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Sample records for monoaryloxide monopyrrolide map

  1. Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis Processes Catalyzed by a Molybdenum Hexaisopropylterphenoxide Monopyrrolide Complex

    PubMed Central

    Flook, Margaret M.; Jiang, Annie J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Müller, Peter; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    The molybdenum-based monoaryloxide monopyrrolide (MAP) species, Mo(NAd)(CHCMe2Ph)(C4H4N)(HIPTO) (2a), which contains “small” imido (Ad = 1-adamantyl) and “large” aryloxide (HIPTO = O-2,6(2,4,6-i-Pr3C6H2)C6H3) ligands, catalyzes Z-selective metathesis reactions as a consequence of intermediate metallacyclobutane species not being able to have a (anti) substituent pointing toward the HIPTO group. ROMP of dicarbomethoxynorbornadiene (DCMNBD) with 2% 2a in toluene leads to >99% cis and >99% syndiotactic poly(DCMNBD), while ROMP of cyclooctene and 1,5-cyclooctadiene (300 equiv)with initiator 2a leads to poly(cyclooctene) and poly(cyclooctadiene) that have cis contents of >99%; all are previously unknown microstructures. Z-selectivity is also observed in the metathesis of cis-4-octene and cis-3-hexene by initiator 2a to give cis-3-heptene. PMID:19462947

  2. Efficient and selective formation of macrocyclic disubstituted Z alkenes by ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions catalyzed by Mo- or W-based monoaryloxide pyrrolide (MAP) complexes: applications to total syntheses of epilachnene, yuzu lactone, ambrettolide, epothilone C, and nakadomarin A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenbo; Yu, Miao; Kyle, Andrew F; Jakubec, Pavol; Dixon, Darren J; Schrock, Richard R; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2013-02-18

    The first broadly applicable set of protocols for efficient Z-selective formation of macrocyclic disubstituted alkenes through catalytic ring-closing metathesis (RCM) is described. Cyclizations are performed with 1.2-7.5 mol% of a Mo- or W-based monoaryloxide pyrrolide (MAP) complex at 22 °C and proceed to complete conversion typically within two hours. Utility is demonstrated by synthesis of representative macrocyclic alkenes, such as natural products yuzu lactone (13-membered ring: 73% Z) epilachnene (15-membered ring: 91% Z), ambrettolide (17-membered ring: 91% Z), an advanced precursor to epothilones C and A (16-membered ring: up to 97% Z), and nakadomarin A (15-membered ring: up to 97% Z). We show that catalytic Z-selective cyclizations can be performed efficiently on gram-scale with complex molecule starting materials and catalysts that can be handled in air. We elucidate several critical principles of the catalytic protocol: 1) The complementary nature of the Mo catalysts, which deliver high activity but can be more prone towards engendering post-RCM stereoisomerization, versus W variants, which furnish lower activity but are less inclined to cause loss of kinetic Z selectivity. 2) Reaction time is critical to retaining kinetic Z selectivity not only with MAP species but with the widely used Mo bis(hexafluoro-tert-butoxide) complex as well. 3) Polycyclic structures can be accessed without significant isomerization at the existing Z alkenes within the molecule.

  3. Monoaryloxide Pyrrolide (MAP) Imido Alkylidene Complexes of Molybdenum and Tungsten That Contain 2,6-Bis(2,5-R2-pyrrolyl)phenoxide (R = i-Pr, Ph) Ligands and an Unsubstituted Metallacyclobutane on Its Way to Losing Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of Mo and W MAP complexes that contain O-2,6-(2,5-R2-pyrrolyl)2C6H3 (2,6-dipyrrolylphenoxide or ODPPR) ligands in which R = i-Pr, Ph. W(NAr)(CH-t-Bu)(Pyr)(ODPPPh) (4a; Ar = 2,6-disopropylphenyl, Pyr = pyrrolide) reacts readily with ethylene to yield a metallacyclobutane complex, W(NAr)(C3H6)(Pyr)(ODPPPh) (5). The structure of 5 in the solid state shows that it is approximately a square pyramid with the WC4 ring spanning apical and basal positions. This SP′ structure, which has never been observed as an actual intermediate, must now be regarded as an integral feature of the metathesis reaction. PMID:23794779

  4. Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1978-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the United States increased by about one-quarter in the past year. Examinations of mapping trends were in the following categories: (1) Mapping at scales of 1:100, 000; (2) Metric-scale base maps; (3) International mapping, and (4) Planetary mapping. (MA)

  5. Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1979-01-01

    The area of geological mapping in the United States in 1978 increased greatly over that reported in 1977; state geological maps were added for California, Idaho, Nevada, and Alaska last year. (Author/BB)

  6. Planetary maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  7. Map accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1981-01-01

    An inaccurate map is not a reliable map. "X" may mark the spot where the treasure is buried, but unless the seeker can locate "X" in relation to known landmarks or positions, the map is not very useful.

  8. Exploring maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Exploring Maps is an interdisciplinary set of materials on mapping for grades 7-12. Students will learn basic mapmaking and map reading skills and will see how maps can answer fundamental geographic questions: "Where am I?" "What else is here?" "Where am I going?"

  9. Contour Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for Mapping, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile mapping called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can map an area from the sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. George J. Igel and Company and the Ohio State University Center for Mapping advanced the technology for use in determining the contours of a construction site. The new system reduces the time required for mapping and staking, and can monitor the amount of soil moved.

  10. RICH MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Michael Goodchild recently gave eight reasons why traditional maps are limited as communication devices, and how interactive internet mapping can overcome these limitations. In the past, many authorities in cartography, from Jenks to Bertin, have emphasized the importance of sim...

  11. Map adventures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1994-01-01

    Map Adventures, with seven accompanying lessons, is appropriate for grades K-3. Students will learn basic concepts for visualizing objects from different perspectives and how to understand /and use maps.

  12. Historical Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Maps become out of date over time. Maps that are out of date, however, can be useful to historians, attorneys, environmentalists, genealogists, and others interested in researching the background of a particular area. Local historians can compare a series of maps of the same area compiled over a long period of time to learn how the area developed. A succession of such maps can provide a vivid picture of how a place changed over time.

  13. Topographic mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  14. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  15. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  16. Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  17. Map Adventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet about maps, with seven accompanying lessons, is appropriate for students in grades K-3. Students learn basic concepts for visualizing objects from different perspectives and how to understand and use maps. Lessons in the packet center on a story about a little girl, Nikki, who rides in a hot-air balloon that gives her, and…

  18. Mapping racism.

    PubMed

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  19. Mapping Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

    This document features a lesson plan that examines how maps help scientists protect biodiversity and how plants and animals are adapted to specific ecoregions by comparing biome, ecoregion, and habitat. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

  20. Planetary Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

    2007-02-01

    Preface; List of contributors; 1. Introduction R. Greeley and R. M. Batson; 2. History of planetary cartography R. M. Batson, E. A. Whitaker and D. E. Wilhelms; 3. Cartography R. M. Batson; 4. Planetary nomenclature M. E. Strobell and H. Masursky; 5. Geodetic control M. E. Davies; 6. Topographic mapping S. S. C. Wu and F. J. Doyle; 7. Geologic mapping D. E. Wilhelms; Appendices R. M. Batson and J. L. Inge; Index.

  1. Map Separates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps are printed using up to six colors (black, blue, green, red, brown, and purple). To prepare your own maps or artwork based on maps, you can order separate black-and-white film positives or negatives for any color printed on a USGS topographic map, or for one or more of the groups of related features printed in the same color on the map (such as drainage and drainage names from the blue plate.) In this document, examples are shown with appropriate ink color to illustrate the various separates. When purchased, separates are black-and-white film negatives or positives. After you receive a film separate or composite from the USGS, you can crop, enlarge or reduce, and edit to add or remove details to suit your special needs. For example, you can adapt the separates for making regional and local planning maps or for doing many kinds of studies or promotions by using the features you select and then printing them in colors of your choice.

  2. Venus mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Morgan, H. F.; Sucharski, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Semicontrolled image mosaics of Venus, based on Magellan data, are being compiled at 1:50,000,000, 1:10,000,000, 1:5,000,000, and 1:1,000,000 scales to support the Magellan Radar Investigator (RADIG) team. The mosaics are semicontrolled in the sense that data gaps were not filled and significant cosmetic inconsistencies exist. Contours are based on preliminary radar altimetry data that is subjected to revision and improvement. Final maps to support geologic mapping and other scientific investigations, to be compiled as the dataset becomes complete, will be sponsored by the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and/or the Venus Data Analysis Program. All maps, both semicontrolled and final, will be published as I-maps by the United States Geological Survey. All of the mapping is based on existing knowledge of the spacecraft orbit; photogrammetric triangulation, a traditional basis for geodetic control on planets where framing cameras were used, is not feasible with the radar images of Venus, although an eventual shift of coordinate system to a revised spin-axis location is anticipated. This is expected to be small enough that it will affect only large-scale maps.

