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Sample records for monkey macaca mulatta

  1. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  2. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  3. Sequential planning in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Danly, Erin; Morgan, Gin; Colombo, Michael; Terrace, Herbert S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the planning abilities of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by training them on a five-item list composed of coloured photographs and then testing them on switch and mask trials. In contrast to previous studies where monkeys made responses using a joystick, in the current study, monkeys made responses directly to a touch screen. On switch trials, after a response to the first list item, the on-screen positions of two list items were exchanged. Performance on trials in which the second and third list items were exchanged was poorer compared to normal (non-switch) trials for all subjects. When the third and fourth items were exchanged, however, only one subject continued to show performance deficits. On mask trials, following a response to the first item, the remaining items were covered by opaque white squares. When two items were masked, all four subjects responded to each masked item at a level significantly above chance. When three items were masked, however, only one subjected was able to respond to all three masked items at a level significantly above chance. The results of the present study indicate that three of our four monkeys planned one response ahead while a single monkey planned two responses ahead. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to previous studies on planning in chimpanzees and monkeys. PMID:21184125

  4. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  5. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion?

    PubMed Central

    Agrillo, Christian; Gori, Simone; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, visual illusions have been used repeatedly to understand similarities and differences of visual perception of human and non-human animals. However, nearly all studies have focused only on illusions not related to motion perception and, to date, it is unknown whether non-human primates perceive any kind of motion illusion. In the present study we investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceived one of the most popular motion illusions in humans, the Rotating Snake illusion (RSI). To this purpose, we set up four experiments. In Experiment 1 subjects initially were trained to discriminate static vs. dynamic arrays. Once reaching the learning criterion, they underwent probe trials in which we presented the RSI and a control stimulus identical in overall configuration with the exception that the order of the luminance sequence was changed in a way that no apparent motion is perceived by humans. The overall performance of monkeys indicated that they spontaneously classified RSI as a dynamic array. Subsequently, we tested adult humans in the same task with the aim of directly comparing the performance of human and non-human primates (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 we found that monkeys can be successfully trained to discriminate between the RSI and a control stimulus. Experiment 4 showed that a simple change in luminance sequence in the two arrays could not explain the performance reported in Exp. 3. These results suggest that some rhesus monkeys display a human-like perception of this motion illusion, raising the possibility that the neurocognitive systems underlying motion perception may be similar between human and non-human primates. PMID:25812828

  6. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  7. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  8. Effects of Aroclor 1254 reg sign on hydrocortisone levels in adult Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.C.K.; Tryphonas, H.; Jordan, N.; Brien, R.; Karpinski, K.R.; Arnold, D.L. )

    1989-11-01

    Researchers, using female Sprague Dawley rats, reported the effects of chronic (5-7 months) oral dosing with Aroclor 1254{reg sign} (Polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB) on the serum levels of corticosterone, the principle glucocorticoid in rats. Their findings indicated that corticosterone levels were significantly depressed at dose levels of 479 {mu}g/kg bw/day and above. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of PCB on the hydrocortisone levels in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum. In the monkey the controlling hormone is hydrocortisone which is identical to that of humans.

  9. The rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and crab-eating (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys in cardiovascular and aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Ritzman, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Two nonhuman primate species were used to investigate the effects of gravitoinertial forces on pilot incapacitation and performance impairment, to define human physiologic tolerance and safe exposure limits to these environments, and to obtain data which can be used to evolve new methods to improve man's G tolerance to match the structural capability of new generation aircraft. The macaca fascicularis was used to study the effects of environmental stress and atheroscelerosis on cerebral blood flow and function agents on myocardial and cardiovascular function were studied in the macaca mulatta.

  10. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W D; Washburn, D A; Hyatt, C W

    1996-04-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  11. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  12. Application of a computer serial probe recognition (SPR) task in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, A.V.; Kahler, D.W.

    1992-11-01

    The Serial Probe Recognition (SPR) task was established to fulfill a requirement for a nonhuman primate behavioral task as a final screening of candidate compound for the pretreatment and treatment (PT) against chemical warfare agents. Initially, equipment on hand was reconfigured to support this requirement. From this prototype, we designed and developed a behavioral testing system to study SPR memory in nonhuman primates. Our system consisted of an operant chamber, a personal computer with a monitor, a touch sensitive screen, a pellet dispenser and an interface system. In this report we describe the development and application of the behavioral testing system in our laboratory. Serial probe recognition, Behavior, Training Rhesus Monkeys, Macaca Mulatta.

  13. Effects of feeding selenium deficient diets to rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.A.; Whanger, P.D.; Patton, N.M.

    1988-02-01

    Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were fed either selenium (Se) deficient or Se supplemented diets with adequate vitamin E. Except for some cardiac irregularities in the first babies born to these females, no physiological disorders due to Se deficiency were seen in a subsequent offspring. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities and blood Se levels increased in the Se supplemented monkeys but decreased in the deficient ones. The data indicated that hair Se levels reflect long term exposure to this element. In a very preliminary experiment, evidence was obtained to indicate that dietary protein deficiency along with Se deficiency will generate cardiomyopathic lesions characteristic of Se deficiency. It is hypothesized that, in addition to Se deficiency, another dietary deficiency (or abnormality) is necessary to produce Se deficiency lesions in higher primates. Higher glutathione transferase (or non-Se glutathione peroxidase) activity in tissues of rhesus monkeys may account for this resistance.

  14. Extinction Deficits in Socially Isolated Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, John P.; Sackett, Gene P.

    1976-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were reared in total isolation, in partial isolation, or under normal conditions with access to mothers and peers. Each group was compared on the rate of acquisition of a simple operant response. (GO)

  15. Perceived control in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - Enhanced video-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether perceived control effects found in humans extend to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) tested in a video-task format, using a computer-generated menu program, SELECT. Choosing one of the options in SELECT resulted in presentation of five trials of a corresponding task and subsequent return to the menu. In Experiments 1-3, the animals exhibited stable, meaningful response patterns in this task (i.e., they made choices). In Experiment 4, performance on tasks that were selected by the animals significantly exceeded performance on identical tasks when assigned by the experimenter under comparable conditions (e.g., time of day, order, variety). The reliable and significant advantage for performance on selected tasks, typically found in humans, suggests that rhesus monkeys were able to perceive the availability of choices.

  16. Control of Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, while discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the two cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of two consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25436219

  17. Facial expression recognition in rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Heintz, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    The ability to recognize and accurately interpret facial expressions is critically important for nonhuman primates that rely on these nonverbal signals for social communication. Despite this, little is known about how nonhuman primates, particularly monkeys, discriminate between facial expressions. In the present study, seven rhesus monkeys were required to discriminate four categories of conspecific facial expressions using a matching-to-sample task. In experiment 1, the matching pair showed identical photographs of facial expressions, paired with every other expression type as the nonmatch. The identity of the nonmatching stimulus monkey differed from the one in the sample. Subjects performed above chance on session 1, with no difference in performance across the four expression types. In experiment 2, the identity of all three monkeys differed in each trial, and a neutral portrait was also included as the nonmatching stimulus. Monkeys discriminated expressions across individual identity when the non-match was a neutral stimulus, but they had difficulty when the nonmatch was another expression type. We analysed the degree to which specific feature redundancy could account for these error patterns using a multidimensional scaling analysis which plotted the perceived dissimilarity between expression dyads along a two-dimensional axis. One axis appeared to represent mouth shape, stretched open versus funnelled, while the other appeared to represent a combination of lip retraction and mouth opening. These features alone, however, could not account for overall performance and suggest that monkeys do not rely solely on distinctive features to discriminate among different expressions. PMID:20228886

  18. Control of working memory in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, whereas discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the 2 cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of 2 consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25546104

  19. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.; Pennington, P.; Saphire, D.G.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1994-06-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a flight candidate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debourne, M. N. G.; Bourne, G. H.; Mcclure, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The intelligence and ruggedness of rhesus monkeys, as well as the abundance of normative data on their anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, and the availability of captive bred animals qualify them for selection as candidates for orbital flight and weightlessness studies. Baseline data discussed include: physical characteristics, auditory thresholds, visual accuity, blood, serological taxomony, immunogenetics, cytogenics, circadian rhythms, respiration, cardiovascular values, corticosteroid response to charr restraint, microscopy of tissues, pathology, nutrition, and learning skills. Results from various tests used to establish the baseline data are presented in tables.

  1. Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) complex learning skills reassessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    An automated computerized testing facility is employed to study basic learning and transfer in rhesus monkeys including discrimination learning set and mediational learning. The data show higher performance levels than those predicted from other tests that involved compromised learning with analogous conditions. Advanced transfer-index ratios and positive transfer of learning are identified, and indications of mediational learning strategies are noted. It is suggested that these data are evidence of the effectiveness of the present experimental apparatus for enhancing learning in nonhuman primates.

  2. Otoacoustic emissions measured in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G.; Raper, Jessica; Wallen, Kim

    2003-10-01

    In humans, otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are stronger in females than in males and stronger in right ears than in left. The physiological bases for these differences are unknown, but several lines of circumstantial evidence suggest that the sex difference is attributable to androgenizing mechanisms operating during prenatal development. Specifically, it appears that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development diminishes the strength of the cochlear amplifiers and thus the strength of the OAEs. Sex and ear differences in OAEs have not been well studied in species other than humans. Accordingly, click-evoked OAEs and distortion-product OAEs were measured in nine female and nine male rhesus monkeys. For CEOAEs, but less clearly for DPOAEs, females exhibited significantly stronger OAEs than males. There was no consistent ear difference for either sex for either type of OAE. In order to better study the early components of the CEOAE waveform, a nonlinear procedure [Molenaar et al., Hearing Res. 143, 197-207 (2002)] was used to collect CEOAEs along with our standard (linear) procedure. This colony also contains animals of each sex that were treated with androgenic or antiandrogenic agents during prenatal development, and OAEs are also currently being measured on those animals. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  3. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, A M; Novak, M A; Meyer, J S; Suomi, S J

    2014-04-01

    Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m(2)) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m(2)) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ(2)=26.053, p<0.001), though no effects of dominance status emerged. In Experiment 2, we examined how HCCs change with fluctuating population levels across 5 years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology.

  4. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  5. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Detect Rhythmic Groups in Music, but Not the Beat

    PubMed Central

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P.; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the ‘downbeat’; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm). PMID:23251509

  6. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    PubMed

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm). PMID:23251509

  7. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    PubMed

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm).

  8. Metabolic and vasomotor responses of rhesus monkeys exposed to 225-MHz radiofrequency energy. [Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A previous study showed a substantial increase in the colonic temperature of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to radiofrequency (RF) fields at a frequency near whole-body resonance and specific absorption rates (SAR) of 2-3 W/kg. The present experiments were conducted to determine the metabolic and vasomotor responses during exposures to similar RF fields. We exposed five adult male rhesus monkeys to 225 MHz radiation (E orientation) in an anechoic chamber. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured before, during, and after RF exposure. Colonic, tail and leg skin temperatures were continuously monitored with RF-nonperturbing probes. The monkeys were irradiated at two carefully-controlled ambient temperatures, either cool (20 degrees C) or thermoneutral (26 degrees C). Power densities ranged from 0 (sham) to 10.0 mW/cm2 with an average whole-body SAR of 0.285 (W/kg)/(mW/cm2). We used two experimental protocols, each of which began with a 120-min pre-exposure equilibration period. One protocol involved repetitive 10-min RF exposures at successively higher power densities with a recovery period between exposures. In the second protocol, a 120-min RF exposure permitted the measurement of steady-state thermoregulatory responses. Metabolic and vasomotor adjustments in the rhesus monkey exposed to 225 MHz occurred during brief or sustained exposures at SARs at or above 1.4 W/kg. The SAR required to produce a given response varied with ambient temperature. Metabolic and vasomotor responses were coordinated effectively to produce a stable deep body temperature. The results show that the thermoregulatory response of the rhesus monkey to an RF exposure at a resonant frequency limits storage of heat in the body. However, substantial increases in colonic temperature were not prevented by such responses, even in a cool environment.

  9. Can free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) extract artificially created rules comprised of natural vocalizations?

    PubMed

    Hauser, Marc David; Glynn, David

    2009-05-01

    Though nonhuman animals lack anything like a set of grammatical structures in their natural vocalizations, studies now suggest that at least some animals can extract patterns from a structured input that appear abstract and rule-like. The authors continue this line of research by adding three new methodological contributions, specifically, tests of (1) a free-ranging animal population (as opposed to captive laboratory subjects), (2) a new taxonomic group (i.e., Old World monkeys: rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta), and (3), the presentation of artificially sequenced strings of species-specific vocalizations (as opposed to artificial symbols or speech stimuli). Specifically, the authors created artificial strings of rhesus vocalizations in the pattern notated as AAB (i.e., two identical calls [AA] followed by a different one [B]) or ABB. Following habituation to AAB strings, rhesus monkeys showed significantly more orienting responses to novel ABB strings than to novel AAB strings. Further, following habituation to an ABB pattern, rhesus responded more in test trials to AAB than ABB. These results, combined with other parallel studies, suggest that animals can extract an identity relationship from an artificial sequence of sounds, and can do so even though the tokens are species-specific vocalizations that are never produced in this sequence. PMID:19450023

  10. Elasticity and stress relaxation of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vocal folds

    PubMed Central

    Riede, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental frequency is an important perceptual parameter for acoustic communication in mammals. It is determined by vocal fold oscillation, which depends on the morphology and viscoelastic properties of the oscillating tissue. In this study, I tested if stress–strain and stress–relaxation behavior of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vocal folds allows the prediction of a species' natural fundamental frequency range across its entire vocal repertoire as well as of frequency contours within a single call type. In tensile tests, the load–strain and stress–relaxation behavior of rhesus monkey vocal folds and ventricular folds has been examined. Using the string model, predictions about the species' fundamental frequency range, individual variability, as well as the frequency contour of ‘coo’ calls were made. The low- and mid-frequency range (up to 2 kHz) of rhesus monkeys can be predicted relatively well with the string model. The discrepancy between predicted maximum fundamental frequency and what has been recorded in rhesus monkeys is currently ascribed to the difficulty in predicting the behavior of the lamina propria at very high strain. Histological sections of the vocal fold and different staining techniques identified collagen, elastin, hyaluronan and, surprisingly, fat cells as components of the lamina propria. The distribution of all four components is not uniform, suggesting that different aspects of the lamina propria are drawn into oscillation depending on vocal fold tension. A differentiated recruitment of tissue into oscillation could extend the frequency range specifically at the upper end of the frequency scale. PMID:20709920

  11. Behavioural sequelae of methaqualone in man and in the monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Borland, R G; Nicholson, A N; Wright, C M

    1975-04-01

    1 Residual effects in man of methaqualone hydrochloride (400 mg) were studied by adaptive tracking and by reaction time. Performance was measured at 10 h, 13 h, 16 h, 19 h and 34 h after the overnight ingestion of the drug. There was no evidence of impaired performance on adaptive tracking from 10 h to 19 h, but enhanced performance (P = 0.001) was observed 34 h after ingestion. With reaction time an increase (P = 0.01) was observed 10 h and a decrease (P = 0.05) was observed 19 h after ingestion. 2 Effects in the monkey (Macaca mulatta) of methaqualone (20 and 30 mg/kg body weight) were studied by a delayed matching task in which total response time was measured. No consistent effects on matching behaviour or on total response time were observed 2 h after intraperitoneal injection. 3 The studies suggest that methaqualone hydrochloride may be a valuable hypnotic for occasional use by persons involved in skilled activity.

  12. A Behavioral Taxonomy of Loneliness in Humans and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Capitanio, John P.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steven W.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  13. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task. III. A developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Matzke, S M; Castro, C A

    1998-04-01

    In children, the recency effect emerges prior to the primacy effect. To determine whether this dissociation is also seen in nonhuman primates, we evaluated the development of the primacy and recency effect in 3 young adult (35 months) and 4 adolescent (21 months) male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a six-item serial probe recognition (SPR) task. As predicted, the young adult monkeys displayed both effects, while the adolescent monkeys only displayed the recency effect. Not until after 26 months of training on the SPR task did the adolescent monkeys exhibit both the primacy and recency effect. Interference and strategy differences are discussed in terms of the results along with an interpretation of Rudy's (1992) configural association theory of cognitive development. Additional possible explanations for this developmental dissociation include the delayed maturation of the neocortical, hippocampal, and/or cholinergic systems, the latter two having been shown to be important in the expression of the primacy but not the recency effect.

  14. Innovative coconut-opening in a semi free-ranging rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): A case report on behavioral propensities

    PubMed Central

    Comins, Jordan A.; Russ, Brian E.; Humbert, Kelley A.; Hauser, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    The present case report provides a description of the emergence of an innovative, highly beneficial for- aging behavior in a single rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Selectively choosing the island’s cement dock and nearby surrounding rocky terrain, our focal subject (ID: 84 J) opens coconuts using two types of underhand tosses: (1) a rolling motion to move it, and (2) a throwing motion up in the air to crack the shell. We discuss this innovative behavior in light of species-specific behavioral propensities. PMID:23280047

  15. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  16. Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

  17. Planum temporale grey matter asymmetries in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and bonnet (Macaca radiata) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Heidi; Pierre, Peter; Bennett, Allyson J; Fears, Scott; Woods, Roger; Hopkins, William D

    2011-06-01

    Brain asymmetries, particularly asymmetries within regions associated with language, have been suggested as a key difference between humans and our nearest ancestors. These regions include the planum temporale (PT) - the bank of tissue that lies posterior to Heschl's gyrus and encompasses Wernicke's area, an important brain region involved in language and speech in the human brain. In the human brain, both the surface area and the grey matter volume of the PT are larger in the left compared to right hemisphere, particularly among right-handed individuals. Here we compared the grey matter volume and asymmetry of the PT in chimpanzees and three other species of nonhuman primate in two Genera including vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). We show that the three monkey species do not show population-level asymmetries in this region whereas the chimpanzees do, suggesting that the evolutionary brain development that gave rise to PT asymmetry occurred after our split with the monkey species, but before our split with the chimpanzees.

  18. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Remember Future Responses in a Computerized Task

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Klein, Emily D.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is an important aspect of many daily activities for humans. Planning involves forming a strategy in anticipation of a future need. However, evidence that nonhuman animals can plan for future situations is limited, particularly in relation to the many other kinds of cognitive capacities that they appear to share with humans. One critical aspect of planning is the ability to remember future responses, or what is called prospective coding. Two monkey species performed a series of computerized tasks that required encoding a future response at the outset of each trial. Monkeys of both species showed competence in all tests that were given, providing evidence that they anticipated future responses, and that they appropriately engaged in those responses when the time was right for such responses. In addition, some tests demonstrated that monkeys even remembered future responses that were not as presently motivating as were other aspects of the task environment. These results indicated that monkeys can anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate. PMID:22545901

  19. Do You See What I See? A Comparative Investigation of the Delboeuf Illusion in Humans (Homo sapiens), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Audrey E.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of two central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as ‘small’ or ‘large.’ We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all three species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. PMID:26322505

  20. Energy metabolism of Macaca mulatta during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Stein, T. P.; Dotsenko, M. A.; Korolkov, V. I.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The mean daily energy expenditure rates of two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined during spaceflight on the joint U.S./Russian Bion 11 mission by the doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H218O) method. Control values were obtained from two studies performed under flight-like conditions (n = 4). The mean inflight energy expenditure for the two Bion 11 monkeys was 81.3 kcal/kg/day, which was higher than that seen previously. The average energy expenditure (77.6 +/- 4.4 kcal/kg/day) for the four ground control monkeys was slightly lower than had been measured previously.

  1. Outbreak of Tuberculosis in a Colony of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) after Possible Indirect Contact with a Human TB Patient.

    PubMed

    Mätz-Rensing, K; Hartmann, T; Wendel, G M; Frick, J S; Homolka, S; Richter, E; Munk, M H; Kaup, F-J

    2015-01-01

    Simian tuberculosis is one of the most important bacterial diseases of non-human primates. Outbreaks of tuberculosis have been reported in primate colonies almost as long as these animals have been used experimentally or kept in zoological gardens. Significant progress has been made in reducing the incidence of tuberculosis in captive non-human primates, but despite reasonable precautions, outbreaks continue to occur. The most relevant reason is the high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) amongst the human population, in which tuberculosis is regarded as an important re-emerging disease. Furthermore, many non-human primate species originate from countries with a high burden of human TB. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant threat in animals imported from countries with high rates of human infection. We report an outbreak of tuberculosis among a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in a closed, long-term colony. The outbreak coincided with reactivation of a TB infection in a co-worker who never had direct access to the animal house or laboratories. Eleven of 26 rhesus monkeys developed classical chronic active tuberculosis with typical caseous granulomata of varying size within different organs. The main organ system involved was the lung, suggesting an aerosol route of infection. Such an outbreak has significant economic consequences due to animal loss, disruption of research and costs related to disease control. Precautionary measures must be improved in order to avoid TB in non-human primate colonies.

  2. Species diversity and relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in the milk of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L.; Hinde, K.; Tao, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mother’s milk is a source of bacteria that influences the development of the infant commensal gut microbiota. To date, the species diversity and relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in the milk of non-human primates have not been described. Methods Milk samples were aseptically obtained from 54 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at peak lactation. Following GM17 and MRS agar plating, single bacterial colonies were isolated based on difference in morphotypes, then grouped based on whole-cell protein profiles on SDS–PAGE. Bacterial DNA was isolated and the sequence the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed. Results A total of 106 strains of 19 distinct bacterial species, belonging to five genera, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Streptococcus, were identified. Conclusions Maternal gut and oral commensal bacteria may be translocated to the mammary gland during lactation and present in milk. This pathway can be an important source of commensal bacteria to the infant gut and oral cavity. PMID:20946146

  3. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Rosenberg, Kendra L.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous), to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC) and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC) during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1), in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1), and in peak lactation (LACT2). We also assessed infants’ neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02), but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001). HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01), and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02). Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02) and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05) and less consolable (p=0.08) in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s)=0.43, p=0.03) and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s)=-0.41, p=0.04). Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in

  4. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Suomi, Stephen J; Meyer, Jerrold S; Novak, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous), to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC) and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC) during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1), in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1), and in peak lactation (LACT2). We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02), but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001). HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01), and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02). Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02) and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05) and less consolable (p=0.08) in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s)=0.43, p=0.03) and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s)=-0.41, p=0.04). Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in mothers

  5. The effect of bite-opening appliances on mandibular rotational growth and remodeling in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Rowe, T K; Carlson, D S

    1990-12-01

    Previous experimental studies that have used a bite-block cemented to the maxillary dental arch have shown that the direction of growth of the maxillary complex is redirected in a superior and anterior direction for approximately 12 weeks but reassumes a normal inferior and anterior direction after that time. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the effect of increased vertical dimension and altered mandibular posture on growth of the mandible and (2) to determine whether or not an alteration in chronic mandibular position alters mandibular intramatrix rotation. Eleven Macaca mulatta monkeys wore 15 mm vertical bite-opening appliances for 24 or 48 weeks. Nine untreated animals were used as controls. All animals received tantalum bone implants to facilitate cephalometric analysis. Serial lateral radiographs of the mandible were traced and superimposed on bone implants for each animal to determine overall changes in mandibular shape (gonial angle) and the location of bone remodeling. During normal growth, the gonial angle closed an average of 0.1 degrees over a 48-week period. In the experimental animals, the gonial angle opened 6.4 degrees (p less than 0.005) as a result of remodeling during the period that mandibular posture was altered. Once normal mandibular posture was restored, this process was reversed; the gonial angle once again became more acute over time, and remodeling along the body and ramus of the mandible was similar to that observed in control animals. These results suggest that mandibular growth and remodeling can be influenced by altered mandibular vertical posture.

  6. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gravett, Michael G.; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Tao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Methods Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specifc PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Results A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was L. reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. L. johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. Conclusions The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. PMID:22429090

  7. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

  8. Early life stress affects cerebral glucose metabolism in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Boudreau, Matthew; Hecht, Erin; Winslow, James T; Nemeroff, Charles B; Sánchez, Mar M

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for anxiety, mood disorders and alterations in stress responses. Less is known about the long-term neurobiological impact of ELS. We used [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) to assess neural responses to a moderate stress test in adult monkeys that experienced ELS as infants. Both groups of monkeys showed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-induced activations and cardiac arousal in response to the stressor. A whole brain analysis detected significantly greater regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in superior temporal sulcus, putamen, thalamus, and inferotemporal cortex of ELS animals compared to controls. Region of interest (ROI) analyses performed in areas identified as vulnerable to ELS showed greater activity in the orbitofrontal cortex of ELS compared to control monkeys, but greater hippocampal activity in the control compared to ELS monkeys. Together, these results suggest hyperactivity in emotional and sensory processing regions of adult monkeys with ELS, and greater activity in stress-regulatory areas in the controls. Despite these neural responses, no group differences were detected in neuroendocrine, autonomic or behavioral responses, except for a trend towards increased stillness in the ELS monkeys. Together, these data suggest hypervigilance in the ELS monkeys in the absence of immediate danger. PMID:22682736

  9. Effect of repeated phlebotomy on iron status of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Mandell, C P; George, J W

    1991-05-01

    Iron status, as determined by hematologic values, serum iron concentration, total iron-binding capacity, and zinc protoporphyrin concentration, was determined in 2 groups of 6 nonpregnant monkeys. Monkeys of groups 1 and 2 had 10 and 5%, respectively, of their blood volume withdrawn per week for up to 10 weeks or until blood hemoglobin concentration was less than or equal to 10 g/dl. A third group of 6 monkeys served as controls. The majority (8/12) of the monkeys became anemic (hemoglobin concentration, less than or equal to 10 g/dl) after approximately 30 to 70% (mean, 49%) of their blood volume was removed. Anemia was accompanied by decrease in serum iron concentration and percentage of transferrin saturation. Microcytosis, hypochromasia, and increased zinc protoporphyrin concentration, all hematologic characteristics of iron deficiency, developed later. The calculated iron stores ranged from 1 to 133 mg, with mean value of 51 mg. Iron-depleted monkeys had mean calculated available iron store of 20.8 mg, whereas iron-replete monkeys had mean available iron store of 114.0 mg. Changes were not observed in monkeys of the control group during the study period. None of the baseline hematologic or biochemical analytes measured were good predictors of iron stores. The diet used at the research center did not provide sufficient iron to prevent iron deficiency in most of the monkeys from which a total amount of 30 to 70% of blood volume at 5 or 10%/week was withdrawn. Studies requiring that much blood may need to be modified to include iron supplementation, reduction of sample volume, or iron replacement after termination of projects. PMID:1854097

  10. Effect of prolonged ketamine exposure on cardiovascular physiology in pregnant and infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Wang, Cheng; Slikker, William

    2007-11-01

    Physiologic measurements in nonhuman primates usually are collected from animals that are chemically or physically restrained. Both types of restraint may affect the parameters measured, and those effects can vary with age. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, expired CO2, blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose, hematocrit, and venous blood gasses were measured in rhesus monkeys that were either infused intravenously with ketamine for 24 h or were cage-housed and physically restrained for sample collection. The subjects were pregnant monkeys at gestational day 120 to 123, infants 5 to 6 d old, and infants 35 to 37 d old. Heart rate and blood pressure were lower in ketamine-treated monkeys than physically restrained monkeys. Heart rate was higher in infants than adults, whereas blood pressure was lower in infants. Respiratory rate was higher in infants than adults and higher in physically restrained infants than ketamine-sedated infants but was not affected by ketamine in pregnant adults. Hematocrit was decreased in older infants. In summary, both physical restraint and ketamine sedation altered several physiologic parameters in pregnant and infant rhesus macaques. Investigators should consider these effects when designing experiments and evaluating experimental outcomes in monkeys.

  11. Processing of form stimuli presented unilaterally in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    Visual forms were unilaterally presented using a video-task paradigm to ten humans, chimpanzees, and two rhesus monkeys to determine whether hemispheric advantages existed in the processing of these stimuli. Both accuracy and reaction time served as dependent measures. For the chimpanzees, a significant right hemisphere advantage was found within the first three test sessions. The humans and monkeys failed to show a hemispheric advantage as determined by accuracy scores. Analysis of reaction time data revealed a significant left hemisphere advantage for the monkeys. A visual half-field x block interaction was found for the chimpanzees, with a significant left visual field advantage in block two, whereas a right visual field advantage was found in block four. In the human subjects, a left visual field advantage was found in block three when they used their right hands to respond. The results are discussed in relation to recent reports of hemispheric advantages for nonhuman primates.

  12. Head Orientation and Handedness Trajectory in Rhesus Monkey Infants (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Eliza L.; Emery, Michelle S.; Babcock, Samantha M.; Novak, Matthew F.S.X.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2014-01-01

    In human and chimpanzee infants, neonatal rightward supine head orientation bias predicts later right hand use preference. In an evolutionarily older primate species such as the rhesus monkey, a left hand preference has been reported, but there are no data on head orientation biases. Supine head orientation bias was measured experimentally in 16 rhesus monkey neonates and compared with prone head orientation bias as well as with various measures of hand use preference. A group-level leftward supine head bias was found that corresponded to greater activity in the left hand while supine; however, supine head orientation did not predict later hand preference as measured by reaching or manipulation on a coordinated bimanual task. These data suggest that a trajectory for handedness in rhesus monkeys may be different from that of humans and chimpanzees. PMID:21400487

  13. Uncertain responses by humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a psychophysical same-different task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, W. E.; Smith, J. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The authors asked whether animals, like humans, use an uncertain response adaptively to escape indeterminate stimulus relations. Humans and monkeys were placed in a same-different task, known to be challenging for animals. Its difficulty was increased further by reducing the size of the stimulus differences, thereby making many same and different trials difficult to tell apart. Monkeys do escape selectively from these threshold trials, even while coping with 7 absolute stimulus levels concurrently. Monkeys even adjust their response strategies on short time scales according to the local task conditions. Signal-detection and optimality analyses confirm the similarity of humans' and animals' performances. Whereas associative interpretations account poorly for these results, an intuitive uncertainty construct does so easily. The authors discuss the cognitive processes that allow uncertainty's adaptive use and recommend further comparative studies of metacognition.

  14. Indirect immunofluorescence, serum neutralization, and viremia responses of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to Machupo virus.

    PubMed

    Gonder, E; Eddy, G

    1986-06-01

    Although indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) have been developed for several arenaviruses, none has been applied to the rhesus monkey model for Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (caused by the arenavirus Machupo). We infected eight rhesus monkeys with Machupo virus and bled them weekly for determination of viremia and for serum antibody detection by IFAT and serum neutralization (SN) testing. Viremia peaked day 14 post-inoculation (PI), when two of eight animals had low IFAT titers. At day 21 PI, the six surviving monkeys had elevated IFAT titers and diminished viremias. SN titers were not observed until 28 days PI, when three of four survivors had low titers. Results of the IFAT were available more rapidly than the SN, and detected increased serum antibody titers earlier than the SN. Acetone fixation did not completely inactivate BHF antigen spot slides.

  15. The sweetness-inducing effect of miraculin; behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, J N; Glaser, D; Hard Af Segerstad, C; Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; Van der Wel, H

    1983-04-01

    1. The gustatory effects of miraculin, the sweetness-inducing protein from the miracle fruit Synsepalum dulcificum, was studied in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta.2. The intake of five acids was recorded in two-bottle preference tests, one bottle containing acid and the other tap water, before and after miraculin treatment. All the acids tasted more pleasant after miraculin.3. The electrical activity of the chorda tympani nerve to stimulation of the tongue with a variety of sweeteners, acids, sodium chloride and quinine hydrochloride was recorded in anaesthetized animals.4. Pre-treatment of the tongue with 0.3-5 mg miraculin doubled the summated nerve response to the acids and diminished the response to sucrose by about 10%. The enhancement lasted for at least an hour and the diminution up to 20 min.5. After miraculin treatment the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the order of increased intake of acids and the order of enhancement of the summated nerve response was 0.99.6. A solution of 0.1 mg miraculin per ml. elicited a weak nerve response. No preference over water for this concentration of miraculin was recorded in the two-bottle tests.7. The activity of twenty-nine single taste fibres, selected for their responsiveness to sweetness or acids or both, was recorded after miraculin treatment. Effects were obtained in nine fibres which were similar but more pronounced than those observed in the summated recordings. Before miraculin, these fibres responded better and to a larger variety of sweeteners (81%) than the other fibres (40%). After miraculin, acids elicited on the average 2.3 times more activity than before, while the response to sweeteners was depressed. In twenty fibres no effect of miraculin was observed. These fibres responded to fewer of the sweeteners and were more stimulated by the non-sweet stimuli than the first group.8. The results suggest that miraculin acts on those structures in the taste cell membrane that are involved in

  16. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3–6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  17. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-09-07

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3-6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation.

  18. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3-6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  19. Contextual Congruency Effect in Natural Scene Categorization: Different Strategies in Humans and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Anne-Claire; Fize, Denis; VanRullen, Rufin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid visual categorization is a crucial ability for survival of many animal species, including monkeys and humans. In real conditions, objects (either animate or inanimate) are never isolated but embedded in a complex background made of multiple elements. It has been shown in humans and monkeys that the contextual background can either enhance or impair object categorization, depending on context/object congruency (for example, an animal in a natural vs. man-made environment). Moreover, a scene is not only a collection of objects; it also has global physical features (i.e phase and amplitude of Fourier spatial frequencies) which help define its gist. In our experiment, we aimed to explore and compare the contribution of the amplitude spectrum of scenes in the context-object congruency effect in monkeys and humans. We designed a rapid visual categorization task, Animal versus Non-Animal, using as contexts both real scenes photographs and noisy backgrounds built from the amplitude spectrum of real scenes but with randomized phase spectrum. We showed that even if the contextual congruency effect was comparable in both species when the context was a real scene, it differed when the foreground object was surrounded by a noisy background: in monkeys we found a similar congruency effect in both conditions, but in humans the congruency effect was absent (or even reversed) when the context was a noisy background. PMID:26207915

  20. Ovarian regulation of kisspeptin neurones in the arcuate nucleus of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Alçin, E.; Sahu, A.; Ramaswamy, S.; Hutz, E.D.; Keen, K.L.; Terasawa, E.; Bethea, C.L.; Plant, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Tonic gonadotrophin secretion throughout the menstrual cycle is regulated by the negative feedback actions of ovarian oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). While kisspeptin neurones in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus appear to play a major role in mediating these feedback actions of the steroids in non-primate species, this issue has been less well studied in the monkey. Here, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) to examine kisspeptin and KISS1 expression, respectively, in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of adult ovariectomised (OVX) rhesus monkeys. We also examined kisspeptin expression in the MBH of ovarian intact females, and the effect of E2, P and E2+P replacement on KISS1 expression in OVX animals. Kisspeptin or KISS1 expressing neurons and pronounced kisspeptin fibres were readily identified throughout the ARC of ovariectomised monkeys, but in intact animals on the other hand kisspeptin cell bodies were small in size and number and only fine fibers were observed. Replacement of OVX monkeys with physiologic levels of E2, either alone or with luteal phase levels of P, abolished KISS1 expression in the ARC. Interestingly, P replacement alone for 14 days also resulted in a significant downregulation of KISS1 expression. These findings support the view that, in primates, as in rodents and sheep, kisspeptin signaling in ARC neurones appears to play an important role in mediating the negative feedback action of E2 on gonadotrophin secretion, and indicate a need to further study their regulation by P. PMID:23331967

  1. Two-item same/different discrimination in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Basile, Benjamin M; Moylan, Emily J; Charles, David P; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Almost all nonhuman animals can recognize when one item is the same as another item. It is less clear whether nonhuman animals possess abstract concepts of "same" and "different" that can be divorced from perceptual similarity. Pigeons and monkeys show inconsistent performance, and often surprising difficulty, in laboratory tests of same/different learning that involve only two items. Previous results from tests using multi-item arrays suggest that nonhumans compute sameness along a continuous scale of perceptual variability, which would explain the difficulty of making two-item same/different judgments. Here, we provide evidence that rhesus monkeys can learn a two-item same/different discrimination similar to those on which monkeys and pigeons have previously failed. Monkeys' performance transferred to novel stimuli and was not affected by perceptual variations in stimulus size, rotation, view, or luminance. Success without the use of multi-item arrays, and the lack of effect of perceptual variability, suggests a computation of sameness that is more categorical, and perhaps more abstract, than previously thought.

  2. Dissociation of visual localization and visual detection in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lau M; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2014-05-01

    Conscious and unconscious cognitive processes contribute independently to human behavior and can be dissociated. For example, humans report failing to see objects clearly in the periphery while simultaneously being able to grasp those objects accurately (Milner in Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 279:2289-2298, 2012). Knowing whether similar dissociations are present in nonverbal species is critical to our understanding of comparative psychology and the evolution of brains. However, such dissociations are difficult to detect in nonhumans because verbal reports of experience are the main way we discriminate putative conscious from unconscious processing. We trained monkeys in a localization task in which they responded to the location where a target appeared, and a matched detection task in which they reported the presence or absence of the same target. We used masking to manipulate the visibility of targets. Accuracy was high in both tasks when stimuli were unmasked and was attenuated by visual masking. At the strongest level of masking, performance in the detection task was at chance, while localization remained significantly above chance. Critically, errors in the detection task were predominantly misses, indicating that the monkeys' behavior remained under stimulus control, but that the monkeys did not detect the target despite above-chance localization. While these results cannot establish the existence of phenomenal vision in monkeys, the dissociation of visually guided action from detection parallels the dissociation of conscious and unconscious vision seen in humans. PMID:24258204

  3. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), video tasks, and implications for stimulus-response spatial contiguity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue

    1989-01-01

    Recent reports support the argument that the efficiency of primate learning is compromised to the degree that there is spatial discontiguity between discriminands and the locus of response. Experiments are reported here in which two rhesus monkeys easily mastered precise control of a joystick to respond to a variety of computer-generated targets despite the fact that the joystick was located 9 to 18 cm from the video screen. It is argued that stimulus-response contiguity is a significant parameter of learning only to the degree that the monkey visually attends to the directional movements of its hand in order to displace discriminands. If attention is focused on the effects of the hand's movement rather than on the hand itself, stimulus-response contiguity is no longer a primary parameter of learning. The implications of these results for mirror-guided studies are discussed.

  4. Indirect assessment of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone release in agonadal prepubertal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Suter, K J; Pohl, C R; Plant, T M

    1999-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to characterize the open-loop frequency of pulsatile GnRH release in the female rhesus monkey at an age (15-20 months) when the prepubertal restraint on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is maximally imposed. Additionally, evidence for pulsatile GnRH release in agonadal males of comparable age was also sought. Episodic LH secretion from the pituitary was used as an indirect index of GnRH discharges. In order to maximize the sensitivity of this in situ bioassay, the responsiveness of the pituitary gonadotrophs was usually first heightened by an i.v. intermittent infusion of the synthetic peptide. Monkeys (five females, three males) were castrated between 9 and 14 months of age, implanted with indwelling venous catheters, fitted with nylon jackets and housed in specialized cages that permitted remote access to the venous circulation with minimal restraint and without interruption of the light-darkness cycle. In females, LH secretion was generally assessed at 20-day intervals during alternate nighttime (1900-0200 h) and daytime (0700-1400 h) windows. In males, LH was assessed less frequently and only at night. The mean frequency of pulsatile LH release in agonadal prepubertal females was 4 pulses/7 h during the night and 2 pulses/7 h during the day. These findings indicate that, prior to puberty in the female monkey, the GnRH pulse generator operates at a relatively slow frequency and is subjected to diurnal modulation. In males, evidence for robust pulsatile GnRH release was not observed. The striking difference in activity of the GnRH pulse generator in agonadal prepubertal male and female monkeys reinforces the view that the ontogeny of the hypothalamic drive to the pituitary-gonadal axis in higher primates, including man, is sexually differentiated.

  5. Effect of mother's dominance rank on offspring temperament in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Hathaway, Amanda; Waters, Carlos; Vaughan, Kelli; Suomi, Stephen J; Noble, Pamela L; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2013-01-01

    In humans, temperament plays an important role in socialization and personality. Some temperaments, such as behavioral inhibition are associated with an increased risk for psychopathology. Nonhuman primates can serve as a model for neurobiological and developmental contributions to emotional development and several recent studies have begun to investigate temperament in nonhuman primates. In rhesus monkeys, dominance rank is inherited from the mother and is associated with social and emotional tendencies that resemble differences in temperament. The current study assessed differences in temperament in infant rhesus monkeys as a function of maternal dominance rank. Temperament was assessed in 26 infants (13 males) from birth until 6 months of age with a battery that included Brazelton test, human intruder test, human intruder-startle, cortisol stress reactivity, and home cage observations of interactions with peers and the mother. Throughout testing, infants lived with their mothers and a small group of other monkeys in indoor/outdoor runs. Dominance rank of the mothers within each run was rated as either low/middle (N = 18, 9 male) or high/alpha (N = 8, 4 female). Infants of high-ranking mothers displayed more intruder-directed aggression and reduced startle potentiation in the human intruder tests. Dominant offspring also had reduced levels cortisol and startle across development and spent more time away from mothers in the interaction tests. These results suggest that dominance of the mother may be reflected in behavioral reactivity of infants early in life. These findings set up future studies, which may focus on contributing factors to both dominance and temperament such as genetics, rearing, and socialization. Such factors are likely to interact across development in meaningful ways. These results also suggest future human-based studies of a similar relationship may be warranted, although social dominance is clearly more complex in human than macaque societies.

  6. Quantitative analysis of male fetal DNA in maternal serum of gravid rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Daniel F; Tarantal, Alice F

    2003-01-01

    The isolation of human fetal DNA from the maternal circulation has provided a source of fetal material for prenatal diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a similar pattern could be observed in the maternal circulation of male-bearing gravid rhesus monkeys. A real-time PCR TaqMan system for the rhesus Y-chromosome sex determining region was used to determine fetal sex and to quantify fetal DNA concentrations. Results in 14 healthy pregnancies indicated that fetal male DNA could be routinely detected in maternal serum by 50 d of gestation (late first trimester; term 165 +/- 10 d). Fetal DNA concentrations increased with advancing gestation, reaching a mean of 341 genome equivalents/mL of serum (range 11-1570 copies/mL) in the last trimester of gestation, similar to findings in humans. The fetal DNA concentration corresponded to 2.7% of the total maternal serum DNA in the third trimester. Similar to findings in humans, male fetal DNA sequences were not detected postpartum (through 4 wk postpartum) or in animals with a previous history of delivering male offspring. These data indicate that fetal male DNA is present in the maternal circulation of gravid rhesus monkeys comparable to findings in humans and further support the use of this nonhuman primate species as a model to investigate fetomaternal cell trafficking and microchimerism. PMID:12508077

  7. [The effect of adrafinil on the nocturnal activity of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)].

    PubMed

    Milhaud, C L; Klein, M J

    1985-01-01

    The nocturnal activity of a primate was used as an evaluation criterium for a stimulating substance: adrafinil (CRL 40028). Ten rhesus monkeys were placed in a controlled environment and their activity was measured, in relative time, using an ultra-sound system. The animals repeatedly received 60, 90 and 120 mg X kg-1 adrafinil per os. Globally, the dose of 60 mg X kg-1 doubled the animals' nocturnal activity whereas 90 and 120 mg X kg-1 increased it fourfold, the activity level becoming practically identical to diurnal activity. The effects of 60 mg X kg-1 were only significant after the second treatment whereas doses of 90 and 120 mg X kg-1 were already significantly efficient after the first administration. A stimulating effect persisted approximately 36 hrs after the second treatment with 90 or 120 mg X kg-1. No sedative effect of recovery was observed during the posttreatment phase. PMID:4094435

  8. No strings attached: physiological monitoring of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with thermal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Stephanos; Chotard, Hélène; Davila-Ross, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Methodological challenges make physiological affective observations very restrictive as in many cases they take place in a laboratory setting rather than the animals' natural habitat. In the current study using Infrared Thermal Imaging we examine the physiological thermal imprints of five macaques. The monkeys were exposed in three different experimental scenarios. Playing with a toy, food teasing as well as feeding. It was observed that during teasing the temperature of the region surrounding the eyes was higher than play as a result of rapid saccades directed at the food. Compared to play and teasing, a lower temperature accompanied feeding on the upper lip, nose and orbital region suggesting elevated levels of distress. These findings prove that thermal imaging is a reliable method of physiological monitoring the subject at a distance while preserving a semi-experimental setting. PMID:26150774

  9. Effects of ovariectomy on GnRH neuronal morphology in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Witkin, J W

    1996-08-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are typically simple, fusiform cells; however, over the course of prepubertal development increasing numbers take on a 'spiny' appearance. Following gonadectomy there is a decrease in the frequency of these spiny GnRH neurons. These observations which were made in the rat suggest that GnRH neurons are directly affected by the gonadal steroid milieu, though they do not themselves contain receptors for these steroidal hormones. In that there are important species differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis between rats and primates, the present study was undertaken to determine whether a reduction in ovarian hormones would produce similar changes in the morphology of GnRH neurons in the monkey. A further aim was to determine whether such changes were localized to a specific brain region. Immunocytochemically defined GnRH neurons were compared in adult rhesus macaques which had been ovariectomized for 6 weeks to 2 years (n = 7) and intact, cycling animals (n = 8). Within the intact group, there were significantly more spiny GnRH neurons in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) than in the preoptic area (POA) (about 50% of the total in the MBH compared to 33% in the POA). Following ovariectomy the frequency of spiny cells in the MBH dropped to less than 30%, but was not significantly reduced in the POA. These results suggest that changes in systemic gonadal steroid levels result in changes in the morphology of GnRH neurons preferentially in the MBH, a region that is considered critical in the generation of GnRH pulsatile release in the monkey.

  10. Metabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Lipe, G.W.; Korfmacher, W.A.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of (/sup 14/C)doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus (/sup 14/C)doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-(1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy) acetic acid, 1-(1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy) methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination.

  11. Serial list combination by monkeys (Macaca mulatta): test cues and linking.

    PubMed

    Treichler, F Robert; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed prospective bases of non-human primate cognitive operations that support serial list memory. Four macaques learned 3-, 5-item ordered lists of objects (as two-choice problems) and then either did or did not (in a within-subject design) receive training on pairs that linked the three original lists into a 15-item serial order. Next, subjects experienced selective exposure trials on object pairs that either maintained or contrasted to the serial position relationships seen during original learning. Subsequent comprehensive tests assessed the interactive effects of linking and exposure conditions on choosing in accord with a combined 15-item serial order. Linking readily induced monkeys to merge lists into a 15-item order, but restricting early exposure to pairs with the same positional relationships as original training slowed, but did not prevent, list combination. Exposure to positional relationships congruent with the combined (15-item) list and different from those of original 5-item training aided both expression of the linking effect and acquisition after no link training. Thus, list linking facilitated serial reorganization by inducing release from error derived from memory for prior learned positional relationships. The task was recommended as a prospective evaluator of continuity of cognitive processes among species.

  12. Architecture and connections of retrosplenial area 30 in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Morris, R; Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1999-07-01

    Because of the sharp curvature of the retrosplenial region around the splenium of the corpus callosum, standard coronal sections are not appropriate for architectonic analysis of its posteroventral part. In the present study, examination of the posteroventral retrosplenial region of the rhesus monkey in sections that were orthogonal to its axis of curvature (and therefore appropriate for architectonic analysis) has permitted definition of its architecture and precise extent. This analysis demonstrated that areas 29 and 30 of the retrosplenial cortex, as well as adjacent area 23 of the posterior cingulate cortex, extend together as an arch around the splenium of the corpus callosum and maintain their topographical relationship with one another throughout their entire course. Injections of anterograde and retrograde tracers confined to retrosplenial area 30 revealed that this area has reciprocal connections with adjacent areas 23, 19 and PGm, with the mid-dorsolateral part of the prefrontal cortex (areas 9, 9/46 and 46), with multimodal area TPO in the superior temporal sulcus, as well as the posterior parahippocampal cortex, the presubiculum and the entorhinal cortex. There are also bidirectional connections with the lateroposterior thalamic nucleus, as well as the laterodorsal and the anteroventral limbic thalamic nuclei. The connectivity of area 30 suggests that it may play a role in working memory processes subserved by the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex in interaction with the hippocampal system.

  13. Osmotic tolerance limits and properties of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Rutllant, Josep; Pommer, Angela C; Meyers, Stuart A

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental cryobiological characteristics of rhesus spermatozoa must be determined for successful cryopreservation techniques to be established. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the osmotic behavior and osmotic tolerance limits of rhesus macaque spermatozoa. Cell volume changes over anisotonic conditions were assessed using an electronic particle counter and sperm motility was evaluated with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Analysis of membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential was performed using flow cytometry. Rhesus monkey spermatozoa behave as linear osmometers in the osmotic range tested (75-900 mOsmol kg(-1)), as shown by the Boyle van't Hoff plot (r(2) =.99). Rhesus spermatozoa have a mean cell volume of 36.8 +/- 0.5 micro m(3) at 22 degrees C, with 77.2% of the intracellular volume being osmotically inactive. Results regarding sperm tolerance to osmotic stress showed that sperm motility was more sensitive than membrane integrity to deviations from isotonicity and, in addition, that rhesus sperm motility and membrane integrity were more sensitive to hypertonic than hypotonic conditions. Mitochondrial membrane potential did not explain the lack of sperm motility observed under anisosmolal conditions in our study. Although most spermatozoa were able to recover initial volume after osmotic stress, they were not able to recover initial motility.

  14. Long-term effects of castration on the skeleton of male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kessler, Matthew J; Wang, Qian; Cerroni, Antonietta M; Grynpas, Marc D; Gonzalez Velez, Olga D; Rawlins, Richard G; Ethun, Kelly F; Wimsatt, Jeffrey H; Kensler, Terry B; Pritzker, Kenneth P H

    2016-01-01

    While osteopenia (OPE) and osteoporosis (OPO) have been studied in various species of aging nonhuman primates and extensively in ovariectomized rhesus and cynomolgus macaques, there is virtually no information on the effects of castration on the skeleton of male nonhuman primates. Most information on castrated male primates comes from a few studies on the skeletons of eunuchs. This report used a subset of the Caribbean Primate Research Center's (CPRC) Cayo Santiago (CS) rhesus macaque skeletal collection to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the bone mineral density (BMD) of castrated and age-matched intact males and, thereby, determine the long-term effects of castration (orchidectomy) on bone. Lumbar vertebrae, femora, and crania were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) and digital radiography augmented, when fresh tissues were available, with autoradiography and histology. Results confirmed physical examinations of long bones that castration causes changes in the skeleton of male rhesus macaques similar to those found in eunuchs, including OPE and OPO of the vertebrae and femora, thinning of the skull, and vertebral fractures and kyphosis of the spine more severe than that caused by normal aging alone. Also like eunuchs, some castrated CS male rhesus monkeys had a longer life span than intact males or females. Based on these results and the effects of castration on other tissues and organs of eunuchs, on behavior, hormone profiles and possibly on cognition and visual perception of human and nonhuman primates, and other mammals, castrated male rhesus macaques should be used with caution for laboratory studies and should be considered a separate category from intact males. Despite these caveats, the castrated male rhesus macaque should make an excellent animal model in which to test hormone replacement therapies for boys and men orchidectomized for testicular and prostate cancer.

  15. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Feczko, Eric J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R; Parr, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying

  16. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Feczko, Eric J; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R; Parr, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying

  17. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS): A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Walum, Hasse; Pruett, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS). Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological mechanisms underlying

  18. Age-related alterations of plasma glutathione and oxidation of redox potentials in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jamespaul; Jones, Dean P; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2014-04-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens) share physiological and genetic characteristics, but have remarkably different life spans, with chimpanzees living 50-60 % and the rhesus living 35-40 % of maximum human survival. Since oxidative processes are associated with aging and longevity, we might expect to see species differences in age-related oxidative processes. Blood and extracellular fluid contain two major thiol redox nodes, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione-disulfide (GSSG) and cysteine (Cys)/cystine (CySS), which are subject to reversible oxidation-reduction reactions and are maintained in a dynamic non-equilibrium state. Disruption of these thiol redox nodes leads to oxidation of their redox potentials (EhGSSG and EhCySS) which affects cellular physiology and is associated with aging and the development of chronic diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to measure age-related changes in these redox thiols and their corresponding redox potentials (Eh) in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. Our results show similar age-related decreases in the concentration of plasma GSH and Total GSH as well as oxidation of the EhGSSG in male and female chimpanzees. Female chimpanzees and female rhesus monkeys also were similar in several outcome measures. For example, similar age-related decreases in the concentration of plasma GSH and Total GSH, as well as age-related oxidation of the EhGSSG were observed. The data collected from chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys corroborates previous reports on oxidative changes in humans and confirms their value as a comparative reference for primate aging.

