the serpentine matrix and occurs in association with chlorite. Phlogopite aggregates (phlogopitite) with accessory minerals (quartz + zircon + apatite) and metabasic pods (phlogopite and hornblende) also occur. Black tourmaline (schorl-dravite solid solution) has been found for the first time in the contact near the phlogopite zone, suggesting an external addition of elements (boron and fluorine) to the system at high temperature. The formation of the metasomatic zones composed exclusively of hydrous phases must have involved extensive H2O-metasomatism as already documented for the Ulten peridotites. The source for these fluids can be a system of trondhjemitic-pegmatitic dikes cutting the peridotite that would have channelled aqueous fluids into the ultramafic rocks. Whole-rock geochemistry and trace element (LA ICP-MS) composition of hydrous

  18. Mercury (II) sensor based on monitoring dissociation rate of the trans-acting factor MerR from cis-element by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masaki; Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2015-05-15

    Transcriptional switches regulate gene expression in response to environmental changes surrounding cell. Many studies have focused on two fundamentally different models of transcriptional control by bacterial metalloregulatory protein. Distortion of the DNA fragment including cis-element, to which the trans-acting factor MerR binds, is accepted as the mechanism of gene expression regulation by Hg (II) while, in cases of the other trans-acting factors ArsR and CadC, events of association to and dissociation from cis-element are known to control transcription in response to As (III) and Cd (II), respectively. In this study, interactions between green-fluorescent-protein-tagged trans-acting factor and immobilized cis-element were analyzed on solid surface. Fluorescent measurements and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) responses revealed that although the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) was much lower in MerR than in ArsR and CadC, the dissociation rate of MerR from DNA increased in response to Hg (II) at concentrations of 5-10(4) µg l(-1). These results firstly demonstrate an increase of KD between MerR and its recognition site in DNA by Hg (II), and possibility of rapid Hg (II) quantification with the low detection limit (5 µg l(-1)) and the high dynamic range (10(1)-10(4) µg l(-1)).

  19. Erika's Stories: Literacy Solutions for a Failing Middle School Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2010-01-01

    Erika was a failing student at a large urban public middle school. She was poor, Hispanic, bilingual, and had repeated fourth grade. She scored low on her standardized tests and was failing several subject areas. In class, Erika was a student who sat silently with her head on her desk, and rarely turned in any of her assignments. She was a…

  20. 75 FR 76262 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ85 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY... temporary regulations which set forth the source of income attributable to qualified fails charges. The.... source income of foreign persons that is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade...

  1. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  2. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  3. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  4. A proposal of monitoring and forecasting system for crustal activity in and around Japan using a large-scale high-fidelity finite element simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, T.; Ichimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Here we propose a system for monitoring and forecasting of crustal activity, especially great interplate earthquake generation and its preparation processes in subduction zone. Basically, we model great earthquake generation as frictional instability on the subjecting plate boundary. So, spatio-temporal variation in slip velocity on the plate interface should be monitored and forecasted. Although, we can obtain continuous dense surface deformation data on land and partly at the sea bottom, the data obtained are not fully utilized for monitoring and forecasting. It is necessary to develop a physics-based data analysis system including (1) a structural model with the 3D geometry of the plate interface and the material property such as elasticity and viscosity, (2) calculation code for crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation using (1), (3) inverse analysis or data assimilation code both for structure and fault slip using (1)&(2). To accomplish this, it is at least necessary to develop highly reliable large-scale simulation code to calculate crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation for 3D heterogeneous structure. Actually, Ichimura et al. (2014, SC14) has developed unstructured FE non-linear seismic wave simulation code, which achieved physics-based urban earthquake simulation enhanced by 10.7 BlnDOF x 30 K time-step. Ichimura et al. (2013, GJI) has developed high fidelity FEM simulation code with mesh generator to calculate crustal deformation in and around Japan with complicated surface topography and subducting plate geometry for 1km mesh. Further, for inverse analyses, Errol et al. (2012, BSSA) has developed waveform inversion code for modeling 3D crustal structure, and Agata et al. (2015, this meeting) has improved the high fidelity FEM code to apply an adjoint method for estimating fault slip and asthenosphere viscosity. Hence, we have large-scale simulation and analysis tools for monitoring. Furthermore, we are developing the methods for

  5. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  6. It's elemental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Periodic Table of the elements will now have to be updated. An international team of researchers has added element 110 to the Earth's armory of elements. Though short-lived—of the order of microseconds, element 110 bottoms out the list as the heaviest known element on the planet. Scientists at the Heavy Ion Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany, made the 110-proton element by colliding a lead isotope with nickel atoms. The element, which is yet to be named, has an atomic mass of 269.

  7. Determination of elemental baseline using peltigeralean lichens from Northeastern Canada (Québec): Initial data collection for long term monitoring of the impact of global climate change on boreal and subarctic area in Canada.

    PubMed

    Darnajoux, Romain; Lutzoni, François; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe

    2015-11-15

    Northeastern Canada is mostly free of anthropogenic activities. The extent to which this territory has been impacted by anthropogenic atmospheric depositions remains to be studied. The main goal of our study was to establish background levels for metals in boreal muscicolous/terricolous macrolichens over non-urbanized areas of northeastern Canada (Québec). Concentrations of 18 elements (Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb) were determined for three species of the genus Peltigera (Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. s.l., Peltigera neopolydactyla (Gyeln.) Gyeln. s.l., Peltigera scabrosa Th. Fr. s.l.), and Nephroma arcticum (L.) Torss., along a 1080 km south-north transect and along a of 730 km west-east transect. We report that elemental contents in the sampled lichen thalli are very low and similar to background levels found in other studies performed in pristine places (high elevation or remote ecosystems) throughout the world. Overall, our results demonstrate that most of the boreal and subarctic zone of Québec (northeastern Canada) is still pristine. The elemental baseline established in these lichen populations will contribute to monitor metal pollution in boreal and sub-polar ecosystems due to global climate change and future industrial expansion.

  8. Use of the Filter-Sandwich carriers in continuous effectiveness monitoring of slurry treatment methods as an element improving biosafety in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Piotr; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga; Bauza-Kaszewska, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    Slurry, due to high microbiological contamination, requires hygienization before spreading. The agricultural usage of treated slurry has to guarantee biosafety. Therefore, constant monitoring of the slurry treatment process should be conducted. The use of Filter-Sandwich carriers seems to be a prospective solution. The aim of the research was to test whether Filter-Sandwich carriers influence the survivability of microorganisms during the slurry hygienization process and hence, whether they are safe for the environment. Raw cattle and swine slurry with different dry matter content was the research material. Salmonella Senftenberg W775 rods were introduced directly into the slurry and into the carriers placed in the liquid excrements stored at 4 and 20ºC, and underwent anaerobic digestion at 35ºC. The number of tested bacteria obtained from the slurry and carriers was determined using the MPN method with proper microbiological media. The values of physicochemical parameters of the raw and treated slurry were determined, both for the carriers and for slurry only. Biosafety control was also conducted for the carriers in slurry containers. The differences in the theoretical survivability between Salmonella Senftenberg W775 re-isolated from the slurry and the carriers, and in the values of the selected physicochemical parameters obtained at the end of the process, were not statistically significant. The re-contamination of the sterile slurry caused by the bacteria in the carrier was not observed after placement of the carrier with inoculated material. The conducted research proves the usefulness of Filter-Sandwich carriers for continuous hygienization monitoring of the slurry treatment process. This refers not only to the semi-technical scale, but also to the full-scale process. PMID:23772570

  9. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    PubMed

    White, A; O'Brien, B; Houlihan, T; Darker, C; O'Shea, B

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child's weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres' for Disease Control's BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  10. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  11. Failure to fail: assessing nursing students' competence during practice placements.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    The aim of this article is to provide a critical overview of the issues relating to the reluctance of registered nurses or mentors to fail students in their competencies and to identify possible causes for this at the practice level.

  12. Council tax precept failed to cover cost of NLW.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Charging residents extra council tax to help pay for social care is insufficient to cover current funding gaps and has failed to cover the cost of the national living wage (NLW), a report warns. PMID:27573947

  13. Elemental ZOO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, Terry L.

    2003-04-01

    This puzzle uses the symbols of 39 elements to spell the names of 25 animals found in zoos. Underlined spaces and the names of the elements serve as clues. To solve the puzzle, students must find the symbols that correspond to the elemental names and rearrange them into the animals' names.

  14. Failed tracheal intubation during obstetric general anaesthesia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, S M; Winton, A L; Mushambi, M C; Ramaswamy, K; Swales, H; Quinn, A C; Popat, M

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed the literature on obstetric failed tracheal intubation from 1970 onwards. The incidence remained unchanged over the period at 2.6 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.2) per 1000 anaesthetics (1 in 390) for obstetric general anaesthesia and 2.3 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.9) per 1000 general anaesthetics (1 in 443) for caesarean section. Maternal mortality from failed intubation was 2.3 (95% CI 0.3 to 8.2) per 100000 general anaesthetics for caesarean section (one death per 90 failed intubations). Maternal deaths occurred from aspiration or hypoxaemia secondary to airway obstruction or oesophageal intubation. There were 3.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 9.9) front-of-neck airway access procedures (surgical airway) per 100000 general anaesthetics for caesarean section (one procedure per 60 failed intubations), usually carried out as a late rescue attempt with poor maternal outcomes. Before the late 1990s, most cases were awakened after failed intubation; since the late 1990s, general anaesthesia has been continued in the majority of cases. When general anaesthesia was continued, a laryngeal mask was usually used but with a trend towards use of a second-generation supraglottic airway device. A prospective study of obstetric general anaesthesia found that transient maternal hypoxaemia occurred in over two-thirds of cases of failed intubation, usually without sequelae. Pulmonary aspiration occurred in 8% but the rate of maternal intensive care unit admission after failed intubation was the same as that after uneventful general anaesthesia. Poor neonatal outcomes were often associated with preoperative fetal compromise, although failed intubation and lowest maternal oxygen saturation were independent predictors of neonatal intensive care unit admission.

  15. National intelligence estimates and the Failed State Index.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Across 177 countries around the world, the Failed State Index, a measure of state vulnerability, was reliably negatively associated with the estimates of national intelligence. Psychometric analysis of the Failed State Index, compounded of 12 social, economic, and political indicators, suggested factorial unidimensionality of this index. The observed correspondence of higher national intelligence figures to lower state vulnerability might arise through these two macro-level variables possibly being proxies of even more pervasive historical and societal background variables that affect both.

  16. [Monitoring of heavy metals and trace elements in the air, fruits and vegetables and soil in the province of Catania (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Ledda, Caterina; Cicciù, Francesca; Alonzo, Elena; Fallico, Roberto; Platania, Francesco; Di Mauro, Rosario; Valenti, Lina; Sciacca, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of fruits and vegetables with heavy metals can result from anthropogenic events (car or factory emissions, poor management of sewage and industrial waste) or from natural events (volcanic activity and geological soil matrix). The chemical and toxicological characteristics of heavy metals can have an impact on human health through several mechanisms. Other metals, on the other hand, are essential for maintenance of physiological and biochemical human processes, are protective against many diseases and must be present in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the human body. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of heavy metals and trace elements both in fruit and vegetable products widely consumed in the province of Catania (Sicily, Italy) and in various environmental matrices (air, water and land), and to investigate possible sources of contamination. Fruit and vegetable products (tomatoes, lettuce, spinach, eggplants, potatoes, zucchini, grapes, apples and pears) were sampled (n = 60) from the towns of Adrano, Biancavilla and Mazzarrone. These locations were selected for their geomorphology, climate and cultivation characteristics. Levels of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, vanadium and selenium in fruit, vegetables, air and water samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer with graphite furnace Perkin-Elmer AAnalyst 800 while soil samples were evaluated by the atomic emission spectrometer Optima 2000 DV Perkin-Elmer. The presence of mercury was evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor technique. Study results revealed widespread contamination of fruit and vegetables and mainly due to use of fertilizers and to volcanic activity. A strategy targeting the entire food chain is essential for ensuring food safety and consumer protection and maintaining contaminants at levels which are not hazardous to health. PMID:23532160

  17. Real time early detection imaging system of failed wounds and heterotopic ossification using unique Raman signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papour, Asael; Taylor, Zach; Stafsudd, Oscar; Grundfest, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Our team has established a method to enable imaging of heterotopic ossification and bone growth locations in tissue using Stokes Raman signals with fast acquisition times. This technique relies on the unique Raman signatures of bone to capture parallel, full-field, 1 cm2 field of view, without utilizing a spectrometer. This system was built in mind as a compact complementary tool for in vivo patient monitoring that can offer a high resolution optical characterization for early detection of failed wounds. Preliminary results of bone detection in flesh are presented here and pave the way for further development of this tool in clinical setting.

  18. Troubleshooting failed sterilization loads: Process failures and wet packs/loads.

    PubMed

    Seavey, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Sterilization process failures may place patients at risk. It is important that IPs, managers, educators, and staff members responsible for sterilization in health care facilities understand what to do if there is a biological, chemical, or mechanical sterilization monitor failure, or a wet pack. Sterilization process failures occur for many reasons: a malfunctioning sterilizer, user error (eg, incorrect packaging or loading procedures or incorrect cycle selection), poor steam quality, and others. All process failures should be investigated and the root cause of the failure identified. Understanding the possible causes of sterilization process failures and investigating tools for failed loads can help with risk assessment and necessary corrective action.

  19. Troubleshooting failed sterilization loads: Process failures and wet packs/loads.

    PubMed

    Seavey, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Sterilization process failures may place patients at risk. It is important that IPs, managers, educators, and staff members responsible for sterilization in health care facilities understand what to do if there is a biological, chemical, or mechanical sterilization monitor failure, or a wet pack. Sterilization process failures occur for many reasons: a malfunctioning sterilizer, user error (eg, incorrect packaging or loading procedures or incorrect cycle selection), poor steam quality, and others. All process failures should be investigated and the root cause of the failure identified. Understanding the possible causes of sterilization process failures and investigating tools for failed loads can help with risk assessment and necessary corrective action. PMID:27131132

  20. Failed supernovae explain the compact remnant mass function

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2014-04-10

    One explanation for the absence of higher mass red supergiants (16.5 M {sub ☉} ≲ M ≲ 25 M {sub ☉}) as the progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) is that they die in failed SNe creating black holes. Simulations show that such failed SNe still eject their hydrogen envelopes in a weak transient, leaving a black hole with the mass of the star's helium core (5-8 M {sub ☉}). Here we show that this naturally explains the typical masses of observed black holes and the gap between neutron star and black hole masses without any fine-tuning of stellar mass loss, binary mass transfer, or the SN mechanism, beyond having it fail in a mass range where many progenitor models have density structures that make the explosions more likely to fail. There is no difficulty including this ∼20% population of failed SNe in any accounting of SN types over the progenitor mass function. And, other than patience, there is no observational barrier to either detecting these black hole formation events or limiting their rates to be well below this prediction.

  1. Intracoronary thrombolytic therapy: a treatment option for failed mechanical thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Sean; Jain, Ajay K; Archbold, R Andrew

    2012-11-01

    The benefit of the routine application of aspiration thrombectomy in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is now well established. The optimal management of patients who have "failed" thrombectomy characterized by a large residual thrombus burden after repeated mechanical thrombectomy, however, is not known. We report a case of failed aspiration thrombectomy in a 66-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution with chest pain associated with inferior ST segment elevation. Coronary angiography showed a thrombotic occlusion of the right coronary artery. Aspiration thrombectomy did little to reduce thrombus load and so the patient was treated with intracoronary tenecteplase. Repeat coronary angiography 18 hr later revealed marked thrombus resolution with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grade 3 anterograde flow and patency of the infarct-related artery was maintained at 2-month follow up. This case demonstrates the potential for intracoronary thrombolytic therapy as a treatment option for the management of patients following failed thrombectomy in PPCI.

  2. Computer simulation of the mechanically-assisted failing canine circulation.

    PubMed

    Barnea, O; Moore, T W; Jaron, D

    1990-01-01

    A model of the cardiovascular system is presented. The model includes representations of the left and right ventricles, a nonlinear multielement model of the aorta and its main branches, and lumped models of the systemic veins and the pulmonary circulation. A simulation of the intra-aortic balloon pump and representations of physiological compensatory mechanisms are also incorporated in the model. Parameters of the left ventricular model were set to simulate either the normal or failing canine circulation. Pressure and flow waveforms throughout the circulation as well as ventricular pressure and volume were calculated for the normal, failing, and assisted failing circulation. Cardiac oxygen supply and consumption were calculated from the model. They were used as direct indices of cardiac energy supply and utilization to assess the effects of cardiac assistance.

  3. Elemental health

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Trace elements used in nutritional supplements and vitamins are discussed in the article. Relevant studies are briefly cited regarding the health effects of selenium, chromium, germanium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, silver, manganese, ruthenium, lithium, and vanadium. The toxicity and food sources are listed for some of the elements. A brief summary is also provided of the nutritional supplements market.

  4. Soldier imprisoned for failing to disclose HIV to sex partners.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Pfc. [Name removed], a soldier at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, was sentenced to 3 years in a military prison for failing to disclose her HIV-positive status to her sexual partners. [Name removed]' commander had ordered her to use condoms and inform her sexual partners of her HIV status. She failed to inform eight of the nine men with whom she had sex and, she did not use a condom with four of them. So far, all nine men have tested negative for HIV. [Name removed] will be reduced to the rank of private, receive a bad conduct discharge, and forfeit all pay and benefits.

  5. Hydro-Mechanical Perturbation of a Steep Hillslope - Failing to Fail a Hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, D.; Schwarz, M.; Cohen, D.; Michlmayr, G.; Lehmann, P.; Gambazzi, F.; Hofer, M.; Stähli, M.

    2009-04-01

    Rapid shallow landslides are relatively common natural hazards in mountainous regions. The prediction of hydromechanical conditions inducing these events remains a challenge due to complex interactions of soil properties, vegetation and geologic conditions. Shallow landslides in alpine regions occur primarily in slopes steeper than 25 degrees and are triggered most often by heavy rainfall events. Nevertheless, extreme rainfall events on steep slopes >40 degrees in mountainous regions show remarkable stability. To analyze such hillslope response to extreme hydrologic input of long duration, we conducted a field experiment in the Loetschental valley (Wiler, Switzerland) where a small meadow (5 x 10 m) within a forest with soil depth between 0.3 and 1.5 m was instrumented with different sensors to monitor soil water pressure, soil and bedrock water content, electrical resistivity and occurrence of small movements. We applied water using two sprinklers and from a one meter deep trench upslope. Water was applied for two weeks at a rate of 36 L/hr/m2 (corresponding to annual rainfall amount of 860 mm applied in one day). Following this extended period of heavy rainfall, we supplied water to upslope trench (5 m wide and 1 m deep) at maximum rates of 200 L/min (potential seepage rates of 57 m per day!) resulting in surface runoff. Inflow rates less than 30L/min showed no surface runoff. Some tensiometers registered positive pore pressures in the range of 0.2 to 0.8 m of head, however, most of the applied water drained into bedrock and via preferential flow along macropores formed by decaying tree roots and rock fragment skeleton as indicated by geophysical methods and dye tracer experiments. The slope composition (roots, soil and rock fragments) and the interface between soil and bedrock show strong self-organization to maximize drainage capacity thereby reducing mechanical failure potential and landslide risk.

  6. Design study and comparative evaluation of JSFR failed fuel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Aizawa, K.; Chikazawa, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Kubo, S.; Okazaki, H.; Mito, M.; Tozawa, K.; Hayashi, M.

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual design study of an advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor JSFR has progressed in the 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) 'project in Japan. JSFR has two failed fuel detection systems in the core. One is a failed fuel detection (FFD) system which continuously monitors a fission product from failed fuel subassembly. The other is a failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system which locates when it receives signals from FFD. The FFD system consists of a FFD-DN which detects delayed neutron (DN) in sodium and a FFD-CG which detects fission products in the cover gas of the reactor vessel. In this study, requirements to the FFD-DN and the FFD-DN design to meet the requirements were investigated for the commercial and demonstration JSFR. In the commercial JSFR, a sampling type FFD which collects sodium from the reactor vessel by sampling lines for DN detectors was adopted. The performances have been investigated and confirmed by a fluid analysis in the reactor upper plenum. In the demonstration JSFR, the performance of DN detectors installed on the primary cold-leg piping has been confirmed. For the FFDL systems, experiences in the previous fast reactors and the R and D of FFDL system for JSFR were investigated. This study focuses on the Selector-Valve and the Tagging-Gas FFDL systems. Operation experiences of the Selector-valve FFDL system were accumulated in PFR and Phenix. Tagging-gas system experiences were accumulated in EBR-II and FFTF. The feasibility of both FFDL systems for JSFR was evaluated. (authors)

  7. Real-time monitoring of inflammation status in 3T3-L1 adipocytes possessing a secretory Gaussia luciferase gene under the control of nuclear factor-kappa B response element

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaki, Haruka; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Aoki, Naohito

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation status in adipocytes can be monitored by the new assay system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only an aliquot of conditioned medium is required without cell lysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation-attenuating compounds can be screened more conveniently. -- Abstract: We have established 3T3-L1 cells possessing a secretory Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) gene under the control of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) response element. The 3T3-L1 cells named 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc could differentiate into adipocyte as comparably as parental 3T3-L1 cells. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-1{beta} induced GLuc secretion of 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. GLuc secretion of 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes was also induced when cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages and was dramatically enhanced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. An NF-{kappa}B activation inhibitor BAY-11-7085 and an antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly suppressed GLuc secretion induced by macrophages. Finally, we found that rosemary-derived carnosic acid strongly suppressed GLuc secretion induced by macrophages and on the contrary up-regulated adiponectin secretion. Collectively, by using 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes, inflammation status can be monitored in real time and inflammation-attenuating compounds can be screened more conveniently.