  3. Mole Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.; Brooks, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)

  4. Memphis Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Stanley; Cox, David; Martin, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    The Memphis Maps program, a collaborative effort of Memphis (Tennessee) educational institutions, public agencies, a bank, and community programs, trains local students in Geographic Information Systems technology and provides the community with valuable demographic and assessment information. The program is described, and factors contributing to…

  5. Map projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    A map projection is used to portray all or part of the round Earth on a flat surface. This cannot be done without some distortion. Every projection has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. There is no "best" projection. The mapmaker must select the one best suited to the needs, reducing distortion of the most important features. Mapmakers and mathematicians have devised almost limitless ways to project the image of the globe onto paper. Scientists at the U. S. Geological Survey have designed projections for their specific needs—such as the Space Oblique Mercator, which allows mapping from satellites with little or no distortion. This document gives the key properties, characteristics, and preferred uses of many historically important projections and of those frequently used by mapmakers today.

  6. Human Mind Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  7. Concept Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  8. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  9. Mapping: A Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, Paul M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the history of cartography. Describes the contributions of Strabo and Ptolemy in early maps. Identifies the work of Gerhard Mercator as the most important advancement in mapping. Discusses present mapping standards from history. (CW)

  10. Mapping with the Masses: Google Map Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfund, J.

    2008-12-01

    After some 15,000 years of map making, which saw the innovations of cardinal directions, map projections for a spherical earth, and GIS analysis, many parts of the world still appear as the "Dark Continent" on modern maps. Google Map Maker intends to shine a light on these areas by tapping into the power of the GeoWeb. Google Map Maker is a website which allows you to collaborate with others on one unified map to add, edit, locate, describe, and moderate map features, such as roads, cities, businesses, parks, schools and more, for certain regions of the world using Google Maps imagery. In this session, we will show some examples of how people are mapping with this powerful tool as well as what they are doing with the data. With Google Map Maker, you can become a citizen cartographer and join the global network of users helping to improve the quality of maps and local information in your region of interest. You are invited to map the world with us!

  11. Mapping the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  12. National Atlas maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1991-01-01

    The National Atlas of the United States of America was published by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1970. Its 765 maps and charts are on 335 14- by 19-inch pages. Many of the maps span facing pages. It's worth a quick trip to the library just to leaf through all 335 pages of this book. Rapid scanning of its thematic maps yields rich insights to the geography of issues of continuing national interest. On most maps, the geographic patterns are still valid, though the data are not current. The atlas is out of print, but many of its maps can be purchased separately. Maps that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. The maps dated after 1970 are either revisions of original atlas maps, or new maps published in atlas format. The titles of the separate maps are listed here.

  13. Google Maps: You Are Here

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Librarians use online mapping services such as Google Maps, MapQuest, Yahoo Maps, and others to check traffic conditions, find local businesses, and provide directions. However, few libraries are using one of Google Maps most outstanding applications, My Maps, for the creation of enhanced and interactive multimedia maps. My Maps is a simple and…

  14. Map reading tools for map libraries.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenberg, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Engineers, navigators and military strategists employ a broad array of mechanical devices to facilitate map use. A larger number of map users such as educators, students, tourists, journalists, historians, politicians, economists and librarians are unaware of the available variety of tools which can be used with maps to increase the speed and efficiency of their application and interpretation. This paper identifies map reading tools such as coordinate readers, protractors, dividers, planimeters, and symbol-templets according to a functional classification. Particularly, arrays of tools are suggested for use in determining position, direction, distance, area and form (perimeter-shape-pattern-relief). -from Author

  15. Mapping the Future of Map Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Laura

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of electronic versions of maps focuses on TIGER files (i.e., electronic maps distributed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census) and their manipulation using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Topics addressed include applications of GIS software, projects to improve access to TIGER files, and the role of GIS in libraries. (MES)

  16. Mapping Human Epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Chloe M.; Ren, Bing

    2013-01-01

    As the second dimension to the genome, the epigenome contains key information specific to every type of cells. Thousands of human epigenome maps have been produced in recent years thanks to rapid development of high throughput epigenome mapping technologies. In this review, we discuss the current epigenome mapping toolkit and utilities of epigenome maps. We focus particularly on mapping of DNA methylation, chromatin modification state and chromatin structures, and emphasize the use of epigenome maps to delineate human gene regulatory sequences and developmental programs. We also provide a perspective on the progress of the epigenomics field and challenges ahead. PMID:24074860

  17. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  18. New map data catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Map byproducts, including aerial photographs, color separations, map data in computer form, and other materials used in or produced during mapmaking, are described in a new catalog published by the U.S. Geological Survey.The 48-page hardcover catalog is the first listing of the unpublished USGS civilian cartographic holdings. It covers such items as mapping photographs, computer-enhanced LANDSAT pictures of Earth, cartographic data in computer form, microfilm and microfiche records, and a variety of features, including color separations, made in compiling and printing maps. The catalog also describes out-of-print maps available from USGS, along with land-use and land-cover maps, and other unusual items, such as slope maps and orthophotoquads. The catalog explains how to order advance copies of maps before they are published.

  19. Riparian Wetlands: Mapping

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian wetlands are critical systems that perform functions and provide services disproportionate to their extent in the landscape. Mapping wetlands allows for better planning, management, and modeling, but riparian wetlands present several challenges to effective mapping due t...

  20. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS ... Data Web Services Latest Detected Fire Activity Other MODIS Products Frequently Asked Questions About Active Fire Maps ...

  1. Creative Concept Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Recommends the use of concept mapping in science teaching and proposes that it be presented as a creative activity. Includes a sample lesson plan of a potato stamp concept mapping activity for astronomy. (DDR)

  2. Using maps in genealogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    In genealogy, maps are most often used as clues to where public or other records about an ancestor are likely to be found. Searching for maps seldom begins until a newcomer to genealogy has mastered basic genealogical routines

  3. Linkage map integration

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, A.; Teague, J.; Morton, N.E.; Keats, B.J.

    1996-08-15

    The algorithms that drive the map+ program for locus-oriented linkage mapping are presented. They depend on the enhanced location database program ldb+ to specify an initial comprehensive map that includes all loci in the summary lod file. Subsequently the map may be edited or order constrained and is automatically improved by estimating the location of each locus conditional on the remainder, beginning with the most discrepant loci. Operating characteristics permit rapid and accurate construction of linkage maps with several hundred loci. The map+ program also performs nondisjunction mapping with tests of nonstandard recombination. We have released map+ on Internet as a source program in the C language together with the location database that now includes the LODSOURCE database. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  5. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to the DNA mapping and sequencing technologies. In particular, the present invention provides enhanced methods and compositions for the physical mapping and positional cloning of genomic DNA. The present invention also provides a useful analytical technique to directly map cloned DNA sequences onto individual stretched DNA molecules.

  6. Oil Exploration Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    After concluding an oil exploration agreement with the Republic of Yemen, Chevron International needed detailed geologic and topographic maps of the area. Chevron's remote sensing team used imagery from Landsat and SPOT, combining images into composite views. The project was successfully concluded and resulted in greatly improved base maps and unique topographic maps.

  7. Applications of Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews three major uses of the concept-mapping strategies for postsecondary learning: the external representation of concept maps as an external scratch pad to represent major ideas and their organization, the mental construction of concept maps when students are seeking a time-efficient tool, and the electronic construction and…

  8. Reading Angles in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  9. Mapping with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Warash, Bobbi Gibson

    Techniques for encouraging young children to discover the purpose and use of maps are discussed. Motor activity and topological studies form a base from which the teacher and children can build a mapping program of progressive sophistication. Concepts important to mapping include boundaries, regions, exteriors, interiors, holes, order, point of…

  10. Using maps in genealogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Maps are one of many sources you may need to complete a family tree. In genealogical research, maps can provide clues to where our ancestors may have lived and where to look for written records about them. Beginners should master basic genealogical research techniques before starting to use topographic maps.

  11. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  12. Cartographic mapping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, C.; Dye, R.; Reed, L.

    1982-01-01

    The errors associated with planimetric mapping of the United States using satellite remote sensing techniques are analyzed. Assumptions concerning the state of the art achievable for satellite mapping systems and platforms in the 1995 time frame are made. An analysis of these performance parameters is made using an interactive cartographic satellite computer model, after first validating the model using LANDSAT 1 through 3 performance parameters. An investigation of current large scale (1:24,000) US National mapping techniques is made. Using the results of this investigation, and current national mapping accuracy standards, the 1995 satellite mapping system is evaluated for its ability to meet US mapping standards for planimetric and topographic mapping at scales of 1:24,000 and smaller.

  13. On genetic map functions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hongyu; Speed, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    Various genetic map functions have been proposed to infer the unobservable genetic distance between two loci from the observable recombination fraction between them. Some map functions were found to fit data better than others. When there are more than three markers, multilocus recombination probabilities cannot be uniquely determined by the defining property of map functions, and different methods have been proposed to permit the use of map functions to analyze multilocus data. If for a given map function, there is a probability model for recombination that can give rise to it, then joint recombination probabilities can be deduced from this model. This provides another way to use map functions in multilocus analysis. In this paper we show that stationary renewal processes give rise to most of the map functions in the literature. Furthermore, we show that the interevent distributions of these renewal processes can all be approximated quite well by gamma distributions. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Principles of electroanatomic mapping.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Deepak; Miller, John M

    2008-01-01

    Electrophysiologic testing and radiofrequency ablation have evolved as curative measures for a variety of rhythm disturbances. As experience in this field has grown, ablation is progressively being used to address more complex rhythm disturbances. Paralleling this trend are technological advancements to facilitate these efforts, including electroanatomic mapping (EAM). At present, several different EAM systems utilizing various technologies are available to facilitate mapping and ablation. Use of these systems has been shown to reduce fluoroscopic exposure and radiation dose, with less significant effects on procedural duration and success rates. Among the data provided by EAM are chamber reconstruction, tagging of important anatomic landmarks and ablation lesions, display of diagnostic and mapping catheters without using fluoroscopy, activation mapping, and voltage (or scar) mapping. Several EAM systems have specialized features, such as enhanced ability to map non-sustained or hemodynamically unstable arrhythmias, ability to display diagnostic as well as mapping catheter positions, and wide compatibility with a variety of catheters. Each EAM system has its strengths and weaknesses, and the system chosen must depend upon what data is required for procedural success (activation mapping, substrate mapping, cardiac geometry), the anticipated arrhythmia, the compatibility of the system with adjunctive tools (i.e. diagnostic and ablation catheters), and the operator's familiarity with the selected system. While EAM can offer significant assistance during an EP procedure, their incorrect or inappropriate application can substantially hamper mapping efforts and procedural success, and should not replace careful interpretation of data and strict adherence to electrophysiologic principles.

