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Sample records for monkey hybrid modular

  1. Voltage-sensitive dyes reveal a modular organization in monkey striate cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasdel, Gary G.; Salama, Guy

    1986-06-01

    Voltage-sensitive dyes allow neuronal activity to be studied by non-invasive optical techniques. They provide an attractive means of investigating striate cortex, where important response properties are organized in two dimensions. In the present study, patterns of ocular dominance and orientation selectivity were obtained repeatedly from the same patch of cortex using the dye merocyanine oxazolone, together with current image-processing techniques. The patterns observed agree with most established features of monkey striate cortex and suggest a new unit of cortical organization; one that is modular in structure and which appears to link the organization of orientation selectivity with that of ocular dominance.

  2. A hybrid monkey search algorithm for clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yongquan; Luo, Qifang

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  3. A modular and hybrid connectionist system for speaker identification.

    PubMed

    Bennani, Y

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a modular/hybrid connectionist system for speaker identification. Modularity has emerged as a powerful technique for reducing the complexity of connectionist systems, and allowing a priori knowledge to be incorporated into their design. Text-independent speaker identification is an inherently complex task where the amount of training data is often limited. It thus provides an ideal domain to test the validity of the modular/hybrid connectionist approach. To achieve such identification, we develop, in this paper, an architecture based upon the cooperation of several connectionist modules, and a Hidden Markov Model module. When tested on a population of 102 speakers extracted from the DARPA-TIMIT database, perfect identification was obtained.

  4. Modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty. Experimental study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This prospective experimental study evaluated the surgical procedure and results of modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty in dogs. Methods Ten skeletally mature healthy mongrel dogs with weights varying between 19 and 27 kg were used. Cemented modular femoral stems and uncemented porous-coated acetabular cups were employed. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed before surgery and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 360 days post-operation. Results Excellent weight bearing was noticed in the operated limb in seven dogs. Dislocation followed by loosening of the prosthesis was noticed in two dogs, which were therefore properly treated with a femoral head osteotomy. Femoral fracture occurred in one dog, which was promptly treated with full implant removal and femoral osteosynthesis. Conclusions The canine modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty provided excellent functionality of the operated limb. PMID:21736758

  5. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1) was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID) mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis. PMID:20132560

  6. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, G.A.; Anderson, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide.

  7. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zorn, G A; Anderson, C W

    1981-01-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. Cells reconstructed from infected human karyoplasts and monkey cytoplasts expressed fiber, whereas cells reconstructed from infected monkey karyoplasts and human cytoplasts did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide. Furthermore, they suggest that the translational apparatus of monkey cells is competent to translate functional fiber mRNA synthesized in human cells. Images PMID:7218436

  8. Modular and Orthogonal Synthesis of Hybrid Polymers and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Dicker, Kevin T.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials scientists strive to develop polymeric materials with distinct chemical make-up, complex molecular architectures, robust mechanical properties and defined biological functions by drawing inspirations from biological systems. Salient features of biological designs include (1) repetitive presentation of basic motifs; and (2) efficient integration of diverse building blocks. Thus, an appealing approach to biomaterials synthesis is to combine synthetic and natural building blocks in a modular fashion employing novel chemical methods. Over the past decade, orthogonal chemistries have become powerful enabling tools for the modular synthesis of advanced biomaterials. These reactions require building blocks with complementary functionalities, occur under mild conditions in the presence of biological molecules and living cells and proceed with high yield and exceptional selectivity. These chemistries have facilitated the construction of complex polymers and networks in a step-growth fashion, allowing facile modulation of materials properties by simple variations of the building blocks. In this review, we first summarize features of several types of orthogonal chemistries. We then discuss recent progress in the synthesis of step growth linear polymers, dendrimers and networks that find application in drug delivery, 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. Overall, orthogonal reactions and modulular synthesis have not only minimized the steps needed for the desired chemical transformations but also maximized the diversity and functionality of the final products. The modular nature of the design, combined with the potential synergistic effect of the hybrid system, will likely result in novel hydrogel matrices with robust structures and defined functions. PMID:25572255

  9. Modular and orthogonal synthesis of hybrid polymers and networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Dicker, Kevin T; Jia, Xinqiao

    2015-03-28

    Biomaterials scientists strive to develop polymeric materials with distinct chemical make-up, complex molecular architectures, robust mechanical properties and defined biological functions by drawing inspirations from biological systems. Salient features of biological designs include (1) repetitive presentation of basic motifs; and (2) efficient integration of diverse building blocks. Thus, an appealing approach to biomaterials synthesis is to combine synthetic and natural building blocks in a modular fashion employing novel chemical methods. Over the past decade, orthogonal chemistries have become powerful enabling tools for the modular synthesis of advanced biomaterials. These reactions require building blocks with complementary functionalities, occur under mild conditions in the presence of biological molecules and living cells and proceed with high yield and exceptional selectivity. These chemistries have facilitated the construction of complex polymers and networks in a step-growth fashion, allowing facile modulation of materials properties by simple variations of the building blocks. In this review, we first summarize features of several types of orthogonal chemistries. We then discuss recent progress in the synthesis of step growth linear polymers, dendrimers and networks that find application in drug delivery, 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. Overall, orthogonal reactions and modulular synthesis have not only minimized the steps needed for the desired chemical transformations but also maximized the diversity and functionality of the final products. The modular nature of the design, combined with the potential synergistic effect of the hybrid system, will likely result in novel hydrogel matrices with robust structures and defined functions.

  10. Development and Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2013-01-02

    INL developed a bench–scale, modular hybrid plasma system for gas-phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was optimized for WO{sub 3} nanoparticle production and scale-model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development, many modifications were made to the system to resolve technical issues that surfaced and also to improve performance. All project tasks were completed except two optimization subtasks. Researchers were unable to complete these two subtasks, a four-hour and an eight-hour continuous powder production run at 1 lb/hr powder-feeding rate, due to major technical issues developed with the reactor system. The 4-hour run was attempted twice, and on both occasions, the run was terminated prematurely. The termination was due to (1) heavy material condensation on the modular electrodes, which led to system operational instability, and (2) pressure buildup in the reactor due to powder clogging of the exhaust gas and product transfer line. The modular electrode for the plasma system was significantly redesigned to address the material condensation problem on the electrodes. However, the cause for product powder clogging of the exhaust gas and product transfer line led to a pressure build up in the reactor that was undetected. Fabrication of the redesigned modular electrodes and additional components was completed near the end of the project life. However, insufficient resource was available to perform tests to evaluate the performance of the new modifications. More development work would be needed to resolve these problems prior to scaling. The technology demonstrated a surprising capability of synthesizing a single phase of meta-stable {delta}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from pure {alpha}-phase large Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The formation of {delta} -Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was surprising because this phase is meta-stable and only formed between 973–1073 K, and {delta} -Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is very difficult to synthesize as a single

  11. F-Term Hybrid Inflation Followed by Modular Inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Pallis, C.

    2009-05-01

    We consider the well motivated model of the (standard)supersymmetric(SUSY)F-term hybrid inflation(FHI) which can be realized close to the grand unification(GUT) scale. The predicted scalar spectral index n{sub s} cannot be smaller than 0.98 and can exceed unity including corrections from minimal supergravity(SUGRA), if the number of e-foldings corresponding to the pivot scale k{sub *} = 0.002/Mpc is around 50. These results are marginally consistent with the fitting of the five-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe(WMAP5) data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant, {lambda}CDM. However, n{sub s} can be reduced by restricting the number of e-foldings that k{sub *} suffered during FHI. The additional e-foldings required for solving the horizon and flatness problems can be generated by a subsequent stage of fast-roll [slow-roll]modular inflation(MI) realized by a string modulus which does [does not] acquire effective mass (m{sub s|eff}) before the onset of MI.

  12. MR CAT scan: a modular approach for hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, C; Hahn, D; Haase, A; Jakob, P M

    2000-07-01

    In this study, a modular concept for NMR hybrid imaging is presented. This concept essentially integrates different imaging modules in a sequential fashion and is therefore called CAT (combined acquisition technique). CAT is not a single specific measurement sequence, but rather a sequence design concept whereby distinct acquisition techniques with varying imaging parameters are employed in rapid succession in order to cover k-space. The power of the CAT approach is that it provides a high flexibility toward the acquisition optimization with respect to the available imaging time and the desired image quality. Important CAT sequence optimization steps include the appropriate choice of the k-space coverage ratio and the application of mixed bandwidth technology. Details of both the CAT methodology and possible CAT acquisition strategies, such as FLASH/EPI-, RARE/EPI- and FLASH/BURST-CAT are provided. Examples from imaging experiments in phantoms and healthy volunteers including mixed bandwidth acquisitions are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed CAT concept.

  13. Hybrid bioartificial liver support in cynomolgus monkeys with D-galactosamine-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Cheng, Yuan; Jian, Guo-Deng; Pan, Ming-Xin; Gao, Yi

    2014-12-14

    To evaluate a hybrid bioartificial liver support system (HBALSS) in cynomolgus monkeys with acute liver failure. To establish a model of acute liver failure, 0.3 g/kg of D-galactosamine was injected intravenously into cynomolgus monkeys. Chinese human liver cells were introduced into a perfusion bioreactor to carry out hybrid bioartificial liver support treatment. Forty-eight hours after the injection, one group of cynomolgus monkeys received HBALSS care, and a second experimental group received no treatment. Clinical manifestations of all animals, survival time, liver and kidney functions and serum biochemistry changes were recorded. Simultaneous detection of the number, viability and function of hepatocytes in the hybrid bioartificial liver were also performed. Forty-eight hours after the injection of D-galactosamine, serum biochemistry levels were significantly increased, whereas albumin levels and the Fischer index were significantly reduced compared to baseline (all Ps < 0.05). Of the ten monkeys in the HBALSS treatment group, five survived, with an average duration of survival of 128 ± 3 h. All cynomolgus monkeys in the control group died, with a duration of survival of 112 ± 2 h. Survival time was significantly longer with HBALSS treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number, viability and function of hepatocytes were maintained at a high level with HBALSS. The novel hybrid bioartificial liver plays a significant role in liver support by significantly reducing serum biochemistry levels and extending animal survival time.

  14. A Best Practice Modular Design of a Hybrid Course Delivery Structure for an Executive Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy E.; Wright, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights a best practice approach that showcases the highly successful deployment of a hybrid course delivery structure for an Operations core course in an Executive MBA Program. A key design element of the approach was the modular design of both the course itself and the learning materials. While other hybrid deployments may stress…

  15. A Best Practice Modular Design of a Hybrid Course Delivery Structure for an Executive Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy E.; Wright, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights a best practice approach that showcases the highly successful deployment of a hybrid course delivery structure for an Operations core course in an Executive MBA Program. A key design element of the approach was the modular design of both the course itself and the learning materials. While other hybrid deployments may stress…

  16. Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, M. A.; Abustan, I.; Hamzah, M. O.

    2013-06-01

    Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.

  17. Molecular data highlight hybridization in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri, Cebidae)

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Jeferson; Rodrigues-Filho, Luis Fernando da Silva; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hybridization has been reported increasingly frequently in recent years, fueling the debate on its role in the evolutionary history of species. Some studies have shown that hybridization is very common in captive New World primates, and hybrid offspring have phenotypes and physiological responses distinct from those of the "pure" parents, due to gene introgression. Here we used the TA15 Alu insertion to investigate hybridization in the genus Saimiri. Our results indicate the hybridization of Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis with S. sciureus macrodon, and S. b. boliviensis with S. ustus. Unexpectedly, some hybrids of both S. boliviensis peruviensis and S. b. boliviensis were homozygous for the absence of the insertion, which indicates that the hybrids were fertile. PMID:27801483

  18. Modular hybrid plasma reactor and related systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Grandy, Jon D.; Detering, Brent A.

    2010-06-22

    A device, method and system for generating a plasma is disclosed wherein an electrical arc is established and the movement of the electrical arc is selectively controlled. In one example, modular units are coupled to one another to collectively define a chamber. Each modular unit may include an electrode and a cathode spaced apart and configured to generate an arc therebetween. A device, such as a magnetic or electromagnetic device, may be used to selectively control the movement of the arc about a longitudinal axis of the chamber. The arcs of individual modules may be individually controlled so as to exhibit similar or dissimilar motions about the longitudinal axis of the chamber. In another embodiment, an inlet structure may be used to selectively define the flow path of matter introduced into the chamber such that it travels in a substantially circular or helical path within the chamber.

  19. Hybrid energy systems (HESs) using small modular reactors (SMRs)

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bragg-Sitton

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale nuclear reactors are traditionally operated for a singular purpose: steady-state production of dispatchable baseload electricity that is distributed broadly on the electric grid. While this implementation is key to a sustainable, reliable energy grid, small modular reactors (SMRs) offer new opportunities for increased use of clean nuclear energy for both electric and thermal ap plications in more locations – while still accommodating the desire to support renewable production sources.

  20. Modularity as a source of new morphological variation in the mandible of hybrid mice.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Sabrina; Alibert, Paul; Auffray, Jean-Christophe

    2012-08-08

    Hybridization is often seen as a process dampening phenotypic differences accumulated between diverging evolutionary units. For a complex trait comprising several relatively independent modules, hybridization may however simply generate new phenotypes, by combining into a new mosaic modules inherited from each parental groups and parts intermediate with respect to the parental groups. We tested this hypothesis by studying mandible size and shape in a set of first and second generation hybrids resulting from inbred wild-derived laboratory strains documenting two subspecies of house mice, Musmusculus domesticus and Musmusculus musculus. Phenotypic variation of the mandible was divided into nested partitions of developmental, evolutionary and functional modules. The size and shape of the modules were differently influenced by hybridization. Some modules seemed to be the result of typical additive effects with hybrids intermediate between parents, some displayed a pattern expected in the case of monogenic dominance, whereas in other modules, hybrids were transgressive. The result is interpreted as the production of novel mandible morphologies. Beyond this modularity, modules in functional interaction tended to display significant covariations. Modularity emerges as a source of novel morphological variation by its simple potential to combine different parts of the parental phenotypes into a novel offspring mosaic of modules. This effect is partly counterbalanced by bone remodeling insuring an integration of the mosaic mandible into a functional ensemble, adding a non-genetic component to the production of transgressive phenotypes in hybrids.

  1. Assessing the techno-economics of modular hybrid solar thermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jin Han; Chinnici, Alfonso; Dally, Bassam; Nathan, Graham

    2017-06-01

    A techno-economic assessment was performed on modular hybrid solar thermal (in particular, solar power tower) systems with combustion from natural gas as backup to provide a continuous supply of electricity. Two different configurations were compared, i.e. a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device, and a Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH), which is a reference hybrid solar thermal system with a standalone solar-only cavity receiver and a backup boiler. The techno-economic benefits were assessed by varying the size of the modular components, i.e. the heliostat field and the solar receivers. It was found that for modularization to be cost effective requires more than the increased learning from higher production of a larger number of smaller units, such as access to alternative, lower-cost manufacturing methods and/or the use of a low melting point Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) such as sodium to reduce parasitic losses. In particular, for a plant with 30 units of 1MWth modules, the Levelized Cost of Electricity is competitive compared with a single unit of 30MWth after ˜100 plants are installed for both the HSRC and SGH if the systems employ the use of sodium as the heat transfer fluid.

  2. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lansey, Kevin; Hortsman, Chris

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  3. Protein modularity, cooperative binding, and hybrid regulatory states underlie transcriptional network diversification

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher R.; Booth, Lauren N.; Sorrells, Trevor R.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We examine how different transcriptional network structures can evolve from an ancestral network. By characterizing how the ancestral mode of gene regulation for genes specific to a-type cells in yeast species evolved from an activating paradigm to a repressing one, we show that regulatory protein modularity, conversion of one cis-regulatory sequence to another, distribution of binding energy among protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, and exploitation of ancestral network features all contribute to the evolution of a novel regulatory mode. The formation of this derived mode of regulation did not disrupt the ancestral mode and thereby created a hybrid regulatory state where both means of transcription regulation (ancestral and derived) contribute to the conserved expression pattern of the network. Finally, we show how this hybrid regulatory state has resolved in different ways in different lineages to generate the diversity of regulatory network structures observed in modern species. PMID:23021217

  4. Protein modularity, cooperative binding, and hybrid regulatory states underlie transcriptional network diversification.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christopher R; Booth, Lauren N; Sorrells, Trevor R; Johnson, Alexander D

    2012-09-28

    We examine how different transcriptional network structures can evolve from an ancestral network. By characterizing how the ancestral mode of gene regulation for genes specific to a-type cells in yeast species evolved from an activating paradigm to a repressing one, we show that regulatory protein modularity, conversion of one cis-regulatory sequence to another, distribution of binding energy among protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, and exploitation of ancestral network features all contribute to the evolution of a novel regulatory mode. The formation of this derived mode of regulation did not disrupt the ancestral mode and thereby created a hybrid regulatory state where both means of transcription regulation (ancestral and derived) contribute to the conserved expression pattern of the network. Finally, we show how this hybrid regulatory state has resolved in different ways in different lineages to generate the diversity of regulatory network structures observed in modern species.

  5. Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor for Low Cost Bulk Production of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Kong

    2011-12-01

    INL developed a bench scale modular hybrid plasma system for gas phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was being optimized for WO3 nanoparticles production and scale model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development many modifications had been done to the system to resolve technical issues that had surfaced and also to improve the performance. All project tasks had been completed except 2 optimization subtasks. These 2 subtasks, a 4-hour and an 8-hour continuous powder production runs at 1 lb/hr powder feeding rate, were unable to complete due to technical issues developed with the reactor system. The 4-hour run had been attempted twice and both times the run was terminated prematurely. The modular electrode for the plasma system was significantly redesigned to address the technical issues. Fabrication of the redesigned modular electrodes and additional components had been completed at the end of the project life. However, not enough resource was available to perform tests to evaluate the performance of the new modifications. More development work would be needed to resolve these problems prior to scaling. The technology demonstrated a surprising capability of synthesizing a single phase of meta-stable delta-Al2O3 from pure alpha-phase large Al2O3 powder. The formation of delta-Al2O3 was surprising because this phase is meta-stable and only formed between 973-1073 K, and delta-Al2O3 is very difficult to synthesize as a single phase. Besides the specific temperature window to form this phase, this meta-stable phase may have been stabilized by nanoparticle size formed in a high temperature plasma process. This technology may possess the capability to produce unusual meta-stable nanophase materials that would be otherwise difficult to produce by conventional methods. A 300 kW INL modular hybrid plasma pilot scale model reactor had been projected using the experimental data from PPG Industries 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. The

  6. Generation of multiple bioactive macrolides by hybrid modular polyketide synthases in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeo Joon; Beck, Brian J; Kim, Beom Seok; Kang, Han Young; Reynolds, Kevin A; Sherman, David H

    2002-02-01

    The plasmid-based replacement of the multifunctional protein subunits of the pikromycin PKS in S. venezuelae by the corresponding subunits from heterologous modular PKSs resulted in recombinant strains that produce both 12- and 14-membered ring macrolactones with predicted structural alterations. In all cases, novel macrolactones were produced and further modified by the DesVII glycosyltransferase and PikC hydroxylase, leading to biologically active macrolide structures. These results demonstrate that hybrid PKSs in S. venezuelae can produce a multiplicity of new macrolactones that are modified further by the highly flexible DesVII glycosyltransferase and PikC hydroxylase tailoring enzymes. This work demonstrates the unique capacity of the S. venezuelae pikromycin pathway to expand the toolbox of combinatorial biosynthesis and to accelerate the creation of novel biologically active natural products.

  7. Modular approach for conversion to the ion-hybrid wave and {alpha} gyroresonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.N.; Morehead, J.J.; Brizard, A.J.; Tracy, E.R. |

    1997-04-01

    Linear conversion of an incoming magnetosonic wave (a.k.a. fast or compressional wave) to an ion-hybrid wave can be considered as a 3-step process in ray phase space. This is demonstrated by casting the cold-fluid model into the Friedland-Kaufman normal form for linear mode conversion. First, the incoming magnetosonic ray (MSR) converts a fraction of its action to an {ital intermediate} ion-hybrid ray (IHR), with the transmitted ray proceeding through the conversion layer. The IHR propagates in k-space to a {ital second} conversion point, where it converts in turn a fraction of its action into a {ital reflected} MSR, with the remainder of the its action constituting the {ital converted} IHR. The modular approach gives {ital exact} agreement with the more standard Budden formulation for the transmission, reflection and conversion coefficients, but has the important advantage of exposing the intermediate IHR. The existence of the intermediate IHR has important physical consequences as it can resonate with {alpha} particles. We estimate the time-integrated damping coefficient between the two conversions and show that {integral}{gamma}dt is of order {minus}100, thus the IH wave is completely annihilated between conversions and transfers its energy to the {alpha}{close_quote}s. This suggests that proposals to use the IH mode for current drive or DT heating are likely to fail in the presence of fusion {alpha}{close_quote}s. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. The VRLA modular wound design for 42 V mild hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinidad, F.; Gimeno, C.; Gutiérrez, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sainz, J.; Valenciano, J.

    Mild hybrid vehicles with 42 V electrical systems require advanced batteries with low cost, very high reliability and peak power performance. Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries could provide better performance/cost ratio than any other electrochemical couples, by improving their cycle life performance at partial state-of-charge (SoC), charge acceptance of the negative plate and thermal management under power assist conditions. Modular wound designs are being developed for this application, because they can combine the best attributes of the high power VRLA designs (low resistance and high compression) with a more efficient thermal management and could improve reliability by reducing the potential cell failures in manufacturing (better quality control could be assured for individual 3-cell modules than for complete 18-cell block batteries). Thermal management is an important issue for VRLA batteries in a power assist cycling profile. Although water cooling is very efficient, it is not economical and increases the weight of the complete storage system. The modular VRLA design allows air circulation around the external walls of every cell in order to maintain the temperature around 40 °C, even at very high power cycling profiles. In order to increase the life at higher depth-of-discharge (DoD) and consequently to optimise the weight of the complete battery systems, a new 6 V module has been designed with improved thermal management features. Cycle life performance under partial-SoC conditions (around 60% SoC) has been tested in both 6 and 12 V modules. The basic power assist profile as specified by the European car manufacturers is composed of a high power discharge (boost) period followed by a rest (cruise) and recharge in three steps (regenerative braking). Very good results have been obtained for 12 V VRLA spiral wound batteries under power assist profile (more than 200,000 cycles at 1.25% DoD, equivalent to 2500 times the nominal capacity), but smaller 6

  9. Fabrication of a modular hybrid chip to mimic endothelial-lined microvessels in flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitingolo, Gabriele; Vecchione, Raffaele; Falanga, Andrea P.; Guarnieri, Daniela; Netti, Paolo A.

    2017-03-01

    In vitro microvessel models exploiting microfluidic channels have been developed to replicate cardiovascular flow conditions and to more closely mimic the blood vessels by traditionally using plasma or solvent evaporation bonding methods. The drawback of these methods is represented by an irreversible sealing which prevents internal accessibility as well as the reuse of the device. This paper presents a novel, simple, and low cost procedure to fabricate a modular and reusable chip with endotheliazed microvessels in a hybrid configuration based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and polydimethylsiloxane presenting a temporary magnetic bonding. In details, small magnets are embedded in the two poly(methyl methacrylate) substrates each of them carrying a thin polydimethylsiloxane layer which provides enhanced sealing during flow conditions as compared to conventional procedures and makes the microchannels circular as preferred in cell culture. Finally, an endothelial cell layer is formed by culturing brain endothelial bEnd.3 cells inside the proposed microchannels and characterized upon microchannel aperture, demonstrating the preservation of the cell layer.

  10. Survey of Alouatta caraya, the black-and-gold howler monkey, and Alouatta guariba clamitans, the brown howler monkey, in a contact zone, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: evidence for hybridization.

    PubMed

    Bicca-Marques, Júlio César; Prates, Helissandra Mattjie; de Aguiar, Fernanda Rodrigues Cunha; Jones, Clara B

    2008-10-01

    Sympatry and natural hybridization between howler monkey taxa (Alouatta spp.) has only recently being confirmed in the wild. Surveys in areas of potential contact between the distribution of two taxa have shown that sympatry is rare, although more common than previously known. Here we report the results of a survey conducted in a contact zone between the only two sexually dichromatic howler monkey taxa, Alouatta caraya and A. guariba clamitans, in São Francisco de Assis, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Our survey, covering an area of about 400 ha at the Cerro dos Negros (29 degrees 33'50''-29 degrees 35'10''S, 54 degrees 58'40''-54 degrees 59'50''W; approximately 100-279 m a.s.l.), was successful in locating seven black-and-gold and one brown howler monkey social groups living syntopically. Black-and-gold group size ranged from 5 to 15 individuals, whereas the brown group was composed of 7 individuals. The pelage color of three adult males belonging to different black-and-gold groups and another adult male belonging to the brown howler group presented a mosaic of red or rufous and black. These adult males and an adult female living in another black-and-gold group are putative hybrids. Therefore, it appears that pre-zygotic reproductive isolation has not evolved, at least not completely, between these howler monkey species, corroborating previous reports for these and other Alouatta taxa. Future genetic studies need to confirm the occurrence of hybridization in this contact zone, and to determine the viability and fertility of hybrids and their possible offspring. In addition, there is no evidence supporting the existence of significant segregation in habitat and resource utilization by black-and-gold and brown howler monkeys.

  11. Spontaneous mutants of the adenovirus-simian virus 40 hybrid, Ad2/sup +/ND3, that grow efficiently in monkey cells

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.W.

    1981-05-01

    An attempt was made to isolate spontaneous mutants of adenovirus type 2 and of the adenovirus-SV40 hybrids, Ad2/sup +/ND3 and Ad2/sup +/ND5, that would grow efficiently on monkey cells. Virus stocks were serially passaged through the semipermissive established monkey line CV-1. After five serial passages in the absence of intentional mutagenesis, only stocks of Ad2/sup +/ND3 yielded significant numbers of variants that plaqued with similar efficiency on human and on monkey cell monolayers. Four independent Ad2/sup +/ND3 variants, designated hr600, hr601, hr602, and hr603, have been isolated and partially characterized. No difference was found between the genomes of these variants and the genome of parental Ad2/sup +/ND3 by restriction enzyme analysis or by the analysis of heteroduplexes between Ad2/sup +/ND3 (or variant) DNA and DNA of the hybrid Ad2/sup +/ND1.

  12. Photo-cross-linkable methacrylated gelatin and hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel for modularly engineering biomimetic osteon.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yicong; Liu, Xiaolu; Wei, Dan; Sun, Jing; Xiao, Wenqian; Zhao, Huan; Guo, Likun; Wei, Qingrong; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-05-20

    Modular tissue engineering holds great potential in regenerating natural complex tissues by engineering three-dimensional modular scaffolds with predefined geometry and biological characters. In modular tissue-like construction, a scaffold with an appropriate mechanical rigidity for assembling fabrication and high biocompatibility for cell survival is the key to the successful bioconstruction. In this work, a series of composite hydrogels (GH0, GH1, GH2, and GH3) based on a combination of methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) was exploited to enhance hydrogel mechanical rigidity and promote cell functional expression for osteon biofabrication. These composite hydrogels presented a lower swelling ratio, higher mechanical moduli, and better biocompatibility when compared to the pure GelMA hydrogel. Furthermore, on the basis of the composite hydrogel and photolithograph technology, we successfully constructed an osteon-like concentric double-ring structure in which the inner ring encapsulating human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) was designed to imitate blood vessel tubule while the outer ring encapsulating human osteoblast-like cells (MG63s) acts as part of bone. During the coculture period, MG63s and HUVECs exhibited not only satisfying growth status but also the enhanced genic expression of osteogenesis-related and angiogenesis-related differentiations. These results demonstrate this GelMA-HA composite hydrogel system is promising for modular tissue engineering.

  13. Effect of ancestry on behavioral variation in two species of howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata) and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lucy; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Dias, Pedro Américo D; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Kitchen, Dawn M; Bergman, Thore J

    2014-09-01

    Social differences between primate species may result from both flexible responses to current conditions or fixed differences across taxa, yet we know little about the relative importance of these factors. Here, we take advantage of a naturally occurring hybrid zone in Tabasco, Mexico to characterize the variation in social structure among two endangered howler monkey species, Alouatta pigra and A. palliata, and their hybrids. Work in pure populations has suggested that A. pigra females maintain closer proximity, exhibit higher rates of affiliation, and lower rates of agonism than A. palliata females, but we do not know what accounts for this difference. Using identical data collection and analysis methods across three populations, we first seek to confirm previously reported interspecific differences in social structure across all sexes. We next examine: (1) how female social relationships changed with ancestry (by comparing pure and hybrid individuals); (2) how female social relationships changed with group size (A. pigra have smaller groups than A. palliata); and (3) whether female social relationships differed between two taxonomic groups within a single forest fragment (thus controlling for ecological variation). We confirmed previously described species differences, including closer proximity among females than among males in all populations. We also found that smaller groups maintained closer proximity. However, even after accounting for variation in group size, A. pigra females had closer proximity and more affiliation than A. palliata females. Furthermore, differences between pigra-like and palliata-like hybrids paralleled differences between pure populations and persisted even after controlling for ecological variation. Together, our results suggest that flexibility cannot account for all of the social differences between A. pigra and A. palliata and indicate an important genetic component in primate social behavior.

  14. Application of a hybrid modular acquisition system to the control of a suspended interferometer with electrostatic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; Barone, F.; Boiano, A.; Rosa, R. D.; Garufi, F.; Milano, L.; Mosca, S.; Perreca, A.; Persichetti, G.; Romano, R.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype developed for the implementation of distributed monitoring and control systems. The system, an alternative to the VME-UDP/IP based system, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and 16-bit DAC module at 800 kHz, managed by an ALTERA FPGA. Experimental tests have demonstrated that this architecture allows the implementation of distributed control systems with delay time t < 30μs, on single channel, using a standard laptop PC for the real-time computation. The system was used for the longitudinal control of the end mirror of a suspended Michelson Interferometer, performed through an electrostatic actuators, giving effective performances. The preliminary results are also reported.