  19. Study of the effect of 26RF- and 43RF-amides on testosterone and prolactin secretion in the adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wahab, Fazal; Salahuddin, Hina; Anees, Mariam; Leprince, Jerome; Vaudry, Hubert; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Shahab, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    RF-amides (RFa), a superfamily of evolutionary-conserved neuropeptides, are expressed in both invertebrates and vertebrates. While some endocrine functions have been attributed to these peptides in lower vertebrates and few mammalian models, not much is known about their actions in primates. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the effects of peripheral administration of two recently cloned human RFa peptides, 26RFa and 43RFa, on testosterone and prolactin secretion in the adult male adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). For control purposes, a scrambled sequence of 26RFa (Sc-26RFa) and normal saline (1ml) were injected. Three different doses of 26RFa and 43RFa (19-nmol, 38-nmol and 76-nmol) and a single dose (38-nmol) of Sc-26RFa were tested. A set of four chair-restraint habituated monkeys was used. Comparison of post-treatment T levels with respective pre levels showed that none of the doses of both 26RFa and 43RFa changed T release. Similarly, Sc-26RFa and saline administration also did not affect T levels. In contrast, all doses of 26RFa and 43RFa significantly (P<0.05) stimulated prolactin secretion. 43RFa dose dependently increased prolactin secretion while dose dependency was not observed for 26RFa. Saline and Sc-26RFa injection had no effect on prolactin concentrations. Thus, present study demonstrated that peripheral administration of 26RFa and 43RFa, in the doses tested, have no effect on T secretion, suggesting possible selective lack of their neuroendocrine role in controlling hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the adult male primates. The prominent stimulation of prolactin suggests a neuroendocrine role of RFa peptides in regulation of prolactin release in primates.

  20. Ordinal judgments of numerical symbols by macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned that the arabic numerals 0 through 9 represented corresponding quantities of food pellets. By manipulating a joystick, the monkeys were able to make a selection of paired numerals presented on a computer screen. Although the monkeys received a corresponding number of pellets even if the lesser of the two numerals was selected, they learned generally to choose the numeral of greatest value even when pellet delivery was made arrhythmic. In subsequent tests, they chose the numerals of greater value when presented in novel combinations or in random arrays of up to five numerals. Thus, the monkeys made ordinal judgments of numerical symbols in accordance with their absolute or relative values.

  1. Induced neurocysticercosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) produces clinical signs and lesions similar to natural disease in man.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, N; Saleque, A; Sood, N K; Singla, L D

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  2. Individual differences in physical activity are closely associated with changes in body weight in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elinor L.; Koegler, Frank H.; Cameron, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    The increased prevalence of overweight adults has serious health consequences. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between low activity and being over-weight; however, few studies have objectively measured activity during a period of weight gain, so it is unknown whether low activity is a cause or consequence of being overweight. To determine whether individual differences in adult weight gain are linked to an individual's activity level, we measured activity, via accelerometry, over a prolonged period (9 mo) in 18 adult female rhesus monkeys. Weight, food intake, metabolic rate, and activity were first monitored over a 3-mo period. During this period, there was mild but significant weight gain (5.5 ± 0.88%; t =−6.3, df = 17, P < 0.0001), whereas caloric intake and activity remained stable. Metabolic rate increased, as expected, with weight gain. Activity level correlated with weight gain (r = −0.52, P = 0.04), and the most active monkeys gained less weight than the least active monkeys (t = −2.74, df = 8, P = 0.03). Moreover, there was an eightfold difference in activity between the most and least active monkeys, and initial activity of each monkey was highly correlated with their activity after 9 mo (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001). In contrast, food intake did not correlate with weight gain, and there was no difference in weight gain between monkeys with the highest vs. lowest caloric intake, total metabolic rate, or basal metabolic rate. We conclude that physical activity is a particularly important factor contributing to weight change in adulthood and that there are large, but stable, differences in physical activity among individuals. PMID:16614060

  3. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    SciTech Connect

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  4. Intestinal manifestations of experimental SIV-infection in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a histological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, E M; Mätz-Rensing, K; Stahl-Hennig, C; Makoschey, B; Hunsmann, G; Kaup, F J

    1997-10-01

    Intestinal lesions were studied in 32 rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with different strains of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac (251/32H, 251/32H-SPL and 251/MPBL) by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A spectrum of primary and secondary manifestations of SIV-infection were detected. Primary changes included 'SIV-enteropathy' in 12 monkeys and virus-induced syncytial giant cell formation (GCF) of the intestine in two animals. A primary virus-induced enteropathy occurred both as only histologically visible 'SIV-enteropathy' and as 'AIDS-enteropathy' accompanied by clinical signs of enteritis. Secondary opportunistic infections (Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium, Trichuris, Trichomonas, Spironucleus, Mycobacteria and Cytomegalovirus) were identified in 27 animals and three monkeys developed malignant lymphomas involving the intestinal tract. Compared to intestinal lesions in HIV-infected patients, differences were found concerning the incidence of GCF and the range of opportunistic infections, with cryptosporidium, cytomegalovirus and mycobacteria occurring in both SIV-infected macaques and AIDS patients. The present observations revealed that SIV-infected rhesus monkeys provide an excellent model both for studies on the pathogenesis of HIV-enteropathy and opportunistic infections and for the development of therapies against cryptosporidial, cytomegalovirus and mycobacteria infection. Comparison of three SIV-strains revealed differences in primary and secondary lesions observed: SIVmac251/MPBL was correlated with severe primary SIV-induced pathologic changes and SIVmac251-SPL-infected animals showed a higher incidence of malignant lymphomas. PMID:9394615

  5. Gonadal and nongonadal mechanisms contribute to the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion in the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Pohl, C R; deRidder, C M; Plant, T M

    1995-07-01

    The present study reexamined the role of the ovary in determining the prepubertal hiatus of gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Day- and nighttime blood samples were obtained weekly from neonatally (7-10 days of age) ovariectomized and intact monkeys from birth until 3 yr of age. In the intact monkeys, plasma FSH levels increased during the first month of life, remained elevated until approximately 3 months of age, and then decreased to become undetectable by 7 months of age. Thereafter, plasma FSH remained undetectable until approximately 19 months of age, at which time it again increased to detectable concentrations. In animals ovariectomized as neonates, the developmental pattern in FSH secretion was similar to that in intact animals, but, quantitatively, mean plasma FSH concentrations in the agonadal females were greater than those in the intact control group at all times. Circulating daytime LH concentrations in intact animals were generally below the sensitivity of the assay during the neonatal and prepubertal phases of development, but after 27 months of age, this plasma hormone was measurable on occasion. In neonatally ovariectomized monkeys, daytime LH was elevated during the first month of life, undetectable between 2-20 months of age, and then rose into the adult range by the end of the study. Nocturnal plasma FSH and LH concentrations in agonadal monkeys were generally greater than those during the day at all stages of development. Of particular note was the finding that during the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion, when daytime LH levels were mostly immeasurable, nighttime levels of this gonadotropin were consistently elevated. The hypersecretion of gonadotropin during prepubertal development in agonadal animals also occurred when ovariectomy was performed at 61-62 weeks of age. These findings demonstrate that in the female monkey, the open loop activity of the GnRH pulse generator during juvenile development is only partially

  6. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task: II. Effects of atropine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Castro, C A

    1997-08-01

    Nonhuman primates display both a primacy and a recency effect when trained on a 6-item serial probe recognition task. The author has previously shown that in the rhesus monkey, diazepam (3.2 mg/kg im) interferes with the memory processes that mediate the recency effect without affecting those memory processes involved in the primacy effect (C. A. Castro, 1995). This study assessed the effects of atropine sulfate (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/kg im) on the primacy and recency effects in these same monkeys. Opposite the effects of diazepam, atropine disrupted the primacy component of the serial position curve and had no measurable effect on the recency component. In addition, the 2 highest doses of atropine disrupted accuracy on the nonmatching probe trials, whereas all 3 doses of atropine resulted in increased response latencies. These reports indicate that the primacy and recency effects in the nonhuman primate can be pharmacologically dissociated.

  7. Rules and Resemblance: Their Changing Balance in the Category Learning of Humans (Homo sapiens) and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Couchman, Justin J.; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Smith, J. David

    2010-01-01

    In an early dissociation between intentional and incidental category learning, Kemler Nelson (1984) gave participants a categorization task that could be performed by responding either to a single-dimensional rule or to overall family resemblance. Humans learning intentionally deliberately adopted rule-based strategies; humans learning incidentally adopted family-resemblance strategies. The present authors replicated Kemler Nelson’s human experiment and found a similar dissociation. They also extended her paradigm so as to evaluate the balance between rules and family-resemblance in determining the category decisions of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys heavily favored the family-resemblance strategy. Formal models showed that even after many sessions and thousands of trials, they spread attention across all stimulus dimensions rather than focus on a single, criterial dimension that could also produce perfect categorization. PMID:20384398

  8. Characterization of perfect microsatellite based on genome-wide and chromosome level in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongtao; Hu, Zongxiu; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Xiuyue; Li, Jing; Yue, Bisong

    2016-11-01

    Microsatellite studies based on chromosomes level would contribute to the biometric correlation analysis of chromosome and microsatellite applications on the specific chromosome. In this study, the total microsatellite length of 1,141,024 loci was 21.8Mb, which covered about 0.74% of the male Rhesus monkey genome. Perfect mononucleotide SSRs were the most abundant, followed by the pattern: perfect di->tetra->tri->penta->hexanucleotide SSRs. The main range of repeat times focused on 12-32 times (mono-), 7-23 times (di-), 5-10 times (tri-), 4-14 times (tetra-), 4-9 times (penta-), 4-8 times (hexa-), respectively. The largest SSRs number was found in chromosome 1 with 94,347 loci, followed by chromosome 3, 2, 7 and 5, and the smallest number was in chromosome 18. The predominant repeat types in male Rhesus monkey genome and chromosome Y were basically A, AC, AG, AAT, AAC, AAAT, AAAC, AAAG, AAACA and AAACAA. SSRs number of all chromosomes was closely positively correlated with chromosome sequence size (r=0.969, p<0.01), and significantly negatively correlated with abundance (r=-0.24, 0.01monkey, which might contributed to the DNA methylation of CpG islands for sex chromosome X inactivation and expression regulation. These results and exported tetranucleotide repeat sequences in each chromosome for primer design would facilitate the exploration of microsatellites structural function, composition mode and molecular markers development in Rhesus monkey genome. PMID:27395431

  9. Dose-response studies on the spermatogonial stem cells of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) after X irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    van Alphen, M.M.; van de Kant, H.J.; Davids, J.A.; Warmer, C.J.; Bootsma, A.L.; de Rooij, D.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Studies of the dose response of the spermatogonial stem cells in the rhesus monkey were performed at intervals of 130 and 160 days after graded doses of X irradiation. The D0 of the spermatogonial stem cells was established using the total numbers of the type A spermatogonia that were present at 130 and 160 days after irradiation and was found to be 1.07 Gy; the 95% confidence interval was 0.90-1.34 Gy.

  10. Characterization of perfect microsatellite based on genome-wide and chromosome level in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongtao; Hu, Zongxiu; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Xiuyue; Li, Jing; Yue, Bisong

    2016-11-01

    Microsatellite studies based on chromosomes level would contribute to the biometric correlation analysis of chromosome and microsatellite applications on the specific chromosome. In this study, the total microsatellite length of 1,141,024 loci was 21.8Mb, which covered about 0.74% of the male Rhesus monkey genome. Perfect mononucleotide SSRs were the most abundant, followed by the pattern: perfect di->tetra->tri->penta->hexanucleotide SSRs. The main range of repeat times focused on 12-32 times (mono-), 7-23 times (di-), 5-10 times (tri-), 4-14 times (tetra-), 4-9 times (penta-), 4-8 times (hexa-), respectively. The largest SSRs number was found in chromosome 1 with 94,347 loci, followed by chromosome 3, 2, 7 and 5, and the smallest number was in chromosome 18. The predominant repeat types in male Rhesus monkey genome and chromosome Y were basically A, AC, AG, AAT, AAC, AAAT, AAAC, AAAG, AAACA and AAACAA. SSRs number of all chromosomes was closely positively correlated with chromosome sequence size (r=0.969, p<0.01), and significantly negatively correlated with abundance (r=-0.24, 0.01monkey, which might contributed to the DNA methylation of CpG islands for sex chromosome X inactivation and expression regulation. These results and exported tetranucleotide repeat sequences in each chromosome for primer design would facilitate the exploration of microsatellites structural function, composition mode and molecular markers development in Rhesus monkey genome.

  11. Working and waiting for better rewards: self-control in two monkey species (Cebus apella and Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Self-control is typically defined as choosing a greater, delayed reward over a lesser, more immediate reward. However, in nature, there are other costs besides delay associated with obtaining the greatest outcome including increased effort, potential punishment, and low probability of reward. Effort is an interesting case because it sometimes impairs self-control, by acting as an additional cost, and at other times facilitates self-control, by distracting one from impulsive options. Additionally, different species may perform differently in effortful self-control tasks, based on their natural ecology. To gain insight into these aspects of self-control behavior, we examined capuchin monkeys' and rhesus monkeys' self-control in separate working and waiting choice tasks. We hypothesized that capuchins would show greater self-control in the working task, given their naturally higher activity level, whereas rhesus would perform similarly in both tasks. Rhesus performed as predicted, whereas contrary to our hypothesis, capuchins exhibited lesser performance in the working task. Nonetheless, these results may still stem from inherent species differences interacting with details of the methodology. Capuchins, being highly energetic and social monkeys, may have divided their energy and attention between the working task and other elements of the test environment such as visible group mates or manipulanda. PMID:24412729

  12. Kisspeptin and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Plant, Tony M; Ramaswamy, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    The present article reviews recent studies of monkeys and, in some cases, humans that have been conducted to examine the role of kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in higher primates. This area of peptide biology was initiated in 2003 by the discovery that loss of function mutations of GPR54 in man were associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and absent or delayed puberty. Puberty in the monkey, an experimental model commonly used to study this fundamental developmental stage, is first described. This is followed by a review of the role of kisspeptin in the regulation of the postnatal ontogeny of GnRH pulsatility. The roles of kisspeptin in GnRH pulse generation and in the feedback loops governing gonadotropin secretion in primates are then discussed. A brief section on kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling at the pituitary and gonadal levels is also included. The review concludes with a discussion of the phenomenon of GPR54 downregulation by continuous exposure to kisspeptin and its therapeutic implications.

  13. Biobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to a matrilineal overthrow and relocation in captive infant rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Joshua A; Del Rosso, Laura A; Capitanio, John P

    2016-09-01

    There is a general consensus that perinatal experiences help to shape infant behavior; however, relatively little is known about the effects of prenatal experience on postnatal phenotype in non-human primates. The current study sought to take advantage of a naturally occurring incident in a captive population of rhesus monkeys. Following a matrilineal overthrow in an outdoor field cage, pregnant female rhesus macaques were relocated from outdoor to indoor housing. Using data collected from the California National Primate Research Center's Biobehavioral Assessment Program, we assessed infants born to mothers that were in their first or second trimester of pregnancy during the overthrow and relocation, and compared their data with that of animals from two control groups born in the same year: indoor mother raised infants and field cage reared infants. Our results suggest that the experience of an overthrow and relocation during the first trimester elevated postnatal emotional responsiveness, while the same experience in the second trimester resulted in modified HPA axis regulation, elevated glucocorticoid output following maternal separation, and lower hematocrit levels compared to control groups. These data add to a growing body of literature that prenatal experiences represent a significant contribution to postnatal phenotypic variability. Findings such as ours have implications for studies in captive management and the management of captive rhesus monkey populations. Am. J. Primatol. 78:895-903, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27150125

  14. Protection from radiation-induced damage of spermatogenesis in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) by follicle-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    van Alphen, M.M.; van de Kant, H.J.; de Rooij, D.G.

    1989-02-01

    In adult rhesus monkeys a two- to threefold increase in the number of spermatogonia was found at Day 75 after 1 Gy of X-irradiation when the animals were pretreated with two intramuscular injections of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) each day. Also the percentage of cross-sections of seminiferous tubules showing spermatogonia (repopulation index) was much higher when FSH was given before irradiation. At 75 days postirradiation the repopulation index was 39 +/- 10% after irradiation alone and 81 +/- 11% when FSH pretreatment was applied. The pretreatment with two injections of FSH each day during 16 days caused an increase in the number of proliferating A spermatogonia. In view of earlier results in the mouse, where proliferating spermatogonial stem cells appeared more radioresistant than quiescent ones, it is suggested that the protective effects of FSH treatment are caused by the increase in the proliferative activity of the A spermatogonia and consequently of the spermatogonial stem cells. The results indicate that in the rhesus monkey the maximal protective effect of FSH is reached after a period of treatment between 7 and 16 days.

  15. Note on hand use in the manipulation of joysticks by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    MacNeilage et al. (1987) have proposed that nonhuman primate handedness may be contingent on the specific task requirements, with visual-spatial tasks yielding left-hand preferences and fine-motor tasks producing right-hand preferences. This study reports hand preferences in the manipulation of joysticks by 2 rhesus monkeys and 3 chimpanzees. Reach data were also collected for comparison with preference data for manipulation of the joystick. The data indicated that all 5 subjects demonstrated significant right-hand preferences in manipulating the joystick. In contrast, no significant hand preferences were found for the reach data. Reaction-time data also indicated that the right hand could perform a perceptual-motor task better than the left hand in all 5 subjects. Overall, the data indicate that reach tasks may not be sensitive enough measures to produce reliable hand preferences, whereas tasks that assess fine-motor control produce significant hand preferences.

  16. Application of three-dimensional culture systems to study mammalian spermatogenesis, with an emphasis on the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Nourashrafeddin, Seyedmehdi; Plant, Tony M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) has generally been performed using two-dimensional (2D) culture systems; however, such cultures have not led to the development of complete spermatogenesis. It seems that 2D systems do not replicate optimal conditions of the seminiferous tubules (including those generated by the SSC niche) and necessary for spermatogenesis. Recently, one of our laboratories has been able to induce proliferation and differentiation of mouse testicular germ cells to meiotic and postmeiotic stages including generation of sperm in a 3D soft agar culture system (SACS) and a 3D methylcellulose culture system (MCS). It was suggested that SACS and MCS form a special 3D microenvironment that mimics germ cell niche formation in the seminiferous tubules, and thus permits mouse spermatogenesis in vitro. In this review, we (1) provide a brief overview of the differences in spermatogenesis in rodents and primates, (2) summarize data related to attempts to generate sperm in vitro, (3) report for the first time formation of colonies/clusters of cells and differentiation of meiotic (expression of CREM-1) and postmeiotic (expression of acrosin) germ cells from undifferentiated spermatogonia isolated from the testis of prepubertal rhesus monkeys and cultured in SACS and MCS, and (4) indicate research needed to optimize 3D systems for in vitro primate spermatogenesis and for possible future application to man. PMID:26067870

  17. Duration of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and its stages in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    de Rooij, D.G.; van Alphen, M.M.; van de Kant, H.J.

    1986-10-01

    Doses of 1 Gy or more of X-irradiation killed all B spermatogonia present in the testis, and during the first 3 weeks after irradiation, virtually no new B spermatogonia were formed. The number of Apale spermatogonia decreased during the first cycle of the seminiferous epithelium while the number of Adark spermatogonia only began to decrease during the second cycle after irradiation. In this study, the duration of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in the rhesus monkey was estimated to be 10.5 days (SE = 0.2 days). This was determined following the depletion of germinal cells in the seminiferous epithelium during the first 3 weeks after irradiation. The duration of each of the 12 stages of the cycle was also determined. Our observations of the progress of germinal cell depletion revealed that after a dose of X-irradiation sufficient to kill all B spermatogonia, all spermatocytes disappeared from the testis within about 17 days, and all spermatids within about 31 days.

  18. Looking Ahead? Computerized Maze Task Performance by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), and Human Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Futch, Sara E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and – at least to an extent – anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques) a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys) and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to “plan ahead” to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  19. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  20. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates.

  1. Do primates see the solitaire illusion differently? A comparative assessment of humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    An important question in comparative psychology is whether human and nonhuman animals share similar principles of perceptual organization. Despite much empirical research, no firm conclusion has been drawn. The Solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion in humans that occurs when one misperceives the relative number of 2 types of items presented in intermingled sets. To date, no study has investigated whether nonhuman animals perceive the Solitaire illusion as humans do. Here, we compared the perception of the Solitaire illusion in human and nonhuman primates in 3 experiments. We first observed (Experiment 1) the spontaneous behavior of chimpanzees when presented with 2 arrays composed of a different number of preferred and nonpreferred food items. In probe trials, preferred items were presented in the Solitaire pattern in 2 different spatial arrangements (either clustered centrally or distributed on the perimeter). Chimpanzees did not show any misperception of quantity in the Solitaire pattern. Next, humans, chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and capuchin monkeys underwent the same testing of relative quantity judgments in a computerized task that also presented the Solitaire illusion (Experiments 2 and 3). Unlike humans, chimpanzees did not appear to perceive the illusion, in agreement with Experiment 1. The performance of rhesus monkeys and capuchin monkeys was also different from that of humans, but was slightly more indicative of a potential Solitaire illusion. On the whole, our results suggest a potential discontinuity in the visual mechanisms underlying the Solitaire illusion between human and nonhuman primates.

  2. Rotational Displacement Skills in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Kelly D.; Santos, Laurie R.

    2016-01-01

    Rotational displacement tasks, in which participants must track an object at a hiding location within an array while the array rotates, exhibit a puzzling developmental pattern in humans. Human children take an unusually long time to master this task and tend to solve rotational problems through the use of nongeometric features or landmarks as opposed to other kinds of spatial cues. We investigated whether these developmental characteristics are unique to humans by testing rotational displacement skills in a monkey species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), using a looking-time method. Monkeys first saw food hidden in two differently colored boxes within an array. The array was then rotated 180° and the boxes reopened to reveal the food in an expected or unexpected location. Our first two experiments explored the developmental time-course of performance on this rotational displacement task. We found that adult macaques looked longer at the unexpected event, but such performance was not mirrored in younger-aged macaques. In a third study, we systematically varied featural information and visible access to the array to investigate which strategies adult macaques used in solving rotational displacements. Our results show that adult macaques need both sets of information to solve the task. Taken together, these results suggest both similarities and differences in mechanisms by which human and nonhuman primates develop this spatial skill. PMID:22866770

  3. The Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sperm proteome.

    PubMed

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew; Polpitiya, Ashoka; Petritis, Konstantinos; Dorus, Steve; Karr, Timothy L

    2013-11-01

    Mass spectrometry based proteomics has facilitated sperm composition studies in several mammalian species but no studies have been undertaken in non-human primate species. Here we report the analysis of the 1247 proteins that comprise the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sperm proteome (termed the MacSP). Comparative analysis with previously characterized mouse and human sperm proteomes reveals substantial levels of orthology (47% and 40% respectively) and widespread overlap of functional categories based on Gene Ontology analyses. Approximately 10% of macaque sperm genes (113/1247) are significantly under-expressed in the testis as compared with other tissues, which may reflect proteins specifically acquired during epididymal maturation. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses of three MacSP ADAMs (A-Disintegrin and Metalloprotease proteins), ADAM18-, 20- and 21-like, provides empirical support for sperm genes functioning in non-human primate taxa which have been subsequently lost in the lineages leading to humans. The MacSP contains proteasome proteins of the 20S core subunit, the 19S proteasome activator complex and an alternate proteasome activator PA200, raising the possibility that proteasome activity is present in mature sperm. Robust empirical characterization of the Rhesus sperm proteome should greatly expand the possibility for targeted molecular studies of spermatogenesis and fertilization in a commonly used model species for human infertility.

  4. The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Sperm Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew; Polpitiya, Ashoka; Petritis, Konstantinos; Dorus, Steve; Karr, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry based proteomics has facilitated sperm composition studies in several mammalian species but no studies have been undertaken in non-human primate species. Here we report the analysis of the 1247 proteins that comprise the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sperm proteome (termed the MacSP). Comparative analysis with previously characterized mouse and human sperm proteomes reveals substantial levels of orthology (47% and 40% respectively) and widespread overlap of functional categories based on Gene Ontology analyses. Approximately 10% of macaque sperm genes (113/1247) are significantly under-expressed in the testis as compared with other tissues, which may reflect proteins specifically acquired during epididymal maturation. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses of three MacSP ADAMs (A-Disintegrin and Metalloprotease proteins), ADAM18-, 20- and 21-like, provides empirical support for sperm genes functioning in non-human primate taxa which have been subsequently lost in the lineages leading to humans. The MacSP contains proteasome proteins of the 20S core subunit, the 19S proteasome activator complex and an alternate proteasome activator PA200, raising the possibility that proteasome activity is present in mature sperm. Robust empirical characterization of the Rhesus sperm proteome should greatly expand the possibility for targeted molecular studies of spermatogenesis and fertilization in a commonly used model species for human infertility. PMID:23816990

  5. Clinical allograft of a calcaneal tendon in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Summers, Laura; Colagross-Schouten, Angela

    2014-09-01

    A 5.5-y-old male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) housed in an outdoor field cage presented for severe trauma involving the left calcaneal tendon. Part of the management of this wound included an allograft of the calcaneal tendon from an animal that was euthanized for medical reasons. This case report describes the successful medical and surgical management of a macaque with a significant void of the calcaneal tendon. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of a successful tendon allograft in a rhesus macaque for clinical purposes.

  6. Thermal regulation in Macaca mulatta during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Utekhina, E. S.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies of body temperature and thermal regulation in Macaca mulatta flown on biosatellites Bion 6-11 are presented. The effect of microgravity on deep body temperature as compared to skin temperature was investigated. In most animals, deep body temperature declined moderately and then tended to return to normal. Brain temperature/ankle temperature correlation changed. The system of thermal regulation was found to function adequately in space.

  7. Comparative assessment of psychomotor performance - Target prediction by humans and macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Although nonhuman primates such as rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been useful models of many aspects of cognition and performance, it has been argued that, unlike humans, they may lack the capacity to respond as predictor-operators. Data from the present series of experiments undermine this claim, suggesting instead a continuity of predictive competency between humans and nonhuman primates. A prediction coefficient was devised to examine the degree to which each subject's response path approximated the optimal predictive strategy. Whereas human subjects (N= 30) generally predicted more accurately, rhesus monkeys (N= 10) also significantly anticipated the movements of the target in all conditions. It appears that humans and rhesus monkeys both exhibit the capacity to respond to where a stimulus is going.

  8. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Demonstrate Robust Memory for What and Where, but Not When, in an Open-Field Test of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, R.R.; Hampstead, B.M.; Murray, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    We adapted a paradigm developed by Clayton and Dickinson (1998), who demonstrated memory for what, where, and when in scrub jays, for use with rhesus monkeys. In the study phase of each trial, monkeys found a preferred and a less-preferred food reward in a trial-unique array of three locations in a large room. After 1h, monkeys returned to the…

  9. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  10. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively.

  11. Intracranial meningioma with ophthalmoplegia in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Canfield, Don R

    2012-10-01

    A 21-y-old female rhesus macaque presented with signs of internal and external ophthamoplegia, including anisocoria and ptosis. Ophthalmoplegia is the paralysis or weakness of one or more intraocular or extraocular muscles that control the movement of eye; this condition can be caused by neurologic or muscle disorders. The macaque was euthanized due to progression of clinical symptoms, and postmortem gross examination revealed a mass at the base of the brain attached to the meninges. Histopathologic examination led to the diagnosis of intracranial meningioma. Here we describe a case of intracranial meningioma with internal and external ophthalmoplegia in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

  12. Effects of pulsed microwaves at 1. 28 and 5. 62 ghz on rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing an exercise task at three levels of work. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knepton, J.; de Lorge, J.; Griner, T.

    1983-03-10

    The present experiment studies both behavioral and physiological consequences of exposing exercising rhesus monkeys to microwave radiation. At 1.28 Ghz four of the monkeys were exposed to power densities of 25, 41, and 89 mW/sg cm. At the highest power density exercising animals consistently had a lower response rate, a higher heart rate, and a greater increase in colonic temperature. At lower power densities the effects were generally less evident and were idiosyncratic. At 5.62 GHz five monkeys were exposed to power densities of 25, 41, and 89 mW/sg cm. Differences from controls were found only at 43 mW/sq cm: (1) colonic temperature averaged +0.8 C higher (N=2), (2) response rate decreased (N=5) when the heaviest work load occurred during the terminal third of the session, and (3) heart rate (N=2) was higher. These experiments demonstrate the microwaves will produce cardiovascular effects in addition to those produced by exercise alone and that body temperature induced by microwave energy does not seem to be further accelerated by exercise. The results also illustrate that monkeys working a physically arduous task are more likely to stop working when exposed to microwave than when working a less arduous task.

  13. Diurnal pattern of pulsatile luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): influence of the timing of daily meal intake.

    PubMed

    Mattern, L G; Helmreich, D L; Cameron, J L

    1993-03-01

    Adult male rhesus monkeys have a diurnal pattern of reproductive hormone secretion that is characterized by significantly elevated LH and testosterone secretion in the evening hours and a nadir in secretion of these hormones in the morning. To test the hypothesis that the daily pattern of food intake may play a role in regulating the diurnal pattern of reproductive hormone secretion we performed three studies. First, to determine the relationship between the timing of the diurnal rise in LH secretion and meal consumption, blood samples were collected from 13 adult male rhesus monkeys via chronically indwelling venous catheters (samples every 15-20 min from 0800-0800 h) while monkeys were maintained on the standard feeding regimen in our colony (one meal of Purina monkey chow fed between 1100 and 1200 h). On a day of normal feeding there was a significant diurnal rhythm in mean LH concentrations with elevated levels at night (nadir: 13.41 +/- 0.82 ng/ml from 0800-1100 h; peak: 21.34 +/- 1.56 ng/ml from 2000-2300 h, P < or = 0.05). The rising phase of the diurnal rhythm in LH secretion was apparent starting in the early afternoon, shortly after the daily meal, at 1400 h (5 h before lights went off at 1900 h), and the diurnal rise in LH secretion was no longer apparent by 0500 h (several hours before the lights went on at 0700 h). Second, we examined the influence of missing the daily meal on the diurnal pattern of LH and testosterone secretion. Blood samples were collected for a 24-h period on a day of fasting from 9 monkeys. On a day of fasting there was no diurnal rise in plasma LH or testosterone concentrations; plasma concentrations of these hormones remained at the low morning levels throughout the day. Third, we examined the diurnal pattern of LH and testosterone secretion after adapting 5 monkeys (for 6-8 weeks) to a new meal time that was 6 h later in the day than the standard meal time (i.e. at 1700 h). After adaptation to this later feeding time monkeys

  14. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  15. Influence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis on the menstrual cycle and the pituitary responsiveness to estradiol in the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K T; Moberg, G P

    1990-02-01

    In order to examine the effect of glucocorticoids on the menstrual cycle of rhesus monkeys, cortisol was injected twice daily during the follicular phase. This cortisol treatment did not alter basal gonadotropin secretion but blocked the normal follicular rise of estrogens, the gonadotropin surge and the luteal rise of progesterone, and delayed the onset of the next cycle. In a second study, estradiol benzoate (E2B) was injected on the sixth day following the start of menstrual bleeding either with or without concurrent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) treatment. E2B injection was able to stimulate surges of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) whether or not the animals had been treated with ACTH. These data suggest that, the action of cortisol, the final mediating step in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, occurs at the level of the gonads versus the pituitary in the rhesus monkey. While the pituitary response to endogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone or exogenous E2B stimulation appears to remain unaffected, normal folliculogenesis is disrupted, preventing the follicular secretion of estrogens and the subsequent gonadotropin surges. The effects of corticosteroids are temporary, with normal cycling returning when plasma corticosteroids return to basal concentrations, albeit after a delay.

  16. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  17. The time course of follicle-stimulating hormone suppression by recombinant human inhibin A in the adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S; Pohl, C R; McNeilly, A S; Winters, S J; Plant, T M

    1998-08-01

    In higher primates, FSH secretion appears to be regulated by a control system consistent with that described by the classical inhibin hypothesis. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the time course of inhibin's action to suppress FSH secretion in the intact adult male rhesus monkey. To this end, five adult males implanted with indwelling venous catheters and exhibiting typical episodic patterns of LH and testosterone (T) secretion received a 4-day i.v. infusion of recombinant human (rh) inhibin A (832 ng/h x kg) followed, after a 4-week interval, by vehicle infusion of similar duration. Changes in circulating FSH concentrations during the inhibin and vehicle infusions were determined using a sensitive homologous macaque RIA, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were employed to track inhibin A, inhibin B, and inhibin pro-alpha-C levels during the experiment. Normal pulsatile activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-Leydig cell axis was confirmed by monitoring changes in circulating concentrations of LH and T in 12-h windows of sequential blood collection (1200-2400 h; every 20 min) before, during, and after the rh inhibin A and vehicle infusions. Although infusion of rh inhibin A, which led to a 12 ng/ml square wave increment in circulating levels of this inhibin dimer, produced a marked decline in circulating FSH concentrations, significant suppression of the secretion of this gonadotropin was not manifest until 54 h after initiation of the infusion. Despite the marked decline in FSH secretion during the last 24 h of the 4-day infusion of recombinant hormone, circulating inhibin B and pro-alpha-C concentrations were maintained at preinfusion control levels (1 ng/ml). The finding that imposition of an exaggerated circulating inhibin signal led to suppression of FSH secretion in the male monkey only after 2 days of exposure to the hormone indicates that in this species the feedback action of testicular inhibin on FSH secretion is heavily lagged

  18. Paralysis due to a glomangioma in a Macaca mulatta. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, G.B.; Fanton, J.W.; Harvey, R.C.; Wood, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Glomangioma have many synonyms including: glomus tumors, tumors of neuromyoarterial glomi, angioneuromas, angioneuromyomas, neuromyoarterial glomi, painful subcutaneous tubercles, Popoff tumors or subcotaneous glomal tumors. They are common in humans, rare in nonhuman primates and to the best of our knowledge, have only been reported in irradiated rhesus. The neoplasms originate in arterial-venous shunts known as neuromyoarterial glomi which are commonly found beneath fingernails and fingertips, but have been reported in many locations both superficial and deep. The neoplasm can be confused with hemangiopericytomas, hemangiomas, paragangliomas, and leiomyomas, and must be definitely diagnosed ultrastructurally. A glomangioma at the 6-7 thoracic intervertebral space caused compression of the spinal cord with posterior paralysis in an irradiated 20-year-old female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

  19. A study of the role of the postnatal testes in determining the ontogeny of gonadotropin secretion in the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Plant, T M

    1985-04-01

    To further examine the role of the testes in determining the ontogeny of gonadotropin secretion in the male rhesus monkey, the time courses of circulating LH and FSH concentrations were determined using established RIAs in daytime and nighttime blood samples collected at weekly intervals from birth until 4 yr of age in intact animals (n = 7) and in males orchidectomized at approximately 1 week of age (n = 6). Estimates of plasma androgen (A) concentrations were obtained on nonchromatographed samples with a RIA that reacts with testosterone and other androgens. Plasma PRL concentrations were also determined by RIA, and body weight was monitored at weekly intervals. Testicular volumes were measured at weekly intervals after 1.8 yr of age in five animals. In intact animals, mean daytime plasma A concentrations during the first 3 months of infantile development ranged from 1-6 ng/ml. Daytime plasma A concentrations then declined to reach 0.5-1 ng/ml by 9 months of age, where they were maintained usually until 3 yr of age when circulating levels progressively increased to reach, by approximately 3.5 yr of age, mean levels (6 ng/ml) characteristic of fully mature males. During the transition from infantile to perpubertal development, circulating LH and FSH concentrations showed a pattern similar to that of A, with elevations during the first 2 months of life followed by a decline to undetectable concentrations. In contrast to A, however, distinct pubertal increments in circulating LH and FSH concentrations were not observed in daytime samples from intact animals. The first indication of the pubertal reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was provided by a reemergence of nocturnal elevations in plasma A concentrations between 2-3 yr of age. These were followed shortly thereafter by detectable plasma LH concentrations in nighttime samples. Orchidectomy at 1 week of age resulted in a progressive and dramatic rise in circulating gonadotropin

  20. Alterations in the upper facial growth of Macaca mulatta resulting from high-pull headgear.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, R J

    1975-04-01

    Four prepubertal Macaca mulatta monkeys, ranging in age from 13 to 24 months, were used in an investigation of the effects of high-pull headgear (to a face-bow) therapy on the growth of the upper facial skeleton. Amalgam bone implants were placed across the frontomaxillary, frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures in each animal. Three of the monkeys wore appliances consisting of a maxillary dental spling, a face-bow, two coil springs, and an acrylic helmet. The fourth monkey (control) wore only a dental splint and a face-bow. A continuous high-pull headgear force of 300 grams per side was applied to the three monkeys for 81, 87 and 89 days, respectively, before death. Procion brilliant red 8-HBS vital stain was administered to all four animals at the start of and 3 days before the end of the treatment period. The facial growth patterns were determined from lateral cephalograms taken before and after treatment, from direct measurement of implant separation at the sutures, and from histologic sections of the four mentioned facial sutures.

  1. Systemic Spironucleosis In Two Immunodeficient Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C; Kramer, J; Mejia, A; MacKey, J; Mansfield, KG; Miller, AD

    2011-01-01

    Spironucleus spp. are parasites of fish and terrestrial vertebrates including mice and turkeys that rarely cause extraintestinal disease. Two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were experimentally inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251). Both progressed to simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) within one year of inoculation and, in addition to common opportunistic infections including rhesus cytomegalovirus, rhesus lymphocryptovirus, and rhesus adenovirus, developed systemic protozoal infections. In the first case, the protozoa were associated with colitis, multifocal abdominal abscessation, and lymphadenitis. In the second case they one of a number of organisms associated with extensive pyogranulomatous pneumonia and colitis. Ultrastructural, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis revealed the causative organism to be a species of Spironucleus closely related to Spironucleus meleagridis of turkeys. This is the first report of extraintestinal infection with Spironucleus sp. in higher mammals and further expands the list of opportunistic infections found in immunocompromised rhesus macaques. PMID:20351359

  2. Measurement of Blood Volume in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Theodore R; Blue, Steven W; Park, Byung S; Greisel, Jennifer J; Conn, P Michael; Pau, Francis K-Y

    2015-01-01

    Most biomedical facilities that use rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) limit the amount of blood that may be collected for experimental purposes. These limits typically are expressed as a percentage of blood volume (BV), estimated by using a fixed ratio of blood (mL) per body weight (kg). BV estimation ratios vary widely among facilities and typically do not factor in variables known to influence BV in humans: sex, age, and body condition. We used indicator dilution methodology to determine the BV of 20 adult rhesus macaques (10 male, 10 female) that varied widely in body condition. We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score. Two indicators, FITC-labeled hydroxyethyl starch (FITC–HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin (125I-RhSA), were injected simultaneously, followed by serial blood collection. Plasma volume at time 0 was determined by linear regression. BV was calculated from the plasma volume and Hct. We found that BV calculated by using FITC–HES was consistently lower than BV calculated by using 125I-RhSA. Sex and age did not significantly affect BV. Percentage body fat was significantly associated with BV. Subjects categorized as having ‘optimal’ body condition score had 18% body fat and 62.1 mL/kg BV (by FITC–HES; 74.5 mL/kg by 125I-RhSA). Each 1% increase in body fat corresponded to approximately 1 mL/kg decrease in BV. Body condition score correlated with the body fat percentage (R2 = 0.7469). We provide an equation for calculating BV from weight and body condition score. PMID:26632777

  3. Surrogate Mobility and Orientation Affect the Early Neurobehavioral Development of Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Ruggerio, Angela M.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    A biological mother’s movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p=.009), coordination (p=.038), spontaneous crawl (p=.009), and balance (p=.003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p=.016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants showed less of a stress response, spending less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p=.05) and exhibiting a significantly lower rise in salivary cortisol after the test than RS infants (p=.018). Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates. PMID:19810188

  4. Therapy of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Conze, Theresa; Wehrend, Axel; Exner, Cornelia; Kaminiarz, André

    2016-08-01

    A rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for anuria. Examination revealed calcium oxalate concrements in the bladder. A cystotomy was performed, and a therapy with alfuzosin was conducted. Over 1 year after the treatment, the rhesus macaque had not shown any more signs of stranguria. This is the first case reporting the successful treatment of urolithiasis in a rhesus macaque.

  5. Efficacy of Antibiotic-Impregnated Polymethylmethacrylate Beads in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species. PMID:23043785

  6. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, KC; Bloomsmith, MA; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M

    2015-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facilities. Training involved body part presentation and basic control behaviours. Baseline data were compared to two treatment phases presented in varying order across individuals, six minutes per week of positive reinforcement training and six minutes per week of unstructured human interaction. While a MANOVA involving behavioural categories and study conditions across study subjects was significant, univariate ANOVAs found no effect of phase within any behavioural category. Categorising subjects according to rearing, housing facility, or baseline levels of abnormal behaviour did not reveal changes in behaviour with positive reinforcement training or human interaction. This study failed to detect, to any degree, the types of behavioural changes documented in the scientific literature to result from pairing singly housed monkeys. Implementing short durations of positive reinforcement training across large numbers of singly housed animals may not be the most effective manner for incorporating positive reinforcement training in the behavioural management of laboratory macaques. Rather, directing efforts toward individuals with specific behavioural, management, clinical, research or therapeutic needs may represent a more fruitful approach to improving psychological well-being with this technique. PMID:25960611

  7. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and intramuscular administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in conscious rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Four healthy, opioid-naïve, socially-housed, adult male macaques were used. Buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 24 h, post-administration. Serum buprenorphine concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with commercially available software. Mean residence time in the IV study as compared to the IM study was 177 (159–189) minutes vs. 185 (174–214) minutes, respectively [median (range)]. In the IV study, concentration back extrapolated to time zero was found to be 33.0 (16.8–57.0) ng/mL [median (range)]. On the other hand, the maximum serum concentration found in the IM study was 11.8 (6.30–14.8) ng/mL [median (range)]. Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than 0.10 ng/mL for over 24 h in the IV study and over 12 h in the IM study. Bioavailability was found to be 68.1 (59.3–71.2)% [median (range)]. No significant adverse effects were observed in the monkeys at the 0.03 mg/kg dose of buprenorphine during either study. PMID:24666428

  9. Retinal, functional, and morphological comparisons of two different macaque species, Macaca mulatta and Macaca fasicularis, for models of laser eye injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Hacker, Henry D.; Brown, Araceli; Cheramie, Rachael; Martinsen, Gary L.; Rockwell, Benjamin; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2005-04-01

    The past several years has seen a severe shortage of pathogen-free Indian origin rhesus macaques due to the increased requirement for this model in retroviral research. With greater than 30 years of research data accumulated using the Rhesus macaque as the model for laser eye injury there exists a need to bridge to a more readily available nonhuman primate model. Much of the data previously collected from the Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) provided the basis for the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for laser safety. Currently a Tri-service effort is underway to utilize the Cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fasicularis) as a replacement for the Rhesus macaque. Preliminary functional and morphological baseline data collected from multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and retinal cell counts were compared from a small group of monkeys and tissues to determine if significant differences existed between the species. Initial functional findings rom mfERG yielded only one difference for the n2 amplitude value which was greater in the Cynomolgus monkey. No significant differences were seen in retinal and foveal thickness, as determined by OCT scans and no significant differences were seen in ganglion cell and inner nuclear cell nuclei counts. A highly significant difference was seen in the numbers of photoreceptor nuclei with greater numbers in the Rhesus macaque. This indicates more studies should be performed to determine the impact that a model change would have on the laser bioeffects community and their ability to continue to provide minimal visible lesion data for laser safety standards. The continued goal of this project will be to provide that necessary baseline information for a seamless transition to a more readily available animal model.

  10. High-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin injections induces metabolic syndrome in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Li, Linzhao; Liao, Guangneng; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yanrong; Du, Xiaojiong; Liu, Jingping; Li, Lan; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhong, Zhihui; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of MetS, qualified animal models are currently seriously limited for researchers. The aim of our study was to develop a MetS model in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Rhesus monkeys (1-year-old) fed a high-fat diet (15 % fat, 2 % cholesterol) were used as the HF group (n = 6), and those on a normal diet (5 % fat) were used as the control group (n = 4). After being fed a high-fat diet for approximately 12 months, 2 monkeys (HF + STZ group) were injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg) twice, with a 7 days interval, and were then fed the same diet continuously for another 24 months. After 36 months of treatment, the high-fat diet monkeys, including the HF and HF + STZ groups, had acquired increased body weights, abnormal serum lipids, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to the control group. In addition, much more marked metabolic changes were observed in the two monkeys of the HF + STZ group, particularly in terms of high-blood glucose level and insulin resistance. Morphological observation of biopsies of liver and pancreatic tissues showed decreased islet number and mass and decreased insulin staining in the monkeys of the HF + STZ group. In addition, Oil red O staining suggested remarkable accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes. Our study suggested that a long-term high-fat diet followed with a low-dose STZ was able to induce MetS in juvenile rhesus monkeys with faster pathophysiological progress compared with high-fat diet induction alone. Our primary data showed that this method may have potentials to develop MetS animal model in non-human primates.

  11. Effect of Aerosol Age on the Infectivity of Airborne Pasteurella tularensis for Macaca mulatta and Man

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, William D.; Jemski, Joseph V.; Hogge, Arthur L.; Eigelsbach, Henry T.; Wolfe, Elwood K.; Dangerfield, Harry G.; Gochenour, William S.; Crozier, Dan

    1966-01-01

    Sawyer, William D. (U.S. Army Medical Unit, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Joseph V. Jemski, Arthur L. Hogge, Jr., Henry T. Eigelsbach, Elwood K. Wolfe, Harry G. Dangerfield, William S. Gochenour, Jr., and Dan Crozier. Effect of aerosol age on the infectivity of airborne Pasteurella tularensis for Macaca mulatta and man. J. Bacteriol. 91:2180–2184. 1966.—In aging aerosols of Pasteurella tularensis SCHU-S4, the respiratory infectivity for man and Macaca mulatta decreased more rapidly than the viability of the organisms. Infectivity was diminished after 120 min, and was reduced 10-fold after 180 min. These findings confirmed previous observations made in mice and guinea pigs, and also revealed that smaller losses of infectivity were detectable in the primate hosts. PMID:4957611

  12. Postnatal development of the hippocampus in the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Michael R; Scott, Julia A; Bauman, Melissa D; Schumann, Cynthia M; Amaral, David G

    2014-07-01

    Nonhuman primates are widely used models to investigate the neural substrates of human behavior, including the development of higher cognitive and affective function. Due to their neuroanatomical and behavioral homologies with humans, the rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta) provides an excellent animal model in which to characterize the maturation of brain structures from birth through adulthood and into senescence. To evaluate hippocampal development in rhesus macaques, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained longitudinally at 9 time points between 1 week and 260 weeks (5 years) of age on 24 rhesus macaque monkeys (12 males, 12 females). In our sample, the hippocampus reaches 50% of its adult volume by 13 weeks of age and reaches an adult volume by 52 weeks in both males and females. The hippocampus appears to be slightly larger at 3 years than at 5 years of age. Male rhesus macaques have larger hippocampi than females from 8 weeks onward by approximately 5%. Interestingly, there was increased variability in hemispheric asymmetry for hippocampus volumes at younger ages than at later ages. These data provide a comprehensive evaluation of the longitudinal development of male and female rhesus macaque hippocampus across development from 1 week to 5 years of age.

  13. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.

  14. Brain abscess in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a cephalic implant.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristy; McCort, Holly; Reuter, Jon D

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of brain abscess after craniotomy and the placement of a recording chamber for electrophysiologic records in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) enrolled in visual research. Approximately 2 wk after surgery, the macaque presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs and showed no evidence of fever, neurologic deficits, increased intracranial pressure, suggestive alterations in the CBC, or abnormal changes in the recording chamber. The macaque responded to symptomatic and antibiotic treatment and showed no behavioral or abnormal clinical signs for 3 wk before collapsing suddenly. The macaque was euthanized, and pathologic evaluation revealed a large brain abscess immediately under the original craniotomy.

  15. Meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes in a pregnant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee M F; Lopes, Danielle A; Reader, J Rachel; Westworth, Diccon R; Tarara, Ross P

    2012-10-01

    We here report a spontaneous case of meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes in an adult primiparous rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during an outbreak of listeriosis in an outdoor enclosure. Clinical signs included tremors, abnormal posture, and altered mental status. Hematology and analyses of cerebrospinal fluid were consistent with bacterial infection. Pure cultures of L. monocytogenes were recovered from the placenta-abortus, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain tissue. The macaque did not respond to treatment and was euthanized. Histopathologic examination of the brain revealed acute meningoencephalitis. This case represents an unusual clinical and pathologic presentation of listeriosis in a nonhuman primate in which the dam and fetus both were affected.

  16. Variation in CCL3L1 Copy Number in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, Patrick L; Trask, Jessica A Satkoski; Smith, David G; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan

    2012-01-01

    We used real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology to examine copy number variation (CNV) of the CCL3L1 gene among pure Indian-origin, pure Chinese-origin, and hybrid Indian–Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). CNV among purebred macaques fell within expected ranges, with Indian macaques having lower copy numbers than those of Chinese macaques. Compared with the purebred macaques, Indian–Chinese hybrid rhesus macaques showed much greater variance in copy number and an intermediate average copy number. Copy numbers of CCL3L1 in rhesus macaque trios (sire, dam, and offspring) were consistent with Mendelian inheritance. PMID:22776055

  17. Variation in CCL3L1 copy number in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Taormina, Patrick L; Satkoski Trask, Jessica A; Smith, David G; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan

    2012-06-01

    We used real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology to examine copy number variation (CNV) of the CCL3L1 gene among pure Indian-origin, pure Chinese-origin, and hybrid Indian-Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). CNV among purebred macaques fell within expected ranges, with Indian macaques having lower copy numbers than those of Chinese macaques. Compared with the purebred macaques, Indian-Chinese hybrid rhesus macaques showed much greater variance in copy number and an intermediate average copy number. Copy numbers of CCL3L1 in rhesus macaque trios (sire, dam, and offspring) were consistent with Mendelian inheritance. PMID:22776055

  18. Brain Abscess in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a Cephalic Implant

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristy; McCort, Holly; Reuter, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of brain abscess after craniotomy and the placement of a recording chamber for electrophysiologic records in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) enrolled in visual research. Approximately 2 wk after surgery, the macaque presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs and showed no evidence of fever, neurologic deficits, increased intracranial pressure, suggestive alterations in the CBC, or abnormal changes in the recording chamber. The macaque responded to symptomatic and antibiotic treatment and showed no behavioral or abnormal clinical signs for 3 wk before collapsing suddenly. The macaque was euthanized, and pathologic evaluation revealed a large brain abscess immediately under the original craniotomy. PMID:24209974

  19. Decrease in hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r expression: a potential mechanism for fasting-induced suppression of the HPG axis in the adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wahab, F; Ullah, F; Chan, Y-M; Seminara, S B; Shahab, M

    2011-02-01

    Fasting suppresses functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. In 2003, hypothalamic kisspeptin-Kiss1r signaling was discovered to play a significant role in regulating the HPG axis. We have recently shown that in adult male macaques, short-term fasting attenuates the response of the HPG axis to an exogenous kisspeptin challenge. In the present study, we explored the mechanism underlying this attenuated response by examining the modulation of the hypothalamic expression of KISS1 and KISS1R under short-term fasting and normal feeding conditions in the adult male macaques. Hypothalamic mRNA was extracted from normal fed (n=3) and 48-h fasted (n=3) monkeys. KISS1, KISS1R, and GNRH1 mRNA were quantified by reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma concentrations of glucose, cortisol, leptin, and testosterone. In contrast to fed animals, plasma glucose, leptin, and testosterone levels decreased and cortisol levels increased in fasted animals. The hypothalamic expression of KISS1 and KISS1R mRNA was significantly lower (p<0.05) in fasted monkeys compared to fed monkeys while hypothalamic GNRH1 mRNA expression was comparable between the 2 groups. Thus, our results demonstrate that expression of hypothalamic KISS1 and KISS1R decrease after a short-term fasting in monkeys. This decrease may contribute to the suppression of the HPG axis during fasting conditions in primates. In addition, our finding of lower expression of KISS1R in fasted monkeys provides an explanation for the attenuation in the HPG axis response to peripheral kisspeptin challenge during short-term fasting.