  15. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  16. Regularity of mappings inverse to Sobolev mappings

    SciTech Connect

    Vodop'yanov, Sergei K

    2012-10-31

    For homeomorphisms {phi}:{Omega}{yields}{Omega}' on Euclidean domains in R{sup n}, n{>=}2, necessary and sufficient conditions ensuring that the inverse mapping belongs to a Sobolev class are investigated. The result obtained is used to describe a new two-index scale of homeomorphisms in some Sobolev class such that their inverses also form a two-index scale of mappings, in another Sobolev class. This scale involves quasiconformal mappings and also homeomorphisms in the Sobolev class W{sup 1}{sub n-1} such that rankD{phi}(x){<=}n-2 almost everywhere on the zero set of the Jacobian det D{phi}(x). Bibliography: 65 titles.

  17. Chaotic Polynomial Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu

    This paper introduces a class of polynomial maps in Euclidean spaces, investigates the conditions under which there exist Smale horseshoes and uniformly hyperbolic invariant sets, studies the chaotic dynamical behavior and strange attractors, and shows that some maps are chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Devaney. This type of maps includes both the Logistic map and the Hénon map. For some diffeomorphisms with the expansion dimension equal to one or two in three-dimensional spaces, the conditions under which there exist Smale horseshoes and uniformly hyperbolic invariant sets on which the systems are topologically conjugate to the two-sided fullshift on finite alphabet are obtained; for some expanding maps, the chaotic region is analyzed by using the coupled-expansion theory and the Brouwer degree theory. For three types of higher-dimensional polynomial maps with degree two, the conditions under which there are Smale horseshoes and uniformly hyperbolic invariant sets are given, and the topological conjugacy between the maps on the invariant sets and the two-sided fullshift on finite alphabet is obtained. Some interesting maps with chaotic attractors and positive Lyapunov exponents in three-dimensional spaces are found by using computer simulations. In the end, two examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  18. BOREAS Hardcopy Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nelson, Elizabeth; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) hardcopy maps are a collection of approximately 1,000 hardcopy maps representing the physical, climatological, and historical attributes of areas covering primarily the Manitoba and Saskatchewan provinces of Canada. These maps were collected by BOREAS Information System (BORIS) and Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) staff to provide basic information about site positions, manmade features, topography, geology, hydrology, land cover types, fire history, climate, and soils of the BOREAS study region. These maps are not available for distribution through the BOREAS project but may be used as an on-site resource. Information is provided within this document for individuals who want to order copies of these maps from the original map source. Note that the maps are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of the maps that are available. This inventory listing is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). For hardcopies of the individual maps, contact the sources provided.

  19. Maps and Map Learning in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham; Acheson, Gillian; Bednarz, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of maps and other graphic representations has become more important to geography and geographers. This is due to the development and widespread diffusion of geographic (spatial) technologies. As computers and silicon chips have become more capable and less expensive, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning satellite…

  20. Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Brightness Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, G.; Stern, S.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Parker, J. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is an ultraviolet (UV) spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that is designed to map the lunar albedo at far-UV wavelengths. LAMP primarily measures interplanetary Hydrogen Lyman-alpha sky-glow and far-UV starlight reflected from the night-side lunar surface, including permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the poles. Dayside observations are also obtained. Brightness maps sorted by wavelength (including the Lyman-alpha wavelength of 121.6 nm) are reported for the polar regions, with a few regions of interest reported in more detail. LAMP's spectral range of 58 nm to 196 nm includes a water ice spectral feature near 160 nm, which provides a diagnostic tool for detecting water on the lunar surface that is complementary to recent discoveries using infrared and radio frequency techniques. Progress towards producing far-UV albedo maps and searching for water ice signatures will be reported. We'll discuss how LAMP data may address questions regarding how water is formed on the moon, transported through the lunar atmosphere, and deposited in the PSRs.

  1. Maps--Map Reading and Aerial Photography. [2 Units].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakonsen, Harry O., Ed.

    Included in this set of materials are two units: (1) Maps and Map Reading and (2) Aerial Photography. Each unit includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script. A set of 35mm slides and audiotapes are usually used with the materials. The unit on Maps and Map Reading is designed to develop map reading skills and the use of these…

  2. Mapping Symbolic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Martha Davis; Wolf, Dennie Palmer

    In an investigation of the development of mapping as distinct from drawing, 39 middle and lower class Cambridge, Massachusetts children in kindergarten and first- and second-grades were shown a small three-dimensional model town, asked to make a smaller, three-dimensional copy of the model, and then asked to make a map showing each item in the…

  3. Mapping Microbial Biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, Daphne Lisabet; Micah C. Geary; White, Luke James; Lee, Randy Dean; Brizzee, Julie Ann; Rodman, A. C.; Rope, Ronald C

    2001-09-01

    We report the development of a prototype database that "maps" microbial diversity in the context of the geochemical and geological environment and geographic location. When it is fully implemented, scientists will be able to conduct database searches, construct maps containing the information of interest, download files, and enter data over the Internet.

  4. Chizu Task Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Chizu is a tool for Mapping MPI processes or tasks to physical processors or nodes for optimizing communication performance. It takes the communication graph of a High Performance Computing (HPC) application and the interconnection topology of a supercomputer as input. It outputs a new MPI rand to processor mapping, which can be used when launching the HPC application.

  5. Map Skills with Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Paula; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents hands-on activities to help teach elementary students map skills during Geography Awareness Week. The map skills are made fun by being incorporated into meaningful activities like learning about global resources, tracking the progress of sports teams, and conducting climate experiments in faraway places. (SM)

  6. MAP3K1

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Trang T.; Angus, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    MAP3K1 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family of serine/threonine kinases. MAP3K1 regulates JNK activation and is unique among human kinases in that it also encodes an E3 ligase domain that ubiquitylates c-Jun and ERK1/2. Full length MAP3K1 regulates cell migration and contributes to pro-survival signaling while its caspase 3-mediated cleavage generates a C-terminal kinase domain that promotes apoptosis. The critical function of MAP3K1 in cell fate decisions suggests that it may be a target for deregulation in cancer. Recent large-scale genomic studies have revealed that MAP3K1 copy number loss and somatic missense or nonsense mutations are observed in a significant number of different cancers, being most prominent in luminal breast cancer. The alteration of MAP3K1 in diverse cancer types demonstrates the importance of defining phenotypes for possible therapeutic targeting of tumor cell vulnerabilities created when MAP3K1 function is lost or gained. PMID:24386504

  7. Site and Watershed Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Environmental Education, Cleveland, OH.

    Presented as part of a larger unit on watershed investigations are a slideshow script and a map and compass unit intended to help high school students better visualize the relationship between a water sampling site, the entire stream, community, and watershed. The script discusses features of a topographical map, shows how to read one, and…

  8. Temporal mapping and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, Charles G. (Inventor); Shrestha, Bijay (Inventor); Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan (Inventor); Mali, Preeti (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A compositing process for selecting spatial data collected over a period of time, creating temporal data cubes from the spatial data, and processing and/or analyzing the data using temporal mapping algebra functions. In some embodiments, the temporal data cube is creating a masked cube using the data cubes, and computing a composite from the masked cube by using temporal mapping algebra.

  9. Acoustic mapping velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muste, M.; Baranya, S.; Tsubaki, R.; Kim, D.; Ho, H.; Tsai, H.; Law, D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of sediment dynamics in rivers is of great importance for various practical purposes. Despite its high relevance in riverine environment processes, the monitoring of sediment rates remains a major and challenging task for both suspended and bed load estimation. While the measurement of suspended load is currently an active area of testing with nonintrusive technologies (optical and acoustic), bed load measurement does not mark a similar progress. This paper describes an innovative combination of measurement techniques and analysis protocols that establishes the proof-of-concept for a promising technique, labeled herein Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The technique estimates bed load rates in rivers developing bed forms using a nonintrusive measurements approach. The raw information for AMV is collected with acoustic multibeam technology that in turn provides maps of the bathymetry over longitudinal swaths. As long as the acoustic maps can be acquired relatively quickly and the repetition rate for the mapping is commensurate with the movement of the bed forms, successive acoustic maps capture the progression of the bed form movement. Two-dimensional velocity maps associated with the bed form migration are obtained by implementing algorithms typically used in particle image velocimetry to acoustic maps converted in gray-level images. Furthermore, use of the obtained acoustic and velocity maps in conjunction with analytical formulations (e.g., Exner equation) enables estimation of multidirectional bed load rates over the whole imaged area. This paper presents a validation study of the AMV technique using a set of laboratory experiments.