  8. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.52 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Substandard pistachios. Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements....

  9. 9 CFR 442.5 - Handling of failed product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling of failed product. 442.5 Section 442.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... upon testing in accordance with the methods prescribed in § 442.2 of this subchapter shall be...

  10. 9 CFR 442.5 - Handling of failed product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of failed product. 442.5 Section 442.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... upon testing in accordance with the methods prescribed in § 442.2 of this subchapter shall be...

  11. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  12. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  13. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this... product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as... the lot has been reworked and tested, it fails the aflatoxin test for a second time, the lot may...

  14. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this... product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as... the lot has been reworked and tested, it fails the aflatoxin test for a second time, the lot may...

  15. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this... product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as... the lot has been reworked and tested, it fails the aflatoxin test for a second time, the lot may...

  16. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this... product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as... the lot has been reworked and tested, it fails the aflatoxin test for a second time, the lot may...

  17. "Badminton Player-Coach" Interactions between Failing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascret, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education teachers often use the player-coach dyad in individual opposition sports so that students can obtain information on their actions and then better regulate them. This type of work also develops methodological and social skills. However, the task of observing a partner often poses problems for failing students, who…

  18. Florida hospital cuts failed pediatric sedation rate 98%.

    PubMed

    2008-07-01

    * In a survey of Broward General Medical Center, The Joint Commission found fault with the administration of sedation for pediatric outpatient diagnostic procedures. * There is a great deal of variation among health care facilities on sedatives use and techniques and safety standards used. * Broward's initiative eliminated rescheduled exams and failed procedures by 98%.

  19. Feeding behaviour in young children who fail to thrive.

    PubMed

    Drewett, Robert F; Kasese-Hara, Mambwe; Wright, Charlotte

    2003-02-01

    One-year-old children who failed to thrive in infancy were identified through a specialist clinical service using a conditional weight gain criterion which identified the slowest gaining 5%. Control children of the same age and sex were recruited from the same local geographical area and had the same primary care physician. The food intake and feeding behaviour of the groups was compared using a detailed observational micro-analysis of a lunchtime meal, using a behavioural coding scheme developed for use over the weaning period. Both food and fluid intake at the test meal were significantly lower in the children who failed to thrive than the controls. There was no significant difference in the energy density of the foods they consumed. As recorded in the behaviour counts at the meal, the mothers of the children who failed to thrive fed them as much as or more than the control mothers fed their children. The children who failed to thrive tended to refuse or reject the offered food more, and also fed themselves significantly less often than the controls. These behavioural differences during the meal accounted for about one third of the difference in energy intake between the groups. PMID:12631505

  20. 77 FR 9846 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ..., and 75 FR 81457, respectively. The temporary and proposed regulations provide that the source of... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ78 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY.... SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations that prescribe the source of income received on...

  1. A "Fresh Start" for a "Failing School"? A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines "Fresh Start," a New Labour flagship initiative to raise education "standards" in a radical and innovative way. Drawing on a qualitative study of a comprehensive school in England, I argue that the initiative added to the problems faced by the "failing school" and promoted rather traditional ways of raising "standards" due to…

  2. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  3. Understanding and Working with "Failed Communication" in Telecollaborative Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dowd, Robert; Ritter, Markus

    2006-01-01

    It is by now well established that telecollaborative exchanges frequently end in "failed communication" and do not automatically bring about successful negotiation of meaning between the learners. Instead, the intended pedagogic and linguistic aims of online interaction are repeatedly missed, and projects may end in low levels of participation,…

  4. Depressed phosphatidic acid-induced contractile activity of failing cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tappia, Paramjit S; Maddaford, Thane G; Hurtado, Cecilia; Panagia, Vincenzo; Pierce, Grant N

    2003-01-10

    The effects of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known inotropic agent, on Ca(2+) transients and contractile activity of cardiomyocytes in congestive heart failure (CHF) due to myocardial infarction were examined. In control cells, PA induced a significant increase (25%) in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenylcarbonate, blocked the positive inotropic action induced by PA, indicating that PA induces an increase in contractile activity and Ca(2+) transients through stimulation of PLC. Conversely, in failing cardiomyocytes there was a loss of PA-induced increase in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. PA did not alter resting cell length. Both diastolic and systolic [Ca(2+)] were significantly elevated in the failing cardiomyocytes. In vitro assessment of the cardiac sarcolemmal (SL) PLC activity revealed that the impaired failing cardiomyocyte response to PA was associated with a diminished stimulation of SL PLC activity by PA. Our results identify an important defect in the PA-PLC signaling pathway in failing cardiomyocytes, which may have significant implications for the depressed contractile function during CHF.

  5. What is the optimal rate of failed extubation?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Failed extubation (FE), defined as reintubation 48 or 72 hours after planned extubation, occurs in a significant percentage of patients and is associated with a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality. This commentary reviews the literature describing FE rates and the clinical consequences of FE and proposes an 'optimal' rate of FE as well as avenues for future research. PMID:22356725

  6. Improving Charter School Accountability: The Challenge of Closing Failing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, David

    2012-01-01

    Today some 5,600 charter schools are in operation, with more than two million students. Some critics persist in a fruitless argument that these schools have failed, despite a mountain of evidence to the contrary. But regardless of your opinion about them, charter schools are here to stay. Those concerned about public education should quit debating…

  7. Evidence of a "Failing Newspaper" under the Newspaper Preservation Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Robert G.

    The Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970 makes it possible for competing newspapers to combine advertising, production, circulation and management functions into a single newspaper corporation. For the attorney general and the courts to authorize a joint operating agreement (JOA) for a "failing newspaper," certain conditions must be met and certain…

  8. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  9. Hip arthroplasty for failed treatment of proximal femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    D'Arrigo, Carmelo; Perugia, Dario; Carcangiu, Alessandro; Monaco, Edoardo; Speranza, Attilio; Ferretti, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Failed treatment of an intertrochanteric fracture typically leads to profound functional disability and pain. Salvage treatment with hip arthroplasty may be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of hip arthroplasty performed as a salvage procedure after the failed treatment of an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Twenty-one patients were treated in our hospital with hip arthroplasty for failed treatment of intertrochanteric hip fracture. There were sixteen women and five men with a mean age of 75.8 years (range 61-85 years). Fourteen patients had failure of a previous nail fixation procedure, five had failure of a plate fixation, one of hip screws fixation and one of Ender nail fixation. In 19 out of 21 patients we performed a total hip arthroplasty-14 cases used modular implants with long-stems and five cases used a standard straight stem. In 2 of 21 cases we used a bipolar hemiarthroplasty. A statistically significant improvement was found comparing pre and postoperative conditions (p < 0.05). Our experience confirms that total hip arthroplasty is a satisfactory salvage procedure after failed treatment of an intertrochanteric fracture in elderly patients with few serious orthopaedic complications and acceptable clinical outcomes. PMID:19572131

  10. Rack Protection Monitor - A Simple System

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, S.

    1997-12-01

    The Rack Protection Monitor is a simple, fail-safe device to monitor smoke, temperature and ventilation sensors. It accepts inputs from redundant sensors and has a hardwired algorithm to prevent nuisance power trips due to random sensor failures. When a sensor is triggered the Rack Protection Monitor latches and annunicates the alarm. If another sensor is triggered, the Rack Protection Monitor locally shuts down the power to the relay rack and sends alarm to central control.

  11. Superheavy Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of creating elements with an atomic number of around 114. Describes the underlying physics responsible for the limited extent of the periodic table and enumerates problems that must be overcome in creating a superheavy nucleus. (GS)

  12. Elemental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a learning module integrating three disciplines--physics, chemistry, and biology--and based on four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and silicon. Includes atomic model and silicon-based life activities. (YDS)

  13. Monitoring of civil engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrsa, Valentin E.; Burtseva, Larisa P.; Rivas Lopez, Moises; Tyrsa, Vera V.

    2004-07-01

    Civil engineering structures require geometrical monitoring to assure their integrity during their life time. The monitoring by geodetic devices or according to GPS technology is not always appropriate, sometimes it is unrealizable. Means for monitoring based on automatic geodetic measurements applying optical scanners are proposed. The sensor for integrity and deformation control of the structure elements and components was designed.

  14. Remotely Monitored Sealing Array Software

    2012-09-12

    The Remotely Monitored Sealing Array (RMSA) utilizes the Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) framework to establish the fundamental operating capabilities for communication, security, power management, and cryptography. In addition to the SSP framework the RMSA software has unique capabilities to support monitoring a fiber optic seal. Fiber monitoring includes open and closed as well as parametric monitoring to detect tampering attacks. The fiber monitoring techniques, using the SSP power management processes, allow the seals to lastmore » for years while maintaining the security requirements of the monitoring application. The seal is enclosed in a tamper resistant housing with software to support active tamper monitoring. New features include LED notification of fiber closure, the ability to retrieve the entire fiber optic history via translator command, separate memory storage for fiber optic events, and a more robust method for tracking and resending failed messages.« less

  15. Remotely Monitored Sealing Array Software

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The Remotely Monitored Sealing Array (RMSA) utilizes the Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) framework to establish the fundamental operating capabilities for communication, security, power management, and cryptography. In addition to the SSP framework the RMSA software has unique capabilities to support monitoring a fiber optic seal. Fiber monitoring includes open and closed as well as parametric monitoring to detect tampering attacks. The fiber monitoring techniques, using the SSP power management processes, allow the seals to last for years while maintaining the security requirements of the monitoring application. The seal is enclosed in a tamper resistant housing with software to support active tamper monitoring. New features include LED notification of fiber closure, the ability to retrieve the entire fiber optic history via translator command, separate memory storage for fiber optic events, and a more robust method for tracking and resending failed messages.

  16. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  17. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  18. Fail-safe transcription termination: Because one is never enough.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Jean-François; Bachand, François

    2015-01-01

    Termination of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription is a fundamental step of gene expression that involves the release of the nascent transcript and dissociation of RNAPII from the DNA template. As transcription termination is intimately linked to RNA 3' end processing, termination pathways have a key decisive influence on the fate of the transcribed RNA. Quite remarkably, when reaching the 3' end of genes, a substantial fraction of RNAPII fail to terminate transcription, requiring the contribution of alternative or "fail-safe" mechanisms of termination to release the polymerase. This point of view covers redundant mechanisms of transcription termination and how they relate to conventional termination models. In particular, we expand on recent findings that propose a reverse torpedo model of termination, in which the 3'5' exonucleolytic activity of the RNA exosome targets transcription events associated with paused and backtracked RNAPII. PMID:26273910

  19. Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Failed SLAP Repair.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Miller, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    In general, favorable outcomes have been achieved with arthroscopic repair of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears. However, some patients remain dissatisfied or suffer further injury after SLAP repair and may seek additional treatment to alleviate their symptoms. The cause of persistent pain or recurrent symptoms after repair is likely multifactorial; therefore, careful preoperative workup is required to elucidate the cause of pain. Review of the details of previous surgical procedures is crucial because certain fixation methods are prone to failure or can cause additional injury. Failed SLAP repair can be managed with nonsurgical or surgical options. Nonsurgical modalities include physical therapy and strengthening programs, anti-inflammatory agents, and activity modification. Surgical options include revision SLAP repair and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis with or without revision SLAP repair. Outcomes after surgical management of failed SLAP repair are inferior to those of primary repair. Select patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  20. Paying for innovation. Failed strategies add to hospitals' reimbursement losses.

    PubMed

    Pallarito, K

    Hospitals across the country are struggling to balance revenue shortfalls and cost increases as the lid on government and private-payer payments closes tighter. They're also grappling with losses on failed physician and HMO investments, the expense of new medical technologies and larger-than-planned costs related to "millennium bug" cures. This is the second part of a two-part series on financial turmoil in healthcare.

  1. Results of Trabectome Surgery Following Failed Glaucoma Tube Shunt Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Mosaed, Sameh; Chak, Garrick; Haider, Asghar; Lin, Ken Y.; Minckler, Don S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Trabectome after failed tube shunt surgery. Twenty patients with prior failed tube shunt surgery who underwent Trabectome alone were included. All patients had at least 3 months of follow-up. Outcomes measured included intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medications, and secondary glaucoma surgeries. The success for Kaplan–Meier survival analysis is defined as IOP ≤21 mm Hg, IOP reduced by at least 20% from preoperative IOP, and no secondary glaucoma surgery. Mean preoperative IOP was 23.7 ± 6.4 mm Hg and mean number of glaucoma medications was 3.2 ± 1.5. At 12 months, IOP was reduced to 15.5 ± 3.2 mm Hg (P = 0.05) and number of medications was reduced to 2.4 ± 1.5 (P = 0.44). Survival rate at 12 months was 84% and 3 patients required additional glaucoma surgery with 15 patients reaching 12 months follow-up. Other than failure of IOP control and transient hypotony (IOP < 3 mm Hg) day 1 in 2 cases, there were no adverse events. Trabecular bypass procedures have traditionally been considered an approach appropriate for early-to-moderate glaucoma; however, our study indicates benefit in refractory glaucoma as well. Eyes that are prone to conjunctival scarring and hypertrophic wound healing, such as those who have failed tube shunt surgery, may benefit from procedures that avoid conjunctival incision such as Trabectome. This study indicates potential benefits in this patient population. Trabectome was safe and effective in reducing IOP at 1-year follow-up in patients with prior failed tube shunt surgery, but not effective in reducing medication reliance in these patients. PMID:26222842

  2. Fail-safe designs for large capacity battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2016-05-17

    Fail-safe systems and design methodologies for large capacity battery systems are disclosed. The disclosed systems and methodologies serve to locate a faulty cell in a large capacity battery, such as a cell having an internal short circuit, determine whether the fault is evolving, and electrically isolate the faulty cell from the rest of the battery, preventing further electrical energy from feeding into the fault.

  3. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg and at least a 20% reduction from baseline on the same or fewer number of pretrephination medications, 30/40 eyes (75%) fit these criteria over the entire course of follow-up. Among all 40 eyes, there was a significant reduction of IOP from pretrephination to 3 months (P<.001). The percentage of patients requiring 2 or more medications declined from 90% pretrephination to 21% at 3 months (P<.0001), and was stable thereafter. Some patients were able to eliminate all medications. Patients who did not meet the criteria of success regained successful IOP control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  4. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    PubMed Central

    Sahafi, A.; Asmussen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Survival of endodontically treated, post-restored teeth depends on a multitude of factors, all of which are practically impossible to include in a randomized, controlled clinical study. The purpose of this survey was to characterize and analyze reported failures of post-retained restorations to identify factors critical to failure and to type of failure. A questionnaire was mailed to private practitioners in Denmark with a request to complete the questionnaire whenever a patient presented with a failed post-retained restoration. Information was gathered on factors related to the patient, the tooth, the restorative materials, and the techniques. Two-hundred and sixty questionnaires were collected from 171 practitioners over a 3-year period. Functioning time until failure varied between 3 months and 38 years. Mean survival time until failure was 11 years. Of the failed restorations, 61% had functioned for 10 years or less. Fracture of the tooth was the most common type of failure reported, followed by loosening of the post and fracture of the post. Tapered posts implied an increased risk of tooth fracture compared to loosening or fracture of the post, and the relative risk of tooth fracture increased with the functioning time until failure. Fracture of the post was more common among male than female patients. On the basis of this survey of failed post-retained restorations, it was concluded that tapered posts were associated with a higher risk of tooth fracture than were parallel-sided posts. PMID:17636353

  5. Academic success, clinical failure: struggling practices of a failing student.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alix

    2007-11-01

    In the deficit model approach to clinical evaluation, failures to achieve established academic or clinical standards are attributed to a flawed educational process or, more commonly, to nursing students' personal characteristics. Little is known about the meaning and significance of failing to students. Their perspective is lost among the plethora of clinical-like external criteria that predict the pathway to failure. Not all nursing students can be successful, yet when failure is the outcome, students' dignity, self-worth, and future possibilities must be preserved. Through a Heideggerian interpretative reanalysis of a individual example of an academically successful nursing student who failed clinically, this article discusses the consequences of disconnection in student-faculty relationships. The theme Preserving Personhood: Closing Down on a Future of New Possibilities is presented, as well as two subthemes--Struggling as Adopting a Chameleon Cloak and Struggling as Disconnecting Relations. A deeper understanding of students' clinical failure can help explain why failure, a socially constructed phenomenon, matters to nursing. Relational pedagogical practices to guide clinical educators in helping students at risk of failing are also discussed.

  6. Evidence of structural remodeling in the dyssynchronous failing heart.

    PubMed

    Helm, Patrick A; Younes, Laurent; Beg, Mirza F; Ennis, Daniel B; Leclercq, Christophe; Faris, Owen P; McVeigh, Elliot; Kass, David; Miller, Michael I; Winslow, Raimond L

    2006-01-01

    Ventricular remodeling of both geometry and fiber structure is a prominent feature of several cardiac pathologies. Advances in MRI and analytical methods now make it possible to measure changes of cardiac geometry, fiber, and sheet orientation at high spatial resolution. In this report, we use diffusion tensor imaging to measure the geometry, fiber, and sheet architecture of eight normal and five dyssynchronous failing canine hearts, which were explanted and fixed in an unloaded state. We apply novel computational methods to identify statistically significant changes of cardiac anatomic structure in the failing and control heart populations. The results demonstrate significant regional differences in geometric remodeling in the dyssynchronous failing heart versus control. Ventricular chamber dilatation and reduction in wall thickness in septal and some posterior and anterior regions are observed. Primary fiber orientation showed no significant change. However, this result coupled with the local wall thinning in the septum implies an altered transmural fiber gradient. Further, we observe that orientation of laminar sheets become more vertical in the early-activated septum, with no significant change of sheet orientation in the late-activated lateral wall. Measured changes in both fiber gradient and sheet structure will affect both the heterogeneity of passive myocardial properties as well as electrical activation of the ventricles.

  7. Teamwork Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery in Failed External Dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Ghasemi, Hassan; Jafari, Farhad; Izadi, Pupak; Nadoushan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Chin, Narges Saghari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a teamwork revision endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in eyes with previously failed external DCR. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 50 failed external DCR subjects who underwent a teamwork revision endoscopic DCR by an ophthalmologist and an otolaryngologist. Paranasal sinus CT scanning was performed for each patient before the revision surgery. During surgery, any abnormal tissue noticed before silicone intubation was sent for pathological evaluation. Results: Endoscopic revision DCR was performed on 50 failed external DCR subjects with one-year follow-up. Of these, 31 were female (62%). The age range of the subjects was 18-88 years (mean: 59.98 years). Sinus CT showed at least one abnormality in 94% of cases. Revision endoscopy showed septal deviation (66%), scar formation (32%), ostium problems (28%), and sump syndrome (6%). Pathologic and clinical findings showed that chronic inflammation had a significant association with scar tissue and septal synechia (P = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). At the final follow-up, anatomical and functional success was achieved in 45 out of 50 (90%) of subjects. Conclusion: Endoscopic revision DCR when performed as cooperation of otolaryngologists and ophthalmologists may help resolve the endonasal problems and increase the success rate. PMID:27621786

  8. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  9. The Failings of the Law of Definite Proportions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchow, Lawrence

    1975-01-01

    Indicates that the concept of definite proportions or constant composition should be introduced with qualification. Presents arguments against the Law of Definite Proportions and cites examples in the areas of solid solutions, compounds of the transition and inner transition elements, and in some compounds of the representative elements. (GS)

  10. Efficacy of repeated 5-fluorouracil needling for failing and failed filtering surgeries based on simple gonioscopic examination

    PubMed Central

    Rashad, Mohammad A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the success rate of a modified bleb needling technique in eyes with previous glaucoma surgery that had elevated intraocular pressure. Methods A retrospective study of 24 eyes of 24 patients that underwent repeated bleb needling performed for failing and failed blebs on slit lamp with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injections on demand. This was performed after gonioscopic examination to define levels of filtration block. Results There was significant reduction of mean IOP from 36.91 mmHg to 14.73 mmHg at the final follow-up (P < 0.001). The overall success rate was 92%. Conclusion Repeated needling with adjunctive 5-FU proved a highly effective, safe alternative to revive filtration surgery rather than another medication or surgery. PMID:23293510

  11. Element Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  12. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  13. Superheavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell closure beyond 208Pb is at a proton number Z=114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N=172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical `SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods have been developed which allowed for the identification of new elements at production rates of one atom per month. Using cold fusion reactions which are based on lead and bismuth targets, relatively neutron-deficient isotopes of the elements from 107 to 113 were synthesized at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, and/or at RIKEN in Wako, Japan. In hot fusion reactions of 48Ca projectiles with actinide targets more neutron-rich isotopes of the elements from 112 to 116 and even 118 were produced at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. Recently, part of these data which represent the first identification of nuclei located on the predicted island of SHEs were confirmed in two independent experiments. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is α emission rather than fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical studies. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques. At a higher sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will be in the center of interest of future experimental work. New data will certainly challenge theoretical studies on the mechanism of the synthesis, on the nuclear decay properties, and on the chemical behavior of these heaviest atoms at the limit of stability.

  14. Monitoring biofilm formation in power plant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Licina, G.J.; Nekoksa, G.

    1997-12-31

    Power plants have experienced severe general corrosion, pitting, under deposit corrosion, and microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in cooling water systems, resulting in decreased plant availability and significantly increased operations and maintenance costs. MIC has been a particularly difficult problem since corrosion resistant alloys in relatively benign environments have failed as a result of microbiological influences in short times. Copper base alloys, carbon steels and stainless steels have all been susceptible. In a number of instances, replacement of piping and heat exchangers has been required to alleviate corrosion-related problems. Monitoring is a key element to improved corrosion control in cooling water systems. On-line methods provide evaluations of corrosion rates in real time and are sensitive to localized corrosion. Electrochemical methods of corrosion measurement are readily automated, both for acquisition of corrosion data and for process control. An electrochemical probe for on-line monitoring of biofilm activity has been shown to provide an early warning of biofilm formation and incipient MIC in fresh and saline waters.