  20. A Reevaluation of the Question: Is the Pubertal Resurgence in Pulsatile GnRH Release in the Male Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) Associated With a Gonad-Independent Augmentation of GH Secretion?

    PubMed

    Shahab, M; Trujillo, M Vargas; Plant, T M

    2015-10-01

    A somatic signal has been posited to trigger the pubertal resurgence in pulsatile GnRH secretion that initiates puberty in highly evolved primates. That GH might provide such a signal emerged in 2000 as a result of a study reporting that circulating nocturnal GH concentrations in castrated juvenile male monkeys increased in a 3-week period immediately preceding the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion. The present study was conducted to reexamine this intriguing relationship, again in an agonadal model. Four castrated juvenile male monkeys were implanted with indwelling jugular catheters, housed in remote sampling cages, and subjected to 24 hours of sequential blood sampling (every 30 min) every 2 weeks from 19.5 to 22 months of age. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating GH concentrations were analyzed using the pulse detection algorithm, PULSAR, and developmental changes in pulsatile GH release with respect to the initiation of the pubertal rise of LH secretion (week 0; observed between 22.5 and 32 mo of age) were examined for significance by a repeated-measures ANOVA. Changes in the parameters of pulsatile GH secretion, including mean 24-hour GH concentration and GH pulse frequency and pulse amplitude for 3 (n = 4) and 6 (n = 3) months before week 0 were unremarkable and nonsignificant. These findings fail to confirm those of the earlier study and lead us to conclude that the timing of the pubertal resurgence of GnRH release in the male monkey is not dictated by GH. Reasons for the discrepancy between the two studies are unclear. PMID:26181107

  1. Effect of continuous infusion of a low dose of GnRH antagonist on serum LH and testosterone concentrations, spermatogenesis and semen quality in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Mann, D R; Collins, D C; Smith, M M; Gould, K G

    1987-11-01

    Treatment of 4 adult male rhesus monkeys for 8-12 months with 100-400 micrograms of a GnRH antagonist/day by means of using osmotic minipumps led to suppressed serum concentrations of LH and testosterone followed by various degrees of recovery toward pretreatment values. The serum LH response to a challenge of native GnRH was reduced by 30-75% during antagonist treatment. The serum testosterone response to GnRH was exaggerated above the response in the pretreatment period, suggesting hypersensitivity of the testis to gonadotrophin. Antagonist administration under these conditions did not alter body weight or abolish ejaculatory response. Antagonist infusion caused a 96% decrease in sperm counts. Spermatozoa recovered during the final month of antagonist treatment showed a reduced ability to penetrate denuded hamster ova. Testicular biopsies performed at the end of antagonist treatment revealed persistent spermatogenesis. However, the cellularity of the seminiferous tubules was decreased below that of pretreatment biopsies. The results of this study suggest that the amount of testosterone needed to maintain normal spermatogenesis is greater than that needed to maintain electroejaculatory response in monkeys.

  2. Comparative Pharmacology of Amphotericin B and Amphotericin B Methyl Ester in the Non-Human Primate, Macaca mulatta

    PubMed Central

    Jagdis, F. A.; Hoeprich, P. D.; Lawrence, R. M.; Schaffner, C. P.

    1977-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B methyl ester hydrochloride (AME) and commercial deoxycholate-stabilized amphotericin B (AMB) were compared after single doses of 5 mg and 1 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, given intravenously in a period of 3 h to adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). By bioassay, the concentrations of AME were 12.2 to 7.2 times higher in the serum and 7.8 to 2.5 times higher in the urine during the 8 h after infusion. The decline in concentrations of the drugs in sera was consistent with a three-compartment, open pharmacokinetic model; rate constants of transfer of the drugs between the compartments and volumes of distribution were calculated. The overall rate of elimination from the central compartment (the bloodvascular space) was about four times greater for AME than for AMB. Serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were mildly and transiently increased after infusion of AME, whereas the more severe azotemia that followed infusion of AMB persisted for 5 days. AME was less toxic and achieved a greater urinary outfall than AMB. As the antifungal activity of AME is comparable to that of AMB by testing in vitro, further study is warranted. PMID:411419

  3. Mamu-DQA1 allele and genotype frequencies in a randomly sampled breeding colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Rolfs, B K; Lorenz, J G; Wu, C C; Lerche, N W; Smith, D G

    2001-04-01

    We studied the allelic and genotypic distribution of the major histocompatibility class-II locus DQA1 observed in a random sample of Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from a major breeding facility in the United States. The DNA was isolated from whole blood samples collected between 1991 and 1994 from 65 Indian rhesus monkeys. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP), which involves use of specific amplification of DQA1 exon 2 and subsequent restriction digestion of the 242-base pair fragment, was used to genotype the animals for the 20 known macaque (Mamu)-DQA1 alleles. Frequencies for four alleles (DQA1*240x, *2502, *2503 and *0102) differed significantly from those reported in a smaller sample of rhesus macaques from the German Primate Center. The modest genetic survey of Mamu-DQA1 genotypes presented here will be particularly useful in designing epidemiologic studies that investigate associations between immunogenetic background and disease susceptibility in macaque models of human disease.

  4. Recent refinements to cranial implants for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jessica M; Cohen, Yale E; Shirley, Harry; Tsunada, Joji; Bennur, Sharath; Christison-Lagay, Kate; Veeder, Christin L

    2016-05-01

    The advent of cranial implants revolutionized primate neurophysiological research because they allow researchers to stably record neural activity from monkeys during active behavior. Cranial implants have improved over the years since their introduction, but chronic implants still increase the risk for medical complications including bacterial contamination and resultant infection, chronic inflammation, bone and tissue loss and complications related to the use of dental acrylic. These complications can lead to implant failure and early termination of study protocols. In an effort to reduce complications, we describe several refinements that have helped us improve cranial implants and the wellbeing of implanted primates. PMID:27096188

  5. Tissue enzyme studies in Macaca nemestrina monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, R. W.; Hoffman, R. A.; Jenkins, D.

    1971-01-01

    Total enzyme activities in fresh tissue specimens from major organs of Macaca nemestrina were analyzed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and aldolase. The concentration of these enzymes varied among the different tissue with skeletal muscle, heart, and brain having the highest activities. LDH isozymes determinations for the various tissues were also made. The spectrum of LDH isozyme distribution appears to be quite specific and characteristic for at least some of the tissues analyzed.

  6. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (p<0.05) and blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.001) decreased after short term fasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in adult male rhesus monkeys which were fasted for 48h as compared to those which were fed ad libitum. There was no clear difference in the GAD67 mRNA contents between the two groups. Number of kisspeptin neurons and the interactions of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after 48h fasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons.

  7. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (p<0.05) and blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.001) decreased after short term fasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in adult male rhesus monkeys which were fasted for 48h as compared to those which were fed ad libitum. There was no clear difference in the GAD67 mRNA contents between the two groups. Number of kisspeptin neurons and the interactions of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after 48h fasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons. PMID:26138506

  8. Localization of Persistent Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Normal Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Hepatobiliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Keith G.; Carville, Angela; Hebert, Daniel; Chalifoux, Laura; Shvetz, Daniel; Lin, K. C.; Tzipori, S.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    1998-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidian parasite recognized in human patients with AIDS. Recently, we identified a virtually identical organism causing a spontaneous infection associated with hepatobiliary and intestinal disease in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques. To examine the natural history of the infection, we examined captive rhesus macaques for E. bieneusi by PCR, in situ hybridization, and cytochemical techniques. PCR performed on fecal DNA detected enterocytozoon infection in 22 (16.7%) of 131 normal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), compared to 18 (33.8%) of 53 rhesus macaques experimentally inoculated with SIV. In normal rhesus macaques, persistence of infection was demonstrated for up to 262 days and was usually not associated with clinical signs. In six of seven normal rhesus animals, E. bieneusi was detected by PCR in bile obtained through percutaneous cholecystocentesis but not by in situ hybridization performed on endoscopic biopsies of duodenum and proximal jejunum. PMID:9666017

  9. Characterization of Spontaneous Subclavian Steal Phenomenon in a Female Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    In subclavian steal phenomenon (SSP), the subclavian artery develops a stenoocclusive disease proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery, leading to pronounced hemodynamic changes such as arterial flow reversal. Although SSP is a common echographic finding in humans, the phenomenon occurs only rarely in animals; consequently its physiologic features have not been reported previously. Here we describe the clinical and morphologic features of a spontaneous left SSP that was an incidental finding in an 18-y-old female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Our findings were documented through high-quality imaging studies obtained by using a computerized 3D tomography apparatus and clinical assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressures. PMID:21640038

  10. Scrub Typhus antibody in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Heisey, G B; Gan, E; Shirai, A; Groves, M G

    1981-06-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, sera from 113 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), trapped in Peninsular Malaysia, were screened for the presence of antibody to six prototype strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi combined into three polyvalent groupings: I--Karp, TA716, and TA763; II--Gilliam; and III--TA678 and TH1817. Fifteen percent (17/113) of the monkeys had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:50 to one or more of the antigenic groups. Although a titer greater than or equal to 1:150 is generally considered indicative or prior Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection, we selected a less than 1:25 titer as a conservative standard to insure non-infected animals. Using this criterion, 62 (55%) of the 113 monkeys were accepted for use in scrub typhus studies. The high prevalence of antibody to scrub typhus in the semi-arboreal cynomolgus monkey is in marked contrast to the low prevalence reported in the strictly arboreal silvered leaf monkeys (Presbytis cristatus). The results of this study indicate that cynomolgus monkeys should be rigorously screened for evidence of prior infection before they are included in experimental scrub typhus studies.

  11. Circadian rhythms in Macaca mulatta monkeys during Bion 11 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Tumurova, E. G.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of primate brain temperature, head and ankle skin temperature, motor activity, and heart rate were studied during spaceflight and on the ground. In space, the circadian rhythms of all the parameters were synchronized with diurnal Zeitgebers. However, in space the brain temperature rhythm showed a significantly more delayed phase angle, which may be ascribed to an increase of the endogenous circadian period.

  12. Constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected with simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Yee, JoAnn L; Montiel, Nestor A; Ardeshir, Amir; Ardeshr, Amir; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection. PMID:24326227

  13. Constitutive Release of IFNγ and IL2 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Infected with Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Yee, JoAnn L; Montiel, Nestor A; Ardeshr, Amir; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection. PMID:24326227

  14. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Tamara A. R.; Bales, Karen L.; Maninger, Nicole; Hostetler, Caroline M.; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta) friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC). Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject), multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain), and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social

  15. Effects of methaqualone on social-sexual behavior in monkeys (M. mulatta) II. Simultaneously dosed subjects.

    PubMed

    Claus, G; Kling, A; Bolander, K

    1981-01-01

    In a previous publication, we reported on the effects of 10 mg/kg i.m. injections of methaqualone on behavioral changes in treated animals and untreated members of a well-established colony of 10 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The drug showed a biphasic effect, causing more passive behaviors in the first 80-100 min postinjection, followed by either aggression or increased sexual activity. After approximately 2 h, the social status and behavior of all animals returned to predrug levels. In general, affiliative activities increased under the influence of the drug, phenomena somewhat parallel tho those described among humans taking methaqualone in group settings. We also speculated that the drug may have an aphrodisiac potency. In the present experiments, 3 animals were caged together and injected simultaneously with the dose used earlier: an adult but naive male, who had been caged alone for infancy; an adult and subadult female, the 2 latter having had extensive social experience. After establishing baseline behaviors, five experiments with methaqualone were conducted, each lasting 2 h; and after the 2nd and 4th experiments, saline controls were carried out. There was a continuous increase from experiment to experiment in the affiliative behaviors of the animals; but during the saline trials, their behaviors returned nearly to those exhibited during baseline studies. Under the influence of methaqualone, the naive male attempted to copulate, which he achieved by the 4th drug trial; and at the same time he established his dominance. The conclusion was reached that methaqualone, indeed, has aphrodisiac potency, best measured by the time the male spent with erection under the influence of the drug, as compared with no erection during the baseline studies or the saline trials. The biphasic effect of methaqualone on behavior reported in the previous review [1] was also observed during the present experiments.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng×h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng×h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings. PMID:23562033

  17. Standard electrocardiographic data of young Japanese monkeys (Macaca fusucata).

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Arao; Koie, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kanayama, Kiichi; Taira, Masato

    2013-07-01

    The electrocardiogram of nonhuman primates is similar to that of humans because of similar intrathoracic heart position and structure. Despite the frequent use of nonhuman primates in biologic studies, few electrocardiographic studies of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fusucata) have been reported, and no reference data are available for this species. We obtained limb-lead electrocardiograms from indoor-bred and housed ketamine-sedated Japanese macaques (48 male; 56 female; mean age, 44.3 mo; mean body weight, 4.84 kg) in the dorsal recumbency. The following quantitative data was obtained: heart rate, P wave amplitude and width, R wave amplitude, QRS duration, PR interval, QT interval, T wave height, and mean electrical axis. Corrected QT intervals were calculated by using the Bazett and Fridericia formulae. Measurements were evaluated according to sex and age. The duration of the QRS complex showed moderate correlation with age in male monkeys. All parameters, except heart rate, were similar to previous reports from Japanese, cynomolgus, and other macaques. P waves, R waves and mean electrical axis did not differ significantly between humans and Japanese macaques, but the wave amplitude in macaques was half that in humans. Our electrocardiographic measurements can serve as normal reference data for sedated, young Japanese monkeys.

  18. Septic Arthritis Due to Moraxella osloensis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E

    2013-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque. PMID:24326229

  19. Antemortem Screening for Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Haertel, Andrew J; Stern, Joshua A; Reader, J Rachel; Spinner, Abigail; Roberts, Jeffrey A; Christe, Kari L

    2016-01-01

    Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a hallmark finding in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that leads to diastolic dysfunction and variable cardiac consequences as severe as congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death. LVH was diagnosed postmortem in a large colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), but methods to screen and diagnose LVH in living animals are desired. We hypothesized that targeted echocardiography of macaques with a familial association of LVH would yield antemortem LVH diagnoses. We also hypothesized that cardiac biomarker levels would be higher in sudden-death LVH or occult LVH than controls and that cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels would be higher in macaques housed outdoors than indoors. Sera were assayed for cardiac biomarkers (cTnI, C-reactive protein, creatinine kinase-MB, creatine phosphokinase, and LDH), in conjunction with echocardiography, after diagnosis by postmortem exam or from animals with different levels of exercise due to indoor compared with outdoor housing. None of the investigated biomarkers were associated with LVH. cTnI levels were significantly higher in serum collected from outdoor than indoor macaques. In addition, LVH was diagnosed in 29.4% of subjects with a familial association of LVH. These findings suggest that exercise may increase cTnI levels in rhesus macaques and that targeted echocardiography of rhesus macaques with a familial association of LVH was the most useful variable examined for disease surveillance. PMID:27538864

  20. Septic arthritis due to moraxella osloensis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E

    2013-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque.

  1. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  2. Parameter comparison of white matter diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    MO, Yin; CHAO, Fang; SONG, Ming; LIU, Ci-Rong; LIU, Hui-Lang; QIAN, Xi-Ying; ZHAO, Xu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) results of brain white matter in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with four different parameter settings and found that the sequence A (b=1 000 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm× 1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) and B (b=800 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.25 mm×1.25 mm×1.25 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) could accurately track coarse fibers. The fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from sequence C (b=1 000s/mm2, spatial resolution=0.55 mm×0.55 mm×2.5 mm, direction number=33, NSA=3) was too fuzzy to be used in tracking white matter fibers. By comparison, the high resolution and the FA with high contrast of gray matter and white matter derived from sequence D (b=800 s/mm2, spatial resolution=1.0 mm×1.0 mm ×1.0 mm, numbers of direction=33, NSA=3) qualified in its application in tracking both thick and thin fibers, making it an optimal DTI setting for rhesus macaques. PMID:24866488

  3. Use of an Aquarium as a Novel Enrichment Item for Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population. PMID:25255069

  4. Toxicity and fetotoxicity of TCDD, TCDF and PCB isomers in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, W.P.

    1985-05-01

    In rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), consumption of food containing commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, some pure polychlorobiphenyl congeners, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) caused the same clinical toxic manifestations and histopathologic lesions, although the potencies of the toxicants covered a range of five orders of magnitude. Recovery from poisoning by 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (34TCB) or TCDF was rapid, whereas recovery from poisoning by Aroclor 1242, 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (345HCB), or TCDD was protracted, if it occurred at all. 34TCB did not appreciably accumulate in body fat, but the level of 345HCB in fat rose steadily during ingestion. Among the symmetrical tetra- and hexachlorobiphenyl isomers tested, subacute oral toxicity could be demonstrated only for those without ortho chlorine substitutions. The principal demonstrable histopathological lesions, bone marrow excepted, were metaplasias in some specialized epithelial structures, such as sebaceous glands, nail beds, gastric mucosa, ameloblast, and thymic corpuscles. These changes were interpreted as toxicant-induced, reversible redirection of differentiation. this aberration was wholly reversible. TCDD and 34TCB caused abortions when given in one or a few oral doses early in pregnancy. At the total doses used (1 or 5 g/kg of body weight for TCDD, 3 or 0.6 mg/kg of body weight for 34TCB), maternal toxicity was frequently apparent subsequent to the abortion.

  5. Coagulation Biomarkers in Healthy Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Frydman, Galit H; Bendapudi, Pavan K; Marini, Robert P; Vanderburg, Charles R; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fox, James G

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are a common model for the study of human biology and disease. To manage coagulopathies in these animals and to study their clotting changes, the ability to measure coagulation biomarkers is necessary. Currently, few options for coagulation testing in NHP are commercially available. In this study, assays for 4 coagulation biomarkers-D-dimer, antithrombin III, protein C, and soluble P-selectin-were developed and optimized for rhesus macaques. Whole blood was collected from 28 healthy Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (11 male; 17 female) ranging in age from 5 to 20 y. Coagulation biomarkers were measured by using bead-based sandwich ELISA technology. The ranges (mean ± 90% confidence interval) for these biomarkers were: antithrombin III, 124.2 to 133.4 μg/mL; protein C, 3.2 to 3.6 μg/mL; D-dimer, 110.3 to 161.3 ng/mL; soluble P-selectin, 0.12 to 0.14 ng/10(6) platelets. These reference values did not differ significantly according to sex or age. These new assays for coagulation biomarkers in rhesus macaques will facilitate the evaluation of in vivo hemostasis. PMID:27177557

  6. Lactational programming? Mother's milk energy predicts infant behavior and temperament in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hinde, Katie; Capitanio, John P

    2010-06-01

    There are many aspects of "mothering" that may provide information to the mammalian infant about environmental conditions during critical periods of development. One essential element of mothering involves the quantity and quality of milk that mothers provide for their infants, but little is known about the consequences of variation in milk production. Mother's milk may affect infant behavior by contributing to brain development and to the development of behavioral dispositions. Here we present the first evidence for any mammal that natural variation in available milk energy (AME) from the mother is associated with later variation in infant behavior and temperament in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, N=59). In the early postnatal period, heavier mothers with more reproductive experience produced greater AME, which is the product of milk energy density (kcal/g) and milk yield (g). Moreover, infants whose mothers produced greater AME in the early postnatal period showed higher activity levels and greater confidence in a stressful setting later in infancy. Our results suggest that the milk energy available soon after birth may be a nutritional cue that calibrates the infant's behavior to environmental or maternal conditions. These data provide new insight into potential mechanisms for the development of behavior and temperament and illuminate new directions for investigating maternal effects, nutritional programming, and developmental plasticity.

  7. Effects of geographic origin on captive Macaca mulatta mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Smith, David Glenn

    2004-04-01

    Partial sequences from mitochondrial (mt) 12S and 16S rRNA genes were analyzed to characterize diversity among captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) originating from various geographic regions. Several nested clades, defined by closely related haplotypes, were identified, suggesting considerable genetic subdivision, probably relics from heterogeneous origins, founder effects, and genetic drift, followed by breeding isolation. The rhesus matrilineages from India differed discretely and markedly from Chinese matrilineages; approximately 90% of the genetic heterogeneity among the combined samples of Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques studied here was due to country of origin. In addition, mtDNA sequences from macaques of China were more diverse than those from rhesus macaques of India, an outcome consistent with China's greater subspecies diversity and with nuclear genotype distributions. Otherwise, the distribution of mtDNA variation within rhesus macaques of China, and especially within those of India, exhibited far less structure and did not conform to a simple isolation-by-distance model. As the demand for genetically heterogeneous and well-characterized rhesus macaques for biomedical-based research increases, mtDNA haplotypes can be useful for genetically defining, preserving maximal levels of genetic diversity within, and confirming the geographic origin of captive breeding groups of rhesus macaques.

  8. Use of an aquarium as a novel enrichment item for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Meade, Theresa M; Hutchinson, Eric; Krall, Caroline; Watson, Julie

    2014-09-01

    Locomotor stereotypies are behaviors often seen in singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and are considered to represent a maladaptive response to captive environments. Active and passive enrichment items are commonly used to mitigate these and other abnormal behaviors. Active enrichment items allow physical manipulation and may be temporarily successful in reducing stereotypies, but their beneficial effects usually are confined to relatively short periods of active use. Passive enrichment items that do not involve physical manipulation are less well studied, and the results are mixed. This study evaluated an aquarium with live fish for use as a novel passive enrichment item in a common facility setting as a means to decrease locomotor stereotypy. We hypothesized that the introduction of the aquarium would decrease the frequency of locomotor stereotypy in a group of singly housed rhesus macaques (n = 11) with a known history of abnormal behaviors. Unexpectedly, locomotor stereotypy increased with the introduction of the aquarium and then decreased over time. Furthermore, when the aquarium was removed, the frequency of stereotypy decreased to below baseline levels. These unexpected results are best explained by neophobia, a common phenomenon documented in many animal species. The increase in abnormal behavior is likely to result from the addition of a novel object within the environment. This study demonstrates that, in the context of reducing abnormal behavior, presumably innocuous enrichment items may have unexpected effects and should be evaluated critically after their introduction to a captive population.

  9. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  10. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27343148

  12. Ogmocotyle ailuri (Price, 1954) (Digenea: Notocotylidae) found in the Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Takashi; Okada, Tomoko; Seki, Kentaro; Izawa, Kousei; Sakurai, Fujirou

    2012-09-01

    Several dozens of small trematodes were found in the small intestine of a Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata, that was captured in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The trematode was identified as Ogmocotyle ailuri. This is the first case of a Japanese monkey infected with Ogmocotyle trematodes, and a new host record for O. ailuri.

  13. Diversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    HASAN, M. KAMRUL; FEEROZ, M. MOSTAFA; JONES-ENGEL, LISA; ENGEL, GREGORY A.; KANTHASWAMY, SREE; SMITH, DAVID GLENN

    2015-01-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. PMID:24810278

  14. Postmortem recovery and cryopreservation of spermatozoa from the vas deferens of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Kelly; Liukkonen, John; Kubisch, H. Michael

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether sperm derived form the vas deferens could be retrieved and successfully cryopreserved, testes were collected from 20 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The males ranged in age from 3 to 19 years with an average of 8.5 years. No sperm was obtained from three animals which were younger than 4 years. The remaining 17 samples contained sperm with an average sperm cell number of 421.8 ±88.7 × 106 and an average motility of 72.8 ± 4.4 %. After 24 h of culture in TALP medium at 37° C in 5% CO2 and 95% air, the overall motility decreased significantly in all samples regardless of treatment. Freezing in TEST-yolk buffer containing 6% (vol/vol) glycerol had a significant effect on sperm reducing the immediate post-thaw motility to 42.4 % in non-treated samples. Treatment with db-cAMP and caffeine further reduced sperm motility after 4 hr in fresh sperm (72.8 vs 50.4%), but increased in sperm that had been frozen (14.0 vs 23.2%). The age of the male did not influence sperm concentration or grade, but proved to be a significant factor in determining motility of frozen-thawed treated sperm with lower motility found in samples from older males. Overall the study demonstrates that motile sperm can be obtained from post-mortem males, although subsequent studies will have to determine whether the quality is sufficient to facilitate its use in assisted reproduction. PMID:19646745

  15. Postmortem recovery and cryopreservation of spermatozoa from the vas deferens of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Goff, K; Liukkonen, J; Kubisch, H M

    2009-10-01

    To determine whether sperm derived from the vas deferens could be retrieved and successfully cryopreserved, testes were collected from 20 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The males ranged in age from 3 to 19 yr with an average age of 8.5 yr. No sperm was obtained from three animals that were younger than 4 yr. The remaining 17 samples contained sperm with an average sperm cell number of 421.8+/-88.7x10(6) and an average motility of 72.8+/-4.4%. After 24h of culture in TALP medium at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) and 95% air, the overall motility decreased significantly in all samples regardless of treatment. Freezing in TEST (TES-Tris buffer)-yolk buffer containing 6% (vol/vol) glycerol had a significant effect on sperm, reducing the immediate postthaw motility to 42.4% in nontreated samples. Treatment with dibutyryl-cAMP and caffeine further reduced sperm motility after 4h in fresh sperm (72.8% vs. 50.4%) but increased motility in sperm that had been frozen (14.0% vs. 23.2%). The age of the male did not influence sperm concentration or grade but proved to be a significant factor in determining motility of frozen-thawed treated sperm, with lower motility found in samples from older males. Overall, the study demonstrates that motile sperm can be obtained from postmortem males, although subsequent studies will be needed to determine whether the quality is sufficient to facilitate its use in assisted reproduction. PMID:19646745

  16. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids. PMID:24395649

  17. Abdominal Lipomatosis with Secondary Self-Strangulation of Masses in an Adult Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque. PMID:25402181

  18. Abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in an adult rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Chum, Helen H; Long, C Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel P; Chang, Angela G; Luong, Richard H; Albertelli, Megan A

    2014-10-01

    An 10-y-old, intact male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral scrotal swelling and a distended abdomen. A soft mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was palpated. A barium study did not reveal any gastrointestinal abnormalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (1.25 kg, 15.0 × 13.0 × 9.5 cm), red and tan, soft, circumscribed, spherical mass within the greater omentum and 10 to 20 smaller (diameter, 1 to 4 cm), soft to firm masses in the mesentery and greater omentum. The resected mass was a self-strangulating abdominal lipoma, a pedunculated neoplasm composed of white adipocytes arising from peritoneal adipose tissue undergoing secondary coagulation necrosis after strangulation of the blood supply due to twisting of the mass around the peduncle. The smaller masses were histologically consistent with simple or self-strangulating pedunculated abdominal lipomas. The macaque presented again 9 mo later with a firm, 5.0-cm mass in the midabdomen, with intestinal displacement visible on radiographs. Given this animal's medical history and questionable prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy revealed numerous, multifocal to coalescing, 1.0- to 15.0-cm, pale tan to yellow, circumscribed, soft to firm, spherical to ellipsoid, pedunculated masses that were scattered throughout the mesentery, greater omentum, lesser omentum, and serosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. All of the masses were pedunculated abdominal lipomas, and most demonstrated coagulation necrosis due to self-strangulation of the blood supply. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe abdominal lipomatosis with secondary self-strangulation of masses in a rhesus macaque.

  19. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) after Subcutaneous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Salyards, Gregory W; Knych, Heather K; Hill, Ashley E; Kelly, Kristi R; Christe, Kari L

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a common sequela to agonistic social encounters in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and veterinarians often prescribe antibiotics as part of a balanced treatment plan. Long-acting, single-dose, injectable antibiotics for use in rhesus macaques are unavailable currently. Ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) is a long-acting, single-dose, injectable third-generation cephalosporin that provides at least 7 d of ceftiofur therapeutic plasma concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domesticus). We hypothesized that CCFA would achieve similar therapeutic concentrations (≥0.2 μg/mL) in rhesus macaques. We describe the pharmacokinetic profile of CCFA in healthy, adult male rhesus macaques (n = 6) in this 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study of 5 and 20 mg/kg SC administered once. Plasma ceftiofur metabolite concentrations were determined prior to and for a maximum of 21 d after administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The 5-mg dose achieved a maximal plasma concentration of 2.24 ± 0.525 μg/mL at 2.59 ± 1.63 h, an AUC of 46.9 ± 17.6 h/μg/mL, and a terminal elimination half-life of 56.5 ± 21.7 h; for the 20-mg/kg dose, these parameters were 9.18 ± 4.90 μg/mL at 1.82 ± 1.30 h, 331 ± 84.4 h/μg/mL, and 69.7 ± 8.86 h, respectively. No adverse effects were noted after either dose. Macaques maintained plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 0.2 μg/mL or greater for at least 2 d after 5 mg/kg SC and at least 7 d after 20 mg/kg SC. PMID:26424255

  1. Terminal investment and senescence in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago

    PubMed Central

    Higham, James P.; Mas-Rivera, Adaris; Ayala, James E.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Long-lived iteroparous species often show aging-related changes in reproduction that may be explained by 2 non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts increased female reproductive effort toward the end of the life span, as individuals have little to gain by reserving effort for the future. The senescence hypothesis predicts decreased female reproductive output toward the end of the life span due to an age-related decline in body condition. Nonhuman primates are ideal organisms for testing these hypotheses, as they are long lived and produce altricial offspring heavily dependent on maternal investment. In this study, we integrated 50 years of continuous demographic records for the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population with new morphometric and behavioral data to test the senescence and terminal investment hypotheses. We examined relationships between maternal age and activity, mother and infant body condition, interbirth intervals, measures of behavioral investment in offspring, and offspring survival and fitness to test for age-associated declines in reproduction that would indicate senescence, and for age-associated increases in maternal effort that would indicate terminal investment. Compared with younger mothers, older mothers had lower body mass indices and were less active, had longer interbirth intervals, and spent more time in contact with infants, but had infants of lower masses and survival rates. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence for the occurrence of reproductive senescence in free-ranging female rhesus macaques but are also consistent with some of the predictions of the terminal investment hypothesis. PMID:22475990

  2. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Port System for the Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    MacAllister, Rhonda Pung; Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; Thomas Iii, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Wangari, Solomon; Warren, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical translational research frequently incorporates collection of CSF from NHP, because CSF drug levels are used as a surrogate for CNS tissue penetration in pharmacokinetic and dynamic studies. Surgical placement of a CNS ventricular catheter reservoir for CSF collection is an intensive model to create and maintain and thus may not be feasible or practical for short-term studies. Furthermore, previous NHP lumbar port models require laminectomy for catheter placement. The new model uses a minimally invasive technique for percutaneous placement of a lumbar catheter to create a closed, subcutaneous system for effective, repeated CSF sample collection. None of the rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 10) implanted with our minimally invasive lumbar port (MILP) system experienced neurologic deficits, postoperative infection of the surgical site, or skin erosion around the port throughout the 21.7-mo study. Functional MILP systems were maintained in 70% of the macaques, with multiple, high-quality, 0.5- to 1.0-mL samples of CSF collected for an average of 3 mo by using aspiration or gravitational flow. Among these macaques, 57% had continuous functionality for a mean of 19.2 mo; 50% of the cohort required surgical repair for port repositioning and replacement during the study. The MILP was unsuccessful in 2 macaques, at an average of 9.5 d after surgery. Nonpatency in these animals was attributed to the position of the lumbar catheter. The MILP system is an appropriate replacement for temporary catheterization and previous models requiring laminectomy and is a short-term alternative for ventricular CSF collection systems in NHP. PMID:27538866

  3. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India.

  4. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  5. Molecular demonstration of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Sashida, Hinako; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Rokuhara, Sou; Nagai, Kazuya; Harasawa, Ryô

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild monkeys is largely unknown. Here, we report the presence of hemoplasmas in blood specimens collected from wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) tentatively captured for ecological survey in Mie prefecture, Japan. We examined 9 monkeys using hemoplasma-specific real-time PCR and found all of them positive for a hemoplasma infection. The 16S rRNA gene and 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of the hemoplasma detected in wild monkeys were amplified using end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were further determined and compared to those of other hemoplasmas. Our examinations revealed a wide prevalence of a hemoplasma strain in Japanese monkeys, which was similar to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque' reported in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Pathogenic traits of this hemoplasma strain remain unexplored.

  6. Effects of social and climatic factors on birth sex ratio in Macaca mulatta in Mount Taihangshan area.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jundong; Wang, Baishi; Wang, Zhenlong; Liu, Jindong; Lu, Jiqi

    2015-03-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts the optimal investment to male and female offspring. However, a biased sex ratio requires explanations as to why the deviation occurs. Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most widely distributed nonhuman primate species and the Taihangshan macaque (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) occupies the northern limit of all rhesus macaque natural populations worldwide. We observed one macaque troop (Wangwu-1 [WW-1]) inhabiting Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve and recorded all birth events and the sex of newborn macaques from 2004 to 2013. Our aim was to apply the Trivers-Willard hypothesis to this free-ranging rhesus macaque troop, and to understand the relationship between climatic parameters (precipitation and temperature) and birth sex ratio. We found that the total newborn macaques showed a female-biased sex ratio at birth in the WW-1 troop, but there were no significant biased birth sex ratios in all matriarchs and in high-ranking and middle-ranking matrilineal units. However, the low-ranking macaque matrilineal unit was significantly female-biased. Moreover, we found that the annual precipitation of the previous year was positively associated with the birth sex ratio, and there was an interactive effect of troop size and current winter temperature on the birth sex ratio. The underlying mechanisms for the effects of social and climatic factors on birth sex ratio could be complex, and we discuss several plausible explanations.

  7. The Effects of Predictability in Daily Husbandry Routines on Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Coleman, Kristine; McCowan, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed indoors experience many routine husbandry activities on a daily basis. The anticipation of these events can lead to stress, regardless of whether the events themselves are positive or aversive in nature. The specific goal of this study was to identify whether increasing the predictability of husbandry events could decrease stress and anxiety in captive rhesus macaques. This study was conducted on 39 single-housed subjects in four indoor rooms at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Temporal and signaled predictability were added to four daily husbandry events: morning and afternoon feeding, enrichment distribution, and room cleaning. Temporally predictable husbandry events occurred reliably at the same time daily, while signaled predictable husbandry events were preceded by a distinct event-specific signal in the form of a doorbell. Informal tests prior to study onset found the doorbells not to be aversive to the subjects. Subjects received each of four treatments: unpredictable events, temporally predictable events, signaled predictable events, and temporally and signaled predictable events. Change in stress was evaluated by monitoring changes in motor stereotypies and displacement behaviors. Our results showed that subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and enrichment events when the events were temporally predictable (P < 0 .0001). When husbandry events were preceded by a reliable signal, subjects vocalized less prior to the event and were less responsive to activity outside of the room (P < 0 .01). However this may have come at a cost as the animals were extremely reactive to the doorbell signals and showed a heightened stress response during the actual husbandry events (P < 0 .01). Similar to temporal predictability alone, when temporal predictability was combined with signaled predictability subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and

  8. The Effects of Predictability in Daily Husbandry Routines on Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Coleman, Kristine; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-01-31

    Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed indoors experience many routine husbandry activities on a daily basis. The anticipation of these events can lead to stress, regardless of whether the events themselves are positive or aversive in nature. The specific goal of this study was to identify whether increasing the predictability of husbandry events could decrease stress and anxiety in captive rhesus macaques. This study was conducted on 39 single-housed subjects in four indoor rooms at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Temporal and signaled predictability were added to four daily husbandry events: morning and afternoon feeding, enrichment distribution, and room cleaning. Temporally predictable husbandry events occurred reliably at the same time daily, while signaled predictable husbandry events were preceded by a distinct event-specific signal in the form of a doorbell. Informal tests prior to study onset found the doorbells not to be aversive to the subjects. Subjects received each of four treatments: unpredictable events, temporally predictable events, signaled predictable events, and temporally and signaled predictable events. Change in stress was evaluated by monitoring changes in motor stereotypies and displacement behaviors. Our results showed that subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and enrichment events when the events were temporally predictable (P < 0 .0001). When husbandry events were preceded by a reliable signal, subjects vocalized less prior to the event and were less responsive to activity outside of the room (P < 0 .01). However this may have come at a cost as the animals were extremely reactive to the doorbell signals and showed a heightened stress response during the actual husbandry events (P < 0 .01). Similar to temporal predictability alone, when temporal predictability was combined with signaled predictability subjects displayed less stress and anticipatory behaviors related to feeding and

  9. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  10. Spontaneously arising concurrent ileocaecal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gumber, S; Wood, J S; Jones, A C; Strobert, E

    2013-11-01

    A 25-year-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with a history of weight loss despite a normal appetite and supportive care. The animal was humanely destroyed due to poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a focally extensive, firm, white annular constriction at the ileocaecal junction and an incidental finding of a pale white nodule approximately 0.8 cm in diameter in the left renal pelvis. Based on the microscopical findings, ileocaecal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) were diagnosed. The use of cytokeratin (CK)-7 and -20 and uroplakin III as potential renal TCC markers was evaluated. The neoplastic cells were labelled intensely with antibodies to uroplakin III, but not to CK-7 or -20. Spontaneous intestinal adenocarcinoma has been documented in the rhesus macaque, but concurrent renal pelvis TCC is highly unusual.

  11. Contrasting the edge- and surface-based theories of object recognition: behavioral evidence from macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Parron, Carole; Washburn, David

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the contribution of edge and surface cues on object representation in macaques (Macaca mulatta). In Experiments 1 and 2, 5 macaques were trained to discriminate 4 simple volumetric objects (geons) and were subsequently tested for their ability to recognize line drawings, silhouettes, and light changes of these geons. Performance was above chance in all test conditions and was similarly high for the line drawings and silhouettes of geons, suggesting the use of the outline shape to recognize the original objects. In addition, transfer for the geons seen under new lighting was greater than for the other stimuli, stressing the importance of the shading information. Experiment 3, using geons filled with new textures, showed that a radical change in the surface cues does not prevent object recognition. It is concluded that these findings support a surface-based theory of object recognition in macaques, although it does not exclude the contribution of edge cues, especially when surface details are not available.

  12. Comparison of Noncontact Infrared Thermometry and 3 Commercial Subcutaneous Temperature Transponding Microchips with Rectal Thermometry in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-01-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates. PMID:23043815

  13. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  14. Real-time measurement of RFR energy distribution in the Macaca mulatta head

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, J.G.; Krupp, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature increases due to absorption of 1.2 GHz, CW, 70 mW/cm2, radio frequency (RF) energy, were measured in 3.3-cm-radius homogeneous muscle-equivalent spheres, M. mulatta cadaver heads (both detached from and attached to the body) and living, anesthetized M. mulatta heads. Temperatures were measured with a Vitek, Model 101 Electrothermia Monitor and temperature distributions were compared to theoretical predictions from a thermal-response model of a simulated cranial structure. The results show that the thermal response model accurately predicts the temperature distribution in muscle-equivalent spheres, the distribution of temperature in detached M. mulatta heads when exposed from the back of the head, and the distribution of temperature in attached M. mulatta cadaver heads for animals oriented with body parallel to the H-field. The temperature distribution in the detached M. mulatta heads varies markedly with exposure orientation, ie, facing forward, backward, or to the side. The orientation of the M. mulatta cadaver body significantly affects the temperature distribution in the head - with H-field orientation showing high, nonuniform values, and E-field orientation showing low, uniform values. In live animals blood flow produces a significant short-term effect on the temperature distribution in the midbrain, but not the cortex. Midbrain temperatures are both significantly higher and lower than the comparable cadaver measurements, depending on location.

  15. Facial paralysis and lymphocytic facial neuritis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) positive for simian retrovirus type D2.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Anna L; Colby, Lesley A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2011-12-01

    Simian retrovirus type D (SRVD) is a naturally occurring betaretrovirus in nonhuman primates of the genus Macaca. Infection can lead to a variety of clinical, hematologic, and histopathologic abnormalities. We report an unusual clinical presentation of facial paralysis and histologic lymphocytic neuritis in an SRVD type 2 (SRVD2)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a catheter-associated vena caval thrombus, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multisystemic lymphoid hyperplasia. At initial presentation, a right atrial mass was detected by echocardiography. The macaque was clinically asymptomatic but had persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and later neutropenia. It was seropositive for SRV and PCR-positive for SRVD 2. Approximately 1 mo after initial presentation, the macaque developed right facial paralysis and was euthanized. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic aggregates affecting multiple organs, consistent with SRV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. The right facial nerve showed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. The nerve itself was negative immunohistochemically for SRV antigen, but antigen was present infrequently in pericapillary lymphoid cells within the facial nerve and abundantly within lymphoid aggregates in the adjacent parotid salivary gland, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Known neurotropic viruses could not be identified. Given the widespread inflammation in this macaque, particularly in the area surrounding the facial nerve, lymphocytic neuritis and facial paralysis likely were an indirect effect of SRV infection due to local extension of SRV-related inflammation in the surrounding tissue.

  16. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection of Moraxella macacae associated with bloody nose syndrome in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Chris A.; Chase, Kitty; Embers, Monica E.; Kulesh, David A.; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moraxella macacae is a recently described bacterial pathogen that causes epistaxis or so-called bloody nose syndrome in captive macaques. The aim of this study was to develop specific molecular diagnostic assays for M. macacae and to determine their performance characteristics. Methods We developed six real-time PCR assays on the Roche LightCycler. The accuracy, precision, selectivity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each assay, in addition to further validation by testing nasal swabs from macaques presenting with epistaxis at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. Results All assays exhibited 100% specificity and were highly sensitive with an LOD of 10 fg for chromosomal assays and 1 fg for the plasmid assay. Testing of nasal swabs from 10 symptomatic macaques confirmed the presence of M. macacae in these animals. Conclusions We developed several accurate, sensitive, and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the detection of M. macacae in captive macaques. PMID:26365904

  17. Ash content of bones in the pigtail monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vose, G. P.; Roach, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    Ash analyses of skeletons of four adult primates, Macaca nemestrina, revealed some similarities and some marked contrasts when compared with published data on human skeletal ash. The skull in both Macaca nemestrina and man has the highest ash content of all bones in the skeleton. While the bones of the arms of humans have an ash content nearly identical to that of the legs (0.3% difference), in Macaca nemestrina the humeri and radii contain 5.4% more ash than the femora and tibiae. Similarly in Macaca nemestrina the bones of the hands contain 3.5% more ash than the bones of the feet, while in humans the same bones agree within 0.3% implying that adaptive use function is a factor in bone ash concentration. The ribs of Macaca nemestrina showed an unexpectedly high ash content in comparison with those of humans. In contrast with the relatively constant ash content throughout the vertebrae in humans, a conspicuous decrease axially was noted in Macaca nemestrina.

  18. Persistent Effects of Peer Rearing on Abnormal and Species-Appropriate Activities but Not Social Behavior in Group-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Sharon A; Baker, Kate C

    2016-01-01

    Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing). Focal sampling (432 h) was collected on the behavior of 32 peer-reared and 40 mother-reared subjects (age, 1 to 10 y; immature group, younger than 4 y; adult group 4 y or older). All animals were housed outdoors in like-reared social groups of 3 to 8 macaques. Contrary to expectation, no rearing effects on affiliative or agonistic social behaviors were detected. Compared with mother-reared subjects, peer-reared macaques in both age classes had elevated levels of abnormal appetitive, abnormal self-directed, and eating behaviors and lower levels of locomoting and vigilance (highly alert to activities in surrounding environment); a trend toward reduced foraging was detected. Immature but not adult peer-reared monkeys demonstrated more enrichment-directed behavior and drinking and a trend toward more anxiety-related behavior and inactivity. No new rearing effects were detected in adults that had not been detected in immature subjects. Results suggest that modern peer-rearing practices may not result in inevitable perturbations in aggressive, rank-related, sexual, and emotional behavior. However, abnormal behaviors may be lifelong issues once they appear. PMID:27053567

  19. Assessing natural introgression in 2 biomedical model species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Maxime; Cuartero, Sergi; Blancher, Antoine; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) are the 2 most commonly used primate model species in biomedical sciences. Although morphological studies have revealed a weak hybridization at the interspecific contact zone, in the north of Indochina, a molecular study has suggested an ancient introgression from rhesus to long-tailed macaque into the Indo-Chinese peninsula. However, the gene flow between these 2 taxa has never been quantified using genetic data and theoretical models. In this study, we have examined genetic variation within and between the parapatric Chinese rhesus macaque and Indo-Chinese long-tailed macaque populations, using 13 autosomal, 5 sex-linked microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. From these data, we assessed genetic structure and estimated gene flow using a Bayesian clustering approach and the "Isolation with Migration" model. Our results reveal a weak interspecific genetic differentiation at both autosomal and sex-linked loci, suggesting large population sizes and/or gene flow between populations. According to the Bayesian clustering, Chinese rhesus macaque is a highly homogeneous gene pool that contributes strongly to the current Indo-Chinese long-tailed macaque genetic makeup, whether or not current admixture is assumed. Coalescent simulations, which integrated the characteristics of the loci, pointed out 1) a higher effective population size in rhesus macaque, 2) no mitochondrial gene flow, and 3) unilateral and male-mediated nuclear gene flow of approximately 10 migrants per generation from rhesus to long-tailed macaque. These patterns of genetic structure and gene flow suggest extensive ancient introgression from Chinese rhesus macaque into the Indo-Chinese long-tailed macaque population.

  20. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  1. Facial musculature in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): evolutionary and functional contexts with comparisons to chimpanzees and humans

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Parr, Lisa A

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression is a common mode of visual communication in mammals but especially so in primates. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have a well-documented facial expression repertoire that is controlled by the facial/mimetic musculature as in all mammals. However, little is known about the musculature itself and how it compares with those of other primates. Here we present a detailed description of the facial musculature in rhesus macaques in behavioral, evolutionary and comparative contexts. Formalin-fixed faces from six adult male specimens were dissected using a novel technique. The morphology, attachments, three-dimensional relationships and variability of muscles were noted and compared with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and with humans. The results showed that there was a greater number of facial muscles in rhesus macaques than previously described (24 muscles), including variably present (and previously unmentioned) zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, depressor septi, anterior auricularis, inferior auricularis and depressor supercilii muscles. The facial muscles of the rhesus macaque were very similar to those in chimpanzees and humans but M. mulatta did not possess a risorius muscle. These results support previous studies that describe a highly graded and intricate facial expression repertoire in rhesus macaques. Furthermore, these results indicate that phylogenetic position is not the primary factor governing the structure of primate facial musculature and that other factors such as social behavior are probably more important. The results from the present study may provide valuable input to both biomedical studies that use rhesus macaques as a model for human disease and disorder that includes assessment of facial movement and studies into the evolution of primate societies and communication. PMID:19563473

  2. Self-Injurious Behavior Secondary to Cytomegalovirus-Induced Neuropathy in an SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Gumber, Sanjeev; Strobert, Elizabeth; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jean, Sherrie M

    2015-01-01

    A 3.5-y-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) inoculated with SIVmac239 presented 8 mo later for inappetence and facial bruising. Physical examination revealed a superficial skin abrasion below the left eye, bruising below the left brow, and epistaxis of the left nostril. There were no significant findings on CBC, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or radiographs. Differential diagnoses included infectious etiologies, self-injurious behavior, immune-mediated dermatitis, and neoplasia. Lack of response to antibiotic and analgesic therapy and observations of the macaque made it apparent that the skin lesions were self-inflicted. The excoriations rapidly progressed to extend over the nose, and the left palpebrae became edematous. Euthanasia was elected because the macaque appeared to be experiencing continued discomfort despite analgesic therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection involving the facial nerves, periocular nerves, meninges, and perimesenteric lymph nodes. CMV is a common infection in macaques, with adult seroprevalence close to 100% in most colonies. Infection in immunocompetent animals is usually asymptomatic but can cause significant clinical disease in immunodeficient hosts. CMV is associated with a painful peripheral neuropathy in human AIDS patients, and analgesic treatment is often unsatisfactory. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to CMV should be considered as an underlying cause of self-injurious behavior in SIV-infected macaques. Macaques affected by other diseases and disorders may also be at risk for development of painful peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26141451

  3. Self-Injurious Behavior Secondary to Cytomegalovirus-Induced Neuropathy in an SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Gumber, Sanjeev; Strobert, Elizabeth; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Jean, Sherrie M

    2015-06-01

    A 3.5-y-old, female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) inoculated with SIVmac239 presented 8 mo later for inappetence and facial bruising. Physical examination revealed a superficial skin abrasion below the left eye, bruising below the left brow, and epistaxis of the left nostril. There were no significant findings on CBC, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or radiographs. Differential diagnoses included infectious etiologies, self-injurious behavior, immune-mediated dermatitis, and neoplasia. Lack of response to antibiotic and analgesic therapy and observations of the macaque made it apparent that the skin lesions were self-inflicted. The excoriations rapidly progressed to extend over the nose, and the left palpebrae became edematous. Euthanasia was elected because the macaque appeared to be experiencing continued discomfort despite analgesic therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection involving the facial nerves, periocular nerves, meninges, and perimesenteric lymph nodes. CMV is a common infection in macaques, with adult seroprevalence close to 100% in most colonies. Infection in immunocompetent animals is usually asymptomatic but can cause significant clinical disease in immunodeficient hosts. CMV is associated with a painful peripheral neuropathy in human AIDS patients, and analgesic treatment is often unsatisfactory. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to CMV should be considered as an underlying cause of self-injurious behavior in SIV-infected macaques. Macaques affected by other diseases and disorders may also be at risk for development of painful peripheral neuropathies.

  4. A comparison of human and macaque (Macaca mulatta) immunoglobulin germline V regions and its implications for antibody engineering.

    PubMed

    Thullier, Philippe; Chahboun, Siham; Pelat, Thibaut

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-five V regions encoded by the sequenced genome of one Macaca mulatta specimen have been identified by homology, and paired with similar human counterparts. When the human V region of each pair presented no allelic polymorphism, it was directly compared with its homolog. This was the case for 37 pairs, and percents of identity ranged between 84 to 97%. When the human V region presented allelic polymorphism, this polymorphism was found to be significantly smaller (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p = 0.03 for IGHV, IGLV, IGKV regions respectively), 4.2-fold on average, than the differences observed between human and macaque V regions. Similar results were obtained when analysing framework regions (FRs) only. These results, in agreement with others, demonstrate the existence of differences between human and macaque V regions, confirm the need for the humanization of macaque V regions intended for therapeutic use and call into question the validity of patents relying on the "undistinguishable" character of human and macaque V regions or FRs.

  5. Stability of the mandible after advancement and use of dental plus skeletal maxillomandibular fixation: an experimental investigation in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Mayo, K H; Ellis, E

    1987-03-01

    This study examined short-term stability of the mandible following advancement surgery and the use of skeletal suspension wires plus dental maxillomandibular fixation. Twenty-four adult female Macaca mulatta underwent bilateral sagittal ramus osteotomy and advancement of approximately 6 mm. All animals had dental maxillomandibular fixation secured by bonding the upper and lower teeth together with an orthodontic composite resin. In half of the animals, the use of circummandibular wires connected to pyriform aperture wires were additionally applied. Tantalum bone markers were placed and cephalograms analyzed during the first six postoperative weeks to evaluate skeletal stability. A statistically significant mean horizontal relapse at the mandibular symphysis occurred in the group without the skeletal wires, whereas no relapse occurred in the group with the skeletal wires. A significant difference in the vertical displacement of the anterior mandible occurred, with an inferior movement of the symphysis in the group without skeletal wires, and a superior movement of the symphysis in the group with skeletal wires. The results of this study indicate that the use of skeletal suspension wires is advantageous in the prevention of horizontal and vertical skeletal relapse.