  15. The adenovirus type 2-simian virus 40 hybrid virus Ad2+ND4 requires deletion variants to grow in monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, A M; Westphal, H

    1983-01-01

    The Ad2+ND4 virus is an adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) recombination. The Ad2 genome of this recombinant has a rearrangement within early region 3; Ad2 DNA sequences between map positions 81.3 and 85.5 have been deleted, and the SV40 DNA sequences between map positions 0.11 and 0.626 have been inserted into the deletion in an 81.3-0.626 orientation. Nonhybrid Ad2 is defective in monkey cells; however, the Ad2+ND4 virus can replicate in monkey cells due to the expression of the SV40-enhancing function encoded by the DNA insert. Stocks of the Ad2+ND4 hybrid were produced in primary monkey cells by using the progeny of a three-step plaque purification procedure and were considered to be homogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions because they induced plaques in primary monkey cells by first-order kinetics. By studying the kinetics of plaque induction in continuous lines (BSC-1 and CV-1) of monkey cells, we have found that stocks (prepared with virions before and after plaque purification) of Ad2+ND4 are actually heterogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions and Ad2+ND4 deletion variants that lack SV40 and frequently Ad2 DNA sequences at the left Ad2-SV40 junction. Due to the defectiveness of the Ad2+ND4 virus, the production of progeny in BSC-1 and CV-1 cells requires complementation between the Ad2+ND4 genome and the genome of an Ad2+ND4 deletion variant. Since the deletion variants that have been obtained from Ad2+ND4 stocks do not express the SV40-enhancing function in that they cannot produce progeny in monkey cells, we conclude that they are providing an Ad2 component that is essential for the production of Ad2+ND4 progeny. These data imply that the Ad2+ND4 virus is incapable of replicating in singly infected primary monkey cells without generating deletion variants that are missing various amounts of DNA around the left Ad2-SV40 junction in the hybrid genome. As the deletion variants that arise from the Ad2+ND4 virus are created by nonhomologous

  16. The hybrid delay task: Can capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) sustain a delay after an initial choice to do so?

    PubMed Central

    Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina; Bramlett, Jessica; Tierno, Valeria; McIntyre, Joseph M.; Addessi, Elsa; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Choosing to wait for a better outcome (delay choice) and sustaining the delay prior to that outcome (delay maintenance) are both prerequisites for successful self control in intertemporal choices. However, most existing experimental methods test these skills in isolation from each other, and no significant correlation has been observed in performance across these tasks. In this study we introduce a new paradigm, the hybrid delay task, which combines an initial delay choice with a subsequent delay maintenance stage. This allows testing how often choosing to wait is paired with the actual ability to do so. We tested 18 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) from two laboratories in various conditions, and we found that subjects frequently chose the delayed reward but then failed to wait for it, due to poor delay maintenance. However, performance improved with experience and different behavioral responses for error correction were evident. These findings have far reaching implications: if such a high error rate was observed also in other species (possibly including Homo sapiens), this may indicate that delay choice tasks that make use of salient, prepotent stimuli do not reliably assess generalized self control, insofar as choosing to wait does not entail always being able to do so. PMID:23274585

  17. Structural performance of a hybrid FRP-aluminum modular triangular Truss system subjected to various loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Huang, Yaxin; Zhao, Qilin; Li, Fei; Li, Feng; Gao, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid FRP-aluminum truss system has been employed in a two-rut modular bridge superstructure composed of twin inverted triangular trusses. The actual flexural behavior of a one-rut truss has been previously investigated under the on-axis loading test; however, the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to an off-axis load is still not fully understood. In this paper, a geometrical linear finite element model is introduced and validated by the on-axis loading test; the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to off-axis load was numerically obtained; the dissimilarities of the structural performance between the two different loading cases are investigated in detail. The results indicated that (1) the structural behavior of the off-axis load differs from that of the on-axis load, and the off-axis load is the critical loading condition controlling the structural performance of the triangular truss; (2) under the off-axis load, the FRP trussed members and connectors bear certain out-of-plane bending moments and are subjected to a complicated stress state; and (3) the stress state of these members does not match that of the initial design, and optimization for the redesign of these members is needed, especially for the pretightened teeth connectors.

  18. Structural Performance of a Hybrid FRP-Aluminum Modular Triangular Truss System Subjected to Various Loading Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongdong; Huang, Yaxin; Zhao, Qilin; Li, Fei; Gao, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid FRP-aluminum truss system has been employed in a two-rut modular bridge superstructure composed of twin inverted triangular trusses. The actual flexural behavior of a one-rut truss has been previously investigated under the on-axis loading test; however, the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to an off-axis load is still not fully understood. In this paper, a geometrical linear finite element model is introduced and validated by the on-axis loading test; the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to off-axis load was numerically obtained; the dissimilarities of the structural performance between the two different loading cases are investigated in detail. The results indicated that (1) the structural behavior of the off-axis load differs from that of the on-axis load, and the off-axis load is the critical loading condition controlling the structural performance of the triangular truss; (2) under the off-axis load, the FRP trussed members and connectors bear certain out-of-plane bending moments and are subjected to a complicated stress state; and (3) the stress state of these members does not match that of the initial design, and optimization for the redesign of these members is needed, especially for the pretightened teeth connectors. PMID:25254254

  19. Small modular reactor modeling using modelica for nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems applications

    DOE PAGES

    Mikkelson, Daniel; Chang, Chih -Wei; Cetiner, Sacit M.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Here, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research and development (R&D) that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet grid demand and industrial thermal energy needs [1]. One hybridization approach being investigated by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources to better manage overall energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and transportation sectors.

  20. A modular molecular photovoltaic system based on phospholipid/alkanethiol hybrid bilayers: photocurrent generation and modulation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Jiang, Kai; Zhan, Wei

    2011-10-21

    Monolayer quantities of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), incorporated with either fullerenes or ruthenium tris(bipyridyl) (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) complexes, were formed on ferrocene-terminated C11-alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) through lipid fusion. Thus formed hybrid structures are characterized by quartz crystal microbalance, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and impedance analysis. In comparison to lipid monolayers deposited on C12-alkanethiol SAMs, photocurrent generation from these ferrocene-based structures is significantly modulated, displaying attenuated anodic photocurrents and enhanced cathodic photocurrents. While a similar trend was observed for the two photoagents studied, the degree of such modulations was always found to be greater in fullerene-incorporated bilayers. These findings are evaluated in the context of the film structure, energetics of the involved photo(electrochemical) species and cross-membrane electron-transfer processes.

  1. Infant hybrids in a newly formed mixed-species group of howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans and Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Ilaria; Holzmann, Ingrid; Di Bitetti, Mario S

    2008-10-01

    Natural hybridisation between species has been reported in several primate taxa. In the Neotropics, there is increasing evidence of this phenomenon in howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) in contact zones between species. We describe the first known case of formation of a mixed-species group, and two cases of putative infant hybrids between the brown howler (Alouatta guariba clamitans) and the black howler (A. caraya) in Misiones, Argentina. For 2 years, we followed a group consisting of one adult male and two adult female brown howlers and one adult female black howler. The adult female black howler was observed to copulate twice with brown howler males, and never with black howler males. In December 2006, this female was carrying an infant with a hybrid morphotype. This infant died at approximately 1.5 months of age. In November 2007, the same female had another putative hybrid newborn. This infant male died together with all members of his group during a yellow fever outbreak in early 2008. The lower frequency of mixed-species groups and hybrids at our site compared with other contact zones reported in the literature, suggests that the incidence of natural hybridisation between howler species differs depending on local factors such as population demography and landscape fragmentation.

  2. Carbon Modular Orthosis (Ca.M.O.): An innovative hybrid modular ankle-foot orthosis to tune the variable rehabilitation needs in hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Tavernese, E; Petrarca, M; Rosellini, G; Di Stanislao, E; Pisano, A; Di Rosa, G; Castelli, E

    2017-01-01

    Hemiplegic Celebral Palsy (CP) children commonly use AFO orthoses as walking aids. It is known that AFOs may have a detrimental effect on gait. To enhance mechanical properties of AFOs we developed an innovative, custom-made, carbon, ankle-foot orthosis (Ca.M.O) which offers the opportunity to tune its response to the patient's gait characteristics and/or functional maturity. To assess the efficacy of Ca.M.O. in improving gait in a group of hemiplegic CP children and to compare its performances with those of commonly prescribed AFO. A clinical and instrumental gait analysis was performed on a group of 15 spastic hemiplegic children (WINTERS-GAGE type I-II) walking barefoot, with commonly prescribed AFOs and with Ca.M.O.Temporal, kinematic and kinetic data were collected with an 8 cameras optoelectronic system and 2 force plates. Studied variables were comparable walking with Ca.M.O. and with the commonly prescribed AFO and are significantly different (p < 0.01) with respect to barefoot condition. Both types of orthoses normalize the kinematics of the first and second ankle rocker. The main advantage of Ca.M.O. is its modularity that allows to tune its effect on gait in relationship with the progress or involution of the child's functional development.

  3. Modular pump head design of diffused, metal, and hybrid pump geometry for diode-side-pumped high power Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Sundar, R; Ranganathan, K; Hedaoo, P; Bindra, K S

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, we present a comparative study on pump heads for a high power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser. The pump head is a modular type, which is in the form of discs, with each disc holding three pump diodes kept at 120° with respect to each other. Unabsorbed pump light from the active medium is reflected by reflectors mounted adjacent to the pump diodes. The performance of a high power pump head made of modular discs mounted with specular or diffused type reflectors was studied. Hybrid pump geometry was also investigated, where the pump head is made up of discs loaded with metal and diffused reflectors, alternately. The discs are loaded around the active medium in such a way that successive discs are rotated by sixty degrees with respect to each other. Fluorescence profiles, thermal lensing, laser output power, and M2 values were studied for pump heads made up of metal, diffused, and hybrid type reflectors. All of the pump heads were studied for three different resonator lengths to maximize the output power with the best beam quality. The experimental results show that the diffused reflector-based geometry in a sixty degree rotated configuration produced the maximum output power and best beam quality in terms of the M2 value.

  4. Modular Rapid E-Learning Framework (MORELF) in Desktop Virtualization Environment: An Effective Hybrid Implementation in Nurse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakkilic, Alattin

    2015-01-01

    Generally it is not easy for an instructor to prepare and deliver electronic courses via e-learning. Therefore it is necessary to work and develop an easy system. In this context module technology was used to for provide modularity in conducting educational development of e-learning course. Then, rapid e-learning was used for more quick and easy…

  5. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) in monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi and Alouatta pigra) and crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus and C. acutus-C. moreletti hybrids) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Loza-Rubio, E; Rojas-Anaya, E; López-Ramírez, R Del C; Saiz, J C; Escribano-Romero, E

    2016-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic viral pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes (vectors) and birds (natural hosts) with equids, humans, and other vertebrates acting as dead-end hosts. WNV activity in Mexico has been reported in several domestic and wild fauna and in humans, and the virus has been isolated from birds, mosquitoes, and humans. However, no serological studies have been conducted in monkeys, and only two in a limited number of crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii). Here we present data on the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against WNV in 53 healthy wild monkeys (49 Ateles geoffroyi and four Alouatta pigra), and 80 semi-captive healthy crocodiles (60 C. acutus and 20 C. acutus-C. moreletti hybrids) sampled during 2012. None of the monkey sera neutralized WNV, whereas 55% of the crocodile sera presented neutralizing antibodies against WNV. These results can contribute to the design of surveillance programmes in Mexico.

  6. Playing Modular Puzzle with Adhesion/Growth-Regulatory Galectins: Design and Testing of a Hybrid to Unravel Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Vértesy, Sabine; Michalak, Malwina; Manning, Joachim C; Andre, Sabine; Kubler, Dieter; Kopitz, Jurgen; Kaltner, Herbert; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The potent multifunctionality of human galectins is based on their modular structure in a not yet fully understood manner. A strategy to dissect the contributions of individual sequence stretches to lectin activity is based on engineering variants of the natural proteins, which are composed of novel combinations of distinct parts. On proof-of-principle level, we here describe the design of a hybrid constituted by the N-terminal tail of chimera-type galectin-3 and the Nterminal carbohydrate recognition domain of tandem-repeat-type galectin-8, its production, purification and its serine phosphorylation characteristic for galectin- 3's tail. As measured for the respective parental proteins, its binding to (neo)glycoproteins is specific for β-galactosides and inhibitable by lactose, with KD-value closer to galectin-8 than galectin-3. Cell surface staining indicated similarity of the hybrid's reactivity to O-glycans and sensitivity for sialylation to respective properties of tandem-repeattype galectin-8 and its N-terminal domain. Applied as histochemical tool on tissue sections of murine jejunum and epididymis, intense lactose-inhibitable signals were recorded intracellularly, with a distribution profile akin to that of galectin-3. Tested as agglutinin, the hybrid was potent, excelling wild-type control galectins. The chimera-type design can thus serve as platform for tuning crosslinking activity.

  7. A hybrid pulse combining topology utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Liu, Yuhao; Ren, Ziyuan; He, Jiaxin; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Minjun

    2017-03-01

    Numerous applications driven by pulsed voltage require pulses to be with high amplitude, high repetitive frequency, and narrow width, which could be satisfied by utilizing avalanche transistors. The output improvement is severely limited by power capacities of transistors. Pulse combining is an effective approach to increase the output amplitude while still adopting conventional pulse generating modules. However, there are drawbacks in traditional topologies including the saturation tendency of combining efficiency and waveform oscillation. In this paper, a hybrid pulse combining topology was adopted utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer. The factors affecting the combining efficiency were determined including the output time synchronization of Marx circuits, and the quantity and position of magnetic cores. The numbers of the parallel modules and the stages were determined by the output characteristics of each combining method. Experimental results illustrated the ability of generating pulses with 2-14 kV amplitude, 7-11 ns width, and a maximum 10 kHz repetitive rate on a matched 50-300 Ω resistive load. The hybrid topology would be a convinced pulse combining method for similar nanosecond pulse generators based on the solid-state switches.

  8. A hybrid pulse combining topology utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Liu, Yuhao; Ren, Ziyuan; He, Jiaxin; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Minjun

    2017-03-01

    Numerous applications driven by pulsed voltage require pulses to be with high amplitude, high repetitive frequency, and narrow width, which could be satisfied by utilizing avalanche transistors. The output improvement is severely limited by power capacities of transistors. Pulse combining is an effective approach to increase the output amplitude while still adopting conventional pulse generating modules. However, there are drawbacks in traditional topologies including the saturation tendency of combining efficiency and waveform oscillation. In this paper, a hybrid pulse combining topology was adopted utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer. The factors affecting the combining efficiency were determined including the output time synchronization of Marx circuits, and the quantity and position of magnetic cores. The numbers of the parallel modules and the stages were determined by the output characteristics of each combining method. Experimental results illustrated the ability of generating pulses with 2-14 kV amplitude, 7-11 ns width, and a maximum 10 kHz repetitive rate on a matched 50-300 Ω resistive load. The hybrid topology would be a convinced pulse combining method for similar nanosecond pulse generators based on the solid-state switches.

  9. Quantitative bioanalysis of antibody-conjugated payload in monkey plasma using a hybrid immuno-capture LC-MS/MS approach: Assay development, validation, and a case study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Kozhich, Alexander; Passmore, David; Gu, Huidong; Wong, Richard; Zambito, Frank; Rangan, Vangipuram S; Myler, Heather; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex molecules composed of two pharmacologically distinct components, the cytotoxic payload and the antibody. The measurement of the payload molecules that are attached to the antibody in vivo is important for the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of ADCs, and can also provide distinct information compared to the antibody-related analytes. However, analyzing the antibody-conjugated payload is challenging and in some cases may not be feasible. The in vivo change in drug antibody ratio (DAR), due to deconjugation, biotransformation or other clearance phenomena, generates unique and additional challenges for ADC analysis in biological samples. Here, we report a novel hybrid approach with immuno-capture of the ADC, payload cleavage by specific enzyme, and LC-MS/MS of the cleaved payload to quantitatively measure the concentration of payload molecules still attached to the antibody via linker in plasma. The ADC reference material used for the calibration curve is not likely to be identical to the ADC measured in study samples due to the change in DAR distribution over the PK time course. The assay clearly demonstrated that there was no bias in the measurement of antibody-conjugated payload for ADC with varying DAR, which thus allowed accurate quantification even when the DAR distribution dynamically changes in vivo. This hybrid assay was fully validated based on a combination of requirements for both chromatographic and ligand binding methods, and was successfully applied to support a GLP safety study in monkeys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modular entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  11. Monkey Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  12. Monkey Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  13. A solar receiver-storage modular cascade based on porous ceramic structures for hybrid sensible/thermochemical solar energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, Christos; de Oliveira, Lamark; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The current state-of-the-art solar heat storage concept in air-operated Solar Tower Power Plants is to store the solar energy provided during on-sun operation as sensible heat in porous solid materials that operate as recuperators during off-sun operation. The technology is operationally simple; however its storage capacity is limited to 1.5 hours. An idea for extending this capacity is to render this storage concept from "purely" sensible to "hybrid" sensible/ thermochemical one, via coating the porous heat exchange modules with oxides of multivalent metals for which their reduction/oxidation reactions are accompanied by significant heat effects, or by manufacturing them entirely of such oxides. In this way solar heat produced during on-sun operation can be used (in addition to sensibly heating the porous solid) to power the endothermic reduction of the oxide from its state with the higher metal valence to that of the lower; the thermal energy can be entirely recovered by the reverse exothermic oxidation reaction (in addition to sensible heat) during off-sun operation. Such sensible and thermochemical storage concepts were tested on a solar-irradiated receiver- heat storage module cascade for the first time. Parametric studies performed so far involved the comparison of three different SiC-based receivers with respect to their capability of supplying solar-heated air at temperatures sufficient for the reduction of the oxides, the effect of air flow rate on the temperatures achieved within the storage module, as well as the comparison of different porous storage media made of cordierite with respect to their sensible storage capacity.

  14. Modular multichannel surface plasmon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuert, G.; Kufer, S.; Benoit, M.; Gaub, H. E.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a modular multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometer on the basis of a commercially available hybrid sensor chip. Due to its modularity this inexpensive and easy to use setup can readily be adapted to different experimental environments. High temperature stability is achieved through efficient thermal coupling of individual SPR units. With standard systems the performance of the multichannel instrument was evaluated. The absorption kinetics of a cysteamine monolayer, as well as the concentration dependence of the specific receptor-ligand interaction between biotin and streptavidin was measured.

  15. Modular shield

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Keith W.

    2002-01-01

    A modular system for containing projectiles has a sheet of material including at least a polycarbonate layer held by a metal frame having a straight frame member corresponding to each straight edge of the sheet. Each frame member has a U-shaped shield channel covering and holding a straight edge of the sheet and an adjacent U-shaped clamp channel rigidly held against the shield channel. A flexible gasket separates each sheet edge from its respective shield channel; and each frame member is fastened to each adjacent frame member only by clamps extending between adjacent clamp channels.

  16. Modular Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplanes are certified as a whole: there is no established basis for separately certifying some components, particularly software-intensive ones, independently of their specific application in a given airplane. The absence of separate certification inhibits the development of modular components that could be largely "precertified" and used in several different contexts within a single airplane, or across many different airplanes. In this report, we examine the issues in modular certification of software components and propose an approach based on assume-guarantee reasoning. We extend the method from verification to certification by considering behavior in the presence of failures. This exposes the need for partitioning, and separation of assumptions and guarantees into normal and abnormal cases. We then identify three classes of property that must be verified within this framework: safe function, true guarantees, and controlled failure. We identify a particular assume-guarantee proof rule (due to McMillan) that is appropriate to the applications considered, and formally verify its soundness in PVS.

  17. Consul, the Educated Monkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolpas, Sidney J.; Massion, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a toy, the Educated Monkey, developed to help students learn multiplication tables and associated division, factoring, and addition tables and associated subtraction. Explains why the monkey works and reviews geometric, algebraic, and arithmetic concepts. (KHR)

  18. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  19. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  20. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  1. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  2. Modularity, noise, and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Marroig, Gabriel; Melo, Diogo A R; Garcia, Guilherme

    2012-05-01

    Most biological systems are formed by component parts that are to some degree interrelated. Groups of parts that are more associated among themselves and are relatively autonomous from others are called modules. One of the consequences of modularity is that biological systems usually present an unequal distribution of the genetic variation among traits. Estimating the covariance matrix that describes these systems is a difficult problem due to a number of factors such as poor sample sizes and measurement errors. We show that this problem will be exacerbated whenever matrix inversion is required, as in directional selection reconstruction analysis. We explore the consequences of varying degrees of modularity and signal-to-noise ratio on selection reconstruction. We then present and test the efficiency of available methods for controlling noise in matrix estimates. In our simulations, controlling matrices for noise vastly improves the reconstruction of selection gradients. We also perform an analysis of selection gradients reconstruction over a New World Monkeys skull database to illustrate the impact of noise on such analyses. Noise-controlled estimates render far more plausible interpretations that are in full agreement with previous results. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Modular Fixturing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin Anderson (Inventor); Street, Jon P. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The modular fixturing system of the present invention is modular, reusable and capable of significant customization, both in terms of system radius and system height, allowing it to be arranged and rearranged in numerous unique configurations. The system includes multiple modular stanchions having stanchion shafts and stanchion feet that removably attach to apertures in a table. Angle brackets attached to the modular stanchions support shelves. These shelves in turn provide support to work pieces during fabrication processes such as welding.

  4. Portable modular detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  5. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  6. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  7. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  8. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Application of modular control techniques to the attitude control of a prototype flexible spacecraft and a prototype flexible space platform was further developed by determining numerical values for the physical parameters of a four body approximation of the MSFC/hybrid deployable truss incorporated in the space platform model, generating sensitivity coefficients for the model of the flexible spacecraft, evaluating the changes in the digital computer simulation of the flexible spacecraft resulting from the addition of another rigid body to the model and comparing attitude control effectiveness with actuators on more than one rigid body of the model with that for the case in which the actuators were restricted to one body.

  9. Performance of GC-MS and MOSES II, a hybrid modular sensor system, for the quantitative detection of the evaporation of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide from two different matrices.

    PubMed

    Schepper, K; Ulmer, H; Göpel, W; Daniels, R

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the evaporated amount of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), a commonly used insect repellent, from two different matrices medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and Polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG), with GC with mass sensitive detection (GC-MS) and a hybrid modular sensor system (MOSES II). Thus, the binary mixtures are equilibrated at 80 degrees C for 45 min and then an aliquot of this headspace is analyzed by GC-MS and a sensory system consisting of an array of eight metal oxide sensors and eight quartz crystal microbalances. Both analytical methods allow a sensitive detection of even small amounts of DEET in the headspace from binary mixtures with the MCT or PEG, respectively. The two additives are found to be very different concerning their behavior to the vapor phase; i.e., the lipophilic (MCT) delivers an almost constant headspace of DEET, while the hydrophilic matrix PEG releases smaller amounts of DEET, which continuously decrease when a multiple headspace extraction is performed. Furthermore, the results reveal that both analytical methods lead to comparable results with the MCT/DEET mixtures whereas differences were seen with mixtures containing PEG. This can be attributed to the interaction of volatile portions of PEG with the sensors of the MOSES II.

  10. Rapid generation of CRISPR/dCas9-regulated, orthogonally repressible hybrid T7-lac promoters for modular, tuneable control of metabolic pathway fluxes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Brady F.; Jones, J. Andrew; Kim, Daniel C.; Leitz, Quentin D.; Englaender, Jacob A.; Collins, Shannon M.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Koffas, Mattheos A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Robust gene circuit construction requires use of promoters exhibiting low crosstalk. Orthogonal promoters have been engineered utilizing an assortment of natural and synthetic transcription factors, but design of large orthogonal promoter-repressor sets is complicated, labor-intensive, and often results in unanticipated crosstalk. The specificity and ease of targeting the RNA-guided DNA-binding protein dCas9 to any 20 bp user-defined DNA sequence makes it a promising candidate for orthogonal promoter regulation. Here, we rapidly construct orthogonal variants of the classic T7-lac promoter using site-directed mutagenesis, generating a panel of inducible hybrid promoters regulated by both LacI and dCas9. Remarkably, orthogonality is mediated by only two to three nucleotide mismatches in a narrow window of the RNA:DNA hybrid, neighboring the protospacer adjacent motif. We demonstrate that, contrary to many reports, one PAM-proximal mismatch is insufficient to abolish dCas9-mediated repression, and we show for the first time that mismatch tolerance is a function of target copy number. Finally, these promoters were incorporated into the branched violacein biosynthetic pathway as dCas9-dependent switches capable of throttling and selectively redirecting carbon flux in Escherichia coli. We anticipate this strategy is relevant for any promoter and will be adopted for many applications at the interface of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. PMID:27079979

  11. Rapid generation of CRISPR/dCas9-regulated, orthogonally repressible hybrid T7-lac promoters for modular, tuneable control of metabolic pathway fluxes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cress, Brady F; Jones, J Andrew; Kim, Daniel C; Leitz, Quentin D; Englaender, Jacob A; Collins, Shannon M; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2016-05-19

    Robust gene circuit construction requires use of promoters exhibiting low crosstalk. Orthogonal promoters have been engineered utilizing an assortment of natural and synthetic transcription factors, but design of large orthogonal promoter-repressor sets is complicated, labor-intensive, and often results in unanticipated crosstalk. The specificity and ease of targeting the RNA-guided DNA-binding protein dCas9 to any 20 bp user-defined DNA sequence makes it a promising candidate for orthogonal promoter regulation. Here, we rapidly construct orthogonal variants of the classic T7-lac promoter using site-directed mutagenesis, generating a panel of inducible hybrid promoters regulated by both LacI and dCas9. Remarkably, orthogonality is mediated by only two to three nucleotide mismatches in a narrow window of the RNA:DNA hybrid, neighboring the protospacer adjacent motif. We demonstrate that, contrary to many reports, one PAM-proximal mismatch is insufficient to abolish dCas9-mediated repression, and we show for the first time that mismatch tolerance is a function of target copy number. Finally, these promoters were incorporated into the branched violacein biosynthetic pathway as dCas9-dependent switches capable of throttling and selectively redirecting carbon flux in Escherichia coli We anticipate this strategy is relevant for any promoter and will be adopted for many applications at the interface of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  13. Modular tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is concerned with the modular tokamak configuration, and presents information on the following topics: modularity; external vacuum boundary; vertical maintenance; combined reactor building/biological shield with totally remote maintenance; independent TF coils; minimum TF coil bore; saddle PF coils; and heat transport system in bore.

  14. Modular Buildings Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that child care program directors who are expanding their programs or opening new child care centers investigate the possibility of renting, leasing, or purchasing a modular building. Discusses the advantages of modular buildings over conventional building construction or rented space in an occupied building. Provides information about…

  15. Rhesus monkey platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Harbury, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  16. Modular Habitats Comprising Rigid and Inflatable Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2010-01-01

    Modular, lightweight, fully equipped buildings comprising hybrids of rigid and inflatable structures can be assembled on Earth and then transported to and deployed on the Moon for use as habitats. Modified versions of these buildings could also prove useful on Earth as shelters that can be rapidly and easily erected in emergency situations and/or extreme environments: examples include shelters for hurricane relief and for Antarctic exploration.

  17. Modular kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Krab, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    Modularization is an important strategy to tackle the study of complex biological systems. Modular kinetic analysis (MKA) is a quantitative method to extract kinetic information from such a modularized system that can be used to determine the control and regulatory structure of the system, and to pinpoint and quantify the interaction of effectors with the system. The principles of the method are described, and the relation with metabolic control analysis is discussed. Examples of application of MKA are given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Compact stellarators with modular coils.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, P R

    2000-07-18

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan.

  19. Compact stellarators with modular coils

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan. PMID:10899993

  20. Modular tokamak magnetic system

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Tien-Fang

    1988-01-01

    A modular tokamak system comprised of a plurality of interlocking moldules. Each module is comprised of a vacuum vessel section, a toroidal field coil, moldular saddle coils which generate a poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating coils.

  1. Successful modular cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.

    2003-07-01

    We present a modular cosmology scenario where the difficulties encountered in conventional modular cosmology are solved in a self-consistent manner, with definite predictions to be tested by observation. Notably, the difficulty of the dilaton finding its way to a precarious weak coupling minimum is made irrelevant by having eternal modular inflation at the vacuum supersymmetry breaking scale after the dilaton is stabilised. Neither this eternal inflation nor the subsequent non-slow-roll modular inflation destabilise the dilaton from its precarious minimum due to the low energy scale of the inflation and consequent small back reaction on the dilaton potential. The observed flat CMB spectrum is obtained from fluctuations in the angular component of a modulus near a symmetric point, which are hugely magnified by the roll down of the modulus to Planckian values, allowing them to dominate the final curvature perturbation. We also give precise calculations of the spectral index and its running.

  2. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  3. Modularity and mental architecture.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Debates about the modularity of cognitive architecture have been ongoing for at least the past three decades, since the publication of Fodor's landmark book The Modularity of Mind. According to Fodor, modularity is essentially tied to informational encapsulation, and as such is only found in the relatively low-level cognitive systems responsible for perception and language. According to Fodor's critics in the evolutionary psychology camp, modularity simply reflects the fine-grained functional specialization dictated by natural selection, and it characterizes virtually all aspects of cognitive architecture, including high-level systems for judgment, decision making, and reasoning. Though both of these perspectives on modularity have garnered support, the current state of evidence and argument suggests that a broader skepticism about modularity may be warranted. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:641-649. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1255 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  4. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca).

    PubMed

    Sá, L R; DiLoreto, C; Leite, M C; Wakamatsu, A; Santos, R T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2000-09-01

    Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare and seldom reported disease in animals and humans induced by a papillomavirus. The present report is the first description of this disease in a Neotropical primate, a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic findings. The generic papillomavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry and was found not to be related to any human papillomavirus DNA tested by in situ hybridization. This virus is probably a specific papillomavirus of the howler monkey (HMPV).

  5. Symmetric modular torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  6. Self Evolving Modular Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Kazuhiro; Kawabata, Nobuyuki; Furukawa, Tetsuo

    We propose a novel modular network called the Self-Evolving Modular Network (SEEM). The SEEM has a modular network architecture with a graph structure and these following advantages: (1) new modules are added incrementally to allow the network to adapt in a self-organizing manner, and (2) graph's paths are formed based on the relationships between the models represented by modules. The SEEM is expected to be applicable to evolving functions of an autonomous robot in a self-organizing manner through interaction with the robot's environment and categorizing large-scale information. This paper presents the architecture and an algorithm for the SEEM. Moreover, performance characteristic and effectiveness of the network are shown by simulations using cubic functions and a set of 3D-objects.

  7. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  8. Respiratory Pathogens in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Good, Robert C.; May, Bessie D.

    1971-01-01

    Respiratory disease in a dynamic colony of nonhuman primates during a 4-year period was due primarily to infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and Haemophilus influenzae. The principal secondary invaders were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and streptococci. A high fatality rate was associated with infections caused by each of the primary pathogens, and females appeared to be more susceptible than males. Incidence of respiratory disease was greatest in the fall and early winter; however, at all times newly colonized monkeys had a higher infection rate than conditioned monkeys. Infections were occasionally confined only to the lungs and were sometimes present without grossly observable lung lesions. The information given on susceptibility of 10 species of nonhuman primates to respiratory infections provides a basis for developing disease models. PMID:16557951

  9. Modular biowaste monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the Modular Biowaste Monitoring System Program was to generate and evaluate hardware for supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs. An initial conceptual design effort established requirements and defined an overall modular system for the collection, measurement, sampling and storage of urine and feces biowastes. This conceptual design effort was followed by the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a flight prototype model urine collection, volume measurement and sampling capability. No operational or performance deficiencies were uncovered as a result of the performance evaluation tests.