  15. Failed development and vulnerability to climate change in central Asia: implications for food security and health.

    PubMed

    Janes, Craig R

    2010-07-01

    This article presents results of research undertaken to identify factors that affect the vulnerability of rural Mongolian herders to climate change. Findings suggest that models of market development instituted since 1990 have failed to recognize and support key elements of the pastoralist adaptive strategy. A retreating state presence has led to the collapse of regulatory regimes needed to safeguard critical common resources. This in turn has produced considerable social differentiation in the countryside, a breakdown in cooperative institutions, and conflicts over water and pasture. In a context of climate change, these changes seriously threaten the sustainability of the rural economy, leading to livelihood insecurity, growing rural poverty, and increasing rates of migration to shantytowns surrounding the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. The newly vulnerable poor are at higher risk for poor health and malnutrition. PMID:20566560

  16. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Failed magmatic eruptions: Late-stage cessation of magma ascent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Newhall, C.; Roman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    When a volcano becomes restless, a primary question is whether the unrest will lead to an eruption. Here we recognize four possible outcomes of a magmatic intrusion: "deep intrusion", "shallow intrusion", "sluggish/viscous magmatic eruption", and "rapid, often explosive magmatic eruption". We define "failed eruptions" as instances in which magma reaches but does not pass the "shallow intrusion" stage, i. e., when magma gets close to, but does not reach, the surface. Competing factors act to promote or hinder the eventual eruption of a magma intrusion. Fresh intrusion from depth, high magma gas content, rapid ascent rates that leave little time for enroute degassing, opening of pathways, and sudden decompression near the surface all act to promote eruption, whereas decreased magma supply from depth, slow ascent, significant enroute degassing and associated increases in viscosity, and impingement on structural barriers all act to hinder eruption. All of these factors interact in complex ways with variable results, but often cause magma to stall at some depth before reaching the surface. Although certain precursory phenomena, such as rapidly escalating seismic swarms or rates of degassing or deformation, are good indicators that an eruption is likely, such phenomena have also been observed in association with intrusions that have ultimately failed to erupt. A perpetual difficulty with quantifying the probability of eruption is a lack of data, particularly on instances of failed eruptions. This difficulty is being addressed in part through the WOVOdat database. Papers in this volume will be an additional resource for scientists grappling with the issue of whether or not an episode of unrest will lead to a magmatic eruption.

  18. Beneficial effects of SR33805 in failing myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Ait Mou, Younss; Toth, Attila; Cassan, Cécile; Czuriga, Daniel; de Tombe, Pieter P.; Papp, Zoltan; Lacampagne, Alain; Cazorla, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Aims SR33805, a potent Ca2+ channel blocker, increases cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in healthy rat cardiomyocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SR33805 on contractile properties in ischaemic failing hearts after myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo and in vitro at the cellular level. Methods and results The effect of SR33805 (10 µM) was tested on the excitation–contraction coupling of cardiomyocytes isolated from rat with end-stage heart failure. Cell shortening and Ca2+ transients were measured in intact cardiomyocytes, while contractile properties were determined in Triton X-100 permeabilized myocytes. Acute treatment with SR33805 restored the MI-altered cell shortening without affecting the Ca2+ transient amplitude, suggesting an increase of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in MI myocytes. Indeed, a SR33805-induced sensitization of myofilament activation was found to be associated with a slight increase in myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation and a more significant decrease on troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation. Decreased TnI phosphorylation was related to inhibition of protein kinase A activity by SR33805. Finally, administration of a single intra-peritoneal bolus of SR33805 (20 mg/kg) improved end-systolic strain and fractional shortening of MI hearts. Conclusion The present study indicates that treatment with SR33805 improved contractility of ischaemic failing hearts after MI in the rat by selectively modulating the phosphorylation status of sarcomeric regulatory proteins, which then sensitized the myofilaments to Ca2+. Our results gave a proof of concept that manipulation of the Ca2+ sensitivity of sarcomeric regulatory proteins can be used to improve contractility of a failing heart. PMID:21467075

  19. Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  20. A Novel Endoscopic Technique for Failed Nasogastric Tube Placement.

    PubMed

    Boston, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Direct visualization of the nasopharynx gives the otolaryngologist a unique advantage for addressing difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy. One common situation is being consulted to assist when the blind placement of a nasogastric tube has failed. A novel technique for managing a patient with a nasogastric tube embedded in the adenoid remnant is described with illustrations. The atraumatic method is easily employed by a resident armed with a portable nasolaryngoscope and plain suture. By using a repeated pull-through technique, the nasogastric tube can be guided past difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy and into a position from where it can be advanced into the patient's esophagus.

  1. Sjögren Syndrome: Why Do Clinical Trials Fail?

    PubMed

    Fox, Robert I; Fox, Carla M

    2016-08-01

    Sjögren syndrome (SS) comprises glandular and extraglandular manifestations. Double-blind prospective trials of traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologics have failed because they have not improved benign symptoms, the major cause of lowered quality of life. Rituximab has proven effective in SS patients with associated mixed cryoglobulinemia, parotid gland swelling, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, thrombocytopenia, and other manifestations. There were few of these SS patients in the trials required for FDA approval. Most patients had benign symptoms and did not show benefit, leading to failure of the study. This article examines the reasons for these failures and proposes future directions.

  2. Failing four-unit maxillary fixed partial denture: part 2.

    PubMed

    Vailati, Francesca

    2006-08-01

    In this two-part treatment planning series, the case of a 54-year-old woman with a failing four-unit fixed partial denture (FPD) is presented. Part 1 presented pretreatment strategies, occlusal and periodontal status, and the advantages and disadvantages of three treatment options: removable partial denture, tooth-supported FPD, and implant-supported FPD. In this follow-up article, the treatment selected for the case is revealed, and the rationale--including indications and contraindications for the different treatment options--is discussed. The treatment sequence is then outlined, and the final outcome is presented.

  3. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  4. Improved Quick Disconnect (QD) Interface Through Fail Safe Parts Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanch-Payne, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    An extensive review of existing Quick Disconnects (QDs) mating and demating operations was performed to determine which shuttle part interface identifications and procedures contribute to human factor errors. The research methods used consisted of interviews with engineers and technicians, examination of incident reports, critiques of video and audio tapes of QD operations, and attendance of a Hyper QD operational course. The data strongly suggests that there are inherit human factor errors involved in QD operations. To promote fail-safe operations, QD interface problem areas and recommendations were outlined and reviewed. It is suggested that dialogue, investigations and recommendations continue.

  5. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  6. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  7. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions. PMID:24777920

  8. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  9. Method of locating a leaking fuel element in a fast breeder power reactor

    DOEpatents

    Honekamp, John R.; Fryer, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    Leaking fuel elements in a fast reactor are identified by measuring the ratio of .sup.134 Xe to .sup.133 Xe in the reactor cover gas following detection of a fuel element leak, this ratio being indicative of the power and burnup of the failed fuel element. This procedure can be used to identify leaking fuel elements in a power breeder reactor while continuing operation of the reactor since the ratio measured is that of the gases stored in the plenum of the failed fuel element. Thus, use of a cleanup system for the cover gas makes it possible to identify sequentially a multiplicity of leaking fuel elements without shutting the reactor down.

  10. Characterization of Actinomyces species isolated from failed dental implant fixtures.

    PubMed

    Sarkonen, Nanna; Könönen, Eija; Eerola, Erkki; Könönen, Mauno; Jousimies-Somer, Hannele; Laine, Pekka

    2005-08-01

    In the oral cavity, Actinomyces form a fundamental component of the indigenous microflora, being among initial colonizers in polymicrobial biofilms. However, some differences may exist between different species in terms of their attachment not only to teeth but also to biomaterials. In this study we investigated the distribution of Actinomyces in 33 dental implant fixtures explanted from 17 patients. The identification was based on comprehensive biochemical testing and gas-liquid chromatography and when needed, 16S rRNA sequencing. Actinomyces was the most prevalent bacterial genus in these failed implants, colonizing 31/33 (94%) of the fixtures. Proportions of Actinomyces growth of the total bacterial growth in the Actinomyces-positive fixtures varied from 0.01% up to 75%. A. odontolyticus was the most common Actinomyces finding, present in 26/31 (84%) Actinomyces-positive fixtures. Actinomyces naeslundii and A. viscosus were both detected in 10/31 (32%) and A. israelii in 7/31 (23%) fixtures. Other Actinomyces species, including A. georgiae, A. gerencseriae and A. graevenitzii, were detected less frequently. Our results suggest that Actinomyces species are frequent colonizers on failed implant surfaces, where A. odontolyticus was the far most prominent Actinomyces species.

  11. Adult cancer clinical trials that fail to complete: an epidemic?

    PubMed

    Stensland, Kristian D; McBride, Russell B; Latif, Asma; Wisnivesky, Juan; Hendricks, Ryan; Roper, Nitin; Boffetta, Paolo; Hall, Simon J; Oh, William K; Galsky, Matthew D

    2014-09-01

    The number and diversity of cancer therapeutics in the pipeline has increased over the past decade due to an enhanced understanding of cancer biology and the identification of novel therapeutic targets. At the same time, the cost of bringing new drugs to market and the regulatory burdens associated with clinical drug development have progressively increased. The finite number of eligible patients and limited financial resources available to evaluate promising new therapeutics represent rate-limiting factors in the effort to translate preclinical discoveries into the next generation of standard therapeutic approaches. Optimal use of resources requires understanding and ultimately addressing inefficiencies in the cancer clinical trials system. Prior analyses have demonstrated that a large proportion of trials initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Group system are never completed. While NCI Cooperative Group trials are important, they represent only a small proportion of all cancer clinical trials performed. Herein, we explore the problem of cancer clinical trials that fail to complete within the broader cancer clinical trials enterprise. Among 7776 phase II-III adult cancer clinical trials initiated between 2005-2011, we found a seven-year cumulative incidence of failure to complete of approximately 20% (95% confidence interval = 18% to 22%). Nearly 48000 patients were enrolled in trials that failed to complete. These trials likely contribute little to the scientific knowledge base, divert resources and patients from answering other critical questions, and represent a barrier to progress.

  12. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOEpatents

    Wolbert, Ronald R.; Jandrasits, Walter G.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitg is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  13. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOEpatents

    Wolbert, R.R.; Jandrasits, W.G.

    1985-08-05

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitting is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  14. Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

    PubMed Central

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102

  15. Recapitulating maladaptive, multiscale remodeling of failing myocardium on a chip.

    PubMed

    McCain, Megan L; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Goss, Josue A; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-06-11

    The lack of a robust pipeline of medical therapeutic agents for the treatment of heart disease may be partially attributed to the lack of in vitro models that recapitulate the essential structure-function relationships of healthy and diseased myocardium. We designed and built a system to mimic mechanical overload in vitro by applying cyclic stretch to engineered laminar ventricular tissue on a stretchable chip. To test our model, we quantified changes in gene expression, myocyte architecture, calcium handling, and contractile function and compared our results vs. several decades of animal studies and clinical observations. Cyclic stretch activated gene expression profiles characteristic of pathological remodeling, including decreased α- to β-myosin heavy chain ratios, and induced maladaptive changes to myocyte shape and sarcomere alignment. In stretched tissues, calcium transients resembled those reported in failing myocytes and peak systolic stress was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that failing myocardium, as defined genetically, structurally, and functionally, can be replicated in an in vitro microsystem by faithfully recapitulating the structural and mechanical microenvironment of the diseased heart.

  16. When the science fails and the ethics works: 'Fail-safe' ethics in the FEM-PrEP study.

    PubMed

    Kingori, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    This paper will explore the concept of 'fail safe' ethics in the FEM PrEP trial, and the practice of research and ethics on the ground. FEM-PrEP examined the efficacy of PrEP in African women after promising outcomes in research conducted with MSM. This was a hugely optimistic time and FEM-PrEP was mobilised using rights-based ethical arguments that women should have access to PrEP. This paper will present data collected during an ethnographic study of frontline research workers involved in FEM-PrEP. During our discussions, 'fail-safe' ethics emerged as concept that encapsulated their confidence that their ethics could not fail. However, in 2011, FEM-PrEP was halted and deemed a failure. The women involved in the study were held responsible because contrary to researcher's expectations they were not taking the oral PrEP being researched. This examination of FEM-PrEP will show that ethical arguments are increasingly deployed to mobilise, maintain and in some cases stop trials in ways which, at times, are superseded or co-opted by other interests. While promoting the interests of women, rights-based approaches are argued to indirectly justify the continuation of individualised, biomedical interventions which have been problematic in other women-centred trials. In this examination of FEM-PrEP, the rights-based approach obscured: ethical concerns beyond access to PrEP; the complexities of power relationships between donor and host countries; the operations of the HIV industry in research-saturated areas and the cumulative effect of unfilled expectations in HIV research and how this has shaped ideas of research and ethics.

  17. Element material experiment by EFFU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Masaaki; Takei, Mitsuru; Torii, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of JAPAN (NASDA) is planning to perform Element Material Exposure Experiment using Exposed Facility Flyer Unit (EFFU). Several materials which will be used on JEM (Japanese Experiment Module for the space station) will be exposed. Space environment monitoring is also planned in this experiment. Several ground based tests are now being performed and getting useful data.

  18. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  19. When Technical Rationality Fails: Thinking about Terminally Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Still, A; Todd, C

    1998-01-01

    The theory that thinking is modelled on the social activity of argument is investigated through the views of general practitioners about terminally ill patients. The social activity of general practice centres on the consultation, which the doctor manages by 'technical rationality'. But this is difficult when the patient is terminally ill. In that case technical rationality is seen to fail and rhetorical skills are invoked. GPs' thinking about such consultations can be described using an agonistic model based on a hierarchy of objectives, strategies and tactics. The objective of keeping patients comfortable and dignified is aimed at through three strategies, and a variety of rhetorical tactics is drawn on in thinking about these strategies.

  20. [Multimodal therapy concepts for failed back surgery syndrome].

    PubMed

    Casser, Hans-Raimund

    2016-09-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a frequent complication (15-40 %) of lumbar disc surgery and is rarely successfully treated by surgery with the exception of a re-prolapse associated with radicular pain. Multimodal pain treatment, however, is indicated by a lack of pathoanatomical correlates, unclear cause and psychosocial risk factors.This review describes a standardized non-operative treatment starting with broad interdisciplinary clarification by medical, psychological and physiotherapeutic means (assessment).If the conditions for multimodal pain therapy are met, the OPS 8‑918-procedure can be applied to avoid chronic developing pain. In doing so, the already issued quality standards and guidelines for documentation should be respected. PMID:27514828

  1. Do organic and other exotic superconductors fail universal scaling relations?

    PubMed Central

    Dordevic, S. V.; Basov, D. N.; Homes, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Universal scaling relations are of tremendous importance in science, as they reveal fundamental laws of nature. Several such scaling relations have recently been proposed for superconductors; however, they are not really universal in the sense that some important families of superconductors appear to fail the scaling relations, or obey the scaling with different scaling pre-factors. In particular, a large group of materials called organic (or molecular) superconductors are a notable example. Here, we show that such apparent violations are largely due to the fact that the required experimental parameters were collected on different samples, with different experimental techniques. When experimental data is taken on the same sample, using a single experimental technique, organic superconductors, as well as all other studied superconductors, do in fact follow universal scaling relations.

  2. Unaware person recognition from the body when face identification fails.

    PubMed

    Rice, Allyson; Phillips, P Jonathon; Natu, Vaidehi; An, Xiaobo; O'Toole, Alice J

    2013-11-01

    How does one recognize a person when face identification fails? Here, we show that people rely on the body but are unaware of doing so. State-of-the-art face-recognition algorithms were used to select images of people with almost no useful identity information in the face. Recognition of the face alone in these cases was near chance level, but recognition of the person was accurate. Accuracy in identifying the person without the face was identical to that in identifying the whole person. Paradoxically, people reported relying heavily on facial features over noninternal face and body features in making their identity decisions. Eye movements indicated otherwise, with gaze duration and fixations shifting adaptively toward the body and away from the face when the body was a better indicator of identity than the face. This shift occurred with no cost to accuracy or response time. Human identity processing may be partially inaccessible to conscious awareness.

  3. Sensitivity to metals in 40 patients with failed hip endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Milavec-Puretić, V; Orlić, D; Marusić, A

    1998-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to metals and tissue reaction around a failed implant were investigated in 40 patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty. Metal sensitivity was tested using a standard cutaneous patch test. Nine patients were positive for chromium, nickel, cobalt, metal rust or endoprosthesis scrapings, or combinations of these allergens. Patients with positive or negative patch test did not differ in terms of their age, sex, primary diagnosis, number of endoprosthesis revisions, length of implant function, presence of other metal parts around the implant, circulating immunocomplexes, and histological appearance of the tissue around the implant. We conclude that stainless steel endoprostheses may be safely used for repeated revision hip arthroplasty, and that hypersensitivity to metals probably does not play a significant role in the loosening of the endoprosthesis.

  4. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  5. Surgical Approach After Failed Enteryx Injection for GERD

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, A.; Anvari, M.; Dallemagne, B.; Mutter, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We report on 3 patients who underwent laparoscopic antireflux procedures for persistent symptoms of GERD after biopolymer injection. Methods: Experienced laparoscopic surgeons completed all 3 procedures laparoscopically. In 2 patients, there was an extramural extravasation of the polymer outside and adherent to the esophageal wall. In these patients, a partial posterior fundoplication was used. The third patient, who had the polymer material deposits removed preoperatively by endoscopic mucosal resection, underwent a Nissen fundoplication. Results: Postoperative recovery was uneventful in all cases. At follow-up of 6 to 12 months, all patients were symptom free, off medical therapy, and experiencing no dysphagia. Conclusion: Surgical therapy for patients after failed biopolymer injection is safe and effective. The choice of surgery may depend on whether the polymer mass can be removed preoperatively. PMID:17651566

  6. Optimised to Fail: Card Readers for Online Banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drimer, Saar; Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

    The Chip Authentication Programme (CAP) has been introduced by banks in Europe to deal with the soaring losses due to online banking fraud. A handheld reader is used together with the customer’s debit card to generate one-time codes for both login and transaction authentication. The CAP protocol is not public, and was rolled out without any public scrutiny. We reverse engineered the UK variant of card readers and smart cards and here provide the first public description of the protocol. We found numerous weaknesses that are due to design errors such as reusing authentication tokens, overloading data semantics, and failing to ensure freshness of responses. The overall strategic error was excessive optimisation. There are also policy implications. The move from signature to PIN for authorising point-of-sale transactions shifted liability from banks to customers; CAP introduces the same problem for online banking. It may also expose customers to physical harm.

  7. Pass-Fail Testing: Statistical Requirements and Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Gilliam, David; Leigh, Stefan; Rukhin, Andrew; Strawderman, William

    2009-01-01

    Performance standards for detector systems often include requirements for probability of detection and probability of false alarm at a specified level of statistical confidence. This paper reviews the accepted definitions of confidence level and of critical value. It describes the testing requirements for establishing either of these probabilities at a desired confidence level. These requirements are computable in terms of functions that are readily available in statistical software packages and general spreadsheet applications. The statistical interpretations of the critical values are discussed. A table is included for illustration, and a plot is presented showing the minimum required numbers of pass-fail tests. The results given here are applicable to one-sided testing of any system with performance characteristics conforming to a binomial distribution. PMID:27504221

  8. Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.

    PubMed

    Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described.

  9. Why did ISO 9001:2008 system fail to deliver?

    PubMed

    Langford, Melvyn

    2014-02-01

    This article is based on an actual investigation undertaken, and summarises the subsequent report's findings and observations. It has been anonymised for obvious reasons. In May 2013 an analysis was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team that compared an NHS Trust estates department's managerial systems against the NHS national recommendations. The conclusions stated that: 'There was a systemic failure across a large number of topics generating intolerable/substantial risks to the organisation, its staff, and patients; this despite the department's managerial systems being accredited to the International Standard ISO 9001:2008'. The natural question raised when presented with this demonstrable and auditable evidence was: 'Why did the ISO 9001:2008 system fail?'

  10. Pass-Fail Testing: Statistical Requirements and Interpretations.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, David; Leigh, Stefan; Rukhin, Andrew; Strawderman, William

    2009-01-01

    Performance standards for detector systems often include requirements for probability of detection and probability of false alarm at a specified level of statistical confidence. This paper reviews the accepted definitions of confidence level and of critical value. It describes the testing requirements for establishing either of these probabilities at a desired confidence level. These requirements are computable in terms of functions that are readily available in statistical software packages and general spreadsheet applications. The statistical interpretations of the critical values are discussed. A table is included for illustration, and a plot is presented showing the minimum required numbers of pass-fail tests. The results given here are applicable to one-sided testing of any system with performance characteristics conforming to a binomial distribution.

  11. Helical motion during a failed eruption of a filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Solar magnetized "tornadoes" in different scales with varying lifetime have been widely reported and discussed recently. They are found to be possibly related to the formation of prominences and coronal heating. However, the physical details of the tornadoes still remain unclear, though lots of work including observational analysis in varies wavelengths and numerical simulations have been done. Here, we report a failed eruption of a filament on 2012 July 8, during which rotating motion of the filament materials can be clearly recognized. Based on the multi-wavelength and multi-viewpoints observations from SDO and STEREO spacecraft, we tentatively think that the highly twist magnetic field lines in the filament probably lead to the helical motion of the ejected plasma. A detailed analysis will give us more information.