  6. Measurement of Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites as a Predictor of the Habituation of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Jacketing

    PubMed Central

    Field, Amy E; Jones, Cynthia L; Kelly, Richard; Marko, Shannon T; Kern, Steven J; Rico, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Jacket use in NHP is a common practice and is often considered a form of refinement during experiments necessitating extended periods of catheterization. An important consideration when using jackets is the physiologic effects that jacketing has on NHP and its potential to confound research. Several studies have evaluated the stress response and habituation of NHP to various forms of restraint, but none have looked directly at the timeframe necessary for the habituation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to jackets. We set out to determine whether 3 d was a sufficient timeframe for this species to become habituated to a jacket, with or without an undershirt, by evaluating 2 major physiologic parameters. After jacket placement, we measured food consumption and collected fecal samples to measure fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) daily for 2 wk. FCM measurements for NHP without undershirts were significantly increased for days 2 and 3 after jacketing before returning to baseline levels. FCM measurements for NHP with undershirts were significantly increased for only 1 d after jacketing, suggesting that the undershirt has a positive effect on jacket habituation. There were no measurable differences in food consumption during the jacket habituation period. Furthermore, no significant differences were noted between sexes. These findings suggest that FCM levels return to baseline 3 d after jacketing and could be a useful predictor of jacket habituation in rhesus macaques. PMID:25651092

  7. Lactational programming? Mother’s milk energy predicts infant behavior and temperament in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Katie; Capitanio, John P.

    2011-01-01

    There are many of aspects of “mothering” that may provide information to the mammalian infant about environmental conditions during critical periods of development. One essential element of mothering involves the quantity and quality of milk that mothers provide for their infants, but little is known about the consequences of variation in milk production. Mother’s milk may affect infant behavior by contributing to brain development and to the development of behavioral dispositions. Here we present the first evidence for any mammal that natural variation in available milk energy (AME) from the mother is associated with later variation in infant behavior and temperament in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, N=59). In the early post-natal period, heavier mothers with more reproductive experience produced greater AME, which is the product of milk energy density (kcal/g) and milk yield (g). Moreover, infants whose mothers produced greater AME in the early post-natal period showed higher activity levels and greater confidence in a stressful setting later in infancy. Our results suggest that the milk energy available soon after birth may be a nutritional cue that calibrates the infant’s behavior to environmental or maternal conditions. These data provide new insight into potential mechanisms for the development of behavior and temperament and illuminate new directions for investigating maternal effects, nutritional programming, and developmental plasticity. PMID:20162547

  8. Neonatal imitation predicts infant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social and anxiety-related behaviours at one year

    PubMed Central

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Paukner, Annika; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of early markers that predict the development of specific social trajectories is critical to understand the developmental and neurobiological underpinnings of healthy social development. We investigated, in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), whether newborns’ capacity to imitate facial gestures is a valid predictive marker for the emergence of social competencies later in development, at one year of age. Here we first assessed whether infant macaques (N = 126) imitate lipsmacking gestures (a macaque affiliative expression) performed by a human experimenter in their first week of life. We then collected data on infants’ social interactions (aggression, grooming, and play) and self-scratching (a proxy indicator of anxiety) at 11–14 months when infants were transferred into a new enclosure with a large social group. Our results show that neonatal imitators exhibit more dominant behaviours, are less anxious, and, for males only, spend more time in play at one year old. These findings suggest that neonatal imitation may be an early predictor of infant sociality and may help identify infants at risk of neurodevelopmental social deficits. PMID:27725768

  9. Measurement of fecal corticosterone metabolites as a predictor of the habituation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to jacketing.

    PubMed

    Field, Amy E; Jones, Cynthia L; Kelly, Richard; Marko, Shannon T; Kern, Steven J; Rico, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Jacket use in NHP is a common practice and is often considered a form of refinement during experiments necessitating extended periods of catheterization. An important consideration when using jackets is the physiologic effects that jacketing has on NHP and its potential to confound research. Several studies have evaluated the stress response and habituation of NHP to various forms of restraint, but none have looked directly at the timeframe necessary for the habituation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to jackets. We set out to determine whether 3 d was a sufficient timeframe for this species to become habituated to a jacket, with or without an undershirt, by evaluating 2 major physiologic parameters. After jacket placement, we measured food consumption and collected fecal samples to measure fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) daily for 2 wk. FCM measurements for NHP without undershirts were significantly increased for days 2 and 3 after jacketing before returning to baseline levels. FCM measurements for NHP with undershirts were significantly increased for only 1 d after jacketing, suggesting that the undershirt has a positive effect on jacket habituation. There were no measurable differences in food consumption during the jacket habituation period. Furthermore, no significant differences were noted between sexes. These findings suggest that FCM levels return to baseline 3 d after jacketing and could be a useful predictor of jacket habituation in rhesus macaques. PMID:25651092

  10. Early Predictors of Impaired Social Functioning in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Laura A.; Seil, Shannon K.; Calonder, Laura A.; Madrid, Jesus E.; Bone, Kyle J.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Garner, Joseph P.; Capitanio, John P.; Parker, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social cognition impairments but its basic disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the absence of animal models that manifest behavioral phenotypes relevant to ASD. Rhesus monkeys are an ideal model organism to address this barrier to progress. Like humans, rhesus monkeys are highly social, possess complex social cognition abilities, and exhibit pronounced individual differences in social functioning. Moreover, we have previously shown that Low-Social (LS) vs. High-Social (HS) adult male monkeys exhibit lower social motivation and poorer social skills. It is not known, however, when these social deficits first emerge. The goals of this study were to test whether juvenile LS and HS monkeys differed as infants in their ability to process social information, and whether infant social abilities predicted later social classification (i.e., LS vs. HS), in order to facilitate earlier identification of monkeys at risk for poor social outcomes. Social classification was determined for N = 25 LS and N = 25 HS male monkeys that were 1–4 years of age. As part of a colony-wide assessment, these monkeys had previously undergone, as infants, tests of face recognition memory and the ability to respond appropriately to conspecific social signals. Monkeys later identified as LS vs. HS showed impairments in recognizing familiar vs. novel faces and in the species-typical adaptive ability to gaze avert to scenes of conspecific aggression. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression using infant social ability measures perfectly predicted later social classification of all N = 50 monkeys. These findings suggest that an early capacity to process important social information may account for differences in rhesus monkeys’ motivation and competence to establish and maintain social relationships later in life. Further development of this model will facilitate identification of novel biological targets

  11. Modeling depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Willard, Stephanie L; Shively, Carol A

    2012-06-01

    Depressive disorders are prevalent, costly, and poorly understood. Male rodents in stress paradigms are most commonly used as animal models, despite the two-fold increased prevalence of depression in women and sex differences in response to stress. Although these models have provided valuable insights, new models are needed to move the field forward. Social stress-associated behavioral depression in adult female cynomolgus macaques closely resembles human depression in physiological, neurobiological, and behavioral characteristics, including reduced body mass, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis perturbations, autonomic dysfunction, increased cardiovascular disease risk, reduced hippocampal volume, altered serotonergic function, decreased activity levels, and increased mortality. In addition, behaviorally depressed monkeys also have low ovarian steroid concentrations, even though they continue to have menstrual cycles. Although this type of ovarian dysfunction has not been reported in depressed women and is difficult to identify, it may be the key to understanding the high prevalence of depression in women. Depressive behavior in female cynomolgus monkeys is naturally occurring and not induced by experimental manipulation. Different social environmental challenges, including isolation vs. subordination, may elicit the depression-like response in some animals and not others. Similarly, social subordination is stressful and depressive behavior is more common in socially subordinate monkeys. Yet, not all subordinates exhibit behavioral depression, suggesting individual differences in sensitivity to specific environmental stressors and enhanced risk of behavioral depression in some individuals. The behavior and neurobiology of subordinates is distinctly different than that of behaviorally depressed monkeys, which affords the opportunity to differentiate between stressed and depressed states. Thus, behaviorally depressed monkeys exhibit numerous physiological

  12. Bullous pemphigoid-like skin blistering disease in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Hyun-Je; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Shin, Jun-Seop; Jeong, Won Young; Lee, Ga Eul; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ju Eun; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune bullous disease is very uncommon in non-human primates. We observed a bullous skin disease in a male rhesus monkey while conducting porcine islet xenotransplantation. Fifty days after the transplantation, multiple bullous skin lesions were observed. There was no mucosal involvement. Skin biopsy results demonstrated a subepidermal blister with no necrotic keratinocytes. Immunofluorescent staining showed linear IgG deposition at the roof of the blister. These skin lesions spontaneously disappeared. Considering these results, this monkey was diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid (BP). As far as we know, this is the first report of BP in non-human primates.

  13. Bullous pemphigoid-like skin blistering disease in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Hyun-Je; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Shin, Jun-Seop; Jeong, Won Young; Lee, Ga Eul; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ju Eun; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune bullous disease is very uncommon in non-human primates. We observed a bullous skin disease in a male rhesus monkey while conducting porcine islet xenotransplantation. Fifty days after the transplantation, multiple bullous skin lesions were observed. There was no mucosal involvement. Skin biopsy results demonstrated a subepidermal blister with no necrotic keratinocytes. Immunofluorescent staining showed linear IgG deposition at the roof of the blister. These skin lesions spontaneously disappeared. Considering these results, this monkey was diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid (BP). As far as we know, this is the first report of BP in non-human primates. PMID:27373989

  14. Teratogenicity studies on late blighted potatoes in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta and Saguinus labiatus).

    PubMed

    Allen, J R; Marlar, R J; Chesney, C F; Helgeson, J P; Kelman, A; Weckel, G; Traisman, E; White, J W

    1977-02-01

    Female rhesus monkeys and marmosets were fed a diet containing blighted potatoes (Phytophthora infestans) at a level of 10g/kg per day for at least two weeks prior to breeding and six weeks following conception in order to gain additional information on the association of blighted potatoes and the development of anencephaly and spina bifida in primate species. There was an absence of either of these neural-tube defects in 32 rhesus and 14 marmoset infants whose mothers had received a blighted potato diet. In addition there were no cranial osseous defects. There were, however, two rhesus monkey infants with internal hydrocephalus whose mothers had consumed blighted potatoes.

  15. Social Isolation Rearing: Species Differences in Behavior of Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Gene P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Social and nonsocial behaviors of infant rhesus (macaca mulatta) and pigtail (M. nemestrina) monkeys reared in total social isolation were compared with those of socialized controls. Results question the generality of rhesus total isolate behavior as a model for some human problems. (Author/SB)

  16. Matrilineal Behavioral and Physiological Changes following the Death of a Non-Alpha Matriarch in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Wooddell, Lauren J.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Rosenberg, Kendra L.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    In many species, the loss of alpha matriarchs is associated with a number of negative outcomes such as troop fission, eviction, wounding, and reduced vitality. However, whether the dramatic consequences of their loss are due to their role as an old experienced figure or to their alpha status remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that in a semi-free ranging colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), the death of a non-alpha matriarch, who had a large set of kin, would lead to changes in behavior and physiological stress within her matriline. Following her death, her matriline increased in aggression, vigilance, and social grooming. Additionally, hierarchical stability, measured by levels of rank changes, decreased within her matriline, and levels of intense aggression by high-ranking animals were more frequent, as well as matrilineal wounding. Although ordinal rank was positively associated with higher chronic hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) in the months before the matriarch’s death, following her death, only those who experienced large increases in rank within her matriline displayed higher HCCs. Changes in matrilineal stability, aggression, behavior, and HCCs within the other two matrilines in the troop were not evident, although caution is needed due to the small sample sizes. We conclude that the death of the non-alpha matriarch led to matrilineal instability, characterized by higher levels of aggression and subsequent vigilance, rank changes, physiological stress, and grooming. We suggest that non-alpha matriarchs with a large number of kin and social support can be integral to the stability of matrilines. PMID:27275743

  17. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 9 (Simian Varicella Virus) Infection after Total-Body Irradiation in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Chappell, Mark G; Christensen, Christine L; Facemire, Paul; Singh, Vijay K; Ossetrova, Natalia I; Srinivasan, Venkataraman; Holt, Rebecca K

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta; male; age, 5 y; weight, 6.7 kg) with anorexia, dehydration, lethargy, ataxia, and generalized skin rashes that occurred 30 d after total-body irradiation at 6.5 Gy (60Co γ-rays). Physical examination revealed pale mucus membranes, a capillary refill time of 4 s, heart rate of 180 bpm. and respirations at 50 breaths per minute. Diffuse multifocal maculopapulovesicular rashes were present on the body, including mucocutaneous junctions. The CBC analysis revealed a Hct of 48%, RBC count of 6.2 × 106/µL, platelet count of 44 × 103/µL, and WBC count of 25 × 103/µL of WBC. The macaque was euthanized in light of a grave prognosis. Gross examination revealed white foci on the liver, multifocal generalized petechiation on serosal and mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and hemorrhagic fluid in the thoracic cavity. Microscopic examination revealed cutaneous vesicular lesions with intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions within the epithelial cells, consistent with herpesvirus. Immunohistochemistry was positive for herpesvirus. The serum sample was negative for antibodies against Macacine herpesvirus 1 and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9 (simian varicella virus, SVV). Samples submitted for PCR-based identification of the etiologic agent confirmed the presence of SVV DNA. PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry, and histology confirmed that lesions were attributed to an active SVV infection in this macaque. This case illustrates the importance of screening for SVV in rhesus macaques, especially those used in studies that involve immunosuppressive procedures. PMID:27053570

  18. Matrilineal Behavioral and Physiological Changes following the Death of a Non-Alpha Matriarch in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wooddell, Lauren J; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2016-01-01

    In many species, the loss of alpha matriarchs is associated with a number of negative outcomes such as troop fission, eviction, wounding, and reduced vitality. However, whether the dramatic consequences of their loss are due to their role as an old experienced figure or to their alpha status remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that in a semi-free ranging colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), the death of a non-alpha matriarch, who had a large set of kin, would lead to changes in behavior and physiological stress within her matriline. Following her death, her matriline increased in aggression, vigilance, and social grooming. Additionally, hierarchical stability, measured by levels of rank changes, decreased within her matriline, and levels of intense aggression by high-ranking animals were more frequent, as well as matrilineal wounding. Although ordinal rank was positively associated with higher chronic hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) in the months before the matriarch's death, following her death, only those who experienced large increases in rank within her matriline displayed higher HCCs. Changes in matrilineal stability, aggression, behavior, and HCCs within the other two matrilines in the troop were not evident, although caution is needed due to the small sample sizes. We conclude that the death of the non-alpha matriarch led to matrilineal instability, characterized by higher levels of aggression and subsequent vigilance, rank changes, physiological stress, and grooming. We suggest that non-alpha matriarchs with a large number of kin and social support can be integral to the stability of matrilines. PMID:27275743

  19. The neuroanatomical distribution of oxytocin receptor binding and mRNA in the male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Freeman, Sara M; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Smith, Aaron L; Goodman, Mark M; Young, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an important primate model for social cognition, and recent studies have begun to explore the impact of oxytocin on social cognition and behavior. Macaques have great potential for elucidating the neural mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates social cognition, which has implications for oxytocin-based pharmacotherapies for psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Previous attempts to localize oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in the rhesus macaque brain have failed due to reduced selectivity of radioligands, which in primates bind to both OXTR and the structurally similar vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1A). We have developed a pharmacologically-informed competitive binding autoradiography protocol that selectively reveals OXTR and AVPR1A binding sites in primate brain sections. Using this protocol, we describe the neuroanatomical distribution of OXTR in the macaque. Finally, we use in situ hybridization to localize OXTR mRNA. Our results demonstrate that OXTR expression in the macaque brain is much more restricted than AVPR1A. OXTR is largely limited to the nucleus basalis of Meynert, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus, the trapezoid body, and the ventromedial hypothalamus. These regions are involved in a variety of functions relevant to social cognition, including modulating visual attention, processing auditory and multimodal sensory stimuli, and controlling orienting responses to visual stimuli. These results provide insights into the neural mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates social cognition and behavior in this species, which, like humans, uses vision and audition as the primary modalities for social communication.

  20. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 9 (Simian Varicella Virus) Infection after Total-Body Irradiation in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Chappell, Mark G; Christensen, Christine L; Facemire, Paul; Singh, Vijay K; Ossetrova, Natalia I; Srinivasan, Venkataraman; Holt, Rebecca K

    2016-04-01

    This case report describes a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta; male; age, 5 y; weight, 6.7 kg) with anorexia, dehydration, lethargy, ataxia, and generalized skin rashes that occurred 30 d after total-body irradiation at 6.5 Gy ((60)Co γ-rays). Physical examination revealed pale mucus membranes, a capillary refill time of 4 s, heart rate of 180 bpm. and respirations at 50 breaths per minute. Diffuse multifocal maculopapulovesicular rashes were present on the body, including mucocutaneous junctions. The CBC analysis revealed a Hct of 48%, RBC count of 6.2 × 10(6)/μL, platelet count of 44 × 10(3)/μL, and WBC count of 25 × 10(3)/μL of WBC. The macaque was euthanized in light of a grave prognosis. Gross examination revealed white foci on the liver, multifocal generalized petechiation on serosal and mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and hemorrhagic fluid in the thoracic cavity. Microscopic examination revealed cutaneous vesicular lesions with intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions within the epithelial cells, consistent with herpesvirus. Immunohistochemistry was positive for herpesvirus. The serum sample was negative for antibodies against Macacine herpesvirus 1 and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9 (simian varicella virus, SVV). Samples submitted for PCR-based identification of the etiologic agent confirmed the presence of SVV DNA. PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry, and histology confirmed that lesions were attributed to an active SVV infection in this macaque. This case illustrates the importance of screening for SVV in rhesus macaques, especially those used in studies that involve immunosuppressive procedures.

  1. Comparison of Indoor Air Quality between 2 Ventilation Strategies in a Facility Housing Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Monts de Oca, Nicole A; Laughlin, Mitzi; Jenkins, John; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Bolton, Iris D; Brammer, David W

    2015-01-01

    Adequate indoor-air quality (IAQ)—defined by the temperature, relative humidity, and the levels of carbon dioxide, small particles, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)—is crucial in laboratory animal facilities. The ventilation standards for controlling these parameters are not well defined. This study assessed the effect of 2 ventilation strategies on IAQ in 2 rooms housing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that using a demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system with a baseline ventilation rate of less than 3 fresh-air changes per hour (ACH) would maintain IAQ comparable to or better than the traditional constant flow rate (CFR) system at 12 fresh ACH. During a 60-d study period, each of the 2 rooms operated 30 d on DCV and 30 d on CFR ventilation. In both rooms, temperatures remained more consistently within the established setpoint during the DCV phase than during the CFR phase. Relative humidity did not differ significantly between rooms or strategies. CO2 was lower during the CFR phase than DCV phase. Small-particle and TVOC levels were lower during CFR in the larger (3060 ft3) room but not the smaller (2340 ft3) room. During the DCV phase, the larger room was at the baseline airflow rate over 99% of the time and the smaller room over 96% of the time. The DCV strategy resulted in a baseline airflow rate of less than 3 ACH, which in turn provided acceptable IAQ over 96% of the time; higher ventilation rates were warranted only during sanitation periods. PMID:26424251

  2. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack

    PubMed Central

    Buhl, Jacqueline S.; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  3. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack.

    PubMed

    Buhl, Jacqueline S; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L; Brent, Lauren J N

    2012-08-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  4. Comparison of Indoor Air Quality between 2 Ventilation Strategies in a Facility Housing Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Monts de Oca, Nicole A; Laughlin, Mitzi; Jenkins, John; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Bolton, Iris D; Brammer, David W

    2015-09-01

    Adequate indoor-air quality (IAQ)--defined by the temperature, relative humidity, and the levels of carbon dioxide, small particles, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)--is crucial in laboratory animal facilities. The ventilation standards for controlling these parameters are not well defined. This study assessed the effect of 2 ventilation strategies on IAQ in 2 rooms housing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We hypothesized that using a demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system with a baseline ventilation rate of less than 3 fresh-air changes per hour (ACH) would maintain IAQ comparable to or better than the traditional constant flow rate (CFR) system at 12 fresh ACH. During a 60-d study period, each of the 2 rooms operated 30 d on DCV and 30 d on CFR ventilation. In both rooms, temperatures remained more consistently within the established setpoint during the DCV phase than during the CFR phase. Relative humidity did not differ significantly between rooms or strategies. CO₂ was lower during the CFR phase than DCV phase. Small-particle and TVOC levels were lower during CFR in the larger (3060 ft(3)) room but not the smaller (2340 ft(3)) room. During the DCV phase, the larger room was at the baseline airflow rate over 99% of the time and the smaller room over 96% of the time. The DCV strategy resulted in a baseline airflow rate of less than 3 ACH, which in turn provided acceptable IAQ over 96% of the time; higher ventilation rates were warranted only during sanitation periods.

  5. rhesus cytomegalovirus (macacine herpesvirus 3)-associated facial neuritis in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Assaf, B T; Knight, H L; Miller, A D

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are common sequelae to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and are due to a variety of mechanisms, including direct antiretroviral toxicity, HIV-mediated damage, immune-mediated disorders, and opportunistic viral infections. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) remain the most consistent animal model for unraveling the pathogenesis of lentiviral-associated disease and its associated opportunistic infections. Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) is the most common opportunistic viral infection in rhesus macaques infected with SIV and causes multiorgan pathology; however, its role in peripheral nerve pathology has not been explored. We have identified 115 coinfected cases with SIV and RhCMV, of which 10 cases of RhCMV-associated facial neuritis were found (8.7% prevalence). Histologic lesions were consistent in all cases and ranged from partial to complete obliteration of the nerves of the tongue, lacrimal gland, and other facial tissues with a mixed inflammatory population of neutrophils and macrophages, of which the latter commonly contained intranuclear inclusion bodies. Luxol fast blue staining and myelin basic protein immunohistochemistry confirmed the progressive myelin loss in the peripheral nerves. Bielschowsky silver stain revealed progressive loss of axons directly related to the severity of inflammation. Double immunohistochemistry with spectral imaging analysis revealed RhCMV-infected macrophages directly associated with the neuritis, and there was no evidence to support RhCMV infection of Schwann cells. These results suggest that peripheral nerve damage is a bystander effect secondary to inflammation rather than a direct infection of Schwann cells and warrants further investigations into the pathogenesis of RhCMV-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  6. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack.

    PubMed

    Buhl, Jacqueline S; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L; Brent, Lauren J N

    2012-08-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology.

  7. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  8. Pregnancy diagnosis by laparoscopy in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Raj, A.; Kumar, P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study involved 50 adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) of age ranging between 4 to 15 years. Pregnancy diagnosis was done by using laparoscopic method. Anesthesia was achieved by using xylazine (2mg/kg) and ketamine (10mg/kg) intramuscularly. The gravid uterus was located close to the urinary bladder in early pregnancy and in abdominal cavity in the mid and late stage of pregnancy. The procedure was completed within 10 - 12 minutes. There were no complications after the surgery and recovery of animal was smooth and uneventful. The results of this study showed that laparoscopic method is also one of the methods of pregnancy diagnosis in rhesus macaques and it can be a precise and a reliable method of pregnancy diagnosis in rhesus macaques. PMID:26623277

  9. Outbreak of larval Echinococcus multilocularis infection in Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) in a zoo, Hokkaido: western blotting patterns in the infected monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chiaki; Kawase, Shiro; Yano, Shoki; Nagano, Hideki; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Miyahara, Kazuro; Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Motoyoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2005-01-01

    A high prevalence of larval Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) infection was found in zoo primates in Hokkaido, Japan. In October 1997, a Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) died and histopathologically diagnosed as alveolar hydatidosis. Serum samples were collected from the remaining Japanese monkeys and examined for antibodies against Em by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. Serological tests showed 12 more animals of the remaining 57 monkeys were possibly infected. Ultrasonography revealed that nine of these 12 animals had a cystic lesion in the liver. The band patterns of western blotting in the monkeys were very similar to those in human.

  10. Distribution and development of short-wavelength cones differ between Macaca monkey and human fovea.

    PubMed

    Bumsted, K; Hendrickson, A

    1999-01-25

    Macaca monkey and humans have three cone types containing either long-wavelength (L), medium-wavelength (M), or short-wavelength (S)-specific opsin. The highest cone density is found in the fovea, which mediates high visual acuity. Most studies agree that the adult human fovea has a small S cone-free area, but data are conflicting concerning S-cone numbers in the adult Macaca monkey fovea, and little evidence exists for how either primate fovea develops its characteristic cone pattern. Single- and double-label in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry have been used to determine the pattern of foveal S cones in both the fetal and adult Macaca and human. Both labels find a clear difference at all ages between monkey and human. Adult humans have a distinct but variable central zone about 100 microm wide that lacks S cones and is surrounded by a ring in which the S-cone density is 8%. This S cone-free zone is detectable at fetal week 15.5 (Fwk15.5), shortly after S opsin is expressed, and is similar to the adult by Fwk20.5. Adult monkey foveas have an overall S-cone foveal density of 10%, with several areas lacking a few S cones that are not coincident with the area of highest cone density. A surrounding zone at 200-microm eccentricity has an S-cone density averaging 25%, but, by 800 microm, this has decreased to 11%. Fetal day 77-135 monkeys all have a distribution and density of foveal S cones similar to adults, although the high-density ring is not obvious in fetal retinas. Estimates of the numbers of S cones missing in the fetal human fovea range from 234 to 328, whereas no more than 40 are missing in the fetal monkey. These results show that, in these two trichromatic primates, S-cone distribution and the developmental mechanisms determining S-cone topography are markedly different from the time that S cones are first detected.

  11. Visual Kin Recognition in Nonhuman Primates: (Pan troglodytes and Macaca mulatta): Inbreeding Avoidance or Male Distinctiveness?

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth; Wroblewski, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Faces provide important information about identity, age, and even kinship. A previous study in chimpanzees reported greater similarity between the faces of mothers and sons compared with mothers and daughters, or unrelated individuals. This was interpreted as an inbreeding avoidance mechanism where females, the dispersing gender, should avoid mating with any male that resembles their mother. Alternatively, male faces may be more distinctive than female faces, biasing attention toward males. To test these hypotheses, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys matched conspecifics’ faces of unfamiliar mothers and fathers with their sons and daughters. Results showed no evidence of male distinctiveness, rather a cross-gender effect was found: chimpanzees were better matching moms with sons and fathers with daughters. Rhesus monkeys, however, showed an overwhelming bias toward male-distinctiveness. They were faster to learn male faces, performed better on father– offspring and parent–son trials, and were best matching fathers with sons. This suggests that for the rhesus monkey, inbreeding avoidance involves something other than facial phenotypic matching but that among chimpanzees, the visual recognition of facial similarities may play an important role. PMID:21090888

  12. Generation of haploid embryonic stem cells from Macaca fascicularis monkey parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhen; Ma, Yu; Zhong, Cuiqing; Yin, Qi; Zhou, Chikai; Shi, Linyu; Cai, Yijun; Zhao, Hanzhi; Wang, Hui; Tang, Fan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chenchen; Liu, Xin-yuan; Lai, Dongmei; Jin, Ying; Sun, Qiang; Li, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Recent success in the derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) from mouse via parthenogenesis and androgenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells and generation of gene-modified animals. However, whether haESCs can be derived from primates remains unknown. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from parthenogenetic blastocysts of Macaca fascicularis monkeys. These cells, termed as PG-haESCs, are pluripotent and can differentiate to cells of three embryonic germ layers in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the haploidy of one monkey PG-haESC line (MPH1) is more stable compared with that of the other one (MPH2), as shown by the existence of haploid cells for more than 140 days without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells. Importantly, transgenic monkey PG-haESC lines can be generated by lentivirus- and piggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer. Moreover, genetic screening is feasible in monkey PG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that PG-haESCs can be generated from monkeys, providing an ideal tool for genetic analyses in primates. PMID:23856644

  13. Signaling context modulates social function of silent bared-teeth displays in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Beisner, Brianne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-02-01

    The signaling context has been found to change the meaning of the silent bared-teeth display (SBT) in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) such that the SBT in apparently peaceful contexts communicates subordination, a long-term pattern of behavior, whereas in conflict contexts it communicates immediate submission (PNAS, 104: 1581-1586). However, the context dependent nature of the SBT has not yet been explored in other species. We investigated SBT usage with respect to grooming, severe aggression, and signaler-receiver sex, rank difference, and body size in seven captive groups of rhesus macaques. Peaceful SBTs were given most often to male receivers by male and female signalers whereas conflict SBTs were given to both male and female receivers primarily by female signalers. Male signalers rarely gave SBTs (peaceful or conflict) to female receivers. Unlike pigtail macaques, peaceful SBTs in rhesus were often accompanied by withdrawal behavior (referred to as peaceful SBT-leave), which influenced grooming, but not aggression, at the dyadic level. Severe aggression was less frequent among dyads using peaceful SBTs (regardless of withdrawal behavior) than those using conflict SBTs. In contrast, grooming was more frequent among dyads using peaceful SBT-stay signals than those using peaceful SBT-leave signals or conflict SBTs. In total, our results indicate that peaceful SBTs are a functionally different signal from conflict SBTs in rhesus macaques.

  14. Hair Cortisol Predicts Object Permanence Performance in Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Novak, Matthew F.S.X.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Although high circulating levels of glucocorticoids are associated with impaired cognitive performance in adults, less is known about this relationship in infancy. Furthermore, because studies have relied on acute cortisol measures in blood plasma or saliva, interpretation of the results may be difficult as acute measures may in part reflect emotional responses to testing procedures. In this study we examined whether hair cortisol, an integrated measure of HPA axis functioning, predicted performance of nursery-reared (NR) infant rhesus monkeys (N=32) on Piagetian object permanence tasks. Testing of NR infants began at 19.8±2.2 (mean±SE) days of age and continued for the next several months. Hair cortisol concentrations from the 32 NR monkeys were compared to those of 20 mother-peer-reared (MPR) infants. Hair was shaved at day 14, allowed to re-grow, and obtained again at month 6, thus representing integrated cortisol over a 5.5-month period of time. NR and MPR infants did not differ in month 6 hair cortisol values (t(50)=0.02, p=0.98). Linear regression revealed that hair cortisol predicted object permanence performance in the NR infants. Infants with higher hair cortisol reached criterion at later ages on the well (p<0.01), screen (p<0.05), and A-not-B (p<0.05) tasks and required more test sessions to complete the well (p<0.01) and screen tasks (p<0.05). These data are the first to implicate hair cortisol as a reliable predictor of early cognitive performance in infant macaque monkeys. PMID:19771550

  15. A review of background findings in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from three different geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Drevon-Gaillot, Elodie; Perron-Lepage, Marie-France; Clément, Christian; Burnett, Roger

    2006-11-01

    This review was performed to assess variations in background observations in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) originating from three breeding centres located in Mauritius, The Philippines and Vietnam. The data and tissue samples from 90 cynomolgus monkeys (approximately evenly distributed between the three sources) comprising the control groups from 11 regulatory toxicology studies were used for this investigation. Clinical data--age, body weight, organ weights, haematology and serum biochemistry--were analyzed. Samples of stomach, colon, kidney, heart, liver, spleen and lung were examined microscopically and graded to characterize the degree of lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltration. The main microscopic origin-related variations concerned the digestive tract, where the lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltration grade was significantly lower (p0.001) in cynomolgus monkeys from Mauritius when compared with those from Asia. Generally, only the antral mucosa of the stomach was infiltrated in cynomolgus monkeys from The Philippines, whereas both the fundic and antral regions were infiltrated in those from Vietnam. The digestive tract infiltration grade was strongly correlated with the mean white blood cell count in monkeys from all three sources. Spiral-shaped bacteria were observed in the stomach of monkeys from all three sources, but their presence did not correlate with the severity of the gastric infiltrate. Helicobacter heilmannii-type bacteria were almost always seen in the fundus, Helicobacter pylori-type bacteria were only occasionally seen in the antral region. The incidences of other microscopic findings, such as urothelial cytoplasmic inclusions or Balantidium coli in the caecum, also varied according to the source of the monkeys. Some variations in relative organ weights, haematology and serum biochemistry were also related to the origin of the monkeys, but these did not correlate with the microscopic findings. PMID:16984807

  16. Stimulus Roving and Flankers Affect Perceptual Learning of Contrast Discrimination in Macaca mulatta

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    ‘Stimulus roving’ refers to a paradigm in which the properties of the stimuli to be discriminated vary from trial to trial, rather than being kept constant throughout a block of trials. Rhesus monkeys have previously been shown to improve their contrast discrimination performance on a non-roving task, in which they had to report the contrast of a test stimulus relative to that of a fixed-contrast sample stimulus. Human psychophysics studies indicate that roving stimuli yield little or no perceptual learning. Here, we investigate how stimulus roving influences perceptual learning in macaque monkeys and how the addition of flankers alters performance under roving conditions. Animals were initially trained on a contrast discrimination task under non-roving conditions until their performance levels stabilized. The introduction of roving contrast conditions resulted in a pronounced drop in performance, which suggested that subjects initially failed to heed the sample contrast and performed the task using an internal memory reference. With training, significant improvements occurred, demonstrating that learning is possible under roving conditions. To investigate the notion of flanker-induced perceptual learning, flanker stimuli (30% fixed-contrast iso-oriented collinear gratings) were presented jointly with central (roving) stimuli. Presentation of flanker stimuli yielded substantial performance improvements in one subject, but deteriorations in the other. Finally, after the removal of flankers, performance levels returned to their pre-flanker state in both subjects, indicating that the flanker-induced changes were contingent upon the continued presentation of flankers. PMID:25340335

  17. Chronic, constant-rate, gastric drug infusion in nontethered rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Strait, Karen R; Orkin, Jack L; Anderson, Daniel C; Muly, E Chris

    2010-03-01

    As part of a study of antipsychotic drug treatment in monkeys, we developed a technique to provide chronic, constant-rate, gastric drug infusion in nontethered rhesus macaques. This method allowed us to mimic the osmotic release oral delivery system currently used in humans for continuous enteral drug delivery. Rhesus macaques (n = 5) underwent gastric catheter placement by laparotomy. After the catheters were secured to the stomach, the remaining catheter length was exited through the lateral abdomen, tunneled subcutaneously along the back, and connected to a 2-mL osmotic pump enclosed in a subcutaneous pocket. Osmotic pumps were changed every 2 to 4 wk for 1 y and remained patent for the duration of the study. Four complications (including cutting of the catheter, incisional dehiscence at the pump site, and loss of 1 catheter into the abdominal cavity requiring catheter replacement) occurred among the 80 pump changes performed during the year-long study. At necropsy, histopathologic examination of the catheter implant sites revealed mild changes consistent with a foreign-body reaction. Our results indicate that the gastric catheter and osmotic pump system was well tolerated in rhesus macaques for as long as 12 mo after placement and suggest that this system will be an attractive option for use in studies that require chronic, constant-rate, gastric drug infusion in nontethered monkeys. PMID:20353697

  18. Generalization of category knowledge and dimensional categorization in humans (Homo sapiens) and nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Johnston, Jennifer J R; Roeder, Jessica L; Boomer, Joseph; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical framework within neuroscience distinguishes humans' implicit and explicit systems for category learning. We used a perceptual-categorization paradigm to ask whether nonhumans share elements of these systems. Participants learned categories that foster implicit or explicit categorization in humans, because they had a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. Then humans and macaques generalized their category knowledge to new, untested regions of the stimulus space. II generalization was impaired, suggesting that II category learning is conditioned and constrained by stimulus generalization to its original, trained stimulus contexts. RB generalization was nearly seamless, suggesting that RB category knowledge in humans and monkeys has properties that grant it some independence from the original, trained stimulus contexts. These findings raise the questions of (a) how closely macaques' dimensional categorization verges on humans' explicit/declarative categorization, and (b) how far macaques' dimensional categorization has advanced beyond that in other vertebrate species. PMID:26167774

  19. Delayed effects of proton irradiation in Macaca Mulatta (22-year summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, D.H.; Hardy, K.A.; Cox, A.B.; Salmon, Y.L.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Cordts, R.E. )

    1989-05-15

    Lifetime observations on a group of rhesus monkeys indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be correlated with the dose and energy of radiation. The primary cause of life shortening is nonleukemic cancers. Radiation also increased the rise of endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Other effects associated with radiation exposures are lowered glucose tolerance and increased incidence of cataracts. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of humans is, therefore, critical to the assessment of lifetime cancer risk.

  20. Delayed effects of proton irradiation in Macaca Mulatta (22-year summary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, D. H.; Hardy, K. A.; Cox, A. B.; Salmon, Y. L.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Cordts, R. E.

    1989-05-01

    Lifetime observations on a group of rhesus monkeys indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be correlated with the dose and energy of radiation. The primary cause of life shortening is nonleukemic cancers. Radiation also increased the rise of endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Other effects associated with radiation exposures are lowered glucose tolerance and increased incidence of cataracts. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of humans is, therefore, critical to the assessment of lifetime cancer risk.

  1. Characterization of intraocular pressure responses of the Tibetan monkey (Macaca thibetana)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Zeng, Tao; Yu, Wenhan; Yan, Naihong; Wang, Hongxing; Cai, Su-ping; Pang, Iok-Hou

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the effects of circadian rhythm, feeding time, age, general anesthesia, and ocular hypotensive compounds on intraocular pressure (IOP) of the Tibetan monkey (Macaca thibetana). Methods Tibetan monkeys were trained for IOP measurement with the TonoVet® rebound tonometer without sedation or anesthesia. Their circadian IOP fluctuation was monitored every 3 h. Effects of changing the feeding time, general anesthesia, age (2–3 year-old versus 8–15 year-old animals), and various pharmacological agents, such as travoprost, timolol, naphazoline and spiradoline, on IOP were also evaluated. Results After behavioral training, conscious Tibetan monkeys were receptive to IOP measurement. The lowest and highest IOP values in a circadian cycle were recorded at 3:00 AM (19.8±0.4 mmHg, mean±SEM, n=12) and noon (29.3±0.9 mmHg), respectively. Changing the feeding time from 11:30 AM to 12:30 PM lowered the noon IOP to 25.1±1.2 mmHg. General anesthesia lowered IOP in these monkeys, while IOP of young and mature animals were similar. Three hours after topical ocular administration, travoprost reduced IOP by 5.2±0.6 mmHg (n=6, p<0.001), and timolol reduced IOP by 2.8±0.7 mmHg (p<0.05). Naphazoline and spiradoline lowered IOP by 4.8 mmHg and 2.5 mmHg (both p<0.001), respectively, 2 h after drug administration. Conclusions The circadian IOP fluctuation in conscious Tibetan monkeys and their responses to travoprost, timolol, and other experimental conditions are similar to other primates. These monkeys appear to be a suitable model for glaucoma research. PMID:21654897

  2. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    CHU, Xun-Xun; Rizak, Joshua Dominic; YANG, Shang-Chuan; WANG, Jian-Hong; MA, Yuan-Ye; HU, Xin-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction—similar to humans—as well as much greater homology to

  3. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  4. The Decline in Pulsatile GnRH Release, as Reflected by Circulating LH Concentrations, During the Infant-Juvenile Transition in the Agonadal Male Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) Is Associated With a Reduction in Kisspeptin Content of KNDy Neurons of the Arcuate Nucleus in the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Suresh; Dwarki, Karthik; Ali, Barkat; Gibbs, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty in primates is timed by 2 hypothalamic events: during late infancy a decline in pulsatile GnRH release occurs, leading to a hypogonadotropic state that maintains quiescence of the prepubertal gonad; and in late juvenile development, pulsatile GnRH release is reactivated and puberty initiated, a phase of development that is dependent on kisspeptin signaling. In the present study, we determined whether the arrest of GnRH pulsatility in infancy was associated with a change in kisspeptin expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Kisspeptin was determined using immunohistochemistry in coronal hypothalamic sections from agonadal male rhesus monkeys during early infancy when GnRH release as reflected by circulating LH concentrations was robust and compared with that in juveniles in which GnRH pulsatility was arrested. The distribution of immunopositive kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the MBH of infants was similar to that previously reported for adults. Kisspeptin cell body number was greater in infants compared with juveniles, and at the middle to posterior level of the arcuate nucleus, this developmental difference was statistically significant. Neurokinin B in the MBH exhibited a similar distribution to that of kisspeptin and was colocalized with kisspeptin in approximately 60% of kisspeptin perikarya at both developmental stages. Intensity of GnRH fiber staining in the median eminence was robust at both stages. These findings indicate that the switch that shuts off pulsatile GnRH release during infancy and that guarantees the subsequent quiescence of the prepubertal gonad involves a reduction in a stimulatory kisspeptin tone to the GnRH neuronal network. PMID:23525220

  5. Age as a determinant of reproductive success among captive female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Christine; Liukkonen, John R; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M; Harrison, Richard M; Kubisch, H Michael

    2007-04-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on fertility outcomes among a colony of captive Indian rhesus monkeys. The analysis covered over 30 years and was based on 1443 females with a total of 11,453 pregnancies. Various determinants of fertility were assessed including birth rates, pregnancy loss, infant survival, interbirth intervals, and interval from last birth to death. Binary variables were analyzed with generalized linear models with random intercepts, while linear mixed models were used for analysis of continuous variables. Age of the dam was a significant factor in determining whether a pregnancy resulted in a birth and whether an infant survived the first 30 days with primiparous or older mothers being less likely to produce an infant surviving to that age. In contrast, sex proved to be the only significant factor in determining whether an infant lived to 1 year, with females being more likely to survive. The interval between births proved to be affected primarily by dam age, while the late death of an infant depressed the likelihood of an extended time interval between her last birth and her death. Overall, these results demonstrate that maternal age contributes significantly to a decline in fertility and older females can live relatively long periods following birth of their last infant. PMID:17504925

  6. Using Porches to Decrease Feces Painting in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; O'Connor, Jillann Rawlins; Coleman, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of a porch in decreasing feces painting in captive rhesus macaques. The porch is a small extension that is hung on the outside of a monkey's primary home cage. Porches provide many potential benefits to indoor-housed macaques, including opportunities to perch above the ground, additional space, and increased field of view. Rates of feces painting, an abnormal behavior in which the animal smears or rubs feces on a surface, were compared in 3 situations: with porch enrichment, with ‘smear board’ enrichment (a foraging device commonly used to decrease feces painting), and without either enrichment item. Feces painting was evaluated daily by using a 5-point scale that ranged from 0, no feces present, to 4, multiple large areas of feces. We found that subjects received significantly lower feces painting scores when given porch enrichment or smear board enrichment compared with baseline. Furthermore, subjects received significantly lower feces painting scores with porch enrichment than smear board enrichment. These results demonstrate that the porch is an effective tool to decrease feces painting in captive macaques. PMID:25650971

  7. Intraspinal temperatures during regional deep hyperthermia induced by electromagnetic radiation in the Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, J; Wiersema, H D; Broekmeyer-Reurink, M P; van Rhoon, G C

    1997-01-01

    A capacitive ring system operating at 27 MHz was tested for temperature distribution in the abdominal cavity of the living Rhesus monkey. Catheters were introduced through the abdomen and their location checked after the experiment. During two of these experiments a catheter was also introduced into the intraspinal canal. Temperature distribution was rather homogeneous within the abdominal cavity. Core temperature remained 3-5 degrees C below intra-abdominal temperatures. The intraspinal temperature increase was of the same magnitude compared with intra-abdominal temperature increase. Similar findings in other species have been reported by others. It is concluded that during non-invasive induction of regional hyperthermia by electromagnetic radiation, where a high level of energy is directed close to the spine, the intraspinal temperatures may be increased as high as the temperatures within the surrounding tissues. The central nervous system may be relatively sensitive to hyperthermia and hyperthermia may sensitize the spinal cord to radiation. Therefore, when hyperthermia is targeted at areas near the spine, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy applied to the tolerance limit of the spinal cord, these findings will have to be taken into consideration.

  8. Cortical Innervation of the Hypoglossal Nucleus in the Non-Human Primate (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Morecraft, Robert J.; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S.; Solon-Cline, Kathryn M.; Ge, Jizhi; Darling, Warren G.

    2014-01-01

    The corticobulbar projection to the hypoglossal nucleus was studied from the frontal, parietal, cingulate and insular cortices in the rhesus monkey using high-resolution anterograde tracers and stereology. The hypoglossal nucleus received bilateral input from the face/head region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral pre- (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3), and caudal cingulate (M4) motor cortices. Additional bilateral corticohypoglossal projections were found from the dorsolateral premotor cortex (LPMCd), ventrolateral proisocortical motor area (ProM), ventrolateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), rostral insula and pregenual region of the anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 24/32). Dense terminal projections arose from the ventral region of M1, moderate projections from LPMCv and rostral part of M2, with considerably less hypoglossal projections arising from the other cortical regions. These findings demonstrate that extensive regions of the non-human primate cerebral cortex innervate the hypoglossal nucleus. The widespread and bilateral nature of this corticobulbar connection suggests recovery of tongue movement after cortical injury that compromises a subset of these areas, may occur from spared corticohypoglossal projection areas located on the lateral, as well as medial surfaces of both hemispheres. Since functional imaging studies have shown that homologous cortical areas are activated in humans during tongue movement tasks, these corticobulbar projections may exist in the human brain. PMID:24752643

  9. Using porches to decrease feces painting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; O'Connor, Jillann Rawlins; Coleman, Kristine

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of a porch in decreasing feces painting in captive rhesus macaques. The porch is a small extension that is hung on the outside of a monkey's primary home cage. Porches provide many potential benefits to indoor-housed macaques, including opportunities to perch above the ground, additional space, and increased field of view. Rates of feces painting, an abnormal behavior in which the animal smears or rubs feces on a surface, were compared in 3 situations: with porch enrichment, with 'smear board' enrichment (a foraging device commonly used to decrease feces painting), and without either enrichment item. Feces painting was evaluated daily by using a 5-point scale that ranged from 0, no feces present, to 4, multiple large areas of feces. We found that subjects received significantly lower feces painting scores when given porch enrichment or smear board enrichment compared with baseline. Furthermore, subjects received significantly lower feces painting scores with porch enrichment than smear board enrichment. These results demonstrate that the porch is an effective tool to decrease feces painting in captive macaques.

  10. Dry bedding provides cost-effective enrichment for group-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Andrews, Kirk; Schaefer, Laura Jane; Morelli, Nathan; McAllister, Shannon; Coleman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Dry bedding has been shown to be an effective enrichment strategy for small groups of captive nonhuman primates housed in cages or in small enclosures with concrete flooring. However, dry bedding is used infrequently for large groups because of the perception that its use is time- and resource-intensive. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of this enrichment strategy in large groups (30 to 50 subjects) of rhesus macaques. Macaques were housed under 3 comparison conditions for 4 wk: pine shavings (n = 4), aspen and pine shaving mixture (n = 4), and nonbedded control (n = 4). As measures of resource consumption, husbandry tasks were documented by using time-in-motion methodology, and water usage was determined. In addition, groups underwent behavioral observations to assess the effect of dry bedding. The time required to care for units did not differ between bedded and nonbedded units. However, significantly less water was used for sanitization of bedded compared with nonbedded units. Monkeys housed in bedded units showed more foraging (13.8% ± 1.6% of time in bedded compared with 4.0% ± 0.3% of time in nonbedded units) and less aggression and self-grooming. Dry bedding benefited the macaques, reduced water usage and costs, and did not affect human resources.

  11. Characterization of single-nucleotide variation in Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhesus macaques are the most widely utilized nonhuman primate model in biomedical research. Previous efforts have validated fewer than 900 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this species, which limits opportunities for genetic studies related to health and disease. Extensive information about SNPs and other genetic variation in rhesus macaques would facilitate valuable genetic analyses, as well as provide markers for genome-wide linkage analysis and the genetic management of captive breeding colonies. Results We used the available rhesus macaque draft genome sequence, new sequence data from unrelated individuals and existing published sequence data to create a genome-wide SNP resource for Indian-origin rhesus monkeys. The original reference animal and two additional Indian-origin individuals were resequenced to low coverage using SOLiD™ sequencing. We then used three strategies to validate SNPs: comparison of potential SNPs found in the same individual using two different sequencing chemistries, and comparison of potential SNPs in different individuals identified with either the same or different sequencing chemistries. Our approach validated approximately 3 million SNPs distributed across the genome. Preliminary analysis of SNP annotations suggests that a substantial number of these macaque SNPs may have functional effects. More than 700 non-synonymous SNPs were scored by Polyphen-2 as either possibly or probably damaging to protein function and these variants now constitute potential models for studying functional genetic variation relevant to human physiology and disease. Conclusions Resequencing of a small number of animals identified greater than 3 million SNPs. This provides a significant new information resource for rhesus macaques, an important research animal. The data also suggests that overall genetic variation is high in this species. We identified many potentially damaging non-synonymous coding SNPs, providing new opportunities to

  12. Seventeen-year mortality experience of proton radiation in Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Yochmowitz, M.G.; Wood, D.H.; Salmon, Y.L.

    1985-04-01

    This is an interim report on the lifetime study of chronic mortality and its causes under investigation in 31 control (20 males, 11 females) and 217 survivors (124 males, 93 females) of an acute 90-day experiment in rhesus monkeys. Single acute whole-body exposures were made using 32-, 55-, 138-, 400-, and 2300-MeV protons in 1964-1965. Doses ranged from 25 to 800 rad and dose rates from 12.5 and 100 rad per minute. For pooled data: (1) mortality was signigicantly higher in irradiated animals (48%) than in controls (19%); (2) mortality in animals exposed to partially penetrating 55-MeV protons was essentially similar to those given totally penetrating 138-, 400-, and 2300-MeV exposures; (3) proton energies and doses that were effective in producing life shortening were greater than or equal to 55 MeV and greater than or equal to 360-400 rad, respectively; (4) death rates for irradiated animals compared to controls began to increase after approx.8 years, approx.2 years, and approx.1 year for those exposed to 360-400, 500-650, and 800 rad, respectively; (5) of the nine probable causes of death reported, the leading causes were primary infections in both irradiated and control animals, endometriosis, neoplasms, and organ degeneration; and (6) if endometriosis is included with the neoplastic group, deaths from all forms of neoplasms would be 42% in irradiated animals. From the results of this study, it is reasonable to conclude that development of endometriosis in females and neoplasms in males is enhanced significantly by proton irradiation over that of respective controls.

  13. Sensorimotor cortex injury effects on recovery of contralesional dexterous movements in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Darling, Warren G; Pizzimenti, Marc A; Rotella, Diane L; Hynes, Stephanie M; Ge, Jizhi; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly; Morecraft, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) injury on recovery of contralateral upper limb reaching and grasping were studied by comparing the consequences of isolated lesions to the arm/hand region of primary motor cortex (M1) and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) to lesions of these same areas plus anterior parietal cortex (S1 and rostral area PE). We used multiple linear regression to assess the effects of gray and white matter lesion volumes on deficits in reaching and fine motor performance during the first month after the lesion, and during recovery of function over 3, 6 and 12months post-injury in 13 monkeys. Subjects with frontoparietal lesions exhibited larger deficits and poorer recovery as predicted, including one subject with extensive peri-Rolandic injury developing learned nonuse after showing signs of recovery. Regression analyses showed that total white matter lesion volume was strongly associated with initial post-lesion deficits in motor performance and with recovery of skill in reaching and manipulation. Multiple regression analyses using percent damage to caudal M1 (M1c), rostral S1 (S1r), LPMC and area PE as predictor variables showed that S1r lesion volumes were closely related to delayed post-lesion recovery of upper limb function, as well as lower skill level of recovery. In contrast, M1c lesion volume was related primarily to initial post-lesion deficits in hand motor performance. Overall, these findings demonstrate that frontoparietal injury impairs hand motor function more so than frontal motor injury alone, and results in slower and poorer recovery than lesions limited to frontal motor cortex. PMID:27091225

  14. Effect of maxillomandibular fixation on condylar growth in juvenile Macaca mulatta: a cephalometric and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Isacsson, G; Carlson, D S; McNamara, J A; Isberg, A M

    1993-04-01

    The effect of maxillomandibular fixation on the growth of the mandibular condyle was studied in eight control and eight experimental male juvenile monkeys. All animals had metallic implants placed throughout the craniofacial complex in order to facilitate cephalometric analysis of growth-related changes in the maxillomandibular complex during jaw immobilization. Every 3, 6, 12, and 24 wk after insertion of the appliance two experimental animals were killed for histologic analysis. Cephalometric analysis indicated no major deviation from normal maxillary or mandibular growth in the experimental animals. The condylar growth in the experimental animals was comparable with that of the controls. Histologic analysis indicated that the articular connective tissue in experimental joints remained the same thickness as in the controls. On the postero-superior aspect of the condyle, the thickness of the prechondroblastic-chondroblastic cell layer was reduced by 70-80% in the experimental animals. On the posterior aspect this cell layer was not visible after 12 wk of fixation, but was replaced by a periosteum-like, cell-rich tissue which appeared to be active in appositional formation of cancellous bone. These results indicate that long-term maxillomandibular fixation does not cause major alterations in the growth of condyle or the entire mandible despite a profound decrease of the prechondroblastic-chondroblastic cell layer in the postero-superior and posterior regions of the condyle. The growth is probably due to a compensatory appositional bone formation along the surface of the condyle. It is also concluded that jaw mobility is not a prerequisite for normal maxillary or mandibular growth.