  10. Modular Optofluidic Systems (MOPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Tobias N.; Dietvorst, Jiri; Sanchis, Ana; Salvador, Juan P.; Munoz-Berbel, Xavier; Alvarez-Conde, Erica; Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans; Marco, M.-Pilar; Llobera, Andreu

    2016-12-01

    Elementary PDMS-based building blocks of fluidic, optical and optofluidic components for Lab on a chip (LOC) platforms has here been developed. All individual modules are compatible and can be anchored and released with the help of puzzle-type connectors This approach is a powerful toolbox to create modular optofluidic systems (MOPS), which can be modified/upgraded to user needs and in-situ reconfigurable. In addition, the PDMS can locally be functionalized, defining a modular biosensor. Measurements in absorbance and fluorescence have been pursued as demonstrator.

  11. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  12. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  13. Modular invariant inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-08

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential V{sub ht}, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from V{sub ht}. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  14. Modular invariant gaugino condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1991-05-09

    The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  15. Modular invariant inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nitta, Daisuke; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    Modular invariance is a striking symmetry in string theory, which may keep stringy corrections under control. In this paper, we investigate a phenomenological consequence of the modular invariance, assuming that this symmetry is preserved as well as in a four dimensional (4D) low energy effective field theory. As a concrete setup, we consider a modulus field T whose contribution in the 4D effective field theory remains invariant under the modular transformation and study inflation drived by T. The modular invariance restricts a possible form of the scalar potenntial. As a result, large field models of inflation are hardly realized. Meanwhile, a small field model of inflation can be still accomodated in this restricted setup. The scalar potential traced during the slow-roll inflation mimics the hilltop potential Vht, but it also has a non-negligible deviation from Vht. Detecting the primordial gravitational waves predicted in this model is rather challenging. Yet, we argue that it may be still possible to falsify this model by combining the information in the reheating process which can be determined self-completely in this setup.

  16. A Modular CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Mast, Charles

    The experimental CAI system which is being tested at Delft University of Technology is structured in a modular manner to account for high changeability. The concept formulated for this project was the outcome of research into technological, organizational, and educational developments in CAI, and the enumeration of the common aspects of the…

  17. Modular core holder

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.; Cole, C.W.; Hamid, S.; Lucas, J.K.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a modular core holder. It comprises: a sleeve, forming an internal cavity for receiving a core. The sleeve including segments; support means, overlying the sleeve, for supporting the sleeve; and access means, positioned between at least two of the segments of the sleeve, for allowing measurement of conditions within the internal cavity.

  18. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  19. Modular Perspectives on Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    This research review traces the current discussion on models of bilingualism to the contributions of Vygotsky and Luria. Proposes that a modular approach to studying the different aspects of bilingual development promises to chart a course toward finding a broader common ground around research findings and interpretations that appear to be…

  20. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  1. Modular, Multilayer Perceptron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Tsuen-Hsi

    1991-01-01

    Combination of proposed modular, multilayer perceptron and algorithm for its operation recognizes new objects after relatively brief retraining sessions. (Perceptron is multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network fully connected and trained via back-propagation learning algorithm.) Knowledge pertaining to each object to be recognized resides in subnetwork of full network, therefore not necessary to retrain full network to recognize each new object.

  2. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-02-01

    The feasibility was studied of constructing large space structures, specifically a 100 meter paraboloidal R.F. reflector, by individually deploying a number of relatively small structural modules, and then joining them to form a single large structure in orbit. The advantage of this approach is that feasibility of a large antenna may be demonstrated by ground and flight tests of several smaller and less costly subelements. Thus, initial development costs are substantially reduced and a high degree of reliability can be obtained without commitment to construction of a very large system. The three candidate structural concepts investigated are: (1) the deployable cell module; (2) the paraboloidal extendable truss antenna adapted to modular assembly; and (3) the modular extendable truss antenna (META).

  3. Modular space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The modular space station comprising small, shuttle-launched modules, and characterized by low initial cost and incremental manning, is described. The initial space station is designed to be delivered into orbit by three space shuttles and assembled in space. The three sections are the power/subsystems module, the crew/operations module, and the general purpose laboratory module. It provides for a crew of six. Subsequently duplicate/crew/operations and power/subsystems modules will be mated to the original modules, and provide for an additional six crewmen. A total of 17 research and applications modules is planned, three of which will be free-flying modules. Details are given on the program plan, modular characteristics, logistics, experiment support capability and requirements, operations analysis, design support analyses, and shuttle interfaces.

  4. ATIS - A modular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirson, Allan

    The author describes a modular approach to the design of an in-vehicle navigation and route guidance system that supports a phased implementation of the technology, and anticipates expected differences in implementation in different parts of the world and for different makes and models of vehicle. A series of sensors in the vehicle are used to determine the vehicle's position by dead reckoning and map-matching. The system then calculates the best route to the selected destination, taking into account the real-time traffic information received from a traffic management center, and presents route guidance instructions to the user as the route is traversed. Attention is given to modularity considerations, vehicle positioning, driver support, vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, and the role of standards.

  5. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of constructing large space structures, specifically a 100 meter paraboloidal R.F. reflector, by individually deploying a number of relatively small structural modules, and then joining them to form a single large structure in orbit. The advantage of this approach is that feasibility of a large antenna may be demonstrated by ground and flight tests of several smaller and less costly subelements. Thus, initial development costs are substantially reduced and a high degree of reliability can be obtained without commitment to construction of a very large system. The three candidate structural concepts investigated are: (1) the deployable cell module; (2) the paraboloidal extendable truss antenna adapted to modular assembly; and (3) the modular extendable truss antenna (META).

  6. Quantum spaces are modular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2016-11-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.

  7. Monkeys reject unequal pay.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; De Waal, Frans B M

    2003-09-18

    During the evolution of cooperation it may have become critical for individuals to compare their own efforts and pay-offs with those of others. Negative reactions may occur when expectations are violated. One theory proposes that aversion to inequity can explain human cooperation within the bounds of the rational choice model, and may in fact be more inclusive than previous explanations. Although there exists substantial cultural variation in its particulars, this 'sense of fairness' is probably a human universal that has been shown to prevail in a wide variety of circumstances. However, we are not the only cooperative animals, hence inequity aversion may not be uniquely human. Many highly cooperative nonhuman species seem guided by a set of expectations about the outcome of cooperation and the division of resources. Here we demonstrate that a nonhuman primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), responds negatively to unequal reward distribution in exchanges with a human experimenter. Monkeys refused to participate if they witnessed a conspecific obtain a more attractive reward for equal effort, an effect amplified if the partner received such a reward without any effort at all. These reactions support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion.

  8. Observational learning in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Myers, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Observer monkeys were housed next to demonstrator monkeys that were conditioned to respond on a multiple reinforcement schedule whose components were fixed-ratio 32, variable-interval 3-min, and extinction 5-min followed by an additional 30 sec of extinction during which every response started a new 30-sec interval. After observational periods from 113 to 210 hr long, during which observers could not perform the response and were given no extrinsic reinforcers, their first-response latencies to fixed ratio and variable interval were as short as the demonstrators; and their rates of responding were well above pre-observational baseline levels. About 8 hr later, a temporal pattern of responding appropriate to the multiple schedule emerged, including non-emission of responses during extinction. Controls lacking the chance to observe did not develop typically patterned responding after 60 hr in one case and, in two other cases, after 80 hr during which, on two occasions, every one of 50 responses was reinforced. In a second experiment, the stimulus lights associated with fixed ratio and variable interval were presented simultaneously. Subjects chose one of the schedules by responding to one of the levers beneath the lights. All subjects initially chose fixed ratio. Seeing the demonstrators switch to variable interval, due to increases in the fixed-ratio requirement, had no effect upon observers, which continued to choose fixed ratio. PMID:16811470

  9. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  10. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. LMDS Lightweight Modular Display System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-16

    LIGHTWEIGHT MODULAR DISPLAY SYSTEM %C AD Gomez SW Wolfe EW Davenport BD Calder 16 February 1982 * / DTrSJUL 22 3829 Approved for public release...375 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Oct 77 to Jan 82 LMDS LIGHTWEIGHT MODULAR DISPLAY SYSTEM S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...Processing Power Distribution Modular Display Low Cost Tactical Display Tactical Tablet Lightweight Display General Purpose Dispiay Functional Modules Touch

  12. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  13. Modular analysis of biological networks.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of complex biological networks has traditionally relied on decomposition into smaller, semi-autonomous units such as individual signaling pathways. With the increased scope of systems biology (models), rational approaches to modularization have become an important topic. With increasing acceptance of de facto modularity in biology, widely different definitions of what constitutes a module have sparked controversies. Here, we therefore review prominent classes of modular approaches based on formal network representations. Despite some promising research directions, several important theoretical challenges remain open on the way to formal, function-centered modular decompositions for dynamic biological networks.

  14. Exposure to Macaque Monkey Bite.

    PubMed

    Johnston, William F; Yeh, Jesson; Nierenberg, Richard; Procopio, Gabrielle

    2015-11-01

    The herpes B virus is a zoonotic agent that is endemic among macaque monkeys only, but can cause fatal encephalomyelitis in humans. A 26-year-old female presented to a U.S. emergency department after being bitten by a wild macaque monkey. The emergency medicine team administered rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine. The team also prescribed acyclovir for prophylactic coverage against herpes B, a deadly zoonotic agent that is endemic among macaque monkeys. A discussion of background, exposure, transmission, symptoms, treatment for herpes B, including latest data available, literature, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines are included. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Zoonotic exposures can cause infectious diseases, which are unfamiliar and deadly. The emergency physician's knowledge of the association between the deadly herpes B infection and wild macaque monkey may expedite treatment and be instrumental in patient morbidity and survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modular biometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  16. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  17. Geometric Kac Moody modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynker, Monika; Schimmrigk, Rolf

    2006-05-01

    It is shown how the arithmetic structure of algebraic curves encoded in the Hasse-Weil L-function can be related to affine Kac-Moody algebras. This result is useful in relating the arithmetic geometry of Calabi-Yau varieties to the underlying exactly solvable theory. In the case of the genus three Fermat curve we identify the Hasse-Weil L-function with the Mellin transform of the twist of a number theoretic modular form derived from the string function of a non-twisted affine Lie algebra. The twist character is associated to the number field of quantum dimensions of the conformal field theory.

  18. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  19. Modular gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  20. Modularity of music processing.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Coltheart, Max

    2003-07-01

    The music faculty is not a monolithic entity that a person either has or does not. Rather, it comprises a set of neurally isolable processing components, each having the potential to be specialized for music. Here we propose a functional architecture for music processing that captures the typical properties of modular organization. The model rests essentially on the analysis of music-related deficits in neurologically impaired individuals, but provides useful guidelines for exploring the music faculty in normal people, using methods such as neuroimaging.

  1. Modular and Hierarchically Modular Organization of Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, David; Lambiotte, Renaud; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Brain networks are increasingly understood as one of a large class of information processing systems that share important organizational principles in common, including the property of a modular community structure. A module is topologically defined as a subset of highly inter-connected nodes which are relatively sparsely connected to nodes in other modules. In brain networks, topological modules are often made up of anatomically neighboring and/or functionally related cortical regions, and inter-modular connections tend to be relatively long distance. Moreover, brain networks and many other complex systems demonstrate the property of hierarchical modularity, or modularity on several topological scales: within each module there will be a set of sub-modules, and within each sub-module a set of sub-sub-modules, etc. There are several general advantages to modular and hierarchically modular network organization, including greater robustness, adaptivity, and evolvability of network function. In this context, we review some of the mathematical concepts available for quantitative analysis of (hierarchical) modularity in brain networks and we summarize some of the recent work investigating modularity of structural and functional brain networks derived from analysis of human neuroimaging data. PMID:21151783

  2. Do Monkeys Choose to Choose?

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Beran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    There is empirical and anecdotal support that choice is preferred by humans. Previous research has demonstrated that this preference extends to nonhuman animals, but it remains largely unknown whether animals will actively seek out or prefer opportunities to choose. Here we explored the issue of whether capuchin and rhesus monkeys will choose to choose. We used a modified version of the SELECT task – a computer program in which monkeys can choose the order of completion of various psychomotor and cognitive tasks. In the current experiments, each trial began with a choice between two icons, one of which allowed the monkey to select the order of task completion, and the other icon led to assignment of task order by the computer. In either case, subjects still had to complete the same number of tasks and the same number of task trials. Tasks were relatively easy, and the monkeys responded correctly on most trials. Thus, global reinforcement rates were approximately equated across conditions. The only difference was whether the monkey chose the task order or it was assigned, thus isolating the act of choosing. Given sufficient experience with the task icons, all monkeys showed a significant preference for choice when the alternative was a randomly assigned order of tasks. To a lesser extent, some of the monkeys maintained a preference for choice over a preferred, but computer assigned task order that was yoked to their own previous choice selection. The results indicate that monkeys prefer to choose when all other aspects of the task are equated. PMID:24567075

  3. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  4. Modular reflector concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of space erecting a 100 meter paraboloidal radio frequency reflector by joining a number of individually deployed structural modules. Three module design concepts were considered: (1) the deployable cell module (DCM); (2) the modular paraboloidal erectable truss antenna (Mod-PETA); and (3) the modular erectable truss antenna (META). With the space shuttle (STS) as the launch system, the methodology of packaging and stowing in the orbiter, and of dispensing, deploying and joining, in orbit, were studied and the necessary support equipment identified. The structural performance of the completed reflectors was evaluated and their overall operational capability and feasibility were evaluated and compared. The potential of the three concepts to maintain stable shape in the space environment was determined. Their ability to operate at radio frequencies of 1 GHz and higher was assessed assuming the reflector surface to consist of a number of flat, hexagonal facets. A parametric study was performed to determine figure degradation as a function of reflector size, flat facet size, and f/D ratio.

  5. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    SciTech Connect

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-12-15

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  6. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, R. Michael; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark A; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-02-10

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  7. Preheating after modular inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaby, Neil; Bond, J. Richard; Huang, Zhiqi; Kofman, Lev

    2009-12-01

    We study (p)reheating in modular (closed string) inflationary scenarios, with a special emphasis on Kähler moduli/Roulette models. It is usually assumed that reheating in such models occurs through perturbative decays. However, we find that there are very strong non-perturbative preheating decay channels related to the particular shape of the inflaton potential (which is highly nonlinear and has a very steep minimum). Preheating after modular inflation, proceeding through a combination of tachyonic instability and broad-band parametric resonance, is perhaps the most violent example of preheating after inflation known in the literature. Further, we consider the subsequent transfer of energy to the standard model sector in scenarios where the standard model particles are confined to a D7-brane wrapping the inflationary blow-up cycle of the compactification manifold or, more interestingly, a non-inflationary blow-up cycle. We explicitly identify the decay channels of the inflaton in these two scenarios. We also consider the case where the inflationary cycle shrinks to the string scale at the end of inflation; here a field theoretical treatment of reheating is insufficient and one must turn instead to a stringy description. We estimate the decay rate of the inflaton and the reheat temperature for various scenarios.

  8. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  9. Modular radiochemistry synthesis system

    SciTech Connect

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Amarasekera, Bernard; Van Dam, Michael R.; Olma, Sebastian; Williams, Dirk; Eddings, Mark; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2016-11-01

    A modular chemical production system includes multiple modules for performing a chemical reaction, particularly of radiochemical compounds, from a remote location. One embodiment comprises a reaction vessel including a moveable heat source with the position thereof relative to the reaction vessel being controllable from a remote position. Alternatively the heat source may be fixed in location and the reaction vial is moveable into and out of the heat source. The reaction vessel has one or more sealing plugs, the positioning of which in relationship to the reaction vessel is controllable from a remote position. Also the one or more reaction vessel sealing plugs can include one or more conduits there through for delivery of reactants, gases at atmospheric or an elevated pressure, inert gases, drawing a vacuum and removal of reaction end products to and from the reaction vial, the reaction vial with sealing plug in position being operable at elevated pressures. The modular chemical production system is assembled from modules which can each include operating condition sensors and controllers configured for monitoring and controlling the individual modules and the assembled system from a remote position. Other modules include, but are not limited to a Reagent Storage and Delivery Module, a Cartridge Purification Module, a Microwave Reaction Module, an External QC/Analysis/Purification Interface Module, an Aliquotting Module, an F-18 Drying Module, a Concentration Module, a Radiation Counting Module, and a Capillary Reactor Module.

  10. Quantum modular forms, mock modular forms, and partial theta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimport, Susanna

    Defined by Zagier in 2010, quantum modular forms have been the subject of an explosion of recent research. Many of these results are aimed at discovering examples of these functions, which are defined on the rational numbers and have "nice" modularity properties. Though the subject is in its early stages, numerous results (including Zagier's original examples) show these objects naturally arising from many areas of mathematics as limits of other modular-like functions. One such family of examples is due to Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades, who connected these new objects to partial theta functions (introduced by Rogers in 1917) and mock modular forms (about which there is a rich theory, whose origins date back to Ramanujan in 1920). In this thesis, we build off of the work of Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades by providing an infinite family of quantum modular forms of arbitrary positive half-integral weight. Further, this family of quantum modular forms "glues" mock modular forms to partial theta functions and is constructed from a so-called "universal" mock theta function by extending a method of Eichler and Zagier (originally defined for holomorphic Jacobi forms) into a non-holomorphic setting. In addition to the infinite family, we explore the weight 1/2 and 3/2 functions in more depth. For both of these weights, we are able to explicitly write down the quantum modular form, as well as the corresponding "errors to modularity," which can be shown to be Mordell integrals of specific theta functions and, as a consequence, are real-analytic functions. Finally, we turn our attention to the partial theta functions associated with these low weight examples. Berndt and Kim provide asymptotic expansions for a certain class of partial theta functions as q approaches 1 radially within the unit disk. Here, we extend this work to not only obtain asymptotic expansions for this class of functions as q approaches any root of unity, but also for a certain class of derivatives of these functions

  11. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Ritter, Bob; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-­-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-­- orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce lifecycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  12. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  13. Modular Flooring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  14. Monkey Able Being Ready for preflight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Able, is being ready for placement into a capsule for a preflight test of Jupiter, AM-18 mission. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959 and also carried a rhesus monkey, Baker, into suborbit.

  15. Modular arctic structures system

    SciTech Connect

    Reusswig, G. H.

    1984-12-04

    A modular and floatable offshore exploration and production platform system for use in shallow arctic waters is disclosed. A concrete base member is floated to the exploration or production site, and ballated into a predredged cavity. The cavity and base are sized to provide a stable horizontal base 30 feet below the mean water/ice plane. An exploration or production platform having a massive steel base is floated to the site and ballasted into position on the base. Together, the platform, base and ballast provide a massive gravity structure that is capable of resisting large ice and wave forces that impinge on the structure. The steel platform has a sloping hourglass profile to deflect horizontal ice loads vertically, and convert the horizontal load to a vertical tensile stress, which assists in breaking the ice as it advances toward the structure.

  16. Modular small hydro configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Smaller sites (those under 750 kilowatts) which previously were not attractive to develop using equipment intended for application at larger scale sites, were the focal point in the conception of a system which utilizes standard industrial components which are generally available within short procurement times. Such components were integrated into a development scheme for sites having 20 feet to 150 feet of head. The modular small hydro configuration maximizes the use of available components and minimizes modification of existing civil works. A key aspect of the development concept is the use of a vertical turbine multistage pump, used in the reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine. The configuration allows for automated operation and control of the hydroelectric facilities with sufficient flexibility for inclusion of potential hydroelectric sites into dispersed storage and generation (DSG) utility grid systems.

  17. Modular error embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Ettinger, J. Mark

    1999-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data containing noise in the low-order bits. The method applies to digital data representing analog signals, for example digital images. The method reduces the error introduced by other methods that replace the low-order bits with auxiliary information. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user through use of a digital key. The modular error embedding method includes a process to permute the order in which the host data values are processed. The method doubles the amount of auxiliary information that can be added to host data values, in comparison with bit-replacement methods for high bit-rate coding. The invention preserves human perception of the meaning and content of the host data, permitting the addition of auxiliary data in the amount of 50% or greater of the original host data.

  18. Modular Optical PDV System

    SciTech Connect

    Araceli Rutkowski, David Esquibel

    2008-12-11

    A modular optical photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) detector system has been developed by using readily available optical components with a 20-GHz Miteq optical detector into eight channels of single-wide modules integrated into a 3U rack unit (1U = 1.75 inches) with a common power supply. Optical fibers were precisely trimmed, welded, and timed within each unit. This system has been used to collect dynamic velocity data on various physics experiments. An optical power meter displays the laser input power to the module and optical power at the detector. An adjustable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical attenuator is used to adjust the amount of unshifted light entering the detector. Front panel LEDs show the presence of power to the module. A fully loaded chassis with eight channels consumes 45 watts of power. Each chassis requires 1U spacing above and below for heat management. Modules can be easily replaced.

  19. Modular weapon control unit

    SciTech Connect

    Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

  20. Precocious quantitative cognition in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2016-02-01

    Basic quantitative abilities are thought to have an innate basis in humans partly because the ability to discriminate quantities emerges early in child development. If humans and nonhuman primates share this developmentally primitive foundation of quantitative reasoning, then this ability should be present early in development across species and should emerge earlier in monkeys than in humans because monkeys mature faster than humans. We report that monkeys spontaneously make accurate quantity choices by 1 year of age in a task that human children begin to perform only at 2.5 to 3 years of age. Additionally, we report that the quantitative sensitivity of infant monkeys is equal to that of the adult animals in their group and that rates of learning do not differ between infant and adult animals. This novel evidence of precocious quantitative reasoning in infant monkeys suggests that human quantitative reasoning shares its early developing foundation with other primates. The data further suggest that early developing components of primate quantitative reasoning are constrained by maturational factors related to genetic development as opposed to learning experience alone.

  1. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  2. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  3. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  4. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  5. Monkey Baker in bio-pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Baker, in bio-pack couch being readied for Jupiter (AM-18 flight). Jupiter, AM-18 mission, also carried an American-born rhesus monkey, Able into suborbit. The flight was successful and both monkeys were recovered in good condition. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959.

  6. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  7. Socially biased learning in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, D; Visalberghi, E

    2004-02-01

    We review socially biased learning about food and problem solving in monkeys, relying especially on studies with tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and callitrichid monkeys. Capuchin monkeys most effectively learn to solve a new problem when they can act jointly with an experienced partner in a socially tolerant setting and when the problem can be solved by direct action on an object or substrate, but they do not learn by imitation. Capuchin monkeys are motivated to eat foods, whether familiar or novel, when they are with others that are eating, regardless of what the others are eating. Thus, social bias in learning about foods is indirect and mediated by facilitation of feeding. In most respects, social biases in learning are similar in capuchins and callitrichids, except that callitrichids provide more specific behavioral cues to others about the availability and palatability of foods. Callitrichids generally are more tolerant toward group members and coordinate their activity in space and time more closely than capuchins do. These characteristics support stronger social biases in learning in callitrichids than in capuchins in some situations. On the other hand, callitrichids' more limited range of manipulative behaviors, greater neophobia, and greater sensitivity to the risk of predation restricts what these monkeys learn in comparison with capuchins. We suggest that socially biased learning is always the collective outcome of interacting physical, social, and individual factors, and that differences across populations and species in social bias in learning reflect variations in all these dimensions. Progress in understanding socially biased learning in nonhuman species will be aided by the development of appropriately detailed models of the richly interconnected processes affecting learning.

  8. Modular control of fusion power heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, D. R.

    2012-08-24

    This work is motivated by the growing demand for auxiliary heating on small and large machines worldwide. Numerous present and planned RF experiments (EBW, Lower Hybrid, ICRF, and ECH) are increasingly complex systems. The operational challenges are indicative of a need for components of real-time control that can be implemented with a moderate amount of effort in a time- and cost-effective fashion. Such a system will improve experimental efficiency, enhance experimental quality, and expedite technological advancements. The modular architecture of this control-suite serves multiple purposes. It facilitates construction on various scales from single to multiple controller systems. It enables expandability of control from basic to complex via the addition of modules with varying functionalities. It simplifies the control implementation process by reducing layers of software and electronic development. While conceived with fusion applications in mind, this suite has the potential to serve a broad range of scientific and industrial applications. During the Phase-I research effort we established the overall feasibility of this modular control-suite concept. We developed the fundamental modules needed to implement open-loop active-control and demonstrated their use on a microwave power deposition experiment.

  9. Semi-submerged modular offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A modular offshore platform which can be used in a deep sea oil exploration is introduced here. A hybrid of guyed tower and tension leg platforms will be studied. A double-layer dodecahedrous float will be stabilized by a series of guyed cables and clump weights that are anchored to the ocean floor. The platform is built on a dodecahedrous float, which can be fabricated onshore and transported to the job site by direct towing. Buoyancy of the dodecahedrous float will counteract the tremendous weight exerted on this offshore structure. With the help of the guy cables and clump weights anchored to the ocean floor, the structure can be column stabilized to a designated location ready for needed drilling operation. Dodecahedron is one of the natural crystal forms which can be built up by modular space components. It is an ideal structure for easy assembly in a hostile, physically restrictive sea environment. In this article only the major factors affecting the analysis is considered. Much more detailed considerations will be required in the final design, reflecting environmental forces in action, stresses during erection, and the fabrication details.

  10. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  11. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  12. Systems Biology of the Vervet Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, Anna J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Service, Susan K.; Cantor, Rita M.; Dewar, Ken; Jentsch, James D.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Turner, Trudy R.; Warren, Wesley C.; Weinstock, George M.; Woods, Roger P.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide crucial biomedical model systems intermediate between rodents and humans. The vervet monkey (also called the African green monkey) is a widely used NHP model that has unique value for genetic and genomic investigations of traits relevant to human diseases. This article describes the phylogeny and population history of the vervet monkey and summarizes the use of both captive and wild vervet monkeys in biomedical research. It also discusses the effort of an international collaboration to develop the vervet monkey as the most comprehensively phenotypically and genomically characterized NHP, a process that will enable the scientific community to employ this model for systems biology investigations. PMID:24174437

  13. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks

  14. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite servicing has been a proven capability of NASA since the first servicing missions in the 1980s with astronauts on the space shuttle. This capability enabled the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and saved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mission following the discovery of the flawed primary mirror. The effectiveness and scope of servicing opportunities, especially using robotic servicers, is a function of how cooperative a spacecraft is. In this paper, modularity will be presented as a critical design aspect for a spacecraft that is cooperative from a servicing perspective. Different features of modularity are discussed using examples from HST and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) program from the 1980s and 1990s. The benefits of modularity will be presented including those directly related to servicing and those outside of servicing including reduced costs and increased flexibility. The new Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) concept is introduced as an affordable implementation of modularity that provides cost savings and flexibility. Key aspects of the ROSE architecture are discussed such as the module design and the distributed avionics architecture. The ROSE concept builds on the experience from MMS and due to its modularity, would be highly suitable as a future client for on-orbit servicing.

  15. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.

  16. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anupama; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Panda, Anshuman; Singh, Amartya; Sinha, Himanshu; Bhanot, Gyan

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5’UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments. PMID:27812193

  17. Modular Approach to Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-06-11

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics.

  18. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-03

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

  19. Modular Approach to Spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  20. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  1. Monkeys in a prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-03-12

    Haroush and Williams trained pairs of monkeys to play in a prisoner's dilemma game, a model of social interactions. Recording from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), they find neurons whose activity reflects the anticipation of the opponent's yet unknown choice, which may be important in guiding animals' performance in the game.

  2. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high specific power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and DOE called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provide about 50 to 450 watts DC to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific power may be slightly lower than the ASRG and

  3. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  4. Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Su, G.J.

    2001-10-29

    This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator winding sets and each winding set is driven with a separate three-phase inverter module. A truly modularized inverter and motor configuration based on an axial-gap PM motor is then introduced, in which identical PM motor modules are mounted on a common shaft and each motor module is powered by a separate inverter module. The advantages of the modular approach for both inverter and motor include: (1) power rating scalability--one design meets different power requirements by simply stacking an adequate number of modules, thus avoiding redesigning and reducing the development cost, (2) increased fault tolerance, and (3) easy repairing. A prototype was constructed by using two inverters and an axial-gap PM motor with two sets of three-phase stat or windings, and it is used to assist the diesel engine in a hybrid electric vehicle converted from a Chevrolet Suburban. The effect of different pulse-width-modulation strategies for both motoring and regenerative modes on current control is analyzed. Torque and regenerative control algorithms are implemented with a digital signal processor. Analytical and initial testing results are included in the paper.

  5. A modular mind? A test using individual data from seven primate species.

    PubMed

    Amici, Federica; Barney, Bradley; Johnson, Valen E; Call, Josep; Aureli, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    It has long been debated whether the mind consists of specialized and independently evolving modules, or whether and to what extent a general factor accounts for the variance in performance across different cognitive domains. In this study, we used a hierarchical Bayesian model to re-analyse individual level data collected on seven primate species (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, gorillas, spider monkeys, brown capuchin monkeys and long-tailed macaques) across 17 tasks within four domains (inhibition, memory, transposition and support). Our modelling approach evidenced the existence of both a domain-specific factor and a species factor, each accounting for the same amount (17%) of the observed variance. In contrast, inter-individual differences played a minimal role. These results support the hypothesis that the mind of primates is (at least partially) modular, with domain-specific cognitive skills undergoing different evolutionary pressures in different species in response to specific ecological and social demands.

  6. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  7. Eigenvalue Spectra of Modular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2013-08-01

    A large variety of dynamical processes that take place on networks can be expressed in terms of the spectral properties of some linear operator which reflects how the dynamical rules depend on the network topology. Often, such spectral features are theoretically obtained by considering only local node properties, such as degree distributions. Many networks, however, possess large-scale modular structures that can drastically influence their spectral characteristics and which are neglected in such simplified descriptions. Here, we obtain in a unified fashion the spectrum of a large family of operators, including the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian matrices, for networks with generic modular structure, in the limit of large degrees. We focus on the conditions necessary for the merging of the isolated eigenvalues with the continuous band of the spectrum, after which the planted modular structure can no longer be easily detected by spectral methods. This is a crucial transition point which determines when a modular structure is strong enough to affect a given dynamical process. We show that this transition happens in general at different points for the different matrices, and hence the detectability threshold can vary significantly, depending on the operator chosen. Equivalently, the sensitivity to the modular structure of the different dynamical processes associated with each matrix will be different, given the same large-scale structure present in the network. Furthermore, we show that, with the exception of the Laplacian matrix, the different transitions coalesce into the same point for the special case where the modules are homogeneous but separate otherwise.