  10. The Map Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheyney, Arnold B.; Capone, Donald L.

    This teaching resource is aimed at helping students develop the skills necessary to locate places on the earth. Designed as a collection of map skill exercises rather than a sequential program of study, this program expects that students have access to and some knowledge of how to use globes, maps, atlases, and encyclopedias. The volume contains 6…

  11. Handmade Multitextured Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevelyan, Simon

    1984-01-01

    Tactile maps for visually impaired persons can be made by drawing lines with an aqueous adhesive solution, dusting with thermoengraving powder, and exposing the card to a source of intense heat (such as a heat gun or microwave oven). A raised line map results. (CL)

  12. What do maps show?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the teaching package is to help students understand and use maps. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has provided the package as a service to educators so that more Americans will learn to understand the world of information on maps. Everything in the package teaches and reinforces geographic skills that are required in your curriculum.

  13. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  14. Bodily maps of emotions

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions. PMID:24379370

  15. Iconicity as structure mapping

    PubMed Central

    Emmorey, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence is presented to support the use of structure-mapping theory as a framework for understanding effects of iconicity on sign language grammar and processing. The existence of structured mappings between phonological form and semantic mental representations has been shown to explain the nature of metaphor and pronominal anaphora in sign languages. With respect to processing, it is argued that psycholinguistic effects of iconicity may only be observed when the task specifically taps into such structured mappings. In addition, language acquisition effects may only be observed when the relevant cognitive abilities are in place (e.g. the ability to make structural comparisons) and when the relevant conceptual knowledge has been acquired (i.e. information key to processing the iconic mapping). Finally, it is suggested that iconicity is better understood as a structured mapping between two mental representations than as a link between linguistic form and human experience. PMID:25092669

  16. Iconicity as structure mapping.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen

    2014-09-19

    Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence is presented to support the use of structure-mapping theory as a framework for understanding effects of iconicity on sign language grammar and processing. The existence of structured mappings between phonological form and semantic mental representations has been shown to explain the nature of metaphor and pronominal anaphora in sign languages. With respect to processing, it is argued that psycholinguistic effects of iconicity may only be observed when the task specifically taps into such structured mappings. In addition, language acquisition effects may only be observed when the relevant cognitive abilities are in place (e.g. the ability to make structural comparisons) and when the relevant conceptual knowledge has been acquired (i.e. information key to processing the iconic mapping). Finally, it is suggested that iconicity is better understood as a structured mapping between two mental representations than as a link between linguistic form and human experience.

  17. Bodily maps of emotions.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  18. Mental Mapping: A Classroom Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Les

    1978-01-01

    Examines potential uses of mental maps in the classroom by reviewing research efforts, providing an example of the differences between mental maps of two student groups, and suggesting how to use mental maps in the geography curriculum. Mental mapping (or cognitive mapping) refers to individuals' processes of collecting, storing, and retrieving…

  19. Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by

  20. State hydrologic unit maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, P.R.; Kapinos, F.P.; Knapp, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A set of maps depicting approved boundaries of, and numerical codes for, river-basin units of the United States has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. These ' State Hydrologic Unit Maps ' are four-color maps that present information on drainage, culture, hydrography, and hydrologic boundaries and codes: (1) the 21 major water-resources regions and the 222 subregions designated by the U.S. Water Resources Council; (2) the 352 accounting units of the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Network; and (3) the 2,149 cataloging units of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Catalog of Information on Water Data. The maps are plotted on the Geological Survey State base-map series at a scale of 1:500,000 and, except for Alaska, depict hydrologic unit boundaries for all drainage basins greater than 700 mi squared (1,813 km squared). A complete list of all the hydrologic units, along with their drainage areas, their names, and the names of the States or outlying areas in which they reside, is contained in the report. These maps and associated codes provide a standardized base for use by water-resources organizations in locating, storing, retrieving, and exchanging hydrologic data. The Hydrologic Unit Codes shown on the maps have been approved as a Federal Information Processing Standard for use by the Federal establishment. (USGS)

  1. Color on emergency mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  2. Coastal mapping handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; Ellis, Melvin Y.

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  3. Topographic map symbols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Interpreting the colored lines, areas, and other symbols is the first step in using topographic maps. Features are shown as points, lines, or areas, depending on their size and extent. For example, individual houses may be shown as small black squares. For larger buildings, the actual shapes are mapped. In densely built-up areas, most individual buildings are omitted and an area tint is shown. On some maps, post offices, churches, city halls, and other landmark buildings are shown within the tinted area.

  4. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.

  5. Uniqueness of the momentum map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Chiara; Nest, Ryszard

    2016-08-01

    We give a detailed discussion of existence and uniqueness of the momentum map associated to Poisson Lie actions, which was defined by Lu. We introduce a weaker notion of momentum map, called infinitesimal momentum map, which is defined on one-forms and we analyze its integrability to the Lu's momentum map. Finally, the uniqueness of the Lu's momentum map is studied by describing, explicitly, the tangent space to the space of momentum maps.

  6. DAM - detection and mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Integrated set of manual procedures, computer programs, and graphic devices processes multispectral scanner data from orbiting Landsat into precisely registered and formatted maps of surface water and other resources at variety of scales, sheet formats, and tick intervals.

  7. Pictometry digital video mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampa, John A.

    1995-09-01

    Pictometry is a proprietary digital imaging process which computationally maps each pixel of a digital land image to actual geographic coordinates, so that features in a mosaic of land images may be located and or measured.

  8. Interpreting Weather Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a brief introduction of our atmosphere, a guide to reading and interpreting weather maps, and a set of activities to facilitate teachers in helping to enhance student understanding of the Earth's atmosphere. (ZWH)

  9. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  10. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  11. Mapping Earth Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Van Dine, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two experiments concerned with mapping skills. Directions are given for calculating the circumference of the earth and for developing a model of the solar system using familiar territory as a frame of reference. (MA)

  12. Dating the Vinland Map

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory, the University of Arizona, and the Smithsonian Institution used carbon-dating technology to determine the age of a controversial parchment that might be the first-ever map of North America.

  13. Irrigation on Topographic Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how study of irrigation practices on topographic maps can help students in introductory high school and college geography courses understand man and land relationships to geography. (Author/DB)

  14. enceladus_stress_map

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a map of the changing stress on the surface of Enceladus' icy crust from the wobble and gravitational tides. Blue lines show the direction of forces pulling the crust apart, and red lines s...

  15. Pitfalls in homozygosity mapping.

    PubMed

    Miano, M G; Jacobson, S G; Carothers, A; Hanson, I; Teague, P; Lovell, J; Cideciyan, A V; Haider, N; Stone, E M; Sheffield, V C; Wright, A F

    2000-11-01

    There is much interest in use of identity-by-descent (IBD) methods to map genes, both in Mendelian and in complex disorders. Homozygosity mapping provides a rapid means of mapping autosomal recessive genes in consanguineous families by identifying chromosomal regions that show homozygous IBD segments in pooled samples. In this report, we point out some potential pitfalls that arose during the course of homozygosity mapping of the enhanced S-cone syndrome gene, resulting from (1) unexpected allelic heterogeneity, so that the region containing the disease locus was missed as a result of pooling; (2) identification of a homozygous IBD region unrelated to the disease locus; and (3) the potential for inflation of LOD scores as a result of underestimation of the extent of inbreeding, which Broman and Weber suggest may be quite common.

  16. MAPPING IN MICRONESIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Randle W.; Swinnerton, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has recently completed a series of new topographic maps of Micronesia in cooperation with the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Federal agency administering the islands. Monocolor 1:10,000-scale manuscripts were compiled, from which 1:25,000-scale metric quadrangles were derived with symbology consistent with USGS quadrangle mapping. The publication of these new maps coincides with the impending political changes resulting from self-determination referendums held in Micronesia. Local sources have helped considerably with field logistics and resolution of geographic name controversies. Technical aspects of this project included development of tropical feature symbology, location of cadastral subdivisions and associated boundaries and mapping of many outlying coral reefs.

  17. How to Map Noise.

    PubMed

    Hinton, John

    2002-01-01

    Noise mapping is a method of presenting complex noise information in a clear and simple way either on a physical map or in a database. This mapping information can be either calculated or measured using a variety of techniques and methods. Furthermore, the results of such exercises can be presented in many different ways and used for a number of different purposes. This paper attempts to examine these issues in the light of the "mapping requirements" outlined in the recently proposed Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council, relating to the Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise (Comm (2000) 468 final). This proposed Directive was laid before the Parliament and Council in the autumn of 2000. The First Reading of the proposal was successfully negotiated just before Christmas 2000. The Second Reading is likely to commence shortly.

  18. Reading angles in maps.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections appeared without any relevant length or distance information. Children were able to read these map fragments and compare two-dimensional to three-dimensional angles. However, this ability appeared both variable and fragile among the youngest children of the sample. These findings suggest that 4-year-old children begin to form an abstract concept of angle that applies both to two-dimensional and three-dimensional displays and that serves to interpret novel spatial symbols. PMID:23647223

  19. Irreversible quantum baker map.

    PubMed

    Łoziński, Artur; Pakoński, Prot; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2002-12-01

    We propose a generalization of the model of classical baker map on the torus, in which the images of two parts of the phase space do overlap. This transformation is irreversible and cannot be quantized by means of a unitary Floquet operator. A corresponding quantum system is constructed as a completely positive map acting in the space of density matrices. We investigate spectral properties of this superoperator and their link with the increase of the entropy of initially pure states.