  15. Effect of Soy Isoflavones on Thyroid Hormones in Intact and Ovariectomized Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Marnie G.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Appt, Susan E.; Register, Thomas C.; Shively, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Soy isoflavones are commonly used to alleviate menopause-related symptoms. Menopausal women are at an increased risk for hypothyroidism and there are concerns that isoflavones may be detrimental to thyroid health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of soy protein and isoflavones on thyroid function and the relationship between thyroid and ovarian function. Methods Adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to consume two diets differing only in protein source: casein-lactalbumin (n = 44) or soy protein with isoflavones (n = 41). After 34 months all animals were ovariectomized via laparotomy. Half of the monkeys from each diet treatment group continued to consume their Pre-Ovariectomy treatment phase diet (either SOY [n = 19] or CL [n = 21]) for an additional 34 months. The remaining animals did not continue their diets, and thus were not considered further. Circulating progesterone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid stimulating hormone were measured at baseline. Thyroid hormones were remeasured during each treatment phase. Results Dietary soy increased triiodothyronine in pre-ovariectomized monkeys and prevented a decline in thyroxine following surgical menopause (both p’s < 0.05). Mean progesterone concentrations were positively correlated with triiodothyronine at baseline in pre-ovariectomized monkeys (p < 0.01). Conclusions Progesterone levels and triiodothyronine are positively correlated in macaques. Dietary soy increases triiodothyronine in pre-ovariectomized monkeys and prevents a decline in thyroxine following surgical menopause. The outcomes observed in this study suggest soy protein and isoflavone consumption does not adversely affect and may even preserve thyroid function in postmenopausal women. PMID:24618766

  16. Behavioural assessment of functional recovery after spinal cord hemisection in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Suresh Babu, R; Muthusamy, R; Namasivayam, A

    2000-09-15

    In spinal cord research, current approaches to behavioural assessment often fail in defining the exact nature of motor deficits or in evaluating the return of motor behaviour from lost functions following spinal cord injury. In addition to the assessment of gross motor behaviour, it is often appropriate to use complex tests for locomotion to evaluate the masked deficits in the evaluation of functional recovery after spinal cord injury. We designed a series of sensitive quantitative tests for reflex responses and complex locomotor behaviour in the form of a combined behavioural score (CBS) to assess the recovery of function in the Bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Monkeys were tested for various motor/reflex components, trained to cross different complex runways, and to walk on a treadmill bipedally. The overall performance of animal's motor behaviour and the functional status of individual limb movement during bipedal locomotion was graded and scored by the CBS. Surgical hemisection was then performed on the right side of the spinal cord at the T12-L1 level. Spinal cord hemisected animals showed a significant alteration in certain reflex responses such as grasping, extension withdrawal, and placing reflexes, which persisted through 1 year of follow-up. The spinal cord hemisected animals traversed the complex locomotor runways (Narrow beam and Grid runway) with more steps and few errors, at similar levels to control animals. These observations indicate that the various motor/reflex components and bipedal locomotor behaviour of spinal cord hemisected monkeys return to control levels gradually. These results are similar to those obtained in rat models by other investigators. These results demonstrate that the basic motor strategy and the spinal pattern generator for locomotion (SPGL) in adult monkeys for the accomplishment of complex motor tasks is similar, but not identical, to that in adult rats. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying recovery are probably

  17. Evidence for Motor Planning in Monkeys: Rhesus Macaques Select Efficient Grips when Transporting Spoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eliza L.; Berthier, Neil E.; Metevier, Christina M.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    McCarty and colleagues (1999) developed the elevated spoon task to measure motor planning in human infants. In this task, a spoon containing food was placed on an elevated apparatus that supported both ends of the spoon. The handle was oriented to the left or right on different trials. We presented naive adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with…

  18. Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys Spontaneously Individuate and Enumerate Small Numbers of Non-Solid Portions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.; Hauser, Marc D.; Glynn, David D.; Barner, David

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental questions in cognitive science concern the origins and nature of the units that compose visual experience. Here, we investigate the capacity to individuate and store information about non-solid portions, asking in particular whether free-ranging rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") quantify portions of a non-solid substance presented in…

  19. Behavior of infant Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) with congenital limb malformations during their first three months.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, M

    1986-07-01

    Locomotion and mother-infant interactions of a severely malformed, a slightly malformed, and a normal infant were observed in a free-ranging group of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). The severely malformed infant had no feet and had hands consisting of 2 digits. The slightly malformed infant had normal feet and hands consisting of 2 digits. The severely malformed infant was more retarded in development of posture and locomotion than the other infants; however, it developed locomotor patterns appropriate to its defects. All infants spent approximately the same amount of time in contact with their mothers. High mother-infant contact of malformed infants was maintained because their mothers were very attentive and carried and held them. Mothers reared their handicapped infants even though the infants lacked the movement necessary for clinging.

  20. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  1. Cardiovascular alterations in Macaca monkeys exposed to stationary magnetic fields: experimental observations and theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.; Gaffey, C.T.; Moyer, B.R.; Budinger, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements were made of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the intraarterial blood pressure of adult male Macaca monkeys during acute exposure to homogeneous stationary magnetic fields ranging in strength up to 1.5 tesla. An instantaneous, field strength-dependent increase in the ECG signal amplitude at the locus of the T wave was observed in fields greater than 0.1 tesla. The temporal sequence of this signal in the ECG record and its reversibility following termination of the magnetic field exposure are consistent with an earlier suggestion that it arises from a magnetically induced aortic blood flow potential superimposed on the native T-wave signal. No measurable alterations in blood pressure resulted from exposure to fields up to 1.5 tesla. This experimental finding is in agreement with theoretical calculations of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on blood flow in the major arteries of the cardiovascular system. 27 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  2. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K.; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  3. Assessment of environmental impacts of a colony of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macca mulatta) on Morgan Island, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Klopchin, Jeanette L; Stewart, Jill R; Webster, Laura F; Sandifer, Paul A

    2008-02-01

    Morgan Island, located within the ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve in South Carolina, is home to the only free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys (Macca mulatta) in the continental United States. The purpose of this study was to assess environmental impacts of the monkey colony on water quality in adjacent tidal creeks and on island vegetation. Three tidal creeks were sampled: Morgan Creek, adjacent to the monkey colony; Back Creek, on Morgan Island not adjacent to the colony; and Rock Creek, on a nearby island unoccupied by monkeys. Temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and fecal coliform bacteria were measured six times at three sites in each of these creeks, and vegetation change analysis was conducted in a geographic information system using satellite imagery. Results showed elevated fecal coliform concentrations in the Morgan Creek site immediately adjacent to the colony, though no samples exceeded the standard set for recreational water use. Ribotyping reconnaissance matched four Escherichia coli isolates from Morgan and Back Creeks to the monkeys, identifying the colony as one source of fecal coliform bacteria, though relative source loadings could not be quantified. Significant differences were not observed between ammonia or orthophosphate levels in Morgan Creek relative to the other creeks tested; and vegetation change analysis showed a 35% increase in canopy cover between 1979 and 1999. Overall, these results suggest that the rhesus colony's environmental impacts are localized and minimal. Results from this study provide baseline data on Morgan Island and may be useful in management decisions regarding the future of the monkey colony. PMID:17564800

  4. Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta") Spontaneously Compute Addition Operations Over Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flombaum, Jonathan I.; Junge, Justin A.; Hauser, Marc D.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics is a uniquely human capacity. Studies of animals and human infants reveal, however, that this capacity builds on language-independent mechanisms for quantifying small numbers ([less than] 4) precisely and large numbers approximately. It is unclear whether animals and human infants can spontaneously tap mechanisms for quantifying large…

  5. Evidence for Kind Representations in the Absence of Language: Experiments with Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Santos, Laurie R.

    2007-01-01

    How do we come to recognize and represent different kinds of objects in the world? Some developmental psychologists have hypothesized that learning language plays a crucial role in this capacity. If this hypothesis were correct, then non-linguistic animals should lack the capacity to represent objects as kinds. Previous research with rhesus…

  6. Development of interspecies cloned embryos reconstructed with rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) oocytes and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) fibroblast cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Yamochi, Takayuki; Kida, Yuta; Oh, Noriyoshi; Ohta, Sei; Amano, Tomoko; Anzai, Masayuki; Kato, Hiromi; Kishigami, Satoshi; Mitani, Tasuku; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Saeki, Kazuhiro; Takenoshita, Makoto; Iritani, Akira; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    2013-11-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (ISCNT) has been proposed as a technique to produce cloned offspring of endangered species as well as to investigate nucleus-cytoplasm interactions in mammalian embryo. However, it is still not known which embryo culture medium is optimal for ISCNT embryos for the nuclear donor or the oocyte recipient. We assessed the effects of the culture medium on the developmental competence of the ISCNT embryos by introducing cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) fibroblast nuclei into enucleated rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) oocytes (monkey-rabbit embryo). The monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos that were cultured in mCMRL-1066 developed to the blastocyst stage, although all monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos cultured in M199 were arrested by the 4-cell stage. When monkey-rabbit ISCNT and rabbit-rabbit somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos were cultured in mCMRL-1066, the blastocyst cell numbers of the monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos corresponded to the cell numbers of the control rabbit-rabbit SCNT embryos, which were produced from a rabbit fibroblast nucleus and an enucleated rabbit oocyte. In addition, the presence of mitochondria, which were introduced with monkey fibroblasts into rabbit recipient cytoplasm, was confirmed up to the blastocyst stage by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study demonstrated that: (1) rabbit oocytes can reprogramme cynomolgus monkey somatic cell nuclei, and support preimplantation development; (2) monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos developed well in monkey culture medium at early embryonic developmental stages; (3) the cell number of monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos is similar to that of rabbit-rabbit SCNT embryos; and (4) the mitochondrial fate of monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos is heteroplasmic from the time just after injection to the blastocyst stage that has roots in both rabbit oocytes and monkey fibroblasts.

  7. Occurrence of multinucleated hepatocytes in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Novilla, M N; Jackson, M K; Reim, D A; Jacobson, S B; Nagata, R A

    2014-11-01

    Multinucleated hepatocytes (MNHs) have been occasionally reported in macaques, as well as chimpanzees and gorillas, as an incidental finding. However, information is sparse on variations in incidence in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). A survey was conducted to assess the occurrence of MNHs in the liver of stock (nonstudy) animals from SNBL SRC (Alice, TX) and SNBL USA (Everett, WA) submitted for diagnostic purposes. A total of 215 cynomolgus monkeys originally from Cambodia (61), China (5), Indonesia (125), and Mauritius (24) were used for this investigation. From each animal, usually 2 liver samples were processed for histopathology with 2 sections in each slide. An MNH was defined as a hepatocyte with 3 or more nuclei. A threshold of 3 MNHs was selected for the Multinucleated Hepatocyte Grading System: 0 = not remarkable (≤3 MNHs counted from 2-4 liver sections), minimal = 4 to 15 MNHs, mild = 16 to 30 MNHs, moderate = 31 to 59 MNHs, and severe ≥60 MNHs. The incidence of MNHs was 60 of 86 (70%) in males and 72 of 129 (56%) in females for a total overall incidence of 132 of 215 animals (61%). Affected hepatocytes were frequently observed close to the capsule and generally had 3 to 8 nuclei per hepatocyte but as many as 15 occurred in a single cell. Awareness of the incidence of MNHs in cynomolgus monkeys is important for potential use as background data in preclinical safety and toxicity evaluation studies.

  8. Purkinje cell axon collaterals terminate on Cat-301+ neurons in Macaca monkey cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Crook, J D; Hendrickson, A; Erickson, A; Possin, D; Robinson, F R

    2007-11-23

    The monoclonal antibody Cat-301 identifies perineuronal nets around specific neuronal types, including those in the cerebellum. This report finds in adult Macaca monkey that basket cells in the deep molecular layer; granule cell layer (GCL) interneurons including Lugaro cells; large neurons in the foliar white matter (WM); and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons contain subsets of Cat-301 positive (+) cells. Most Cat-301+ GCL interneurons are glycine+ and all are densely innervated by a meshwork of calbindin+/glutamic acid decarboxylase+ Purkinje cell collaterals and their synapses. DCN and WM Cat-301+ neurons also receive a similar but less dense innervation. Due to the heavy labeling of adjacent Purkinje cell dendrites, the innervation of Cat-301+ basket cells was less certain. These findings suggest that several complex feedback circuits from Purkinje cell to cerebellar interneurons exist in primate cerebellum whose function needs to be investigated. Cat-301 labeling begins postnatally in WM and DCN, but remains sparse until at least 3 months of age. Because the appearance of perineuronal nets is associated with maturation of synaptic circuits, this suggests that the Purkinje cell feedback circuits develop for some time after birth.

  9. Ultrastructural immunolocalization of laminin 332 (laminin 5) at dento-gingival interface in Macaca fuscata monkey.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takaki; Shibayama, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Although laminin 332 (laminin 5), an extracellular matrix molecule involved in cell adhesion and migration, has been localized at the interface between the tooth enamel and junctional epithelium, its ultrastructural localization remains to be fully clarified. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructural distribution of laminin 332 at the dento-gingival interface in Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) using pre- and post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. Pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy revealed a broad band of internal basal lamina together with supplementary lamina densa, and both showed immunolabeling for laminin 332. Immunoreaction products for laminin 332 were observed in the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum of the junctional epithelial cells close to the tooth enamel. Post-embedding immunoelectron microscopy revealed an increase in the number of immunogold particles toward the coronal portion, resulting in a large accumulation of particles on the basal lamina, preferentially on the lamina densa. Concomitantly the dental cuticle at the dento-gingival interface was sporadically, but specifically, immunogold-labeled with anti-laminin 332 antibody. These data suggest that junctional epithelium actively produces laminin 332, and that the products accumulate at the dento-gingival interface during cell migration coronally towards the gingival sulcus.

  10. Constructing cranial ontogenetic trajectories: A comparison of growth, development, and chronological age proxies using a known-age sample of Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Simons, Evan A; Frost, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Recent morphometric research has generated opposing conclusions regarding the ontogenetic trajectories of catarrhine crania, possibly due to the ontogenetic proxies used to calculate them. Therefore, we used three surrogates: size, molar eruption, and chronological age to generate trajectories in a known-age sample to produce ontogenetic trajectories and determine the similarities and differences between them. Forty-three landmarks from an ontogenetic series of 160 Macaca mulatta crania, with associated ages at death, were used to produce ontogenetic trajectories of cranial shape change. These were computed by sex through multivariate regression of Procrustes aligned coordinates against three surrogates for ontogeny: natural log of centroid size (growth), molar eruption stage (development), and chronological age. These trajectories were compared by calculating the angles between them. Each trajectory was also used to produce simulated adults from juveniles, which were then compared with each other and actual adults. The different trajectories are nearly parallel as each of the surrogates track similar aspects of ontogenetic cranial shape change, but chronological age was the most divergent. Simulated adults produced using the developmental stage trajectories were most similar to actual adults. When simulated adults were produced from opposite sex trajectories, they resembled the sex from which the trajectory was produced, not the sex of the juvenile specimen. We discuss properties of the trajectories produced from each of the surrogates, the possible reasons for previously opposing conclusions, how these properties can inform future investigations, and how our investigation bears on analyses of heterochrony.

  11. Refining the pole-and-collar method of restraint: emphasizing the use of positive training techniques with rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research.

  12. Refining the Pole-and-Collar Method of Restraint: Emphasizing the Use of Positive Training Techniques with Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research. PMID:24411781

  13. Milk composition varies in relation to the presence and abundance of Balantidium coli in the mother in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hinde, Katherine

    2007-06-01

    Primate infants require extensive maternal investment, and lactation is the most expensive aspect of this investment. However, the relationship between maternal condition and milk composition has been largely uninvestigated in primates. To better understand this relationship, I collected mid-lactation milk samples from 46 captive multiparous rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the Caribbean Primate Research Center, Sabana Seca Field Station, Puerto Rico. The maternal variables assessed were age, weight, weight for crown-rump length (CRL), and presence of parasites. Additionally the analysis included infant age, weight, and sex. Protein concentration in milk showed little interindividual variation, whereas fat had a high variance. Mothers without the lower intestinal parasite Balantidium coli had a significantly higher fat concentration in milk than mothers with B. coli, but other parasite species (Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides fulleborni) were not associated with milk fat concentration. Females with younger infants had a higher fat concentration in their milk than mothers with older infants; however, the association between B. coli and milk fat remained significant after controlling for infant age. These results, obtained from a well fed captive population, indicate that even small differences among mothers are associated with milk composition. PMID:17245767

  14. Microvasculature of the Olfactory Organ in the Japanese Monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2002-06-01

    Olfaction is an important and primitive sense. As its importance has changed with evolution, anatomic adjustments have occurred in its structure and vasculature. Primates are a family of vertebrates that have had to develop their visual system to adapt to the arboreal environment and have evolved from a macrosmatic to a microsmatic species as the optic system has enlarged. This has resulted in anatomic changes of a small but critical area at the base of the brain. This paper describes the three-dimensional vascular anatomy of the olfactory organ of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata). This is best understood by dividing the organ into three parts: the olfactory tract, olfactory bulb, and olfactory nerves in the nasal mucosa. The bulb can be partitioned into an outer or cortical part and inner or medullary part. The vasculature and tissue were examined grossly and with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. The olfactory tract and bulb were supplied by an arteriole from the anterior cerebral artery on each side. The tract was supplied by capillaries running spirally with a coarse network. At the olfactory bulb, the arteriole ramified into the intracortical and medullary branches that formed capillary networks. The bulbar intracortical capillaries were divided into two layers with different densities and vascular patterns. The capillaries of the superficial layer had a ladder-like pattern. The branches that ran into the medulla of the olfactory bulb were more widely spaced. Twigs from the posterior ethmoidal artery ran along the nerve fiber and formed intra- and extrafascicular networks. Each region of the olfactory organ had characteristic three-dimensional vascular patterns that were related to their cellular architecture.

  15. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    PubMed

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease.

  16. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    PubMed

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26153408

  17. Accuracy of Human and Veterinary Point-of-Care Glucometers for Use in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Stovall, Melissa I; Owens, Devon C; Scott, Jessica A; Jones-Wilkes, Amelia C; Kempf, Doty J; Ethun, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Handheld, point-of-care glucometers are commonly used in NHP for clinical and research purposes, but whether these devices are appropriate for use in NHP is unknown. Other animal studies indicate that glucometers should be species-specific, given differences in glucose distribution between RBC and plasma; in addition, Hct and sampling site (venous compared with capillary) influence glucometer readings. Therefore, we compared the accuracy of 2 human and 2 veterinary glucometers at various Hct ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with that of standard laboratory glucose analysis. Subsequent analyses assessed the effect of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and sampling site on glucometer accuracy. The veterinary glucometers overestimated blood glucose (BG) values in all species by 26 to 75 mg/dL. The mean difference between the human glucometers and the laboratory analyzer was 7 mg/dL or less in all species. The human glucometers overestimated BG in hypoglycemic mangabeys by 4 mg/dL and underestimated BG in hyperglycemic mangabeys by 11 mg/dL; similar patterns occurred in rhesus macaques. Hct did not affect glucometer accuracy, but all samples were within the range at which glucometers generally are accurate in humans. BG values were significantly lower in venous than capillary samples. The current findings show that veterinary glucometers intended for companion-animal species are inappropriate for use in the studied NHP species, whereas the human glucometers showed clinically acceptable accuracy in all 3 species. Finally, potential differences between venous and capillary BG values should be considered when comparing and evaluating results. PMID:27177571

  18. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  19. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CEBUS CAPUCINA (THE SOUTH AMERICAN RINGTAIL MONKEY) AND CERCOPITHECUS CEPHUS (THE AFRICAN MUSTACHE MONKEY) TO POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Joseph L.; Paul, John R.

    1943-01-01

    1. The South American ringtail monkey, Cebus capucina, has been infected with the virus of poliomyelitis as found in ultracentrifuged concentrates from poliomyelitic human stools. 2. This species was also found susceptible to poliomyelitis virus found in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cords, representing early generations of virus derived from two different human sources and from flies trapped in an epidemic area. 3. The Hartford strain of poliomyelitis has been successfully established in different generations in Cebus capucina monkeys. 4. The African mustache monkey, Cerocopithecus cephus, has been infected with poliomyelitis virus by the intra- and subcutaneous routes as readily as the green African monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, and the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. PMID:19871327

  20. Detection and quantification of male-specific fetal DNA in the serum of pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Lubna; Takano, Jun-Ichiro; Nagai, Yasushi; Otsuki, Junko; Sankai, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    Because of their developmental similarities to humans, nonhuman primates are often used as a model to study fetal development for potential clinical applications in humans. The detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma or serum offers a source of fetal genetic material for prenatal diagnosis. However, no such data have been reported for cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), an important model in biomedical research. We have developed a specific, highly sensitive PCR system for detecting and quantifying male-specific fetal DNA in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. We used multiplex quantitative real-time PCR to analyze cell-free DNA in maternal blood serum obtained from 46 pregnant monkeys at gestational weeks 5, 12, and 22. The presence of SRY gene and DYS14 Y chromosomal sequences was determined in 28 monkeys with male-bearing pregnancies. According to confirmation of fetal sex at birth, the probe and primers for detecting the Y chromosomal regions at each time point revealed 100% specificity of the PCR test and no false-positive or false-negative results. Increased levels of the SRY-specific sequences (mean, 4706 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 1731 to 12,625) and DYS14-specific sequences (mean, 54,814 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 4175-131,250 copies) were detected at week 22. The SRY- and DYS14-specific probes appear to be an effective combination of markers in a multiplex PCR system. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the detection of cell-free DNA in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:25730760

  1. Effects of Simian Betaretrovirus Serotype 1 (SRV1) Infection on the Differentiation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (CD34+) Derived from Bone Marrow of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Nestor A; Todd, Patricia A; Yee, JoAnn; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral blood cytopenias, particularly persistent anemia and neutropenia, are commonly associated with simian betaretrovirus infection of Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these hematologic abnormalities are not well understood. The current study investigated the in vitro tropism of simian betaretrovirus (SRV) for both hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) and stromal cells obtained from rhesus macaque bone marrow and assessed the effects of infection on hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation in vitro. After in vitro exposure, SRV proviral DNA could be demonstrated by real-time PCR in cells and the reverse transcriptase assay in supernatants from SRV-exposed progenitor-associated stroma, but not in differentiated colonies derived from SRV-exposed progenitors. Furthermore, in vitro exposure involving cell–cell contact of uninfected CD34+ progenitor cells with SRV-infected stromal cells resulted in a statistically significant reduction in granulocyte–macrophage colony formation in absence of detectable SRV-infection of progenitor cells. Reduction in colony formation occurred in a ‘dose-dependent’ fashion with increasing contact time. No effects on erythroid lineages and RBC differentiation were noted. Our results suggest that hematologic abnormalities observed during SRV disease (natural or experimental) of rhesus macaques may not result from direct effects of viral infection of progenitor cell populations, but rather be (at least in part) a consequence of SRV infection of supportive bone marrow stroma with secondary effects on differentiation of associated progenitor cells. PMID:22330653

  2. Video-task assessment of learning and memory in Macaques (Macaca mulatta) - Effects of stimulus movement on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of stimulus movement on learning, transfer, matching, and short-term memory performance were assessed with 2 monkeys using a video-task paradigm in which the animals responded to computer-generated images by manipulating a joystick. Performance on tests of learning set, transfer index, matching to sample, and delayed matching to sample in the video-task paradigm was comparable to that obtained in previous investigations using the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus. Additionally, learning, transfer, and matching were reliably and significantly better when the stimuli or discriminanda moved than when the stimuli were stationary. External manipulations such as stimulus movement may increase attention to the demands of a task, which in turn should increase the efficiency of learning. These findings have implications for the investigation of learning in other populations, as well as for the application of the video-task paradigm to comparative study.

  3. [Facilitation of a state of wakefulness by semi-chronic treatment with sulbutiamin (Arcalion) in Macaca mulatta].

    PubMed

    Balzamo, E; Vuillon-Cacciuttolo, G

    1982-12-01

    Cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities and nycthemeral states of vigilance organization were studied in 6 adult rhesus monkeys during subchronic administration (10 days) of Sulbutiamin, a synthesized derivative of thiamine (300 mg/kg/day). Sulbutiamin induced the following modifications: (1) In the EEG activities: increase in occurrence of fast rhythms (over 28 c/sec) during waking and also during slow sleep (SS) in which their amplitude doubled. SS spindles increased in number and amplitude. (2) In vigilance organization: waking was enhanced all along the 24 h recording and SS was reorganized (particularly at night), mostly light sleep: large decrease in stage 2 duration, increase in stage 1. REM sleep duration remained stable. These changes, occurring at around day 5 of the treatment, were more pronounced on day 10 and disappeared 2-5 days after withdrawal. This study demonstrated the clear action of Sulbutiamin upon the mechanisms regulating waking and light sleep. PMID:7170385

  4. A 75-year pictorial history of the Cayo Santiago rhesus monkey colony.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Matthew J; Rawlins, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a pictorial history of the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of its establishment by Clarence R. Carpenter in December 1938. It is based on a presentation made by the authors at the symposium, Cayo Santiago: 75 Years of Leadership in Translational Research, held at the 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on 20 June 2013.

  5. Old grandmothers provide essential care to their young granddaughters in a free-ranging group of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori

    2010-04-01

    This study reports 2 cases in which old grandmothers without dependent offspring provided essential care to their young granddaughters in a free-ranging group of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). In the first case, a 24-year-old grandmother provided essential care for the survival of her 2-month-old granddaughter for at least 6 days during which the mother had temporarily disappeared from the group for reasons unknown. In the second case, a 14-month-old granddaughter began sucking from her 23-year-old grandmother within 6 weeks after her mother gave birth to a younger sibling. For at least 6 months, the grandmother exhibited various patterns of maternal behavior toward her granddaughter. The behavioral data obtained in this study indicated that old yet healthy females without dependent offspring could contribute to the survival of their young grandchildren.

  6. Detection thresholds for intensity increments in a single harmonic of synthetic Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) monkey coo calls.

    PubMed

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Moody, David B

    2002-09-01

    There is evidence that Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are extremely sensitive to dynamic changes in the relative amplitudes of coo call harmonics during discrimination tests. To verify this evidence using more controlled stimulus configurations, the authors examined threshold sensitivity of macaque monkeys to amplitude increments added to the standard level of coo call harmonics. Psychophysical threshold determination methods paralleled those used previously to determine macaque sensitivity to amplitude increments added to vowel-like stimuli. Variation was detectable although thresholds were elevated relative to those obtained with vowel-like stimuli in another investigation (C. G. Le Prell, A. J. Niemiec, & D. B. Moody, 2001). This elevation was probably a function of natural amplitude modulation in the standard stimuli.

  7. The development of an instrument to measure global dimensions of maternal care in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    McCormack, K; Howell, B R; Guzman, D; Villongco, C; Pears, K; Kim, H; Gunnar, M R; Sanchez, M M

    2015-01-01

    One of the strongest predictors of healthy child development is the quality of maternal care. Although many measures of observation and self-report exist in humans to assess global aspects of maternal care, such qualitative measures are lacking in nonhuman primates. In this study, we developed an instrument to measure global aspects of maternal care in rhesus monkeys, with the goal of complementing the individual behavioral data collected using a well-established rhesus macaque ethogram during the first months postpartum. The 22 items of the instrument were adapted from human maternal sensitivity assessments and a maternal Q-sort instrument already published for macaques. The 22 items formed four dimensions with high levels of internal reliability that represented major constructs of maternal care: (1) Sensitivity/Responsivity, (2) Protectiveness, (3) Permissiveness, and (4) Irritability. These dimensions yielded high construct validity when correlated with mother-infant frequency and duration behavior that was collected from focal observations across the first 3 postnatal months. In addition, comparisons of two groups of mothers (Maltreating vs. Competent mothers) showed significant differences across the dimensions suggesting that this instrument has strong concurrent validity, even after controlling for focal observation variables that have been previously shown to significantly differentiate these groups. Our findings suggest that this Instrument of Macaque Maternal Care has the potential to capture global aspects of the mother-infant relationship that complement individual behaviors collected through focal observations.

  8. Geophagy as a therapeutic mediator of endoparasitism in a free-ranging group of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Knezevich, M

    1998-01-01

    Parasite levels were determined for 141 members of a naturally formed social group of rhesus macaques living under free-ranging conditions. Results indicate that group members harbor Trichuris trichiura, Balantidium coli, and large numbers of Strongyloides fuelleborni. Parasite counts decrease significantly with age in this population. Females have significantly fewer parasites than males and a significantly lower prevalence of multiple infections. There were no rank effects regarding parasitosis. While 89% of the animals examined are infected with one or more species of enteric parasite, the prevalence of diarrhea is negligible (2%). The low prevalence of diarrhea in the presence of high parasite loads may be due to the practice of geophagy, which is engaged in by 76% of group members. Soil eaten by these monkeys contains large amounts of kaolinitic clays. Kaolin-based pharmaceuticals (i.e. Kaopectate) are commonly used in human populations to treat diarrhea and intestinal upsets. The mechanical and pharmaceutical properties of the natural kaolinite-based clays may counteract the effects of parasitosis in this free-ranging population. PMID:9444324

  9. Cashing Out: The Decisional Flexibility of Uncertainty Responses in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.; Smith, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals’ performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans’ and animals’ uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals’ uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility. PMID:25546106

  10. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  11. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  12. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm. PMID:16678873

  13. Nucleotide sequence of the BamHI repetitive sequence, including the HindIII fundamental unit, as a possible mobile element from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata.

    PubMed

    Prassolov, V S; Kuchino, Y; Nemoto, K; Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    Clustered repeat units produced by BamHI digestion of genomic DNA from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata [JMr(BamHI)] were sequenced by dideoxy DNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences of several individual repeats showed that the BamHI repeat contains the 170-bp HindIII element as an integral part, and that it has more than 90% homology with the HindIII repeat element [AGMr(HindIII)] found in the genomic DNA of the African green monkey. In the JMr(BamHI) repeat unit, the 170-bp HindIII element is flanked by a 6-bp inverted repeat, which is part of a 22-bp direct repeat. This latter repeat of 22-bp asymmetrically overlaps the border between the internal AGMr(HindIII)-like region and adjacent regions of the JMr(BamHI) repeat. A similar structural feature of the BamHI repeat unit has been found in the genomic DNA of the baboon, but not in that of the African green monkey. These results show clearly that the BamHI repeat of the modern Japanese monkey originated as a result of insertion of an AGMr(HindIII) element into a certain site(s) of the genomic DNA of an ancestor of the modern Japanese monkey before Macaca-Cercocebus divergence.

  14. Chronic lead exposure effects in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) testis.

    PubMed

    Foster, W G; Singh, A; McMahon, A; Rice, D C

    1998-01-01

    Although reproductive consequences of high circulating blood lead levels (> or = 60 micrograms/dL) have been reported, potential adverse effects of chronic lead exposure in males that result in low to moderate blood lead levels (10-25 and 26-60 micrograms/dL, respectively) are unknown. Effects of chronic lead exposure to testis ultrastructure were determined in the cynomolgus monkey after oral administration of lead acetate (1500 micrograms/kg BW/day) in a vehicle in the following groups: from birth to 10 years (lifetime), postnatal day 300 to 10 years (postinfancy), and postnatal day 0-400 (infancy); monkeys in the control group received only the vehicle (95% glycerol and 5% distilled water). At age 10 years, circulating lead concentrations in lifetime and postinfancy-dosed monkeys were approximately 35 micrograms/dL, and in control and infancy animals the concentrations were < 1.0 microgram/dL. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells of dosed monkeys from the infancy and lifetime groups revealed injuries. Chronic exposure to lead that results in moderate blood lead concentrations induced persistent ultrastructural alterations in the cynomolgus monkey testis. Results of this study on the primate, following extrapolation to humans, could influence further refining of the impact of environmental lead contamination concentrations vis-à-vis the health of children, adults, and aged human beings.

  15. Expression of the neuregulin receptor ErbB4 in the brain of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Neddens, Jörg; Buonanno, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated recently that frontal cortical expression of the Neuregulin (NRG) receptor ErbB4 is restricted to interneurons in rodents, macaques, and humans. However, little is known about protein expression patterns in other areas of the brain. In situ hybridization studies have shown high ErbB4 mRNA levels in various subcortical areas, suggesting that ErbB4 is also expressed in cell types other than cortical interneurons. Here, using highly-specific monoclonal antibodies, we provide the first extensive report of ErbB4 protein expression throughout the cerebrum of primates. We show that ErbB4 immunoreactivity is high in association cortices, intermediate in sensory cortices, and relatively low in motor cortices. The overall immunoreactivity in the hippocampal formation is intermediate, but is high in a subset of interneurons. We detected the highest overall immunoreactivity in distinct locations of the ventral hypothalamus, medial habenula, intercalated nuclei of the amygdala and structures of the ventral forebrain, such as the islands of Calleja, olfactory tubercle and ventral pallidum, and medium expression in the reticular thalamic nucleus. While this pattern is generally consistent with ErbB4 mRNA expression data, further investigations are needed to identify the exact cellular and subcellular sources of mRNA and protein expression in these areas. In contrast to in situ hybridization in rodents, we detected only low levels of ErbB4-immunoreactivity in mesencephalic dopaminergic nuclei but a diffuse pattern of immunofluorescence that was medium in the dorsal striatum and high in the ventral forebrain, suggesting that most ErbB4 protein in dopaminergic neurons could be transported to axons. We conclude that the NRG-ErbB4 signaling pathway can potentially influence many functional systems throughout the brain of primates, and suggest that major sites of action are areas of the "corticolimbic" network. This interpretation is functionally consistent with the genetic association of NRG1 and ERBB4 with schizophrenia.

  16. Identification of microRNAs in Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus Monkey) by Homology Search and Experimental Validation by Small RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR Using Kidney Cortex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Rival, Pierrick; Prades, Catherine; Mariet, Claire; Léonard, Jean-François; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Zhou, Xiaobing; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo; Ozoux, Marie-Laure; Boitier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) present in tissues and biofluids are emerging as sensitive and specific safety biomarkers. MiRNAs have not been thoroughly described in M. fascicularis, an animal model used in pharmaceutical industry especially in drug safety evaluation. Here we investigated the miRNAs in M. fascicularis. For Macaca mulatta, a closely related species of M. fascicularis, 619 stem-loop precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and 914 mature miRNAs are available in miRBase version 21. Using M. mulatta miRNAs as a reference list and homology search tools, we identified 604 pre-miRNAs and 913 mature miRNAs in the genome of M. fascicularis. In order to validate the miRNAs identified by homology search we attempted to sequence miRNAs expressed in kidney cortex from M. fascicularis. MiRNAs expressed in kidney cortex may indeed be released in urine upon kidney cortex damage and be potentially used to monitor drug induced kidney injury. Hence small RNA sequencing libraries were prepared using kidney cortex tissues obtained from three naive M. fascicularis and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data indicated that 432 out of 913 mature miRNAs were expressed in kidney cortex tissues. Assigning these 432 miRNAs to pre-miRNAs revealed that 273 were expressed from both the -5p and -3p arms of 150 pre-miRNAs and 159 miRNAs expressed from either the -5p or -3p arm of 176 pre-miRNAs. Mapping sequencing reads to pre-miRNAs also facilitated the detection of twenty-two new miRNAs. To substantiate miRNAs identified by small RNA sequencing, 313 miRNAs were examined by RT-qPCR. Expression of 262 miRNAs in kidney cortex tissues ware confirmed by TaqMan microRNA RT-qPCR assays. Analysis of kidney cortex miRNA targeted genes suggested that they play important role in kidney development and function. Data presented in this study may serve as a valuable resource to assess the renal safety biomarker potential of miRNAs in Cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:26562842

  17. Food aversion learning in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). A strategy to avoid a noxious food.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, T; Hasegawa, Y

    1983-01-01

    Japanese monkeys consumed two kinds of food, the novel almonds and the familiar sweet potatoes, simultaneously, and then received a cyclophosphamide injection (20 mg/kg) intravenously. As the food-poison pairing was repeated, they first avoided the novel food completely, and then came to suppress eating the familiar one. During the subsequent extinction tests, the aversion to the familiar food was extinguished rapidly, whereas the aversion to the novel one was retained more than 2 months. In food aversion learning in a mixed situation, monkeys have a strategy to avoid a noxious food on the basis of the novelty of the food.

  18. Stroop-Like Effects for Monkeys and Humans: Processing Speed or Strength of Association?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Stroop-like effects have been found using a variety of paradigms and subject groups. In the present investigation, 6 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and 28 humans exhibited Stroop-like interference and facilitation in a relative-numerousness task. Monkeys, like humans, processed the meanings of the numerical symbols automatically, despite the fact that these meanings were irrelevant to task performance. These data also afforded direct comparison of interpretations of the Stroop effect in terms of processing speed versus association strength. These findings were consistent with parallel-processing models of Stroop-like interference proposed elsewhere, but not with processing-speed accounts posited frequently to explain the effect.

  19. Postnatal change in sulcal length asymmetry in cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Noritaka, Imai; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Yoshihiro, Fukui

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of the onset of adult-type sulcal length asymmetry during postnatal development of the male cynomolgus monkey cerebrum. The monkey brain has already reached adult size by 3 months of age, although the body weight only represents 1/8 of the adult body weight by that time. The fronto-occipital length and the cerebral width also reached adult levels by that postnatal age with no left/right bias. Consistently, lengths of the major primary sulci reached adult levels by 3 months of age, and then decreased slightly in sexually mature monkeys (4-6.5 years of age). Asymmetry quotient analysis showed that sulcal length asymmetry patterns gradually changed during postnatal development. The male adult pattern of sulcal length asymmetry was acquired after 24 months of age. In particular, age-dependent rightward lateralization of the arcuate sulcal length was revealed during cerebral maturation by three-way ANOVA. The results suggest that the regional difference in cerebral maturation from adolescence to young adulthood modifies the sulcal morphology with characteristic asymmetric patterns in male cynomolgus monkeys.

  20. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  1. Isolation and DNA characterization of a simian retrovirus 5 from a Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Takano, Jun-Ichiro; Leon, Arlene; Kato, Miyoko; Abe, Yuko; Fujimoto, Koji

    2013-05-01

    An SRV-like virus was isolated from a colony-born Japanese monkey. To identify this SRV-like virus, we designed universal primers at regions that were conserved among the reported SRV sequences in the 5'-LTR and the short ORF and we obtained plasmid clones containing the complete gag, prt, pol and env genes. The full-length sequences of the isolate were determined from the plasmids and by direct sequencing. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that this SRV-like virus had a sequence identical to the reported 626 bp of SRV-5. In this study, we isolated SRV5/JPN/2005/V1 from a Japanese monkey and characterized the full-length SRV-5 sequence.

  2. The pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) as a space-flight candidate. [for cardiovascular studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Mains, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Scientific attributes which make the pig-tailed monkey an optimal candidate for studing the nature of cardiovascular and respiratory adaptations in man during exposure to high altitutes for long periods of time include: a calm, quiet, patient temperament; a short tail and the presence of ischial callosities permitting comfortable seated restraint during long duration experiments; and the close phylogenetic relationships and comparable body size to man.

  3. Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Kyu; Cho, Jae-Woo; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Heejin; Han, Ji-Seok; Yang, Mi-Jin; Im, Wan-Jung; Park, Do-Yong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Han, Su-Cheol; Kim, Yong-Bum

    2016-06-01

    Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research. PMID:27382375

  4. Sexual dimorphism of sulcal length asymmetry in the cerebrum of adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Imai, Noritaka; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to quantitatively clarify the gross anatomical asymmetry and sexual dimorphism of the cerebral hemispheres of cynomolgus monkeys. While the fronto-occipital length of the right and left cerebral hemispheres was not different between sexes, a statistically significant rightward asymmetry was detected in the cerebral width at the perisylvian region in females, but not in males (narrower width of the left side in the females). An asymmetry quotient of the sulcal lengths revealed a rightward asymmetry in the inferior occipital sulcus and a leftward asymmetry in the central and intraparietal sulci in both sexes. However, the laterality of the lengths of other sulci was different for males and females. The arcuate sulcus was directed rightward in males but there was no rightward bias in females. Interestingly, the principle sulcus and lateral fissure were left-lateralized in the males, but right-lateralized in the females. The results suggest that lateralization patterns are regionally and sexually different in the cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys. The present results provide a reference for quantitatively evaluating the normality of the cerebral cortical morphology in cynomolgus monkeys.

  5. Hemopoiesis in the pig-tailed monkey Macaca nemestrina during chronic altitude exposure.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buderer, M. C.; Pace, N.

    1972-01-01

    Study of monkeys for 180 days at 3800 m altitude to examine their hemopoietic response. Plasma volume was found to be reduced while red cell volume increased steadily for four to five months. Reduction in mean corpuscular hemoglobin content was observed from day 30 to day 120 at altitude. Total plasma protein concentration was unchanged at altitude, but marked reduction in the albumin/globulin ratio occurred. Total circulating plasma protein and albumin were reduced in amount, whereas nonalbumin protein was unchanged. These results imply loss of albumin coupled with a corresponding loss of water from the blood and maintenance of normal plasma osmotic pressure. The body/venous hematocrit ratio was found to be reduced at altitude, possibly as a consequence of the expanded capillary volume of the body. The hemopoietic responses of the pig-tailed monkey at altitude require at least several months for completion, and closely resemble those seen in man; thus, the monkey can serve well for long-term studies of high-altitude acclimatization.

  6. Social stress-associated depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Register, Thomas C; Friedman, David P; Morgan, Timothy M; Thompson, Jalonda; Lanier, Tasha

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a behavior pattern in adult female cynomolgus monkeys that has several behavioral and physiological characteristics in common with human depression including reduced body fat, low levels of activity, high heart rate, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, and increased mortality. Under certain circumstances, this depressive behavior appears more common in socially stressed subordinate, than dominant, females. This is the first animal model of social stress-related depression in females and the first primate model of adult depression. It is important to have a female animal model of depression because women are more likely to experience a clinically significant depression than men, and depression in women is often associated with changes in reproductive system function. This model is particularly useful because these monkeys have menstrual cycles that are similar to those of women, and those that exhibit depressive behavior have relatively low levels of ovarian steroids. These monkeys may be a useful model of reproductive system-associated mood disorders in females.

  7. Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Kyu; Cho, Jae-Woo; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Heejin; Han, Ji-Seok; Yang, Mi-Jin; Im, Wan-Jung; Park, Do-Yong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Han, Su-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research. PMID:27382375

  8. Infinium monkeys: Infinium 450K array for the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ong, Mei-Lyn; Tan, Peck Yean; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Cheong, Clara Y; Stunkel, Walter; Chan, Louiza; Gluckman, Peter D; Chng, Keefe; Kobor, Michael S; Meaney, Michael J; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2014-05-08

    The Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip Array (Infinium 450K) is a robust and cost-efficient survey of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) is an important disease model; however, its genome sequence is only recently published, and few tools exist to interrogate the molecular state of Cynomolgus macaque tissues. Although the Infinium 450K is a hybridization array designed to the human genome, the relative conservation between the macaque and human genomes makes its use in macaques feasible. Here, we used the Infinium 450K array to assay DNA methylation in 11 macaque muscle biopsies. We showed that probe hybridization efficiency was related to the degree of sequence identity between the human probes and the macaque genome sequence. Approximately 61% of the Human Infinium 450K probes could be reliably mapped to the Cynomolgus macaque genome and contain a CpG site of interest. We also compared the Infinium 450K data to reduced representation bisulfite sequencing data generated on the same samples and found a high level of concordance between the two independent methodologies, which can be further improved by filtering for probe sequence identity and mismatch location. We conclude that the Infinium 450K array can be used to measure the DNA methylome of Cynomolgus macaque tissues using the provided filters. We also provide a pipeline for validation of the array in other species using a simple BLAST-based sequence identify filter.

  9. Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) spontaneously associate alarm calls with snakes appearing in the left visual field.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Masahiro; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Koda, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    Many socially living animals are sensitive to a potential predator as part of their antipredator strategy. Alarm calls function to deter predators and to help other group members detect danger. The left visual field is involved in detection of potential threats or predators in many vertebrates, but it is unclear how alarm calls influence visual detection of a potential predator. Here, we experimentally examined how alarm calls spontaneously influence the search for pictures of a potential predator in captive Japanese macaques. We used an audiovisual preferential-looking paradigm by presenting pictures of a snake and a flower simultaneous with either a recording of alarm calls or contact calls. We found no difference in gaze duration between the 2 picture types when playing back contact calls. Monkeys looked significantly longer at pictures of snakes than at those of flowers when alarm calls were played back if the snake pictures were presented on the left side of the monkey's visual field, indicating right hemispheric bias during processing of predator representations. This is the first laboratory demonstration of auditory enhancement of visual detection of predators in the left visual field in animals, which will contribute to a better understanding of alarm call studies conducted in the wild.

  10. A Naturally Occurring Outbreak of Tuberculosis in a Group of Imported Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Panarella, Matthew L; Bimes, Randy S

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis of tuberculosis (caused primarily by Mycobacterium bovis) in a group of newly imported Chinese origin cynomolgus monkeys. We also describe the use of sedation to enhance the accuracy of evaluation of the intrapalpebral tuberculin skin test using the mammalian old tuberculin reagent and report the first known diagnosis of Mycobacterium paraffinicum in a nonhuman primate. By 48 h after injection during the second tuberculin skin test, 6 of the 80 macaques had developed eyelid reactions ranging from mild (grade 1) to severe (grade 4). Given the range and severity of reactions, we suspected an outbreak of tuberculosis in the group. Because of the nature of the reactions, we sedated the animals at the 72-h evaluation to more closely observe and then palpate the injected eyelid. Evaluation of unsedated animals revealed 22 with a reaction to mammalian old tuberculin. We confirmed these 22 cases and identified an additional 11 animals with reactions when the monkeys were sedated. Mycobacterial culture of tissue from 6 macaques with reactions confirmed M. bovis in 3 animals. In addition, 1 of these 3 animals was culture-positive for both M. bovis and M. paraffinicum, and another was culture-positive for M. avium complex only. The addition of sedation to facilitate visual inspection and then palpation of the injected eyelid of these macaques increased the accuracy of evaluation and understanding of the number and severity of reactions to tuberculin skin testing. PMID:20353699

  11. The Complete Genome and Genetic Characteristics of SRV-4 Isolated from Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Zao, Chih-Ling; Armstrong, Karyn; Tomanek, Lisa; Cooke, Anthony; Berger, Ron; Estep, J. Scot; Marx, Preston A.; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Smith, David G.; Yee, JoAnn L.; Lerche, Nicholas W.

    2010-01-01

    At least 5 serotypes of exogenous simian retrovirus type D (SRV/D) have been found in nonhuman primates, but only SRV-1, 2 and 3 have been completely sequenced. SRV-4 was recovered once from cynomolgus macaques in California in 1984, but its genome sequences are unknown. Here we report the second identification of SRV-4 and its complete genome from infected cynomolgus macaques with Indochinese and Indonesian/Indochinese mixed ancestry. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SRV-4 was distantly related to SRV-1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7. SRV/D-T, a new SRV/D recovered in 2005 from cynomolgus monkeys at Tsukuba Primate Center in Japan, clustered with the SRV-4 isolates from California and Texas and was shown to be another occurrence of SRV-4 infection. The repeated occurrence of SRV-4 in cynomolgus monkeys in different areas of the world and across 25 years suggests that this species is the natural host of SRV-4. PMID:20615522

  12. Two types of periglomerular cells in the olfactory bulb of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Liberia, Teresa; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Nácher, Juan; Varea, Emilio; Lanciego, José Luis; Crespo, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals is the brain region that receives the sensory information coming from the olfactory epithelium. The entrance of the olfactory information occurs in spherical structures of neuropil named olfactory glomeruli and is modulated by a population of interneurons known as periglomerular cells (PG). It has been demonstrated that there are two types of PG in the OB of some macrosmatic mammals, including rats and mice. Type 1 PG (PG-1) receive synapses from the olfactory nerve, whereas type 2 PG (PG-2) do not receive synapses from the olfactory axons. To date, the presence of the two types of PG has not been investigated in microsmatic mammals. In this context, we analyze the presence of PG-1 and PG-2 in the OB of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). For that, we used the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, the neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase and the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k and calretinin as neurochemical markers. Our results demonstrate that the OB of the macaque contains PG-1 and PG-2. A subpopulation of PG-1 expresses tyrosine hydroxylase and another expresses the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, a subpopulation of PG-2 expresses calbindin D-28k and another expresses calretinin. Double immunofluorescence demonstrates that there is no colocalization of two markers in the same PG. These results mimic those found in macrosmatic animals. The presence of two types of PG in the glomerular circuits seems to be a key principle for the organization of the OB of mammals.

  13. An ultrastructural study of the stellate ganglion of the pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed Central

    Leong, S K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    The stellate ganglia of Macaca nemestrina were studied with the electron microscope, using the conventional and chromate-dichromate methods of aldehyde fixation. The principal neurons are multipolar and mostly mononucleated. They measure between 10 and 50 microns in their average somal diameters. The organelles of the perikaryon are arranged in perinuclear, intermediate and peripheral zones. Unusual organelles consisting of stacks of closely apposed paired membranes, with or without dense bodies studded on their surfaces, are encountered. Nuclear eccentricity is a regular feature of the neuron and the nuclear membrane shows a varying degree of invagination. All parts of the neurons are surrounded by satellite or Schwann cells though dendritic surfaces in direct contact with the basal lamina associated with the satellite cells are not uncommonly seen. Features peculiar to dendrites have been described. Structures resembling dendritic growth cones are present in abundance. Most synapses are axodendritic; axosomatic synapses are much less frequently encountered. While most synapses are of the simple type, complex types are also present. Desmosome-like junctional complexes exist between dendrites, dendrites and somata and axons and dendrites. Differences between Schwann cells of myelinated axons and those of myelinated axons and satellite cells have been noted. In addition to an abundance of macrophages, other connective tissue cells such as mast cells, fibroblasts and plasma cells are also present. Degenerative profiles observed include neuronal cell bodies and cell processes, especially dendrites. They are phagocytosed by the satellite cells and macrophages. The presence of degenerative profiles, chromatolytic neurons and structures resembling dendritic growth cones in the normal stellate ganglion has been discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Figs. 19

  14. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. PMID:27388917

  15. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.

  16. Concentration of radiocesium in the wild Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) over the first 15 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Omi, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    Following the massive earthquake that struck eastern Japan on March 11, 2011, a nuclear reactor core meltdown occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company, and was followed by the release of large amounts of radioactive materials. The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of radiocesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the muscle of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City and to determine the change in concentration over time as well as the relationship with the level of soil contamination. Cesium concentrations in the muscle of monkeys captured at locations with 100,000-300,000 Bq/m(2) were 6,000-25,000 Bq/kg in April 2011 and decreased over 3 months to around 1,000 Bq/kg. However, the concentration increased again to 2,000-3,000 Bq/kg in some animals during and after December 2011 before returning to 1,000 Bq/kg in April 2012, after which it remained relatively constant. This pattern of change in muscle radiocesium concentration was similar to that of the change in radiocesium concentration in atmospheric fallout. Moreover, the monkeys feed on winter buds and the cambium layer of tree bark potentially containing higher concentrations of radiocesium than that in the diet during the rest of the year. The muscle radiocesium concentration in the monkeys related significantly with the level of soil contamination at the capture locations.