  8. Miniature modular microwave end-to-end receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukamto, Lin M. (Inventor); Cooley, Thomas W. (Inventor); Janssen, Michael A. (Inventor); Parks, Gary S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An end-to-end microwave receiver system contained in a single miniature hybrid package mounted on a single heatsink is presented. It includes an input end connected to a microwave receiver antenna and an output end which produces a digital count proportional to the amplitude of a signal of a selected microwave frequency band received at the antenna and corresponding to one of the water vapor absorption lines near frequencies of 20 GHz or 30 GHz. The hybrid package is on the order of several centimeters in length and a few centimeters in height and width. The package includes an L-shaped carrier having a base surface, a vertical wall extending up from the base surface and forming a corner therewith, and connection pins extending through the vertical wall. Modular blocks rest on the base surface against the vertical wall and support microwave monolithic integrated circuits on top surfaces thereof connected to the external connection pins. The modular blocks lie end-to-end on the base surface so as to be modularly removable by sliding along the base surface beneath the external connection pins away from the vertical wall.

  9. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  10. CXCR4 homologues of gibbon ape, African green monkey, squirrel monkey, and cotton-top marmoset.

    PubMed

    Zubair, S; Metzenberg, S

    2000-08-10

    CXCR4 gene homologues were isolated from an ape (gibbon), an Old World monkey (African green monkey), and two New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and cotton-top marmoset), and their DNA sequences determined. The squirrel monkey and cotton-top marmoset CXCR4 sequences more closely resemble homologues from apes than Old World monkeys, a pattern not seen for the related chemokine receptor CCR5. The African green monkey CXCR4 gene is similar to its homologue in baboon, a pattern that has also been seen among CCR5 homologues. The gibbon CXCR4 contains the first polymorphisms recognized in ape homologues, the human and chimpanzee CXCR4 proteins being identical, and two of these three differences are also observed in one or more Old World monkey homologues. While 18 positions within CXCR4 are now known to be polymorphic in primates, 7 of these polymorphisms have been observed in multiple examples and 11 have been observed only once.

  11. Turnover of human and monkey plasma kininogens in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, T; Wing, D A; Pierce, J V; Pettit, G W

    1979-01-01

    The normal metabolic turnover of plasma kininogens was studied by measuring the disappearance of intravenously administered radiolabeled human and monkey plasma kininogens from the circulation of healthy adult rhesus monkeys. Curves obtained by plotting log radioactivity against time could be expressed as double exponential equations, with the first term representing diffusion, and the second, catabolism. No significant difference between the turnovers of human and monkey kininogens was observed. The difference between the t1/2 of high molecular weight kininogen (25.95 +/- 1.60 h) (mean +/- SEM) and that of low molecular weight kininogen (18.94 +/- 1.93 h) was only marginally significant (P less than 0.05). In contrast, a highly significant (P less than 0.001) difference in their mean catabolic rates (1.12 +/- 0.08 d-1 for high molecular weight kininogen vs. 2.07 +/- 0.09 d-1 for low molecular weight kininogen) was observed. These differences between the two kininogens were attributed to differences in their distribution between the intra- and extravascular pools. Studies of kininogen turnover will be useful in elucidating the in vivo functions of the various kininogens in health as well as during clinical illness. PMID:105015

  12. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  13. Modular process modeling for OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, M. C.; Bodendorf, C.; Schmidtling, T.; Schlief, R.; Wildfeuer, R.; Zumpe, S.; Niehoff, M.

    2007-03-01

    Modular OPC modeling, describing mask, optics, resist and etch processes separately is an approach to keep efforts for OPC manageable. By exchanging single modules of a modular OPC model, a fast response to process changes during process development is possible. At the same time efforts can be reduced, since only single modular process steps have to be re-characterized as input for OPC modeling as the process is adjusted and optimized. Commercially available OPC tools for full chip processing typically make use of semi-empirical models. The goal of our work is to investigate to what extent these OPC tools can be applied for modeling of single process steps as separate modules. For an advanced gate level process we analyze the modeling accuracy over different process conditions (focus and dose) when combining models for each process step - optics, resist and etch - for differing single processes to a model describing the total process.

  14. Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-05-29

    A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic 'lumped' circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems.

  15. Development of Object Concepts in Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Scott P.; Price, Tracy A.; Vance, Jayme A.; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    One of the most interesting questions in cognitive development is how we acquire and mentally represent knowledge about objects. We investigated the development of object concepts in macaque monkeys. Monkeys viewed trajectory occlusion movies in which a ball followed a linear path that was occluded for some portion of the display while their point of gaze was recorded with a corneal-reflection eye tracker. We analyzed the pattern of eye movements as an indicator of object representation. A majority of eye movements of adult monkeys were anticipatory, implying a functional internal object representation that guided oculomotor behavior. The youngest monkeys lacked this strong internal representation of objects. Longitudinal testing showed that this ability develops over time providing compelling evidence that object concepts develop similarly in monkeys and humans. Therefore, the macaque monkey provides an animal model with which to examine neural mechanisms underlying the development of object representations. PMID:18335495

  16. Modular multivariable control improves hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Chia, T.L.; Lefkowitz, I.; Tamas, P.D.

    1996-10-01

    Modular multivariable control (MMC), a system of interconnected, single process variable controllers, can be a user-friendly, reliable and cost-effective alternative to centralized, large-scale multivariable control packages. MMC properties and features derive directly from the properties of the coordinated controller which, in turn, is based on internal model control technology. MMC was applied to a hydrocracking unit involving two process variables and three controller outputs. The paper describes modular multivariable control, MMC properties, tuning considerations, application at the DCS level, constraints handling, and process application and results.

  17. Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Modular Firewalls for Storage Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Giant honeycomb structures assembled in modular units. Flammable materials stored in cells. Walls insulated with firebrick to prevent spread of fire among cells. Portable, modular barrier withstands heat of combustion for limited time and confines combustion products horizontally to prevent fire from spreading. Barrier absorbs heat energy by ablation and not meant to be reused. Designed to keep fires from spreading among segments of solid rocket propellant in storage, barrier erected between storage units of other flammable or explosive materials; tanks of petroleum or liquid natural gas. Barrier adequate for most industrial purposes.

  19. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  20. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

  1. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Erin A.; Olson, Carl R.

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system. PMID:26067532

  2. Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, H. Clark; Kurzban, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that…

  3. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  4. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  5. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  6. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212 Modular transmitters. (a) Single modular transmitters consist of a completely...

  7. 48 CFR 3417.70 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Modular contracting. 3417... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Modular Contracting 3417.70 Modular contracting. (a) FSA—May incrementally conduct successive procurements of modules of overall...

  8. The Modular Mind and Intrapersonal Communication Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.

    Based on a prior model on modularity of the brain, a new modular model of intrapersonal communication was developed which focuses on brain processing, encompassing both the structures and the functions of those structures in the creation of messages. The modular mind is a bio-social model of communication which presupposes a relationship between…

  9. Evolution and the Modularity of Mindreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Baron-Cohen's study of autism and an explanatory theory called modularity of mindreading, which proposed a domain-specific modular psychological model based on evolutionary, developmental, psychopathological, and neurobiological considerations. Enumerates problems with the modularity approach and emphasized the evolution of domain general…

  10. Modular Instruction Under Restricted Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utomo, Tjipto; Ruijter, Kees

    1984-01-01

    Describes the evaluation and reconstruction of a transport phenomena course given at the Bandung Institute of Technology which had a 70 percent failure rate. Discusses the teacher-paced modular instruction technique designed to replace the original course material and its results in terms of student performance over a three-year period. (JM)

  11. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  12. The current source of human Alu retroposons is a conserved gene shared with Old World monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, R.J.; Stout, D.B.; Davidson, E.H. )

    1989-05-01

    A significant fraction of human Alu repeated sequences are members of the precise, recently inserted class. A cloned member of this class has been used as a probe for interspecies hybridization and thermal stability determination. The probe was reassociated with human, mandrill, and spider monkey DNA under conditions such that only almost perfectly matching duplexes could form. Equally precise hybrids were formed with human and mandrill DNA (Old World monkey) but not with spider monkey DNA (New World). These measurements as well as reassociation kinetics show the presence in mandrill DNA of many precise class Alu sequences that are very similar or identical in quantity and sequence to those in human DNA. Human and mandrill are moderately distant species with a single-copy DNA divergence of about 6%. Nevertheless, their recently inserted Alu sequences arise by retroposition of transcripts of source genes with nearly identical sequences. Apparently a gene present in our common ancestor at the time of branching was inherited and highly conserved in sequence in both the lineage of Old World monkeys and the lineage of apes and man.

  13. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  14. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  15. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  16. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  17. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  18. Pneumococcal Meningitis in a Rhesus Monkey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-17

    REFERENCES 1. Fox JG, Soave OH: Pneumococcic meningoencephalitis in a rhesus monkey. JAm Vet Med Assoc 159: 1595—1597, 1971 2. Fox JG, Wikse SE...Bacterial meningoencephalitis in rhesus monkeys: clinical and pathological features. Lab Anim Sd 21: 558—563, 1971 ¶ 3. Kaufmann AF , Quist KD: Pneumococcal

  19. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  20. Test monkeys anesthetized by routine procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Test monkeys are safely anesthetized for five minutes by confining them for less than six minutes in enclosures containing a controlled volume of ether. Thus the monkeys can be properly and safely positioned on test couches and fitted with electrodes or other devices prior to physiological tests.

  1. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  2. Orientation perception in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masumi

    2008-07-01

    It was previously demonstrated that monkeys divide the orientation continuum into cardinal and oblique categories. However, it is still unclear how monkeys perceive within-category orientations. To better understand monkeys' perception of orientation, two experiments were conducted using five monkeys. In experiment 1, they were trained to identify either one cardinal or one oblique target orientation out of six orientations. The results showed that they readily identified the cardinal target whether it was oriented horizontally or vertically. However, a longer training period was needed to identify the oblique target orientation regardless of its degree and direction of tilt. In experiment 2, the same monkeys were trained to identify two-oblique target orientations out of six orientations. These orientations were paired, either sharing the degree of tilt, direction of tilt, or neither property. The results showed that the monkeys readily identified oblique orientations when they had either the same degree or direction of tilt. However, when the target orientations had neither the same degree nor direction of tilt, the animals had difficulty in identifying them. In summary, horizontal and vertical orientations are individually processed, indicating that monkeys do not have a category for cardinal orientation, but they may recognize cardinal orientations as non-obliques. In addition, monkeys efficiently abstract either the degree or the direction of tilt from oblique orientations, but they have difficulty combining these features to identify an oblique orientation. Thus, not all orientations within the oblique category are equally perceived.

  3. Quasispecies theory for evolution of modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent.

  4. Quasispecies Theory for Evolution of Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent. PMID:25679649

  5. Quasispecies theory for evolution of modularity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Man; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Deem, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a quasispecies theory for the dynamics of modularity in populations of these systems. We show how the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment can be computed. We derive a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity and use it to derive a relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity. We also find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state. Finally, we compare our predictions to simulations of protein evolution and find them to be consistent.

  6. Chromosome mapping of the owl monkey CSF1R and IL5 genes.

    PubMed

    Ma, N S; Lin, K C

    1992-08-01

    We mapped the owl monkey colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus to the proximal region of chromosome 3q of karyotype VI(K-VI) and karyotype V(K-V) and the interleukin 5 (IL5) locus to the mid-region of chromosome 3q(K-VI) and 19q(K-IV) using a combination of Southern hybridization of somatic cells and in situ chromosomal hybridization methodologies. The findings support the proposed evolution of owl monkey chromosome 3(K-VI) from a fusion of two smaller structures, the homologs of chromosomes 6 and 19 (K-IV). The data also indicate genomic conservation of the HSA 5q23-q35 segment in the higher primates.

  7. Seeing Beyond the Monkey Head

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-20

    Scores of baby stars shrouded by dust are revealed in this infrared image of the star-forming region NGC 2174, as seen by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. Found in the constellation Orion, NGC 2174 is located around 6,400 light-years away. Some of the clouds in the region resemble the face of a monkey in visible-light images, hence the nebula's nickname: the "Monkey Head." However, in infrared images such as this, the monkey disappears. That's because different clouds are highlighted in infrared and visible-light images. Found in the northern reaches of the constellation Orion, NGC 2174 is located around 6,400 light-years away. Columns of dust, slightly to the right of center in the image, are being carved out of the dust by radiation and stellar winds from the hottest young stars recently born in the area. Spitzer's infrared view provides us with a preview of the next clusters of stars that will be born in the coming millennia. The reddish spots of light scattered through the darker filaments are infant stars swaddled by blankets of warm dust. The warm dust glows brightly at infrared wavelengths. Eventually, these stars will pop out of their dusty envelopes and their light will carve away at the dust clouds surrounding them. In this image, infrared wavelengths have been assigned visible colors we see with our eyes. Light with a wavelength of 3.5 microns is shown in blue, 8.0 microns is green, and 24 microns in red. The greens show the organic molecules in the dust clouds, illuminated by starlight. Reds are caused by the thermal radiation emitted from the very hottest areas of dust. Areas around the edges that were not observed by Spitzer have been filled in using infrared observations from NASA's Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19836

  8. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR.

  9. Relaxation labeling using modular operators

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.S.; Frei, W.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic relaxation labeling has been shown to be useful in image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The approaches taken to date have been encumbered with computationally extensive summations which generally prevent real-time operation and/or easy hardware implementation. The authors present a new and unique approach to the relaxation labeling problem using modular, VLSI-oriented hierarchical complex operators. One of the fundamental concepts of this work is the representation of the probability distribution of the possible labels for a given object (pixel) as an ellipse, which may be summed with neighboring object's distribution ellipses, resulting in a new, relaxed label space. The mathematical development of the elliptical approach will be presented and compared to more classical approaches, and a hardware block diagram that shows the implementation of the relaxation scheme using vlsi chips will be presented. Finally, results will be shown which illustrate applications of the modular scheme, iteratively, to both edges and lines. 13 references.

  10. Modular hydrodam: concept definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the potential for developing economical new ultra low-head (6 to 10 ft) sites using an innovative concept known as the Modular Hydrodam (MH). This concept combines the benefits of shop fabrication, installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, and prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. The size and weight of the power module permits it to be fully assembled and checked out in the manufacturer's shop. The module can then be broken down into four pieces and shipped by truck to the site. Once in place, concrete ballast will be added, as necessary, to prevent flotation. The following aspects were investigated: tubular and cross flow turbines; modularized components; the use of a cable support system for horizontal stability of the dam and powerhouse; and construction in the wet as well as in the dry.

  11. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks

  12. PTERA - Modular Aircraft Flight Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-13

    Aerospace testing can be costly and time consuming but a new modular, subscale remotely piloted aircraft offers NASA researchers more affordable options for developing a wide range of cutting edge aviation and space technologies. The Prototype-Technology Evaluation and Research Aircraft (PTERA), developed by Area-I, Inc., of Kennesaw, Georgia, is an extremely versatile and high quality, yet inexpensive, flying laboratory bridging the gap between wind tunnels and crewed flight testing.

  13. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2013-02-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks.

  14. Modular Platforms for Optofluidic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Marko; Mappes, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Optofluidics is increasingly gaining impact in a number of different fields of research, namely biology and medicine, environmental monitoring and green energy. However, the market for optofluidic products is still in the early development phase. In this manuscript, we discuss modular platforms as a potential concept to facilitate the transfer of optofluidic sensing systems to an industrial implementation. We present microfluidic and optical networks as a basis for the interconnection of optofluidic sensor modules. Finally, we show the potential for entire optofluidic networks

  15. Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics

    DOEpatents

    Chirica, Gabriela S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2013-08-27

    A multidimensional chemical separation and analysis system is described including a prototyping platform and modular microfluidic components capable of rapid and convenient assembly, alteration and disassembly of numerous candidate separation systems. Partial or total computer control of the separation system is possible. Single or multiple alternative processing trains can be tested, optimized and/or run in parallel. Examples related to the separation and analysis of human bodily fluids are given.

  16. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  17. Estimation of inter-modular connectivity from the local field potentials in a hierarchical modular network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xue-Mei; Kim, Won Sup; Hwang, Dong-Uk; Han, Seung Kee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method of estimating inter-modular connectivity in a hierarchical modular network. The method is based on an analysis of inverse phase synchronization applied to the local field potentials on a hierarchical modular network of phase oscillators. For a strong-coupling strength, the inverse phase synchronization index of the local field potentials for two modules depends linearly on the corresponding inter-modular connectivity defined as the number of links connecting the modules. The method might enable us to estimate the inter-modular connectivity in various complex systems from the inverse phase synchronization index of the mesoscopic modular activities.

  18. Multiplexed modular genetic targeting of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Saumya; Beck, Lauren E; Maji, Suvrajit; Baty, Catherine J; Wang, Yi; Yan, Qi; Watkins, Simon C; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2014-11-25

    While DNA-directed nanotechnology is now a well-established platform for bioinspired nanoscale assembly in vitro, the direct targeting of various nanomaterials in living biological systems remains a significant challenge. Hybrid biological systems with integrated and targeted nanomaterials may have interesting and exploitable properties, so methods for targeting various nanomaterials to precise biological locations are required. Fluorescence imaging has benefited from the use of nanoparticles with superior optical properties compared to fluorescent organic dyes or fluorescent proteins. While single-particle tracking (SPT) in living cells with genetically encoded proteins is limited to very short trajectories, the high photon output of genetically targeted and multiplexed quantum dots (QDs) would enable long-trajectory analysis of multiple proteins. However, challenges with genetic targeting of QDs limit their application in these experiments. In this report, we establish a modular method for targeting QD nanoparticles selectively to multiple genetically encoded tags by precomplexing QD-streptavidin conjugates with cognate biotinylated hapten molecules. This approach enables labeling and SPT of multiple genetically encoded proteins on living cells at high speed and can label expressed proteins in the cytosol upon microinjection into living cells. While we demonstrate labeling with three distinct QD conjugates, the approach can be extended to other specific hapten-affinity molecule interactions and alternative nanoparticles, enabling precise directed targeting of nanoparticles in living biological systems.

  19. Macaque monkeys discriminate pitch relationships.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-04-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two Macaca fascicularis were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was divided into three phases with increasing task complexity. In the first two phases, subjects learned to employ a same/different rule. In phase 1, they discriminated acoustic items of different sound quality. Subjects had to respond when there was a change from repeating noise bursts to repeating click trains or vice versa. In phase II, acoustic items differed along one physical dimension only. Subjects had to respond to a change of the frequency of a repeating series of pure tones. In phase III, sequences consisted of three series of repeating tones of different frequency. Subjects were required to respond when the frequency of the tones changed in a downward direction and to refrain from responding when the frequency remained constant or increased. After several ten thousand trials, subjects categorized pitch direction well above chance level. The discrimination was performed over a 4.5-octave range of frequencies and was largely independent of the temporal and ordinal position of the downward pitch direction within the sequence. These results demonstrate that monkeys can recognize pitch relationships and thus that monkeys have the concept of ordinal relations between acoustic items.

  20. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-07

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    PubMed

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  2. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Owl Monkeys (Aotus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly. PMID:23759531

  3. Modular microrobot for swimming in heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, U. Kei; Meshkati, Meshkati; Fu, Henry; Kim, Minjun; Drexel University Team; University of Nevada, Reno Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the difficulties in navigating in vivo is to overcome many types of environments. This includes blood vessels of different diameters, fluids with different mechanical properties, and physical barriers. Inspired by conventional modular robotics, we demonstrate modular microrobotics using magnetic particles as the modular units to change size and shape through docking and undocking. Much like the vast variety of microorganisms navigating many different bio-environments, modular microswimmers have the ability to dynamically adapt different environments by reconfiguring the swimmers' physical characteristics. We model the docking as magnetic assembly and undocking mechanisms as deformation by hydrodynamic forces. We characterize the swimming capability of the modular microswimmer with different size and shapes. Finally, we demonstrate modular microrobotics by assembling a three-bead microswimmer into a nine-bead microswimmer, and then disassemble it into several independently swimming microswimmers..

  4. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Benz, Jacob; Tolk, Keith; Weber, Tom

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  5. Modular workcells: modern methods for laboratory automation.

    PubMed

    Felder, R A

    1998-12-01

    Laboratory automation is beginning to become an indispensable survival tool for laboratories facing difficult market competition. However, estimates suggest that only 8% of laboratories will be able to afford total laboratory automation systems. Therefore, automation vendors have developed alternative hardware configurations called 'modular automation', to fit the smaller laboratory. Modular automation consists of consolidated analyzers, integrated analyzers, modular workcells, and pre- and post-analytical automation. These terms will be defined in this paper. Using a modular automation model, the automated core laboratory will become a site where laboratory data is evaluated by trained professionals to provide diagnostic information to practising physicians. Modem software information management and process control tools will complement modular hardware. Proper standardization that will allow vendor-independent modular configurations will assure success of this revolutionary new technology.

  6. Endemic Viruses of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448

  7. Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1996-01-01

    Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

  8. Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1996-01-01

    Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

  9. Thymic immunopathology and progression of SIVsm infection in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Li, S L; Kaaya, E E; Ordónez, C; Ekman, M; Feichtinger, H; Putkonen, P; Böttiger, D; Biberfeld, G; Biberfeld, P

    1995-05-01

    Thymuses from 22 cynomolgus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) developed characteristic cortical and medullary changes including formation of B-cell follicles (8/21) and accumulation of virus immune complexes. Advanced thymic histopathology was correlated with more pronounced immunodeficiency. SIVsm provirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in most (16/18) thymuses and spliced viral env mRNA in 3 (3/7) thymuses with advanced histopathologic changes indicative of thymic SIVsm replication. By combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry, viral RNA was localized mainly to the follicular dendritic network, macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, and lymphocytes of the medullary regions. Latent infection by an Epstein-Barr-related herpesvirus (HVMF1) was also found by PCR and by ISH in medullary regions of three (3 of 8) thymuses with B-cell follicles, suggestive of an inductive role for B-cell proliferation in these thymuses. In a control group of HIV-2-infected nonimmunosuppressed monkeys, no comparable thymic changes were observed. Our results indicate that SIV, and probably by analogy HIV, can have direct and diverse pathogenic effects on the thymus that are important in the development of simian (human) AIDS.

  10. A spectrum of modularity in multi-functional gene circuits.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Alba; Cotterell, James; Munteanu, Andreea; Sharpe, James

    2017-04-27

    A major challenge in systems biology is to understand the relationship between a circuit's structure and its function, but how is this relationship affected if the circuit must perform multiple distinct functions within the same organism? In particular, to what extent do multi-functional circuits contain modules which reflect the different functions? Here, we computationally survey a range of bi-functional circuits which show no simple structural modularity: They can switch between two qualitatively distinct functions, while both functions depend on all genes of the circuit. Our analysis reveals two distinct classes: hybrid circuits which overlay two simpler mono-functional sub-circuits within their circuitry, and emergent circuits, which do not. In this second class, the bi-functionality emerges from more complex designs which are not fully decomposable into distinct modules and are consequently less intuitive to predict or understand. These non-intuitive emergent circuits are just as robust as their hybrid counterparts, and we therefore suggest that the common bias toward studying modular systems may hinder our understanding of real biological circuits. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Evolution of Efficient Modular Polyketide Synthases by Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Chemler, Joseph A.; Tripathi, Ashootosh; Hansen, Douglas A.; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Williams, Russell B.; Starks, Courtney; Park, Sung Ryeol; Sherman, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The structural scaffolds of many complex natural products are produced by multifunctional type I polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymes that operate as bio-synthetic assembly lines. The modular nature of these megaenzymes presents an opportunity to construct custom biocatalysts built in a lego-like fashion by inserting, deleting, or exchanging native or foreign domains to produce targeted variants of natural polyketides. However, previously engineered PKS enzymes are often impaired resulting in limited production compared to native systems. Here, we show a versatile method for generating and identifying functional chimeric PKS enzymes for synthesizing custom macrolactones and macrolides. PKS genes from the pikromycin and erythromycin pathways were hybridized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to generate hybrid libraries. We used a 96-well plate format for plasmid purification, transformations, sequencing, protein expression, in vitro reactions and analysis of metabolite formation. Active chimeric enzymes were identified with new functionality. Streptomyces venezuelae strains that expressed these PKS chimeras were capable of producing engineered macrolactones. Furthermore, a macrolactone generated from selected PKS chimeras was fully functionalized into a novel macrolide analogue. This method permits the engineering of PKS pathways as modular building blocks for the production of new antibiotic-like molecules. PMID:26230368

  12. Local bulk physics from intersecting modular Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad

    2017-06-01

    We show that bulk quantities localized on a minimal surface homologous to a boundary region correspond in the CFT to operators that commute with the modular Hamiltonian associated with the boundary region. If two such minimal surfaces intersect at a point in the bulk then CFT operators which commute with both extended modular Hamiltonians must be localized at the intersection point. We use this to construct local bulk operators purely from CFT considerations, without knowing the bulk metric, using intersecting modular Hamiltonians. For conformal field theories at zero and finite temperature the appropriate modular Hamiltonians are known explicitly and we recover known expressions for local bulk observables.

  13. Simian varicella virus reactivation in cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Mahalingam, Ravi Traina-Dorge, Vicki Wellish, Mary Lorino, Rebecca Sanford, Robert Ribka, Erin P. Alleman, Scott J. Brazeau, Elizabeth Gilden, Donald H.

    2007-11-10

    SVV infection of primates closely resembles VZV infection of humans. Like VZV, SVV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons. We used this model to study the effect of immunosuppression on varicella reactivation. Cynomolgus monkeys latently infected with SVV were irradiated and treated with tacrolimus and prednisone. Of four latently infected monkeys that were immunosuppressed and subjected to the stress of transportation and isolation, one developed zoster, and three others developed features of subclinical reactivation. Another non-immunosuppressed latently infected monkey that was subjected to the same stress of travel and isolation showed features of subclinical reactivation. Virus reactivation was confirmed not only by the occurrence of zoster in one monkey, but also by the presence of late SVV RNA in ganglia, and the detection of SVV DNA in non-ganglionic tissue, and SVV antigens in skin, ganglia and lung.

  14. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  15. Cytogenesis in the monkey retina

    SciTech Connect

    La Vail, M.M.; Rapaport, D.H.; Rakic, P. )

    1991-07-01

    Time of cell origin in the retina of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) was studied by plotting the number of heavily radiolabeled nuclei in autoradiograms prepared from 2- to 6-month-old animals, each of which was exposed to a pulse of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) on a single embryonic (E) or postnatal (P) day. Cell birth in the monkey retina begins just after E27, and approximately 96% of cells are generated by E120. The remaining cells are produced during the last (approximately 45) prenatal days and into the first several weeks after birth. Cell genesis begins near the fovea, and proceeds towards the periphery. Cell division largely ceases in the foveal and perifoveal regions by E56. Despite extensive overlap, a class-specific sequence of cell birth was observed. Ganglion and horizontal cells, which are born first, have largely congruent periods of cell genesis with the peak between E38 and E43, and termination around E70. The first labeled cones were apparent by E33, and their highest density was achieved between E43 and E56, tapering to low values at E70, although some cones are generated in the far periphery as late as E110. Amacrine cells are next in the cell birth sequence and begin genesis at E43, reach a peak production between E56 and E85, and cease by E110. Bipolar cell birth begins at the same time as amacrines, but appears to be separate from them temporally since their production reaches a peak between E56 and E102, and persists beyond the day of birth. Mueller cells and rod photoreceptors, which begin to be generated at E45, achieve a peak, and decrease in density at the same time as bipolar cells, but continue genesis at low density on the day of birth. Thus, bipolar, Mueller, and rod cells have a similar time of origin.

  16. Howler monkey foraging ecology suggests convergent evolution of routine trichromacy as an adaptation for folivory.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Khetpal, Vishal; Matsushita, Yuka; Zhou, Kaile; Campos, Fernando A; Welker, Barbara; Kawamura, Shoji

    2017-03-01

    Primates possess remarkably variable color vision, and the ecological and social factors shaping this variation remain heavily debated. Here, we test whether central tenants of the folivory hypothesis of routine trichromacy hold for the foraging ecology of howler monkeys. Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) and paleotropical primates (Parvorder: Catarrhini) have independently acquired routine trichromacy through fixation of distinct mid- to long-wavelength-sensitive (M/LWS) opsin genes on the X-chromosome. The presence of routine trichromacy in howlers, while other diurnal neotropical monkeys (Platyrrhini) possess polymorphic trichromacy, is poorly understood. A selective force proposed to explain the evolution of routine trichromacy in catarrhines-reliance on young, red leaves-has received scant attention in howlers, a gap we fill in this study. We recorded diet, sequenced M/LWS opsin genes in four social groups of Alouatta palliata, and conducted colorimetric analysis of leaves consumed in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. For a majority of food species, including Ficus trees, an important resource year-round, young leaves were more chromatically conspicuous from mature leaves to trichromatic than to hypothetical dichromatic phenotypes. We found that 18% of opsin genes were MWS/LWS hybrids; when combined with previous research, the incidence of hybrid M/LWS opsins in this species is 13%. In visual models of food discrimination ability, the hybrid trichromatic phenotype performed slightly poorer than normal trichromacy, but substantially better than dichromacy. Our results provide support for the folivory hypothesis of routine trichromacy. Similar ecological pressures, that is, the search for young, reddish leaves, may have driven the independent evolution of routine trichromacy in primates on separate continents. We discuss our results in the context of balancing selection acting on New World monkey opsin genes and hypothesize that howlers experience stronger selection

  17. Modular passive solar heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, B.D.

    1985-03-19

    A modular passive solar energy storage system comprises a plurality of heat tubes which are arranged to form a flat plate solar collector and are releasably connected to a water reservoir by, and are part of, double-walled heat exchangers which penetrate to the water reservoir and enhance the heat transfer characteristics between the collector and the reservoir. The flat plate collector-heat exchanger disassembly, the collector housing, and the reservoir are integrated into a relatively light weight, unitary structural system in which the reservoir is a primary structural element. In addition to light weight, the system features high efficiency and ease of assembly and maintenance.

  18. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

  19. Cascading dynamics in modular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galstyan, Aram; Cohen, Paul

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we study a simple cascading process in a structured heterogeneous population, namely, a network composed of two loosely coupled communities. We demonstrate that under certain conditions the cascading dynamics in such a network has a two-tiered structure that characterizes activity spreading at different rates in the communities. We study the dynamics of the model using both simulations and an analytical approach based on annealed approximation and obtain good agreement between the two. Our results suggest that network modularity might have implications in various applications, such as epidemiology and viral marketing.

  20. Integrated modular engine - Reliability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsley, R. C.; Ward, T. B.

    1992-07-01

    A major driver in the increased interest in integrated modular engine configurations is the desire for ultra reliability for future rocket propulsion systems. The concept of configuring multiple sets of turbomachinery networked to multiple thrust chamber assemblies has been identified as an approach with potential to achieve significant reliability enhancement. This paper summarizes the results of a reliability study comparing networked systems vs. discrete engine installations, both with and without major module and engine redundancy. The study was conducted for gas generator, expander, and staged combustion cycles. The results are representative of either booster or upper-stage applications and are indicative of either plug or nonplug installation philosophies.