  12. Disks around Failed Stars - a Question of Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    First Ground-Based Mid-Infrared Observations of Brown Dwarfs [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] have observed eight Brown Dwarfs, i.e., small and faint objects also known as "failed stars", with the TIMMI2 infrared sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on La Silla. From two of these, mid-infrared radiation is detected - for the first time ever from such objects with a ground-based telescope . While the younger Brown Dwarf, aged a few million years, is found to be surrounded by a dusty disk, no warm dust is present around the older ones. The new observations support the following formation hypothesis for Brown Dwarfs: they are born in the same way as "real" stars, by contraction in interstellar clouds of gas and dust . During the later stages of this process, the infalling material is transferred onto the star via a gas and dust disk . This disk - in which planets may possibly form - then disperses with time. PR Photo 17a/02 : Image of Brown Dwarf LP 944-20 PR Photo 17b/02 : Models of the disk around Brown Dwarf Cha HA 2 Brown Dwarfs are faint and cool objects Astronomical objects known as "Brown Dwarfs" are "failed stars" . Their comparatively small mass, less than about 7% of that of our Sun (or about 75 times the mass of planet Jupiter), is too small to achieve sufficiently high pressure and temperature at their centre to ignite energy-producing nuclear processes. Some astronomers also refer to Brown Dwarfs as a "missing link" between planets and stars, being neither one nor the other, yet with similarities to both. They do not burn hydrogen to helium as "real" stars do, but continue to emit faint light as they slowly contract and cool during millions of years. They end their inglorious life with a whimper and finally fade into eternal insignificance. Although Brown Dwarfs were theoretically predicted already in 1963, astronomers had to wait until 1995 for the first one to be discovered. This was mainly due to their extreme faintness as

  13. A bistatic laser monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigub, M. V.; Torgaev, S. N.; Evtushenko, G. S.; Troitskii, V. O.; Shiyanov, D. V.

    2016-06-01

    A prototype of a bistatic laser projection system employing copper bromide vapor based active media is presented that allows remote objects and high-speed processes to be monitored online. The proposed scheme employs two active elements: one in the source for lighting the object and another in the image brightness amplifier.

  14. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prevented-planted acreage was affected by drought, unless: (1) On the final planting date for non-irrigated.... Drought Monitor; and (3) Verifiable information is collected from sources whose business or purpose it is... a lack of water resulting from drought conditions or contamination by saltwater intrusion of...

  15. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prevented-planted acreage was affected by drought, unless: (1) On the final planting date for non-irrigated.... Drought Monitor; and (3) Verifiable information is collected from sources whose business or purpose it is... a lack of water resulting from drought conditions or contamination by saltwater intrusion of...

  16. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prevented-planted acreage was affected by drought, unless: (1) On the final planting date for non-irrigated.... Drought Monitor; and (3) Verifiable information is collected from sources whose business or purpose it is... a lack of water resulting from drought conditions or contamination by saltwater intrusion of...

  17. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prevented-planted acreage was affected by drought, unless: (1) On the final planting date for non-irrigated.... Drought Monitor; and (3) Verifiable information is collected from sources whose business or purpose it is... a lack of water resulting from drought conditions or contamination by saltwater intrusion of...

  18. 7 CFR 718.103 - Prevented planted and failed acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prevented-planted acreage was affected by drought, unless: (1) On the final planting date for non-irrigated.... Drought Monitor; and (3) Verifiable information is collected from sources whose business or purpose it is... a lack of water resulting from drought conditions or contamination by saltwater intrusion of...

  19. Structured Failing: Reshaping a Mathematical Future for Marginalised Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I draw on a particular case that encapsulates some of the most extreme elements of educational disadvantage - poverty, remote location, English as a foreign language, cultural diversity and Aboriginality - to provide a lens for understanding the complexity of coming to learn school mathematics. In so doing, I illustrate the need for…

  20. Monitoring materials

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for effectively implementing alpha and/or beta and/or gamma monitoring of items or locations as desired. Indirect alpha monitoring by detecting ions generated by alpha emissions, in conjunction with beta and/or gamma monitoring is provided. The invention additionally provides for screening of items prior to alpha monitoring using beta and/or gamma monitoring, so as to ensure that the alpha monitoring apparatus is not contaminated by proceeding direct to alpha monitoring of a heavily contaminated item or location. The invention provides additional versatility in the emission forms which can be monitored, whilst maintaining accuracy and avoiding inadvertent contamination.

  1. An Apparatus for Monitoring the Health of Electrical Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Devdas M.; Tatum, Paul; Pace, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    As with most elements of infrastructure, electrical wiring is innocuous; usually hidden away and unnoticed until it fails. Failure of infrastructure, however, sometimes leads to serious health and safety hazards. Electrical wiring fails when the polymeric (usually rubber) insulation material that sheathes the conductor gets embrittled with age from exposure to pressure, temperature or radiation cycling or when the insulation gets removed by the chafing of wires against each other. Miles of such wiring can be found in typical aircraft, with significant lengths of the wiring immersed in aviation fuel - a recipe for an explosion if a spark were to occur. Diagnosing the health of wiring is thus an important aspect of monitoring the health of aging aircraft. Stress wave propagation through wiring affords a quick and non-invasive method for health monitoring. The extent to which a stress wave propagating through the cable core gets attenuated depends on the condition of the surrounding insulation. When the insulation is in good condition - supple and pliable, there is more damping or attenuation of the waveform. As the insulation gets embrittled and cracked, the attenuation is likely to reduce and the waveform of the propagating stress wave is likely to change. The monitoring of these changes provides a potential tool to evaluate wiring or cabling in service that is not accessible for visual inspection. This experiment has been designed for use in an introductory mechanical or materials engineering instrumentation lab. Initial setup (after procuring all the materials) should take the lab instructor about 4 hours. A single measurement can be initiated and saved to disk in less than 3 minutes, allowing for all the students in a typical lab section to take their own data rather than share a single set of data for the entire class.

  2. Monitoring the source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Luna, Karlos; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

    2013-11-01

    The hypothesis that the retrieval of correct source memory cues, those leading to a correct source attribution, increases confidence, whereas the retrieval of incorrect source memory cues, those leading to a source misattribution, decreases confidence was tested. Four predictions were derived from this hypothesis: (1) confidence should be higher for correct than incorrect source attribution except; (2) when no source cues are retrieved; (3) only the source misattributions inferred from the retrieval of incorrect source cues will be rated with low confidence; and (4) the number of source cues retrieved, either correct or incorrect, will affect the confidence in the source attributions. To test these predictions, participants read two narratives from two witnesses to a bank robbery, a customer and a teller. Then, participants completed a source monitoring test with four alternatives, customer, teller, both, or neither, and rated their confidence in their source attribution. Results supported the first three predictions, but they also suggested that the number of correct source monitoring cues retrieved did not play a role in the monitoring of the accuracy of the source attributions. Attributions made from the recovery of incorrect source cues could be tagged as dubious or uncertain, thus leading to lowered confidence irrespective of the number of incorrect source cues or whether another correct source cue was also recovered. This research has potential applications for eyewitness memory because it shows that confidence can be an indicator of the accuracy of a source attribution. PMID:23553316

  3. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or failing under... emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines whether...

  4. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    The design and functions of ALEPS (Automated Logistics Element Planning System) is a computer system that will automate planning and decision support for Space Station Freedom Logistical Elements (LEs) resupply and return operations. ALEPS provides data management, planning, analysis, monitoring, interfacing, and flight certification for support of LE flight load planning activities. The prototype ALEPS algorithm development is described.

  5. Clinical prediction rules for failed nonoperative reduction of intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Patumanond, Jayanton; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Visrutaratna, Pannee; Singhavejsakul, Jesda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The nonoperative reduction of intussusception in children can be performed safely if there are no contraindications. Many risk factors associated with failed reduction were defined. The aim of this study was to develop a scoring system for predicting the failure of nonoperative reduction using various determinants. Patients and methods The data were collected from Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients with intussusception aged 0–15 years with no contraindications for nonoperative reduction. The clinical prediction rules were developed using significant risk factors from the multivariable analysis. Results A total of 170 patients with intussusception were included in the study. In the final analysis model, 154 patients were used for identifying the significant risk factors of failure of reduction. Ten factors clustering by the age of 3 years were identified and used for developing the clinical prediction rules, and the factors were as follows: body weight <12 kg (relative risk [RR] =1.48, P=0.004), duration of symptoms >48 hours (RR =1.26, P<0.001), vomiting (RR =1.63, P<0.001), rectal bleeding (RR =1.50, P<0.001), abdominal distension (RR =1.60, P=0.003), temperature >37.8°C (RR =1.51, P<0.001), palpable mass (RR =1.26, P<0.001), location of mass (left over right side RR =1.48, P<0.001), ultrasound showed poor prognostic signs (RR =1.35, P<0.001), and the method of reduction (hydrostatic over pneumatic, RR =1.34, P=0.023). Prediction scores ranged from 0 to 16. A high-risk group (scores 12–16) predicted a greater chance of reduction failure (likelihood ratio of positive [LR+] =18.22, P<0.001). A low-risk group (score 0–11) predicted a lower chance of reduction failure (LR+ =0.79, P<0.001). The performance of the scoring model was 80.68% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve). Conclusion This scoring guideline was used to predict the results of

  6. Clinical prediction rules for failed nonoperative reduction of intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Patumanond, Jayanton; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Visrutaratna, Pannee; Singhavejsakul, Jesda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The nonoperative reduction of intussusception in children can be performed safely if there are no contraindications. Many risk factors associated with failed reduction were defined. The aim of this study was to develop a scoring system for predicting the failure of nonoperative reduction using various determinants. Patients and methods The data were collected from Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients with intussusception aged 0–15 years with no contraindications for nonoperative reduction. The clinical prediction rules were developed using significant risk factors from the multivariable analysis. Results A total of 170 patients with intussusception were included in the study. In the final analysis model, 154 patients were used for identifying the significant risk factors of failure of reduction. Ten factors clustering by the age of 3 years were identified and used for developing the clinical prediction rules, and the factors were as follows: body weight <12 kg (relative risk [RR] =1.48, P=0.004), duration of symptoms >48 hours (RR =1.26, P<0.001), vomiting (RR =1.63, P<0.001), rectal bleeding (RR =1.50, P<0.001), abdominal distension (RR =1.60, P=0.003), temperature >37.8°C (RR =1.51, P<0.001), palpable mass (RR =1.26, P<0.001), location of mass (left over right side RR =1.48, P<0.001), ultrasound showed poor prognostic signs (RR =1.35, P<0.001), and the method of reduction (hydrostatic over pneumatic, RR =1.34, P=0.023). Prediction scores ranged from 0 to 16. A high-risk group (scores 12–16) predicted a greater chance of reduction failure (likelihood ratio of positive [LR+] =18.22, P<0.001). A low-risk group (score 0–11) predicted a lower chance of reduction failure (LR+ =0.79, P<0.001). The performance of the scoring model was 80.68% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve). Conclusion This scoring guideline was used to predict the results of

  7. Telehealth Remote Monitoring Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Young, Heather M.; Quinn, Charlene C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to summarize research on telehealth remote patient monitoring interventions that incorporate key elements of structured self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) identified as essential for improving A1C. A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, and OVID Medline databases with search terms “Telemedicine” AND “Monitoring, Physiologic” AND “Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2.” Study selection criteria included original randomized clinical trials evaluating the impact of telehealth remote patient monitoring on A1C among adults with type 2 diabetes and incorporated 1 or more essential elements of SMBG identified by the International Diabetes Federation (patient education, provider education, structured SMBG profile, SMBG goals, feedback, data used to modify treatment, interactive communication or shared decision making). Fifteen studies were included, with interventions ranging from 3 to 12 months (mean 8 months) with sample sizes from 30 to 1665. Key SMBG elements were grouped into 3 categories: education, SMBG protocols, and feedback. Research incorporating 5 of the 7 elements consistently achieved significant A1C improvements between study groups. Interventions using more SMBG elements are associated with an improvement in A1C. Studies with the largest A1C decrease incorporated 6 of the 7 elements and computer decision support. Two studies with 5 of the 7 elements and active medication management achieved significant A1C decreases. Telehealth remote patient monitoring interventions in type 2 diabetes have not included all structured monitoring elements recommended by the IDF. Incorporating more elements of structured SMBG is associated with improved A1C. PMID:24876591

  8. Monitoring System for the GRID Monte Carlo Mass Production in the H1 Experiment at DESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritskaya, Elena; Fomenko, Alexander; Gogitidze, Nelly; Lobodzinski, Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    The H1 Virtual Organization (VO), as one of the small VOs, employs most components of the EMI or gLite Middleware. In this framework, a monitoring system is designed for the H1 Experiment to identify and recognize within the GRID the best suitable resources for execution of CPU-time consuming Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tasks (jobs). Monitored resources are Computer Elements (CEs), Storage Elements (SEs), WMS-servers (WMSs), CernVM File System (CVMFS) available to the VO HONE and local GRID User Interfaces (UIs). The general principle of monitoring GRID elements is based on the execution of short test jobs on different CE queues using submission through various WMSs and directly to the CREAM-CEs as well. Real H1 MC Production jobs with a small number of events are used to perform the tests. Test jobs are periodically submitted into GRID queues, the status of these jobs is checked, output files of completed jobs are retrieved, the result of each job is analyzed and the waiting time and run time are derived. Using this information, the status of the GRID elements is estimated and the most suitable ones are included in the automatically generated configuration files for use in the H1 MC production. The monitoring system allows for identification of problems in the GRID sites and promptly reacts on it (for example by sending GGUS (Global Grid User Support) trouble tickets). The system can easily be adapted to identify the optimal resources for tasks other than MC production, simply by changing to the relevant test jobs. The monitoring system is written mostly in Python and Perl with insertion of a few shell scripts. In addition to the test monitoring system we use information from real production jobs to monitor the availability and quality of the GRID resources. The monitoring tools register the number of job resubmissions, the percentage of failed and finished jobs relative to all jobs on the CEs and determine the average values of waiting and running time for the

  9. Organism-level models: When mechanisms and statistics fail us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, M. H.; Meyer, J.; Smith, W. P.; Rockhill, J. K.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To describe the unique characteristics of models that represent the entire course of radiation therapy at the organism level and to highlight the uses to which such models can be put. Methods: At the level of an organism, traditional model-building runs into severe difficulties. We do not have sufficient knowledge to devise a complete biochemistry-based model. Statistical model-building fails due to the vast number of variables and the inability to control many of them in any meaningful way. Finally, building surrogate models, such as animal-based models, can result in excluding some of the most critical variables. Bayesian probabilistic models (Bayesian networks) provide a useful alternative that have the advantages of being mathematically rigorous, incorporating the knowledge that we do have, and being practical. Results: Bayesian networks representing radiation therapy pathways for prostate cancer and head & neck cancer were used to highlight the important aspects of such models and some techniques of model-building. A more specific model representing the treatment of occult lymph nodes in head & neck cancer were provided as an example of how such a model can inform clinical decisions. A model of the possible role of PET imaging in brain cancer was used to illustrate the means by which clinical trials can be modelled in order to come up with a trial design that will have meaningful outcomes. Conclusions: Probabilistic models are currently the most useful approach to representing the entire therapy outcome process.

  10. Hemodynamic Conditions in a Failing Peripheral Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    McGah, Patrick M.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Beach, Kirk W.; Zierler, R. Eugene; Riley, James J.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms of restenosis in autogenous vein bypass grafts placed for peripheral artery disease are not completely understood. We seek to investigate the role of hemodynamic stress in a case study of a revised bypass graft that failed due to restenosis. Methods The morphology of the lumen is reconstructed from a custom 3D ultrasound system. Scans were taken at one, six, and sixteen months after a patch angioplasty procedure. Computational hemodynamic simulations of the patient-specific model provide the blood flow features and the hemodynamic stresses on the vessel wall at the three time points studied. Results The vessel was initially free of any detectable lesions, but a 60% diameter reducing stenosis developed over the 16 month interval of study. As determined from the simulations, chaotic and recirculating flow occurred downstream of the stenosis due to the sudden widening of the lumen at the patch location. Curvature and a sudden increase in the lumen cross-sectional area induce these flow features that are hypothesized to be conducive to intimal hyperplasia. Favorable agreement was found between simulation results and in vivo Doppler ultrasound velocity measurements. Conclusions Transitional and chaotic flow occurs at the site of the revision, inducing a complex pattern of wall shear are computed with the hemodynamic simulations. This supports the hypothesis that the hemodynamic stresses in the revised segment, produced by the coupling of vessel geometry and chaotic flow, led to the intimal hyperplasia and restenosis of the graft. PMID:22551907

  11. Viewpoint: why the clinical ethics we teach fails patients.

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2007-07-01

    The clinical ethics framework that is typically taught to medical students and residents is deeply flawed, and the result of using this framework exclusively to resolve ethical conflicts at the bedside is compromised patient care. The author calls this framework the principlist paradigm and maintains that it blinds clinicians from seeing the full set of moral obligations they have to the patient and limits the range of options they see as available to navigate through ethical conflicts. Although it is important for the moral obligations it does recognize (e.g., those based on the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice), the principlist paradigm should not be used as the only moral template for case analysis. The author illustrates the paradigm's limitations with a clinical case study, in which the treating clinicians failed to recognize three important moral obligations to the patient: the obligation to express regret, the obligation to apologize, and the obligation to make amends. The failure to recognize these widely accepted moral obligations can have tragic consequences. The principlist paradigm undertrains clinicians for the complex ethical dilemmas they face in practice, and medical ethics educators need to rethink the tools they offer student clinicians to guide their ethical analysis. The author advocates a reexamination of this standard approach to teaching clinical ethics.

  12. Salvage of failed protein targets by reductive alkylation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kemin; Kim, Youngchang; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Chhor, Gekleng; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Michalska, Karolina; Nocek, Boguslaw; An, Hao; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Bigelow, Lance; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Li, Hui; Mack, Jamey; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Tesar, Christine; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The growth of diffraction-quality single crystals is of primary importance in protein X-ray crystallography. Chemical modification of proteins can alter their surface properties and crystallization behavior. The Midwest Center for Structural Genomics (MCSG) has previously reported how reductive methylation of lysine residues in proteins can improve crystallization of unique proteins that initially failed to produce diffraction-quality crystals. Recently, this approach has been expanded to include ethylation and isopropylation in the MCSG protein crystallization pipeline. Applying standard methods, 180 unique proteins were alkylated and screened using standard crystallization procedures. Crystal structures of 12 new proteins were determined, including the first ethylated and the first isopropylated protein structures. In a few cases, the structures of native and methylated or ethylated states were obtained and the impact of reductive alkylation of lysine residues was assessed. Reductive methylation tends to be more efficient and produces the most alkylated protein structures. Structures of methylated proteins typically have higher resolution limits. A number of well-ordered alkylated lysine residues have been identified, which make both intermolecular and intramolecular contacts. The previous report is updated and complemented with the following new data; a description of a detailed alkylation protocol with results, structural features, and roles of alkylated lysine residues in protein crystals. These contribute to improved crystallization properties of some proteins. PMID:24590719

  13. BLACK HOLE FORMATION IN FAILING CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D. E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present results of a systematic study of failing core-collapse supernovae and the formation of stellar-mass black holes (BHs). Using our open-source general-relativistic 1.5D code GR1D equipped with a three-species neutrino leakage/heating scheme and over 100 presupernova models, we study the effects of the choice of nuclear equation of state (EOS), zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass and metallicity, rotation, and mass-loss prescription on BH formation. We find that the outcome, for a given EOS, can be estimated, to first order, by a single parameter, the compactness of the stellar core at bounce. By comparing protoneutron star (PNS) structure at the onset of gravitational instability with solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkof equations, we find that thermal pressure support in the outer PNS core is responsible for raising the maximum PNS mass by up to 25% above the cold NS value. By artificially increasing neutrino heating, we find the critical neutrino heating efficiency required for exploding a given progenitor structure and connect these findings with ZAMS conditions, establishing, albeit approximately, for the first time based on actual collapse simulations, the mapping between ZAMS parameters and the outcome of core collapse. We also study the effect of progenitor rotation and find that the dimensionless spin of nascent BHs may be robustly limited below a* = Jc/GM{sup 2} = 1 by the appearance of nonaxisymmetric rotational instabilities.

  14. Failed Eradication for Helicobacter pylori. What Should Be Done?

    PubMed

    Mégraud, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Failed eradication of Helicobacter pylori occurs when the antibiotic concentration at the site where H. pylori is located is lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic for this bacterium. The main reason for this is the acquisition of resistance; and in the context of the most common treatment, the main reason is the acquisition of resistance to clarithromycin. Several options can then be followed. The most rational option is to use a tailored therapy, that is, to look for clarithromycin resistance either by culture plus antibiogram or by a molecular method. The standard triple therapy is used only in the case of clarithromycin susceptibility. In case of resistance or if an empiric treatment must be given, a good option is to use a bismuth-based quadruple therapy. If unavailable, clarithromycin-based quadruple therapies can be used either as sequential or 'concomitant' or hybrid. The limit, especially for concomitant therapy, is the use of clarithromycin, which will be inactive in about 2/3 of the cases, adding to cost and adverse events. Recently, the dual therapy proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin has been revisited especially in the Far East, and increasing the dose and the frequency of administration gives excellent results. PMID:27332826

  15. [Pregnancy proceeding to term following failed induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Doppenberg, H J; Mulder-Meiss, H B

    1986-06-21

    The 4th Pregnacy of a 30 year old woman proceeded to term following the failure of induced abortion via aspiration conducted during the 8th week. The woman feared possible damage to her unborn child once the failure of the abortion was determined. Only after careful counselling and emotional suport from both her personal physician, the clinic staff, and the midwife who supervised her home delivery was the woman able to decide to carry the pregnancy to term. Anxiety surfaced during the subsequent 6 months, even though the child was found to be healthy in all respects. Only through intsive psychosocial counseling was she able to regain self assurance and self control. A review by computer of the international literature revealed few documented cases of serious congenital malformations following failed abortions. Postdelivery psychosocial support structures for such women are particularly vital and require the sensitive intervention of trained personnel, including family physicians, as well as staff physicians of hospitals and family planning centers.