  20. Hydrologic unit maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, Paul R.; Kapinos, F. Paul; Knapp, George L.

    1987-01-01

    A set of maps depicting approved boundaries of, and numerical codes for, river-basin units of the United States has been developed by the U.S . Geological Survey. These 'Hydrologic Unit Maps' are four-color maps that present information on drainage, culture, hydrography, and hydrologic boundaries and codes of (1) the 21 major water-resources regions and the 222 subregions designated by the U.S . Water Resources Council, (2) the 352 accounting units of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Data Network, and (3) the 2,149 cataloging units of the U.S . Geological Survey's 'Catalog of information on Water Data:' The maps are plotted on the Geological Survey State base-map series at a scale of 1 :500,000 and, except for Alaska, depict hydrologic unit boundaries for all drainage basins greater than 700 square miles (1,813 square kilometers). A complete list of all the hydrologic units, along with their drainage areas, their names, and the names of the States or outlying areas in which they reside, is contained in the report. These maps and associated codes provide a standardized base for use by water-resources organizations in locating, storing, retrieving, and exchanging hydrologic data, in indexing and inventorying hydrologic data and information, in cataloging water-data acquisition activities, and in a variety of other applications. Because the maps have undergone extensive review by all principal Federal, regional, and State water-resource agencies, they are widely accepted for use in planning and describing water-use and related land-use activities, and in geographically organizing hydrologic data . Examples of these uses are given in the report . The hydrologic unit codes shown on the maps have been approved as a Federal Information Processing Standard for use by the Federal establishment.

  1. Mapping the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Annas, G.C.; Elias, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a review of the book Mapping the Human Genome: Using Law and Ethics as Guides, edited by George C. Annas and Sherman Elias. The book is a collection of essays on the subject of using ethics and laws as guides to justify human gene mapping. It addresses specific issues such problems related to eugenics, patents, insurance as well as broad issues such as the societal definitions of normality.

  2. Wind Resource Maps (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides high-resolution wind maps and estimates of the wind resource potential that would be possible from development of the available windy land areas after excluding areas unlikely to be developed. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to Wind Powering America's online wind energy resource maps.

  3. Geologic Mapping of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Katherine H.

    1998-05-01

    Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

  4. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  5. Global Water Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.; Salas, F.; Teng, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    A global water map is a coverage of the earth that describes the state of water circulation in a phase of the hydrologic cycle. This information can be published as a map showing the state of the water variable at a particular point in time, or charted as a time series showing the temporal variation of that variable at a point in space. Such maps can be created through the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) for precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture, and other parameters describing the vertical exchange of water between the land and atmosphere, through a combination of observations and simulation modeling. Point observations of water variables such as precipitation and streamflow are carried out by local hydrologic measurement agencies associated with a particular area. These point observations are now being published as web services in the WaterML language and federated using the Global Earth Observing System of Systems to enable the publication of water observations maps for these variables. By combining water maps derived from LDAS with those from federated point observations, a deeper understanding of global water conditions and movement can be created. This information should be described in a Hydrologic Data Book that specifies the information content of each of these map layers so that they can be appropriately used and combined.

  6. Interactive Metro Map Editing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Peng, Wan-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Manual editing of a metro map is essential because many aesthetic and readability demands in map generation cannot be achieved by using a fully automatic method. In addition, a metro map should be updated when new metro lines are developed in a city. Considering that manually designing a metro map is time-consuming and requires expert skills, we present an interactive editing system that considers human knowledge and adjusts the layout to make it consistent with user expectations. In other words, only a few stations are controlled and the remaining stations are relocated by our system. Our system supports both curvilinear and octilinear layouts when creating metro maps. It solves an optimization problem, in which even spaces, route straightness, and maximum included angles at junctions are considered to obtain a curvilinear result. The system then rotates each edge to extend either vertically, horizontally, or diagonally while approximating the station positions provided by users to generate an octilinear layout. Experimental results, quantitative and qualitative evaluations, and user studies show that our editing system is easy to use and allows even non-professionals to design a metro map.

  7. Mars synthetic topographic mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Topographic contour maps of Mars are compiled by the synthesis of data acquired from various scientific experiments of the Mariner 9 mission, including S-band radio-occulation, the ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS), the infrared radiometer (IRR), the infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) and television imagery, as well as Earth-based radar information collected at Goldstone, Haystack, and Arecibo Observatories. The entire planet is mapped at scales of 1:25,000,000 and 1:25,000,000 using Mercator, Lambert, and polar stereographic map projections. For the computation of map projections, a biaxial spheroid figure is adopted. The semimajor and semiminor axes are 3393.4 and 3375.7 km, respectively, with a polar flattening of 0.0052. For the computation of elevations, a topographic datum is defined by a gravity field described in terms of spherical harmonics of fourth order and fourth degree combined with a 6.1-mbar occulation pressure surface. This areoid can be approximated by a triaxial ellipsoid with semimajor axes of A = 3394.6 km and B = 3393.3 km and a semiminor axis of C = 3376.3 km. The semimajor axis A intersects the Martian surface at longitude 105??W. The dynamic flattening of Mars is 0.00525. The contour intercal of the maps is 1 km. For some prominent features where overlapping pictures from Mariner 9 are available, local contour maps at relatively larger scales were also compiled by photogrammetric methods on stereo plotters. ?? 1978.

  8. Jupiter Atmospheric Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Huge cyclonic storms, the Great Red Spot and the Little Red Spot, and wispy cloud patterns are seen in fascinating detail in this map of Jupiter's atmosphere obtained January 14-15, 2007, by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI).

    The map combines information from 11 different LORRI images that were taken every hour over a 10-hour period -- a full Jovian day -- from 17:42 UTC on January 14 to 03:42 UTC on January 15. The New Horizons spacecraft was approximately 72 million kilometers (45 million miles) from Jupiter at the time.

    The LORRI pixels on the 'globe' of Jupiter were projected onto a rectilinear grid, similar to the way flat maps of Earth are created. The LORRI pixel intensities were corrected so that every point on the map appears as if the sun were directly overhead; some image sharpening was also applied to enhance detail. The polar regions of Jupiter are not shown on the map because the LORRI images do not sample those latitudes very well and artifacts are produced during the map-projection process.

  9. The National Map - Orthoimagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauck, James; Brown, Kim; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Orthorectified digital aerial photographs and satellite images of 1-meter (m) pixel resolution or finer make up the orthoimagery component of The National Map. The process of orthorectification removes feature displacements and scale variations caused by terrain relief and sensor geometry. The result is a combination of the image characteristics of an aerial photograph or satellite image and the geometric qualities of a map. These attributes allow users to: *Measure distance *Calculate areas *Determine shapes of features *Calculate directions *Determine accurate coordinates *Determine land cover and use *Perform change detection *Update maps The standard digital orthoimage is a 1-m or finer resolution, natural color or color infra-red product. Most are now produced as GeoTIFFs and accompanied by a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compliant metadata file. The primary source for 1-m data is the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) leaf-on imagery. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilizes NAIP imagery as the image layer on its 'Digital- Map' - a new generation of USGS topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/digital_map). However, many Federal, State, and local governments and organizations require finer resolutions to meet a myriad of needs. Most of these images are leaf-off, natural-color products at resolutions of 1-foot (ft) or finer.

  10. MAPS of Cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    Our goal was to produce an interactive visualization from a mathematical model that successfully predicts metastases from head and neck cancer. We met this goal early in the project. The visualization is available for the public to view. Our work appears to fill a need for more information about this deadly disease. The idea of this project was to make an easily interpretable visualization based on what we call "functional maps" of disease. A functional map is a graphic summary of medical data, where distances between parts of the body are determined by the probability of disease, not by anatomical distances. Functional maps often beat little resemblance to anatomical maps, but they can be used to predict the spread of disease. The idea of modeling the spread of disease in an abstract multidimensional space is difficult for many people. Our goal was to make the important predictions easy to see. NASA must face this problem frequently: how to help laypersons and professionals see important trends in abstract, complex data. We took advantage of concepts perfected in NASA's graphics libraries. As an analogy, consider a functional map of early America. Suppose we choose travel times, rather than miles, as our measures of inter-city distances. For Abraham Lincoln, travel times would have been the more meaningful measure of separation between cities. In such a map New Orleans would be close to Memphis because of the Mississippi River. St. Louis would be close to Portland because of the Oregon Trail. Oklahoma City would be far from Little Rock because of the Cheyenne. Such a map would look puzzling to those of us who have always seen physical maps, but the functional map would be more useful in predicting the probabilities of inter-site transit. Continuing the analogy, we could predict the spread of social diseases such as gambling along the rivers and cattle rustling along the trails. We could simply print the functional map of America, but it would be more interesting

  11. Development of base maps' role in soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

    2014-05-01

    One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

  12. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  13. Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

  14. Elementary maps on nest algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengtong

    2006-08-01

    Let , be algebras and let , be maps. An elementary map of is an ordered pair (M,M*) such that for all , . In this paper, the general form of surjective elementary maps on standard subalgebras of nest algebras is described. In particular, such maps are automatically additive.