  1. Mitochondrial Diversity and Distribution of African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus Gray, 1870)

    PubMed Central

    Haus, Tanja; Akom, Emmanuel; Agwanda, Bernard; Hofreiter, Michael; Roos, Christian; Zinner, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    African green monkeys (Chlorocebus) represent a widely distributed and morphologically diverse primate genus in sub-Saharan Africa. Little attention has been paid to their genetic diversity and phylogeny. Based on morphological data, six species are currently recognized, but their taxonomy remains disputed. Here, we aim to characterize the mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity, biogeography and phylogeny of African green monkeys. We analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 126 samples using feces from wild individuals and material from zoo and museum specimens with clear geographical provenance, including several type specimens. We found evidence for nine major mtDNA clades that reflect geographic distributions rather than taxa, implying that the mtDNA diversity of African green monkeys does not conform to existing taxonomic classifications. Phylogenetic relationships among clades could not be resolved suggesting a rapid early divergence of lineages. Several discordances between mtDNA and phenotype indicate that hybridization may have occurred in contact zones among species, including the threatened Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis). Our results provide both valuable data on African green monkeys’ genetic diversity and evolution and a basis for further molecular studies on this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 75:350-360, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23307319

  2. Effect of vasectomy on gene expression in the epididymis of cynomolgus monkey.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Karine; Légaré, Christine; Saez, Fabrice; Sullivan, Robert

    2003-03-01

    Vasectomy has been shown to affect the pattern of mRNA expression of P34H, a human sperm protein added to the acrosomal cap during epididymal transit. It has been reported that vasectomy alters the histology of the reproductive tract in various species as a result of the increased pressure in the epididymis. The aim of this study was to evaluate if other epididymis-specific mRNAs, which are expressed in different patterns along the duct, are altered by vasectomy as well. We analyzed the expression of P31m (a monkey homologue of human P34H) and three different HE-like (HE-l) mRNAs along the epididymis in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Sexually mature cynomolgus monkeys were vasectomized unilaterally; then the epididymides were surgically removed at different time points. The ipsilateral normal epididymis was used as a control. Histomorphometric measurements showed that the height of the epididymal epithelial cells started to be affected only at 14 wk postsurgery. However, Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis showed that the expression pattern of P31m, HE1, and HE5-like mRNA along the epididymis was not affected by vasectomy. Only the HE2-like mRNA predominantly expressed in the normal corpus epididymidis was significantly lowered 14 wk after vasectomy. Thus, ductal obstruction differentially alters mRNA expression along the epididymis of the cynomolgus monkey.

  3. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  4. Therapy of Staphylococcal Infections in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Harold N.; Saslaw, Samuel

    1971-01-01

    Intravenous inoculation of a penicillin-resistant, phage type 80/81 staphylococcus caused lethal infection in six of eight untreated monkeys. Daily intragastric administration of clindamycin hydrochloride and erythromycin stearate and intramuscular inoculation of clindamycin-2-phosphate and methicillin, all at a dose level of 50 mg/kg, was followed by mortalities of one of eight, one of eight, none of eight, and one of eight monkeys, respectively. Duration of obvious acute illness in surviving monkeys and time required for complete recovery were not significantly different in the four therapy groups with the exception that duration of acute illness in monkeys treated with clindamycin-2-phosphate (mean, 4.1 days) was significantly shorter than in monkeys given erythromycin stearate (mean, 7.1 days). In vitro sensitivity data and serum antibacterial levels would suggest that methicillin would be the least effective therapeutically, followed by erythromycin stearate and the two clindamycin preparations in that order. However, this prediction was not fulfilled in these studies in experimentally infected monkeys. PMID:4994902

  5. Modularity in the Organization of Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Weiqing; Gămănuţ, Răzvan; Bista, Pawan; D’Souza, Rinaldo D.; Wang, Quanxin; Burkhalter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Layer 1 (L1) of primary visual cortex (V1) is the target of projections from many brain regions outside of V1. We found that inputs to the non-columnar mouse V1 from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and feedback projections from multiple higher cortical areas to L1 are patchy. The patches are matched to a pattern of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression at fixed locations of mouse, rat and monkey V1. Neurons in L2/3 aligned with M2-rich patches have high spatial acuity whereas cells in M2-poor zones exhibited high temporal acuity. Together M2+ and M2− zones form constant-size domains that are repeated across V1. Domains map subregions of the receptive field, such that multiple copies are contained within the point image. The results suggest that the modular network in mouse V1 selects spatiotemporally distinct clusters of neurons within the point image for top-down control and differential routing of inputs to cortical streams. PMID:26247867

  6. Revised Modularity Index to Measure Modularity of OSS Projects with Case Study of Freemind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WahjuRahardjoEmanuel, Andi; Jahja Surjawan, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) Projects are gaining popularity worldwide. Studies by many researchers show that the important key success factor is modularity of the source code. This paper presents the revised Modularity Index which is a software metrics to measure the modularity level of a javabased OSS Projects. To show its effectiveness in analyzing OSS Project, the Modularity Index and its supporting software metrics are then used to analyze the evolution of Freemind mind mapping OSS Project. The analysis using Modularity Index and its supporting metrics shows the strength and weaknesses of the Freemind OSS Projects.

  7. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  8. The Iterative Structure Analysis of Montgomery Modular Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinbo, Wang

    2007-09-01

    Montgomery modular multiplication (MMM) plays a crucial role in the implementation of modular exponentiations of public-key cryptography. In this paper, we discuss the iterative structure and extend the iterative bound condition of MMM. It can be applied to complicated modular exponentiations. Based on the iterative condition of MMM, we can directly use non-modular additions, subtractions and even simple multiplications instead of the modular forms, which make modular exponentiation operation very efficient but more importantly iterative applicability of MMM.

  9. Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.

  10. A modular BLSS simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    A bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on Earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processors or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing the examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

  11. Learning modular policies for robotics.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots.

  12. Learning modular policies for robotics

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gerhard; Daniel, Christian; Paraschos, Alexandros; Kupcsik, Andras; Peters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A promising idea for scaling robot learning to more complex tasks is to use elemental behaviors as building blocks to compose more complex behavior. Ideally, such building blocks are used in combination with a learning algorithm that is able to learn to select, adapt, sequence and co-activate the building blocks. While there has been a lot of work on approaches that support one of these requirements, no learning algorithm exists that unifies all these properties in one framework. In this paper we present our work on a unified approach for learning such a modular control architecture. We introduce new policy search algorithms that are based on information-theoretic principles and are able to learn to select, adapt and sequence the building blocks. Furthermore, we developed a new representation for the individual building block that supports co-activation and principled ways for adapting the movement. Finally, we summarize our experiments for learning modular control architectures in simulation and with real robots. PMID:24966830

  13. A modular approach toward extremely large apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, A. A., Jr.

    1981-02-01

    Modular antenna construction can provide a significant increase in reflector aperture size over deployable reflectors. The modular approach allows reflective mesh surfaces to be supported by a minimum of structure. The kinematics of the selected deployable design approach were validated by the subscale demonstration model. Further design refinements on the module structural/joints and design optimization on intermodule joints are needed.

  14. Deployable modular mesh antenna - Concept and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsugi, Jin; Yasaka, Tetsuo

    The feasibility of a 10m aperture deployable modular mesh antenna is evaluated by integrating the results of a statistical surface accuracy estimation and of surface shape adjustment experiments. It has been clarified that by combining seven 4m aperture modules, a 10m aperture deployable modular mesh antenna can be constructed, preserving the surface accuracy that is applicable to C band mission.

  15. Modular Building Institute 2000 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. The articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Elementary K-8 Modular Courtyard"; (2) "School District #33, Chilliwack, BC"; (3) "New Elementary School for Briarwood, NY"; (4) "Addition to Queens Intermediate…

  16. Modular Buildings Are Here To Stay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Steven; Roman, Michael I.; Tiernan, Maury; Savage, Chuck; Airikka, Robert; Brosius, Jerry L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents several examples of modular building construction being used be school districts to support their need for more space, building flexibility, and enhancement of the learning environment. Comparisons with traditionally built school facilities are offered as are answers to commonly held myths concerning modular construction. (GR)

  17. Modular Construction: The Wave of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Chuck

    1989-01-01

    Modular construction of school buildings offers speed of construction, with 100 percent contractor responsibility for the completed structures. Under negotiated terms, modular projects can be purchased outright or through long-term leasing arrangements that provide ownership at the end of the lease period. (MLF)

  18. Detectability thresholds of general modular graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the detectability thresholds of various modular structures in the stochastic block model. Our analysis reveals how the detectability threshold is related to the details of the modular pattern, including the hierarchy of the clusters. We show that certain planted structures are impossible to infer regardless of their fuzziness.

  19. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modular contracting. 39.103 Section 39.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... extent practicable, use modular contracting to acquire major systems (see 2.101) of...

  20. 48 CFR 39.103 - Modular contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modular contracting. 39.103 Section 39.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... extent practicable, use modular contracting to acquire major systems (see 2.101) of...

  1. A Modular Laser Graphics Projection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newswanger, Craig D.

    1984-05-01

    WED Enterprises has designed and built a modular projection system for the presentation of animated laser shows. This system was designed specifically for use in Disney theme shows. Its modular design allows it to be adapted to many show situations with simple hardware and software adjustments. The primary goals were superior animation, long life, low maintenance and stand alone operation.

  2. An MRI based average macaque monkey stereotaxic atlas and space (MNI monkey space).

    PubMed

    Frey, Stephen; Pandya, Deepak N; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Bailey, Lara; Petrides, Michael; Collins, D Louis

    2011-04-15

    In studies of the human brain, a standard stereotaxic space such as the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI space) is widely used to provide a common reference for the three-dimensional localization of functional activation foci and anatomical structures, enabling the comparison of results obtained across different studies. Here we present a standard macaque monkey brain MRI template that offers a common stereotaxic reference frame to localize anatomical and functional information in an organized and reliable way for comparison across individual monkeys and studies. We have used MRI volumes from a group of 25 normal adult macaque monkeys (18 cynomolgus and 7 rhesus) to create a common standard macaque monkey brain as well as atlases for each of these species separately. In addition, the digital macaque monkey volume was subjected to 3D volumetric analysis and comparison of brain structures between the individual brains and the average atlas. Furthermore, we provide a means of transforming any macaque MRI volume into MNI monkey space coordinates in 3D using simple web based tools. Coordinates in MNI monkey space can also be transformed into the coordinate system of a detailed neuroanatomical paper atlas (Paxinos et al., 2008), enabling researchers to identify and delineate cortical and subcortical structures in their individual macaque monkey brains.

  3. Squirrel monkey cytomegalovirus antibodies in free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Argibay, Hernan; Rinas, Miguel A; Uhart, Marcela

    2012-04-01

    Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.

  4. The relative efficiency of modular and non-modular networks of different size

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Colin R.; McNally, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Most biological networks are modular but previous work with small model networks has indicated that modularity does not necessarily lead to increased functional efficiency. Most biological networks are large, however, and here we examine the relative functional efficiency of modular and non-modular neural networks at a range of sizes. We conduct a detailed analysis of efficiency in networks of two size classes: ‘small’ and ‘large’, and a less detailed analysis across a range of network sizes. The former analysis reveals that while the modular network is less efficient than one of the two non-modular networks considered when networks are small, it is usually equally or more efficient than both non-modular networks when networks are large. The latter analysis shows that in networks of small to intermediate size, modular networks are much more efficient that non-modular networks of the same (low) connective density. If connective density must be kept low to reduce energy needs for example, this could promote modularity. We have shown how relative functionality/performance scales with network size, but the precise nature of evolutionary relationship between network size and prevalence of modularity will depend on the costs of connectivity. PMID:25631996

  5. Modularity maximization using completely positive programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.

    2017-04-01

    Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.

  6. Finding network communities using modularity density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Federico; del Genio, Charo I.

    2016-12-01

    Many real-world complex networks exhibit a community structure, in which the modules correspond to actual functional units. Identifying these communities is a key challenge for scientists. A common approach is to search for the network partition that maximizes a quality function. Here, we present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed function, namely modularity density. We show that it does not incur in the drawbacks suffered by traditional modularity, and that it can identify networks without ground-truth community structure, deriving its analytical dependence on link density in generic random graphs. In addition, we show that modularity density allows an easy comparison between networks of different sizes, and we also present some limitations that methods based on modularity density may suffer from. Finally, we introduce an efficient, quadratic community detection algorithm based on modularity density maximization, validating its accuracy against theoretical predictions and on a set of benchmark networks.

  7. The emergence of modularity in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Dirk M.; Jeng, Alice; Deem, Michael W.

    2011-06-01

    In this review, we discuss modularity and hierarchy in biological systems. We review examples from protein structure, genetics, and biological networks of modular partitioning of the geometry of biological space. We review theories to explain modular organization of biology, with a focus on explaining how biology may spontaneously organize to a structured form. That is, we seek to explain how biology nucleated from among the many possibilities in chemistry. The emergence of modular organization of biological structure will be described as a symmetry-breaking phase transition, with modularity as the order parameter. Experimental support for this description will be reviewed. Examples will be presented from pathogen structure, metabolic networks, gene networks, and protein-protein interaction networks. Additional examples will be presented from ecological food networks, developmental pathways, physiology, and social networks.

  8. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  9. The 14/15 association as a paradigmatic example of tracing karyotype evolution in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Oronzo; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Lorusso, Nicola; Stanyon, Roscoe; Rocchi, Mariano

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), especially chromosome painting, has been extensively exploited in the phylogenetic reconstruction of primate evolution. Although chromosome painting is a key method to map translocations, it is not effective in detecting chromosome inversions, which may be up to four times more frequent than other chromosomal rearrangements. BAC-FISH instead can economically delineate marker order and reveal intrachromosomal rearrangements. However, up to now, BAC-FISH was rarely used to study the chromosomes of New World monkeys partly due to technical difficulties. In this paper, we used BAC-FISH to disentangle the complex evolutionary history of the ancestral 14/15 association in NWMs, beginning from the squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis). To improve the hybridization efficiency of BAC-FISH in NWMs, we "translated" the human BACs into Callithrix jacchus (CJA) BACs, which yielded much higher hybridization efficiencies on other NWM species than human BACs. Our results disclosed 14 synteny blocks in squirrel monkeys, 7 more than with chromosome painting. We then applied a subset of CJA BACs on six other NWM species. The comparison of the hybridization pattern of these species contained phylogenetic information to discriminate evolutionary relationships. Notably Aotus was found to share an inversion with Callithrix, thus definitely assigning the genus Aotus to Cebidae. The present study can be seen as a paradigmatic approach to investigate the phylogenetics of NWMs by molecular cytogenetics.

  10. A bioinspired modular aquatic robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Pollard, Beau

    2016-11-01

    Several bio inspired swimming robots exist which seek to emulate the morphology of fish and the flapping motion of the tail and fins or other appendages and body of aquatic creatures. The locomotion of such robots and the aquatic animals that they seek to emulate is determined to a large degree by the changes in the shape of the body, which produce periodic changes in the momentum of the body and the creation and interaction of the vorticity field in the fluid with the body. We demonstrate an underactuated robot which swims due to the periodic changes in the angular momentum of the robot effected by the motion of an internal rotor. The robot is modular, unactuated tail like segments can be easily added to the robot. These segments modulate the interaction of the body with the fluid to produce a variety of passive shape changes that can allow the robot to swim in different modes.

  11. Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UV vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material. Using this approach in the discovery-based setting, the students gain invaluable insight into method-specific parameters, such as instrumental components, sample preparation, and analytical capability. In addition, the students learn the fundamentals of fiber optics and signal processing using the low-cost CCD based spectroscopic components.

  12. BESST: A Miniature, Modular Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert; Good, William; Baldwin-Stevens, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A new radiometer assembly has been developed that incorporates modular design principles in order to provide flexibility and versatility. The assembly, shown in Figure 1, is made up of six modules plus a central cubical frame. A small thermal imaging detector is used to determine the temperature of remote objects. To improve the accuracy of the temperature reading, frequent calibration is required. The detector must view known temperature targets before viewing the remote object. Calibration is achieved by using a motorized fold mirror to select the desired scene the detector views. The motor steps the fold mirror through several positions, which allows the detector to view the calibration targets or the remote object. The details, features, and benefits of the radiometer are described in this paper.

  13. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  14. Osmotrophy in modular Ediacara organisms

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Marc; Xiao, Shuhai; Kowalewski, Michał

    2009-01-01

    The Ediacara biota include macroscopic, morphologically complex soft-bodied organisms that appear globally in the late Ediacaran Period (575–542 Ma). The physiology, feeding strategies, and functional morphology of the modular Ediacara organisms (rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs) remain debated but are critical for understanding their ecology and phylogeny. Their modular construction triggered numerous hypotheses concerning their likely feeding strategies, ranging from micro-to-macrophagus feeding to photoautotrophy to osmotrophy. Macrophagus feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs is inconsistent with their lack of oral openings, and photoautotrophy in rangeomorphs is contradicted by their habitats below the photic zone. Here, we combine theoretical models and empirical data to evaluate the feasibility of osmotrophy, which requires high surface area to volume (SA/V) ratios, as a primary feeding strategy of rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs. Although exclusively osmotrophic feeding in modern ecosystems is restricted to microscopic bacteria, this study suggests that (i) fractal branching of rangeomorph modules resulted in SA/V ratios comparable to those observed in modern osmotrophic bacteria, and (ii) rangeomorphs, and particularly erniettomorphs, could have achieved osmotrophic SA/V ratios similar to bacteria, provided their bodies included metabolically inert material. Thus, specific morphological adaptations observed in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs may have represented strategies for overcoming physiological constraints that typically make osmotrophy prohibitive for macroscopic life forms. These results support the viability of osmotrophic feeding in rangeomorphs and erniettomorphs, help explain their taphonomic peculiarities, and point to the possible importance of earliest macroorganisms for cycling dissolved organic carbon that may have been present in abundance during Ediacaran times. PMID:19706530

  15. Circadian phase relationships in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Wekstein, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Two adult male pigtail monkeys were placed in an isolated, soundproofed chamber (entered for cleaning only) for a period of six months, during which time their deep body temperatures T sub DB, telemetered from transmitters implanted in the abdominal cavity), fluid intake, urinary output (UV), urinary sodium and potassium were continuously monitored. During the first 3 1/2 months, lights (L) were turned on at 0000 hours, off at 1200 hours. Photoperiod phase was then delayed (light span prolonged) 6 hours to a new schedule: L on at 0600 hours, off at 1800 hours. Six weeks later, photoperiod phase was advanced 6 hours to return to the original schedule. Prior to shift, T sub DB typically began a steep rise 0-5 hours prior to L on, a steep fall 3-4 hours prior to L off, relative plateaus in between. Urinary Na typically peaks 2 hours prior to L off, has a minimum 2-4 hours prior to L on; K tends both to peak and show a minimum 2-8 hours earlier than Na; in contrast, UV peaks at L on, has a minimum 2-6 hours after L off. Upon delaying photoperiod phase, T sub DB shift was completed in 8 days. UV shifted more rapidly but tended to overshoot the new phase. Within 5 days, UV and K completed their shifts, although Na did not fully resynchronize within the 6 week period monitored.

  16. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid multilevel linear quadratic regulator (ML-LQR) approach was developed and applied to the attitude control of models of the rotational dynamics of a prototype flexible spacecraft and of a typical space platform. Three axis rigid body flexible suspension models were developed for both the spacecraft and the space platform utilizing augmented body methods. Models of the spacecraft with hybrid ML-LQR attitude control and with LQR attitude control were simulated and their response with the two different types of control were compared.

  17. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernández, A.; Gómez, S.

    2007-06-01

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining their modularity. This size reduction allows use of heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the extremal optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  18. A Prototype for Modular Cell Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wilbanks, Brandon; Layton, Donovan; Garcia, Sergio; Trinh, Cong

    2017-10-10

    When aiming to produce a target chemical at high yield, titer, and productivity, various combinations of genetic parts available to build the target pathway can generate a large number of strains for characterization. This engineering approach will become increasingly laborious and expensive when seeking to develop desirable strains for optimal production of a large space of biochemicals due to extensive screening. Our recent theoretical development of modular cell (MODCELL) design principles can offer a promising solution for rapid generation of optimal strains by coupling a modular cell and exchangeable production modules in a plug-and-play fashion. In this study, we experimentally validated some designed properties of MODCELL by demonstrating: i) a modular (chassis) cell is required to couple with a production module, a heterologous ethanol pathway, as a testbed, ii) degree of coupling between the modular cell and production modules can be modulated to enhance growth and product synthesis, iii) a modular cell can be used as a host to select an optimal pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) of the ethanol production module and to help identify a hypothetical PDC protein, and iv) adaptive laboratory evolution based on growth selection of the modular cell can enhance growth and product synthesis rates. We envision that the MODCELL design provides a powerful prototype for modular cell engineering to rapidly create optimal strains for synthesis of a large space of biochemicals.

  19. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  20. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  1. Rational design of efficient modular cells.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Cong T; Liu, Yan; Conner, David J

    2015-11-01

    The modular cell design principle is formulated to devise modular (chassis) cells. These cells can be assembled with exchangeable production modules in a plug-and-play fashion to build microbial cell factories for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of novel molecules, requiring minimal iterative strain optimization steps. A modular cell is designed to be auxotrophic, containing core metabolic pathways that are necessary but insufficient to support cell growth and maintenance. To be functional, it must tightly couple with an exchangeable production module containing auxiliary metabolic pathways that not only complement cell growth but also enhance production of targeted molecules. We developed a MODCELL (modular cell) framework based on metabolic pathway analysis to implement the modular cell design principle. MODCELL identifies genetic modifications and requirements to construct modular cell candidates and their associated exchangeable production modules. By defining the degree of similarity and coupling metrics, MODCELL can evaluate which exchangeable production module(s) can be tightly coupled with a modular cell candidate. We first demonstrated how MODCELL works in a step-by-step manner for example metabolic networks, and then applied it to design modular Escherichia coli cells for efficient combinatorial biosynthesis of five alcohols (ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol and isobutanol) and five butyrate esters (ethyl butyrate, propyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, butyl butyrate and isobutyl butyrate) from pentose sugars (arabinose and xylose) and hexose sugars (glucose, mannose, and galactose) under anaerobic conditions. We identified three modular cells, MODCELL1, MODCELL2 and MODCELL3, that can couple well with Group 1 of modules (ethanol, isobutanol, butanol, ethyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, butyl butyrate), Group 2 (isopropanol, isopropyl butyrate), and Group 3 (propanol, isopropanol), respectively. We validated the design of MODCELL1 for anaerobic

  2. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  3. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  4. Generalized epidemic process on modular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-05-01

    Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

  5. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be `passive control laws`, i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust.

  6. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-like to the causal completion of the region.

  7. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-12

    In this study, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-like to the causal completion of the region.

  8. Antimalaria Drug Screen in Monkeys: Chemotherapy of Selected Compounds in Trophozoite Induced Plasmodium knowlesi Infections in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) Monkeys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTIMALARIALS, BIOASSAY, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, MONKEYS, PARASITIC DISEASES, CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS, PHARMACOLOGY, TOXICITY, BENZENE, ACRIDINES, QUINOLINE ALKALOIDS , HYDRAZONES, GUANIDINES , THIOPHENES, ANTIMETABOLITES, DOSAGE.

  9. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    PubMed

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses

    PubMed Central

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category and feature selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging. PMID:25102559

  11. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the

  12. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  13. Different micromanipulation applications based on common modular control architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipola, Risto; Vallius, Tero; Pudas, Marko; Röning, Juha

    2010-01-01

    This paper validates a previously introduced scalable modular control architecture and shows how it can be used to implement research equipment. The validation is conducted by presenting different kinds of micromanipulation applications that use the architecture. Conditions of the micro-world are very different from those of the macro-world. Adhesive forces are significant compared to gravitational forces when micro-scale objects are manipulated. Manipulation is mainly conducted by automatic control relying on haptic feedback provided by force sensors. The validated architecture is a hierarchical layered hybrid architecture, including a reactive layer and a planner layer. The implementation of the architecture is modular, and the architecture has a lot in common with open architectures. Further, the architecture is extensible, scalable, portable and it enables reuse of modules. These are the qualities that we validate in this paper. To demonstrate the claimed features, we present different applications that require special control in micrometer, millimeter and centimeter scales. These applications include a device that measures cell adhesion, a device that examines properties of thin films, a device that measures adhesion of micro fibers and a device that examines properties of submerged gel produced by bacteria. Finally, we analyze how the architecture is used in these applications.

  14. Modular construction of mammalian gene circuits using TALE transcriptional repressors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Weixi; Li, Zhihua; Weiss, Ron; Xie, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    An important goal of synthetic biology is the rational design and predictable implementation of synthetic gene circuits using standardized and interchangeable parts. However, engineering of complex circuits in mammalian cells is currently limited by the availability of well-characterized and orthogonal transcriptional repressors. Here, we introduce a library of 26 reversible transcription activator-like effector repressors (TALERs) that bind newly designed hybrid promoters and exert transcriptional repression through steric hindrance of key transcriptional initiation elements. We demonstrate that using the input-output transfer curves of our TALERs enables accurate prediction of the behavior of modularly assembled TALER cascade and switch circuits. We also show that TALER switches employing feedback regulation exhibit improved accuracy for microRNA-based HeLa cancer cell classification versus HEK293 cells. Our TALER library is a valuable toolkit for modular engineering of synthetic circuits, enabling programmable manipulation of mammalian cells and helping elucidate design principles of coupled transcriptional and microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. PMID:25643171

  15. Default Mode of Brain Function in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions—the default-mode network (DMN)—that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment. PMID:21900574

  16. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  17. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  18. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  19. Modular Energy Storage System for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Janice

    2010-08-27

    The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. The in-depth research into the complex interactions between the lower and higher voltage systems from data obtained via modeling, bench testing and instrumented vehicle data will allow an optimum system to be developed from a performance, cost, weight and size perspective. The subsystems are designed for modularity so that they may be used with different propulsion and energy delivery systems. This approach will allow expansion into new alternative energy vehicle markets.

  20. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1992-01-01

    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  1. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  2. Modular digital holographic fringe data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, J. G.; Vavra, P. C.; Schebor, F. S.; Vest, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A software architecture suitable for reducing holographic fringe data into useful engineering data is developed and tested. The results, along with a detailed description of the proposed architecture for a Modular Digital Fringe Analysis System, are presented.

  3. The Modular Structure of Protein Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenfeld, Hernán D.; Rybski, Diego; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2008-03-01

    The evolution of the human protein homology network (H-PHN) has led to a complex network that exhibits a surprisingly high level of modularity. Topologically, the H-PHN presents well connected groups (conformed by proteins of similar aminoacid structure) and weak connectivities between the groups. Here, we perform an empirical study of the H-PHN to characterize the degree of modularity in terms of scale-invariant laws using recently introduced box covering algorithms. We find that the exponent that determines the scale-invariance of the modularity is unexpectedly higher than the box dimension of the network. In addition, we perform a percolation analysis that gives insight into the evolutionary process that led to the modular organization and dynamics of the present H-PHN.

  4. Modular solar-heating system - design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinton, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.

  5. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... modular transmitter must have their own shielding. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be... shielded. The physical crystal and tuning capacitors may be located external to the shielded radio elements...

  6. Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.

  7. Modular, Intelligent Power Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert

    2006-01-01

    NASA's new Space Exploration Initiative demands that vehicles, habitats, and rovers achieve unprecedented levels of reliability, safety, effectiveness, and affordability. Modular and intelligent electrical power systems are critical to achieving those goals. Modular electrical power systems naturally increase reliability and safety through built-in fault tolerance. These modular systems also enable standardization across a multitude of systems, thereby greatly increasing affordability of the programs. Various technologies being developed to support this new paradigm for space power systems will be presented. Examples include the use of digital control in power electronics to enable better performance and advanced modularity functions such as distributed, master-less control and series input power conversion. Also, digital control and robust communication enables new levels of power system control, stability, fault detection, and health management. Summary results from recent development efforts are presented along with expected future technology development needs required to support NASA's ambitious space exploration goals.

  8. Modular modelling with Physiome standards.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Michael T; Nickerson, David P; Nielsen, Poul M F; Hunter, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    The complexity of computational models is increasing, supported by research in modelling tools and frameworks. But relatively little thought has gone into design principles for complex models. We propose a set of design principles for complex model construction with the Physiome standard modelling protocol CellML. By following the principles, models are generated that are extensible and are themselves suitable for reuse in larger models of increasing complexity. We illustrate these principles with examples including an architectural prototype linking, for the first time, electrophysiology, thermodynamically compliant metabolism, signal transduction, gene regulation and synthetic biology. The design principles complement other Physiome research projects, facilitating the application of virtual experiment protocols and model analysis techniques to assist the modelling community in creating libraries of composable, characterised and simulatable quantitative descriptions of physiology. The ability to produce and customise complex computational models has great potential to have a positive impact on human health. As the field develops towards whole-cell models and linking such models in multi-scale frameworks to encompass tissue, organ, or organism levels, reuse of previous modelling efforts will become increasingly necessary. Any modelling group wishing to reuse existing computational models as modules for their own work faces many challenges in the context of construction, storage, retrieval, documentation and analysis of such modules. Physiome standards, frameworks and tools seek to address several of these challenges, especially for models expressed in the modular protocol CellML. Aside from providing a general ability to produce modules, there has been relatively little research work on architectural principles of CellML models that will enable reuse at larger scales. To complement and support the existing tools and frameworks, we develop a set of principles to

  9. Phenol emulsion-enhanced DNA-driven subtractive cDNA cloning: isolation of low-abundance monkey cortex-specific mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, G.H.; Sutcliffe, J.G.

    1988-03-01

    To isolate cDNA clones of low-abundance mRNAs expressed in monkey cerebral cortex but absent from cerebellum, the authors developed an improved subtractive cDNA cloning procedure that requires only modest quantities of mRNA. Plasmid DNA from a monkey cerebellum cDNA library was hybridized in large excess to radiolabeled monkey cortex cDNA in a phenol emulsion-enhanced reaction. The unhybridized cortex cDNA was isolated by chromatography on hydroxyapatite and used to probe colonies from a monkey cortex cDNA library. Of 60,000 colonies screened, 163 clones were isolated and confirmed by colony hybridization or RNA blotting to represent mRNAs, ranging from 0.001% to 0.1% abundance, specific to or highly enriched in cerebral cortex relative to cerebellum. Clones of one medium-abundance mRNA were recovered almost quantitatively. Two of the lower-abundance mRNAs were expressed at levels reduced by a factor of 10 in Alzheimer disease relative to normal human cortex. One of these was identified as the monkey preprosomatostatin I mRNA.