  16. Fail-fixed servovalve with positive fluid feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kast, Howard B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The servovalve includes a primary jet of fluid. A variable control signal is adapted to vary the angular position of the primary jet from its maximum recovery position. A first fluid path is adapted to supply fluid to a servopiston at a variable pressure determined at least in part by the control signal. A second fluid path is adapted to receive a predetermined portion of the primary jet fluid when the control signal reaches a predetermined value. The second fluid path terminates in the vicinity of the primary jet and is adapted to direct a secondary jet of fluid at the primary jet to deflect the primary jet toward the input orifice of the second fluid path. The resultant positive fluid feedback in the second fluid path causes the primary jet to latch in a first angular position relative to the maximum recovery position when the control signal reaches a predetermined value. The servovalve may further include a means to discharge the fluid and a means to block the first fluid path to the servopiston when the control signal falls below a second predetermined value. A method of operating a fail-fixed servovalve is also described.

  17. Cluster Development Test 2: An Assessment of a Failed Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2009-01-01

    On 31 July 2008 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System team conducted the final planned cluster test of the first generation parachute recovery system design. The two primary test objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the complete parachute system deployed from a full scale capsule simulator and to demonstrate the test technique of separating the capsule simulator from the Low Velocity Air Drop pallet used to extract the test article from a United States Air Force C-17 aircraft. The capsule simulator was the Parachute Test Vehicle with an accurate heat shield outer mold line and forward bay compartment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle Command Module. The Parachute Test Vehicle separated cleanly from the pallet following extraction, but failed to reach test conditions resulting in the failure of the test and the loss of the test assets. No personnel were injured. This paper will discuss the design of the test and the findings of the team that investigated the test, including a discussion of what were determined to be the root causes of the failure.

  18. NEUROMODULATION OF THE FAILING HEART: LOST IN TRANSLATION?

    PubMed Central

    Byku, Mirnela; Mann, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to progressive worsening of HF (HF) and is associated with untoward clinical outcomes. Based on compelling pre-clinical studies which supported the role of autonomic modulation in HF models, a series of clinical studies were initiated using spinal cord stimulation (SCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and baroreceptor activation therapy (BAT) in patients with HF with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). While the phase II studies with BAT remain encouraging, the larger clinical studies with SCS and VNS have yielded disappointing results. Here we will focus on the pre-clinical studies that supported the role of neuromodulation in the failing heart, as well provide a critical review of the recent clinical trials that have sought to modulate autonomic tone in HF patients. This review will conclude with an analysis of some of the difficulties in translating device-based modulation of the autonomic nervous from pre-clinical models into successful clinical trials, as well as provide suggestions for how to move the field of neuromodulation forward PMID:27525317

  19. Looking back at the future: why Hillarycare failed.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The current Democratic Party candidates for U.S. president, including Hillary Rodham Clinton, have committed themselves to establishing universal health care that will guarantee access to care in time of need, a basic human right still denied in the United States. This commitment is partly a response to the U.S. population's high levels of dissatisfaction (now at unprecedented levels) with the way health care is funded and organized. The article analyzes why a similar commitment by President Bill Clinton in 1992 failed, and challenges some of the main explanations for that failure put forward by protagonists of the White House health care reform task force (chaired by Hillary Clinton). The author emphasizes that the primary reason for the failure was the lack of political will to confront major players in medical care funding, especially the insurance companies and large employers. He postulates that unless such political will exists and unless the system of funding electoral campaigns undergoes major reform-reducing or eliminating the power of financial and economic lobbies in the political process-the United States will not have universal health care. It is a worrisome sign that these lobbies are financing the campaigns of many of today's presidential candidates.

  20. Management of failed rotator cuff repair: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Importance Recurrent tear after rotator cuff repair (RCR) is common. Conservative, and open and arthroscopic revisions, have been advocated to treat these failures. Aim or objective The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the different options for managing recurrent rotator cuff tears. Evidence review A search was conducted of level I through 4 studies from January 2000 to October 2015, to identify studies reporting on failed RCR. 10 articles were identified. The overall quality of evidence was very low. Findings Mid-term to long-term follow-up of patients treated conservatively revealed acceptable results; a persistent defect is a well-tolerated condition that only occasionally requires subsequent surgery. Conservative treatment might be indicated in most patients, particularly in case of posterosuperior involvement and poor preoperative range of motion. Revision surgery might be indicated in a young patient with a repairable lesion, a 3 tendon tear, and in those with involvement of the subscapularis. Conclusions and relevance The current review indicates that arthroscopic revision RCR can lead to improvement in functional outcome despite a high retear rate. Further studies are needed to develop specific rehabilitation in the case of primary rotator cuff failure, to better understand the place of each treatment option, and, in case of repair, to optimise tendon healing. PMID:27134759

  1. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes. PMID:26553630

  2. Failed back surgery syndrome: review and new hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Bordoni, Bruno; Marelli, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a term used to define an unsatisfactory outcome of a patient who underwent spinal surgery, irrespective of type or intervention area, with persistent pain in the lumbosacral region with or without it radiating to the leg. The possible reasons and risk factors that would lead to FBSS can be found in distinct phases: in problems already present in the patient before a surgical approach, such as spinal instability, during surgery (for example, from a mistake by the surgeon), or in the postintervention phase in relation to infections or biomechanical alterations. This article reviews the current literature on FBSS and tries to give a new hypothesis to understand the reasons for this clinical problem. The dysfunction of the diaphragm muscle is a component that is not taken into account when trying to understand the reasons for this syndrome, as there is no existing literature on the subject. The diaphragm is involved in chronic lower back and sacroiliac pain and plays an important role in the management of pain perception. PMID:26834497

  3. How to slow down light and where relativity theory fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meggie

    2013-03-01

    Research found logical errors in mathematics and in physics. After discovered wave-particle duality made an assumption I reinterpreted quantum mechanic and I was able to find new information from existing publications and concluded that photon is not a fundamental particle which has a structure. These work has been presented at several APS meetings and EuNPC2012. During my research I also arrived at the exact same conclusion using Newton's theory of space-time, then found the assumptions that relativity theory made failed logical test and violated basic mathematical logic. And Minkowski space violated Newton's law of motion, Lorenz 4-dimensional transformation was mathematically incomplete. After modifying existing physics theories I designed an experiment to demonstrate where light can be slow down or stop for structural study. Such method were also turn into a continuous room temperature fusion method. However the discoveries involves large amount of complex logical analysis. Physicists are generally not philosophers, therefore to make the discovery fully understood by most physicists is very challenging. This work is supported by Dr. Kursh at Northeastern University.

  4. Requirements: Towards an understanding on why software projects fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Requirement engineering is at the foundation of every successful software project. There are many reasons for software project failures; however, poorly engineered requirements process contributes immensely to the reason why software projects fail. Software project failure is usually costly and risky and could also be life threatening. Projects that undermine requirements engineering suffer or are likely to suffer from failures, challenges and other attending risks. The cost of project failures and overruns when estimated is very huge. Furthermore, software project failures or overruns pose a challenge in today's competitive market environment. It affects the company's image, goodwill, and revenue drive and decreases the perceived satisfaction of customers and clients. In this paper, requirements engineering was discussed. Its role in software projects success was elaborated. The place of software requirements process in relation to software project failure was explored and examined. Also, project success and failure factors were also discussed with emphasis placed on requirements factors as they play a major role in software projects' challenges, successes and failures. The paper relied on secondary data and empirical statistics to explore and examine factors responsible for the successes, challenges and failures of software projects in large, medium and small scaled software companies.

  5. Looking back at the future: why Hillarycare failed.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The current Democratic Party candidates for U.S. president, including Hillary Rodham Clinton, have committed themselves to establishing universal health care that will guarantee access to care in time of need, a basic human right still denied in the United States. This commitment is partly a response to the U.S. population's high levels of dissatisfaction (now at unprecedented levels) with the way health care is funded and organized. The article analyzes why a similar commitment by President Bill Clinton in 1992 failed, and challenges some of the main explanations for that failure put forward by protagonists of the White House health care reform task force (chaired by Hillary Clinton). The author emphasizes that the primary reason for the failure was the lack of political will to confront major players in medical care funding, especially the insurance companies and large employers. He postulates that unless such political will exists and unless the system of funding electoral campaigns undergoes major reform-reducing or eliminating the power of financial and economic lobbies in the political process-the United States will not have universal health care. It is a worrisome sign that these lobbies are financing the campaigns of many of today's presidential candidates. PMID:18459278

  6. 45 CFR 264.76 - What action will we take if a State fails to remit funds after failing to meet its required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What action will we take if a State fails to remit funds after failing to meet its required Contingency Fund MOE level? 264.76 Section 264.76 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

  7. Cost considerations for long-term ecological monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caughlan, L.; Oakley, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    -effectiveness, of each program element can be evaluated. Moving into the implementation phase without careful evaluation of costs and benefits is risky because if costs are later found to exceed benefits, the program will fail. The costs of development, which can be quite high, will have been largely wasted. Realistic expectations of costs and benefits will help ensure that monitoring programs survive the early, turbulent stages of development and the challenges posed by fluctuating budgets during implementation.

  8. Monitoring: The missing piece

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorkland, Ronald

    2013-11-15

    The U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 heralded in an era of more robust attention to environmental impacts resulting from larger scale federal projects. The number of other countries that have adopted NEPA's framework is evidence of the appeal of this type of environmental legislation. Mandates to review environmental impacts, identify alternatives, and provide mitigation plans before commencement of the project are at the heart of NEPA. Such project reviews have resulted in the development of a vast number of reports and large volumes of project-specific data that potentially can be used to better understand the components and processes of the natural environment and provide guidance for improved and efficient environmental protection. However, the environmental assessment (EA) or the more robust and intensive environmental impact statement (EIS) that are required for most major projects more frequently than not are developed to satisfy the procedural aspects of the NEPA legislation while they fail to provide the needed guidance for improved decision-making. While NEPA legislation recommends monitoring of project activities, this activity is not mandated, and in those situations where it has been incorporated, the monitoring showed that the EIS was inaccurate in direction and/or magnitude of the impact. Many reviews of NEPA have suggested that monitoring all project phases, from the design through the decommissioning, should be incorporated. Information gathered though a well-developed monitoring program can be managed in databases and benefit not only the specific project but would provide guidance how to better design and implement future activities designed to protect and enhance the natural environment. -- Highlights: • NEPA statutes created profound environmental protection legislative framework. • Contrary to intent, NEPA does not provide for definitive project monitoring. • Robust project monitoring is essential for enhanced

  9. VME system monitor board

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Much of the machinery throughout the APS will be controlled by VME based computers. In order to increase the reliability of the system, it is necessary to be able to monitor the status of each VME crate. In order to do this, a VME System Monitor was created. In addition to being able to monitor and report the status (watchdog timer, temperature, CPU (Motorola MVME 167) state (status, run, fail), and the power supply), it includes provisions to remotely reset the CPU and VME crate, digital I/O, and parts of the transition module (serial port and ethernet connector) so that the Motorla MVME 712 is not needed. The standard VME interface was modified on the System Monitor so that in conjunction with the Motorola MVME 167 a message based VXI interrupt handler could is implemented. The System Monitor is a single VME card (6U). It utilizes both the front panel and the P2 connector for I/O. The front panel contains a temperature monitor, watchdog status LED, 4 general status LEDs, input for a TTL interrupt, 8 binary inputs (24 volt, 5 volt, and dry contact sense), 4 binary outputs (dry contact, TTL, and 100 mA), serial port (electrical RS-232 or fiber optic), ethernet transceiver (10 BASE-FO or AUI), and a status link to neighbor crates. The P2 connector is used to provide the serial port and ethernet to the processor. In order to abort and read the status of the CPU, a jumper cable must be connected between the CPU and the System Monitor.

  10. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  11. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  12. Establishment of design criteria for acceptable failure modes and fail safe considerations for the space shuttle structural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westrup, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of fatigue life, and safe-life and fail-safe design concepts as applied to space shuttle structure are summarized. The results are evaluated to select recommended structural design criteria to provide assurance that premature failure due to propagation of undetected crack-like defects will not occur during shuttle operational service. The space shuttle booster, GDC configuration B-9U, is selected as the reference vehicle. Structural elements used as basis of detail analyses include wing spar caps, vertical stabilizer skins, crew compartment skin, orbiter support frame, and propellant tank shell structure. Fatigue life analyses of structural elements are performed to define potential problem areas and establish upper limits of operating stresses. Flaw growth analyses are summarized in parametric form over a range of initial flaw types and sizes, operating stresses and service life requirements. Service life of 100 to 500 missions is considered.

  13. MOA-2010-BLG-523: 'FAILED PLANET' = RS CVn STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, A.; Yee, J. C.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S.; Hung, L.-W.; Bond, I. A.; Udalski, A.; Han, C.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Greenhill, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Bensby, T.; Allen, W.; Almeida, L. A.; Jablonski, F.; Bos, M.; Christie, G. W.; DePoy, D. L.; Lee, C.-U.; Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; RoboNet Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; and others

    2013-02-15

    The Galactic bulge source MOA-2010-BLG-523S exhibited short-term deviations from a standard microlensing light curve near the peak of an A {sub max} {approx} 265 high-magnification microlensing event. The deviations originally seemed consistent with expectations for a planetary companion to the principal lens. We combine long-term photometric monitoring with a previously published high-resolution spectrum taken near peak to demonstrate that this is an RS CVn variable, so that planetary microlensing is not required to explain the light-curve deviations. This is the first spectroscopically confirmed RS CVn star discovered in the Galactic bulge.

  14. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C; Adler, Philip D F; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on 'dark' reactions--failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses--collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted conditions

  15. Measuring mental disorders: The failed commensuration project of DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Whooley, Owen

    2016-10-01

    Commensuration - the comparison of entities according to a common quantitative metric - is a key process in efforts to rationalize medicine. The push toward evidence-based medicine and quantitative assessment has led to the proliferation of metrics in healthcare. While social scientific attention has revealed the effects of these metrics once institutionalized - on clinical practice, on medical expertise, on outcome assessment, on valuations of medical services, and on experiences of illness - less attention has been paid to the process of developing metrics. This article examines the attempt to create severity scales during the revision to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a case of failed commensuration. Using data from interviews with participants in the DSM-5 revision (n = 30), I reconstruct the problems that emerged in the DSM-5 Task Force's effort to develop viable psychometric instruments to measure severity. Framed as a part of a "paradigm shift" in psychiatry, the revision produced ad hoc, heterogeneous severity scales with divergent logics. I focus on two significant issues of metric construction in this case - diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Typically perceived as technical and conceptual challenges of design, I show how these issues were infused with, and undermined by, professional political dynamics, specifically tensions between medical researchers and clinicians. This case reveals that, despite its association with objectivity and transparency, commensuration encompasses more than identifying, operationalizing, and measuring an entity; it demands the negotiation of extra-scientific, non-empirical concerns that get written into medical metrics themselves. PMID:27526260

  16. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C; Adler, Philip D F; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on 'dark' reactions--failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses--collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted conditions

  17. Forces in Erupting Flux Ropes: CMEs and Failed Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, James

    2016-05-01

    A range of dynamical behaviors that can be exhibited by a quasi-statically evolving flux rope is studied. Starting with a CME-like flux rope in equilibrium balanced by the ambient coronal pressure (non-force-free) and an overlying coronal magnetic field (Bc), the poloidal flux is slowly increased, on a timescale much longer than the eruptive timescale of several to tens of minutes. In this configuration, the overlying field Bc provides an external downward restraining force, constituting an effective potential barrier. Slowly increasing poloidal flux causes the flux rope to gradually rise, following a sequence of quasi-static equilibria. As the apex of the flux rope rises past a critical height Z*, slightly higher than the peak of the potential barrier Bc(Z), it expands on a faster, dynamical (Alfvenic) timescale determined by the magnetic field and geometry of the flux rope. The expanding flux rope may reach a new equilibrium at height Z1. Observationally, this behavior would be recognized as a ``failed eruption.'' The new equilibrium flux rope is established if the magnetic tension force due to the toroidal magnetic field component Bt can balance the outward hoop force due to the poloidal component Bp. The flux rope may also expand without reaching a new equilibrium, provided a sufficiennt amount of poloidal flux is injected on a dynamical timescale so that the tension force cannot balance the hoop force. This scenario would result in a CME eruption. The influence of the poloidal flux injection, the Bc(Z) profile, and boundary conditions on the quantitative balance of the forces in an expanding flux rope is elucidated. Potentially observable consequences of the difference scenarios/models are discussed.Work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Research Program

  18. Management of Failing Prosthetic Bypass Grafts with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Siskin, Gary P.; Stainken, Brian F.; Mandell, Valerie S.; Darling, R. Clement; Dowling, Kyran; Herr, Allen

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of metallic stents in treating stenoses involving prosthetic arterial bypass grafts. Methods: Patients undergoing stent placement within a failing prosthetic bypass graft, during a 41-month period, were reviewed for treatment outcome and complications. The indications for stent placement in 15 patients included severe claudication (n= 3), rest pain (n= 9), and minor or major tissue loss (n= 3). Lesions were at the proximal anastomosis (n= 6), the distal anastomosis (n= 3), or within the graft (n= 6). Results: Treatment with metallic stents was successful in all patients. There was one acute stent thrombosis, successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy. Follow-up data are available for a mean duration of 12.3 months. The mean duration of primary patency was 9.4 months with 6- and 12-month primary patency rates of 51.9% and 37.0%, respectively. The mean duration of secondary patency was 12.1 months with 6- and 12-month secondary patency rates of 80.0% and 72.7%, respectively. Two patients with discontinuous runoff and preexisting gangrene required a below-knee amputation. Six patients were revised surgically after stent placement (at a mean of 10.8 months). Three late deaths occurred during follow-up. Conclusion: Given the mortality risks of surgical revision and the reduced life expectancy of this patient population, metallic stent placement represents a viable, short-term treatment option for stenoses within or at the anastomoses of prosthetic grafts. Further evaluation is warranted to compare intragraft stent placement with surgical graft revision.

  19. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C.; Adler, Philip D. F.; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B.; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A.; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic–organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure–property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on ‘dark’ reactions—failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses—collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully

  20. Measuring mental disorders: The failed commensuration project of DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Whooley, Owen

    2016-10-01

    Commensuration - the comparison of entities according to a common quantitative metric - is a key process in efforts to rationalize medicine. The push toward evidence-based medicine and quantitative assessment has led to the proliferation of metrics in healthcare. While social scientific attention has revealed the effects of these metrics once institutionalized - on clinical practice, on medical expertise, on outcome assessment, on valuations of medical services, and on experiences of illness - less attention has been paid to the process of developing metrics. This article examines the attempt to create severity scales during the revision to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a case of failed commensuration. Using data from interviews with participants in the DSM-5 revision (n = 30), I reconstruct the problems that emerged in the DSM-5 Task Force's effort to develop viable psychometric instruments to measure severity. Framed as a part of a "paradigm shift" in psychiatry, the revision produced ad hoc, heterogeneous severity scales with divergent logics. I focus on two significant issues of metric construction in this case - diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Typically perceived as technical and conceptual challenges of design, I show how these issues were infused with, and undermined by, professional political dynamics, specifically tensions between medical researchers and clinicians. This case reveals that, despite its association with objectivity and transparency, commensuration encompasses more than identifying, operationalizing, and measuring an entity; it demands the negotiation of extra-scientific, non-empirical concerns that get written into medical metrics themselves.

  1. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C.; Adler, Philip D. F.; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B.; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A.; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on ‘dark’ reactions—failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses—collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted

  2. Failed eruptions of two intertwining small-scale filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhike; Yan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Li; Xiang, Yongyuan; Yang, Liheng; Guo, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Using multi-wavelength observations of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST), the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we study the topology and evolutions of two filaments observed in NOAA active region (AR) 12031 on 2014 April 7. Before their eruptions, the two filaments (F1 and F2) were sinistral filaments, and the left part of F1 (LP) was located above F2, the right part of F1 (RP) under F2. They show an overall intertwining structure. LP erupted first and rotated clockwise. The total rotation angle was about 470° (≈2.61π). With its rotation, most of the plasma fell back, and thus it was a failed eruption. Meanwhile, when LP erupted to a higher altitude, the overlying magnetic loops were partially pushed from the northeast to the southwest with projected speeds from 36 to 105 km s-1. Next, F2 began to erupt and, when reaching a certain height, the plasma of F2 started to fall down to their footpoints. Using the potential-field source-surface (PFSS) model, the decay indexes at five positions along the polarity inversion line of AR 12031 were calculated to be from 1.03 to 1.25 with an average value of 1.20 that was lower than the critical value for torus instability. These results imply that the kink instability was the main triggering mechanism for the eruption of F1, and the eruption of F2 was due to the decreasing of overlying magnetic loops caused by the eruption of F1. The eruptions of two filaments were confined by the large-scale overlying magnetic loops.