  15. Sri Lanka Malaria Maps

    PubMed Central

    Briët, Olivier JT; Gunawardena, Dissanayake M; van der Hoek, Wim; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2003-01-01

    Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary. PMID:12914667

  16. Maps for America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Morris M.

    1981-01-01

    "Maps for America" was originally published in 1979 as a Centennial Volume commemorating the Geological Survey's hundred years of service (1879-1979) in the earth sciences. It was an eminently fitting Centennial Year publication, for, since its establishment, the Geological Survey has continuously carried on an extensive program of mapping to provide knowledge of the topography, geology, hydrology, and natural resources of our Nation. This volume contains an organized presentation of information about the maps produced by the Geological Survey and other American organizations, public and private. Such maps are important tools for those in government and in private endeavors who are working to assure the wisest choices in managing the Nation's resources. They are particularly supportive of the Department of the Interior's role as the Nation's principal conservation agency. The second edition of "Maps for America" is intended primarily to replenish the dwindling supply of copies of the book, but it also contains a number of changes to correct or update the text and to provide more suitable illustrations in certain instances.

  17. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  18. Tokamak divertor maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Verma, Arun; Boozer, Allen

    1994-08-01

    A mapping method is developed to investigate the problem of determination and control of heat-deposition patterns on the plates of a tokamak divertor. The deposition pattern is largely determined by the magnetic field lines, which are mathematically equivalent to the trajectories of a single-degree-of-freedom time-dependent Hamiltonian system. Maps are natural tools to study the generic features of such systems. The general theory of maps is presented, and methods for incorporating various features of the magnetic field and particle motion in divertor tokamaks are given. Features of the magnetic field include the profile of the rotational transform, single- versus double-null divertor, reverse map, the effects of naturally occurring low M and N, and externally imposed high-M, high-N perturbations. Particle motion includes radial diffusion, pitch angle and energy scattering, and the electric sheath at the plate. The method is illustrated by calculating the stochastic broadening in a single- null divertor tokamak. Maps provide an efficient, economic and elegant method to study the problem of motion of plasma particles in the stochastic scrape-off layer.

  19. Using KML for Thematic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvik, B.

    2008-12-01

    Thematic mapping has a long history in cartography, but the new geobrowsers tend not to focus on this aspect of geographical information representation. This talk demonstrates how Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and geobrowsers can be used for thematic mapping. Due to their huge public interest and relative accessibility, geobrowsers are potentially capable of bringing thematic maps or visualisations to a wider audience. KML is not targeted towards thematic mapping, but it is possible to use KML elements in ways that were probably not intended. Current possibilities for making proportional symbol maps, chart maps, choropleth maps and animated maps with KML will be presented. An open source Thematic Mapping Engine (TME) has been developed as a proof-of-concept. This application allows the user to make thematic maps through an easy-to-use web interface. TME provides a low-cost solution suitable for non-profits and public- benefit organisations.

  20. Mapping the EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A cooperative, multi-year program to map the largely uncharted Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), begun last month, has the potential for piggybacking scientific observations and research. On March 10, 1983, President Ronald Reagan proclaimed the mineral-rich zone as the area between the U.S. shoreline and 200 nautical miles outward. The United States has sovereign rights for exploration, exploitation, conservation, and management of all living and nonliving resources within the zone.The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) will cooperate in the project that will map an area nearly twice the area of U.S. land. USGS responsibilities include definition of seafloor geology and definition of geological processes and resources, including sand and gravel, placers, phosphorites, manganese nodules, cobalt crusts, and sulfides (Eos, March 20, 1984, p. 105). NOAA, meanwhile, will be surveying, mapping, analyzing resources, and managing fisheries.

  1. Plasmid mapping computer program.

    PubMed

    Nolan, G P; Maina, C V; Szalay, A A

    1984-01-11

    Three new computer algorithms are described which rapidly order the restriction fragments of a plasmid DNA which has been cleaved with two restriction endonucleases in single and double digestions. Two of the algorithms are contained within a single computer program (called MPCIRC). The Rule-Oriented algorithm, constructs all logical circular map solutions within sixty seconds (14 double-digestion fragments) when used in conjunction with the Permutation method. The program is written in Apple Pascal and runs on an Apple II Plus Microcomputer with 64K of memory. A third algorithm is described which rapidly maps double digests and uses the above two algorithms as adducts. Modifications of the algorithms for linear mapping are also presented. PMID:6320105

  2. Ergodicity of polygonal slap maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Magno, Gianluigi; Lopes Dias, João; Duarte, Pedro; Gaivão, José Pedro

    2014-08-01

    Polygonal slap maps are piecewise affine expanding maps of the interval obtained by projecting the sides of a polygon along their normals onto the perimeter of the polygon. These maps arise in the study of polygonal billiards with non-specular reflection laws. We study the absolutely continuous invariant probabilities (acips) of the slap maps for several polygons, including regular polygons and triangles. We also present a general method for constructing polygons with slap maps with more than one ergodic acip.

  3. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  4. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  5. Mapping the Frozen Void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suutarinen, Aleksi; Fraser, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Reactions on the surfaces of dust grains play a vital role in the overall chemistry of interstellar matter. These grains become covered by icy layers, which are the largest molecular reservoir in the interstellar medium. Given this, it is surprising that the effect ice has on the overall chain of reactions is poorly characterized. One step on the path of gaining better understanding here is to develop methods of figuring out how much ice is present in these clouds, the links between ice components, and synergy between the ices and gas phase molecules. We do this by examining the absorption spectra of ices on lines of sight towards several stars behind clouds of interstellar matter. From these we can reconstruct spatial maps of the ice distribution on scales of as little as 1000 AU, as a test of the chemical variation within a cloud. By overlapping the ice data with other maps of the same region (gas emission, temperature, density etc) we create combined maps to reveal the astrochemistry of star-forming regions and pre-stellar cores. In this poster we present the continuing results of our ice mapping programme, using data from the AKARI satellite, specifically in slitless spectroscopy observations in the NIR. In this region the key ice features encompass H2O, CO and CO2. The maps illustrate the power of our dedicated AKARI data reduction pipeline, and the novelty of our observing programme. We also detail the next steps' in our ice mapping research. The method is being expanded to include the full 10'x10' AKARI field of view, taking account of image distortion induced by the dispersing optics. These maps are then combined with exiting gas-phase observations and SCUBA maps. The latest attempts at this are shown here. What is clear already is that it is difficult to predict ice abundances from factors such as extinction or gas density alone, and that ice formation and evolution can vary hugely over even very small astronomical scales.

  6. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  7. Mapping Joint Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawski, Carl

    The flow diagrams in this document provide cognitive maps to aid in synthesizing diverse areas of knowledge in a special brand of field theory. A model is presented which highlights the domains of structural functionalism (with concepts of cultural, personal and societal systems) and symbolic interactionism (with the concepts of self, sentiments…

  8. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  9. Maps and navigation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, A

    1922-01-01

    Different maps and scales are discussed with particular emphasis on their use in aviation. The author makes the observation that current navigation methods are slow and dangerous and should be replaced by scientific methods of navigation based on loxodromy and the use of the compass.

  10. Mapping Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The demand to cultivate global citizenship is frequently invoked as central to colleges' and universities' internationalization efforts. However, the term "global citizenship" remains undertheorized in the context of U.S. higher education. This article maps and engages three common global citizenship positions--entrepreneurial, liberal…

  11. Covariance mapping techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  12. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  13. Jamaica on Early Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Columbus sighted Jamaica during his second voyage and was marooned there for more than a year during his fourth. The succession of early maps of Jamaica betrays its slow development and its unimportance to early colonizers. Modern tourism is the elusive "gold" which the Spanish fortune hunters did not find. (CS)

  14. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  15. Mapping World Hunger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vliet, Lucille W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to involve students in grades 6 through 8 in learning how geography was affected the problem of world hunger. Emphasis is placed on using maps, globes, atlases, and geographic dictionaries, as well as books, magazines, and other resources. (MES)

  16. Mapping the Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, S. D.

    1999-06-01

    Galaxies congregate into clusters, clusters amass into superclusters and so on - at every observed scale, as astronomers build maps of the sky, they find matter organized into clumps. Yet taken as a whole, the texture of the universe is smooth, in keeping with theory. A new "music of the spheres" may explain how ordered structures emerged from the original smooth chaos.

  17. AIHEC Timeline and Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribal College Journal, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Plots the history of American Indian Education on a timeline beginning with the Lakota and Cheyenne defeat of Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn. Marks 1968 charter of Dine College (Arizona) and continues to the upcoming celebration of the 30th anniversary of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium in 2003. Contains map of United…

  18. Stereo Visualization and Map Comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, D. N.; Culpepper, S.; Kirkby, K.; Morin, P.

    2004-12-01

    In this experiment, we assessed the use of stereo visualizations as effective tools for topographic map learning. In most Earth Science courses, students spend extended time learning how to read topographic maps, relying on the lines of the map as indicators of height and accompanying distance. These maps often necessitate extended training for students to acquire an understanding of what they represent, how they are to be used, and the implementation of these maps to solve problems. In fact instructors often comment that students fail to adequately use such maps, instead relying on prior spatial knowledge or experiences which may be inappropriate for understanding topographic displays. We asked participants to study maps that provided 3-dimensional or 2-dimensional views, and then answer a battery of questions about features and processes associated with the maps. The results will be described with respect to the cognitive utility of visualizations as tools for map comprehension tasks.