  17. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    CUI, Ding; ZHOU, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status. PMID:26646570

  18. Co-localization of glycine and gaba immunoreactivity in interneurons in Macaca monkey cerebellar cortex.

    PubMed

    Crook, J; Hendrickson, A; Robinson, F R

    2006-09-15

    Previous work demonstrates that the cerebellum uses glycine as a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter [Ottersen OP, Davanger S, Storm-Mathisen J (1987) Glycine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebellum of rat and Senegalese baboon, Papio papio: a comparison with the distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity and with [3H]glycine and [3H]GABA uptake. Exp Brain Res 66(1):211-221; Ottersen OP, Storm-Mathisen J, Somogyi P (1988) Colocalization of glycine-like and GABA-like immunoreactivities in Golgi cell terminals in the rat cerebellum: a postembedding light and electron microscopic study. Brain Res 450(1-2):342-353; Dieudonne S (1995) Glycinergic synaptic currents in Golgi cells of the rat cerebellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:1441-1445; Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057; Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498; Zeilhofer HU, Studler B, Arabadzisz D, Schweizer C, Ahmadi S, Layh B, Bosl MR, Fritschy JM (2005) Glycinergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice. J Comp Neurol 482(2):123-141]. In the rat cerebellum glycine is not released by itself but is released together with GABA by Lugaro cells onto Golgi cells [Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057] and by Golgi cells onto unipolar brush and granule cells [Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498]. Here we report, from immunolabeling evidence in Macaca cerebellum, that interneurons in the granular cell layer are glycine+ at a density

  19. Metaphase yields from staphylococcal enterotoxin A stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes of unirradiated and irradiated aged rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, F. S.; Cox, A. B.; Salmon, Y. L.; Cantu, A. O.; Lucas, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    The mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) works well in both human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) lymphocyte cultures to stimulate T cell proliferation. T cells from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are less responsive than human cells, producing few metaphases when thousands are required, e.g. in biological dosimetry studies. We show that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), one of the most potent mitogens known, at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml stimulated peripheral lymphocytes to grow with a mitotic index (MI) averaging 0.13 metaphases/cell in old, irradiated rhesus macaques. This was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that produced by PHA (MI < 0.01) in lymphocytes from the same animals. Whole blood was cultured for 96, 120 and 144 h for five irradiated individuals and for two controls. All cells cultured with SEA produced a high MI with a peak response at 120 h whereas the same cultures showed low MI for each PHA stimulated culture.

  20. Hemorrhagic lesions in stomach of rhesus monkey caused by a piscine ascaridoid nematode.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, R M; Meyer, G W

    1981-04-01

    Within a few hours after being administered to the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), Hysterothylacium type MB larvae penetrated the stomach wall, causing hemorrhage and attracting eosinophils. Inocula up to 300 larvae, however, did not cause peripheral hypereosinophilia. This species is the first ascaridoid which normally matures in fish that has been shown to penetrate the alimentary tract of a primate. Consequently, human consumption of raw seafood from at least the northern Gulf of Mexico free from infections, with Anisakis spp., Phocanema decipiens, or other species that mature in mammals or birds does not necessarily assure freedom from anisakiasis as previously assumed. PMID:6972442

  1. The effect of oral contraceptives in malaria infections in rhesus monkeys*

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William E.; Campbell, Carlos C.; Barber, Ann; Skinner, Jimmie C.; Huong, Alan Y.

    1984-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, were treated with the oral contraceptives Brevicon (norethisterone with ethinylestradiol) and Ovral (norgestrel with ethinylestradiol), and subsequently inoculated with the simian malaria parasites Plasmodium cynomologi bastianellii or P. coatneyi. Parasitological, serological, and serum biochemical studies indicated that although there were some significant differences, in general the patterns of response to infection in both treated and control animals were similar. During the primary infection, however, Brevicon resulted in increased levels of parasitaemia, whereas Ovral resulted in decreased parasitaemias, as compared with the untreated control animals. There were no differences in the responses following secondary parasite infection. PMID:6333297

  2. A fruit in hand is worth many more in the bush: steep spatial discounting by free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kralik, Jerald D; Sampson, William W L

    2012-03-01

    Decision making is one of the principal cognitive processes underlying goal-directed behaviour and thus there is justifiably strong interest in modeling it. However, many of these models have yet to be tested outside of the laboratory. At the same time, field work would benefit from the use of experimental methods developed in the laboratory to determine the causal relationships between environmental variables and behaviour. We therefore adapted a laboratory-derived experimental paradigm to test decision making in the wild. The experiment used an indifference-point procedure to determine the influence of both the amount and distance of food on choice behaviour. Free-ranging rhesus monkeys were given the choice between a smaller amount of food at a closer distance and a larger amount farther away. In four conditions, we held the closer amount constant across trials and varied the farther amount to determine the point at which the monkeys were indifferent to the choice alternatives. For example, in condition one, we used one piece of food at the closer location, and determined how many pieces would be equivalent in the farther location. Four different closer amounts were tested to obtain an indifference point curve, with the indifference amounts at the farther location plotted against the closer amounts. The slope of the obtained linear indifference curve was surprisingly high, suggesting that rhesus monkeys significantly discount food that is farther away. Possible reasons for this steep spatial discounting are discussed.

  3. Localization of [3H]nicotine, [3H]cytisine, [3H]epibatidine, and [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in the brain of Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Yan; Zoli, Michele; Cardona, Ana; Bourgeois, Jean-Pierre; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2003-06-16

    We determined the localization of [(3)H]nicotine, [(3)H]cytisine, [(3)H]epibatidine, and [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in the brain of rhesus monkey by means of receptor autoradiography. The labelings by [(3)H]nicotine, [(3)H]cytisine, and [(3)H]epibatidine were highly concordant, except for epibatidine. Layer IV of some cortical areas, most thalamic nuclei, and presubiculum displayed high levels of labeling for the three ligands. Moderate levels of binding were detected in the subiculum, the septum, and the mesencephalon. Low levels were present in layers I-II and VI of the cortex, the cornu Ammonis, the dentate gyrus, and the amygdala. In addition, the level of epibatidine labeling was very high in the epithalamic nuclei and the interpeduncular nucleus, whereas labeling by nicotine and cytisine was very weak in the same regions. The distribution of [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding differed from the binding of the three agonists. The labeling was dense in layer I of most cortical areas, dentate gyrus, stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 field, several thalamic nuclei, and medial habenula. A moderate labeling was found in layers V and VI of the prefrontal and frontal cortices, layer IV of primary visual cortex, amygdala, septum, hypothalamus, and some mesencenphalic nuclei. A weak signal was also detected in subiculum, claustrum, stratum oriens, and stratum lucidum of cornu Ammonis and also in some mesencephalic nuclei. The distribution of nicotine, cytisine, and epibatidine bindings corresponds broadly to the patterns observed in rodents, with the marked exception of the epithalamus. However, in monkey, those distributions match the distribution of alpha2 messenger RNA, rather than that of alpha4 transcripts as it exists in rodent brains. The distribution of the binding sites for alpha-bungarotoxin is larger in the brain of rhesus monkeys than in rodent brain, suggesting a more important role of alpha7 receptors in primates.

  4. Comparative Efficacies of Two Antimony Regimens To Treat Leishmania braziliensis-Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)▿

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, G.; Porrozzi, R.; Friedrich, K.; Teva, A.; Marchevsky, R. S.; Vieira, F.; Miekeley, N.; Paumgartten, F. J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the efficacies of two N-methylglucomine antimoniate (MA) dose regimens for treating macaques with Leishmania braziliensis-induced chronic skin disease. Whereas all animals treated with the full dose (20 mg MA/kg/day) were cured, 50% of the monkeys receiving a low-dose regimen (5 mg MA/kg/day) relapsed. The antimony concentrations in macaque plasma and tissue samples were greater in the full-dose group than in that receiving a subtherapeutic MA regimen. Our data also suggest the presence of drug-induced hepatic pathology. PMID:19822700

  5. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  6. Visible lesion laser thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) retina with a 1064 nm 12-ns pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Kumru, Semih S.

    2007-02-01

    A series of experiments in a new animal model for retinal damage, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), have been conducted to determine the damage threshold for 12.5-nanosecond laser exposures at 1064 nm. These results provide a direct comparison to threshold values obtained in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), which is the model historically used in establishing retinal maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits. In this study, the irradiance level of a collimated Gaussian laser beam of 2.5 mm diameter at the cornea was randomly varied to produce a rectangular grid of exposures on the retina. Exposures sites were fundoscopically evaluated at post-irradiance intervals of 1 hour and 24 hours. Probit analysis was performed on dose-response data to obtain probability of response curves. The 50% probability of damage (ED50) values for 1 and 24 hours post-exposure are 28.5(22.7-38.4) μJ and 17.0(12.9-21.8) μJ, respectively. These values compare favorably to data obtained with the rhesus model, 28.7(22.3-39.3) μJ and 19.1(13.6-24.4) μJ, suggesting that the cynomolgus monkey may be a suitable replacement for rhesus monkey in photoacoustic minimum visible lesion threshold studies.

  7. Cardiopulmonary effects of thiopental versus propofol as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in chair trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Lee, Yun-Jin; Jung, Kyeong-Cheon; Park, Seong-Hoe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium. PMID:27051438

  8. Orally Ingested 13C2-Retinol is Incorporated into Hepatic Retinyl Esters in a Nonhuman Primate (Macaca mulatta) Model of Hypervitaminosis A

    PubMed Central

    Escaron, Anne L; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the metabolism of vitamin A during hypervitaminosis is largely unknown. This study investigated hepatic 13C-retinol uptake in hypervitaminotic A rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that individual retinyl esters would be enriched in 13C after a physiologic dose of 13C2-retinyl acetate, thus suggesting de novo in vivo hepatic retinol esterification. Male rhesus macaques (n = 16; 11.8 ± 2.9 y) each received 3.5 µmol 14, 15-13C2-retinyl acetate. Blood was drawn at baseline and 5 h and 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after administration. Liver biopsies were collected 7 d before and 2 d after dose administration (n = 4) and at 7, 14, and 28 d after dose administration (n = 4 per time point). 13C enrichments of retinol and retinyl esters HPLC-purified from liver samples were measured by using gas chromatography–combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry. 13C enrichment of total vitamin A and individual retinyl esters were significantly greater 2 d after dose administration compared with baseline levels. In contrast, the concentration of isolated retinyl esters did not always increase 2 d after treatment. Given that the liver biopsy site differed between monkeys, these data suggest that the accumulation of hepatic retinyl esters is a dynamic process that is better represented by combining analytical techniques. This sensitive methodology can be used to characterize vitamin A trafficking after physiologic doses of 13C-retinol. In this nonhuman primate model of hypervitaminosis A, hepatic retinyl esters continued to accumulate with high liver stores. PMID:20158952

  9. Cardiopulmonary effects of thiopental versus propofol as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in chair trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Lee, Yun-Jin; Jung, Kyeong-Cheon; Park, Seong-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Il

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium. PMID:27051438

  10. An SNP marker at the STAT6 locus can identify the hybrids between rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) in Thailand: a rapid and simple screening method and its application.

    PubMed

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Hamada, Yuzuru; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was developed to genetically discriminate rhesus (Macaca mulatta) macaques from long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques. The 745 bp PCR amplicon of the STAT6 locus that spans a potentially species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker was digested with ApaI and gel electrophoresed to give (1) two (234 and 511 bp), (2) one (745 bp) and (3) three (234, 511 and 745 bp) band patterns that correspond to the genotypes G/G (long-tailed macaque specific homozygote), A/A (rhesus macaque specific homozygote) and A/G (hybrid specific heterozygote), respectively. The diagnostic robustness and efficiency of this PCR-RFLP assay was tested on wild rhesus and long-tailed macaques inhabiting Thailand and a known hybrid population. The Indochinese and Sundaic long-tailed macaque samples (n = 18) all showed a homozygous G/G pattern, while the Indochinese rhesus macaques (n = 10) all showed a homozygous A/A pattern. The rhesus/long-tailed hybrid population at Khao Khieow Open Zoo, which resulted from an introduced group of rhesus macaques that hybridized with the indigenous long-tailed macaques about 20 years ago, revealed 47% (56/118 samples analyzed) with the heterogenous A/G genotype. In addition, the frequency of the rhesus-specific allele A significantly decreased in the hybrid population during 2006-2014, where a strong association between the STAT6 genotype and the morphology of the individuals was detected. In conclusion, a robust PCR-RFLP assay allows a simple, effective and inexpensive approach, in particular for field studies, to assess hybrid individuals between rhesus and long-tailed macaques. Although this assay cannot conclusively identify all the hybrids over two or more generations, it at least can allow the evaluation of the process of hybridization, and so it is applicable to the assessment of the status of natural or anthropogenic hybridization between the two

  11. Use of p63, a Myoepithelial Cell Marker, in Determining the Invasiveness of Spontaneous Mammary Neoplasia in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Fritze, Misty J; Scholz, Jodi A Carlson; Bossuyt, Veerle; Booth, Carmen J

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a case of mammary gland ductal carcinoma in an aged rhesus macaque. Tumors were diagnosed based on routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. Invasiveness was further characterized by p63 immunohistochemistry. p63 is a p53 homolog that strongly and specifically stains nuclei of myoepithelial cells in human and canine mammary tissue. Because p63 has an affinity for the nucleus of myoepithelial cells, it is readily visible. Staining of mammary tissue from the monkey for p63 revealed that multiple foci of neoplastic cells had breached the myoepithelial cell layer surrounding ducts, suggesting the potential for local invasion of the tumor. Regional metastasis was confirmed at necropsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented use of p63 for effectively determining the invasive nature of a mammary tumor in a nonhuman primate and the first use of p63 as an effective means of staining myoepithelial cells in a mammary ductal carcinoma in a nonhuman primate. Because nonhuman primates are important animal models for human diseases, including neoplasia, this method may prove useful for both diagnostic and research purposes. PMID:21439221

  12. Reproductive senescence in female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata): age- and season-related changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian functions and fecundity rates.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, M; Mitsunaga, F; Shimizu, K

    1995-06-01

    Age- and season-related changes in gonadotropin-gonadal functions were studied in captive female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata), with special reference to reproductive senescence. In experiment 1, a total of 57 nonlactating females at ages 3-32 yr were used. Blood samples were collected for at least one breeding season (September through March), and changes in plasma concentrations of LH, estradiol, and progesterone were examined. In experiment 2, two groups of females (older females, n = 5, over 21 yr old; mature females, n = 5, aged 8-12 yr) received s.c. injections of 50 micrograms/kg of estradiol benzoate during the mid-breeding season. In experiment 1, ovarian functions as well as fecundity rates were maintained in the animals aged 5-20 yr. A decline in ovarian activity became apparent at 21-25 yr of age, when animals exhibited a slight increase in plasma LH during the breeding season. Onset of menopause occurred at around 27 yr of age, near the end of the life span. Menopausal females exhibited a marked seasonal difference in plasma LH concentrations, with high levels during the breeding season. In experiment 2, estradiol treatment elicited an LH surge in both old and mature females. The marked seasonal difference in plasma LH, as well as the maintenance of LH response to estradiol in menopausal females, suggests a possibility that biannual changes in sensitivity of the hypothalamo-hypophysial axis to the negative feedback action of estradiol are maintained even after menopause.

  13. Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya virus antibody prevalence among captive monkey (Macaca nemestrina) colonies of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nakgoi, Khajornpong; Nitatpattana, Narong; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Yoksan, Sutee; Siripolwat, Voravit; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of macaque Macaca nemestrina leonina in Thailand to be infected by endemic arboviruses was assessed. The prevalence of antibodies of three arboviruses actively circulating in Thailand was determined by Plaque Reduction Neutralization assay procedures using samples from captive colonies in Northern Thailand. Out of 38 macaques, 9 (24%) presented reacting antibodies against dengue virus, 5 (13%) against Japanese encephalitis virus, and 4 (10%) against Chikungunya virus. Our results indicate that the northern pig-tailed macaque in Thailand can be infected by these arboviruses, inferring therefore that their virus specific vectors have bitten them. Given that, northern pig-tailed macaque represents an abundant population, living in close range to human or in peridomestic setting, they could play a role as potential reservoir host for arboviruses circulating in Thailand.

  14. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  15. NUTRITIONAL CYTOPENIA (VITAMIN M DEFICIENCY) IN THE MONKEY.

    PubMed

    Langston, W C; Darby, W J; Shukers, C F; Day, P L

    1938-10-31

    Young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given a diet containing casein, polished rice, whole wheat, salt mixture, sodium chloride, cod liver oil, and ascorbic acid. They developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, leukopenia, and loss of weight. Ulceration of the gums and diarrhea were common, and death occurred between the 26th and 100th day. 4 monkeys were given the deficient diet supplemented with 1 mg. of riboflavin daily, and these developed the characteristic signs and died. in periods of time similar to the survival of monkeys receiving the deficient diet alone. Nicotinic acid, either alone or in combination with riboflavin and thiamin chloride, failed to alter appreciably the course of the deficiency manifestations. Thus, it is evident that this nutritional cytopenia is not the result of a deficiency of vitamin B, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid. The deficient diet supplemented with either 10 gm. of dried brewers' yeast or 2 gm. of liver extract (Cohn fraction G) daily supported good growth, permitted normal body development, and maintained a normal blood picture over long periods. It is obvious that yeast and liver extract contain a substance essential to the nutrition of the monkey which is not identical with any of those factors of the vitamin B complex that have been chemically identified. We have proposed the term vitamin M for this factor which prevents nutritional cytopenia in the monkey.

  16. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  17. Monkeys show recognition without priming in a classification task

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans show visual perceptual priming by identifying degraded images faster and more accurately if they have seen the original images, while simultaneously failing to recognize the same images. Such priming is commonly thought, with little evidence, to be widely distributed phylogenetically. Following Brodbeck (1997), we trained rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to categorize photographs according to content (e.g., birds, fish, flowers, people). In probe trials, we tested whether monkeys were faster or more accurate at categorizing degraded versions of previously seen images (primed) than degraded versions of novel images (unprimed). Monkeys categorized reliably, but showed no benefit from having previously seen the images. This finding was robust across manipulations of image quality (color, grayscale, line drawings), type of image degradation (occlusion, blurring), levels of processing, and number of repetitions of the prime. By contrast, in probe matching-to-sample trials, monkeys recognized the primes, demonstrating that they remembered the primes and could discriminate them from other images in the same category under the conditions used to test for priming. Two experiments that replicated Brodbeck’s (1997) procedures also produced no evidence of priming. This inability to find priming in monkeys under perceptual conditions sufficient for recognition presents a puzzle. PMID:22975587

  18. Prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in a captive colony of macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M D; Letvin, N L; Sehgal, P K; Schmidt, D K; Silva, D P; Solomon, K R; Hodi, F S; Ringler, D J; Hunt, R D; King, N W

    1988-04-15

    The prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in the macaque colony of the New England Regional Primate Research Center (NERPRC) was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures as well as radioimmunoprecipitation-SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescence tests. Out of 848 macaques, 3 (0.35%) had antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 27 (3.2%) had antibodies to simian T-lymphotropic virus type I (STLV-1) and approximately 285 (34%) had antibodies to type D retrovirus. Of 3 macaques infected with SIV, 2 were rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and I was a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). STLV-1 and D retrovirus infection occurred in all 4 macaque species examined. SIV, STLV-1 and D retroviruses were isolated from sero-positive macaques. The low prevalence of SIV infection suggests that SIV is not being readily transmitted among macaques at NERPRC; this contrasts markedly with the high SIV prevalence in some captive mangabey colonies. In contrast to African green monkeys from eastern Africa, 160 Caribbean green monkeys examined showed no sign of SIV infection. These results provide a framework for monitoring spontaneous disease associated with infection by these 3 retroviruses and will help in further definition of STLV-1 and SIV infection of non-human primates as animal models for human disease.

  19. Standardized full-field electroretinography in the Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Palmour, Roberta M; Bouchard, Jean-François; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Full-field electroretinography is an objective measure of retinal function, serving as an important diagnostic clinical tool in ophthalmology for evaluating the integrity of the retina. Given the similarity between the anatomy and physiology of the human and Green Monkey eyes, this species has increasingly become a favorable non-human primate model for assessing ocular defects in humans. To test this model, we obtained full-field electroretinographic recordings (ERG) and normal values for standard responses required by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Photopic and scotopic ERG recordings were obtained by full-field stimulation over a range of 6 log units of intensity in dark-adapted or light-adapted eyes of adult Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Intensity, duration, and interval of light stimuli were varied separately. Reproducible values of amplitude and latency were obtained for the a- and b-waves, under well-controlled adaptation and stimulus conditions; the i-wave was also easily identifiable and separated from the a-b-wave complex in the photopic ERG. The recordings obtained in the healthy Green Monkey matched very well with those in humans and other non-human primate species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis). These results validate the Green Monkey as an excellent non-human primate model, with potential to serve for testing retinal function following various manipulations such as visual deprivation or drug evaluation. PMID:25360686

  20. Standardized Full-Field Electroretinography in the Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Palmour, Roberta M.; Bouchard, Jean-François; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Full-field electroretinography is an objective measure of retinal function, serving as an important diagnostic clinical tool in ophthalmology for evaluating the integrity of the retina. Given the similarity between the anatomy and physiology of the human and Green Monkey eyes, this species has increasingly become a favorable non-human primate model for assessing ocular defects in humans. To test this model, we obtained full-field electroretinographic recordings (ERG) and normal values for standard responses required by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Photopic and scotopic ERG recordings were obtained by full-field stimulation over a range of 6 log units of intensity in dark-adapted or light-adapted eyes of adult Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Intensity, duration, and interval of light stimuli were varied separately. Reproducible values of amplitude and latency were obtained for the a- and b-waves, under well-controlled adaptation and stimulus conditions; the i-wave was also easily identifiable and separated from the a-b-wave complex in the photopic ERG. The recordings obtained in the healthy Green Monkey matched very well with those in humans and other non-human primate species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis). These results validate the Green Monkey as an excellent non-human primate model, with potential to serve for testing retinal function following various manipulations such as visual deprivation or drug evaluation. PMID:25360686

  1. Interspecies activity correlations reveal functional correspondence between monkey and human brain areas.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-02-05

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. For cases in which functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assessed similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we revealed regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models.

  2. Visual Expertise Does Not Predict the Composite Effect across Species: A Comparison between Spider ("Ateles geoffroyi") and Rhesus ("Macaca mulatta") Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as "different" when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We…

  3. Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) quickly detect snakes but not spiders: Evolutionary origins of fear-relevant animals.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koda, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Humans quickly detect the presence of evolutionary threats through visual perception. Many theorists have considered humans to be predisposed to respond to both snakes and spiders as evolutionarily fear-relevant stimuli. Evidence supports that human adults, children, and snake-naive monkeys all detect pictures of snakes among pictures of flowers more quickly than vice versa, but recent neurophysiological and behavioral studies suggest that spiders may, in fact, be processed similarly to nonthreat animals. The evidence of quick detection and rapid fear learning by primates is limited to snakes, and no such evidence exists for spiders, suggesting qualitative differences between fear of snakes and fear of spiders. Here, we show that snake-naive Japanese monkeys detect a single snake picture among 8 nonthreat animal pictures (koala) more quickly than vice versa; however, no such difference in detection was observed between spiders and pleasant animals. These robust differences between snakes and spiders are the most convincing evidence that the primate visual system is predisposed to pay attention to snakes but not spiders. These findings suggest that attentional bias toward snakes has an evolutionary basis but that bias toward spiders is more due to top-down, conceptually driven effects of emotion on attention capture. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Combined effects of Depo-Provera and Fadrozole on the sexual behavior of intact male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zumpe, D; Michael, R P

    1994-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that treating castrated, testosterone-treated male cynomolgus monkeys with Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate, MPA) decreased ejaculatory performance and also measures of male sexual motivation by about 40%. Similarly, treating castrated, testosterone-treated males with the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, decreased ejaculatory performance and male sexual motivation again by about 40%. These behavioral decrements are, of course, mediated by totally different mechanisms. We have therefore hypothesized that both unchanged T and E2 might be important for the control of sexual behavior in this male primate, and the present study examined the consequences of administering Fadrozole at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day to intact male cynomolgus monkeys being treated with 40 mg/week MPA. Intact males were each tested with an ovariectomized, E2-treated female partner (i) before treatment, (ii) during treatment with MPA alone, and (iii) during treatment with MPA and either Fadrozole or water administered SC by osmotic minipumps. As in previous studies, MPA significantly decreased plasma T levels and sexual behavior. But additional treatment with Fadrozole resulted in a rapid increase in plasma T levels although causing a further decline in sexual behavior. Results supported the view that both unchanged T and its aromatized product are important for ejaculatory activity and sexual motivation in the primate. Fadrozole's effect on plasma T may have been due to the elimination of the negative feedback of E2 on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  5. The influence of diet on the growth of streptococcal bacteria on the molar teeth of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Beighton, D; Hayday, H

    1986-01-01

    The rates of regrowth of bacteria in developmental grooves on these teeth were determined. Plaque was removed from palatal grooves up to 96 h after cleaning and the number of bacteria and of individual streptococcal species were determined; Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitior were the major ones. In monkeys fed one of three different diets, the numbers of each species reached stable levels 18-24 h after tooth cleaning. The median doubling times of the streptococcal population were 4.69, 3.82 and 4.25 h for two maintenance diets and a sucrose diet, respectively. The median doubling times of individual species ranged from 2.01 to 4.38 h and appeared to be independent of the composition of the various diets. There was no difference in the number of bacteria in 18 h-old plaque from discrete sites in fed or fasted monkeys, nor in the numbers of streptococci, except that the size of the Strep. mitior population increased significantly with fasting. Thus host-derived substrates, possibly salivary components, may be used by plaque bacteria and support their on growth in developmental grooves in the absence of food.

  6. Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) quickly detect snakes but not spiders: Evolutionary origins of fear-relevant animals.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koda, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Humans quickly detect the presence of evolutionary threats through visual perception. Many theorists have considered humans to be predisposed to respond to both snakes and spiders as evolutionarily fear-relevant stimuli. Evidence supports that human adults, children, and snake-naive monkeys all detect pictures of snakes among pictures of flowers more quickly than vice versa, but recent neurophysiological and behavioral studies suggest that spiders may, in fact, be processed similarly to nonthreat animals. The evidence of quick detection and rapid fear learning by primates is limited to snakes, and no such evidence exists for spiders, suggesting qualitative differences between fear of snakes and fear of spiders. Here, we show that snake-naive Japanese monkeys detect a single snake picture among 8 nonthreat animal pictures (koala) more quickly than vice versa; however, no such difference in detection was observed between spiders and pleasant animals. These robust differences between snakes and spiders are the most convincing evidence that the primate visual system is predisposed to pay attention to snakes but not spiders. These findings suggest that attentional bias toward snakes has an evolutionary basis but that bias toward spiders is more due to top-down, conceptually driven effects of emotion on attention capture. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078076

  7. Accumulation of brown pigment-laden macrophages associated with vascular lesions in the lungs of cynomolgus monkeys(Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Yoshika; Ide, Tetsuya; Mitori, Hikaru; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    Accumulation of macrophages containing brown pigments in the lungs is a well-known spontaneous lesion found in cynomolgus monkey. However, its pathogenesis has not been clearly described. In our survey, brown pigment-laden macrophages were found in the lungs of 4 out of 43 cases. Brown pigments were mostly found in the macrophages of the perivascular interstitium, which proved to be hemosiderin. Some small- to medium-sized vessels that exhibited prominent accumulation of brown pigment-laden macrophages showed degeneration and necrosis of the smooth muscle cells of tunica media. Furthermore, ruptures of the internal and external elastic laminae were seen in some of the vessels. These findings suggested that partial fragmentation of the vascular elastic lamina followed by degeneration and necrosis of the tunica media caused blood leakage leading to the accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages in the perivascular interstitium of the lungs. PMID:27559243

  8. Auditory list memory and interference processes in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wright, A A

    1999-07-01

    Memory of 2 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was tested in a serial probe recognition task with lists of 4 natural or environmental sounds, different retention intervals, and different manipulations of interference. At short retention intervals, increasing the separation of list items reduced the primacy effect and produced a recency effect. Similar results were shown by increasing interference across lists through item repetitions or making the first 2 list items high-interference items. These results indicated that decreasing first-item performance reduced proactive interference on memory of the last list items. At long (20 s) retention intervals, making the last list items of high interference reduced the recency effect, reduced retroactive interference, and produced a primacy effect. Taken together, interference plays a role in determining the primacy and recency effects of the serial-position function.

  9. Videos of conspecifics elicit interactive looking patterns and facial expressions in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Clayton P; Zimmerman, Prisca E; Gothard, Katalin M

    2011-08-01

    A broader understanding of the neural basis of social behavior in primates requires the use of species-specific stimuli that elicit spontaneous, but reproducible and tractable behaviors. In this context of natural behaviors, individual variation can further inform about the factors that influence social interactions. To approximate natural social interactions similar to those documented by field studies, we used unedited video footage to induce in viewer monkeys spontaneous facial expressions and looking patterns in the laboratory setting. Three adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta), previously behaviorally and genetically (5-HTTLPR) characterized, were monitored while they watched 10 s video segments depicting unfamiliar monkeys (movie monkeys) displaying affiliative, neutral, and aggressive behaviors. The gaze and head orientation of the movie monkeys alternated between "averted" and "directed" at the viewer. The viewers were not reinforced for watching the movies, thus their looking patterns indicated their interest and social engagement with the stimuli. The behavior of the movie monkey accounted for differences in the looking patterns and facial expressions displayed by the viewers. We also found multiple significant differences in the behavior of the viewers that correlated with their interest in these stimuli. These socially relevant dynamic stimuli elicited spontaneous social behaviors, such as eye-contact induced reciprocation of facial expression, gaze aversion, and gaze following, that were previously not observed in response to static images. This approach opens a unique opportunity to understanding the mechanisms that trigger spontaneous social behaviors in humans and nonhuman primates.

  10. Geographical, genetic and functional diversity of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kono, Ken; Nomaguchi, Masako; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Akio; Shioda, Tatsuo; Akari, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Emi E

    2012-03-01

    The antiretroviral factor tripartite motif protein 5 (TRIM5) gene-derived isoform (TRIMCyp) has been found in at least three species of Old World monkey: rhesus (Macaca mulatta), pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques. Although the frequency of TRIMCyp has been well studied in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques, the frequency and prevalence of TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques remain to be definitively elucidated. Here, the geographical and genetic diversity of TRIM5α/TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques was studied in comparison with their anti-lentiviral activity. It was found that the frequency of TRIMCyp in a population in the Philippines was significantly higher than those in Indonesian and Malaysian populations. Major and minor haplotypes of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cyclophilin A domain were also found. The functional significance of the polymorphism in TRIMCyp was examined, and it was demonstrated that the major haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but not HIV-2, whilst the minor haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed HIV-2 but not HIV-1. The major haplotype of TRIMCyp did not restrict a monkey-tropic HIV-1 clone, NL-DT5R, which contains a capsid with the simian immunodeficiency virus-derived loop between α-helices 4 and 5 and the entire vif gene. These results indicate that polymorphisms of TRIMCyp affect its anti-lentiviral activity. Overall, the results of this study will help our understanding of the genetic background of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp, as well as the host factors composing species barriers of primate lentiviruses.

  11. A primacy effect in monkeys when list position is relevant.

    PubMed

    Buffalo, B; Gaffan, D; Murray, E A

    1994-11-01

    In Experiment 1 (1a and 1b), Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned lists of two-choice visual discriminations in which list position was relevant to discrimination performance. For example, Stimulus A was the rewarded stimulus if it was presented at List Position 1, but was not rewarded if it was presented at any other position in the list; similarly, Stimulus B was rewarded only at List Position 2, and so on. In learning these lists, all animals showed a marked primacy effect. In Experiment 2 (2a and 2b), Rhesus monkeys and Cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis) learned lists of visual discriminations in which each visual stimulus occupied a fixed position in a list, but list position was not relevant to discrimination performance. For example, Stimulus E was always rewarded, and was always presented at List Position 1. To increase the salience of list beginning as a distinctive event, successive presentations of the list were separated by 24-hr intervals. In Experiment 2 there was no primacy effect, however. These results show for the first time that a primacy effect can be obtained in visual discrimination learning by monkeys. Furthermore, they suggest that it is obtained only when list position is relevant to the discrimination learning task.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL VIABLE VACCINE AGAINST PULMONARY COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN MONKEYS1

    PubMed Central

    Converse, John L.; Castleberry, Merida W.; Snyder, Ernest M.

    1963-01-01

    Converse, John L. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Merida W. Castleberry, and Ernest M. Snyder. Experimental viable vaccine against pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in monkeys. J. Bacteriol. 86:1041–1051. 1963.—Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) vaccinated by subcutaneous injection in the forearm with from 10 to 108 viable Coccidioides immitis arthrospores were protected against respiratory challenge with approximately 7000 viable arthrospores administered 6 months after vaccination. Protection was evident from: the healthy appearance throughout 4 months after respiratory challenge; negative chest X rays at 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; and only very minor histopathological pulmonary changes on autopsy at 120 days, with negative lung cultures in 80% of the animals. This was in striking contrast to the outward clinical appearance of control monkeys that were unvaccinated or had received nonviable arthrospore vaccines. These monkeys showed severe disease (loss of weight, accelerated respiration, severe coughing, general debilitation), positive X rays, massive pulmonary destruction, positive lung cultures, and death of five of nine animals. The appearance of spherules (very few in number, accompanied by very minor pathological changes) in the lungs of some of the “dissemination controls” (subcutaneous viable vaccination without respiratory challenge) indicated possible dissemination from the primary cutaneous infection, although oral transmission from the cutaneous lesions could not be ruled out. Images PMID:14080770

  13. Effects of spaceflight on bone mineralization in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Zerath, E; Novikov, V; Leblanc, A; Bakulin, A; Oganov, V; Grynpas, M

    1996-07-01

    We combined dual-photon absorptiometry, iliac crest histomorphometry, and backscattered electrons analysis to characterize bone mineralization effects of a spaceflight on young monkeys. Two 4- to 5-kg male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were flown during a 11.5-day spaceflight that took place onboard Cosmos 2229 biosatellite (Bion 10). Vivarium (n = 4) and Earth-based chair (n = 4) control situations were studied for comparison. Flight monkeys exhibited lower values of iliac cancellous bone volume, associated with nonsignificantly thinner trabeculae. Bone mineralization rate and the proportion of trabecular bone surface involved in mineralization processes were found markedly reduced after spaceflight. Analysis of embedded sections by backscattered electrons imaging showed a nonsignificant shift to lower mineralization in the flight biopsies vs. postflight mock-up biopsies. These results were in accordance with dual-photon absorptiometry evaluations showing a tendency for decreased bone mineral content during flight and recovery thereafter. The ground simulation experiment performed on the same monkeys more than 1 mo after landing suggests that the observed effects were specifically related to spaceflight and that the animals had only partially recovered. Additional animals on future flights will be required to confirm these findings.

  14. Past Oral Contraceptive Use and Current Dietary Soy Isoflavones Influence Estrogen Metabolism in Postmenopausal Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Latanya M.; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Tooze, Janet A.; Wood, Charles E.; Register, Thomas C.; Kock, Nancy D.; Cline, J. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen metabolism may play an important role in mammary carcinogenesis in postmenopausal women. We evaluated the effects of prior oral contraceptive (OC) treatment and current soy isoflavone consumption on endogenous estrogen metabolite concentration and biomarkers of tissue estrogen exposure in a monkey model. One hundred eighty-one female cynomolgus macaques were randomized to receive OC or placebo for 26 months premenopausally, then ovariectomized and randomized to one of three diets for 36 months: an isoflavone-depleted soy protein isolate (Soy−) diet, a diet containing soy protein isolate with a human equivalent of 129 mg isoflavone/d (Soy+), or a Soy− diet supplemented with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE+) at a human equivalent dose of 0.625 mg/d. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography directly coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of estrogen species in urine samples. Generally, prior OC treatment was associated with significantly reduced urinary estrogen metabolites (25–55% reduction; P < 0.05 for each versus OC−). Animals that consumed isoflavones postmenopausally had increased urinary 2-hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone (50% and 56% increases, respectively), but reduced levels of 2-hydroxyestradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, and 17-epiestriol (92%, 63%, and 66%, respectively), compared with animals fed a Soy− diet. Isoflavones did not have widespread effects on uterine or mammary proliferation biomarkers, whereas prior OC significantly reduced two of three proliferation end points in the endometrium. Premenopausal OCs may have long-term systemic effects on response to estrogen and its metabolism whereas postmenopausal dietary isoflavones may alter endogenous estrogen metabolism in a modest but selective manner. PMID:18843000

  15. Variations in the Structure of the Prelunate Gyrus in Old World Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Van der Gucht, Estel; Youakim, Michele; Arckens, Lutgarde; Hof, Patrick R.; Baizer, Joan S.

    2010-01-01

    Anatomical and electrophysiological studies have revealed a complex organization in the macaque prelunate gyrus. We investigated the morphology and architecture of the prelunate gyrus in Old World monkeys. In Macaca nemestrina, we observed a sulcus crossing the prelunate gyrus within 2 mm of the vertical meridian representation. In other macaque species and other cercopithecines, we observed substantial variations in sulcal morphology across the prelunate gyrus. We did not find a sulcus in all species, and the location and depth of that indentation on the gyrus varied among species. A deep sulcus was observed in all species that emerged earlier in evolution than macaques, like guenons, baboons, and colobines. We analyzed the regional and parcellation features of the prelunate gyrus in three macaque species, M. maura, M. mulatta and M. radiata, and in Erythrocebus patas, with emphasis on the relation of structure to the distribution of prelunate visual areas. Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein immunoreactivity permitted the delineation of a novel area in the prelunate gyrus of Old World monkeys, located around the prelunate sulcus. Species-specific patterns were also observed in the prelunate gyrus of the patas monkey, compared to macaques. These observations, as well as a cladistic analysis of the data, suggest an expanded and diversified organization of the prelunate gyrus in some cercopithecoids that may reflect adaptation to specific ecological environments. It was however progressively lost in most macaques, being retained only in species that diverged early in the evolution of the genus Macaca, such as M. nemestrina and M. maura. PMID:16779809

  16. Metabolism of glutamine and glutamate in monkey lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, H.M. Jr.; Zigler, J.S. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    In rat lenses, glutamine (GLN), not glutamate (GLU), from the surrounding fluids is the primary source of GLU utilized by several metabolic pathways. To study lenticular amino acid metabolism in a primate, fresh lenses from young (2-3 yr) rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 3, 6, or 24 hr in balanced salt medium containing 5 mM of amino-labeled /sup 15/N-GLN or /sup 15/N-GLU. The % enrichment of /sup 15/N in several free amino acids was determined by GCMS. GLN entered the monkey lenses more rapidly than GLU, but, in contrast to rat lenses, /sup 15/N-GLN did not more rapidly label other amino acids. The % of /sup 15/N in the (GLN + GLU) pool of the monkey lenses in /sup 15/N-GLN reached 20, 35, and 60% at 3, 6, and 24 hr respectively, compared with 10, 20, and 40% in the lenses in /sup 15/N-GLU. However, in monkey lenses incubated 24 hr with /sup 15/N-GLN, the /sup 15/N in alanine, serine, proline, and (aspartate + asparagine) was only 35, 6, 7, and 30% respectively, compared with 50, 10, 7, and 50% in monkey lenses with /sup 15/N-GLU. Compared with rat lenses, monkey lenses showed slower transport, deamidation, and metabolism of GLN, and less serine, proline, and glycine synthesis. Also, part of the GLU in monkey lenses appeared to be in a slowly transaminating pool. Species differences should be considered when rats are used as a model to study changes in human lenses during aging and cataractogenesis.

  17. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    PubMed Central

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  18. EVIDENCE FOR MOTOR PLANNING IN MONKEYS: RHESUS MACAQUES SELECT EFFICIENT GRIPS WHEN TRANSPORTING SPOONS

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Eliza L.; Berthier, Neil E.; Metevier, Christina M.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2014-01-01

    McCarty and colleagues (1999) developed the elevated spoon task to measure motor planning in human infants. In this task, a spoon containing food was placed on an elevated apparatus that supported both ends of the spoon. The handle was oriented to the left or right on different trials. We presented naïve adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with the elevated spoon problem, and observed how monkeys learned the affordances of spoons over sessions. Strikingly, monkeys developed two different strategies for efficient spoon transport in just 12 to 36 trials. In subsequent testing with a novel double bowl spoon approximately 1 year later, monkeys demonstrated that they were attending to the baited spoon bowl and continued to select efficient grips for transporting the spoon. Monkey data were contrasted with previous studies in human infants using a perception-action perspective in an effort to understand the fundamentals of tool use and motor planning that may be common in the development of these abilities across species and their origins in human behavior. PMID:21676101

  19. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans.

  20. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans. PMID:27170712

  1. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory based testing

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching to sample memory test. Despite differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  2. The three-dimensional microanatomy of the pancreatic duct system in the Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata, with special reference to fine proximal passages of a high species-specificity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi

    2013-02-01

    We have previously shown the duct system in the rat pancreas to consist of two parts: a fine proximal (intercalated) duct and thicker distal (intralobular and interlobular) duct, with the latter part displaying morphological signs indicative of a bicarbonate-rich fluid secretion. In this study the pancreatic duct system in the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata was observed by scanning electron microscopy after the hydrolytic exposure of cell surfaces as well as by transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. Cellular expression of the water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) was also examined immunohistochemically. In contrast to the segmented duct system in the rat, all the duct cells in the monkey pancreas consistently displayed rich mitochondria in the cytoplasm, elaborate interdigitations of cell processes, and an intense immunoreactivity for AQP1 on the apical and basolateral cell membrane to favor active ion transport and osmotic water movement across the epithelium. Both the existence of secretory canaliculi and basal trabeculae in the duct epithelium and randomized localization of primary cilia on the luminal cell surfaces were demonstrated for the first time in monkeys, and the physiological implications of these phenomena are discussed.

  3. Exposure of rhesus monkeys to cowpox virus Brighton Red by large-particle aerosol droplets results in an upper respiratory tract disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reed F; Hammoud, Dima A; Perry, Donna L; Solomon, Jeffrey; Moore, Ian N; Lackemeyer, Matthew G; Bohannon, Jordan K; Sayre, Philip J; Minai, Mahnaz; Papaneri, Amy B; Hagen, Katie R; Janosko, Krisztina B; Jett, Catherine; Cooper, Kurt; Blaney, Joseph E; Jahrling, Peter B

    2016-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that small-particle (0.5-3.0 µm) aerosol infection of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with cowpox virus (CPXV)-Brighton Red (BR) results in fulminant respiratory tract disease characterized by severe lung parenchymal pathology but only limited systemic virus dissemination and limited classic epidermal pox-like lesion development (Johnson et al., 2015). Based on these results, and to further develop CPXV as an improved model of human smallpox, we evaluated a novel large-particle aerosol (7.0-9.0 µm) exposure of rhesus monkeys to CPXV-BR and monitored for respiratory tract disease by serial computed tomography (CT). As expected, the upper respiratory tract and large airways were the major sites of virus-induced pathology following large-particle aerosol exposure. Large-particle aerosol CPXV exposure of rhesus macaques resulted in severe upper airway and large airway pathology with limited systemic dissemination. PMID:27166137

  4. Real-time dopamine measurement in awake monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Erik W; Mitz, Andrew R; Cheer, Joseph F; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA) concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electrode to operate in the larger primate brain. This electrode was lowered into the striatum each day using a recording chamber and a detachable micromanipulator system. A manipulator also moved one or more tungsten stimulating electrodes into either the nearby striatum or the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNc). We developed an electrical stimulation controller to reduce artifacts during electrical stimulation. We also introduce a stimulation-based methodology for estimating distances between electrodes in the brain. Dopamine responses within the striatum were evoked by either stimulation of the striatum near the FSCV electrode, or stimulation within the VTA/SNc. Unexpected juice rewards also evoked dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. Thus, we demonstrate that robust dopamine responses can be recorded from awake, behaving primates with FSCV. In addition, we describe how a stimulation technique borrowed from the neuroprosthetics field can activate the distributed monkey midbrain dopamine system in a way that mimics rodent VTA stimulation. PMID:24921937

  5. Real-Time Dopamine Measurement in Awake Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Erik W.; Mitz, Andrew R.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA) concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electrode to operate in the larger primate brain. This electrode was lowered into the striatum each day using a recording chamber and a detachable micromanipulator system. A manipulator also moved one or more tungsten stimulating electrodes into either the nearby striatum or the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNc). We developed an electrical stimulation controller to reduce artifacts during electrical stimulation. We also introduce a stimulation-based methodology for estimating distances between electrodes in the brain. Dopamine responses within the striatum were evoked by either stimulation of the striatum near the FSCV electrode, or stimulation within the VTA/SNc. Unexpected juice rewards also evoked dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. Thus, we demonstrate that robust dopamine responses can be recorded from awake, behaving primates with FSCV. In addition, we describe how a stimulation technique borrowed from the neuroprosthetics field can activate the distributed monkey midbrain dopamine system in a way that mimics rodent VTA stimulation. PMID:24921937

  6. Maturation time of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult macaque monkeys exceeds six months.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Shawn J; Williams, Nancy I; Stanton, Gregory B; Cameron, Judy L; Greenough, William T

    2011-06-21

    We studied two groups of adult macaque monkeys to determine the time course of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the first group, six adult monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received a single injection of the thymidine analog BrdU (75 mg/kg), which is incorporated into replicating DNA and serves as a marker for new cell birth. Brain tissue was collected 48 h, 2 wk, and 6 wk after BrdU injection to examine the initial stages of neurogenesis. Because mature neurons were not evident at 6 wk, we examined tissue collected over a longer time course in a second study. In this study, eight monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) who were subjects in a separate exercise study received 10 weekly injections of BrdU (75 mg/kg), and brain tissue was collected at 16 and 28 wk from the first injection. Based on the timing of expression of neuronal cell markers (βIII-tubulin, doublecortin, NeuN), the extent of dendritic arborization, and acquisition of mature cell body morphology, we show that granule cell maturation in the dentate gyrus of a nonhuman primate is protracted over a minimum of a 6-mo time period, more than 6 times longer than in rodents. The lengthened time course for new cell maturation in nonhuman primates may be appropriate for preservation of neural plasticity over their longer life span and is relevant to our understanding of antidepressant and other therapies that have been linked to neurogenesis in humans.

  7. Cytogenesis in the monkey retina

    SciTech Connect

    La Vail, M.M.; Rapaport, D.H.; Rakic, P. )

    1991-07-01

    Time of cell origin in the retina of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) was studied by plotting the number of heavily radiolabeled nuclei in autoradiograms prepared from 2- to 6-month-old animals, each of which was exposed to a pulse of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) on a single embryonic (E) or postnatal (P) day. Cell birth in the monkey retina begins just after E27, and approximately 96% of cells are generated by E120. The remaining cells are produced during the last (approximately 45) prenatal days and into the first several weeks after birth. Cell genesis begins near the fovea, and proceeds towards the periphery. Cell division largely ceases in the foveal and perifoveal regions by E56. Despite extensive overlap, a class-specific sequence of cell birth was observed. Ganglion and horizontal cells, which are born first, have largely congruent periods of cell genesis with the peak between E38 and E43, and termination around E70. The first labeled cones were apparent by E33, and their highest density was achieved between E43 and E56, tapering to low values at E70, although some cones are generated in the far periphery as late as E110. Amacrine cells are next in the cell birth sequence and begin genesis at E43, reach a peak production between E56 and E85, and cease by E110. Bipolar cell birth begins at the same time as amacrines, but appears to be separate from them temporally since their production reaches a peak between E56 and E102, and persists beyond the day of birth. Mueller cells and rod photoreceptors, which begin to be generated at E45, achieve a peak, and decrease in density at the same time as bipolar cells, but continue genesis at low density on the day of birth. Thus, bipolar, Mueller, and rod cells have a similar time of origin.

  8. Mutagenicity towards Salmonella typhimurium of some known genotoxic agents, activated by isolated hepatocytes of monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Comparison with isolated human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Neis, J M; Roelofs, H M; van Gemert, P J; Henderson, P T

    1986-06-01

    This paper describes some striking differences between isolated human and monkey hepatocytes in their capacity to activate some known genotoxic agents into products mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium. Isolated monkey hepatocytes, in contrast to human hepatocytes, appeared to activate benzidine (BZ), N-acetylbenzidine (MABZ), N,N'-diacetylbenzidine (DABZ), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) poorly. With monkey hepatocytes BZ was slightly more mutagenic than DABZ, whereas with human hepatocytes DABZ was more active than BZ. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (DMN) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) were also found to be poorly mutagenic when activated by monkey hepatocytes, unlike the human hepatocytes. However, the polycyclic arylhydrocarbons benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (7,12-DMBA) were highly active in the presence of monkey hepatocytes, unlike the human hepatocytes. A metabolic study showed that monkey liver preparations seem to possess a higher monooxygenase activity towards B[a]P than human liver preparations.

  9. Clearance from cerebrospinal fluid of intrathecally administered beta-endorphin in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.C.; Burns, R.S.; Dubois, M.; Cohen, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    Five adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) weighing 7.1-9.9 kg were given synthetic human beta-endorphin (800 micrograms) and (/sup 14/C)methoxy-inulin (50 microCi) in 400 microliters of normal saline intrathecally. Serial samples of cerebrospinal fluid were drawn through a previously positioned indwelling spinal catheter and were assayed for concentrations of beta-endorphin (determined by radioimmunoassay) and inulin (determined by liquid scintillation counter). Spinal fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin and inulin peaked and declined in a parallel manner. The clearance ratio (calculated from the reciprocal of the ratio of the areas under the respective curves of elimination of the two species) remained remarkably similar from animal to animal, giving a mean value of 1.060 +/- 0.090 (SEM). This ratio, being near unity, suggests that beta-endorphin is eliminated from spinal fluid in a fashion similar to that of inulin, which is removed exclusively by bulk absorption.

  10. Spontaneous voice–face identity matching by rhesus monkeys for familiar conspecifics and humans

    PubMed Central

    Sliwa, Julia; Duhamel, Jean-René; Pascalis, Olivier; Wirth, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of a particular individual occurs when we reactivate links between current perceptual inputs and the previously formed representation of that person. This recognition can be achieved by identifying, separately or simultaneously, distinct elements such as the face, silhouette, or voice as belonging to one individual. In humans, those different cues are linked into one complex conceptual representation of individual identity. Here we tested whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) also have a cognitive representation of identity by evaluating whether they exhibit cross-modal individual recognition. Further, we assessed individual recognition of familiar conspecifics and familiar humans. In a free preferential looking time paradigm, we found that, for both species, monkeys spontaneously matched the faces of known individuals to their voices. This finding demonstrates that rhesus macaques possess a cross-modal cognitive representation of individuals that extends from conspecifics to humans, revealing the adaptive potential of identity recognition for individuals of socioecological relevance. PMID:21220340

  11. Nonverbal working memory of humans and monkeys: rehearsal in the sketchpad?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Astur, R. S.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Investigations of working memory tend to focus on the retention of verbal information. The present experiments were designed to characterize the active maintenance rehearsal process used in the retention of visuospatial information. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 6) were tested as well as humans (total N = 90) because these nonhuman primates have excellent visual working memory but, unlike humans, cannot verbally recode the stimuli to employ verbal rehearsal mechanisms. A series of experiments was conducted using a distractor-task paradigm, a directed forgetting procedure, and a dual-task paradigm. No evidence was found for an active maintenance process for either species. Rather, it appears that information is maintained in the visuospatial sketchpad without active rehearsal.

  12. Spaceflight and growth effects on muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue C.; Roy, Roland R.; Rudolph, William; Haque, Naz; Kozlovskaia, Inessa B.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a 14-day spaceflight onboard Cosmos 2044 on selected morphological and metabolic properties of single muscle fibers was investigated in a nonhuman primate, Macaca mulatta. It is concluded that the 14-day spaceflight had little impact on fiber size in the soleus (S) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles, whereas it appeared to be a slight decrease in sized in the tibialis anterior (TA). The mean fiber size in the postflight biopsies increased relative to preflight values. The mean fiber succinate dehydrogenase activity was found to decrease in the MG, whereas there was no apparent effect of spaceflight on the s and ta muscles. The differences in response of the S, MG, and TA to spaceflight in monkeys vs rats may be related to a species responsiveness to spaceflight, the manner in which the animals were restrained, and/or the possibility that the ankle musculature was able to function against a load while in space.

  13. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments.

  14. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  15. Effects of chair restraint on the strength of the tibia in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, T. M.; Bakulin, A. V.; Rakhmanov, A. S.; Martin, R. B.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effects of the relative inactivity and unloading on the strength of the tibias of monkeys, Macaca mulatta, we used a non-invasive test to measure bending stiffness, or EI (Nm2), a mechanical property. The technique was validated by comparisons of in vivo measurements with standard measures of EI in the same bones post-mortem (r2 = 0.95, P < 0.0001). Inter-test precision was 4.28+/-1.4%. Normative data in 24 monkeys, 3.0+/-0.7 years and 3.6+/-0.6 kg, revealed EI to be 16% higher in the right than left tibia (4.4+/-1.6 vs. 3.7+/-1.6 Nm2, P < 0.05). Five monkeys, restrained in chairs for 14 days, showed decreases in EI. There were no changes in EI in two chaired monkeys that lost weight during a 2-week space flight. The factors that account for both the decreases in bone mechanical properties after chair restraint at 1 g and lack of change after microgravity remain to be identified. Metabolic factors associated with body weight changes are suggested by our results.