  3. Prognostic indicators for failed nonsurgical reduction of intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Siriwongmongkol, Jakraphan; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the risk factors for failure of nonsurgical reduction of intussusception. Methods Data from intussusception patients who were treated with nonsurgical reduction in Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital between January 2006 and December 2012 were collected. Patients aged 0–15 years and without contraindications (peritonitis, abdominal X-ray signs of perforation, and/or hemodynamic instability) were included for nonsurgical reduction. The success and failure groups were divided according to the results of the reduction. Prognostic indicators for failed reduction were identified by using generalized linear model for exponential risk regression. The risk ratio (RR) was used to report each factor. Results One hundred and ninety cases of intussusception were enrolled. Twenty cases were excluded due to contraindications. A total of 170 cases of intussusception were included for the final analysis. The significant risk factors for reduction failure clustered by an age of 3 years were weight <12 kg (RR =1.48, P=0.004), symptom duration >3 days (RR =1.26, P<0.001), vomiting (RR =1.63, P<0.001), rectal bleeding (RR =1.50, P<0.001), abdominal distension (RR =1.60, P=0.003), temperature >37.8°C (RR =1.51, P<0.001), palpable abdominal mass (RR =1.26, P<0.001), location of mass (left over right side) (RR =1.48, P<0.001), poor prognostic signs on ultrasound scans (RR =1.35, P<0.001), and method of reduction (hydrostatic over pneumatic) (RR =1.34, P=0.023). The prediction ability of this model was 82.21% as assessed from the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusion The identified prognostic factors for the nonsurgical reduction failure may help to predict the reduction outcome and provide information to the parents. PMID:27563245

  4. Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral Treatment-Failed Individuals from 2010 to 2012 in Honghe, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuixian; Yang, Shaomin; Li, Jianjian; Yang, Bihui; Liu, Jiafa; Li, Huiqin; Bian, Zhongqi

    2015-08-01

    The most common antiretroviral treatment (ART) received by individuals infected with HIV-1 in China is the combination therapy, comprised of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). To assess the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance and subtypes in Honghe of Yunnan, China, patient plasmas from ART-failed individuals were collected from January 2010 to December 2012. Genotyping was conducted using an in-house assay on patient plasmas. A total of 254 pol sequences were obtained. The prevalence of drug resistance was 47.2% in ART-failed individuals. Of these drug-resistant individuals, 51.7% harbored HIV strains dually resistant to NRTIs and NNRTIs or protease inhibitors (PIs) (34.2% for NNRTIs and 14.2% for NRTIs). Mutations such as M184V, A62V, T69Ins, K103N, Y181C, and G190A were common among the ART-failed individuals. The frequencies of M184V, A62V, and K103N were 20.5%, 11.0%, and 23.6%, respectively. The most common subtypes in Honghe were CRF08_BC (68.50%) and CRF07_BC (12.20%). The subtypes were almost consistent in different time points for one individual. When receiving ART for 6-12 months, the frequency of HIV-1 drug-resistant variants ranked first. This study shows that the high prevalence of HIV drug resistance observed among the ART-failed individuals should be of increasing concern (monitoring of resistance mutations) in ART regions and facilitate developing novel strategies for prevention and control of HIV infection in China. PMID:25919896

  5. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  6. Rack protection monitor

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Stanley G.

    2000-01-01

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  7. Bolt Stress Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In photo, an engineer is using a new Ultrasonic Bolt Stress Monitor developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to determine whether a bolt is properly tightened. A highly accurate device, the monitor is an important tool in construction of such structures as pressure vessels, bridges and power plants, wherein precise measurement of the stress on a tightened bolt is critical. Overtightened or undertightened bolts can fail and cause serious industrial accidents or costly equipment break-downs. There are a number of methods for measuring bolt stress. Most widely used and least costly is the torque wrench, which is inherently inaccurate; it does not take into account the friction between nut and bolt, which has an influence on stress. At the other end of the spectrum, there are accurate stress-measuring systems, but they are expensive and not portable. The battery-powered Langley monitor fills a need; it is inexpensive, lightweight, portable and extremely accurate because it is not subject to friction error. Sound waves are transmitted to the bolt and a return signal is received. As the bolt is tightened, it undergoes changes in resonance due to stress, in the manner that a violin string changes tone when it is tightened. The monitor measures the changes in resonance and provides a reading of real stress on the bolt. The device, patented by NASA, has aroused wide interest and a number of firms have applied for licenses to produce it for the commercial market.

  8. Rack Protection Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Stanley G.

    1998-10-21

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  9. Crane hoisting monitoring using smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Jiao, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Shunde; Yu, Yan

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, smart phone develops very fast, and it has been the most popular tool in daily life of the public. Smart phones, with powerful operating systems, data storage and processing function, varieties of high-performance sensors and easily data transmission when connected to network, are the good choice for structures status monitoring in some occasion. One kind of hoisting monitoring method was proposed in this paper based on smartphone and Monitoring App developed. Firstly, one monitoring App was designed and developed, which can monitor the acceleration and inclination information using MEMS sensors embedded in smartphone. Secondly, typical operation status model of crane hoisting was studied. Then one validation test of hoisting was designed and conducted to monitor the acceleration and inclination of different elements during the operation procedure of one crane. The test results show the feasibility of the crane hoisting safety monitoring method using smartphone.

  10. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  11. Defining fish community structure in Lake Winnipeg using stable isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(34)S): implications for monitoring ecological responses and trophodynamics of mercury & other trace elements.

    PubMed

    Ofukany, Amy F A; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Bond, Alexander L; Hobson, Keith A

    2014-11-01

    The ecological integrity of freshwater lakes is influenced by atmospheric and riverine deposition of contaminants, shoreline development, eutrophication, and the introduction of non-native species. Changes to the trophic structure of Lake Winnipeg, Canada, and consequently, the concentrations of contaminants and trace elements measured in tissues of native fishes, are likely attributed to agricultural runoff from the 977,800 km(2) watershed and the arrival of non-native zooplankters and fishes. We measured δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S along with concentrations of 15 trace elements in 17 native fishes from the north and south basins of Lake Winnipeg in 2009 and 2010. After adjusting for differences in isotopic baseline values between the two basins, fishes in the south basin had consistently higher δ(13)C and δ(34)S, and lower δ(15)N. We found little evidence of biomagnification of trace elements at the community level, but walleye (Sander vitreus) and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) had higher mercury and selenium concentrations with increased trophic position, coincident with increased piscivory. There was evidence of growth dilution of cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, thallium, and vanadium, and bioaccumulation of mercury, which could be explained by increases in algal (and consequently, lake and fish) productivity. We conclude that the north and south basins of Lake Winnipeg represent very different communities with different trophic structures and trace element concentrations.

  12. Aspartame fails to facilitate pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Dailey, J W; Lasley, S M; Mishra, P K; Bettendorf, A F; Burger, R L; Jobe, P C

    1989-05-01

    Concentrations of plasma amino acids and brain monoamines as well as pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures were monitored in CD-1 mice treated with aspartame in acute oral doses from 0 to 2500 mg/kg. One hour after administration aspartame produced increases in plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine and modest reductions in concentrations of brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid. However, these effects of the sweetener had no influence on the convulsive dose fifty (CD50) of pentylenetetrazol. Moreover, aspartame failed to alter the percentage of mice exhibiting seizures when exposed to an approximate CD50 of pentylenetetrazol. Finally, aspartame had no effect on brain norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. In sharp contrast to previously reported studies, these observations suggest that aspartame, given in heroic doses, does not alter the propensity to seizure activity in CD-1 mice. We conclude that changes in plasma amino acids and brain serotonin produced by large oral bolus doses of aspartame are insufficient to result in functional deficits which might have the capacity to facilitate pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.

  13. Public health in interwar England and Wales: did it fail?

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Martin

    2008-01-01

    British historians initially saw the interwar period as a «golden age» for public health in local government, with unprecedented preventive and curative powers wielded by Medical Officers of Health (MOsH). In the 1980s Lewis and Webster challenged this reading, arguing that MOsH were overstretched, neglectful of their «watchdog» role and incapable of formulating a new philosophy of preventive medicine. The article first details this critique, then reappraises it in the light of recent demographic work. It then provides a case study of public health administration in South-West England. Its conclusion is that some elements of the Lewis/Webster case now deserve to be revised. PMID:19230339

  14. MONITORING DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monitoring design component of the overall Monitoring Framework provides answers to the questions: What site or environment will be monitored? What parameters will be measured at the site? Where will the measurements be taken? When and how frequently will the measurements be ...

  15. Implications of Fail-Forward in an Online Environment under Alternative Grading Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Smith, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of fail-forward can be used as a teaching technique to motivate students to learn from their mistakes. For example, when students are allowed to re-work incorrect responses on a test for a partial grade they are failing-forward. In this paper we look at the effects of failing-forward on student effort in online learning environments.…

  16. VAV systems -- What makes them succeed? What makes them fail?

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellin, T.E.

    1997-12-31

    When variable-air-volume (VAV) systems work right, they provide excellent temperature and humidity control and in addition deliver outside air to conditioned spaces in amounts sufficient to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62 and meet all criteria required for acceptable indoor air quality. The final benefit is lower utility cost when compared to a comparable constant-air-volume system. However, the successful performance of VAV systems is often compromised by flawed conception, faulty design, defective installation, poor start-up, inaccurate operation, and inadequate maintenance. Field observations of underperforming VAV systems have uncovered problems due to mistakes that have been made through all the phases of system development. It is recommended that most VAV systems be designed, installed, started, and operated under a comprehensive commissioning process. Experience has shown that careful monitoring of all phases of development and operation will ensure that there are minimal problems to plague the building owner and operating personnel once the system is in use. This paper is written from the viewpoint of a former contractor who is now a professional engineer and who has designed, installed, started, and maintained VAV systems.

  17. 7 CFR 1484.73 - Are Cooperators penalized for failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance... contribution requirement is specified in the Cooperator program allocation letter. If a Cooperator fails...

  18. 7 CFR 1484.73 - Are Cooperators penalized for failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance... contribution requirement is specified in the Cooperator program allocation letter. If a Cooperator fails...

  19. Ideal dipole approximation fails to predict electronic coupling between semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are highly conjugated carbon tubes that are a few nanometers in diameter and can be up to millimeters in length. The excited electronic states of semiconductor-type SWNTs are quasi-1D excitons. It is known that these spatially-extended electronic excitations can migrate among SWNTs that are bundled together, thus quenching the fluorescence owing to the presence of metallic SWNTs. Recent advances in purification and isolation have enabled studies of electronic energy transfer (EET) between SWNTs and molecular chromophores. Here we examine the electronic coupling among SWNTs in order to understand EET involving SWNTs. There are two main difficulties that need to be addressed when studying SWNT EET. The first is to obtain the electronic coupling matrix element that promotes EET. The most common method to calculate the electronic coupling between two molecules is the point dipole approximation (PDA) method, where the electronic coupling is described as the Coulombic interaction between transition dipole moments of D and A. In this approximation, each molecule is represented by a single dipole located at the center of mass for each molecule. It is well known that the PDA method fails at small separations in molecular systems. Owing to the size of SWNTs compared to typical donor-acceptor separations, it is likely that the PDA method will fail. Even when using the PDA method, however, it is difficult to obtain the dipole strength of the transition because the radiative lifetime is obscured by thermal population of dark states in the exciton band. The second difficulty is that there are a few closely spaced states associated with the lowest bright exciton transition (E{sub 11}), and each of these states might act as energy donors or acceptors. Here we will focus on the first of these challenges: the evaluation of electronic couplings between SWNTs, overcoming the limitations of the PDA method. In the last decade, sophisticated quantum

  20. Owl: Next Generation System Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M; White, B S; McKee, S A; Lee, H S; Jeitner, J

    2005-02-16

    As microarchitectural and system complexity grows, comprehending system behavior becomes increasingly difficult, and often requires obtaining and sifting through voluminous event traces or coordinating results from multiple, non-localized sources. Owl is a proposed framework that overcomes limitations faced by traditional performance counters and monitoring facilities in dealing with such complexity by pervasively deploying programmable monitoring elements throughout a system. The design exploits reconfigurable or programmable logic to realize hardware monitors located at event sources, such as memory buses. These monitors run and writeback results autonomously with respect to the CPU, mitigating the system impact of interrupt-driven monitoring or the need to communicate irrelevant events to higher levels of the system. The monitors are designed to snoop any kind of system transaction, e.g., within the core, on a bus, across the wire, or within I/O devices.

  1. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  2. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  3. 7 CFR 3.76 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 3.76 Section 3.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.76 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee will not be granted a hearing and...

  4. 24 CFR 17.93 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 17.93 Section 17.93 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Salary Offset § 17.93 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee waives the right to...

  5. 49 CFR 1017.6 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1017.6... OFFSET FROM INDEBTED GOVERNMENT AND FORMER GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1017.6 Result if employee fails to meet... this part whichever is applicable, will not result in denial of a hearing or in immediate offset,...

  6. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  7. 49 CFR 1017.6 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1017.6... OFFSET FROM INDEBTED GOVERNMENT AND FORMER GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1017.6 Result if employee fails to meet... this part whichever is applicable, will not result in denial of a hearing or in immediate offset,...

  8. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  9. 49 CFR 1017.6 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1017.6... OFFSET FROM INDEBTED GOVERNMENT AND FORMER GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1017.6 Result if employee fails to meet... this part whichever is applicable, will not result in denial of a hearing or in immediate offset,...

  10. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  11. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  12. 7 CFR 3.76 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 3.76 Section 3.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.76 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee will not be granted a hearing and...

  13. 49 CFR 1017.6 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1017.6... OFFSET FROM INDEBTED GOVERNMENT AND FORMER GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1017.6 Result if employee fails to meet... this part whichever is applicable, will not result in denial of a hearing or in immediate offset,...

  14. 24 CFR 17.93 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 17.93 Section 17.93 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Salary Offset § 17.93 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee waives the right to...

  15. 7 CFR 3.76 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 3.76 Section 3.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.76 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee will not be granted a hearing and...

  16. 24 CFR 17.130 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 17.130 Section 17.130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of... Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.130 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee...

  17. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  18. The Value of Failing in Career Development: A Chaos Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, James E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Failing is a neglected topic in career development theory and counselling practice. Most theories see failing as simply the opposite of success and something to be avoided. It is contended that the Chaos Theory of Careers with its emphasis on complexity, uncertainty and consequent human imitations, provides a conceptually coherent account of…

  19. 75 FR 81457 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ85 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges... Register on Wednesday, December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76262)providing guidance about the treatment of fails... by revising the paragraph (f) to read as follows: Sec. 1.863-10T Source of income from a...

  20. When Success Makes Me Fail: (De)constructing Failure and Success in a Conventional American Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renee

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the case of Laura, a 9-year-old Mexican immigrant who officially "failed to learn English" in an American school. It may be more accurate to say that schooling failed Laura, and in ways that went beyond language learning. This diagnosis of failure is criticized, along with the individualistic and essentialist assumptions…

  1. Recall Performance of Children Failing Memory Portions of a Speech--Language--Memory Screening Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobey, Emily A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recall performance of 22 first-grade and third-grade children who failed memory portions of a speech-language-memory screen was examined using digit and consonant-vowel (CV) stimulus sets. Data indicate children failing the screening battery differed quantitatively, rather than qualitatively, from children passing the screening batter. (Author)

  2. Ineffective Staff, Ineffective Supervision, or Ineffective Administration? Why Some Nursing Homes Fail to Provide Adequate Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, John E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study involved 530 nursing staff working in 25 for-profit and nonprofit nursing homes, 2 of which failed to meet residential care standards. Nursing home climate in failed homes was perceived as being significantly lower in human relations and higher in laissez-faire and status orientation dimensions that the climate in the successful homes.…

  3. Fail-Safe Entrepreneurship: Six Reasons You Shouldn't Start a Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradiso, James R.

    Given the statistic that 97 percent of all new businesses fail, it is unwise to enter into a new small business venture. Many aspiring entrepreneurs lack the characteristics and background they need to survive and instead display several common characteristics which predispose them to failure, such as being non-aggressive and casual, failing to…

  4. More than 100 Colleges Fail Education Department's Test of Financial Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    A newly compiled analysis by the U.S. Department of Education and obtained by "The Chronicle" shows that 114 private nonprofit degree-granting colleges were in such fragile financial condition at the end of their last fiscal year that they failed the department's financial-responsibility test. Colleges that fail the test are subject to extra…

  5. The Role of Tertiary Education in Fixing Failed States: Globalization and Public Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The plight of nations labeled as "failed" is well-documented, as are suggested strategies to fix them. One area that receives a great deal of focus in the extant literature is education. How can education contribute to the rebuilding of a failed State? Most often the responses to this question focus on the importance of reestablishing primary and…

  6. 40 CFR 205.171-8 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-8 Passing or failing under SEA. (a) A failing exhaust system is one which, when installed on any motorcycle which is in... motorcycle produces a measured noise level in excess of the applicable noise emission standard in §...

  7. 40 CFR 205.171-8 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-8 Passing or failing under SEA. (a) A failing exhaust system is one which, when installed on any motorcycle..., together with such motorcycle produces a measured noise level in excess of the applicable noise...

  8. 40 CFR 205.171-8 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-8 Passing or failing under SEA. (a) A failing exhaust system is one which, when installed on any motorcycle..., together with such motorcycle produces a measured noise level in excess of the applicable noise...

  9. 40 CFR 205.171-8 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-8 Passing or failing under SEA. (a) A failing exhaust system is one which, when installed on any motorcycle..., together with such motorcycle produces a measured noise level in excess of the applicable noise...

  10. Failure to Fail in a Final Pre-Service Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danyluk, Patricia J.; Luhanga, Florence; Gwekwerere, Yovita N.; MacEwan, Leigh; Larocque, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a Canadian perspective on the issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs. The issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs is one that had not been explored in any great detail. What literature does exist focuses on the strain that a teacher experiences when s/he mentors a student teacher…

  11. Turning the Question Around: Do Colleges Fail to Meet Students' Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga; Cepa, Kennan A.; Zapata-Gietl, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Research often focuses on how students fail to meet college expectations, but it rarely asks how colleges fail to meet students' expectations. This study examines students' expectations of college and their institutional confidence--their level of certainty that college will meet their expectations. Drawing on 65 pilot interviews and a survey of…

  12. The Grading Nemesis: An Historical Overview and a Current Look at Pass/Fail Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, L. David

    1983-01-01

    A brief history of grading practices at American colleges and universities is given, along with results of a survey of the current uses of pass/fail grading. The pass/fail system is widely used for a limited number of elective courses. Its adoption peaked during the mid-1970s. (PP)

  13. 26 CFR 1.863-10 - Source of income from a qualified fails charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Source of income from a qualified fails charge. 1.863-10 Section 1.863-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... December 30, 1996 § 1.863-10 Source of income from a qualified fails charge. (a) In general. Except...

  14. 26 CFR 1.863-10 - Source of income from a qualified fails charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Source of income from a qualified fails charge. 1.863-10 Section 1.863-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... December 30, 1996 § 1.863-10 Source of income from a qualified fails charge. (a) In general. Except...

  15. 26 CFR 1.863-10 - Source of income from a qualified fails charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Source of income from a qualified fails charge. 1.863-10 Section 1.863-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... December 30, 1996 § 1.863-10 Source of income from a qualified fails charge. (a) In general. Except...

  16. Monitoring your baby before labor

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- monitoring; Contraction stress test - monitoring; CST- monitoring; Biophysical profile - monitoring; BPP - monitoring

  17. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  18. Element by Element Abundances in Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy; Serven, Jedidiah

    2006-02-01

    Element-by-element abundances will be derived from high quality long slit KPNO 4m spectra of nearby elliptical galaxies that span the range of velocity dispersion. Analysis of these spectra will give the abundances of 18 individual elements to bring to extragalactic astronomy the same luxurious situation now enjoyed only by stellar spectroscopists. These spectra will reveal the basic element ratio behavior as a function of galaxy velocity dispersion. For example, [Mg/Fe] is seen to be enhanced in large galaxies, but not small ones. We propose to expand our purview from 2 elements (Mg and Fe) to 18 elements. This, in turn, will tie directly to chemical evolution and chemical enrichment mechanisms. As a byproduct, we also decrease the stellar population age uncertainty by about a factor of ten from today's Balmer-metal index diagram techniques.

  19. Diagnostic reasoning techniques for selective monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem-De-mello, L. S.; Doyle, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    An architecture for using diagnostic reasoning techniques in selective monitoring is presented. Given the sensor readings and a model of the physical system, a number of assertions are generated and expressed as Boolean equations. The resulting system of Boolean equations is solved symbolically. Using a priori probabilities of component failure and Bayes' rule, revised probabilities of failure can be computed. These will indicate what components have failed or are the most likely to have failed. This approach is suitable for systems that are well understood and for which the correctness of the assertions can be guaranteed. Also, the system must be such that changes are slow enough to allow the computation.

  20. HPV-18 transformed cells fail to arrest in G1 in response to quercetin treatment.

    PubMed

    Beniston, R G; Campo, M S

    2005-05-01

    Previous work with primary human keratinocytes demonstrated that quercetin, a potent mutagen found in high levels in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), arrested cells in G1 with concomitant elevation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (cdki) p27Kip1. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, under transcriptional control of a heterologous promoter, in transformed keratinocytes failed to abrogate this arrest [Beniston, R., Campo, M.S., 2003. Quercetin elevates p27Kip1 and arrests both primary and HPV-16 E6/E7 transformed human keratinocytes in G1. Oncogene 22, 5504-5514]. Given the link between papillomavirus infection, bracken fern in the diet and cancer of the oesophagus in humans, we wished to investigate further whether cells transformed by the whole genome of HPV-16 or HPV-18, with E6 and E7 under the transcriptional control of their respective homologous promoters, would be similarly arrested in G1 by quercetin. In agreement with earlier work, quercetin arrested HPV-16 transformed cells in G1 with an increase in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. However, HPV-18 transformed cells did not arrest after quercetin treatment. The failure of HPV-18 transformed cells to arrest in G1 was linked to the up-regulation of the HPV-18 long control region (LCR) by quercetin, maintaining high expression of the viral transforming proteins. Transcriptional up-regulation of the HPV-18 LCR was mediated by a "quercetin responsive element" homologous to the one identified previously in the bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) LCR.