  19. CAERs's mine mapping program and Kentucky's mine mapping initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hiett, J.

    2007-07-01

    Since 1884 the Kentucky Department of Mines and Minerals (KDMM now OMSL) has had a mine mapping function as it relates to mine safety. The CAER's Mine Mapping Program has provided this service to that agency since 1972. The program has been in continuous operation under the current staff and management over that period. Functions include operating the Mine Map Repository/Mine Map Information Center of the OMSL; and receiving and processing all annual coal mine license maps, old maps, and related data. The Kentucky Mine Mapping Initiative's goal is to ensure that every underground and surface mine map in Kentucky is located, digitized and online. The Kentucky mine mapping website plays a vital role in the safety of Kentuckians. The purpose of the web service is to make available electronic maps of mined out areas and approximately 32,000 engineering drawings of operating or closed mines that are located in the state. Future phases of the project will include the archival scanning of all submitted mine maps; the recovery from outside sources of maps that were destroyed in a 1948 fire; and the development of further technology to process maps and related data. 7 photos.

  20. Maps for the nation: The current federal mapping establishment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    North, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Government annually produces an estimated 53,000 new maps and charts and distributes about 160 million copies. A large number of these maps are produced under the national mapping program, a decentralized Federal/State cooperative approach to mapping the country at standard scales. Circular A-16, issued by the Office of Management and Budget in 1953 and revised in 1967, delegates the mapping responsibilities to various federal agencies. The U.S. Department of the Interior's Geological Survey is the principal federal agency responsible for implementing the national mapping program. Other major federal map producing agencies include the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. To make maps and mapping information more readily available, the National Cartographic Information Center was established in 1974 and an expanded National Map Library Depository Program in 1981. The most recent of many technological advances made under the mapping program are in the areas of digital cartography and video disc and optical disc information storage systems. Future trends and changes in the federal mapping program will involve expanded information and customer service operations, further developments in the production and use of digital cartographic data, and consideration of a Federal Mapping Agency. ?? 1983.

  1. Spatial mapping takes time.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q

    1998-01-01

    The experiment tested the prediction that spatial mapping takes time and asked whether time use is reflected in the overt behavior of a performing animal. The study examines this question by exploiting the expected behavioral differences of control rats and rats with hippocampal formation damage induced with fimbria-fornix (FF) lesions on a spatial navigation task. Previous studies have shown that control rats use a mapping strategy, in which they use the relative positions of environmental cues to reach places in space, whereas FF rats use a cue-based strategy, in which they are guided by a single cue or their own body orientation. Therefore, control and FF rats were overtrained on a complex foraging task in which they left a burrow to retrieve eight food pellets hidden around the perimeter of a circular table. The control rats retrieved the food pellets in order of their distance from the burrow, took direct routes to the food, and made few errors, all of which suggested they used a spatial strategy. The FF rats were less likely to retrieve food as a function of its distance, took a circular path around the perimeter of the table, and made many errors, suggesting they used a cue-based strategy. Despite taking shorter routes than the FF rats, the control rats had proportionally slower response speeds. Their slow response speeds support the hypothesis that spatial mapping takes time and that mapping time is reflected in behavior. The results are discussed in relation to their relevance to spatial mapping theory, hippocampal function, and the evolution of foraging strategies.

  2. Temperature Map of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This map shows the temperatures for most of the surface of Ganymede made from data taken by the Photopolarimeter/Radiometer (PPR) instrument on June 26, 1996 as Galileo approached the sunlit side of the moon. The color bar shows the range of temperatures of this data, with the dark red being the coldest and white being the warmest. This is similar to the temperature forecast maps that you see on the evening news or in some newspapers. The difference between this map and one of Earth is that PPR measures the temperature of the surface (the ground), instead of air temperature. Ganymede is much colder than Earth, with these daytime temperatures ranging across the surface from 90 to 160 Kelvin (or -297 to -171 degrees Fahrenheit). Jupiter and its moons receive less than 1/30th the amount of sunlight that the Earth does, and Ganymede has essentially no atmosphere to trap heat. Ganymede's day is just over 7 Earth days long, the same time it takes to orbit Jupiter once.

    To compare this temperature map to surface features of Ganymede, you can look at this Ganymede Image taken during the Ganymede 1 orbit. The PPR map covers almost the same area as the image but is rotated about 30 degrees to the west.

    The image was taken with Galileo's PPR (Photopolarimeter-Radiometer) instrument on the spacecraft's seventh orbit around Jupiter, from a range of about 65,000 kilometers (40,389 miles). Surface temperatures derived from the strength of infrared radiation, as was done here, are called 'brightness temperatures', and may be slightly in error.

    JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  3. CONMAP - USGS MARINE MAPPING PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Escowitz, Edward C.

    1985-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has commenced a marine mapping program, CONMAP (the Continental Margin Maps), which is supported by, and dependent on, a foundation of digital data-bases. The goal of the program's first phase is to prepare a series of maps that completely cover the Exclusive Economic Zone. The maps will be prepared using an Albers' Conic Equal-Area Projection at a scale of 1:1,000,000. An initial product of CONMAP will be a series of base map panels portraying the topographic and bathymetric relief, political boundaries and key geographic locations. Additional maps will be prepared which portray other data types and analytical themes.

  4. Computers improves sonar seabed maps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A software package for computer aided mapping of sonar (CAMOS) has been developed in Norway. It has automatic mosaic presentation, which produces fully scale-rectified side scan sonograms automatically plotted on geographical and UTM map grids. The program is the first of its kind in the world. The maps produced by this method are more accurate and detailed than those produced by conventional methods. The main applications of CAMOS are: seafloor mapping; pipeline route surveys; pipeline inspection surveys; platform site surveys; geological mapping and geotechnical investigations. With the aerial-photograph quality of the CAMOS maps, a more accurate and visual representation of the seabed is achieved.

  5. Rapid mapping tool : an ArcMap extension /

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, S. P.; Rich, P. M.; Walther, D.; Witkowski, M. S.; Jones, M. A.; Khalsa, H. S.

    2002-01-01

    Cartographic production laboratories produce large volumes of maps for diverse customers. Turnaround time and consistency are key concerns. The Rapid Mapping Tool is an ArcMap based tool that enables rapid creation of maps to meet customer needs. This tool was constructed using VB/VBA, ArcObjects, and ArcGIS templates. The core capability of ArcMap is extended for custom map production by storing specifications associated with a map or template in a companion XML document. These specifications include settings and preferences used to create custom maps. The tool was developed as a component of an enterprise GIS, which enables spatial data management and delivery using ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Oracle, and a web-based request tracking system.

  6. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  7. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and demand in Ontario for catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping systems. Particular attention was paid to ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Clinical Need Tachycardia Tachycardia refers to a diverse group of arrhythmias characterized by heart rates that are greater than 100 beats per minute. It results from abnormal firing of electrical impulses from heart tissues or abnormal electrical pathways in the heart because of scars. Tachycardia may be asymptomatic, or it may adversely affect quality of life owing to symptoms such as palpitations, headaches, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and syncope. Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia, affects about 99,000 people in Ontario. It is associated with higher morbidity and mortality because of increased risk of stroke, embolism, and congestive heart failure. In atrial fibrillation, most of the abnormal arrhythmogenic foci are located inside the pulmonary veins, although the atrium may also be responsible for triggering or perpetuating atrial fibrillation. Ventricular tachycardia, often found in patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction, is often life-threatening; it accounts for about 50% of sudden deaths. Treatment of Tachycardia The first line of treatment for tachycardia is antiarrhythmic drugs; for atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation drugs are also used to prevent stroke. For patients refractory to or unable to tolerate antiarrhythmic drugs, ablation of the arrhythmogenic heart tissues is the only option. Surgical ablation such as the Cox-Maze procedure is more invasive. Catheter ablation, involving the delivery of energy (most commonly radiofrequency) via a percutaneous catheter system guided by X-ray fluoroscopy, has been used in place of surgical ablation for many patients. However, this conventional approach in catheter ablation

  8. Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

  9. Mapping or Tracing? Rethinking Curriculum Mapping in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum mapping has been emphasized in recent curriculum innovations in higher education in the drive for global competitiveness. This paper begins by providing an outline of current discourses of curriculum mapping in higher education. Curriculum mapping is frequently associated with outcome-based learning and work readiness, and guiding the…

  10. Maps and Meaning: Reading the Map of the Holy Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Kreiner, Noga

    2005-01-01

    The research methods of hermeneutics and semiotics were used to analyse maps of the Holy Land. The main conclusion of this study is how those methods could help us to read and understand maps. Other issues of concern are which religious elements actually appear and their form of representation in the range of maps. Narratives identified on the…

  11. Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of map, dated May 23, 1930 (original map located in the vault at the Directorate of Engineering and Housing, U.S. Army Garrison-Panama, Corozal, Republic of Panama). Map of Quarry Heights military reservation - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Topographic Maps from a Kiosk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Geographic (NG) TOPO entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to explore a new technology that would allow a person to walk into a map retail store and print a personalized topographic map, vending machine style, from a self-service kiosk. Work began to develop systems that offer seamless, digitally stored USGS topographic maps using map-on-demand software from NG TOPO. The vending machine approach ensures that maps are never out of stock, allows customers to define their own map boundaries, and gives customers choices regarding shaded relief and the grids to be printed on the maps to get the exact maps they need.