  16. Combined unilateral lesions of the amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex impair affective processing in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-05-01

    The amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo) interact as part of a system for affective processing. To assess whether there is a hemispheric functional specialization for the processing of emotion or reward or both in nonhuman primates, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with combined lesions of the amygdala and PFo in one hemisphere, either left or right, were compared with unoperated controls on a battery of tasks that tax affective processing, including two tasks that tax reward processing and two that assess emotional reactions. Although the two operated groups did not differ from each other, monkeys with unilateral lesions, left and right, showed altered reward-processing abilities as evidenced by attenuated reinforcer devaluation effects and an impairment in object reversal learning relative to controls. In addition, both operated groups showed blunted emotional reactions to a rubber snake. By contrast, monkeys with unilateral lesions did not differ from controls in their responses to an unfamiliar human (human "intruder"). Although the results provide no support for a hemispheric specialization of function, they yield the novel finding that unilateral lesions of the amygdala-orbitofrontal cortical circuit in monkeys are sufficient to significantly disrupt affective processing. PMID:14711973

  17. [Data on intestinal parasites of lower monkeys in the Adler apery].

    PubMed

    Egorova, T P

    2010-01-01

    Under captive conditions, a parasite fauna connected with the changes in ecological conditions, feeding, and mode of life is usually formed in monkeys. Species composition of the intestinal parasites has been investigated in six species of the monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. nemestrina, Ceropithecus aethiops, Papio hamadryas, and P. anubis), which were born in the Adler apery and live there for a long time. A comparison with similar investigations carried out in the Sukhumi apery, where the climatic and keeping conditions are practically identical with those in the Adler apery, was conducted. Parasite fauna of monkeys in the Adler apery was found to include three species of Nematoda (Ascaris sp., Trichocephalus sp., and Strongyloides sp.) and two species of Protozoa (Balantidium coli and Lamblia intestinalis). In our material, Trichocephalus sp. is the dominant parasite species among helminthes, and Balantidium coli is the most frequent species of Protozoa. The commonness in the transmission of these parasites and similarity in their life cycles contribute to the forming of polyinvasions in monkeys. PMID:21061593

  18. Using infective mosquitoes to challenge monkeys with Plasmodium knowlesi in malaria vaccine studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are used to test malaria vaccines, animals are often challenged by the intravenous injection of sporozoites. However, natural exposure to malaria comes via mosquito bite, and antibodies can neutralize sporozoites as they traverse the skin. Thus, intravenous injection may not fairly assess humoral immunity from anti-sporozoite malaria vaccines. To better assess malaria vaccines in rhesus, a method to challenge large numbers of monkeys by mosquito bite was developed. Methods Several species and strains of mosquitoes were tested for their ability to produce Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoites. Donor monkey parasitaemia effects on oocyst and sporozoite numbers and mosquito mortality were documented. Methylparaben added to mosquito feed was tested to improve mosquito survival. To determine the number of bites needed to infect a monkey, animals were exposed to various numbers of P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes. Finally, P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes were used to challenge 17 monkeys in a malaria vaccine trial, and the effect of number of infectious bites on monkey parasitaemia was documented. Results Anopheles dirus, Anopheles crascens, and Anopheles dirus X (a cross between the two species) produced large numbers of P. knowlesi sporozoites. Mosquito survival to day 14, when sporozoites fill the salivary glands, averaged only 32% when donor monkeys had a parasitaemia above 2%. However, when donor monkey parasitaemia was below 2%, mosquitoes survived twice as well and contained ample sporozoites in their salivary glands. Adding methylparaben to sugar solutions did not improve survival of infected mosquitoes. Plasmodium knowlesi was very infectious, with all monkeys developing blood stage infections if one or more infected mosquitoes successfully fed. There was also a dose-response, with monkeys that received higher numbers of infected mosquito bites developing malaria sooner. Conclusions Anopheles dirus, An. crascens and a

  19. Implicit Memory in Monkeys: Development of a Delay Eyeblink Conditioning System with Parallel Electromyographic and High-Speed Video Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazutaka; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Kano, Masanobu; Tsukada, Hideo; Kirino, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent learning paradigm, has been applied to various mammalian species but not yet to monkeys. We therefore developed an accurate measuring system that we believe is the first system suitable for delay eyeblink conditioning in a monkey species (Macaca mulatta). Monkey eyeblinking was simultaneously monitored by orbicularis oculi electromyographic (OO-EMG) measurements and a high-speed camera-based tracking system built around a 1-kHz CMOS image sensor. A 1-kHz tone was the conditioned stimulus (CS), while an air puff (0.02 MPa) was the unconditioned stimulus. EMG analysis showed that the monkeys exhibited a conditioned response (CR) incidence of more than 60% of trials during the 5-day acquisition phase and an extinguished CR during the 2-day extinction phase. The camera system yielded similar results. Hence, we conclude that both methods are effective in evaluating monkey eyeblink conditioning. This system incorporating two different measuring principles enabled us to elucidate the relationship between the actual presence of eyelid closure and OO-EMG activity. An interesting finding permitted by the new system was that the monkeys frequently exhibited obvious CRs even when they produced visible facial signs of drowsiness or microsleep. Indeed, the probability of observing a CR in a given trial was not influenced by whether the monkeys closed their eyelids just before CS onset, suggesting that this memory could be expressed independently of wakefulness. This work presents a novel system for cognitive assessment in monkeys that will be useful for elucidating the neural mechanisms of implicit learning in nonhuman primates. PMID:26068663

  20. Implicit Memory in Monkeys: Development of a Delay Eyeblink Conditioning System with Parallel Electromyographic and High-Speed Video Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Kano, Masanobu; Tsukada, Hideo; Kirino, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent learning paradigm, has been applied to various mammalian species but not yet to monkeys. We therefore developed an accurate measuring system that we believe is the first system suitable for delay eyeblink conditioning in a monkey species (Macaca mulatta). Monkey eyeblinking was simultaneously monitored by orbicularis oculi electromyographic (OO-EMG) measurements and a high-speed camera-based tracking system built around a 1-kHz CMOS image sensor. A 1-kHz tone was the conditioned stimulus (CS), while an air puff (0.02 MPa) was the unconditioned stimulus. EMG analysis showed that the monkeys exhibited a conditioned response (CR) incidence of more than 60% of trials during the 5-day acquisition phase and an extinguished CR during the 2-day extinction phase. The camera system yielded similar results. Hence, we conclude that both methods are effective in evaluating monkey eyeblink conditioning. This system incorporating two different measuring principles enabled us to elucidate the relationship between the actual presence of eyelid closure and OO-EMG activity. An interesting finding permitted by the new system was that the monkeys frequently exhibited obvious CRs even when they produced visible facial signs of drowsiness or microsleep. Indeed, the probability of observing a CR in a given trial was not influenced by whether the monkeys closed their eyelids just before CS onset, suggesting that this memory could be expressed independently of wakefulness. This work presents a novel system for cognitive assessment in monkeys that will be useful for elucidating the neural mechanisms of implicit learning in nonhuman primates.

  1. Implicit Memory in Monkeys: Development of a Delay Eyeblink Conditioning System with Parallel Electromyographic and High-Speed Video Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Kano, Masanobu; Tsukada, Hideo; Kirino, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent learning paradigm, has been applied to various mammalian species but not yet to monkeys. We therefore developed an accurate measuring system that we believe is the first system suitable for delay eyeblink conditioning in a monkey species (Macaca mulatta). Monkey eyeblinking was simultaneously monitored by orbicularis oculi electromyographic (OO-EMG) measurements and a high-speed camera-based tracking system built around a 1-kHz CMOS image sensor. A 1-kHz tone was the conditioned stimulus (CS), while an air puff (0.02 MPa) was the unconditioned stimulus. EMG analysis showed that the monkeys exhibited a conditioned response (CR) incidence of more than 60% of trials during the 5-day acquisition phase and an extinguished CR during the 2-day extinction phase. The camera system yielded similar results. Hence, we conclude that both methods are effective in evaluating monkey eyeblink conditioning. This system incorporating two different measuring principles enabled us to elucidate the relationship between the actual presence of eyelid closure and OO-EMG activity. An interesting finding permitted by the new system was that the monkeys frequently exhibited obvious CRs even when they produced visible facial signs of drowsiness or microsleep. Indeed, the probability of observing a CR in a given trial was not influenced by whether the monkeys closed their eyelids just before CS onset, suggesting that this memory could be expressed independently of wakefulness. This work presents a novel system for cognitive assessment in monkeys that will be useful for elucidating the neural mechanisms of implicit learning in nonhuman primates. PMID:26068663

  2. Rhesus monkey alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: comparisons to human alpha7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; McCormack, Thomas J; Jack, Brian A; Wang, Daguang; Bugaj-Gaweda, Bozena; Schiff, Hillary C; Buhr, Joshua D; Waber, Amanda J; Stokes, Clare

    2005-11-01

    An alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor sequence was cloned from Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This clone differs from the mature human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in only four amino acids, two of which are in the extracellular domain. The monkey alpha7 nicotinic receptor was characterized in regard to its functional responses to acetylcholine, choline, cytisine, and the experimental alpha7-selective agonists 4OH-GTS-21, TC-1698, and AR-R17779. For all of these agonists, the EC(50) for activation of monkey receptors was uniformly higher than for human receptors. In contrast, the potencies of mecamylamine and MLA for inhibiting monkey and human alpha7 were comparable. Acetylcholine and 4OH-GTS-21 were used to probe the significance of the single point differences in the extracellular domain. Mutants with the two different amino acids in the extracellular domain of the monkey receptor changed to the corresponding sequence of the human receptor had responses to these agonists that were not significantly different in EC(50) from wild-type human alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Monkey alpha7 nicotinic receptors have a serine at residue 171, while the human receptors have an asparagine at this site. Monkey S171N mutants were more like human alpha7 nicotinic receptors, while mutations at the other site (K186R) had relatively little effect. These experiments point toward the basic utility of the monkey receptor as a model for the human alpha7 nicotinic receptor, albeit with the caveat that these receptors will vary in their agonist concentration dependency. They also point to the potential importance of a newly identified sequence element for modeling the specific amino acids involved with receptor activation. PMID:16266703

  3. The effects of carbon dioxide inhalation of plasma MHPG, plasma hormones respiratory rate, and behavior in the Rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Krystal, J.H.; Woods, S.W.; Levesque, M.; Heninger, C.; Heninger, G.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The effects of inhalation of air and 3 concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on plasma levels of the norepinephrine metabolite, MHPG, plasma hormones, and behavioral activation were assessed in eight chair-adapted Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In comparison to air, inhalation of 5%, 7.5% and 10% CO{sub 2} for 180 minutes produced significant dose-dependent increases in respiratory rate, plasma MHPG, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. CO{sub 2} at the 7.5% concentration produced peak changes in behavior at 15, growth hormone at 30, and cortisol and MHPG at 180 minutes without producing changes in prolactin. The lack of previously reported CO{sub 2} induced changes in MHPG, growth hormone and prolactin in humans exposed to 7.5% CO{sub 2} for only 15 minutes, may therefore relate to the relatively short duration of CO{sub 2} exposure.

  4. Effect of spaceflight on the isotonic contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; Blaser, C.; De La Cruz, L.; Gettelman, G. J.; Widrick, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments from both Cosmos and Space Shuttle missions have shown weightlessness to result in a rapid decline in the mass and force of rat hindlimb extensor muscles. Additionally, despite an increased maximal shortening velocity, peak power was reduced in rat soleus muscle post-flight. In humans, declines in voluntary peak isometric ankle extensor torque ranging from 15-40% have been reported following long- and short-term spaceflight and prolonged bed rest. Complete understanding of the cellular events responsible for the fiber atrophy and the decline in force, as well as the development of effective countermeasures, will require detailed knowledge of how the physiological and biochemical processes of muscle function are altered by spaceflight. The specific purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which the isotonic contractile properties of the slow- and fast-twitch fiber types of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were altered by a 14-day spaceflight.

  5. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  6. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. PMID:25948255

  7. Development of a Cognitive Testing Apparatus for Socially Housed Mother-Peer-Reared Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Though cognitive testing of infant monkeys has been practiced for the past 40 years, these assessments have been limited primarily to nursery-reared infants due to the confounds of separating mother-reared infants for assessments. Here we describe a pilot study in which we developed a cognitive testing apparatus for socially housed, mother-peer-reared rhesus macaques under one year of age (Macaca mulatta) that allowed the infants to freely return to their mothers for contact comfort. Infants aged 151.2±18.3 days (mean±SEM; n=5) were trained and tested on an object detour reach task. Infants completed training in 5.0±0.2 days, and completed testing in 6.2±0.9 days. Across four days of testing, infants improved to nearly errorless performance (Friedman test: χ2=13.27, df=3, p=0.004) and learned to do the task more quickly (Friedman test: χ2=11.69, df=3, p=0.009). These are the first cognitive data in group-housed, mother-peer-reared rhesus monkeys under one year of age, and they underscore the utility of this apparatus for studying cognitive development in a normative population of infant monkeys. PMID:25782609

  8. Characteristics of Spontaneous Square-Wave Jerks in the Healthy Macaque Monkey during Visual Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Costela, Francisco M.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; McCamy, Michael B.; Macknik, Stephen L.; Di Stasi, Leandro L.; Rieiro, Héctor; Leigh, John R.; Troncoso, Xoana G.; Najafian Jazi, Ali; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Saccadic intrusions (SIs), predominantly horizontal saccades that interrupt accurate fixation, include square-wave jerks (SWJs; the most common type of SI), which consist of an initial saccade away from the fixation target followed, after a short delay, by a return saccade that brings the eye back onto target. SWJs are present in most human subjects, but are prominent by their increased frequency and size in certain parkinsonian disorders and in recessive, hereditary spinocerebellar ataxias. SWJs have been also documented in monkeys with tectal and cerebellar etiologies, but no studies to date have investigated the occurrence of SWJs in healthy nonhuman primates. Here we set out to determine the characteristics of SWJs in healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) during attempted fixation of a small visual target. Our results indicate that SWJs are common in healthy nonhuman primates. We moreover found primate SWJs to share many characteristics with human SWJs, including the relationship between the size of a saccade and its likelihood to be part of a SWJ. One main discrepancy between monkey and human SWJs was that monkey SWJs tended to be more vertical than horizontal, whereas human SWJs have a strong horizontal preference. Yet, our combined data indicate that primate and human SWJs play a similar role in fixation correction, suggesting that they share a comparable coupling mechanism at the oculomotor generation level. These findings constrain the potential brain areas and mechanisms underlying the generation of fixational saccades in human and nonhuman primates. PMID:26067994

  9. Autoradiographic localization of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in rhesus monkey ovary.

    PubMed

    Baldridge, Monika G; Hutz, Reinhold J

    2007-06-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic congener of a large class of manmade pollutants that persist in the environment. TCDD exerts its toxic effects, in part, by binding to its receptor known as the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). TCDD is estrogen modulatory and in some systems its receptor associates directly with estrogen receptors via co-activator molecules. TCDD inhibits steroid synthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells and AHR is found in these cells. We have previously shown that AHR is found in whole rhesus monkey ovary, but have yet to establish its location. In the present study, we set out to show that radiolabeled TCDD binds to monkey ovarian follicles and that this binding is receptor mediated. Ovaries from Macaca mulatta were sectioned on a cryostat at 10 micro m; and sections were incubated with either control vehicle, (3)H-TCDD, or (3)H-TCDD plus alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), a known receptor-blocking agent. Here, we show for the first time specific binding of TCDD to the granulosa cells of antral follicles and other regions of the rhesus monkey ovary. Our data indicate a 60-fold increase in binding with (3)H-TCDD over that of control, and that this binding is reduced to the levels seen in controls with the addition of the competitive antagonist ANF. These findings support the hypothesis that TCDD directly affects primate ovarian function via the AHR.

  10. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech.

  11. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease model of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Youngjeon; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Heui-Soo; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to quantify relative gene expression because of the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this technique. In order to obtain reliable gene expression data from RT-qPCR experiments, it is important to utilize optimal reference genes for the normalization of target gene expression under varied experimental conditions. Previously, we developed and validated a novel icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. However, in order to enhance the reliability of this disease model, appropriate reference genes must be selected to allow meaningful analysis of the gene expression levels in the icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey brain. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in 2 matched-pair brain samples (5 regions) of control cynomolgus monkeys and those who had received intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ). Three well-known analytical programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to choose the suitable reference genes from the total sample group, control group, and icv-STZ group. Combination analysis of the 3 different programs clearly indicated that the ideal reference genes are RPS19 and YWHAZ in the total sample group, GAPDH and RPS19 in the control group, and ACTB and GAPDH in the icv-STZ group. Additionally, we validated the normalization accuracy of the most appropriate reference genes (RPS19 and YWHAZ) by comparison with the least stable gene (TBP) using quantification of the APP and MAPT genes in the total sample group. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first study to identify and validate the appropriate reference genes in cynomolgus monkey brains. These findings provide useful information for future studies involving the expression of target genes in the cynomolgus monkey.

  12. Effect of spaceflight on the maximal shortening velocity, morphology, and enzyme profile of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; De La Cruz, L.; Widrick, J. J.; Desplanches, D.

    2000-01-01

    Weightlessness has been shown to cause limb muscle wasting and a reduced peak force and power in the antigravity soleus muscle. Despite a reduced peak power, Caiozzo et al. observed an increased maximal shortening velocity in the rat soleus muscle following a 14-day space flight. The major purpose of the present investigation was to determine if weightlessness induced an elevated velocity in the antigravity slow type I fibers of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), as well as to establish a cellular mechanism for the effect. Spaceflight or models of weightlessness have been shown to increase glucose uptake, elevate muscle glycogen content, and increase fatigability of the soleus muscle. The latter appears to be in part caused by a reduced ability of the slow oxidative fibers to oxidize fats. A second goal of this study was to establish the extent to which weightlessness altered the substrate profile and glycolytic and oxidative enzyme capacity of individual slow- and fast-twitch fibers.

  13. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-09-01

    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge.

  14. Metabolic and vasomotor responses of rhesus monkeys exposed to 225-MHz radiofrequency energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A previous study showed a substantial increase in the colonic temperature of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to radio-frequency (RF) fields at a frequency near whole-body resonance and specific absorption rates (SAR) of 2 to 3 W/kg. The present experiments were conducted to determine the metabolic and vasomotor responses during exposures to similar RF fields. Five adult male rhesus monkeys were exposed to 225-MHz radiation (E orientation) in an anechoic chamber. The monkeys were irradiated at two carefully-controlled ambient temperatures, either cool (20 C) or thermoneutral (26 C). Power densities ranged from 0 (sham) to 10.0 mW/sq cm with an average whole-body SAR of 0.285 (W/kg)/(mW/sq cm). Two experimental protocols were used, each of which began with a 120-min preexposure equilibration period. Then, one protocol involved repetitive 10-min RF exposures at successively higher power densities with a recovery period between exposures. In the second protocol, a 120-min RF exposure permitted the measurement of steady-state thermoregulatory responses. Metabolic and vasomotor adjustments in the rhesus monkey exposed to 225 MHz occurred during brief or sustained exposures at SARs at or above 1.4 W/kg. Metabolic and vasomotor responses were coordinated effectively to produce a stable deep-body temperature. The results show that the thermoregulatory response of the rhesus monkey to an RF exposure at a resonant frequency limits storage of heat in the body. However, substantial increases in colonic temperature were not prevented by such responses, even in a cool environment.

  15. The origins of belief representation: monkeys fail to automatically represent others' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-03-01

    Young infants' successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)'s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species--the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)--is automatically influenced by another agent's beliefs when tracking an object's location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple's movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys' belief (true or false) and agent's belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys' expectations were not influenced by another agent's beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans.

  16. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  17. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5-4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150-250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  18. Attentional biases and memory for emotional stimuli in men and male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Schatz, Kelly; Strazzullo, Sarah; King, Hanna M; Ready, Rebecca

    2013-11-01

    We examined attentional biases for social and non-social emotional stimuli in young adult men and compared the results to those of male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) previously tested in a similar dot-probe task (King et al. in Psychoneuroendocrinology 37(3):396-409, 2012). Recognition memory for these stimuli was also analyzed in each species, using a recognition memory task in humans and a delayed non-matching-to-sample task in monkeys. We found that both humans and monkeys displayed a similar pattern of attentional biases toward threatening facial expressions of conspecifics. The bias was significant in monkeys and of marginal significance in humans. In addition, humans, but not monkeys, exhibited an attentional bias away from negative non-social images. Attentional biases for social and non-social threat differed significantly, with both species showing a pattern of vigilance toward negative social images and avoidance of negative non-social images. Positive stimuli did not elicit significant attentional biases for either species. In humans, emotional content facilitated the recognition of non-social images, but no effect of emotion was found for the recognition of social images. Recognition accuracy was not affected by emotion in monkeys, but response times were faster for negative relative to positive images. Altogether, these results suggest shared mechanisms of social attention in humans and monkeys, with both species showing a pattern of selective attention toward threatening faces of conspecifics. These data are consistent with the view that selective vigilance to social threat is the result of evolutionary constraints. Yet, selective attention to threat was weaker in humans than in monkeys, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms enable non-anxious humans to reduce sensitivity to social threat in this paradigm, likely through enhanced prefrontal control and reduced amygdala activation. In addition, the findings emphasize important differences in

  19. Long-term effects of simulated sonic booms on hearing in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinis, S.; Weiss, D. S.; Featherstone, J. W.; Tsaros, C.

    1987-03-01

    Two monkeys of the species Macaca mulatta were exposed at 1 min intervals to five simulated sonic booms lasting 200 ms at 200 Pa overpressure with a 10 ms rise time. Another group of five monkeys of the same species were exposed to 100 booms. Their hearing thresholds were tested 24 hours, two weeks, one month, two months, four months and six months later. In one animal exposed to five booms, changes of the hearing thresholds were observed 24 hours following the exposure, but not later. All five animals exposed to 100 sonic booms had threshold shifts in the high-frequency range 24 hours following the exposure. Of the three animals followed for the full period of six months, one recovered completely. In the two others, threshold shifts were still observed in the high frequency range. Histological examination revealed destruction of the organ of Corti in the basal turn of the cochlea. These data indicate that there is individual variability in the extent of the damage to the inner ear by the sonic boom (and, perhaps, by other types of impulsive noise). These data also indicate that there is a possibility of similar damage to human inner ears exposed either to sonic booms or to other types of impulsive noise, and that it may go undetected for a long time because the high-frequency hearing defect, over 8 kHz, may be overlooked when routine audiometric methods are used.

  20. Seasonal variation in the testicular volume of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in captivity.

    PubMed

    de B Vaz Guimarães, Marcelo A; Alvarenga de Oliveira, Cláudio; Campanarut Barnabe, Renato

    2003-01-01

    The study of the reproductive strategy developed by different species in order to adapt to their environmental conditions and their meaning in an evolutionary perspective is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in the process of reproduction. Non-human primates are very interesting models for this purpose. Some species show a typical seasonal reproductive pattern, such as rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) [Sade, 1964; Conaway and Sade, 1965] and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) [Zuckerman, 1953], while others, such as gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) [Puschmann, 1975], show relative independence of the environment. Neotropical primates display many different breeding strategies. Female capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), for instance, having reached puberty, have fertile cycles year-round [Hamlett, 1939; Nagle and Denari, 1983]. Interestingly, there are reports of a clear peak of births in free-living [Hamlett, 1939] and captive colonies [Welker et al., 1983] in the dry season, i.e. May-June in the southern hemisphere. Some authors suggest that a seasonal variation in spermatogenesis could explain the birth peak [Freese and Oppenheimer, 1981]. The aim of this study was to investigate this theory, measuring seasonal variation in total testicular volume in a captive group of male capuchin monkeys and assessing its temporal correlation with the birth season as an indirect indication of variation in male fertility. PMID:12606852

  1. Personality Structure in Brown Capuchin Monkeys: Comparisons with Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Morton, F. Blake; Lee, Phyllis C.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e. how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition are closely associated with differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites on 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e. capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior, and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

  2. Chronic alcohol self-administration in monkeys shows long-term quantity/frequency categorical stability

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erich J.; Farro, Jonathan; Gonzales, Steven; Helms, Christa; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The current criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) do not include consumption (quantity/frequency) measures of alcohol intake, in part due to the difficulty of these measures in humans. Animal models of ethanol self-administration have been fundamental in advancing our understanding of the neurobiological basis of (AUD) and can address quantity/frequency measures with accurate measurements over prolonged periods of time. The non-human primate (NHP) model of voluntary oral alcohol self-administration has documented both binge drinking and drinking to dependence and can be used to test the stability of consumption measures over time. Methods and Results Here, an extensive set of alcohol intakes (g/kg/day) was analyzed from a large multi-cohort population of Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys (n=31). Daily ethanol intake was uniformly distributed over chronic (12 months) access for all animals. Underlying this distribution of intakes were subpopulations of monkeys that exhibited distinctive clustering of drinking patterns, allowing us to categorically define very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD). These categories were stable across the 12-month assessed by the protocol, but exhibited fluctuations when examined at shorter intervals. Conclusions The establishment of persistent drinking categories based on quantity/frequency suggests that consumption variables can be used to track long-term changes in behavioral, molecular or physiochemical mechanisms related to our understanding of diagnosis, prevention, intervention and treatment efficacies. PMID:25421519

  3. Lack of behavioral effects in the rhesus monkey: High peak microwave pulses at 1. 3 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, J.A.; Cobb, B.L.; de Lorge, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    The current safety standards for radiofrequency and microwave exposure do not limit the peak power of microwave pulses for general or occupational exposures. While some biological effects, primarily the auditory effect, depend on pulsed microwaves, hazards associated with very high peak-power microwave pulses in the absence of whole-body heating are unknown. Five rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, were exposed to peak-power densitites of 131.8 W/sq cm (RMS) while performing a time-related behavioral task. The task was composed of a multiple schedule of reinforcement consisting of three distinct behavioral components: inter-response time, time discrimination, and fixed interval. Trained monkeys performed the multiple schedule during exposure to 1.3-GHz pulses at low pulse-repetition rates (2-32 Hz). No significant change was observed in any behavior during irradiation as compared to sham-irradiation sessions. Generalization of these findings to experimental results with higher peak-power densities, other pulse rates, different carrier frequencies, or other behaviors is limited.

  4. Lack of behavioral effects in the rhesus monkey: high peak microwave pulses at 1. 3 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, J.A.; Cobb, B.L.; de Lorge, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    The current safety standards for radiofrequency and microwave exposure do not limit the peak power of microwave pulses for general or occupational exposures. While some biological effects, primarily the auditory effect, depend on pulsed microwaves, hazards associated with very high peak-power microwave pulses in the absence of whole-body heating are unknown. Five rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, were exposed to peak-power densities of 131.8 W/cm2 (RMS) while performing a time-related behavioral task. The task was composed of a multiple schedule of reinforcement consisting of three distinct behavioral components: inter-response time, time discrimination, and fixed interval. Trained monkeys performed the multiple schedule during exposure to 1.3-GHz pulses at low pulse-repetition rates (2-32 Hz). No significant change was observed in any behavior during irradiation as compared to sham-irradiation sessions. Generalization of these findings to experimental results with higher peak-power densities, other pulse rates, different carrier frequencies, or other behaviors is limited.

  5. Circadian activity associated with spatial learning and memory in aging rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Haley, G E; Landauer, N; Renner, L; Weiss, A; Hooper, K; Urbanski, H F; Kohama, S G; Neuringer, M; Raber, J

    2009-05-01

    In rodents, spatial learning and memory tests require navigation, whereas in nonhuman primates these tests generally do not involve a navigational component, thus assessing nonhomologous neural systems. To allow closer parallels between rodent and primate studies, we developed a navigational spatial learning and memory task for nonhuman primates and assessed the performance of elderly (19-25 years) female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The animals were allowed to navigate in a room containing a series of food ports. After they learned to retrieve food from the ports, a single port was repeatedly baited and the animals were tested until they learned the correct location. The location of the baited port was then changed (shift position). We also determined whether test performance was associated with circadian activity measured with accelerometers. Performance measures included trials to criterion, search strategies, and several indices of circadian activity. Animals learned the task as reflected in their search strategies. Correlations were found between the number of initial or shift trials and circadian activity parameters including day activity, dark:light activity ratio, sleep latency, and wake bouts. Thus, disruptions in circadian rhythms in nonhuman primates are associated with poorer performance on this novel test. These data support the usefulness of this spatial navigational test to assess spatial learning and memory in rhesus monkeys and the importance of circadian activity in performance.

  6. Stability of the translocation frequency following whole-body irradiation measured in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. N.; Hill, F. S.; Burk, C. E.; Cox, A. B.; Straume, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be measured before it can be used reliably to obtain doses for individuals exposed years or decades previously. Human chromosome painting probes were used here to measure reciprocal translocation frequencies in cells from two tissues of 8 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) irradiated almost three decades previously. Six of the monkeys were exposed in 1965 to whole-body (fully penetrating) radiation and two were unexposed controls. The primates were irradiated as juveniles to single doses of 0.56, 1.13, 2.00, or 2.25 Gy. Blood lymphocytes (and skin fibroblasts from one individual) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis in 1993, near the end of the animals' lifespans. Results show identical dose-response relationships 28 y after exposure in vivo and immediately after exposure in vitro. Because chromosome aberrations are induced with identical frequencies in vivo and in vitro, these results demonstrate that the translocation frequencies induced in 1965 have not changed significantly during the almost three decades since exposure. Finally, our emerging biodosimetry data for individual radiation workers are now confirming the utility of reciprocal translocations measured by FISH in radiation dose reconstruction.

  7. Similar stimulus features control visual classification in orangutans and rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Rachel F L; Stoinski, Tara S; Mickelberg, Jennifer L; Basile, Benjamin M; Gazes, Regina Paxton; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Many species classify images according to visual attributes. In pigeons, local features may disproportionately control classification, whereas in primates global features may exert greater control. In the absence of explicitly comparative studies, in which different species are tested with the same stimuli under similar conditions, it is not possible to determine how much of the variation in the control of classification is due to species differences and how much is due to differences in the stimuli, training, or testing conditions. We tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) in identical tests in which images were modified to determine which stimulus features controlled classification. Monkeys and orangutans were trained to classify full color images of birds, fish, flowers, and people; they were later given generalization tests in which images were novel, black and white, black and white line drawings, or scrambled. Classification in these primate species was controlled by multiple stimulus attributes, both global and local, and the species behaved similarly. PMID:26615515

  8. Elastic properties of external cortical bone in the craniofacial skeleton of the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Dechow, Paul C

    2006-11-01

    Knowledge of elastic properties and of their variation in the cortical bone of the craniofacial skeleton is indispensable for creating accurate finite-element models to explore the biomechanics and adaptation of the skull in primates. In this study, we measured elastic properties of the external cortex of the rhesus monkey craniofacial skeleton, using an ultrasonic technique. Twenty-eight cylindrical cortical specimens were removed from each of six craniofacial skeletons of adult Macaca mulatta. Thickness, density, and a set of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities were measured on each specimen to allow calculation of the elastic properties in three dimensions, according to equations derived from Newton's second law and Hooke's law. The axes of maximum stiffness were determined by fitting longitudinal velocities measured along the perimeter of each cortical specimen to a sinusoidal function. Results showed significant differences in elastic properties between different functional areas of the rhesus cranium, and that many sites have a consistent orientation of maximum stiffness among specimens. Overall, the cortical bones of the rhesus monkey skull can be modeled as orthotropic in many regions, and as transversely isotropic in some regions, e.g., the supraorbital region. There are differences from human crania, suggesting that structural differences in skeletal form relate to differences in cortical material properties across species. These differences also suggest that we require more comparative data on elastic properties in primate craniofacial skeletons to explore effectively the functional significance of these differences, especially when these differences are elucidated through modeling approaches, such as finite-element modeling.

  9. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  10. Origin and topography of fibers contributing to the fornix in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard C; Aggleton, John P

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of neurons contributing to the fornix was mapped by placing the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in polyacrylamide gels in different medial to lateral locations within the fornix of three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The HRP was placed from 3 to 5 mm caudal to the descending columns of the fornix. Additional information came from a series of rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fasciculata) with anterograde tracer injections in the medial temporal lobe. The hippocampal formation, including the subiculum and presubiculum, together with the entorhinal cortex (EC) and perirhinal cortex (area 35) contribute numerous axons to the fornix in a topographical manner. In contrast, the lateral perirhinal cortex (area 36) and parahippocampal cortical areas TF and TH only contained a handful of cells labeled via the fornix. The medial fornix originates from cells in the caudal half of the subiculum, the lamina principalis interna of the caudal half of the presubiculum, and from the perirhinal cortex (area 35). The intermediate portion of the fornix (i.e., that part midway between the midline and most lateral parts of the fornix) originates from cells in the rostral half of the subiculum and prosubiculum, the anterior presubiculum (only from the lamina principalis externa), the caudal presubiculum (primarily from lamina principalis interna), the rostral half of CA3, the EC (primarily 28I and 28M), and the perirhinal cortex (area 35). The lateral parts of the fornix arise from the rostral EC (28L only) and the most rostral portion of CA3. Subcortically, the medial septum, nucleus of the diagonal band, supramammillary nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and the thalamic nucleus reuniens all send projections through the fornix, which presumably terminate in the hippocampus and adjacent parahippocampal region. These results not only help to define those regions that project via the fornix, but also reveal those subcortical

  11. Early prenatal androgenization results in diminished ovarian reserve in adult female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, D.A.; Patankar, M.S.; Barnett, D.K.; Lesnick, T.G.; Hutcherson, B.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early prenatal androgenization (PA) accelerates follicle differentiation and impairs embryogenesis in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) undergoing FSH therapy for IVF. To determine whether androgen excess in utero affects follicle development over time, this study examines whether PA exposure, beginning at gestational days 40–44 (early treated) or 100–115 (late treated), alters the decline in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels with age in adult female rhesus monkeys and perturbs their ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) therapy for IVF. METHODS Thirteen normal (control), 11 early-treated and 6 late-treated PA adult female monkeys had serum AMH levels measured at random times of the menstrual cycle or anovulatory period. Using some of the same animals, basal serum AMH, gonadotrophins and steroids were also measured in six normal, five early-treated and three late-treated PA female monkeys undergoing FSH therapy for IVF during late-reproductive life (>17 years); serum AMH also was measured on day of HCG administration and at oocyte retrieval. RESULTS Serum AMH levels in early-treated PA females declined with age to levels that were significantly lower than those of normal (P ≤ 0.05) and late-treated PA females (P ≤ 0.025) by late-reproductive life. Serum AMH levels positively predicted numbers of total/mature oocytes retrieved, with early-treated PA females having the lowest serum AMH levels, fewest oocytes retrieved and lowest percentage of females with fertilized oocytes that cleaved. CONCLUSIONS Based on these animals, early PA appears to program an exaggerated decline in ovarian reserve with age, suggesting that epigenetically induced hormonal factors during fetal development may influence the cohort size of ovarian follicles after birth. PMID:19740899

  12. Differences between male and female rhesus monkey erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase activity before and after exposure to sarin

    SciTech Connect

    Woodard, C.L.; Calamaio, C.A.; Kaminskis, A.; Anderson, D.R.; Harris, L.W.

    1993-05-13

    The female rhesus monkey has a menstrual cycle like the human. Additionally, several differences in enzyme levels between males and females and in the female during the menstrual cycle are present. Therefore we quantitated plasma cholinesterase (ChE/BuChE) and erythrocyte (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity before and after exposure to sarin (GB)(1 5 ug/kg, iv; a 0.75 LD50), in male and female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. Twenty-eight-day preexposure baseline plasma ChE and RBC AChE values for six male and six female rhesus monkeys were compared for intra-animal, within sex and between sex differences. After these baseline values were obtained, the organophosphorus (OP) compound/Isopropyl methylphosphono-fluoridate (GB) was administered to atropinized monkeys to determine if there was a significant in vivo difference between the sexes in their response to this intoxication in regard to the rate of BuChE /AChE inhibition, pyridine-2-aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM) reactivation of the phosphonylated BuChE and the rate of aging of the phosphonylated:BuChE/AChE. In the pre-exposure portion of the protocol; the intra-animal and intra-group BuChE/AChE variations were found to be minimal; but there were significant differences between the male and female monkeys in both plasma BuChE and RBC AChE levels; although probably clinically insignificant in respect to an OP intoxication. No significant cyclic fluctuations were seen during the 28-day study in either sex.

  13. Niche partitioning between sympatric rhesus macaques and Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys at Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Li, Da-Yong; Feng, Shun-Kai; Ren, Bao-Ping

    2010-10-01

    Here we provide a preliminary assessment of dietary and habitat requirements of two sympatric primate taxa, a "simple-stomached" and "complex-stomached" species (Rhinopithecus bieti Colobinae vs. Macaca mulatta Cercopithecinae), as a basis for illuminating how the two coexist. Of ca. 22 plant food species consumed by the macaques, at least 16 were also eaten by the snub-nosed monkeys. Both species showed a preference for fruits. While the snub-nosed monkeys did not utilize any resources associated with human communities, rhesus macaques did occasionally raid agricultural crops. The mean elevation of the snub-nosed monkey group was 3,218 m, while the mean elevation of the macaque group was 2,995 m. Macaques were also spotted on meadows whereas snub-nosed monkeys evidently avoided these. For both species, mixed deciduous broadleaf/conifer forest was the most frequently used ecotype, but whereas evergreen broadleaf forest (Cyclobalanopsis community) accounted for only 3% of the location records of the snub-nosed monkeys, it accounted for 36% of the location records of the macaques. Groups of the two species usually kept a considerable spatial distance from one another (mean 2.4 km). One close encounter and confrontation between groups of the two species resulted in the macaque group moving away. Our findings suggest that the coexistence of the two taxa is facilitated via differential macrohabitat use and spatial avoidance. Although divergent habitat-use strategies may reflect interspecific competition, they may also merely reflect different physiological or ecological requirements.

  14. Experimental Chagas' disease in rhesus monkeys. I. Clinical, parasitological, hematological and anatomo-pathological studies in the acute and indeterminate phase of the disease.

    PubMed

    Bonecini-Almeida, M da G; Galvão-Castro, B; Pessoa, M H; Pirmez, C; Laranja, F

    1990-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were infected subcutaneously with 1.0 x 10(4) to 1.5 x 10(4) metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Colombian strain). Parasitological and immunological parameters were evaluated in these animals for periods of 1 month to over 3 years. A chagoma was observed between the 3rd and the 13th day after infection (a.i.) and patent parasitaemia between the 13th and 59th day a.i.. Thereafter, parasites were demonstrated only by haemoculture and/or xenodiagnosis. Circulating specific IgM and IgG antibodies were observed as early as in the 2nd week a.i. IgG levels persisted until the end of the experiment, but IgM antibodies were detectable nine months a.i. Haematological alterations comprised leucocytosis and lymphocytosis. Electrocardiographic alterations were minor and transient, similar to those observed in non-lethal human acute Chagas' myocarditis. Myocarditis and myositis, characterized by multiple foci of lympho-histiocyte inflammatory infiltrate, were present in monkeys sacrificed on the 41st, 70th and 76th day but not in the animal sacrificed 3 years and 3 months a. i.. The results suggest that Chagas' disease in rhesus monkeys reproduces the acute and indeterminate phases of human Chagas' disease. PMID:2128360

  15. Cryotolerance of Sperm from Transgenic Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Moran, Sean P; Chi, Tim; Prucha, Melinda S; Agca, Yuksel; Chan, Anthony Ws

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation is an important tool routinely used in preserving sperm for assisted reproductive technologies and for genetic preservation of unique animal models. Here we investigated the viability of fresh and frozen sperm from rhesus macaques on the basis of motility, membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity. Sperm motility was determined by visual evaluation; membrane and acrosome integrity were assessed simultaneously through triple staining with Hoechst 33342, propidium iodide, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-peanut agglutinin. We compared thawed semen that had been cryopreserved by using 2 different media with fresh semen from wildtype (WT) macaques; fresh semen from a model of Huntington disease (HD) with fresh WT semen; and fresh HD with cryopreserved-thawed HD semen. Our new freezing media (TEST EQ) preserved the acrosome better, with less net damage, than did traditional TEST (egg yolk extender containing TES and Tris) media. In addition, the percentage of membrane-damaged cells was similar in fresh HD semen (38.6%±2.9%) and WT semen (35.5%±1.9%). Membrane and acrosomal damage were not different between HD and WT sperm after cryopreservation and subsequent thawing. Furthermore, cryopreservation had similar negative effects on the motility of HD and WT sperm. These data illustrate that semen from a rhesus macaque model of HD is similarly cryotoleratant to that from WT animals. PMID:27657705

  16. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Blomquist, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across pre-reproductive age classes in the semi-free ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (max. n=977 mothers, 6240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly “burn off” as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life. PMID:23315583

  17. Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma in a juvenile rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Laing, Steven T; Lemoy, Marie J; Sammak, Rebecca L; Tarara, Ross P

    2013-10-01

    Neoplasia in juvenile (younger than 5 y) rhesus macaques has been estimated to represent only approximately 1.4% of all occurrences of spontaneous neoplasia. Here we report an unusual case of a 3.75-y-old primiparous female rhesus macaque that was euthanized due to poor prognosis associated with progressive anemia, marked hepatomegaly, and radiographic evidence of meta- static neoplasia. Postmortem examination revealed an invasive, hemorrhagic hepatic mass that effaced approximately 70% of the liver parenchyma and had evidence of metastatic spread to multiple abdominal organs, the lungs, and the pituitary gland. Neoplastic polygonal cells lined large necrohemorrhagic cavities and exhibited marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, with frequent multinucleate cells. There was no desmoplasia associated with the primary neoplasm or metastases. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the neoplastic cells to be diffusely reactive with pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and cytokeratin 8/18 antibodies and rarely reactive with carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies. The cells did not react with vimentin, S100, CD31, or factor VIII antibodies. Tumor morphology and immunophenotype led to the diagnosis of anaplastic hepatocellular carcinoma. This report represents the first known case of metastatic liver neoplasia in a rhesus macaque. The young age of this animal and the aggressive nature of the neoplasm are highly unusual and reminiscent of adolescent onset hepatocellular carcinoma in humans.

  18. Disseminated Hemangiosarcoma in a Juvenile Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Beck, Amanda P; Gray, Stanton B; Chaffee, Beth K

    2016-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant tumor of vascular endothelial origin that is sporadically reported in rhesus macaques. This report describes the clinicopathologic features of a 1-y-old rhesus macaque with spontaneous disseminated hemangiosarcoma that originally presented as a focal cutaneous mass. Histopathologic examination of multiple tumor foci revealed regions in which the neoplastic cells formed diffuse sheets, as well as the well-defined vascular channels typically associated with hemangiosarcoma. Multiple endothelial cell immunomarkers were used to confirm the diagnosis in this rhesus macaque. The tumor exhibited staining properties consistent with those seen in domestic animals and humans. In addition, to our knowledge, this animal represents the youngest case of any form of spontaneous hemangiosarcoma reported in the rhesus macaque to date.

  19. Executive-Attentional Uncertainty Responses by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Church, Barbara A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty response has been influential in studies of human perception, and it is crucial in the growing research literature that explores animal metacognition. However, the uncertainty response's interpretation is still sharply debated. The authors sought to clarify this interpretation using the dissociative technique of cognitive loads…

  20. Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2013-03-01

    The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life.

  1. Covert Shifts of Spatial Attention in the Macaque Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Caspari, Natalie; Janssens, Thomas; Mantini, Dante; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2015-01-01

    In the awake state, shifts of spatial attention alternate with periods of sustained attention at a fixed location or object. Human fMRI experiments revealed the critical role of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in shifting spatial attention, a finding not predicted by human lesion studies and monkey electrophysiology. To investigate whether a potential homolog of the human SPL shifting region exists in monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we adopted an event-related fMRI paradigm that closely resembled a human experiment (Molenberghs et al., 2007). In this paradigm, a pair of relevant and irrelevant shapes was continuously present on the horizontal meridian. Subjects had to covertly detect a dimming of the relevant shape while ignoring the irrelevant dimmings. The events of interest consisted of the replacement of one stimulus pair by the next. During shift but not stay events, the relevant shape of the new pair appeared at the contralateral position relative to the previous one. Spatial shifting events activated parietal areas V6/V6A and medial intraparietal area, caudo-dorsal visual areas, the most posterior portion of the superior temporal sulcus, and several smaller frontal areas. These areas were not activated during passive stimulation with the same sensory stimuli. During stay events, strong direction-sensitive attention signals were observed in a distributed set of contralateral visual, temporal, parietal, and lateral prefrontal areas, the vast majority overlapping with the sensory stimulus representation. We suggest medial intraparietal area and V6/V6A as functional counterparts of human SPL because they contained the most widespread shift signals in the absence of contralateral stay activity, resembling the functional characteristics of the human SPL shifting area. PMID:25995460

  2. Interactions between oral contraceptives and malaria infections in rhesus monkeys*

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, G. P.; Puri, S. K.; Kamboj, K. K.; Srivastava, S. K.; Kamboj, V. P.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of oral contraceptives with malaria infection (Plasmodium cynomolgi B and P. coatneyi) in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was studied. The oral contraceptives (Norinyl and Ovral-28) were administered for 12 consecutive menstrual cycles, from day 5 to 25 of each cycle, at either ⅓ of the human dose of Norinyl (norethisterone 0.33 mg + ethinylestradiol 0.012 mg) or ⅙ of the human dose of Ovral-28 (norgestrel 0.083 mg + ethinylestradiol 0.008 mg). The animals were divided into three groups for each infection (control, Norinyl and Ovral-28 treated) with 10 monkeys in each group for P. cynomolgi B infection and 12 in each group for P. coatneyi infection. The animals were infected after 6 cycles of oral contraceptive administration, and the course of infection was studied during the 7th and 8th cycles. This was followed by radical cure during the 9th and 10th cycles and rechallenge in the 11th and 12th cycles. The present study showed that (1) the contraceptive-treated animals maintained a slightly increased cumulative parasite load; (2) the contraceptives did not interfere with the radical curative action of chloroquine; (3) the contraceptive-treated animals showed no significant change in the course of parasitaemia on rechallenge or in the malaria indirect fluorescent antibody levels; (4) the liver function tests were not altered significantly by the administration of contraceptives and subsequent infection; and (5) the haematological changes observed in the contraceptive-treated animals were similar to those observed in the control group. PMID:6335851

  3. Radiation and phylogeography in the Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata.

    PubMed

    Marmi, Josep; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Terradas, Jaume; Takenaka, Osamu; Domingo-Roura, Xavier

    2004-03-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) presumably differentiated from eastern rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) populations during the Pleistocene and the two species are closely related. In order to analyse speciation and subspeciation events in the Japanese macaque and to describe historical and current relationships among their populations, we sequenced and analysed a fragment of 392bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region in 50 individuals belonging to six populations of Japanese macaque and compared these sequences with 89 eastern rhesus macaque control region sequences from GenBank/EMBL database. There were high genetic similarities between both species and only two positions were fixed within each species, which supports the inclusion of the Japanese macaque in a single species with eastern populations of rhesus macaques. Japanese macaque ancestors colonised Japan after the separation of the two species, estimated at between 0.31 and 0.88 million years ago (Mya). The star-like phylogeny, multimodal mismatch distribution, and lack of correlation between geographic and genetic distances are in accordance with a rapid dispersion of macaques throughout the archipelago after the arrival into Japan. The species shows low genetic variation within populations and high levels of genetic differentiation among populations with no mtDNA haplotype shared across populations. Genetic distances between Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) and any other population of Macaca fuscata fuscata subspecies are comparable to the distances between populations of Honshu, Awajishima, and Kyushu, not supporting the classification of Yakushima macaques as a different subspecies.

  4. The Origins of Belief Representation: Monkeys Fail to Automatically Represent Others’ Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Young infants’ successful performance on false belief tasks has led several researchers to argue that there may be a core knowledge system for representing the beliefs of other agents, emerging early in human development and constraining automatic belief processing into adulthood. One way to investigate this purported core belief representation system is to examine whether non-human primates share such a system. Although non-human primates have historically performed poorly on false belief tasks that require executive function capacities, little work has explored how primates perform on more automatic measures of belief processing. To get at this issue, we modified Kovács et al. (2010)’s test of automatic belief representation to examine whether one non-human primate species—the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)—is automatically influenced by another agent’s beliefs when tracking an object’s location. Monkeys saw an event in which a human agent watched an apple move back and forth between two boxes and an outcome in which one box was revealed to be empty. By occluding segments of the apple’s movement from either the monkey or the agent, we manipulated both the monkeys’ belief (true or false) and agent’s belief (true or false) about the final location of the apple. We found that monkeys looked longer at events that violated their own beliefs than at events that were consistent with their beliefs. In contrast to human infants, however, monkeys’ expectations were not influenced by another agent’s beliefs, suggesting that belief representation may be an aspect of core knowledge unique to humans. PMID:24374209

  5. A nine-year chronic toxicity study of cadmium ingestion in monkeys. I. Effects of dietary cadmium on the general health of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, T; Akahori, F; Arai, S; Nomiyama, K; Nomiyama, H; Kobayashi, K; Nomura, Y; Suzuki, T

    1994-06-01

    Thirty-five male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) 2-5 y-of-age were separated into 5 groups and fed 200 g solid food daily which contained 0, 3, 10, 30 or 100 micrograms cadmium/g (ppm) as cadmium chloride for 462 w (9 y). The control feed (0 ppm) contained 0.27 micrograms cadmium/g. Dietary zinc intake was limited to the minimum requirement of 6 mg zinc/day (control food concentration was 3 mg zinc/100 g) to avoid impacting cadmium toxicity due to excessive zinc intake. Urine was collected at 3-w intervals. Decreased development (reduced body weight and body length) was observed in groups that received 10 ppm cadmium or more. The 100 ppm group had glucose in the urine after 48 w, elevated urine protein at 98 w, and markedly increased urine volume after the 102nd week. No abnormalities in renal functions were noted in the 3 or 10 ppm groups. Despite the development of these clinical signs of renal dysfunction, none of the 100 ppm group had aggravated renal dysfunction or renal failure during the 9 y of study.