  1. Improved 206Pb/238U microprobe geochronology by the monitoring of a trace-element-related matrix effect; SHRIMP, ID-TIMS, ELA-ICP-MS and oxygen isotope documentation for a series of zircon standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, L.P.; Kamo, S.L.; Allen, C.M.; Davis, D.W.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Valley, J.W.; Mundil, R.; Campbell, I.H.; Korsch, R.J.; Williams, I.S.; Foudoulis, C.

    2004-01-01

    Precise isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) documentation is given for two new Palaeozoic zircon standards (TEMORA 2 and R33). These data, in combination with results for previously documented standards (AS3, SL13, QGNG and TEMORA 1), provide the basis for a detailed investigation of inconsistencies in 206Pb/238U ages measured by microprobe. Although these ages are normally consistent between any two standards, their relative age offsets are often different from those established by ID-TIMS. This is true for both sensitive high-resolution ion-microprobe (SHRIMP) and excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ELA-ICP-MS) dating, although the age offsets are in the opposite sense for the two techniques. Various factors have been investigated for possible correlations with age bias, in an attempt to resolve why the accuracy of the method is worse than the indicated precision. Crystallographic orientation, position on the grain-mount and oxygen isotopic composition are unrelated to the bias. There are, however, striking correlations between the 206Pb/238U age offsets and P, Sm and, most particularly, Nd abundances in the zircons. Although these are not believed to be the primary cause of this apparent matrix effect, they indicate that ionisation of 206Pb/238U is influenced, at least in part, by a combination of trace elements. Nd is sufficiently representative of the controlling trace elements that it provides a quantitative means of correcting for the microprobe age bias. This approach has the potential to reduce age biases associated with different techniques, different instrumentation and different standards within and between laboratories. Crown Copyright ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Recycling failed bulk YBCO superconductors using the NdBCO/YBCO/MgO film-seeded top-seeded melt growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. H.; Cheng, L.; Yan, S. B.; Yu, D. J.; Guo, L. S.; Yao, X.

    2012-05-01

    REBa2Cu3Oy (RE123 or REBCO, RE = rare earth elements) bulk high-temperature superconductors have a potential perspective for large-scale engineering applications. However, the cost of REBCO bulk production is rather high, considering high failure rates, expensive RE materials, and Pt or Ag addition. Using the cold-seeding in the top-seeded melt growth, a simple and feasible process, we succeeded in recycling the failed REBCO (RE = Y) bulks. The distinctive feature of this recycling process is the use of YBCO-buffered NdBCO films as seeds, which have high thermal stability and can endure a maximum processing temperature (Tmax) up to 1120 °C to enable full decomposition of solid REBCO. Three typical microstructures were recognized in the failed samples attributed to the inherent differences in the non-optimized growth heating profiles. Preferential recycling procedures were chosen according to the difficulty of the failed-samples decomposition, which has a certain connection with the microstructures of the failed bulks. Finally, after oxygenation, the recycled bulks demonstrate good superconducting properties.

  3. Elements of Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobker, Lee R.

    A film is the successful combination of two distinct groups of elements: (1) the technical elements by which the film is made (camera, lighting, sound and editing) and (2) the esthetic elements that transform the craft into an art. This book attempts to combine the study of these elements by providing technical information about the process of…

  4. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Wang, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a literature review on methods used to analyze organic elements. Topic areas include methods for: (1) analyzing carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen; (2) analyzing oxygen, sulfur, and halogens; (3) analyzing other elements; (4) simultaneously determining several elements; and (5) determing trace elements. (JN)

  5. B, Sr and Pb isotope geochemistry of high-pressure Alpine metaperidotites monitors fluid-mediated element recycling during serpentinite dehydration in subduction mélange (Cima di Gagnone, Swiss Central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannaò, E.; Agostini, S.; Scambelluri, M.; Tonarini, S.; Godard, M.

    2015-08-01

    Tectonic mixing of slab- and mantle-derived materials at the interface between converging plates highly enhances fluid-mediated mass transfer from the slab to the overlying mantle. Subduction mélanges can provide information about the interaction among different slices accreted at plate interface domains, with implications on the tectonic and geochemical evolution of the plate-interface itself. At Cima di Gagnone, pelitic schists and gneiss enclose chlorite harzburgite and garnet peridotite lenses, like in subduction mélanges located in-between downgoing slabs and overlying mantle. These peridotites host MORB-type eclogite and metarodingite, and derive from dehydration of serpentinized mantle protoliths. Their enrichment in fluid-mobile B, As, Sb, U, Th is the result of an early-stage oceanic serpentinization, followed by interaction with host metasediments during subduction burial. Here we define the element exchange process in the Gagnone mélange by means of the B, Sr and Pb isotope analysis of its main lithologies (ultramafic, mafic rocks and paragneiss). The 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of ultramafic rocks (0.7090-0.7124 and 18.292-18.837, respectively) show enrichments in radiogenic Sr and Pb after exchange with the host paraschist (up to 0.7287 87Sr/86Sr; 18.751 206Pb/204Pb). The δ11B values of peridotites (down to -10‰) point to a combined effect of (1) 11B release to deserpentinization fluids (serpentinized protoliths likely had positive δ11B and lower radiogenic Sr, Pb), and of (2) exchange with fluids from the surrounding metasediments. The whole Gagnone rock-suite is finally overprinted by retrograde fluids that essentially bring to an increase in radiogenic Pb (about 19.0 206Pb/204Pb) and to values of 0.710 87Sr/86Sr and of -10‰ δ11B. The recognition of different stages of interaction between mantle rocks and sedimentary/crustal reservoirs allows us to define the geochemical effects related to the early coupling of such rocks along the

  6. Electrostatic monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for more simply measuring alpha and/or beta emissions arising from items or locations. The technique uses indirect monitoring of the emissions by detecting ions generated by the emissions, the ions being attracted electrostatically to electrodes for discharge of collection. The apparatus and method employ a chamber which is sealed around the item or location during monitoring with no air being drawn into or expelled from the chamber during the monitoring process. A simplified structure and operations arises as a result, but without impairing the efficiency and accuracy of the detection technique.

  7. Dual-Element Tunneling Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Rockstad, Howard K.; Reynolds, Joseph K.

    1994-01-01

    Improved micromachined tunneling accelerometer contains two deflecting transducer elements: One an elastically supported proof mass having relatively low resonant frequency; other cantilever tunneling transducer that tracks displacement of proof mass and has relatively high resonant frequency ({sup a} 10 kHz). Deflection voltage generated by circuit like described in "Wideband Feedback Circuit for Tunneling Sensor" (NPO-18866). Accelerometers of this type suited for underwater acoustic measurements, detecting vibrations associated with malfunctions in vehicles, detecting seismic signals, monitoring and controlling vibrations in structures, and other applications.

  8. Study of fail-safe abort system for an actively cooled hypersonic aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, M. E.; Herring, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual designs of a fail-safe abort system for hydrogen fueled actively cooled high speed aircraft are examined. The fail-safe concept depends on basically three factors: (1) a reliable method of detecting a failure or malfunction in the active cooling system, (2) the optimization of abort trajectories which minimize the descent heat load to the aircraft, and (3) fail-safe thermostructural concepts to minimize both the weight and the maximum temperature the structure will reach during descent. These factors are examined and promising approaches are evaluated based on weight, reliability, ease of manufacture and cost.

  9. Oil Analysis and Condition Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toms, A.; Toms, L.

    Lubricants are essential and expensive components of machine systems needing sampling, analysis and monitoring. Monitoring can be either performance testing or oil condition monitoring. Knowledge of the system's critical failure modes is essential for cost-effective oil and machinery monitoring. Contamination occurs by water, fuel, glycol, dirt, wrong oil, metal particulate, soot, oil degradation and additive depletion. Oil test methods include in situ or laboratory FT-IR, electronic particle counting, elemental metal measurement, X-ray fluorescence, viscosity, gas chromatography, water determination and RULER®. Condition monitoring data must be managed by storage, analysis and interpretation. Status levels must be established from the database and reported upon for individual and sequential runs of samples as condition indicators.

  10. When Does Memory Monitoring Succeed versus Fail? Comparing Item-Specific and Relational Encoding in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Mark J.; Bodner, Glen E.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the effects of item-specific versus relational encoding on recognition memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. In Experiment 1, we directly compared item-specific and relational encoding instructions, whereas in Experiments 2 and 3 we biased pleasantness and generation tasks, respectively, toward one or the other type of…

  11. Environment Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

  12. r-Process Elements in EMP stars: Indicators of Inhomogeneous Early Halo Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Nordström, Birgitta; Thidemann Hansen, Terese

    2015-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) halo stars with [Fe/H] below ~ -3 are considered to be fossil records of conditions in the early halo. In the simplest picture where iron is a proxy for overall metallicity and indirectly for time, EMP stars formed before the oldest and most metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. High-resolution spectroscopy with 8m-class telescopes has shown the detailed abundance pattern of these stars to be surprisingly uniform (e.g. Bonifacio+ 2012) and essentially Solar, apart from the α-enhancement typical of SN II nucleosynthesis. A small fraction (~3%) of EMP stars, however, is strongly enhanced in the heaviest (r-process) neutron-capture elements, highlighting that the periodic system of elements was fully populated already this early.These striking departures from the general chemical homogeneity could be produced by local or distant sources. The former case is simple - mass transfer from a binary companion that evolved to produce a highly neutron-rich environment (one or more NS). Alternatively, the r-process elements were formed in a site at interstellar distance and preferentially seeded into the natal clouds of the present-day EMP-r stars. Our long-term, precise monitoring of the radial velocities of a sample of such stars (Hansen+ 2011) disproved the binary hypothesis, which would in fact also fail to explain the existence of r-process poor stars, such as HD 122653. We thus conclude that the chemical enrichment of the early halo was far more complex, patchy and likely anisotropic than assumed in current models of Galactic chemical evolution: The EMP-r stars are not just peculiarities to be ignored, but indicate that a new level of complexity must be invoked. That r-process elements have not (yet) been observed in high-redshift DLA systems is readily explained by their low abundance relative to the lighter species and the rarity of strong enrichment events.

  13. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  14. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... noise emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines...

  15. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... noise emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines...

  16. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... noise emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines...

  17. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?...

  18. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?...

  19. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?...

  20. 40 CFR 1068.420 - How do I know when my engine family fails an SEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../equipment you test. An acceptable quality level of 40 percent is the basis for the pass or fail decision. (d... your testing and our testing. We will reinstate your data as valid if you show us that we made an...

  1. 40 CFR 1068.420 - How do I know when my engine family fails an SEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../equipment you test. An acceptable quality level of 40 percent is the basis for the pass or fail decision. (d... your testing and our testing. We will reinstate your data as valid if you show us that we made an...

  2. When the Safety System Fails the Worker: Did We Do Our Job?...A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, S

    2006-02-03

    As safety professionals, we strive to implement a robust safety process in our organizations to maximize worker protection. We sell our philosophy and ideas to senior management, and then work with line management and the work force to develop and implement the safety process. Through this effort, we are likely to accomplish two major objectives. First, we obtain buy-in from line management and the workers, maybe even ownership for the safety process we implement. Second, we increase the likelihood that the hazards (and necessary controls) associated with the work activities performed by our workforce are identified and addressed by the safety process we implement. Our ambition is to maximize safety and health in the work place, and prevent injuries. Realizing this goal improves overall business operations. Petersen suggests an accident is an indication of something wrong in the management system (Petersen, pg 15). Successful organizations operate with the safety process fully integrated into the management system. If the management system fails, the safety process has failed the worker. As safety professionals, we must ask ourselves whether we did our job adequately. The better organizations strive for continuous improvement. The overall success of safety processes, in terms of accident and injury prevention has improved since safety professionals have learned to involve line management and the workers in the process. Although we maintain the label of 'safety expert', our role has shifted somewhat to that of a 'facilitator' in the process. The role of the safety professional is to advise and counsel line management (Kohn & Ferry, pg 28). Line management owns safety! If you subscribe to this philosophy, our role of advisor to line management makes perfect sense. Most safety professionals no longer operate as the 'safety cop'. That role belongs to line management. Instead, our role falls into the category of 'oversight' or facilitator. We observe systems, processes

  3. Reactor neutrino monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear reactors are the most intense man-controlled sources of antineutrinos and as such have hosted number of key physics experiments, from the antineutrino discovery to modern oscillation measurements. At the present time, both detection technology and understanding of fundamental physics are mature enough to think about antineutrinos as a new tool for reactor monitoring. We describe below how antineutrinos can provide online information on reactor operation and amount of plutonium accumulated in the core. Reactors are the only sources of plutonium on earth and this element can be chemically separated from the rest of the nuclear fuel and diverted into nuclear weapons. We present in the next sections the unique features antineutrino detectors could provide to safeguards agencies such as IAEA. We review the worldwide efforts to develop small ( 1m scale) antineutrino detectors dedicated to automated and non-intrusive reactor monitoring.

  4. Very Preterm Infants Failing CPAP Show Signs of Fatigue Immediately after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Melissa L.; van Vonderen, Jeroen J.; Hooper, Stuart B.; te Pas, Arjan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences in breathing pattern and effort in infants at birth who failed or succeeded on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first 48 hours after birth. Methods Respiratory function recordings of 32 preterm infants were reviewed of which 15 infants with a gestational age of 28.6 (0.7) weeks failed CPAP and 17 infants with a GA of 30.1 (0.4) weeks did not fail CPAP. Frequency, duration and tidal volumes (VT) of expiratory holds (EHs), peak inspiratory flows, CPAP-level and FiO2-levels were analysed. Results EH incidence increased <6 minutes after birth and remained stable thereafter. EH peak inspiratory flows and VT were similar between CPAP-fail and CPAP-success infants. At 9-12 minutes, CPAP-fail infants more frequently used smaller VTs, 0-9 ml/kg and required higher peak inspiratory flows. However, CPAP-success infants often used large VTs (>9 ml/kg) with higher peak inspiratory flows than CPAP-fail infants (71.8 ± 15.8 vs. 15.5 ± 5.2 ml/kg.s, p <0.05). CPAP-fail infants required higher FiO2 (0.31 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.01), higher CPAP pressures (6.62 ± 0.3 vs. 5.67 ± 0.26 cmH2O) and more positive pressure-delivered breaths (45 ± 12 vs. 19 ± 9%) (p <0.05) Conclusion At 9-12 minutes after birth, CPAP-fail infants more commonly used lower VTs and required higher peak inspiratory flow rates while receiving greater respiratory support. VT was less variable and larger VT was infrequently used reflecting early signs of fatigue. PMID:26052947

  5. Electrophysiology of Heart Failure Using a Rabbit Model: From the Failing Myocyte to Ventricular Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Aditya V S; Perotti, Luigi E; Liu, Michael; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N; Ennis, Daniel B; Klug, William S; Garfinkel, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death, yet its underlying electrophysiological (EP) mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we use a multiscale approach to analyze a model of heart failure and connect its results to features of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The heart failure model is derived by modifying a previously validated electrophysiology model for a healthy rabbit heart. Specifically, in accordance with the heart failure literature, we modified the cell EP by changing both membrane currents and calcium handling. At the tissue level, we modeled the increased gap junction lateralization and lower conduction velocity due to downregulation of Connexin 43. At the biventricular level, we reduced the apex-to-base and transmural gradients of action potential duration (APD). The failing cell model was first validated by reproducing the longer action potential, slower and lower calcium transient, and earlier alternans characteristic of heart failure EP. Subsequently, we compared the electrical wave propagation in one dimensional cables of healthy and failing cells. The validated cell model was then used to simulate the EP of heart failure in an anatomically accurate biventricular rabbit model. As pacing cycle length decreases, both the normal and failing heart develop T-wave alternans, but only the failing heart shows QRS alternans (although moderate) at rapid pacing. Moreover, T-wave alternans is significantly more pronounced in the failing heart. At rapid pacing, APD maps show areas of conduction block in the failing heart. Finally, accelerated pacing initiated wave reentry and breakup in the failing heart. Further, the onset of VF was not observed with an upregulation of SERCA, a potential drug therapy, using the same protocol. The changes introduced at the cell and tissue level have increased the failing heart's susceptibility to dynamic instabilities and arrhythmias under rapid pacing. However, the observed increase in arrhythmogenic potential is

  6. Electrophysiology of Heart Failure Using a Rabbit Model: From the Failing Myocyte to Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Michael; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Klug, William S.; Garfinkel, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death, yet its underlying electrophysiological (EP) mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we use a multiscale approach to analyze a model of heart failure and connect its results to features of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The heart failure model is derived by modifying a previously validated electrophysiology model for a healthy rabbit heart. Specifically, in accordance with the heart failure literature, we modified the cell EP by changing both membrane currents and calcium handling. At the tissue level, we modeled the increased gap junction lateralization and lower conduction velocity due to downregulation of Connexin 43. At the biventricular level, we reduced the apex-to-base and transmural gradients of action potential duration (APD). The failing cell model was first validated by reproducing the longer action potential, slower and lower calcium transient, and earlier alternans characteristic of heart failure EP. Subsequently, we compared the electrical wave propagation in one dimensional cables of healthy and failing cells. The validated cell model was then used to simulate the EP of heart failure in an anatomically accurate biventricular rabbit model. As pacing cycle length decreases, both the normal and failing heart develop T-wave alternans, but only the failing heart shows QRS alternans (although moderate) at rapid pacing. Moreover, T-wave alternans is significantly more pronounced in the failing heart. At rapid pacing, APD maps show areas of conduction block in the failing heart. Finally, accelerated pacing initiated wave reentry and breakup in the failing heart. Further, the onset of VF was not observed with an upregulation of SERCA, a potential drug therapy, using the same protocol. The changes introduced at the cell and tissue level have increased the failing heart’s susceptibility to dynamic instabilities and arrhythmias under rapid pacing. However, the observed increase in arrhythmogenic potential is

  7. Passive Fetal Heart Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor); Wynkoop, Mark W. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. H. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A fetal heart monitoring system preferably comprising a backing plate having a generally concave front surface and a generally convex back surface, and at least one sensor element attached to the concave front surface for acquiring acoustic fetal heart signals produced by a fetus within a body. The sensor element has a shape that conforms to the generally concave back surface of the backing plate. In one embodiment, the at least one sensor element comprises an inner sensor, and a plurality of outer sensors surrounding the inner sensor. The fetal heart monitoring system can further comprise a web belt, and a web belt guide movably attached to the web belt. The web belt guide being is to the convex back surface of the backing plate.

  8. Element-ary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  9. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  10. Communication fail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    In response to Matin Durrani's editorial “Conference thoughts” (April p15), which bemoaned poor communication and limited social media use by physicists at the March meeting of the American Physical Society (APS).

  11. Failing Civics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Dexter Evans recalled being taught the basics of social studies in high school: the U.S. Constitution, the Declaration of Independence and three branches of federal government. Although it was more than five years ago when he graduated high school, he says most of the social studies/civics lessons were taught in the classroom and with limited…

  12. Orthotropic hole element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, J. W.; Smith, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    A finite element was developed to adequately represent the state of stress in the region around a circular hole in orthotropic material experiencing reasonably general loading. This has been achieved through a complementary virtual work formulation of the stiffness and stress matrices for a square element with a center circular hole. The element has been incorporated into COSMIC/NASTRAN as a dummy element. Sample problems have been solved and these results are presented.

  13. Elemental Chemical Puzzlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides nine short chemically based puzzles or problems extensible for use with students from middle school to college. Some of these will strengthen students' recognition of individual elements and element names. Others require students to focus on the salient properties of given chemical elements.

  14. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Gutterson, Milton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews general developments in computerization and data processing of organic elemental analyses; carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyzers; procedures for determining oxygen, sulfur, and halogens, as well as other nometallic elements and organometallics. Selected papers on trace analysis of nonmetals and determination of metallic elements are…

  15. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  16. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  17. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

  18. Recreation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, B.; Merklein, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recreational use and recreational facilities are common features at hydropower projects. In fact, the hydropower industry is a major supplier of recreational opportunities contributing to tourism and rural economic growth in many communities across the country, As demands for public recreation have grown, pressure on the hydropower industry to provide more public access and more facilities has increased. This paper looks at recent developments in the FERC licensing and compliance arenas with regard to planning for and monitoring recreation at hydropower facilities. The paper highlights the increased occurrence of recreation monitoring requirements in license articles and discusses methods for complying with such requirements. The paper also looks at how monitoring data can be used to avoid unnecessary developments and to better plan for future recreation use.

  19. Parental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

  20. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1999-06-29

    A monitoring well is described which includes: a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto. 8 figs.

  1. Acellular pertussis vaccines protect against disease but fail to prevent infection and transmission in a nonhuman primate model

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Zimmerman, Lindsey I.; Merkel, Tod J.