  10. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  11. Optimal Network Modularity for Information Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ferrara, Emilio; Flammini, Alessandro; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the impact of community structure on information diffusion with the linear threshold model. Our results demonstrate that modular structure may have counterintuitive effects on information diffusion when social reinforcement is present. We show that strong communities can facilitate global diffusion by enhancing local, intracommunity spreading. Using both analytic approaches and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal network modularity, where global diffusion requires the minimal number of early adopters.

  12. Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks Anthony Cowley, Hwa-Chow Hsu, Camillo J. Taylor GRASP Laboratory University of...network, distributed computing , software design 1. INTRODUCTION As efforts to field sensor networks, or teams of mobile robots, become more...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modular Programming Techniques for Distributed Computing Tasks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  13. Adaptive Coupled Oscillators for Modular Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartono, Pitoyo; Nakane, Aito

    In this research we physically built several robotics modules that are able to self-discover a connection topology which allows them to generate a coordinated behavior as an integrated modular robot. We consider that this self-configurability of hardware module can potentially simplify the costly designing process of complicated robots and at the same time improve the resiliency of modular robots in the face of internal and external changes.

  14. [Importance of neurobiology for modular psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Schmahl, C; Bohus, M

    2013-11-01

    In the context of continuing education in psychiatry and psychotherapy, modular psychotherapy is of special importance. In modular psychotherapy, general interventions, e.g. for regulation of emotions, have an important function. In this review examples are given to describe the importance of neurobiology for the understanding and the improvement of these mechanisms. In addition, the use of neurobiological investigations within classical psychotherapy trials in the fields of borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder will be depicted.

  15. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

  16. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

  17. Evolution of Complex Modular Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Biological networks have evolved to be highly functional within uncertain environments while remaining extremely adaptable. One of the main contributors to the robustness and evolvability of biological networks is believed to be their modularity of function, with modules defined as sets of genes that are strongly interconnected but whose function is separable from those of other modules. Here, we investigate the in silico evolution of modularity and robustness in complex artificial metabolic networks that encode an increasing amount of information about their environment while acquiring ubiquitous features of biological, social, and engineering networks, such as scale-free edge distribution, small-world property, and fault-tolerance. These networks evolve in environments that differ in their predictability, and allow us to study modularity from topological, information-theoretic, and gene-epistatic points of view using new tools that do not depend on any preconceived notion of modularity. We find that for our evolved complex networks as well as for the yeast protein–protein interaction network, synthetic lethal gene pairs consist mostly of redundant genes that lie close to each other and therefore within modules, while knockdown suppressor gene pairs are farther apart and often straddle modules, suggesting that knockdown rescue is mediated by alternative pathways or modules. The combination of network modularity tools together with genetic interaction data constitutes a powerful approach to study and dissect the role of modularity in the evolution and function of biological networks. PMID:18266463

  18. Managing in an age of modularity.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, C Y; Clark, K B

    1997-01-01

    Modularity is a familiar principle in the computer industry. Different companies can independently design and produce components, suck as disk drives or operating software, and those modules will fit together into a complex and smoothly functioning product because the module makers obey a given set of design rules. Modularity in manufacturing is already common in many companies. But now a number of them are beginning to extend the approach into the design of their products and services. Modularity in design should tremendously boost the rate of innovation in many industries as it did in the computer industry. As businesses as diverse as auto manufacturing and financial services move toward modular designs, the authors say, competitive dynamics will change enormously. No longer will assemblers control the final product: suppliers of key modules will gain leverage and even take on responsibility for design rules. Companies will compete either by specifying the dominant design rules (as Microsoft does) or by producing excellent modules (as disk drive maker Quantum does). Leaders in a modular industry will control less, so they will have to watch the competitive environment closely for opportunities to link up with other module makers. They will also need to know more: engineering details that seemed trivial at the corporate level may now play a large part in strategic decisions. Leaders will also become knowledge managers internally because they will need to coordinate the efforts of development groups in order to keep them focused on the modular strategies the company is pursuing.

  19. Theory for the Emergence of Modularity in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael; Park, Jeong-Man

    2013-03-01

    Biological systems are modular, and this modularity evolves over time and in different environments. A number of observations have been made of increased modularity in biological systems under increased environmental pressure. We here develop a theory for the dynamics of modularity in these systems. We find a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at long times. In addition, we find a fluctuation dissipation relation for the rate of change of modularity at short times. We discuss a number of biological and social systems that can be understood with this framework. The modularity of the protein-protein interaction network increases when yeast are exposed to heat shock, and the modularity of the protein-protein networks in both yeast and E. coli appears to have increased over evolutionary time. Food webs in low-energy, stressful environments are more modular than those in plentiful environments, arid ecologies are more modular during droughts, and foraging of sea otters is more modular when food is limiting. The modularity of social networks changes over time: stock brokers instant messaging networks are more modular under stressful market conditions, criminal networks are more modular under increased police pressure, and world trade network modularity has decreased

  20. Modular Wideband Active Vibration Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David R.; Zewari, Wahid; Lee, Kenneth Y.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of space experiments with previous missions shows a common theme. Some of the recent experiments are based on the scientific fundamentals of instruments of prior years. However, the main distinguishing characteristic is the embodiment of advances in engineering and manufacturing in order to extract clearer and sharper images and extend the limits of measurement. One area of importance to future missions is providing vibration free observation platforms at acceptable costs. It has been shown by researchers that vibration problems cannot be eliminated by passive isolation techniques alone. Therefore, various organizations have conducted research in the area of combining active and passive vibration control techniques. The essence of this paper is to present progress in what is believed to be a new concept in this arena. It is based on the notion that if one active element in a vibration transmission path can provide a reasonable vibration attenuation, two active elements in series may provide more control options and better results. The paper presents the functions of a modular split shaft linear actuator developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and University of Massachusetts Lowell. It discusses some of the control possibilities facilitated by the device. Some preliminary findings and problems are also discussed.

  1. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagliesi, M. G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-05-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5 μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  2. Modular verification of concurrent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.E.K.

    1986-01-01

    During the last ten years, a number of authors have proposed verification techniques that allow one to prove properties of individual processes by using global assumptions about the behavior of the remaining processes in the distributed program. As a result, one must justify these global assumptions before drawing any conclusions regarding the correctness of the entire program. This justification is often the most difficult part of the proof and presents a serious obstacle to hierarchical program development. This thesis develops a new approach to the verification of concurrent systems. The approach is modular and supports compositional development of programs since the proofs of each individual process of a program are completely isolated from all others. The generality of this approach is illustrated by applying it to a representative set of contemporary concurrent programming languages, namely: CSP, ADA, Distributed Processes, and a shared variable language. In addition, it is also shown how the approach may be used to deal with a number of other constructs that have been proposed for inclusion in concurrent languages: FORK and JOIN primitives, nested monitor calls, path expressions, atomic transactions, and asynchronous message passing. These results allow argument that the approach is universal and can be used to design proof systems for any concurrent language.

  3. Early adaptation to altered gravitational environments in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The feeding behavior of two squirrel monkeys flown in Spacelab 3 is compared to that of six monkeys exposed to 1.5 G through centrifugation. The monkeys in the centrifugation study were housed unrestrained in cages, maintained at 25 C + or - 1 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle, and had unrestrained access to food and water. The Spacelab monkeys were maintained at 26 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle and had unlimited food and water. It is observed that the centrifuge rats displayed a change in feeding behavior for 4 days prior to resuming a normal pattern; one Spacelab monkey exhibited a 6 day depression before recover to control levels, and the feeding pattern of the second monkey was not influenced by the environment. It is noted that the effect of an altered dynamic environment is variable on the feeding behavior of individual monkeys.

  4. Early adaptation to altered gravitational environments in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The feeding behavior of two squirrel monkeys flown in Spacelab 3 is compared to that of six monkeys exposed to 1.5 G through centrifugation. The monkeys in the centrifugation study were housed unrestrained in cages, maintained at 25 C + or - 1 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle, and had unrestrained access to food and water. The Spacelab monkeys were maintained at 26 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle and had unlimited food and water. It is observed that the centrifuge rats displayed a change in feeding behavior for 4 days prior to resuming a normal pattern; one Spacelab monkey exhibited a 6 day depression before recover to control levels, and the feeding pattern of the second monkey was not influenced by the environment. It is noted that the effect of an altered dynamic environment is variable on the feeding behavior of individual monkeys.

  5. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  6. Fitness, environmental changes and the growth of modularity- a quasispecies theory for the evolutionary dynamics of modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestemski, Liang; Park, Jeong-Man; Deem, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Although the modularity of a biological system is demonstrated and recognized, the evolution of the modularity is not well understood. We here present a quasispecies theory for the evolutionary dynamics of modularity. Complemented with numerical models, this analytical theory shows the calculation of the steady-state fitness in a randomly changing environment, the relationship between rate of environmental changes and rate of growth of modularity, as well as a principle of least action for the evolved modularity at steady state.

  7. Tissue tropism of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Wyand, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a T-lymphotropic lentivirus that is genetically, immunologically, and morphologically related to the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2). In rhesus monkeys, SIV induces a progressively fatal immunodeficiency syndrome strikingly similar to human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The tissue and cellular tropism of SIV was determined by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization using a 3.48 kilobase SIV envelope gene probe labeled with biotin, {sup 35}S, or {sup 3}H. Probes labeled with {sup 35}S nonspecifically bound to tissue eosinophils and produced poor signal resolution compared to tritium labeled probes. Biotin labeled probes did not detect SIV under similar hybridization conditions. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues produced strong hybridization signal with superior morphology compared to frozen tissues. Gastrointestinal, respiratory, and lymphoid tissues most frequently contained SIV RNA. The distribution of SIV did not correlate with sex, or viral inoculum, but was most extensive in animals with SIV induced granulomatous encephalitis. SIV was most frequently observed in lymphocytes and macrophages. In the brain focal granulomas were composed almost entirely of EBM11+, lysozyme+, macrophages which contained large amounts of SIV RNA and p27 core protein detected by the monoclonal antibody R1C7. Cells away from granulomas in the brain parenchyma and around blood vessels contained virus and were compatible with oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Lymph nodes in follicular hyperplasia contained small numbers of SIV positive cells compatible with lymphocytes in the paracortex and mantle zones as well as in cells of the germinal center. Lymph nodes in various stages of follicular depletion with expanded paracortices contained large numbers of cells with SIV RNA in lymphocytes and macrophages.

  8. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  9. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  10. Lung deposition of droplet aerosols in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Irshad, H; Kuehl, P; Holmes, T D; Sherwood, R; Hobbs, C H

    2008-09-01

    Nonhuman primates are often the animal models of choice to study the infectivity and therapy of inhaled infectious agents. Most animal models for inhaled infectious diseases use aerosol/droplets generated by an atomization technique such as a Collison nebulizer that produces particles in the size range of 1 to 3 microm in diameter. There are few data in the literature on deposition patterns in monkeys. Our study was designed to measure the deposition pattern in monkeys using droplets having diameters of 2 and 5 microm using an exposure system designed to expose monkeys to aerosols of infectious agents. Six cynomolgus monkeys were exposed to droplets. The aerosol solution was generated from a Vero cell supernate containing DMEM + 10% fetal bovine serum tagged with Tc-99m radiolabel. Collison and Retec nebulizers were used to generate small and large droplets, respectively. The particle size (as determined from a cascade impactor) showed an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 2.3 and 5.1 microm for the Collison and Retec nebulizer, respectively. The animals were anesthetized, placed in a plethysmography box, and exposed to the aerosol. The deposition pattern was determined using a gamma camera. Deposition in the head airways was 39% and 58% for 2.3- and 5.1-microm particle aerosols, respectively, whereas the deposition in the deep lung was 12% and 8%, respectively. This information will be useful in developing animal models for inhaled infectious agents.

  11. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J.; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Woo Byun, Yoon; Zhuang, Katie Z.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal. PMID:26158523

  12. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  13. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  14. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    PubMed

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys.

  15. GROUP C ARBOVIRUS INFECTIONS IN RHESUS MONKEYS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    demonstrated by monkeys that recovered from one virus infection and challenged with related heterotypic viruses .... infected with any of the group C viruses used were limited to fevers, which were detected in only a few animals. Infections with these viruses appeared to...Macaca mulatta were found to be susceptible to infections with group C arboviruses following subcutaneous inoculation. Infections engendered by

  16. Vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Jônatas S; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Lima, Larissa S; Campos, Rafael K; Guedes, Maria I M C; Cota, Marcela M G; Assis, Felipe L; Borges, Iara A; Souza-Júnior, Milton F; Lobato, Zélia I P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil.

  17. Mycobacterium marinum infection from sea monkeys

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Jaclyn; Webster, Duncan; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Chiu, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    A case of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection acquired from Artemia nyos (sea monkeys) is presented. The infection was unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapies. A biopsy of a lesion revealed granulomatous inflammation with cultures that subsequently grew M marinum. A three-month course of clarithromycin provided complete resolution. PMID:24294280

  18. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  19. Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Silva-Fernandes, André T.; Lima, Larissa S.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Cota, Marcela M.G.; Assis, Felipe L.; Borges, Iara A.; Souza-Júnior, Milton F.; Lobato, Zélia I.P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Trindade, Giliane S.

    2010-01-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:20507750

  20. What Are My Chances? Closing the Gap in Uncertainty Monitoring between Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Smith, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) but not capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) respond to difficult or ambiguous situations by choosing not to respond or by seeking more information. Here we assessed whether a task with very low chance accuracy could diminish this species difference, presumably indicating that capuchins—compared to macaques—are less risk averse as opposed to less sensitive to signals of uncertainty. Monkeys searched for the largest of six stimuli on a computer screen. Trial difficulty was varied, and monkeys could choose to opt out of any trial. All rhesus monkeys, including some with no prior use of the uncertainty response, selectively avoided the most difficult trials. The majority of capuchins sometimes made uncertainty responses, but at lower rates than rhesus monkeys. Nonetheless, the presence of some adaptive uncertainty responding suggests that capuchins also experience uncertainty and can respond to it, though with less proficiency than macaque monkeys. PMID:25368870

  1. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  2. Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot

  3. Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre

    2006-12-15

    In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

  4. Local modularity for community detection in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ju; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Ke; Li, Jian-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Liu, Cui-Cui; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-01

    Community detection is a topic of interest in the study of complex networks such as the protein-protein interaction networks and metabolic networks. In recent years, various methods were proposed to detect community structures of the networks. Here, a kind of local modularity with tunable parameter is derived from the Newman-Girvan modularity by a special self-loop strategy that depends on the community division of the networks. By the self-loop strategy, one can easily control the definition of modularity, and the resulting modularity can be optimized by using the existing modularity optimization algorithms. The local modularity is used as the target function for community detection, and a self-consistent method is proposed for the optimization of the local modularity. We analyze the behaviors of the local modularity and show the validity of the local modularity in detecting community structures on various networks.

  5. Robust modular product family design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lan; Allada, Venkat

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a modified Taguchi methodology to improve the robustness of modular product families against changes in customer requirements. The general research questions posed in this paper are: (1) How to effectively design a product family (PF) that is robust enough to accommodate future customer requirements. (2) How far into the future should designers look to design a robust product family? An example of a simplified vacuum product family is used to illustrate our methodology. In the example, customer requirements are selected as signal factors; future changes of customer requirements are selected as noise factors; an index called quality characteristic (QC) is set to evaluate the product vacuum family; and the module instance matrix (M) is selected as control factor. Initially a relation between the objective function (QC) and the control factor (M) is established, and then the feasible M space is systemically explored using a simplex method to determine the optimum M and the corresponding QC values. Next, various noise levels at different time points are introduced into the system. For each noise level, the optimal values of M and QC are computed and plotted on a QC-chart. The tunable time period of the control factor (the module matrix, M) is computed using the QC-chart. The tunable time period represents the maximum time for which a given control factor can be used to satisfy current and future customer needs. Finally, a robustness index is used to break up the tunable time period into suitable time periods that designers should consider while designing product families.

  6. Modular Manufacturing Simulator: Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Modular Manufacturing Simulator (MMS) has been developed for the beginning user of computer simulations. Consequently, the MMS cannot model complex systems that require branching and convergence logic. Once a user becomes more proficient in computer simulation and wants to add more complexity, the user is encouraged to use one of the many available commercial simulation systems. The (MMS) is based on the SSE5 that was developed in the early 1990's by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A recent survey by MSFC indicated that the simulator has been a major contributor to the economic impact of the MSFC technology transfer program. Many manufacturers have requested additional features for the SSE5. Consequently, the following features have been added to the MMS that are not available in the SSE5: runs under Windows, print option for both input parameters and output statistics, operator can be fixed at a station or assigned to a group of stations, operator movement based on time limit, part limit, or work-in-process (WIP) limit at next station. The movement options for a moveable operators are: go to station with largest WIP, rabbit chase where operator moves in circular sequence between stations, and push/pull where operator moves back and forth between stations. This user's manual contains the necessary information for installing the MMS on a PC, a description of the various MMS commands, and the solutions to a number of sample problems using the MMS. Also included in the beginning of this report is a brief discussion of technology transfer.

  7. [Modular psychotherapy with children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefanie J; Schimmelmann, Benno G

    2016-11-01

    The implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy with children and adolescents has been limited so far. This is mainly due to the fact that patients in service settings tend to have higher rates of comorbidities and more frequently changing therapy needs than those in research settings. Thus, modular psychotherapies are promising, as they allow the treatment protocol to be adapted to patients’ individual needs. Because no review on modular psychotherapy for children and adolescents exists, we conducted a systematic literature research. The results of the 15 randomized controlled trials identified demonstrate that modular psychotherapy is associated with significant reductions in symptom levels as well as with higher rates of diagnostic remission compared to control conditions. Because of the lack of evidence, future studies should investigate the incremental efficacy of modular approaches and test the validity of underlying theoretical models as well as of decision flowcharts. Modular psychotherapy approaches have the potential to personalize evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents across various therapeutical traditions, and to facilitate their implementation into clinical practice.

  8. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  9. An Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoofs, T.; Santos, S.; Tatibana, C.; Anjos, J.; Rufino, J.; Windsor, J.

    2009-05-01

    The ARINC 653 standard has taken a leading role within the aeronautical industry in the development of safety-critical systems based upon the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept. The related cost savings in reduced integration, verification and validation effort has raised interest in the European space industry for developing a spacecraft IMA approach and for the definition of an ARINC 653-for-Space software framework. As part of this process, it is necessary to establish an effective way to develop, test and analyse on-board applications without having access to the final IMA target platform for all engineers. Target platforms are usually extremely expensive considering hardware and software prices as well as training costs. This paper describes the architecture of an Integrated Modular Avionics Development Environment (IMADE) based on the Linux Operating System and the ARINC 653 simulator for Modular On-Board Applications that was developed by Skysoft Portugal, S.A. In cooperation with ESA, 2007-2008.

  10. A modular PMAD system for small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Unit (SCBU). The SCBU uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBU topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBU technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBU makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  11. The gravity duals of modular Hamiltonians

    DOE PAGES

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-09-12

    In this study, we investigate modular Hamiltonians defined with respect to arbitrary spatial regions in quantum field theory states which have semi-classical gravity duals. We find prescriptions in the gravity dual for calculating the action of the modular Hamiltonian on its defining state, including its dual metric, and also on small excitations around the state. Curiously, use of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy formula leads us to the conclusion that the modular Hamiltonian, which in the quantum field theory acts only in the causal completion of the region, does not commute with bulk operators whose entire gauge-invariant description is space-likemore » to the causal completion of the region.« less

  12. A Modular PMAD System for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system (PMAD) is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Regulator (SCBR). The SCBR uses existing DC-DC converters and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBR topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 We/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBR technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBR makes an ideal photovoltaic array regulator. A modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  13. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-09-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.

  14. Effect of Vincristine Sulfate on Pseudomonas Infections in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Saslaw, Samuel; Carlisle, Harold N.; Moheimani, Mohammad

    1972-01-01

    In rhesus monkeys, intravenous challenge with 0.6 × 1010 to 2.2 × 1010Pseudomonas aeruginosa organisms caused acute illness of 4 to 5 days' duration with spontaneous recovery in 13 of 15 monkeys; blood cultures became negative 3 to 17 days after challenge. Leukocytosis was observed in all monkeys. Intravenous or intratracheal inoculation of 2.0 to 2.5 mg of vincristine sulfate was followed by leukopenia in 4 to 5 days. Intravenous inoculation of 4.2 × 1010 to 7.8 × 1010 pyocin type 6 Pseudomonas organisms in monkeys given vincristine sulfate 4 days previously resulted in fatal infection in 11 of 14 monkeys, whereas none of four receiving Pseudomonas alone died. These studies suggest that an antimetabolite-induced leukopenia predisposes to severe Pseudomonas sepsis and that such monkeys may serve as a biological model for study of comparative efficacy of antimicrobial agents. PMID:4631913

  15. Dynamics of overlapping structures in modular networks.

    PubMed

    Almendral, J A; Leyva, I; Li, D; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Havlin, S; Boccaletti, S

    2010-07-01

    Modularity is a fundamental feature of real networks, being intimately bounded to their functionality, i.e., to their capability of performing parallel tasks in a coordinated way. Although the modular structure of real graphs has been intensively studied, very little is known on the interactions between functional modules of a graph. Here, we present a general method based on synchronization of networking oscillators, that is able to detect overlapping structures in multimodular environments. We furthermore report the full analytical and theoretical description on the relationship between the overlapping dynamics and the underlying network topology. The method is illustrated by means of a series of applications.

  16. [Modular tumor prostheses of the humerus].

    PubMed

    Funovics, P T; Dominkus, M

    2010-10-01

    The humerus is a common location of musculoskeletal tumors. Modular prostheses of the humerus, besides APC and biological reconstructions, allow restoration of resulting bone defects. The functional outcome is determined by the extent of bone and soft tissue loss. Anatomical shoulder prostheses have a limited abductor function, while shoulder function could be improved by an inverse prosthetic design and implants for ligament repair. Elbow prostheses provide satisfactory function. Our own results in 101 patients showed a 23% revision rate. The median overall survival was 171 months with an overall 5-year survival of 53%. With respect to good oncological outcomes modular reconstruction of the humerus is a feasible treatment option for cancer patients.

  17. Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements.

    PubMed

    Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz

    2017-03-04

    Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed.

  18. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.

  19. Modular arrangement of regulatory RNA elements

    PubMed Central

    Roßmanith, Johanna; Narberhaus, Franz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to their simple architecture and control mechanism, regulatory RNA modules are attractive building blocks in synthetic biology. This is especially true for riboswitches, which are natural ligand-binding regulators of gene expression. The discovery of various tandem riboswitches inspired the design of combined RNA modules with activities not yet found in nature. Riboswitches were placed in tandem or in combination with a ribozyme or temperature-responsive RNA thermometer resulting in new functionalities. Here, we compare natural examples of tandem riboswitches with recently designed artificial RNA regulators suggesting substantial modularity of regulatory RNA elements. Challenges associated with modular RNA design are discussed. PMID:28010165

  20. ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ACCOMPANIED BY MYELIN DESTRUCTION EXPERIMENTALLY PRODUCED IN MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Thomas M.; Schwentker, Francis F.

    1935-01-01

    The repeated intramuscular injections of aqueous emulsions and alcohol-ether extracts of sterile normal rabbit brains in some manner produced pathological changes accompanied by myelin destruction in the brains of 7 of 8 monkeys (Macacus rhesus). Eight, control monkeys remained well. Cultures from the involved brains remained sterile, and no transmissible agent was demonstrated by means of intracerebral inoculations of emulsions of bits of the brains into monkeys, rabbits, guinea pigs, and white mice. PMID:19870385

  1. Capuchin monkeys judge third-party reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-04-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of reciprocity between third parties is unknown. Here we show that capuchin monkeys discriminate between humans who reciprocate in a social exchange with others and those who do not. Monkeys more readily accepted food from reciprocators than non-reciprocators or partial reciprocators. However, when exchange asymmetry was due to one partner starting out with fewer goods, the initially impoverished reciprocator was not discriminated against. These results indicate that the cognitive or emotional prerequisites for judging reciprocity in third-party social exchanges exist in at least one other primate species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Dimitrov, Dragan; Carmena, Jose M.; Crist, Roy; Lehew, Gary; Kralik, Jerald D.; Wise, Steven P.

    2003-09-01

    A paradigm is described for recording the activity of single cortical neurons from awake, behaving macaque monkeys. Its unique features include high-density microwire arrays and multichannel instrumentation. Three adult rhesus monkeys received microwire array implants, totaling 96-704 microwires per subject, in up to five cortical areas, sometimes bilaterally. Recordings 3-4 weeks after implantation yielded 421 single neurons with a mean peak-to-peak voltage of 115 ± 3 μV and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 5:1. As many as 247 cortical neurons were recorded in one session, and at least 58 neurons were isolated from one subject 18 months after implantation. This method should benefit neurophysiological investigation of learning, perception, and sensorimotor integration in primates and the development of neuroprosthetic devices.

  3. Crows Rival Monkeys in Cognitive Capacity.

    PubMed

    Balakhonov, Dmitry; Rose, Jonas

    2017-08-18

    The present study compares the 'bandwidth of cognition' between crows and primates. Working memory is the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time - a core component of cognition. The capacity of working memory is tightly limited, in humans correlated with individual intelligence and commonly used synonymously with cognitive capacity. Crows have remarkable cognitive skills and while birds and mammals share neural principles of working memory, its capacity has not been tested in crows. Here we report the performance of two carrion crows on a working memory paradigm adapted from a recent experiment in rhesus monkeys. Capacity of crows is remarkably similar to monkeys and estimated at about four items. In both species, the visual hemifields show largely independent capacity. These results show that crows, like primates evolved a high-capacity working memory that reflects the result of convergent evolution of higher cognitive abilities in both species.

  4. Anatomic Brain Asymmetry in Vervet Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Fears, Scott C.; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Cantor, Rita M.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Woods, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe. PMID:22205941

  5. Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Dimitrov, Dragan; Carmena, Jose M.; Crist, Roy; Lehew, Gary; Kralik, Jerald D.; Wise, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    A paradigm is described for recording the activity of single cortical neurons from awake, behaving macaque monkeys. Its unique features include high-density microwire arrays and multichannel instrumentation. Three adult rhesus monkeys received microwire array implants, totaling 96–704 microwires per subject, in up to five cortical areas, sometimes bilaterally. Recordings 3–4 weeks after implantation yielded 421 single neurons with a mean peak-to-peak voltage of 115 ± 3 μV and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 5:1. As many as 247 cortical neurons were recorded in one session, and at least 58 neurons were isolated from one subject 18 months after implantation. This method should benefit neurophysiological investigation of learning, perception, and sensorimotor integration in primates and the development of neuroprosthetic devices. PMID:12960378

  6. Anatomic brain asymmetry in vervet monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fears, Scott C; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Woods, Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe.

  7. Shaping avoidance behavior in restrained monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lockard, J S

    1969-07-01

    Lever-pulling avoidance behavior of 24 monkeys was actively shaped with a manual shock-control box and a closed-circuit TV system. A negative reinforcement procedure was used wherein a periodically occurring body shock was postponed each time the subject moved toward the lever. All subjects were trainable with this method, two-thirds of them in fewer than five, 1- to 2-hr sessions. Negative reinforcement was more effective than a punishment procedure.

  8. Modeling the searching behavior of social monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, D.; Miramontes, O.; Ramos-Fernández, G.; Mateos, J. L.; Cocho, G.

    2004-10-01

    We discuss various features of the trajectories of spider monkeys looking for food in a tropical forest, as observed recently in an extensive in situ study. Some of the features observed can be interpreted as the result of social interactions. In addition, a simple model of deterministic walk in a random environment reproduces the observed angular correlations between successive steps, and in some cases, the emergence of Lévy distributions for the length of the steps.

  9. Scleral Biomechanics in the Aging Monkey Eye

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Michaël J. A.; Suh, J-K. Francis; Bottlang, Michael; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the age-related differences in the inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear biomechanical properties of posterior sclera from old (22.9 ± 5.3 years) and young (1.5 ± 0.7 years) rhesus monkeys. Methods The posterior scleral shell of each eye was mounted on a custom-built pressurization apparatus, then intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated from 5 to 45 mmHg while the 3D displacements of the scleral surface were measured using speckle interferometry. Each scleral shell geometry was digitally reconstructed from data generated by a 3D digitizer (topography) and 20 MHz ultrasounds (thickness). An inverse finite element (FE) method incorporating a fiber-reinforced constitutive model was used to extract a unique set of biomechanical properties for each eye. Displacements, thickness, stress, strain, tangent modulus, structural stiffness, and preferred collagen fiber orientation were mapped for each posterior sclera. Results The model yielded 3-D deformations of posterior sclera that matched well with those observed experimentally. The posterior sclera exhibited inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear mechanical behavior. The sclera was significantly thinner (p = 0.038), and tangent modulus and structural stiffness were significantly higher in old monkeys (p < 0.0001). On average, scleral collagen fibers were circumferentially oriented around the optic nerve head (ONH). We found no difference in the preferred collagen fiber orientation and fiber concentration factor between age groups. Conclusions Posterior sclera from old monkeys is significantly stiffer than that from young monkeys and is therefore subject to higher stresses but lower strains at all levels of IOP. Age-related stiffening of the sclera may significantly influence ONH biomechanics, and potentially contribute to age-related susceptibility to glaucomatous vision loss. PMID:19494203

  10. The pathology of innactivation in monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarz De Bourne, M. N.; Mcclure, H.; Keeling, M.

    1973-01-01

    Progress report on a long-term experiment using rhesus monkeys and designed to study the effects of isolation up to one year, as well as the effects of bed rest simulated by immobilization in a plaster cast for six months. The investigation includes histopathological and histochemical studies of these effects on various internal organs and tissues, and some of the preliminary results of these studies are presented and discussed.

  11. Rhesus Monkey Heart Rate during Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Three rhesus monkeys were implanted with ECG telemeters and performed a calisthenic exercise requiring complete arm extension above their heads and...reinforcement schedules. Heart rate samples were obtained both during sleep and high rates of activity. Two animals provided exercise data and one animal...provided data without the exercise task. Highest heart rates were seen in the two exercise animals. No differences in maximum heart rates were related to

  12. The pathology of innactivation in monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarz De Bourne, M. N.; Mcclure, H.; Keeling, M.

    1973-01-01

    Progress report on a long-term experiment using rhesus monkeys and designed to study the effects of isolation up to one year, as well as the effects of bed rest simulated by immobilization in a plaster cast for six months. The investigation includes histopathological and histochemical studies of these effects on various internal organs and tissues, and some of the preliminary results of these studies are presented and discussed.

  13. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  14. Nucleus- and cell-specific gene expression in monkey thalamus.