  6. Experimental pulmonary inflammatory injury in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Revak, S D; Rice, C L; Schraufstätter, I U; Halsey, W A; Bohl, B P; Clancy, R M; Cochrane, C G

    1985-09-01

    Inflammatory pulmonary injury was induced in Macaca mulatta rhesus monkeys by the intrabronchial instillation of the formylated peptide norleu-leu-phe (FNLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Indicators of pulmonary injury included an increase in mean protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 0.51 mg/ml in untreated animals to 3.74 mg/ml and 6.64 mg/ml in FNLP- and PMA-treated animals, respectively, the appearance of a diffuse pulmonary infiltrate in chest roentgenograms, and histologic evidence of a predominantly neutrophilic leukocytic infiltration. Concomitant with the appearance of pulmonary injury was the generation of proteases and oxidants in the BAL fluids. Neutrophil elastase, bound to alpha 1-protease inhibitor (alpha 1-PI), was found to increase from 0.47 micrograms/ml in untreated monkeys to 0.99 micrograms/ml in FNLP-treated animals and 1.23 micrograms/ml in monkeys receiving PMA. Radioiodinated human prekallikrein, instilled for 2 min into the inflammatory site and retrieved by lavaging, was found to have undergone proteolytic cleavage; this cleavage was not consistently inhibitable with the inclusion of antibody to elastase. BAL fluids were shown to contain an amidolytic activity when tested on the synthetic substrate H-D-pro-phe-arg-pNA. This activity was partially inhibitable with known inhibitors of active Hageman factor and kallikrein. beta-Glucuronidase levels in the BAL fluids increased from 0.85 U/ml to 4.36 U/ml and 8.25 U/ml in FNLP- and PMA-treated animals, respectively. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels also increased from 1.37 OD U/ml X min to 16.59 and 30.47 OD U/ml X min in the same groups of animals. Oxidant generation was also assessed in several different ways. The specific activity of the oxidant-sensitive inhibitor alpha 1-PI recovered in the BAL fluid decreased from 0.80 in control samples to 0.57 and 0.65 in FNLP- and PMA-treated animals. That this inactivation was due to oxidant injury of the molecule was confirmed

  7. Methylphenidate does not enhance visual working memory but benefits motivation in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Oemisch, Mariann; Johnston, Kevin; Paré, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Working memory is a limited-capacity cognitive process that retains relevant information temporarily to guide thoughts and behavior. A large body of work has suggested that catecholamines exert a major modulatory influence on cognition, but there is only equivocal evidence of a direct influence on working memory ability, which would be reflected in a dependence on working memory load. Here we tested the contribution of catecholamines to working memory by administering a wide range of acute oral doses of the dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MPH, 0.1-9 mg/kg) to three female macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta), whose working memory ability was measured from their performance in a visual sequential comparison task. This task allows the systematic manipulation of working memory load, and we therefore tested the specific hypothesis that MPH modulates performance in a manner that depends on both dose and memory load. We found no evidence of a dose- or memory load-dependent effect of MPH on performance. In contrast, significant effects on measures of motivation were observed. These findings suggest that an acute increase in catecholamines does not seem to affect the retention of visual information per se. As such, these results help delimit the effects of MPH on cognition. PMID:27329555

  8. Late cataractogenesis in rhesus monkeys irradiated with protons and radiogenic cataract in other species

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Lee, A.C.; Cox, A.B. )

    1991-05-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) which were irradiated at ca. 2 years of age with acute doses (less than or equal to 5 Gy) of protons (32-2300 MeV) are exhibiting the late progressive phase of radiation cataractogenesis 20-24 years after exposure, the period during which we have been monitoring the sequelae of irradiation of the lens. The median life span of the primate is approximately 24 years. Analogous late ocular changes also occur in a similar period of the lifetimes of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) exposed at 8-10 weeks of age to 460-MeV {sup 56}Fe ions. In this experiment, which has been in progress for ca. 6 years, we are following the development of radiation-induced lenticular opacification (cataractogenic profiles) throughout the life span. The median life span of the lagomorph is 5-7 years. Cataractogenic profiles for NZW rabbits irradiated with {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar ions and {sup 60}Co gamma photons were obtained previously. Reference is also made to measurements of the cataractogenic profiles of a short-lived rodent, the Fischer 344 rat (Rattus norvegicus) during the first year after exposure at 8-10 weeks of age to spread-Bragg-peak protons of 55 MeV nominal energy. The median life span of the rodent is reported to be 2-3 years.

  9. Functional differences in face processing between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, K; Konoike, N; Nakamura, K

    2015-09-24

    The ability to categorize social information is essential to survive in a primate's social group. In the monkey brain, there are neural systems to categorize social information. Among these, the relationship between the amygdala and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) has recently gained focus with regard to emotion regulation. However, the processing of facial information and the functional differences in these two areas remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we examined the response properties of single neurons in the amygdala and vlPFC while presenting video clips of three types of facial emotions (aggressive threat, coo, and scream) in Macaca mulatta. Neurons in the amygdala were preferentially activated upon presentation of a scream facial expression, which is strongly negative, whereas the neurons in the vlPFC were activated upon presentation of coo, a facial expression with multiple meanings depending on the social context. Information analyses revealed that the amount of information conveyed by the amygdala neurons about the type of emotion transiently increased immediately after stimulus presentation. In contrast, the information conveyed by the vlPFC neurons showed sustained elevation during stimulus presentation. Therefore, our results suggest that the amygdala processes strong emotion roughly but rapidly, whereas the vlPFC spends a great deal of time processing ambiguous facial information in communication, and make an accurate decision from multiple possibilities based on memory. PMID:26208842

  10. Social attachment in juvenile monkeys with neonatal lesion of the hippocampus, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Goursaud, Anne-Pierre S; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2007-01-10

    Non-human primates, like humans, develop and maintain social relationships and attachments throughout their life. The first and most crucial relationship in a primate life is that with its mother. Yet, in absence of their biological mother, infant primates form attachment to surrogate mothers. Although, this early attachment is critical for the development of normal species-typical social and emotional skills, the neural substrates underlying the formation of social relationships in primates are still unclear. The present study assessed, in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) reared by human caregivers and social interactions with peers, the effects of bilateral neonatal (1-2 weeks of age) ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala and hippocampus (N=6 in each group), aspiration lesions of the orbital frontal cortex (N=6) or sham lesions (N=5) on the development of a social attachment with the principal human caregiver. A specific preference for the later was assessed at 11 months of age, in a two-choice discrimination task, opposing the principal human caregiver to another familiar human, in a familiar environment. None of the lesions impaired the expression of preferential responses toward the principal human caregiver. Nevertheless, lesions of the orbital frontal cortex led to a weaker preference, suggesting that this structure may play a role in the quality and/or strength of the infant/mother relationships. The present non-human primate findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for autism. PMID:17084912

  11. Monkey adrenal chromaffin cells express α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vivanco, Alicia; Hone, Arik J; Scadden, Mick L; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; McIntosh, J Michael; Albillos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta) also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs.

  12. Monkey Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Express α6β4* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Scadden, Mick´l; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; McIntosh, J. Michael; Albillos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta) also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs. PMID:24727685

  13. Humans and Monkeys Distinguish Between Self-generated, Opposing, and Random Actions

    PubMed Central

    Couchman, Justin J.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of self-agency results from monitoring the relationship between prior thoughts and action plans, sensorimotor information, and perceived outcomes. It is thought to be an important factor underlying self-recognition and self-awareness. Three experiments investigated the sense of self-agency in humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). First, humans were asked to move a cursor with a joystick while several distractor cursors also moved onscreen. They were asked to identify either the cursor they were controlling or to identify a distractor using visual cues alone. Six rhesus macaques were then given a similar task in which they needed to identify a self-controlled cursor that was paired with several different types of distractors. Both groups were able to identify the self-controlled cursor, and monkeys performed best when the oppositely moving cursor was the distractor. A third experiment showed that humans, like macaques, use both perceptual and self-agency information to make decisions. PMID:25108418

  14. Cardiovascular studies in the rhesus monkey. [brain circulation during stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. L.; Sandler, H.

    1977-01-01

    Criteria are given for selecting the macaca mulatta as the analogue of the human in the study of cerebral circulation, particularly the control of the cerebral vascular bed during normal and stressful conditions. Topics discussed include surgical preparation of subject; responses to changes in arterial pressure, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; innervation of cerebral vessels; cerebral flow response to acceleration; and cerebral blood flow and cerebellar stimulation.

  15. Assessing the Value of Television as Environmental Enrichment for Individually Housed Rhesus Monkeys: A Behavioral Economic Approach.

    PubMed

    Harris, Linda D.; Briand, Edward J.; Orth, Rushawn; Galbicka, Gregory

    1999-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate television as a source of environmental enrichment for individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by using the concepts of behavioral economics. Phase I entailed the use of operant conditioning to assess the behavior of eight rhesus monkeys given the opportunity to control their environment through lever activation of a television (TV). Success in shaping was variable, and only two animals successfully acquired lever pressing. Phase II used an alternating reinforcement/ extinction procedure as a control method to determine the degree to which lever pressing depended on TV presentation. Both animals responded with more lever pressing on the days when lever pressing produced TV. The first animal, tested with the alternating reinforcement/extinction procedure for 12 weeks yielded a mean significant difference of 3.85 (p = 0.036); the second assessed for 9 weeks was associated with a mean significant difference of 6.0 (p = 0.018). Therefore, TV (and not lever pressing itself) was positively reinforcing. The final phase of the study progressively increased the fixed ratio (FR) from 1 to 8. Linear regression of the data points, plotted as the log of price (or FR) vs the consumption of TV, revealed a significantly negative slope (-2.179, p, 0.05) and accounted for 89% of the variance. The negative demand curve suggested that TV is not a valued commodity and is highly elastic. TV provided to individually housed rhesus monkeys appears to be a weakly positive reinforcer for some animals, which may contribute to overall environmental enrichment.

  16. Assessing the Value of Television as Environmental Enrichment for Individually Housed Rhesus Monkeys: A Behavioral Economic Approach.

    PubMed

    Harris, Linda D.; Briand, Edward J.; Orth, Rushawn; Galbicka, Gregory

    1999-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate television as a source of environmental enrichment for individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by using the concepts of behavioral economics. Phase I entailed the use of operant conditioning to assess the behavior of eight rhesus monkeys given the opportunity to control their environment through lever activation of a television (TV). Success in shaping was variable, and only two animals successfully acquired lever pressing. Phase II used an alternating reinforcement/ extinction procedure as a control method to determine the degree to which lever pressing depended on TV presentation. Both animals responded with more lever pressing on the days when lever pressing produced TV. The first animal, tested with the alternating reinforcement/extinction procedure for 12 weeks yielded a mean significant difference of 3.85 (p = 0.036); the second assessed for 9 weeks was associated with a mean significant difference of 6.0 (p = 0.018). Therefore, TV (and not lever pressing itself) was positively reinforcing. The final phase of the study progressively increased the fixed ratio (FR) from 1 to 8. Linear regression of the data points, plotted as the log of price (or FR) vs the consumption of TV, revealed a significantly negative slope (-2.179, p, 0.05) and accounted for 89% of the variance. The negative demand curve suggested that TV is not a valued commodity and is highly elastic. TV provided to individually housed rhesus monkeys appears to be a weakly positive reinforcer for some animals, which may contribute to overall environmental enrichment. PMID:12086433

  17. The whole mitochondrial genome of the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Li, Ruilei; Wang, Huawei; Yang, Liqin; Zhang, Baoming; Li, Yijiang; Hu, Jiansheng; Kong, Qingpeng

    2015-04-01

    Macaca fascicularis, known as the long-tailed macaque, is widely distributed in southern of East Asia and Southeast Asia. It was one of the most commonly used non-human primates in biomedical research. Thus, to illustrate the maternal phylogenetic status of M. fascicularis in primates based on the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome and determine a reference sequence for future population genetic studies by taking mtDNA as molecular marker, in this study, the high quality whole mtDNA genome of M. fascicularis was amplified and sequenced. Our data showed that the whole mtDNA genome of M. fascicularis includes 16,571 base pairs (bps). Further phylogenetic analyses of M. fascicularis were performed by incorporating the 83 available whole mtDNA genomes belonging to 77 primate species with Tupaia belangeri as out-group. Our result supported that M. fascicularis belongs to Macaca. Cercopithecinae. Cercopithecidae. Anthropoidea. Primates, which has the closest genetic affinity with Macaca mulatta. In addition, the ancestral divergence between the tarsier and other primate species was supported with evidence from the whole mtDNA genomes.

  18. Behavioral evaluation of modafinil and the abuse-related effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jennifer L; Negus, S Stevens; Lozama, Anthony; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Mello, Nancy K

    2010-10-01

    Modafinil is a central nervous system stimulant used to promote wakefulness, and it is being evaluated clinically as an agonist medication for treating stimulant abuse. This is the first report of the effects of modafinil on the abuse-related effects of cocaine in nonhuman primates. The behavioral effects of modafinil were examined in three studies. First, the discriminative stimulus effects of modafinil (3.2-32 mg/kg) were evaluated in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) trained to discriminate either low (0.18 mg/kg, IM) or high (0.4 mg/kg, IM) doses of cocaine from saline. Modafinil dose-dependently substituted for cocaine in 6 of 7 monkeys. In the second study, the effects of chronically administered modafinil (32-56 mg/kg/day, IV) on food- and cocaine-maintained (0.001-0.1 mg/kg/inj) operant responding were examined. Modafinil was administered 3 times/hr for 23 hr/day to ensure stable drug levels. Chronic treatment with 32 mg/kg/day modafinil selectively reduced responding maintained by intermediate and peak reinforcing doses of cocaine, but responding maintained by higher doses of cocaine was unaffected. Food-maintained behavior did not change during chronic modafinil treatment. In a third study, modafinil (32 and 56 mg/kg/day, IV) was examined in a reinstatement model. Modafinil transiently increased responding during extinction. These findings indicate that modafinil shares discriminative stimulus effects with cocaine and selectively reduces responding maintained by reinforcing doses of cocaine. In addition, modafinil reinstated cocaine-seeking behavior, which may reflect its cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects. These data support clinical findings and indicate that these preclinical models may be useful for predicting the effectiveness of agonist medications for drug abuse treatment. PMID:20939643

  19. Behavioral and hormonal reactivity to threat: Effects of selective amygdala, hippocampal or orbital frontal lesions in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christopher J.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    Summary We compared the effects of bilateral amygdala, hippocampal or orbital frontal cortex lesions on emotional and hormonal reactivity in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Experiment 1 measured behavioral reactivity to an unfamiliar human intruder before and after surgery. Animals with amygdala lesions demonstrated decreases in one passive defensive behavior (freezing), whereas animals with hippocampal lesions showed decreases in a more stimulus-directed defensive behavior (tooth grinding). Orbital frontal cortex lesions also reduced these two defensive behaviors, as well as decreased cage-shaking dominance displays. Animals with amygdala, hippocampal or sham lesions also demonstrated increased tension-related behaviors after surgery, but those with orbital frontal lesions did not. Finally, all three lesions diminished the operated animals' ability to modulate tension-related behaviors depending on the magnitude of threat posed by the human intruder. Experiment 2 measured circulating levels of cortisol and testosterone when a subset of these same animals were at rest and following physical restraint, temporary isolation, exposure to threatening objects and social interactions with an unfamiliar conspecific. None of the lesions impacted on testosterone levels in any condition. Amygdala or orbital frontal lesions blunted cortisol reactivity during isolation from peers, but not during any other condition. Hippocampal lesions did not alter circulating levels of cortisol under any conditions. These results indicate that the amygdala, hippocampus and orbital frontal cortex play distinct, yet complimentary roles in coordinating emotional and hormonal reactivity to threat. PMID:18650022

  20. Influence of chronic dopamine transporter inhibition by RTI-336 on motor behavior, sleep, and hormone levels in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Monica L; Sawyer, Eileen K; Carroll, F Ivy; Howell, Leonard L

    2012-04-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors have been developed as a promising treatment approach for cocaine dependence. However, the stimulant effects of DAT inhibitors have the potential to disrupt sleep patterns, and the influence of long-term treatment on dopamine neurochemistry is still unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore the stimulant-related effects of chronic DAT inhibitor (RTI-336) treatment on motor activity and sleep-like measures in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 4) and (2) to determine the effect of drug treatment on prolactin and cortisol levels. Subjects were fitted with a collar-mounted activity monitor to evaluate their motor activity, with 4 days of baseline recording preceding 21 days of daily saline or RTI-336 (1 mg/kg/day; intramuscular) injections. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to and following chronic treatment to assess hormone levels. RTI-336 produced a significant increase in locomotor activity at the end of the daytime period compared to saline administration. During the 3-week treatment period, sleep efficiency was decreased and the fragmentation index and latency to sleep onset were significantly increased. Hormone levels were not changed throughout the study. Chronic treatment with RTI-336 has a mild but significant stimulant effect, as evidenced by the significant increase in activity during the evening period which may cause minor disruptions in sleep measures. PMID:22023668

  1. Chemical characterization of oligosaccharides in the milk of six species of New and Old world monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Kohta; Fukuda, Kenji; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Kimura, Kazumasa; Glander, Kenneth E.; Hinde, Katie; Dittus, Wolfgang; Milligan, Lauren A.; Power, Michael L.; Oftedal, Olav T.

    2010-01-01

    Human and great ape milks contain a diverse array of milk oligosaccharides, but little is known about the milk oligosaccharides of other primates, and how they differ among taxa. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk of three species of Old World or catarrhine monkeys (Cercopithecidae: rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), toque macaque (Macaca sinica) and Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas)) and three of New World or platyrrhine monkeys (Cebidae: tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) and Bolivian squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis); Atelidae: mantled howler (Alouatta palliata)). The milks of these species contained 6–8% total sugar, most of which was lactose: the estimated ratio of oligosaccharides to lactose in Old World monkeys (1:4 to 1:6) was greater than in New World monkeys (1:12 to 1:23). The chemical structures of the oligosaccharides were determined mainly by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Oligosaccharides containing the type II unit (Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc) were found in the milk of the rhesus macaque, toque macaque, Hamadryas baboon and tufted capuchin, but oligosaccharides containing the type I unit (Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc), which have been found in human and many great ape milks, were absent from the milk of all species studied. Oligosaccharides containing Lewis x (Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc) and 3-fucosyl lactose (3-FL, Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]Glc) were found in the milk of the three cercopithecid monkey species, while 2-fucosyl lactose (5'-FL, Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was absent from all species studied. All of these milks contained acidic oligosaccharides that had N-acetylneuraminic acid as part of their structures, but did not contain oligosaccharides that had N-glycolylneuraminic acid, in contrast to the milk or colostrum of great apes which contain both types of acidic oligosaccharides. Two GalNAc-containing oligosaccharides, lactose 3′-O-sulfate and lacto-N-novopentaose I (Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc) were found only in the

  2. How monkeys see others: Discrimination and recognition of monkeys' shape.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, W

    1994-12-01

    The two experiments described in this study address the question of the perceptual basis of species discrimination and body recognition in monkeys. Longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to discriminate line drawings of different monkey bodies. The procedure consisted of a simultaneous discrimination between four images under continuous reinforcement. Social communication between the test animal and other group members during test sessions was almost unrestricted. In the first experiment all monkeys learned, within at least 7 sessions, to discriminate one monkey from other monkeys. Discrimination was invariant against transformations of size and rotation of the stimuli. A preference test for particular features resulted in a graded estimation of particular body features. Generalisation to different views of facial stimuli was demonstrated. In the second experiment the monkeys had to relearn a new association which involved a differentiation of the previously shown stimuli. After reaching the learning criterion it was shown that the same features as in the previous experiment were evaluated differently. The experiments generally support the view that perceptual mechanisms of the signal receiver are crucial for individual recognition. Results are discussed in contrast to a 'theory of mind' approach in primate cognition.

  3. The effect of ketoprofen creams on periodontal disease in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Li, K L; Vogel, R; Jeffcoat, M K; Alfano, M C; Smith, M A; Collins, J G; Offenbacher, S

    1996-11-01

    Ketoprofen creams were evaluated for the treatment of periodontal disease in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study in the rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Two formulations containing ketoprofen (1%), with or without vitamin E, were evaluated against appropriate controls (8 monkeys per group). Two weeks prior to treatment, the animals received prophylaxis on only the left side of the mouth (spontaneous model). Selected teeth on the right side of the mouth were ligated (ligature model). The creams were administered to the gingiva once daily at a standard dose of 1.8 ml per monkey for 6 months. Clinical assessments were made 2 wk before initiation, at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. The clinical parameters included plaque formation, gingival redness, edema, bleeding on probing and Ramfjord Attachment Level measurements (RAL). Radiographs were taken at 2 wk before initiation, baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Digital, subtraction radiography was used to measure vertical linear bone loss along the interproximal root surfaces of the left and right mandibular first molars. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected for biochemical assays on PGE2, TxB2, LTB4, IL-1 beta and TNF alpha. There were no significant differences among groups with respect to gingival indices. Radiographic data demonstrated significant positive effects on bone activity in both groups treated with ketoprofen formulations with improvement over time in the ligature model (0.01 < or = p < or = 0.04). The placebo group exhibited bone loss of 1.96 +/- 0.48 and 1.40 +/- 0.56 mm per site at 3 and 6 months, respectively. The group treated with ketoprofen cream showed an apparent bone gain of 0.28 +/- 0.41 and 0.78 +/- 0.47 mm per site at 3 and 6 months, respectively. The group treated with ketoprofen cream containing vitamin E showed a mean bone loss of 0.41-0.48 mm per site at 3 months with improvement to an apparent bone gain of 0.31 +/- 0.44 mm per site at 6 months. The

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Serum 13C-Retinol in Captive Rhesus Monkeys Provides New Insights on Hypervitaminosis A1–3

    PubMed Central

    Escaron, Anne L.; Green, Michael H.; Howe, Julie A.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervitaminosis A is increasingly a public health concern, and thus noninvasive quantitative methods merit exploration. In this study, we applied the 13C-retinol isotope dilution test to a nonhuman primate model with excessive liver stores. After baseline serum chemistries, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 16) were administered 3.5 μmol 13C2-retinyl acetate. Blood was drawn at baseline, 5 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d following the dose. Liver biopsies were collected 7 d before and 2 d after dosing (n = 4) and at 7, 14, and 28 d (n = 4/time) after dosing. Serum and liver were analyzed by HPLC and GC-combustion-isotope ratio MS for retinol and its enrichment, respectively. Model-based compartmental analysis was applied to serum data. Lactate dehydrogenase was elevated in 50% of the monkeys. Total body reserves (TBR) of vitamin A (VA) were calculated at 28 d. Predicted TBR (3.52 ± 2.01 mmol VA) represented measured liver stores (4.56 ± 1.38 mmol VA; P = 0.124). Predicted liver VA concentrations (13.3 ± 9.7 μmol/g) were similar to measured liver VA concentrations (16.4 ± 5.3 μmol/g). The kinetic models predict that 27–52% of extravascular VA is exchanging with serum in hypervitaminotic A monkeys. The test correctly diagnosed hypervitaminosis A in all monkeys, i.e. 100% sensitivity. Stable isotope techniques have important public health potential for the classification of VA status, including hypervitaminosis, because no other technique besides invasive liver biopsies, correctly identifies excessive liver VA stores. PMID:19710158

  5. Activity in the caudate nucleus of monkey during spatial sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kermadi, I; Joseph, J P

    1995-09-01

    1. There are indications that the execution of behavioral sequences involves the basal ganglia. In this study we examined the role of the caudate nucleus in the construction, storage, and execution of spatial plans. 2. Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to perform sequences of saccades and arm movements. The animals had to remember the order of illumination, variable from one sequence to another, of three fixed spatial targets. After a delay, they had to visually orient toward, and press each target in the same order. Six different sequences were executed on the basis of the order of illumination of the targets. Single cell activity was recorded from the four caudate nuclei of the two monkeys. 3. Neural activity was analyzed in each sequence during 10 different periods: the instruction period in which the targets were illuminated, the three orientation periods toward the different targets, the three postsaccadic periods, and the three periods of target pressing. Statistical comparisons were made to detect differences between the different sequences with respect to activity in each period (sequence specificity). 4. A total of 2,100 neurons were studied, of which 387 were task related. The task-related cells were found in both the head and the body of the caudate nucleus. 5. During central fixation, anticipatory activity (n = 81) preceded onset of specific events. Four groups were considered: 1) neurons (n = 46) anticipating offset of the central fixation point, 2) neurons (n = 7) anticipating the illumination of any target, regardless of its spatial position or order of presentation (rank), 3) neurons (n = 17) anticipating the illumination of the first target, regardless of its spatial position, and 4) neurons (n = 11) anticipating the illumination of a given target, regardless of its rank. 6. Phasic visual responses to target onset were observed in 48 cells. The cells responded primarily to the contralateral and upper targets. In a majority (n = 35), visual

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the crested black macaque (Macaca nigra).

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Na; Shi, Fang-Lei; Liu, Zhi-Jin; Zhou, Qi-Hai

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial sequence of the crested black macaque (Macaca nigra) has been determined by mapping the raw data to previously published mitochondrial assemblies of the corresponding species. The total sequence length is 16,564 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 D-loop control region. The base composition of mtDNA genome is 31.76% A, 25.27% T, 30.17% C, and 12.80% G, with an AT content of 57.03%. The arrangement of genes in M. nigra is identical to that of M. mulatta. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of M. nigra presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the population genetics, help to protect its genetic diversity and resolve phylogenetic relationships within the family.

  7. Climatic and Altitudinal Influences on Variation in Macaca Limb Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares limb lengths and joint diameters in the skeletons of six macaque species (Macaca assamensis, M. fascicularis, M. fuscata, M. mulatta, M. nemestrina, and M. thibetana) from a broad range of habitats and climates in order to test whether ambient temperatures, latitude, and altitude influence interspecific variation in limb morphology in this widely dispersed genus. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and partial correlation analysis reveal that species from temperate latitudes and high elevations tend to have short limbs and large joint diameters for their sizes while species from tropical latitudes and low elevations tend to have long limbs and small joint diameters. Interspecific variations in intra- and interlimb length proportions also reflect phylogeny and subtle differences in locomotion. The results of this study suggest that climatic conditions are important factors among many ecological variables that influence limb morphology in this geographically widespread genus. PMID:22567298

  8. Expression of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Plasma Membrane Transporter-1 in Monkey and Human Retina

    PubMed Central

    Casini, Giovanni; Rickman, Dennis W.; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the expression pattern of the predominant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 in Old World monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human retina. Methods GAT-1 was localized in retinal sections by using immunohistochemical techniques with fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Double-labeling studies were performed with the GAT-1 antibody using antibodies to GABA, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the bipolar cell marker Mab115A10. Results The pattern of GAT-1 immunostaining was similar in human and monkey retinas. Numerous small immunoreactive somata were in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and were present rarely in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of all retinal regions. Medium GAT-1 somata were in the ganglion cell layer in the parafoveal and peripheral retinal regions. GAT-1 fibers were densely distributed throughout the IPL. Varicose processes, originating from both the IPL and somata in the INL, arborized in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), forming a sparse network in all retinal regions, except the fovea. Sparsely occurring GAT-1 processes were in the nerve fiber layer in parafoveal regions and near the optic nerve head but not in the optic nerve. In the INL, 99% of the GAT-1 somata contained GABA, and 66% of the GABA immunoreactive somata expressed GAT-1. GAT-1 immunoreactivity was in all VIP-containing cells, but it was absent in TH-immunoreactive amacrine cells and in Mab115A10 immunoreactive bipolar cells. Conclusions GAT-1 in primate retinas is expressed by amacrine and displaced amacrine cells. The predominant expression of GAT-1 in the inner retina is consistent with the idea that GABA transporters influence neurotransmission and thus participate in visual information processing in the retina. PMID:16565409

  9. Effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S Stevens; Poklis, Justin L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    One complicating factor in cocaine addiction may be concurrent exposure and potential dependence on nicotine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). For comparison, we also determined effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on cocaine versus food choice during continuous saline and nicotine treatment. Rhesus monkeys (N = 3) responded under a concurrent schedule of food pellet (1 g) and intravenous cocaine (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection) availability. Saline and ascending nicotine doses (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/hr, intravenous) were continuously infused for 7-day treatment periods and separated by 24-hr saline treatment periods. Acute effects of mecamylamine (0.32-1.8 mg/kg, intramuscular, 15 min pretreatment) were determined during continuous saline and 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatments. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice. Nicotine treatment did not alter cocaine versus food choice. In contrast, preference of 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine was attenuated 24 hr following termination of 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatment, despite no somatic abstinence signs being observed. Acute mecamylamine enhanced cocaine choice during saline treatment and mainly suppressed rates of behavior during nicotine treatment. Overall, continuous nicotine exposure, up to 1 mg/kg/hr, does not enhance cocaine choice and does not produce nicotine dependence, as demonstrated by the lack of abstinence signs. PMID:26098473

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Southern pig-tailed macaque, Macaca nemestrina, and comparative mitochondrial genomics of Macaca species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Mei, Huixian; Luo, Xueting

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southern pig-tailed, Macaca nemestrina for the first time. The genome is found to be 16,560 bp in length and has a base composition of A (32.25%), G (12.31%), C (30.51%), and T (24.93%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (57.18%) was higher than G + C (42.82%). Similar to other monkeys, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and 8 tRNA genes. To obtain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of Macaca genus, 11 mitochondrial genomes were used for phylogenetic analysis. This mitochondrial sequence reported here would be useful to uncover the monkey's evolution and add a new genetic resource for the genus Macaca.

  11. The origin of projections from the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices to the anterior, medial dorsal and laterodorsal thalamic nuclei of macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Aggleton, John P; Saunders, Richard C; Wright, Nicholas F; Vann, Seralynne D

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between the posterior cingulate cortex (areas 23 and 31) and the retrosplenial cortex (areas 29 and 30) with the anterior, laterodorsal and dorsal medial thalamic nuclei are thought to support various aspects of cognition, including memory and spatial processing. To detail these interactions better, the present study used retrograde tracers to reveal the origins of the corticothalamic projections in two closely related monkey species (Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis). The medial dorsal thalamic nucleus received only light cortical inputs, which predominantly arose from area 23. Efferents to the anterior medial thalamic nucleus also arose principally from area 23, but these projections proved more numerous than those to the medial dorsal nucleus and also involved additional inputs from areas 29 and 30. The anterior ventral and laterodorsal thalamic nuclei had similar sources of inputs from the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices. For both nuclei, the densest projections arose from areas 29 and 30, with numbers of thalamic inputs often decreasing when going dorsal from area 23a to 23c and to area 31. In all cases, the corticothalamic projections almost always arose from the deepest cortical layer. The different profiles of inputs to the anterior medial and anterior ventral thalamic nuclei reinforce other anatomical and electrophysiological findings suggesting that these adjacent thalamic nuclei serve different, but complementary, functions supporting memory. While the lack of retrosplenial connections singled out the medial dorsal nucleus, the very similar connection patterns shown by the anterior ventral and laterodorsal nuclei point to common roles in cognition. PMID:24134130

  12. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus vaccine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Michael M; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Luo, Haiyan; Cropp, Bruce; Carrion, Ricardo; de la Garza, Melissa; Coller, Beth-Ann; Clements, David; Ogata, Steven; Wong, Teri; Martyak, Tim; Weeks-Levy, Carolyn

    2009-09-01

    The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine was evaluated in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The vaccine consisted of a recombinant envelope (E) protein truncated at the C-terminal end, resulting in a polypeptide containing 80% of the N-terminal amino acids of the native WNV protein (WN-80E), mixed with an adjuvant (GPI-0100). WN-80E was produced in a Drosophila melanogaster expression system with high yield and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody specific for flavivirus E proteins. Groups of monkeys were vaccinated with formulations containing 1 or 25 microg of WN-80E antigen, and both humoral and cellular immunity were assessed after vaccination. The results demonstrated potent antibody responses to vaccination, as determined by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus-neutralizing antibody assays. All vaccinated animals responded favorably, and there was little difference in response between animals immunized with 1 or 25 microg of WN-80E. Cellular immunity was determined by lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated animals stimulated in vitro with WN-80E. Cell-mediated immune responses varied from animal to animal within each group. About half of the animals responded with lymphoproliferation, cytokine production, or both. Again, there was little difference in response between animals immunized with a 1- or 25-microg dose of WN-80E in the vaccine formulations. In a separate experiment, groups of monkeys were immunized with the WN-80E/GPI-0100 vaccine or an adjuvant-only control formulation. Animals were then challenged by inoculation of wild-type WNV, and the level of viremia in each animal was monitored daily for 10 days. The results showed that whereas all animals in the control group had detectable viremia for at least 3 days after challenge, all of the vaccinated animals were negative on all

  13. Actigraphy-based sleep parameters during the reinstatement of methamphetamine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Berro, Laís F; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Howell, Leonard L

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate nighttime activity of nonhuman primates during extinction and cue- and drug-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine self-administration. Adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 5) self-administered methamphetamine (0.01 mg/kg/injection, i.v.) under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of reinforcement. Saline infusions were then substituted for methamphetamine and stimulus light (drug-conditioned stimulus presented during drug self-administration) withheld until subjects reached extinction criteria. Drug- and cue-induced reinstatement effects were evaluated after i.v. noncontingent priming injections of methamphetamine (0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg). Activity-based sleep measures were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors a week before (baseline nighttime activity parameters) and throughout the protocol. Although methamphetamine self-administration did not significantly affect nighttime activity compared to baseline, sleeplike parameters were improved during extinction compared to self-administration maintenance. Priming injection of 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine, but not 0.03 or 0.3 mg/kg, induced significant reinstatement effects. These behavioral responses were accompanied by nighttime outcomes, with increased sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency in the night following 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine-induced reinstatement. In the absence of both drug and drug-paired cues (extinction conditions), nighttime activity decreased compared to self-administration maintenance. Additionally, effective reinstatement conditions impaired sleeplike measures. Our data indicate that the reintroduction of the stimulus light as a drug-paired cue increased nighttime activity. PMID:26882419

  14. Disposition of antimony in rhesus monkeys infected with Leishmania braziliensis and treated with meglumine antimoniate.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Karen; Vieira, Flávia A; Porrozzi, Renato; Marchevsky, Renato S; Miekeley, Norbert; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2012-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) disposition and toxicity was evaluated in Leishmania braziliensis-infected monkeys (Macaca mulatta) treated with a 21-d course of low (LOW) or standard (STD) meglumine antimoniate (MA) dosage regimens (5 or 20 mg Sb(V)/kg body weight/d im). Antimony levels in biological matrices were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), while on-line ion chromatography coupled to ICPMS was used to separate and quantify Sb species in plasma. Nadir Sb levels rose steadily from 19.6 ± 4 and 65.1 ± 17.4 ng/g, 24 h after the first injection, up to 27.4 ± 5.8 and 95.7 ± 6.6 ng/g, 24 h after the 21st dose in LOW and SDT groups, respectively. Subsequently, Sb plasma levels gradually declined with a terminal elimination phase half-life of 35.8 d. Antimony speciation in plasma on posttreatment days 1-9 indicated that as total Sb levels declined, proportion of Sb(V) remained nearly constant (11-20%), while proportion of Sb(III) rose from 5% (d 1) to 50% (d 9). Plasma [Sb]/erythrocyte [Sb] ratio was >1 until 12 h after dosing and reversed thereafter. Tissue Sb concentrations (posttreatment days 55 and 95) were as follows: >1000 ng/g in thyroid, nails, liver, gall bladder and spleen; >200 and <1000 ng/g in lymph nodes, kidneys, adrenals, bones, skeletal muscles, heart and skin; and <200 ng/g in various brain structures, thymus, stomach, colon, pancreas. and teeth. Results from this study are therefore consistent with view that Sb(V) is reduced to Sb(III), the active form, within cells from where it is slowly eliminated. Localization of Sb active forms in the thyroid gland and liver and the pathophysiological consequences of marked Sb accumulation in these tissues warrant further studies.

  15. Changes in yearling rhesus monkeys' relationships with their mothers after sibling birth.

    PubMed

    Devinney, B J; Berman, C M; Rasmussen, K L

    2001-08-01

    The birth of a new sibling is believed to signify an abrupt and important transition in a young primate's relationship with its mother-one that is of potential importance from at least three theoretical perspectives: attachment theory, parent-offspring conflict theory, and dynamic assessment models. This study examines changes in relationships between free-ranging yearling rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and their mothers concomitant with the birth of the mother's next infant, and tests predictions derived from each theoretical perspective. We observed 31 yearling rhesus on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, 3 months before and 3 months after their siblings' births, using focal animal sampling methods. Changes in measures related to mother-yearling interaction and yearling distress were examined using repeated-measures analysis of variance. After sibling birth, mothers and yearlings abruptly reduced amounts of time in contact and increased amounts of time at a distance and out of sight of one another. Mothers and yearlings played approximately equal roles in bringing about decreases in proximity, and yearlings took the primary roles in bringing about decreases in contact. Rates of maternal aggression toward yearlings increased immediately and markedly after birth, possibly providing yearlings with early cues regarding subsequent decreased levels of maternal care. There were no marked increases in overt signs of yearling distress (e.g., vocalizations or tantrums) following the births. We conclude that yearlings generally acquiesced to reduced levels of care, responding behaviorally with increased independence and maturity. In this sense, our study provides preliminary support for dynamic assessment models over attachment theory and parent-offspring conflict theory models. PMID:11468750

  16. Naltrexone effects on pituitary and gonadal hormones in male and female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mello, N K; Mendelson, J H; Bree, M P; Skupny, A

    1988-11-01

    The long-acting opioid antagonist, naltrexone, stimulates LH and FSH in women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and is a new provocative test of hypothalamic-pituitary function (42,63). The acute effects of naltrexone (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mg/kg IV) on anterior pituitary (LH, FSH, PRL) and gonadal steroid (T or E2) hormones were studied in 7 female and 4 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Integrated plasma samples were collected at 20 min intervals for 60 min before and for 300 min after intravenous infusion of naltrexone over 10 min. In females studied during the early follicular phase (cycle days 1-3), naltrexone did not stimulate LH and significantly suppressed E2 (p less than 0.0003-0.0001) and FSH (p less than 0.006-0.0001). Naltrexone (0.50 and 1.0 mg/kg) also did not stimulate LH release in late follicular phase females (cycle days 10-12) when estradiol levels were in the peri-ovulatory range. FSH and E2 were significantly suppressed (p less than 0.01-0.05) after 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone, but not after 0.5 mg/kg naltrexone. However, in males all doses of naltrexone significantly stimulated LH (p less than 0.003-0.0001) and T (p less than 0.001-0.0001) but not FSH. LH increased significantly above baseline within 20 to 40 min and T increased significantly within 60 min. These gender differences in naltrexone's effects on pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroid hormones were unanticipated. These data are not concordant with clinical studies which report significant naltrexone stimulation of LH in men and in women during the early follicular phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3150786

  17. Actigraphy-based sleep parameters during the reinstatement of methamphetamine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Berro, Laís F; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Howell, Leonard L

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate nighttime activity of nonhuman primates during extinction and cue- and drug-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine self-administration. Adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 5) self-administered methamphetamine (0.01 mg/kg/injection, i.v.) under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of reinforcement. Saline infusions were then substituted for methamphetamine and stimulus light (drug-conditioned stimulus presented during drug self-administration) withheld until subjects reached extinction criteria. Drug- and cue-induced reinstatement effects were evaluated after i.v. noncontingent priming injections of methamphetamine (0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg). Activity-based sleep measures were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors a week before (baseline nighttime activity parameters) and throughout the protocol. Although methamphetamine self-administration did not significantly affect nighttime activity compared to baseline, sleeplike parameters were improved during extinction compared to self-administration maintenance. Priming injection of 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine, but not 0.03 or 0.3 mg/kg, induced significant reinstatement effects. These behavioral responses were accompanied by nighttime outcomes, with increased sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency in the night following 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine-induced reinstatement. In the absence of both drug and drug-paired cues (extinction conditions), nighttime activity decreased compared to self-administration maintenance. Additionally, effective reinstatement conditions impaired sleeplike measures. Our data indicate that the reintroduction of the stimulus light as a drug-paired cue increased nighttime activity.

  18. Actigraphy-Based Sleep Parameters During the Reinstatement of Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Berro, Laís F.; Andersen, Monica L.; Tufik, Sergio; Howell, Leonard L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate nighttime activity of nonhuman primates during extinction and cue- and drug-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine self-administration. Adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 5) self-administered methamphetamine (0.01 mg/kg/injection, i.v.) under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of reinforcement. Saline infusions were then substituted for methamphetamine and stimulus light (drug-conditioned stimulus presented during drug self-administration) withheld until subjects reached extinction criteria. Drug- and cue-induced reinstatement effects were evaluated after i.v. non-contingent priming injections of methamphetamine (0.03, 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg). Activity-based sleep measures were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors a week before (baseline nighttime activity parameters) and throughout the protocol. Although methamphetamine self-administration did not significantly affect nighttime activity compared to baseline, sleep-like parameters were improved during extinction compared to self-administration maintenance. Priming injection of 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine, but not 0.03 or 0.3 mg/kg, induced significant reinstatement effects. These behavioral responses were accompanied by nighttime outcomes, with increased sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency in the night following 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine-induced reinstatement. In the absence of both drug and drug-paired cues (extinction conditions), nighttime activity decreased compared to self-administration maintenance. Additionally, effective reinstatement conditions impaired sleep-like measures. Our data indicate that the reintroduction of the stimulus light as a drug-paired cue increased nighttime activity. PMID:26882419

  19. Analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome and characterization of diverse NUMTs of Macaca leonina.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiu-Xiang; Fan, Yu; Xu, Ling; Pang, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Lv, Long-Bao; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2015-10-25

    As a non-human primate, the pig-tailed macaque has received wide attention because it can be infected by HIV-1. In this study, we determined the complete mtDNA sequence of the northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina). Unexpectedly, during the amplification of the mtDNA control region (D-loop region) we observed several D-loop-like sequences, which were NUMTs (nuclear mitochondrial sequences) and a total of 14 D-loop-like NUMT haplotypes were later identified in five individuals. The neighbor-joining tree and estimated divergence time based on these D-loop-like NUMT sequences of M. leonina provide some insights into the understanding of the evolutionary history of NUMTs. D-loop-like haplotypes G and H, which also exist in the nuclear genome of mulatta, appear to have been translocated into the nuclear genome before the divergence of M. mulatta and M. leonina. The other D-loop-like NUMT haplotypes were translocated into the nuclear genome of M. leonina after the divergence of the two species. Later sequence conversion was predicted to occur among these 14 D-loop-like NUMT haplotypes. The overall structure of the mtDNA of M. leonina was found to be similar to that seen in other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the maximum likelihood method shows M. leonina clustered with Macaca silenus among the analyzed mammalian species.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata fuscata (Macaca, Cercopithecinae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Kang; Tang, Yun-Qiang; Li, Si-Ying; Mai, Cong; Gong, Yuan-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata fuscata, with the total length of 16,565 bp, is determined for the first time. This mitogenome harbors 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The overall base composition is A (31.7%), C (30.5%), G (12.9%), and T (24.9%), so the slight A-T bias (56.6%) was detected. Most of the genes are distributed on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will provide new genetic resource to uncover the monkey's evolution.

  1. Reproductive consequences of a matrilineal overthrow in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Woodward, Ruth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Matrilineal overthrows in macaque societies are rare but devastating events, often resulting in severe morbidity, mortality, and loss of individual and group fitness. The handful of documented macaque overthrows provides scant evidence to reveal the severity or longevity of reproductive consequences resulting from such violent events. We analyzed archival records from semi-free ranging rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, across six years [55≤N≤107, from 2007–2012] during which time a matrilineal overthrow occurred [in 2009] to test the hypothesis that extremely violent interactions such as a matrilineal overthrow would significantly reduce reproductive fitness for the involved matrilines and for the troop collectively. The matrilineal overthrow resulted in a significant increase in infant loss for the population from the previous year [χ2=8.117, df=1, P=0.004], as evidenced by the fact that in 2009, but not in other years, the proportion of infants lost was greater than the proportion of viable infants [χ2=4.55, df=1, P=0.03]. Moreover, the deposed matriline suffered 100% infant loss in 2009, a significant change from the previous year [χ2=7.87, df=1, P=0.005] while the attacking matriline suffered 50% infant loss [also a significant change from the previous year; χ2=4.44, df=1, P=0.035], with the uninvolved, lowest-ranking matriline showing no change in infant loss from the previous year [χ2=0.008, df=1, P=0.93]. The deposed matriline did not produce viable offspring again until three years later. We further found that rates of severe fighting [as indicated by the number of fight wounds requiring medical treatment] were positively correlated with infant loss across the six years of the study [r[s]=0.943, P=0.005]. Our data indicate that extreme periods of intra-group conflict, such as the matrilineal overthrow, have marked short-term consequences for individual fitness, and may be extreme examples of the long-term influences that group violence exerts on

  2. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area.

  3. Deep subconjunctival injection of gentamicin for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis in macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Gografe, Sylvia I; Hansen, Barbara C; Hansen, Kenneth D

    2015-03-01

    Infectious conjunctivitis occurs in a number of domestic and laboratory animal species and is usually treated topically with eye drops or eye ointments, which must be administered several times a day and sometimes for a prolonged period of time. In aggressive nonhuman primates or other large laboratory animal species, this may require the use of anesthesia or physical restraint before each treatment, which can be stressful to the animals and demanding for personnel. The authors describe a technique for administering deep subconjunctival injections of an antibiotic to laboratory macaques for the treatment of conjunctivitis. Three cases of recurrent conjunctivitis in macaques that responded poorly to other treatment approaches were effectively treated using this technique. This approach is recommended for the treatment of conjunctivitis in macaques and other large animal species.

  4. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species. PMID:27538863

  5. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species.

  6. Interactions of motivation and reinforcement during the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by a monkey.

    PubMed

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskii, V V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the performance of an instrumental task by Macaca rhesus monkeys was investigated in an automated experiment. Three monkeys were trained to complete a movement with a lever in response to a light stimulus. It was demonstrated that the performance of the instrumental reflex by the monkeys is comprised of the alternation of blocks of more or less continuous realizations and pauses between them. The relationship of the intensity of the work of the monkeys to the time from the beginning of the experiment was studied, and a comparison was made of the magnitude of the intensity for the three monkeys. The average intensity of the work of the monkeys within the blocks of continuous realizations is a constant and individual value. The influence of the degree of deprivation and of the delivery of out-of-turn reinforcement on the work of the monkeys was also investigated.

  7. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies.

  8. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies. PMID:26989299

  9. Macaca specific exon creation event generates a novel ZKSCAN5 transcript.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hyun; Choe, Se-Hee; Song, Bong-Seok; Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Myung-Jin; Park, Young-Ho; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Youngjeon; Jin, Yeung Bae; Sim, Bo-Woong; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Sang-Rae; Park, Young-Il; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-02-15

    ZKSCAN5 (also known as ZFP95) is a zinc-finger protein belonging to the Krűppel family. ZKSCAN5 contains a SCAN box and a KRAB A domain and is proposed to play a distinct role during spermatogenesis. In humans, alternatively spliced ZKSCAN5 transcripts with different 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) have been identified. However, investigation of our Macaca UniGene Database revealed novel alternative ZKSCAN5 transcripts that arose due to an exon creation event. Therefore, in this study, we identified the full-length sequences of ZKSCAN5 and its alternative transcripts in Macaca spp. Additionally, we investigated different nonhuman primate sequences to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the exon creation event. We analyzed the evolutionary features of the ZKSCAN5 transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and genomic PCR, and by sequencing various nonhuman primate DNA and RNA samples. The exon-created transcript was only detected in the Macaca lineage (crab-eating monkey and rhesus monkey). Full-length sequence analysis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) identified ten full-length transcripts and four functional isoforms of ZKSCAN5. Protein sequence analyses revealed the presence of two groups of isoforms that arose because of differences in start-codon usage. Together, our results demonstrate that there has been specific selection for a discrete set of ZKSCAN5 variants in the Macaca lineage. Furthermore, study of this locus (and perhaps others) in Macaca spp. might facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the mechanism of exon creation in primates. PMID:26657034

  10. [Comparisons of aggressive behavior for Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) to tourists from Mt. Huangshan, China].

    PubMed

    Ji, Huan; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between monkey-human aggressive behaviors and age/sex classes of monkey (initiator) and human (recipient), by using all-occurrence sampling and continuous recording, we evaluated the monkey-human aggressive behaviors between macaques (Macaca thibetana) and tourists at Mt. Huangshan in two periods (Nov.-Dec.2008 and Apr.-May 2009). After we divide the aggression into three types according to the dangerous level to tourists, some significant patterns were observed.Our observations indicate that Tibetan macaques respond differently to human according to the age/sex classes involved. On one hand, We found that the adult male monkeys tend to be more aggressive than expected (P<0.01), while the adult female monkeys and immature monkeys participated in AGIII behaviors (threat) less than expected (P<0.01); On the other hand, The adult male human received more aggressive behaviors than expected (P<0.01), while the adult female human and child received less aggressive in AGIII behaviors (threat) (P<0.01). Our results provide not only a scientific basis for the management advice that adult male monkeys and adult male human should be given special attention, but also a good management model of Huangshan for other primate tourist exploring places. PMID:20740706

  11. Molecular mapping of striatal subdivisions in juvenile Macaca Mulata

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Joann; Muly, Emil C.; Hemby, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum of the primate brain can be subdivided into three distinct anatomical subregions: caudate (CAU), putamen (PUT), and ventral striatum (VS). Although these subregions share several anatomical connections, cell morphological, and histochemical features, they differ considerably in their vulnerability to different neurological and psychiatric diseases, and these brain regions have significantly different functions in health and disease. In order to better understand the molecular underpinnings of the different disease and functional vulnerabilities, transcriptional profiles were generated from the CAU, PUT, and VS of five juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using human cDNA neuromicroarrays containing triplicate spots of 1227 cDNAs. Differences in microarray gene expression were assessed using z score analysis and 1.5-fold change between paired subregions. Clustering of genes based on dissimilarity of expression patterns between regions revealed subregion specific expression profiles encoding G-protein-coupled receptor signaling transcripts, transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases, and cell signaling and signal transduction transcripts. Twelve transcripts were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and 81% demonstrated alterations similar to those seen with microarray analysis, some of which were statistically significant. Subregion specific transcription profiles support the anatomical differentiation and potential disease vulnerabilities of the respective subregions. PMID:16455077

  12. Healing following meniscoplasty, eminectomy, and high condylectomy in the monkey temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Hall, M B; Baughman, R; Ruskin, J; Thompson, D A

    1986-03-01

    The healing of meniscoplasty, eminectomy, and high condylectomy was studied in five Macaca fascicularis monkeys. After five months of healing, no discontinuity defects were found in any of the plicated menisci, and all recontoured bone surfaces had new soft tissue linings. Fibrous adhesions to the adjacent plicated meniscus developed in 62.5% of the recontoured bony surfaces. PMID:3456437

  13. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in

  14. Generation of a monkey with MECP2 mutations by TALEN-based gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Xue; Zhu, Ying; Chen, Zhi-Fang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chen-Chen; Nie, Yan-Hong; Sang, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yue-Fang; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Sun, Qiang; Qiu, Zilong

    2014-06-01

    Gene editing in model organisms has provided critical insights into brain development and diseases. Here, we report the generation of a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) carrying MECP2 mutations using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)-mediated gene targeting. After injecting TALENs mRNA into monkey zygotes achieved by in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation into surrogate monkeys, we obtained one male newborn monkey with an MECP2 deletion caused by frameshifting mutation in various tissues. The monkey carrying the MECP2 mutation failed to survive after birth, due to either the toxicity of TALENs or the critical requirement of MECP2 for neural development. The level of MeCP2 protein was essentially depleted in the monkey's brain. This study demonstrates the feasibility of introducing genetic mutations in non-human primates by site-specific gene-editing methods.

  15. The Effects of Four Nursery Rearing Strategies on Infant Behavioral Development in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Rommeck, Ina; Gottlieb, Daniel H; Strand, Sarah C; McCowan, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Nursery rearing is the single most important risk factor in the development of severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as self-biting, in rhesus macaques. This practice is common in research laboratories and typically involves continuous pair housing of infants without maternal contact. We examined the effects of variation in peer socialization on the behavioral development of rhesus infants by exposing 32 newborn infants to 4 different socialization routines: continuously paired; intermittently paired; continuously paired rotationally (partners rotated within the group once a week); and intermittently paired rotationally. Analyses revealed that infants paired intermittently exhibited ‘floating limb’ and self-biting behavior at significantly higher frequencies than those reared by using any other strategy. Results also suggested that continuous pairing was most effective in reducing the development of abnormal behaviors (that is, self-bite and floating limb), whereas intermittent pairing significantly reduced partner clinging and geckering. A principal component analysis revealed that floating limb behavior and self-biting are strongly associated. Self-biting began as early as 32 d of age, and a negative binomial regression on data of floating limb and self-biting revealed that early development of floating limb behavior predicts self-biting behavior later in development. Despite the significant effects of rearing strategies on the frequency of abnormal behaviors, we note that animals in all 4 treatment groups developed these traits to some degree. We suspect that the solitary incubator environment may be a trigger for the development of abnormal behaviors. PMID:19653949

  16. Granuloma Due to Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose in an Aged Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee Mf; Schouten, Angela Colagross; Canfield, Don R

    2016-02-01

    Bioabsorbable hemostatic agents such as oxidized regenerated cellulose are widely used to control intraoperative diffuse capillary bleeding. Compared with electrocautery or ligation, oxidized regenerated cellulose has the advantage of controlling bleeding without occluding the vessel lumen or causing thermal injuries to adjacent tissue. Although the manufacturer recommends removal of the material once hemostasis is achieved, oxidized regenerated cellulose is a bioabsorbable hemostatic agent and is often left in the surgical bed to prevent subsequent bleeding after surgical closure. However, noninvasive imaging techniques have revealed granulomatous foreign-body reactions that mimic infection or tumor recurrence. We present a case report of sterile peritonitis and granuloma formation secondary to the presence of oxidized regenerated cellulose after intestinal resection to excise a colonic adenocarcinoma in an aged rhesus macaque.