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis rates in the United States have been rising and reached a 50-y high of 42,000 cases in 2012. Although pertussis resurgence is not completely understood, we hypothesize that current acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines fail to prevent colonization and transmission. To test our hypothesis, infant baboons were vaccinated at 2, 4, and 6 mo of age with aP or whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and challenged with B. pertussis at 7 mo. Infection was followed by quantifying colonization in nasopharyngeal washes and monitoring leukocytosis and symptoms. Baboons vaccinated with aP were protected from severe pertussis-associated symptoms but not from colonization, did not clear the infection faster than naïve animals, and readily transmitted B. pertussis to unvaccinated contacts. Vaccination with wP induced a more rapid clearance compared with naïve and aP-vaccinated animals. By comparison, previously infected animals were not colonized upon secondary infection. Although all vaccinated and previously infected animals had robust serum antibody responses, we found key differences in T-cell immunity. Previously infected animals and wP-vaccinated animals possess strong B. pertussis-specific T helper 17 (Th17) memory and Th1 memory, whereas aP vaccination induced a Th1/Th2 response instead. The observation that aP, which induces an immune response mismatched to that induced by natural infection, fails to prevent colonization or transmission provides a plausible explanation for the resurgence of pertussis and suggests that optimal control of pertussis will require the development of improved vaccines. PMID:24277828

  2. HIV-1-infected patients with advanced disease failing a raltegravir-containing salvage regimen in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Cavalcanti, Jaqueline; de Paula Ferreira, Joao Leandro; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; de Souza Guimarães, Paula Morena; Moreira, Denise Helena; de Macedo Brigido, Luis Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Raltegravir (RAL) is the first licensed antiretroviral integrase inhibitor that may be used both for treatment-naïve human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients and for salvage therapy. The Brazilian public free access programme limits its use for salvage therapy, with scarce information regarding RAL resistance from patients failing a RAL-containing salvage regimen. This study evaluated RAL resistance mutations detected by population sequencing in 69 HIV-infected patients with advanced disease failing a RAL-containing regimen in a real-world setting. RAL resistance mutations were identified in 47/69 patients (68%). The most common salvage regimen, used by 56/69 patients (81%), included lamivudine, tenofovir, darunavir/ritonavir and RAL. At failure, major RAL resistance mutations included Q148H/R/K (21/47; 45%), N155H (14/47; 30%), Y143R/H/C (3/47; 6%) and E92Q (1/47; 2%). Most samples with Q148H/R/K also showed G140S/A/C (21/47; 45%). RAL resistance was significantly associated with less than two active drugs in the optimised background therapy regimen at failure [39/39 (100%) vs. 9/17 (53%); P<0.001] and with a longer cumulative duration with detectable viraemia (viral load >50 copies/mL) (86 weeks vs. 32 weeks; P=0.001). A high frequency of RAL mutations was observed in this study. In addition, these results reinforce the importance of close monitoring of RAL-containing regimens to reduce the time of failure and consequent resistance accumulation.

  3. A dynamic magnetic tension force as the cause of failed solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Clayton E.; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Yoo, Jongsoo; Fox, William; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Savcheva, Antonia; Deluca, Edward E.

    2015-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections are solar eruptions driven by a sudden release of magnetic energy stored in the Sun’s corona. In many cases, this magnetic energy is stored in long-lived, arched structures called magnetic flux ropes. When a flux rope destabilizes, it can either erupt and produce a coronal mass ejection or fail and collapse back towards the Sun. The prevailing belief is that the outcome of a given event is determined by a magnetohydrodynamic force imbalance called the torus instability. This belief is challenged, however, by observations indicating that torus-unstable flux ropes sometimes fail to erupt. This contradiction has not yet been resolved because of a lack of coronal magnetic field measurements and the limitations of idealized numerical modelling. Here we report the results of a laboratory experiment that reveal a previously unknown eruption criterion below which torus-unstable flux ropes fail to erupt. We find that such ‘failed torus’ events occur when the guide magnetic field (that is, the ambient field that runs toroidally along the flux rope) is strong enough to prevent the flux rope from kinking. Under these conditions, the guide field interacts with electric currents in the flux rope to produce a dynamic toroidal field tension force that halts the eruption. This magnetic tension force is missing from existing eruption models, which is why such models cannot explain or predict failed torus events.

  4. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one’s reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one’s own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions. PMID:26650842

  5. A dynamic magnetic tension force as the cause of failed solar eruptions

    DOE PAGES

    Myers, Clayton E.; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Yoo, Jongsoo; Fox, William; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Savcheva, Antonia; DeLuca, Edward E.

    2015-12-23

    Coronal mass ejections are solar eruptions driven by a sudden release of magnetic energy stored in the Sun's corona. In many cases, this magnetic energy is stored in long-lived, arched structures called magnetic flux ropes. When a flux rope destabilizes, it can either erupt and produce a coronal mass ejection or fail and collapse back towards the Sun. The prevailing belief is that the outcome of a given event is determined by a magnetohydrodynamic force imbalance called the torus instability. This belief is challenged, however, by observations indicating that torus-unstable flux ropes sometimes fail to erupt. This contradiction has notmore » yet been resolved because of a lack of coronal magnetic field measurements and the limitations of idealized numerical modelling. In this paper, we report the results of a laboratory experiment that reveal a previously unknown eruption criterion below which torus-unstable flux ropes fail to erupt. We find that such 'failed torus' events occur when the guide magnetic field (that is, the ambient field that runs toroidally along the flux rope) is strong enough to prevent the flux rope from kinking. Under these conditions, the guide field interacts with electric currents in the flux rope to produce a dynamic toroidal field tension force that halts the eruption. Lastly, this magnetic tension force is missing from existing eruption models, which is why such models cannot explain or predict failed torus events.« less

  6. A dynamic magnetic tension force as the cause of failed solar eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Clayton E.; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Yoo, Jongsoo; Fox, William; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Savcheva, Antonia; DeLuca, Edward E.

    2015-12-23

    Coronal mass ejections are solar eruptions driven by a sudden release of magnetic energy stored in the Sun's corona. In many cases, this magnetic energy is stored in long-lived, arched structures called magnetic flux ropes. When a flux rope destabilizes, it can either erupt and produce a coronal mass ejection or fail and collapse back towards the Sun. The prevailing belief is that the outcome of a given event is determined by a magnetohydrodynamic force imbalance called the torus instability. This belief is challenged, however, by observations indicating that torus-unstable flux ropes sometimes fail to erupt. This contradiction has not yet been resolved because of a lack of coronal magnetic field measurements and the limitations of idealized numerical modelling. In this paper, we report the results of a laboratory experiment that reveal a previously unknown eruption criterion below which torus-unstable flux ropes fail to erupt. We find that such 'failed torus' events occur when the guide magnetic field (that is, the ambient field that runs toroidally along the flux rope) is strong enough to prevent the flux rope from kinking. Under these conditions, the guide field interacts with electric currents in the flux rope to produce a dynamic toroidal field tension force that halts the eruption. Lastly, this magnetic tension force is missing from existing eruption models, which is why such models cannot explain or predict failed torus events.

  7. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions.

  8. Early Literacy Assessment Systems: Essential Elements. Policy Information Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jacqueline

    This report outlines a system-wide framework for monitoring the literacy development of children in preschool through second grade. Specific early literacy assessment instruments and instructional approaches are not suggested. Instead, the report focuses on some of the essential elements of an assessment system intended to monitor the progress of…

  9. Chemistry of superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The number of chemical elements has increased considerably in the last few decades. Most excitingly, these heaviest, man-made elements at the far-end of the Periodic Table are located in the area of the long-awaited superheavy elements. While physical techniques currently play a leading role in these discoveries, the chemistry of superheavy elements is now beginning to be developed. Advanced and very sensitive techniques allow the chemical properties of these elusive elements to be probed. Often, less than ten short-lived atoms, chemically separated one-atom-at-a-time, provide crucial information on basic chemical properties. These results place the architecture of the far-end of the Periodic Table on the test bench and probe the increasingly strong relativistic effects that influence the chemical properties there. This review is focused mainly on the experimental work on superheavy element chemistry. It contains a short contribution on relativistic theory, and some important historical and nuclear aspects.

  10. Cohesive Elements for Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

    2007-01-01

    A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

  11. The synthetic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  12. Bicanalicular versus monocanalicular intubation after failed probing in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Zavarzadeh, Najmeh; Mahmoudi, Alireza; Johari, Mohammad Karim; Hosseini, Seyedeh Simindokht; Abrishami, Yalda; Rajabi, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the clinical outcomes of different intubation techniques in the cases of failed primary probing. METHODS This retrospective study was performed on 338 patients with the diagnosis of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction with age 1-4y that had failed primary probing. Intubation was performed under light sedation in operating room and the stent was left 3mo in place. Clinical outcome was investigated 3mo after tube removal. RESULTS Bicanalicular intubation method had higher complete and relative success rates compared to monocanalicular intubation (P=0.00). In addition, Monoka intubation had better outcomes compared to Masterka technique (P=0.046). No difference was found between genders but the higher the age, the better the outcomes with bicanalicular technique rather than monocanalicular. CONCLUSION Overall success rate of bicanalicular intubation is superior to monocanalicular technique especially in older ages. Also, based upon our clinical outcomes, Masterka intubation is not recommended in cases of failed probing. PMID:27803865

  13. Investigation of safe-life fail-safe criteria for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effects of a safe-life design approach and a fail-safe design approach on the space shuttle booster vehicle structure, and to recommend any changes to the structural design criteria. Two configurations of the booster vehicle were considered, one incorporating a delta wing (B-9U configuration) and the other a swept wing (B-16B configuration). Several major structural components of the booster were studied to determine the fatigue life, safe-life, and fail-safe capabilities of the baseline design. Each component was investigated to determine the practicability of applying a safe-life or fail-safe design philosophy, the changes such design approaches might require, and the impact of these changes on weight, cost, development plans, and performance.

  14. Failed Lactation and Perinatal Depression: Common Problems with Shared Neuroendocrine Mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Grewen, Karen; Pedersen, Cort A.; Propper, Cathi; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the early postpartum period, mother and infant navigate a critical neuroendocrine transition from pregnancy to lactation. Two major clinical problems that occur during this transition are failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. These disorders often overlap in clinical settings. Failed lactation is common. Although all major medical organizations recommend 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, only 13% of women in the United States achieve this recommendation. Perinatal mood disorders affect 10% of mothers, with substantial morbidity for mother and child. We hypothesize that shared neuroendocrine mechanisms contribute to both failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. In this hypothesis article, we discuss data from both animal models and clinical studies that suggest neuroendocrine mechanisms that may underlie these two disorders. Research to elucidate the role of these underlying mechanisms may identify treatment strategies both to relieve perinatal depression and to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. PMID:22204416

  15. Is the pass/fail system applicable to a medical school in Korea?

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee Young

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether a pass/fail system is more appropriate for medical education instead of a grade-based system, a survey of medical students and faculty members of Hallym University, Korea, was taken. A questionnaire was delivered to 54 junior students and 36 faculty members from a medical school in Korea and analyzed. Of these participants, 37.7% of students and 36.1% of faculty agreed to the pass/fail system, while 28.3% of students and 52.8% of faculty objected to it. The most frequent reason for objection was the potential decrease in learning achievement. A pass/fail system should be considered after persuasion of the students and faculty to think positively of this system.

  16. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream.

  17. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-06-14

    A system is described for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream. 1 fig.

  18. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  19. Biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1984-06-01

    Recent research is reviewed from books, international committees and symposia which describes the usefulness of biological monitoring for exposure to such compounds as organometallic chemicals, carbon monoxide and cyanide. The types of analyses include the following measurements: the concentration of the chemical in various biological media such as blood, urine, and expired air; the concentration of metabolites of the individual chemical in the same media; and determination of nonadverse biological changes resulting from the reaction of the organism to exposure. A main goal of such monitoring is to ensure that the current or past levels of worker exposure are safe, so that such exposure does not involve an unacceptable health risk. It considers routes other than absorption by the lungs and is a good method for evaluating individual exposures.

  20. Monitoring oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2011-06-01

    Cyanosis was used for a century after dentists began pulling teeth under 100% N(2)O in 1844 because brief (2 min) severe hypoxia is harmless. Deaths came with curare and potent anesthetic respiratory arrest. Leland Clark's invention of a polarographic blood oxygen tension electrode (1954) was introduced for transcutaneous PO2 monitoring to adjust PEEP and CPAP PO2 to prevent premature infant blindness from excess O2 (1972). Oximetry for warning military aviators was tried after WW II but not used for routine monitoring until Takuo Aoyagi (1973) discovered an equation to measure SaO2 by the ratio of ratios of red and IR light transmitted through tissue as it changed with arterial pulses. Pulse oximetry (1982) depended on simultaneous technology improvements of light emitting red and IR diodes, tiny cheap solid state sensors and micro-chip computers. Continuous monitoring of airway anesthetic concentration and oxygen also became very common after 1980. Death from anesthesia fell 10 fold between 1985 and 2000 as pulse oximetry became universally used, but no proof of a causative relationship to pulse oximetry exists. It is now assumed that all anesthesiologist became much more aware of the dangers of prolonged hypoxia, perhaps by using the pulse oximeters. PMID:21717228

  1. Patient Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In photo above, the electrocardiogram of a hospitalized patient is being transmitted by telemetry. Widely employed in space operations, telemetry is a process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where the signals are reconverted to usable information. In this instance, heart readings are picked up by the electrode attached to the patient's body and delivered by wire to the small box shown, which is a telemetry transmitter. The signals are relayed wirelessly to the console in the background, which converts them to EKG data. The data is displayed visually and recorded on a printout; at the same time, it is transmitted to a central control station (upper photo) where a nurse can monitor the condition of several patients simultaneously. The Patient Monitoring System was developed by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, in conjunction with Abbott Medical Electronics, Houston, Texas. In developing the system, SCI drew upon its extensive experience as a NASA contractor. The company applied telemetry technology developed for the Saturn launch vehicle and the Apollo spacecraft; instrumentation technology developed for heart, blood pressure and sleep monitoring of astronauts aboard NASA's Skylab long duration space station; and communications technology developed for the Space Shuttle.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  3. New Developments in FPGA: SEUs and Fail-Safe Strategies from the NASA Goddard Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth; Pellish, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that, when exposed to radiation environments, each Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device has unique error signatures. Subsequently, fail-safe and mitigation strategies will differ per FPGA type. In this session several design approaches for safe systems will be presented. It will also explore the benefits and limitations of several mitigation techniques. The intention of the presentation is to provide information regarding FPGA types, their susceptibilities, and proven fail-safe strategies; so that users can select appropriate mitigation and perform the required trade for system insertion. The presentation will describe three types of FPGA devices and their susceptibilities in radiation environments.

  4. Fail save shut off valve for filtering systems employing candle filters

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John

    2006-01-03

    The invention relates to an apparatus that acts as a fail save shut off valve. More specifically, the invention relates to a fail save shut off valve that allows fluid flow during normal operational conditions, but prevents the flow of fluids in the event of system failure upstream that causes over-pressurization. The present invention is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with hot gas filtering systems, which utilize ceramic candle filters. Used in such a hot gas system the present invention stops the flow of hot gas and prevents any particulate laden gas from entering the clean side of the system.

  5. Fail Save Shut Off Valve for Filtering Systems Employing Candle Filters

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdol, John

    2006-01-03

    The invention relates to an apparatus that acts as a fail save shut off valve. More specifically, the invention relates to a fail save shut off valve that allows fluid flow during normal operational conditions, but prevents the flow of fluids in the event of system failure upstream that causes over-pressurization. The present invention is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with hot gas filtering systems, which utilize ceramic candle filters. Used in such a hot gas system the present invention stops the flow of hot gas and prevents any particulate laden gas from entering the clean side of the system.

  6. National Urbanization Monitoring Assessment (NUMA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hester, Dave

    2006-01-01

    A core geographic science element of the U.S. Geological Survey's Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program is to monitor land-surface change for the Nation through time. The Nation's land surface is dynamically evolving and transitioning in response to natural and human processes. The need to understand the transformations and locations where changes are taking place, their underlying causes, and the rate at which the transitions are occurring is fundamental to the health and viability of the Nation's natural and developed environments.

  7. FAILED-DETONATION SUPERNOVAE: SUBLUMINOUS LOW-VELOCITY Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR KICKED REMNANT WHITE DWARFS WITH IRON-RICH CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, George C. IV; Van Rossum, Daniel R.; Perets, Hagai B.; Fisher, Robert T.

    2012-12-20

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate from the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen (C-O) white dwarfs (WDs). The single-degenerate scenario is a well-explored model of SNe Ia where unstable thermonuclear burning initiates in an accreting, Chandrasekhar-mass WD and forms an advancing flame. By several proposed physical processes, the rising, burning material triggers a detonation, which subsequently consumes and unbinds the WD. However, if a detonation is not triggered and the deflagration is too weak to unbind the star, a completely different scenario unfolds. We explore the failure of the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism of SNe Ia, and demonstrate through two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations the properties of failed-detonation SNe. We show that failed-detonation SNe expel a few 0.1 M{sub Sun} of burned and partially burned material and that a fraction of the material falls back onto the WD, polluting the remnant WD with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements that likely segregate to the core forming a WD whose core is iron rich. The remaining material is asymmetrically ejected at velocities comparable to the escape velocity from the WD, and in response, the WD is kicked to velocities of a few hundred km s{sup -1}. These kicks may unbind the binary and eject a runaway/hypervelocity WD. Although the energy and ejected mass of the failed-detonation SN are a fraction of typical thermonuclear SNe, they are likely to appear as subluminous low-velocity SNe Ia. Such failed detonations might therefore explain or are related to the observed branch of peculiar SNe Ia, such as the family of low-velocity subluminous SNe (SN 2002cx/SN 2008ha-like SNe).

  8. Failed-detonation Supernovae: Subluminous Low-velocity Ia Supernovae and their Kicked Remnant White Dwarfs with Iron-rich Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, George C., IV; Perets, Hagai B.; Fisher, Robert T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.

    2012-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate from the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen (C-O) white dwarfs (WDs). The single-degenerate scenario is a well-explored model of SNe Ia where unstable thermonuclear burning initiates in an accreting, Chandrasekhar-mass WD and forms an advancing flame. By several proposed physical processes, the rising, burning material triggers a detonation, which subsequently consumes and unbinds the WD. However, if a detonation is not triggered and the deflagration is too weak to unbind the star, a completely different scenario unfolds. We explore the failure of the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism of SNe Ia, and demonstrate through two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations the properties of failed-detonation SNe. We show that failed-detonation SNe expel a few 0.1 M ⊙ of burned and partially burned material and that a fraction of the material falls back onto the WD, polluting the remnant WD with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements that likely segregate to the core forming a WD whose core is iron rich. The remaining material is asymmetrically ejected at velocities comparable to the escape velocity from the WD, and in response, the WD is kicked to velocities of a few hundred km s-1. These kicks may unbind the binary and eject a runaway/hypervelocity WD. Although the energy and ejected mass of the failed-detonation SN are a fraction of typical thermonuclear SNe, they are likely to appear as subluminous low-velocity SNe Ia. Such failed detonations might therefore explain or are related to the observed branch of peculiar SNe Ia, such as the family of low-velocity subluminous SNe (SN 2002cx/SN 2008ha-like SNe).

  9. Test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Yokuda, E.

    1992-06-01

    This report presents a test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration (CRD). Air monitors will be used to sample for the tracer elements neodymium, terbium, and ytterbium, and dysprosium. The results from this air monitoring will be used to determine if the CRD is successful in controlling dust and minimizing contamination. Procedures and equipment specifications for the test are included.

  10. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  11. MOLDED SEALING ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bradford, B.W.; Skinner, W.J.

    1959-03-24

    Molded sealing elements suitable for use under conditions involving exposure to uranium hexafluoride vapor are described. Such sealing elements are made by subjecting graphitic carbons to a preliminary treatment with uranium hexafluoride vapor, and then incorporating polytetrafluorethylene in them. The resulting composition has good wear resistant and frictional properties and is resistant to disintegration by uranium hexafluoride over long periods of exposure.

  12. The Elements Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dkeidek, Iyad M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an educational game designed for first- or second-year high school students who have already studied themes related to the periodic table elements, such as their symbols, electronic configurations, properties, and uses. The game is designed to help students learn the symbols of the elements and their properties or uses in a fun, engaging…

  13. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  14. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man, man vs.…

  15. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium.

  16. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  17. Apparatus for and method of monitoring for breached fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Strain, Robert V.

    1983-01-01

    This invention teaches improved apparatus for the method of detecting a breach in cladded fuel used in a nuclear reactor. The detector apparatus uses a separate bypass loop for conveying part of the reactor coolant away from the core, and at least three separate delayed-neutron detectors mounted proximate this detector loop. The detectors are spaced apart so that the coolant flow time from the core to each detector is different, and these differences are known. The delayed-neutron activity at the detectors is a function of the dealy time after the reaction in the fuel until the coolant carrying the delayed-neutron emitter passes the respective detector. This time delay is broken down into separate components including an isotopic holdup time required for the emitter to move through the fuel from the reaction to the coolant at the breach, and two transit times required for the emitter now in the coolant to flow from the breach to the detector loop and then via the loop to the detector. At least two of these time components are determined during calibrated operation of the reactor. Thereafter during normal reactor operation, repeated comparisons are made by the method of regression approximation of the third time component for the best-fit line correlating measured delayed-neutron activity against activity that is approximated according to specific equations. The equations use these time-delay components and known parameter values of the fuel and of the part and emitting daughter isotopes.

  18. Apparatus for and method of monitoring for breached fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Strain, R.V.

    1981-04-28

    This invention teaches improved apparatus for the method of detecting a breach in cladded fuel used in a nuclear reactor. The detector apparatus uses a separate bypass loop for conveying part of the reactor coolant away from the core, and at least three separate delayed-neutron detectors mounted proximate this detector loop. The detectors are spaced apart so that the coolant flow time from the core to each detector is different, and these differences are known. The delayed-neutron activity at the detectors is a function of the delay time after the reaction in the fuel until the coolant carrying the delayed-neutron emitter passes the respective detector. This time delay is broken down into separate components including an isotopic holdup time required for the emitter to move through the fuel from the reaction to the coolant at the breach, and two transit times required for the emitter now in the coolant to flow from the breach to the detector loop and then via the loop to the detector.

  19. Monolithic freeform element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiontke, Sven R.

    2015-09-01

    For 10 years there has been the asphere as one of the new products to be accepted by the market. All parts of the chain design, production and measurement needed to learn how to treat the asphere and what it is helpful for. The aspheric optical element now is established and accepted as an equal optical element between other as a fast growing part of all the optical elements. Now we are focusing onto the next new element with a lot of potential, the optical freeform surface. Manufacturing results will be shown for fully tolerance optic including manufacturing, setup and optics configurations including measurement setup. The element itself is a monolith consisting of several optical surfaces that have to be aligned properly to each other. The freeform surface is measured for surface form tolerance (irregularity, slope, Zernike, PV).

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.