    PubMed

    Murray, Karl D; Choudary, Prabhakara V; Jones, Edward G

    2007-02-06

    Nuclei of the mammalian thalamus are aggregations of neurons with unique architectures and input-output connections, yet the molecular determinants of their organizational specificity remain unknown. By comparing expression profiles of thalamus and cerebral cortex in adult rhesus monkeys, we identified transcripts that are unique to dorsal thalamus or to individual nuclei within it. Real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization analyses confirmed the findings. Expression profiling of individual nuclei microdissected from the dorsal thalamus revealed additional subsets of nucleus-specific genes. Functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis revealed overrepresentation of GO categories related to development, morphogenesis, cell-cell interactions, and extracellular matrix within the thalamus- and nucleus-specific genes, many involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. Examples included the transcription factor TCF7L2, localized exclusively to excitatory neurons; a calmodulin-binding protein PCP4; the bone extracellular matrix molecules SPP1 and SPARC; and other genes involved in axon outgrowth and cell matrix interactions. Other nucleus-specific genes such as CBLN1 are involved in synaptogenesis. The genes identified likely underlie nuclear specification, cell phenotype, and connectivity during development and their maintenance in the adult thalamus.

  15. Spatial relational memory in 9-month-old macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in one of two sets of three distinct locations. Monkeys were tested in two different conditions: (1) when local visual cues marked the two sets of potentially baited locations, so that monkeys could use both local and spatial information to discriminate these locations from never-baited locations; and (2) when no local visual cues marked the two sets of potentially baited locations, so that monkeys had to rely on a spatial relational representation of the environment to discriminate these locations. No 9-mo-old or adult monkey associated the presence of the proximal landmarks, at the center of the arena, with the presence of food in one set of three distinct locations. All monkeys, however, discriminated the potentially baited locations in the presence of local visual cues, thus providing evidence of visual discrimination learning. More importantly, all 9-mo-old monkeys tested discriminated the potentially baited locations in absence of the local visual cues, thus exhibiting evidence of spatial relational learning. These findings indicate that spatial memory processes characterized by a relational representation of the environment are present as early as 9 mo of age in macaque monkeys.

  16. Modular Apparatus and Method for Attaching Multiple Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for attaching sensors and electronics is disclosed. The modular apparatus includes a square recess including a plurality of cavities and a reference cavity such that a pressure sensor can be connected to the modular apparatus. The modular apparatus also includes at least one voltage input hole and at least one voltage output hole operably connected to each of the plurality of cavities such that voltage can be applied to the pressure sensor and received from the pressure sensor.

  17. Microwaves modify thermoregulatory behavior in squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) trained to regulate environmental temperature (Ta) behaviorally were exposed in the far field of a horn antenna to ten-minute periods of 2,450 MHz CW microwaves. Incident power density ranged from 1 to 22 mW/cm2. The corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR), derived from temperature increments in saline-filled styrofoam models, ranged from 0.15 to 3.25 W/kg. Controls included exposure to infrared radiation equivalent incident energy and no radiation exposure. Normal thermo-regulatory behavior produces tight control over environmental and body temperatures; most monkeys select a Ta of 34-36 degrees C. Ten-minute exposures to 2,450 MHz CW microwaves at an incident power density of 6-8 mW/cm2 stimulated all animals to select a lower Ta. This threshold energy represents a whole-body SAR of 1.1 W/kg, about 20% of the resting metabolic rate of the monkey. Thermoregulatory behavior was highly efficient, and skin and rectal temperatures remained stable, even at 22 mW/cm2 where the preferred Ta was lowered by as much as 4 degrees C. No comparable reduction in selected Ta below control levels occurred during exposure to infrared radiation of equal incident power density.

  18. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  19. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke detector...

  20. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke detector...

  1. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  2. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  3. 46 CFR 181.450 - Independent modular smoke detecting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent modular smoke detecting units. 181.450... Independent modular smoke detecting units. (a) An independent modular smoke detecting unit must: (1) Meet UL 217 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke...

  4. On Classification of Modular Categories by Rank: Table A.1

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Ng, Siu-Hung; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-04-10

    The feasibility of a classification-by-rank program for modular categories follows from the Rank-Finiteness Theorem. We develop arithmetic, representation theoretic and algebraic methods for classifying modular categories by rank. As an application, we determine all possible fusion rules for all rank=5 modular categories and describe the corresponding monoidal equivalence classes.

  5. Endogenous New World primate retrovirus: interspecies antigenic determinants shared with the major structural protein of type-D RNA viruses of Old World monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Hino, S; Tronick, S R; Heberling, R L; Kalter, S S; Hellman, A; Aaronson, S A

    1977-01-01

    A reverse transcriptase-containing virus has recently been isolated from a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Molecular hybridization studies demonstrate that the squirrel monkey retrovirus (SMRV) is endogenous to this New World primate, yet lacks detectable nucleotide sequence homology with cellular DNAs of representative Old World primates or with the genomes of previously isolated Old World primate retroviruses. The 35,000-dalton major structural protein (p35) of SMRV was purified and shown to possess antigenic determinants distinct from those of known retroviruses. While SMRV was found to lack antigenic determinants broadly shared among mammalian type-C viruses, immunologic crossreactivity was demonstrated between SMRV p35 and the major structural protein (p26) of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, a prototype type-D retrovirus of Old World monkeys. These findings support the concept that SMRV and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus are evolutionarily related, and raise the possibility that a progenitor of type-D retroviruses became genetically associated with primates at a very early time in their evolution. PMID:74833

  6. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    CUNNINGHAM, L.T.

    1999-09-27

    This document provides a Computer Software Documentation for a new Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) being installed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This system will be used to control new thermal stabilization furnaces in HA-211 and vertical denitration calciner in HC-230C-2.

  7. Modularity, Working Memory and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baddeley, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of modularity is used to contrast the approach to working memory proposed by Truscott with the Baddeley and Hitch multicomponent model. This proposes four sub components comprising the "central executive," an executive control system of limited attentional capacity that utilises storage based on separate but interlinked…

  8. Modular learning models in forecasting natural phenomena.

    PubMed

    Solomatine, D P; Siek, M B

    2006-03-01

    Modular model is a particular type of committee machine and is comprised of a set of specialized (local) models each of which is responsible for a particular region of the input space, and may be trained on a subset of training set. Many algorithms for allocating such regions to local models typically do this in automatic fashion. In forecasting natural processes, however, domain experts want to bring in more knowledge into such allocation, and to have certain control over the choice of models. This paper presents a number of approaches to building modular models based on various types of splits of training set and combining the models' outputs (hard splits, statistically and deterministically driven soft combinations of models, 'fuzzy committees', etc.). An issue of including a domain expert into the modeling process is also discussed, and new algorithms in the class of model trees (piece-wise linear modular regression models) are presented. Comparison of the algorithms based on modular local modeling to the more traditional 'global' learning models on a number of benchmark tests and river flow forecasting problems shows their higher accuracy and transparency of the resulting models.

  9. Modular Building Institute 2001 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "An Architect's Perspective: Convincing a Skeptic" (Robert M. Iamello); (2) "66 Portables for San Mateo High" (Steven Williams); (3) "Case Study: Charter Schools"…

  10. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  11. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  12. Design of a modular digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A design tradeoff study is reported for a modular spaceborne computer system that is responsive to many mission types and phases. The computer uses redundancy to maximize reliability, and multiprocessing to maximize processing capacity. Fault detection and recovery features provide optimal reliability.

  13. Written Reformulation in a Modular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flottum, Kjersti

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between form and use of the reformulation sequence signalled by "c'est-a-dire" in written French and describes this sequence's various functions. The article attempts to show how a modular approach consisting of structural, semantic, pragmatic, and textual components contributes to a new and accurate description of…

  14. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  15. Modular Building Institute 1999 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Many articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Hightstown High School"; (2) "St. Pius X Parish, Vancouver BC"; (3) "Forrest Street Elementary School"; (4) "Kingman Academy of Learning"; (5) "Women Christian…

  16. The Modular Market. Studies in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodossin, Ernest

    Origins of modular courses and the module in British postcompulsory education are considered, along with characteristics of modules, credit transfer, five case studies, and marketing in further and higher education. A module is a measured part (or course) of an extended learning experience that leads to specified qualifications. A designated…

  17. Transforming modular classrooms in California and elsewhere

    SciTech Connect

    Eilert, P.L.; Hoeschele, M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper discussed a market-transformation program to reduce energy use in modular school classrooms, a large part of new construction activities in California's schools. Today's modular classrooms cost more to operate than is necessary to provide effective, comfortable learning conditions for students and teachers. Although past resource acquisition programs have created a demand for efficient products and services, modular classrooms remain poorly differentiated in this respect. The cost-effectiveness of a range of potential energy efficiency measures (EEM's) were evaluated including lighting, alternative HVAC options, and improved envelope features. Viable EEM's were combined in two separate packages. The first includes measures that can easily be implemented and are projected to reduce operating costs by 30%. The second implements a daylighting system, a two-stage evaporative cooler, and radiant heating, resulting in projected annual energy cost savings over 60%. Transforming the market for modular classrooms is accomplished using natural market forces, rather than financial incentives directed at an entire industry. Proactive efforts are focused on the manufacturing industry's change leaders to commercialize energy-efficient products. Lost market share and peer pressure do the heavy lifting of convincing market followers to upgrade their products. Demand for efficient classrooms is increased by educating schools about the new products' financial advantages, comfort enhancements, and environmental benefits. As new products become established in the marketplace, support will be gradually withdrawn. The relevance of this work extends beyond California, given other States' programs to reduce class size, and the Presidents initiative to reduce class size nationally.

  18. Modular Building Institute 2002 Educational Showcase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modular Building Inst., Charlottesville, VA.

    This publication contains brief articles concerned with modular school structures. Some articles offer examples of such structures at actual schools. The articles in this issue are: (1) "Re-Educating Schools" (Chuck Savage); (2) "Tax-Exempt Financing for Public Schools" (John Kennedy); (3) "Help Us Rebuild America" (Michael Roman); (4) "Case…

  19. A Modular Curriculum in Information Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, J. A.

    Prepared under a contract between UNESCO and IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations), this modular curriculum is intended as a resource from which curricula can be constructed by individual departments of information studies to meet local needs and circumstances. Following an introductory discussion and explanation of the…

  20. Modular space station phase B extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The system safety analyses and requirements developed for the modular space station during the phase B extension are reviewed. Residual hazards and unresolved safety issues are summarized. Hazards resulting from equipment failures or malfunctions, operations, or credible accidents are identified and evaluated. Special safety trade studies are presented.

  1. GAMBIT: Global And Modular BSM Inference Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAMBIT Collaboration; Athron, Peter; Balazs, Csaba; Bringmann, Torsten; Buckley, Andy; Chrzä Szcz, Marcin; Conrad, Jan; Cornell, Jonathan M.; Dal, Lars A.; Dickinson, Hugh; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Krislock, Abram; Kvellestad, Anders; Lundberg, Johan; McKay, James; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Martinez, Gregory D.; Putze, Antje Raklev, Are; Ripken, Joachim; Rogan, Christopher; Saavedra, Aldo; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Seo, Seon-Hee; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin; Wild, Sebastian

    2017-08-01

    GAMBIT (Global And Modular BSM Inference Tool) performs statistical global fits of generic physics models using a wide range of particle physics and astrophysics data. Modules provide native simulations of collider and astrophysics experiments, a flexible system for interfacing external codes (the backend system), a fully featured statistical and parameter scanning framework, and additional tools for implementing and using hierarchical models.

  2. Modular processes in mind and brain.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Saul

    2011-05-01

    One approach to understanding a complex process starts with an attempt to divide it into modules·, sub-processes that are independent in some sense, and have distinct functions. In this paper, I discuss an approach to the modular decomposition of neural and mental processes. Several examples of process decomposition are presented, together with discussion of inferential requirements. Two examples are of well-established and purely behavioural realizations of the approach (signal detection theory applied to discrimination data; the method of additive factors applied to reaction-time data), and lead to the identification of mental modules. Other examples, leading to the identification of modular neural processes, use brain measures, including the fMRI signal, the latencies of electrophysiological events, and their amplitudes. Some measures are pure (reflecting just one process), while others are composite. Two of the examples reveal mental and neural modules that correspond. Attempts to associate brain regions with behaviourally defined processing modules that use a brain manipulation (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) are promising but incomplete. I show why the process-decomposition approach discussed here, in which the criterion for modularity is separate modifiability, is superior for modular decomposition to the more frequently used task comparison procedure (often used in cognitive neuropsychology) and to its associated subtraction method. To demonstrate the limitations of task comparison, I describe the erroneous conclusion to which it has led about sleep deprivation, and the interpretive difficulties in a TMS study.

  3. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  4. Modular polynomial arithmetic in partial fraction decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdali, S. K.; Caviness, B. F.; Pridor, A.

    1977-01-01

    Algorithms for general partial fraction decomposition are obtained by using modular polynomial arithmetic. An algorithm is presented to compute inverses modulo a power of a polynomial in terms of inverses modulo that polynomial. This algorithm is used to make an improvement in the Kung-Tong partial fraction decomposition algorithm.

  5. Modular arithmetic weight and cyclic shifting.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    This note shows that the modular arithmetic weight of an integer is invariant to the cyclic shifts of its radix-2 form. This result leads to a reduced search for the minimum weight codeword in a cyclic AN-code as well as to a better understanding of previous work.

  6. A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Una Società Galileo Avionica A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via...ES) METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via Mario Stoppani 21 34077 Ronchi dei Legionari (GO) ITALY 8. PERFORMING

  7. What Symbionts Teach us about Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Porcar, Manuel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of Synthetic Biology (SB) is to apply engineering principles to biotechnology in order to make life easier to engineer. These engineering principles include modularity: decoupling of complex systems into smaller, orthogonal sub-systems that can be used in a range of different applications. The successful use of modules in engineering is expected to be reproduced in synthetic biological systems. But the difficulties experienced up to date with SB approaches question the short-term feasibility of designing life. Considering the “engineerable” nature of life, here we discuss the existence of modularity in natural living systems, particularly in symbiotic interactions, and compare the behavior of such systems, with those of engineered modules. We conclude that not only is modularity present but it is also common among living structures, and that symbioses are a new example of module-like sub-systems having high similarity with modularly designed ones. However, we also detect and stress fundamental differences between man-made and biological modules. Both similarities and differences should be taken into account in order to adapt SB design to biological laws. PMID:25023877

  8. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  9. Design of a modular digital computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A Central Control Element (CCE) module which controls the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular System (ARMS) and allows both redundant processing and multi-computing in the same computer with real time mode switching, is discussed. The same hardware is used for either reliability enhancement, speed enhancement, or for a combination of both.

  10. Modular design for a liquid target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Jahangiri, P.; Zacchia, N.; Uittenbosch, T.; Buckley, K.; Martinez, D. M.; Hoehr, C.

    2017-05-01

    A modular target with varying depth has been designed and built to investigate density reduction in liquid targets. An interchangeable middle piece allows target depths from 7.5 to 52.5 mm. The target has been tested and found to be leak tight and functional.

  11. Logarithmic conformal field theory, log-modular tensor categories and modular forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Gannon, Terry

    2017-10-01

    The two pillars of rational conformal field theory and rational vertex operator algebras are modularity of characters, and the interpretation of its category of modules as a modular tensor category. Overarching these pillars is the Verlinde formula. In this paper we consider the more general class of logarithmic conformal field theories and C 2-cofinite vertex operator algebras. We suggest logarithmic variants of those pillars and of Verlinde’s formula. We illustrate our ideas with the \

  12. A novel five-phase fault-tolerant modular in-wheel permanent-magnet synchronous machine for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Yi; Zheng, Ping; Wu, Fan; Wang, Pengfei; Cheng, Luming; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a five-phase fault-tolerant modular in-wheel permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) for electric vehicles. By adopting both the analytical and finite-element methods, the magnetic isolation abilities of some typical slot/pole combinations are analyzed, and a new fractional-slot concentrated winding topology that features hybrid single/double-layer concentrated windings and modular stator structure is developed. For the proposed hybrid single/double-layer concentrated windings, feasible slot/pole combinations are studied for three-, four-, and five-phase PMSMs. A five-phase in-wheel PMSM that adopts the proposed winding topology is designed and compared with the conventional PMSM, and the proposed machine shows advantages of large output torque, zero mutual inductances, low short-circuit current, and high magnetic isolation ability. Some of the analysis results are verified by experiments.

  13. Modularity for Motor Control and Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    How the central nervous system (CNS) overcomes the complexity of multi-joint and multi-muscle control and how it acquires or adapts motor skills are fundamental and open questions in neuroscience. A modular architecture may simplify control by embedding features of both the dynamic behavior of the musculoskeletal system and of the task into a small number of modules and by directly mapping task goals into module combination parameters. Several studies of the electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from many muscles during the performance of different tasks have shown that motor commands are generated by the combination of a small number of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific amplitude balances or activation waveforms, thus supporting a modular organization of motor control. Modularity may also help understanding motor learning. In a modular architecture, acquisition of a new motor skill or adaptation of an existing skill after a perturbation may occur at the level of modules or at the level of module combinations. As learning or adapting an existing skill through recombination of modules is likely faster than learning or adapting a skill by acquiring new modules, compatibility with the modules predicts learning difficulty. A recent study in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment has tested this prediction. By altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, it has been possible to show that it is easier to adapt to a perturbation that is compatible with the muscle synergies used to generate hand force than to a similar but incompatible perturbation. This result provides direct support for a modular organization of motor control and motor learning.

  14. Utility of modular implants in primary total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Berry, Daniel J

    2014-04-01

    Most surgeons believe that some level of modularity has a valuable role to play in primary total hip arthroplasty. However, all modular junctions carry some risk and recent problems with taper tribocorrosion have elevated concerns. These problems suggest that more rigorous preclinical testing should be undertaken before new types of modularity are widely used. Efforts to further optimize these junctions where they are needed, avoidance of gratuitous use of modular junctions where they provide only modest benefits, and a judicious approach to adopting new modularity are reasonable approaches to current concerns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John

    2002-01-01

    For the most part, Goddard solar arrays have been custom designs that are unique to each mission. The solar panel design has been frozen prior to issuing an RFP for their procurement. There has typically been 6-9 months between RFP release and contract award, followed by an additional 24 months for performance of the contract. For Small Explorer (SMEX) missions, with three years between mission definition and launch, this has been a significant problem. The SMEX solar panels have been sufficiently small that the contract performance period has been reduced to 12-15 months. The bulk of this time is used up in the final design definition and fabrication of flight solar cell assemblies. Even so, it has been virtually impossible to have the spacecraft design at a level of maturity sufficient to freeze the solar panel geometry and release the RFP in time to avoid schedule problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. With that in mind, the SMEX-Lite project team developed a modular architecture for the assembly of solar arrays to greatly reduce the cost and schedule associated with the development of a mission- specific solar array. In the modular architecture, solar cells are fabricated onto small substrate panels. This modular panel (approximately 8.5" x 17" in this case) becomes the building block for constructing solar arrays for multiple missions with varying power requirements and geometrical arrangements. The mechanical framework that holds these modules together as a solar array is the only mission-unique design, changing in size and shape as required for each mission. There are several advantages to this approach. First, the typical solar array development cycle requires a mission unique design, procurement, and qualification including a custom qualification panel. With the modular architecture, a single qualification of the SMEX-Lite modules and the associated mechanical framework in a typical configuration provided a qualification by

  16. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John

    2002-01-01

    For the most part, Goddard solar arrays have been custom designs that are unique to each mission. The solar panel design has been frozen prior to issuing an RFP for their procurement. There has typically been 6-9 months between RFP release and contract award, followed by an additional 24 months for performance of the contract. For Small Explorer (SMEX) missions, with three years between mission definition and launch, this has been a significant problem. The SMEX solar panels have been sufficiently small that the contract performance period has been reduced to 12-15 months. The bulk of this time is used up in the final design definition and fabrication of flight solar cell assemblies. Even so, it has been virtually impossible to have the spacecraft design at a level of maturity sufficient to freeze the solar panel geometry and release the RFP in time to avoid schedule problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. With that in mind, the SMEX-Lite project team developed a modular architecture for the assembly of solar arrays to greatly reduce the cost and schedule associated with the development of a mission- specific solar array. In the modular architecture, solar cells are fabricated onto small substrate panels. This modular panel (approximately 8.5" x 17" in this case) becomes the building block for constructing solar arrays for multiple missions with varying power requirements and geometrical arrangements. The mechanical framework that holds these modules together as a solar array is the only mission-unique design, changing in size and shape as required for each mission. There are several advantages to this approach. First, the typical solar array development cycle requires a mission unique design, procurement, and qualification including a custom qualification panel. With the modular architecture, a single qualification of the SMEX-Lite modules and the associated mechanical framework in a typical configuration provided a qualification by

  17. Behavioral Effects of Atropine and Benactyzine: Man-Monkey Comparisons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Dose - response curves for atropine- or benactyzine-induced performance decrements were estimated for both humans and monkeys. Monkeys were more...tolerant than humans to both drugs, and their dose - response curves were not as steep. Thus, no simple correction coefficient would allow extrapolation of

  18. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  19. Sequential Responding and Planning in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments have assessed planning during sequential responding to computer generated stimuli by Old World nonhuman primates including chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. However, no such assessment has been made with a New World primate species. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are an interesting test case for assessing the distribution of cognitive processes in the order Primates because they sometimes show proficiency in tasks also mastered by apes and Old World monkeys, but in other cases fail to match the proficiency of those other species. In two experiments, eight capuchin monkeys selected five arbitrary stimuli in distinct locations on a computer monitor in a learned sequence. In Experiment 1, shift trials occurred in which the second and third stimuli were transposed when the first stimulus was selected by the animal. In Experiment 2, mask trials occurred in which all remaining stimuli were masked after the monkey selected the first stimulus. Monkeys made more mistakes on trials in which the locations of the second and third stimuli were interchanged than on trials in which locations were not interchanged, suggesting they had already planned to select a location that no longer contained the correct stimulus. When mask trials occurred, monkeys performed at levels significantly better than chance, but their performance exceeded chance levels only for the first and the second selections on a trial. These data indicate that capuchin monkeys performed very similarly to chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys and appeared to plan their selection sequences during the computerized task, but only to a limited degree. PMID:22801861

  20. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  1. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  2. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  3. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  4. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  5. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  6. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  7. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  8. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  9. Norovirus GII.17 Natural Infections in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhanlong; Liu, Bo; Tao, Yufen; Li, Chao; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Noroviruses are a leading viral cause of acute gastroenteritis among humans. During the 2014–15 epidemic season, norovirus GII.17 was detected in rhesus monkeys in China. Genetic, structural, and challenge studies revealed virus mutations and verified the infections. Thus, cross-species transmission may occur, and monkeys may be a virus reservoir. PMID:28102802

  10. Corollary discharge contributes to perceived eye location in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Wilsaan M; Cavanaugh, James; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Wurtz, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Despite saccades changing the image on the retina several times per second, we still perceive a stable visual world. A possible mechanism underlying this stability is that an internal retinotopic map is updated with each saccade, with the location of objects being compared before and after the saccade. Psychophysical experiments have shown that humans derive such location information from a corollary discharge (CD) accompanying saccades. Such a CD has been identified in the monkey brain in a circuit extending from superior colliculus to frontal cortex. There is a missing piece, however. Perceptual localization is established only in humans and the CD circuit only in monkeys. We therefore extended measurement of perceptual localization to the monkey by adapting the target displacement detection task developed in humans. During saccades to targets, the target disappeared and then reappeared, sometimes at a different location. The monkeys reported the displacement direction. Detections of displacement were similar in monkeys and humans, but enhanced detection of displacement from blanking the target at the end of the saccade was observed only in humans, not in monkeys. Saccade amplitude varied across trials, but the monkey's estimates of target location did not follow that variation, indicating that eye location depended on an internal CD rather than external visual information. We conclude that monkeys use a CD to determine their new eye location after each saccade, just as humans do.

  11. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  12. Comparative studies of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and titi monkeys (Callicebus) in travel tasks.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, D M

    1980-01-01

    Squirrel and titi monkeys were observed in a series of experiments in which the subjects' task was to move to a distant goal along above-ground pathways. The pathways were entirely visible to the subjects in all experiments. However, visual cues along the pathways (in Experiment I) and physical and spatial properties of the pathways (in Experiments II and III) were varied systematically in order to determine what effect features had upon selection of travel paths for monkeys of each species. Marked performance differences between the species were evident in these experiments, including differences in latency to move past the choice point, proportion of trials in which the shortest route was chosen first, and changes over test sessions in frequency of initial choice of the shortest route. In particular, titis tended to move past the choice point more slowly than squirrel monkeys; to pay more attention to distant properties of the pathways prior to making a decision, especially after experience in the test setting; and to prefer habitual pathways when these were available, whereas squirrel monkeys preferred novel routes when these were available. The relative "optimality" of decision making in these tasks in relation to species-typical modes of traveling and foraging in natural habitats is discussed. An alternative view of decision making, in which optimality is not assumed to be the only decision-making strategy, is suggested as an appropriate vehicle for further investigation into the sources of short-term variability in choice behavior.

  13. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  14. Do monkeys think in metaphors? Representations of space and time in monkeys and humans

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Casasanto, Daniel; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the relationship between the representation of space and time has produced two contrasting proposals. ATOM, posits that space and time are represented via a common magnitude system, suggesting a symmetrical relationship between space and time. According to metaphor theory, however, representations of time depend on representations of space asymmetrically. Previous findings in humans have supported metaphor theory. Here, we investigate the relationship between time and space in a nonverbal species, by testing whether nonhuman primates show space-time interactions consistent with metaphor theory or with ATOM. We tested two rhesus monkeys and 16 adult humans in a nonverbal task that assessed the influence of an irrelevant dimension (time or space) on a relevant dimension (space or time). In humans, spatial extent had a large effect on time judgments whereas time had a small effect on spatial judgments. In monkeys, both spatial and temporal manipulations showed large bi-directional effects on judgments. In contrast to humans, spatial manipulations in monkeys did not produce a larger effect on temporal judgments than the reverse. Thus, consistent with previous findings, human adults showed asymmetrical space-time interactions that were predicted by metaphor theory. In contrast, monkeys showed patterns that were more consistent with ATOM. PMID:20846645

  15. Do monkeys think in metaphors? Representations of space and time in monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Dustin J; Casasanto, Daniel; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Research on the relationship between the representation of space and time has produced two contrasting proposals. ATOM posits that space and time are represented via a common magnitude system, suggesting a symmetrical relationship between space and time. According to metaphor theory, however, representations of time depend on representations of space asymmetrically. Previous findings in humans have supported metaphor theory. Here, we investigate the relationship between time and space in a nonverbal species, by testing whether non-human primates show space-time interactions consistent with metaphor theory or with ATOM. We tested two rhesus monkeys and 16 adult humans in a nonverbal task that assessed the influence of an irrelevant dimension (time or space) on a relevant dimension (space or time). In humans, spatial extent had a large effect on time judgments whereas time had a small effect on spatial judgments. In monkeys, both spatial and temporal manipulations showed large bi-directional effects on judgments. In contrast to humans, spatial manipulations in monkeys did not produce a larger effect on temporal judgments than the reverse. Thus, consistent with previous findings, human adults showed asymmetrical space-time interactions that were predicted by metaphor theory. In contrast, monkeys showed patterns that were more consistent with ATOM.

  16. On the classification of weakly integral modular categories

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Galindo, César; Ng, Siu-Hung; Plavnik, Julia Y.; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we classify all modular categories of dimension 4m, where m is an odd square-free integer, and all rank 6 and rank 7 weakly integral modular categories. This completes the classification of weakly integral modular categories through rank 7. In particular, our results imply that all integral modular categories of rank at most 7 are pointed (that is, every simple object has dimension 1). All the non-integral (but weakly integral) modular categories of ranks 6 and 7 have dimension 4m, with m an odd square free integer, so their classification is an application of our main result. The classification of rank 7 integral modular categories is facilitated by an analysis of the two group actions on modular categories: the Galois group of the field generated by the entries of the S-matrix and the group of invertible isomorphism classes of objects. We derive some valuable arithmetic consequences from these actions.

  17. Implicit Contractive Mappings in Modular Metric and Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, N.; Salimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of modular metric spaces being a natural generalization of classical modulars over linear spaces like Lebesgue, Orlicz, Musielak-Orlicz, Lorentz, Orlicz-Lorentz, and Calderon-Lozanovskii spaces was recently introduced. In this paper we investigate the existence of fixed points of generalized α-admissible modular contractive mappings in modular metric spaces. As applications, we derive some new fixed point theorems in partially ordered modular metric spaces, Suzuki type fixed point theorems in modular metric spaces and new fixed point theorems for integral contractions. In last section, we develop an important relation between fuzzy metric and modular metric and deduce certain new fixed point results in triangular fuzzy metric spaces. Moreover, some examples are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results. PMID:25003157

  18. Developing Modularized Virtual Reality Simulators for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woojin; Dorozhkin, Denis; Schwaitzberg, Steven; Jones, Daniel B; De, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures are rapidly being developed in diverse surgical fields. We are developing a Virtual Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery Trainer (VTEST™) built on a modularized platform that facilitates rapid development of virtual reality (VR) NOTES simulators. Both the hardware interface and software components consist of independent reusable and customizable modules. The developed modules are integrated to build a VR-NOTES simulator for training in the hybrid transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomy. The simulator was demonstrated and evaluated by expert NOTES surgeons at the 2015 Natural Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research (NOSCAR) summit.

  19. A low noise modular current source for stable magnetic field control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancalana, Valerio; Bevilacqua, Giuseppe; Chessa, Piero; Dancheva, Yordanka; Cecchi, Roberto; Stiaccini, Leonardo

    2017-03-01

    A low cost, stable, programmable, unipolar current source is described. The circuit is designed in view of a modular arrangement, suitable for applications where several DC sources must be controlled at once. A hybrid switching/linear design helps in improving the stability and in reducing the power dissipation and cross-talking. Multiple units can be supplied by a single DC power supply, while allowing for a variety of maximal current values and compliance voltages at the outputs. The circuit is analogically controlled by a unipolar voltage, enabling current programmability and control through commercial digital-to-analogue conversion cards.

  20. Robust and fault tolerant control of modular and reconfigurable robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, Sajan

    Modular and reconfigurable robot has been one of the main areas of robotics research in recent years due to its wide range of applications, especially in aerospace sector. Dynamic control of manipulators can be performed using joint torque sensing with little information of the link dynamics. From the modular robot perspective, this advantage offered by the torque sensor can be taken to enhance the modularity of the control system. Known modular robots though boast novel and diverse mechanical design on joint modules in one way or another, they still require the whole robot dynamic model for motion control, and modularity offered in the mechanical side does not offer any advantage in the control design. In this work, a modular distributed control technique is formulated for modular and reconfigurable robots that can instantly adapt to robot reconfigurations. Under this control methodology, a modular and reconfigurable robot is stabilized joint by joint, and modules can be added or removed without the need of re-tuning the controller. Model uncertainties associated with load and links are compensated by the use of joint torque sensors. Other model uncertainties at each joint module are compensated by a decomposition based robust controller for each module. The proposed distributed control technique offers a 'modular' approach, featuring a unique joint-by-joint control synthesis of the joint modules. Fault tolerance and fault detection are formulated as a decentralized control problem for modular and reconfigurable robots in this thesis work. The modularity of the system is exploited to derive a strategy dependent only on a single joint module, while eliminating the need for the motion states of other joint modules. While the traditional fault tolerant and detection schemes are suitable for robots with the whole dynamic model, this proposed technique is ideal for modular and reconfigurable robots because of its modular nature. The proposed methods have been

  1. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  2. Motion Sickness-Induced Food Aversions in the Squirrel Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, M. Aaron; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1979-01-01

    Conditioned aversions to colored, flavored water were established in Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by following consumption with 90 min of simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation. The experimental group (N= 13) drank significantly less of the green, almond-flavored test solution than did the control group (N=14) during three post-treatment preference testing days. Individual differences were noted in that two experimental monkeys readily drank the test solution after rotational stimulation. Only two of the experimental monkeys showed emesis during rotation, yet 10 monkeys in this group developed an aversion. These results suggest that: (1) motion sickness can be readily induced in Squirrel monkeys with simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation, and (2) that conditioned food aversions are achieved in the absence of emesis in this species.

  3. Psychophysical chromatic mechanisms in macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Stoughton, Cleo M; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Gagin, Galina; Conway, Bevil R

    2012-10-24

    Chromatic mechanisms have been studied extensively with psychophysical techniques in humans, but the number and nature of the mechanisms are still controversial. Appeals to monkey neurophysiology are often used to sort out the competing claims and to test hypotheses arising from the experiments in humans, but psychophysical chromatic mechanisms have never been assessed in monkeys. Here we address this issue by measuring color-detection thresholds in monkeys before and after chromatic adaptation, employing a standard approach used to determine chromatic mechanisms in humans. We conducted separate experiments using adaptation configured as either flickering full-field colors or heterochromatic gratings. Full-field colors would favor activity within the visual system at or before the arrival of retinal signals to V1, before the spatial transformation of color signals by the cortex. Conversely, gratings would favor activity within the cortex where neurons are often sensitive to spatial chromatic structure. Detection thresholds were selectively elevated for the colors of full-field adaptation when it modulated along either of the two cardinal chromatic axes that define cone-opponent color space [L vs M or S vs (L + M)], providing evidence for two privileged cardinal chromatic mechanisms implemented early in the visual-processing hierarchy. Adaptation with gratings produced elevated thresholds for colors of the adaptation regardless of its chromatic makeup, suggesting a cortical representation comprised of multiple higher-order mechanisms each selective for a different direction in color space. The results suggest that color is represented by two cardinal channels early in the processing hierarchy and many chromatic channels in brain regions closer to perceptual readout.

  4. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  5. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  6. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  7. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  8. Third Grade Children's Comprehension of "Monkey, Monkey" as a Function of Verbal and Visual Recall. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jeanne; Fitch, Marguerite

    To determine children's "dramatic literacy" and the modal sources of their inferences, a study interviewed 45 Kansas third graders in regard to a theater production of "Monkey, Monkey." Two-thirds of the children reported that third graders in another city would enjoy this production "a lot." A majority found the play…

  9. The misbehaviour of a metacognitive monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Ken; Evans, Theodore A.; Menzel, Emilie; Smith, J. David; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Metacognition, the monitoring of one’s own mental states, is a fundamental aspect of human intellect. Despite tests in nonhuman animals suggestive of uncertainty monitoring, some authors interpret these results solely in terms of primitive psychological mechanisms and reinforcement regimes, where “reinforcement” is invariably considered to be the delivery and consumption of earned food rewards. Surprisingly, few studies have detailed the trial-by-trial behaviour of animals engaged in such tasks. Here we report ethology-based observations on a rhesus monkey completing sparse-dense discrimination problems, and given the option of escaping trials (i.e., responding “uncertain”) at its own choosing. Uncertainty responses were generally made on trials of high objective difficulty, and were characterized by long latencies before beginning visible trials, long times taken for response, and, even after controlling for difficulty, high degrees of wavering during response. Incorrect responses were also common in trials of high objective difficulty, but were characterized by low degrees of wavering. This speaks to the likely adaptive nature of “hesitation,” and is inconsistent with models which argue or predict implicit, inflexible information-seeking or “alternative option” behaviours whenever challenging problems present themselves, Confounding models which suggest that nonhuman behaviour in metacognition tasks is driven solely by food delivery/consumption, the monkey was also observed allowing pellets to accumulate and consuming them during and after trials of all response/outcome categories (i.e., whether correct, incorrect, or escaped). This study thus bolsters previous findings that rhesus monkey behaviour in metacognition tasks is in some respects disassociated from mere food delivery/consumption, or even the avoidance of punishment. These and other observations fit well with the evolutionary status and natural proclivities of rhesus monkeys

  10. Stress promotes maleness in hermaphroditic modular animals

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R. N.; Manríquez, P. H.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Burrows, M. T.

    2003-01-01

    Sex-allocation theory developed for hermaphroditic plants predicts that impaired phenotype or reduced parental survivorship caused by environmental stress should induce relatively greater allocation to the male function. We provide experimental evidence of stress-induced maleness, already well documented in flowering plants, in a modular animal. By using cloned copies of replicate genotypes, we show that the marine bryozoan Celleporella hyalina increases the ratio of male to female modules in response to diverse environmental stressors. Mating trials confirmed that paternity is determined by fair-raffle sperm competition, which should obviate local mate competition at characteristic population density and promote the advantage of increased male allocation. The demonstrated similarity to plants transcends specific physiological pathways and suggests that stress-induced bias toward male function is a general response of hermaphroditic modular organisms to impaired prospects for parental productivity or survival. PMID:12930903

  11. Modularity and community structure in networks

    PubMed Central

    Newman, M. E. J.

    2006-01-01

    Many networks of interest in the sciences, including social networks, computer networks, and metabolic and regulatory networks, are found to divide naturally into communities or modules. The problem of detecting and characterizing this community structure is one of the outstanding issues in the study of networked systems. One highly effective approach is the optimization of the quality function known as “modularity” over the possible divisions of a network. Here I show that the modularity can be expressed in terms of the eigenvectors of a characteristic matrix for the network, which I call the modularity matrix, and that this expression leads to a spectral algorithm for community detection that returns results of demonstrably higher quality than competing methods in shorter running times. I illustrate the method with applications to several published network data sets. PMID:16723398

  12. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  13. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John W.; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) missions have typically had three years between mission definition and launch. This short schedule has posed significant challenges with respect to solar array design and procurement. Typically, the solar panel geometry is frozen prior to going out with a procurement. However, with the SMEX schedule, it has been virtually impossible to freeze the geometry in time to avoid scheduling problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. A modular solar array architecture was developed to alleviate this problem. This approach involves procuring sufficient modules for multiple missions and assembling the modules onto a solar array framework that is unique to each mission. The modular approach removes the solar array from the critical path of the SMEX integration and testing schedule. It also reduces the cost per unit area of the solar arrays and facilitates the inclusion of experiments involving new solar cell or panel technologies in the SMEX missions.

  14. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong-ha; Park, Lydia K.; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-06-24

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. Dramatic improvements such as these lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  15. On Fusion Algebras and Modular Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, T.; Walton, M. A.

    We consider the fusion algebras arising in e.g. Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theories, affine Kac-Moody algebras at positive integer level, and quantum groups at roots of unity. Using properties of the modular matrix S, we find small sets of primary fields (equivalently, sets of highest weights) which can be identified with the variables of a polynomial realization of the Ar fusion algebra at level k. We prove that for many choices of rank r and level k, the number of these variables is the minimum possible, and we conjecture that it is in fact minimal for most r and k. We also find new, systematic sources of zeros in the modular matrix S. In addition, we obtain a formula relating the entries of S at fixed points, to entries of S at smaller ranks and levels. Finally, we identify the number fields generated over the rationals by the entries of S, and by the fusion (Verlinde) eigenvalues.

  16. Siberian company starts up modular refinery

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    Uraineftegas, a subsidiary of Russian oil giant Lukoil, has started up Siberia`s first modular crude distillation unit. The 2,000 b/d refinery was designed and manufactured by Ventech Engineers Inc., Pasadena, Tex. Uraineftegas is based in Urai, Siberia. Located in the Tyumen region on the Konda river, the remote town is accessible only by air and water. Most of Urai`s crude production--about 50,000 b/d, according to Ventech president Bill Stanley--is shipped by pipeline to the refining centers at Ufa and Omsk. Because there are no products pipelines in which to ship fuels back to Urai, the town needed a small refinery in order to produce its own fuels. This report briefly describes the design ad operation of these modular units. It describes construction techniques and temperature control equipment used to maintain an operational environment under severe winter weather.

  17. CosmoSIS: Modular cosmological parameter estimation

    DOE PAGES

    Zuntz, J.; Paterno, M.; Jennings, E.; ...

    2015-06-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. Here we present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmicmore » shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. Lastly, we illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis« less

  18. CosmoSIS: Modular cosmological parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Zuntz, J.; Paterno, M.; Jennings, E.; Rudd, D.; Manzotti, A.; Dodelson, S.; Bridle, S.; Sehrish, S.; Kowalkowski, J.

    2015-06-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. Here we present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmic shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. Lastly, we illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis

  19. Small satellite modular design and application prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jie; Chen, Jin-Jun

    1993-01-01

    A small satellite modular architecture is introduced, which is based on systematically analyzing the subsystem functions of small satellites. A whole spacecraft is divided into three modules: the payload module, the attitude control module and the common service module. The payload module offers three versions to select according to payload mass; the attitude control module offers gravity gradient modules, spin stabilized modules and two types of three axis stabilization module; common service module is the small satellite control center including control system, power system and TTC (Telemetry, Tracking and Control) system. Several basic module configurations are possible: gravity gradient model, spin stabilized model, the payload module mass varying between 50 to 150 kg. The use of a Chinese launch vehicle to launch these modular small satellites is possible. Small satellite applications in the military, civil and scientific fields are prospected.

  20. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  1. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Yong-ha; Park, Lydia K.; Yiacoumi, Sotira; ...

    2016-06-24

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. Dramatic improvements such as these lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. Thismore » article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.« less

  2. Versatile microrobotics using simple modular subunits

    PubMed Central

    Cheang, U Kei; Meshkati, Farshad; Kim, Hoyeon; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Fu, Henry Chien; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-01-01

    The realization of reconfigurable modular microrobots could aid drug delivery and microsurgery by allowing a single system to navigate diverse environments and perform multiple tasks. So far, microrobotic systems are limited by insufficient versatility; for instance, helical shapes commonly used for magnetic swimmers cannot effectively assemble and disassemble into different size and shapes. Here by using microswimmers with simple geometries constructed of spherical particles, we show how magnetohydrodynamics can be used to assemble and disassemble modular microrobots with different physical characteristics. We develop a mechanistic physical model that we use to improve assembly strategies. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically changing the physical properties of microswimmers through assembly and disassembly in a controlled fluidic environment. Finally, we show that different configurations have different swimming properties by examining swimming speed dependence on configuration size. PMID:27464852

  3. Modular organization of axial microcircuits in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bagnall, Martha W.; McLean, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion requires precise control of spinal networks. In tetrapods and bipeds, dynamic regulation of locomotion is simplified by the modular organization of spinal limb circuits, but it is not known whether their predecessors, fish axial circuits, are similarly organized. Here, we demonstrate that the larval zebrafish spinal cord contains distinct, parallel microcircuits for independent control of dorsal and ventral musculature on each side of the body. During normal swimming, dorsal and ventral microcircuits are equally active; but during postural correction, fish differentially engage these microcircuits to generate torque for self-righting. These findings reveal greater complexity in the axial spinal networks responsible for swimming than previously recognized and suggest an early template of modular organization for more complex locomotor circuits in later vertebrates. PMID:24408436

  4. Siegel modular forms and black hole entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belin, Alexandre; Castro, Alejandra; Gomes, João; Keller, Christoph A.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the application of Siegel Modular Forms to Black Hole entropy counting. The role of the Igusa cusp form χ 10 in the D1D5P system is well-known, and its transformation properties are what allows precision microstate counting in this case. We apply a similar method to extract the Fourier coefficients of other Siegel modular and paramodular forms, and we show that they could serve as candidates for other types of black holes. We investigate the growth of their coefficients, identifying the dominant contributions and the leading logarithmic corrections in various regimes. We also discuss similarities and differences to the behavior of χ 10, and possible physical interpretations of such forms both from a microscopic and gravitational point of view.

  5. A modular approach to adaptive structures.

    PubMed

    Pagitz, Markus; Pagitz, Manuel; Hühne, Christian

    2014-10-07

    A remarkable property of nastic, shape changing plants is their complete fusion between actuators and structure. This is achieved by combining a large number of cells whose geometry, internal pressures and material properties are optimized for a given set of target shapes and stiffness requirements. An advantage of such a fusion is that cell walls are prestressed by cell pressures which increases, decreases the overall structural stiffness, weight. Inspired by the nastic movement of plants, Pagitz et al (2012 Bioinspir. Biomim. 7) published a novel concept for pressure actuated cellular structures. This article extends previous work by introducing a modular approach to adaptive structures. An algorithm that breaks down any continuous target shapes into a small number of standardized modules is presented. Furthermore it is shown how cytoskeletons within each cell enhance the properties of adaptive modules. An adaptive passenger seat and an aircrafts leading, trailing edge is used to demonstrate the potential of a modular approach.

  6. Implementing a modular system of computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1983-07-01

    A modular computation system has been developed for nuclear reactor core analysis. The codes can be applied repeatedly in blocks without extensive user input data, as needed for reactor history calculations. The primary control options over the calculational paths and task assignments within the codes are blocked separately from other instructions, admitting ready access by user input instruction or directions from automated procedures and promoting flexible and diverse applications at minimum application cost. Data interfacing is done under formal specifications with data files manipulated by an informed manager. This report emphasizes the system aspects and the development of useful capability, hopefully informative and useful to anyone developing a modular code system of much sophistication. Overall, this report in a general way summarizes the many factors and difficulties that are faced in making reactor core calculations, based on the experience of the authors. It provides the background on which work on HTGR reactor physics is being carried out.

  7. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  8. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, John W.; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) missions have typically had three years between mission definition and launch. This short schedule has posed significant challenges with respect to solar array design and procurement. Typically, the solar panel geometry is frozen prior to going out with a procurement. However, with the SMEX schedule, it has been virtually impossible to freeze the geometry in time to avoid scheduling problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. A modular solar array architecture was developed to alleviate this problem. This approach involves procuring sufficient modules for multiple missions and assembling the modules onto a solar array framework that is unique to each mission. The modular approach removes the solar array from the critical path of the SMEX integration and testing schedule. It also reduces the cost per unit area of the solar arrays and facilitates the inclusion of experiments involving new solar cell or panel technologies in the SMEX missions.

  9. Modular, bluetooth enabled, wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) platform.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Joseph A; Witt, Tyler S; Beyette, Fred R

    2013-01-01

    A design for a modular, compact, and accurate wireless electroencephalograph (EEG) system is proposed. EEG is the only non-invasive measure for neuronal function of the brain. Using a number of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques, this neuronal function can be acquired and processed into meaningful representations of brain activity. The system described here utilizes Bluetooth to wirelessly transmit the digitized brain signal for an end application use. In this way, the system is portable, and modular in terms of the device to which it can interface. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) has become a popular extension of EEG systems in modern research. This design serves as a platform for applications using BCI capability.

  10. Modular quantum-information processing by dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Dissipation can be used as a resource to control and simulate quantum systems. We discuss a modular model based on fast dissipation capable of performing universal quantum computation, and simulating arbitrary Lindbladian dynamics. The model consists of a network of elementary dissipation-generated modules and it is in principle scalable. In particular, we demonstrate the ability to dissipatively prepare all single-qubit gates, and the controlled-not gate; prerequisites for universal quantum computing. We also show a way to implement a type of quantum memory in a dissipative environment, whereby we can arbitrarily control the loss in both coherence, and concurrence, over the evolution. Moreover, our dissipation-assisted modular construction exhibits a degree of inbuilt robustness to Hamiltonian and, indeed, Lindbladian errors, and as such is of potential practical relevance.

  11. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  12. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  13. lazar: a modular predictive toxicology framework

    PubMed Central

    Maunz, Andreas; Gütlein, Martin; Rautenberg, Micha; Vorgrimmler, David; Gebele, Denis; Helma, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    lazar (lazy structure–activity relationships) is a modular framework for predictive toxicology. Similar to the read across procedure in toxicological risk assessment, lazar creates local QSAR (quantitative structure–activity relationship) models for each compound to be predicted. Model developers can choose between a large variety of algorithms for descriptor calculation and selection, chemical similarity indices, and model building. This paper presents a high level description of the lazar framework and discusses the performance of example classification and regression models. PMID:23761761

  14. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  15. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Ault, Earl R.; Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  16. Asynchronous networks: modularization of dynamics theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bick, Christian; Field, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Building on the first part of this paper, we develop the theory of functional asynchronous networks. We show that a large class of functional asynchronous networks can be (uniquely) represented as feedforward networks connecting events or dynamical modules. For these networks we can give a complete description of the network function in terms of the function of the events comprising the network: the modularization of dynamics theorem. We give examples to illustrate the main results.

  17. Modular control system for optogenetic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowiński, Mikołaj; Kulik, Paweł; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Mankiewicz, Lech; Krawczyk, Rafał D.; Jarosiński, Jakub; Czajkowski, Rafał; Knapska, Ewelina; Puścian, Alicja; Kowalski, Jakub; Rusakov, Konstantin; Przywózki, Tomasz; Rasiński, Paweł; Juszczyk, Bartłomiej

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a modular control system used in Eco-HAB experimentation system. Features specific to the solution are covered. Control system is described in details. The architecture is outlined in the context of requirements to be met. Modes of utilization of implantable device, time synchronization, localization service and antenna driving oscillation fine-tuning as well as preliminary experiments in preparation are described.

  18. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Butterfield, Karla

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  19. Bifurcated, modular syntheses of chiral annulet triazacyclononanes.

    PubMed

    Argouarch, Gilles; Stones, Graham; Gibson, Colin L; Kennedy, Alan R; Sherrington, David C

    2003-12-21

    Three chiral 2,6-disubstituted tri-N-methyl azamacrocycles have been prepared by modular methods. These macrocycles were accessed from three chiral 1,4,7-triazaheptanes intermediates that were prepared by two independent routes. The first of these routes involved the benzylamine opening of chiral tosyl aziridines followed by debenzylation but was problematic on solubility grounds. A second, more effective, route was developed which avoided debenzylation by using ammonia in the nucleophilic opening of chiral tosyl aziridines.

  20. Workflow and cost analysis on MODULAR ANALYTICS.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Herbert; Dossler, Bettina; Keller, Franz; Steigerwald, Udo

    2003-01-01

    Four stand-alone analyzers in a centralized laboratory were replaced by two modular analytical systems processing 45 methods of the general chemistry and specific protein segment. This consolidation led to a reduction of the daily workflow and operational costs. The cost saving with 1.3 million reported results per year was 53,000 Euro, which can be assessed as an important contribution to cost reduction in the health care system.

  1. Parallel Induction of Modular Classification Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Frederic; Bramer, Max; Adda, Mo

    The Distributed Rule Induction (DRI) project at the University of Portsmouth is concerned with distributed data mining algorithms for automatically generating rules of all kinds. In this paper we present a system architecture and its implementation for inducing modular classification rules in parallel in a local area network using a distributed blackboard system. We present initial results of a prototype implementation based on the Prism algorithm.

  2. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-06-17

    Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular "inner packs" for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Integrated modular propulsion for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, William; Crawford, Roger; Litchford, Ron

    1993-01-01

    The paper proposes a modular approach to rocket propulsion which offers a versatile method for realizing the goals of low cost, safety, reliability, and ease of operation. It is shown that, using practical modules made up of only 4-6 individual elements, it is possible to achieve thrust levels of 2-3 mln lbf and more, using turbomachinery, thrust chambers, lines, and valves about the size of SSME hardware. The approach is illustrated by a LOX/LH2 configuration.

  4. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Bryan A.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular “inner packs” for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. Methods We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Results Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. PMID:25957666

  5. Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert J.

    1996-12-03

    Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

  6. Generalized modular-value-based scheme and its generalized modular value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Le Bin; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    We consider a generalized modular-value-based scheme based on the standard von Neumann measurement. We model the scheme as an interaction between a quantum system and a discrete quantum pointer where the pointer operator is a projection operator onto one of the states of the basis of the pointer Hilbert space. The interaction strength is made arbitrarily large. After post-selection onto the system, the results of the pointer measurement are the so-called conditional probabilities. We first explicitly derive the analytical expressions of the conditional probabilities, the expectation value, and the average displacement in the measured value of a pointer observable that we name as the pointer quantities. We also provide an expression for a generalized modular value and discuss the relationship between the generalized modular value and generalized weak values. The study then shows that the generalized modular value can characterize these pointer quantities. Then we give applications of our proposal to the cases of a spin-s particle pointer and a semiclassical pointer state. One of the key results is that the amplification effect, similar to the weak-value case, is also observed in the case of the generalized modular value. Our study can also apply to the cases of nonclassical pointer states.

  7. RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.

  8. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Butterfield, Karla

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  9. Evolution of a modular software network

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Miguel A.; Bonachela, Juan A.; Levin, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    “Evolution behaves like a tinkerer” (François Jacob, Science, 1977). Software systems provide a singular opportunity to understand biological processes using concepts from network theory. The Debian GNU/Linux operating system allows us to explore the evolution of a complex network in a unique way. The modular design detected during its growth is based on the reuse of existing code in order to minimize costs during programming. The increase of modularity experienced by the system over time has not counterbalanced the increase in incompatibilities between software packages within modules. This negative effect is far from being a failure of design. A random process of package installation shows that the higher the modularity, the larger the fraction of packages working properly in a local computer. The decrease in the relative number of conflicts between packages from different modules avoids a failure in the functionality of one package spreading throughout the entire system. Some potential analogies with the evolutionary and ecological processes determining the structure of ecological networks of interacting species are discussed. PMID:22106260

  10. Modular injection systems for miniature engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Mike

    1992-07-01

    Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve sized for 100lbf thrust was designed and is being tested to show lower costs, fewer moving parts and a reduction in weight and size. Results show that this valve meets objectives of one-half weight, one-half cost and one-fifth the envelopment of current production valves. Studies indicate that a cruciform configuration of four nominal 100lbf thrust engines can be controlled by four modular injection valve systems in a single housing of less than 1.0 m3. Following further development and correlation of results this concept may be scaled to control four higher thrust engines.

  11. Evolution of a modular software network.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Miguel A; Bonachela, Juan A; Levin, Simon A

    2011-12-13

    "Evolution behaves like a tinkerer" (François Jacob, Science, 1977). Software systems provide a singular opportunity to understand biological processes using concepts from network theory. The Debian GNU/Linux operating system allows us to explore the evolution of a complex network in a unique way. The modular design detected during its growth is based on the reuse of existing code in order to minimize costs during programming. The increase of modularity experienced by the system over time has not counterbalanced the increase in incompatibilities between software packages within modules. This negative effect is far from being a failure of design. A random process of package installation shows that the higher the modularity, the larger the fraction of packages working properly in a local computer. The decrease in the relative number of conflicts between packages from different modules avoids a failure in the functionality of one package spreading throughout the entire system. Some potential analogies with the evolutionary and ecological processes determining the structure of ecological networks of interacting species are discussed.

  12. Modular Closed-Loop Control of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Magni, L.; Dassau, E.; Hughes-Karvetski, C.; Toffanin, C.; De Nicolao, G.; Del Favero, S.; Breton, M.; Man, C. Dalla; Renard, E.; Zisser, H.; Doyle, F. J.; Cobelli, C.; Kovatchev, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    Modularity plays a key role in many engineering systems, allowing for plug-and-play integration of components, enhancing flexibility and adaptability, and facilitating standardization. In the control of diabetes, i.e., the so-called “artificial pancreas,” modularity allows for the step-wise introduction of (and regulatory approval for) algorithmic components, starting with subsystems for assured patient safety and followed by higher layer components that serve to modify the patient’s basal rate in real time. In this paper, we introduce a three-layer modular architecture for the control of diabetes, consisting in a sensor/pump interface module (IM), a continuous safety module (CSM), and a real-time control module (RTCM), which separates the functions of insulin recommendation (postmeal insulin for mitigating hyperglycemia) and safety (prevention of hypoglycemia). In addition, we provide details of instances of all three layers of the architecture: the APS© serving as the IM, the safety supervision module (SSM) serving as the CSM, and the range correction module (RCM) serving as the RTCM. We evaluate the performance of the integrated system via in silico preclinical trials, demonstrating 1) the ability of the SSM to reduce the incidence of hypoglycemia under nonideal operating conditions and 2) the ability of the RCM to reduce glycemic variability. PMID:22481809

  13. Understanding Modularity in Molecular Networks Requires Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Roger P.; Kim, Philip M.; Emonet, Thierry; Gerstein, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    The era of genome sequencing has produced long lists of the molecular parts from which cellular machines are constructed. A fundamental goal in systems biology is to understand how cellular behavior emerges from the interaction in time and space of genetically encoded molecular parts, as well as non-genetically encoded small molecules. Networks provide a natural framework for the organization and quantitative representation of all the available data about molecular interactions. The structural and dynamic properties of molecular networks have been the subject of intense research. Despite major advances, bridging network structure to dynamics – and therefore to behavior – remains challenging. A key concept of modern engineering that recurs in the functional analysis of biological networks is modularity. Most approaches to molecular network analysis rely to some extent on the assumption that molecular networks are modular – that is, they are separable and can be studied to some degree in isolation. We describe recent advances in the analysis of modularity in biological networks, focusing on the increasing realization that a dynamic perspective is essential to grouping molecules into modules and determining their collective function. PMID:19638611

  14. Antimony: a modular model definition language.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lucian P; Bergmann, Frank T; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M

    2009-09-15

    Model exchange in systems and synthetic biology has been standardized for computers with the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and CellML, but specialized software is needed for the generation of models in these formats. Text-based model definition languages allow researchers to create models simply, and then export them to a common exchange format. Modular languages allow researchers to create and combine complex models more easily. We saw a use for a modular text-based language, together with a translation library to allow other programs to read the models as well. The Antimony language provides a way for a researcher to use simple text statements to create, import, and combine biological models, allowing complex models to be built from simpler models, and provides a special syntax for the creation of modular genetic networks. The libAntimony library allows other software packages to import these models and convert them either to SBML or their own internal format. The Antimony language specification and the libAntimony library are available under a BSD license from http://antimony.sourceforge.net/.

  15. Small Modular Reactors (468th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert

    2011-04-20

    With good reason, much more media attention has focused on nuclear power plants than solar farms, wind farms, or hydroelectric plants during the past month and a half. But as nations around the world demand more energy to power everything from cell phone batteries to drinking water pumps to foundries, nuclear plants are the only non-greenhouse-gas producing option that can be built to operate almost anywhere, and can continue to generate power during droughts, after the sun sets, and when winds die down. To supply this demand for power, designers around the world are competing to develop more affordable nuclear reactors of the future: small modular reactors. Brookhaven Lab is working with DOE to ensure that these reactors are designed to be safe for workers, members of surrounding communities, and the environment and to ensure that the radioactive materials and technology will only be used for peaceful purposes, not weapons. In his talk, Bari will discuss the advantages and challenges of small modular reactors and what drives both international and domestic interest in them. He will also explain how Brookhaven Lab and DOE are working to address the challenges and provide a framework for small modular reactors to be commercialized.

  16. MACOP modular architecture with control primitives

    PubMed Central

    Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot. PMID:23888140

  17. Short poly-glutamine repeat in the androgen receptor in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Paukner, Annika; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo; Suomi, Stephen J; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-12-01

    The androgen receptor mediates various physiological and developmental functions and is highly conserved in mammals. Although great intraspecific length polymorphisms in poly glutamine (poly-Q) and poly glycine (poly-G) regions of the androgen receptor in humans, apes and several Old World monkeys have been reported, little is known about the characteristics of these regions in New World monkeys. In this study, we surveyed 17 species of New World monkeys and found length polymorphisms in these regions in three species (common squirrel monkeys, tufted capuchin monkeys and owl monkeys). We found that the poly-Q region in New World monkeys is relatively shorter than that in catarrhines (humans, apes and Old World monkeys). In addition, we observed that codon usage for poly-G region in New World monkeys is unique among primates. These results suggest that the length of polymorphic regions in androgen receptor genes have evolved uniquely in New World monkeys.

  18. Space Debris Removal Using Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savioli, L.; Francesconi, A.; Maggi, F.; Olivieri, L.; Lorenzini, E.; Pardini, C.

    2013-08-01

    The study and development of ADR missions in LEO have become an issue of topical interest to the attention of the space community since the future space flight activities could be threatened by collisional cascade events. This paper presents the analysis of an ADR mission scenario where modular remover kits are employed to de-orbit some selected debris in SSO, while a distinct space tug performs the orbital transfers and rendezvous manoeuvres, and installs the remover kits on the client debris. Electro-dynamic tether and electric propulsion are considered as de-orbiting alternatives, while chemical propulsion is employed for the space tug. The total remover mass and de-orbiting time are identified as key parameters to compare the performances of the two de-orbiting options, while an optimization of the ΔV required to move between five selected objects is performed for a preliminary design at system level of the space tug. Final controlled re-entry is also considered and performed by means of a hybrid engine.

  19. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys crack nuts dexterously.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Madhur; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2015-05-18

    Dexterous tool use has been crucial in the evolution of hominid percussive technology. According to Newell, "dexterity" is the ability of an organism to make goal-directed corrections in movements to optimize effort. Dexterous movements are smooth and effective and accomplish the same goal with less energy than less dexterous movements. Dexterity develops during the later phases of refining a motor skill as the actor becomes sensitive to the outcome of the preceding movement, or to its modulation. In the present study, we examined how wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus, at Fazenda Boa Vista in Piauí, Brazil, that routinely crack palm nuts using stones by placing them on rock outcrops, boulders, and logs (collectively termed anvils) modulate the kinematic parameters of the strikes while processing a single tucum, Astrocaryum campestre nut. The monkeys cracked the nuts by repeatedly striking them with moderate force (i.e., not exceeding a threshold), rather than by striking them more forcefully once, and modulated the kinematic parameters of the current strike on the basis of the condition of the nut following the preceding strike (i.e., the development of any fracture or crack). Repeatedly striking the nuts with moderate force is energetically more efficient than forcefully striking them once and reduces the likelihood of smashing the kernel. Determining the changing energetic constraints of the task and dynamically optimizing movements using those as criteria are dexterous accomplishments. We discuss the implications of the present findings.