  13. FEM: Feature-enhanced map

    SciTech Connect

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Sobolev, Oleg V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Turk, Dusan; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-02-26

    A method is presented that modifies a 2mFobs-DFmodelσA-weighted map such that the resulting map can strengthen a weak signal, if present, and can reduce model bias and noise. The method consists of first randomizing the starting map and filling in missing reflections using multiple methods. This is followed by restricting the map to regions with convincing density and the application of sharpening. The final map is then created by combining a series of histogram-equalized intermediate maps. In the test cases shown, the maps produced in this way are found to have increased interpretability and decreased model bias compared with the starting 2mFobs-DFmodelσA-weighted map.

  14. FEM: Feature-enhanced map

    DOE PAGES

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Sobolev, Oleg V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Turk, Dusan; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-02-26

    A method is presented that modifies a 2mFobs-DFmodelσA-weighted map such that the resulting map can strengthen a weak signal, if present, and can reduce model bias and noise. The method consists of first randomizing the starting map and filling in missing reflections using multiple methods. This is followed by restricting the map to regions with convincing density and the application of sharpening. The final map is then created by combining a series of histogram-equalized intermediate maps. In the test cases shown, the maps produced in this way are found to have increased interpretability and decreased model bias compared with themore » starting 2mFobs-DFmodelσA-weighted map.« less

  15. FEM: feature-enhanced map

    PubMed Central

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Sobolev, Oleg V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Turk, Dusan; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented that modifies a 2m F obs − D F model σA-weighted map such that the resulting map can strengthen a weak signal, if present, and can reduce model bias and noise. The method consists of first randomizing the starting map and filling in missing reflections using multiple methods. This is followed by restricting the map to regions with convincing density and the application of sharpening. The final map is then created by combining a series of histogram-equalized intermediate maps. In the test cases shown, the maps produced in this way are found to have increased interpretability and decreased model bias compared with the starting 2m F obs − D F model σA-weighted map. PMID:25760612

  16. Orientability and Diffusion Maps

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Amit; Wu, Hau-tieng

    2010-01-01

    One of the main objectives in the analysis of a high dimensional large data set is to learn its geometric and topological structure. Even though the data itself is parameterized as a point cloud in a high dimensional ambient space ℝp, the correlation between parameters often suggests the “manifold assumption” that the data points are distributed on (or near) a low dimensional Riemannian manifold ℳd embedded in ℝp, with d ≪ p. We introduce an algorithm that determines the orientability of the intrinsic manifold given a sufficiently large number of sampled data points. If the manifold is orientable, then our algorithm also provides an alternative procedure for computing the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian that are important in the diffusion map framework for reducing the dimensionality of the data. If the manifold is non-orientable, then we provide a modified diffusion mapping of its orientable double covering. PMID:21765628

  17. Conformal complementarity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbón, José L. F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2013-12-01

    We study quantum cosmological models for certain classes of bang/crunch singularities, using the duality between expanding bubbles in AdS with a FRW interior cosmology and perturbed CFTs on de Sitter space-time. It is pointed out that horizon complementarity in the AdS bulk geometries is realized as a conformal transformation in the dual deformed CFT. The quantum version of this map is described in full detail in a toy model involving conformal quantum mechanics. In this system the complementarity map acts as an exact duality between eternal and apocalyptic Hamiltonian evolutions. We calculate the commutation relation between the Hamiltonians corresponding to the different frames. It vanishes only on scale invariant states.

  18. Citrus Grove Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.

  19. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  20. Publication: Evansville hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Evansville (Indiana) Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project was completed in February 2012. It was a collaborative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey and regional partners Purdue University; the Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis; the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana; the Southwest Indiana Disaster Resistant Community Corporation; and the Central U.S. Earthquake Consortium state geologists.

  1. The grief map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, L. H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Grieving is a natural human reaction to a significant loss. According to a psychiatric model, this process is characterized by a typical sequence of psychological changes. Here, I propose a discrete-time dynamical system, called the grief map, in order to represent the grieving process. The corresponding bifurcation diagram, which exhibits stationary, periodic, and chaotic behavior, is related to the stages of this sorrowful journey occurring during about 12 months post-loss.

  2. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  3. MAP user's manual copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The program MITMAP represents a set of general purpose, two- dimensional, finite element programs for the calculation of magnetic fields. It consists of the program MAP and MAP2DJ. The two programs are used to solve different electromagnetic problems, but they have a common set of subrountines for pre- and postprocessing. Originally separate programs, they have been combined to make modification easier. The manuals, however, will remain separate. The program MAP is described in this manual. MAP is applicable to the class of problems with two-dimensional-planar or axisymmetric - geometries, in which the current density and the magnetic vector potential have only a single nonvanishing component. The single component is associated with the direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the problem and is invariant with respect to that direction. Maxwell's equations can be reduced to a solver diffusion equation in terms of the single, nonvanishing component of the magnetic vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector diffusion equation for axisymmetric problems. The magnetic permeability appears in the governing equation. The permeability may be a function of the magnetic flux density. In addition, any electrically conducting material present will have eddy currents induced by a time varying magnetic field. These eddy currents must be included in the solution process. This manual provides a description of the structure of the input data and output for the program. There are several example problems presented that illustrate the major program features. Appendices are included that contain a derivation of the governing equations and the application of the finite element method to the solution of the equations.

  4. Rain-Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, K. E.; Li, F. K.; Wilson, W. J.; Rosing, D.

    1988-01-01

    Orbiting radar system measures rates of rainfall from 0.5 to 60 mm/h. Radar waves scattered and absorbed by rainfall to extents depending on wavelength, polarization, rate of rainfall, and distribution of sizes and shapes of raindrops. Backscattered radar signal as function of length of path through rain used to infer detailed information about rain. Accumulated radar return signals processed into global maps of monthly average rainfall for use in climatological studies.

  5. Forest Fire Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fire Logistics Airborne Mapping Equipment (FLAME) system, mounted in a twin-engine and airplane operated by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is an airborne instrument for detecting and pinpointing forest fires that might escape ground detection. The FLAME equipment rack includes the operator interface, a video monitor, the system's control panel and film output. FLAME's fire detection sensor is an infrared line scanner system that identifies fire boundaries. Sensor's information is correlated with the aircraft's position and altitude at the time the infrared imagery is acquired to fix the fire's location on a map. System can be sent to a fire locale anywhere in the U.S. at the request of a regional forester. USFS felt a need for a more advanced system to deliver timely fire information to fire management personnel in the decade of the 1990s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) conducted a study, jointly sponsored by NASA and USDA, on what advanced technologies might be employed to produce an end-to-end thermal infrared fire detection and mapping system. That led to initiation of the Firefly system, currently in development at JPL and targeted for operational service beginning in 1992. Firefly will employ satellite-reference position fixing and provide performance superior to FLAME.

  6. The MAP Propulsion Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary T.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, integration, test, performance, and lessons learned of NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) propulsion subsystem. MAP was launched on a Delta-II launch vehicle from NASA's Kennedy Space Center on June 30, 2001. Due to instrument thermal stability requirements, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point was selected for the mission orbit. The L2 trajectory incorporated phasing loops and a lunar gravity assist. The propulsion subsystem's requirements are to manage momentum, perform maneuvers during the phasing loops to set up the lunar swingby, and perform stationkeeping at L2 for 2 years. MAP's propulsion subsystem uses 8 thrusters which are located and oriented to provide attitude control and momentum management about all axes, and delta-V in any direction without exposing the instrument to the sun. The propellant tank holds 72 kg of hydrazine, which is expelled by unregulated blowdown pressurization. Thermal management is complex because no heater cycling is allowed at L2. Several technical challenges presented themselves during I and T, such as in-situ weld repairs and in-situ bending of thruster tubes to accommodate late changes in the observatory CG. On-orbit performance has been nominal, and all phasing loop, mid-course correction, and stationkeeping maneuvers have been successfully performed to date.

  7. Using Playground Maps for Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, A. Vonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many schools now decorate their outside hard surface areas with maps. These maps provide color and excitement to a playground and are a terrific teaching tool for geography. But these maps can easily be integrated into physical education as well to promote both physical activity as well as knowledge of geography. The purpose of this article is to…

  8. Maps of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sells a variety of maps of the United States.  Who needs these maps?  Students, land planners, politicians, teachers, marketing specialists, delivery companies, authors and illustrators, attorneys, railroad enthusiasts, travelers, Government agencies, military recruiters, newspapers, map collectors, truckers, boaters, hikers, sales representatives, communication specialists.  Everybody.

  9. Classical and molecular genetic mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief history of classical genetic mapping in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is described. Detailed descriptions are given of the development of molecular genetic linkage maps based upon various types of DNA markers Like many plant and animal species, the first molecular map of soybean was bas...

  10. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  11. Iterative framework radiation hybrid mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building comprehensive radiation hybrid maps for large sets of markers is a computationally expensive process, since the basic mapping problem is equivalent to the traveling salesman problem. The mapping problem is also susceptible to noise, and as a result, it is often beneficial to remove markers ...

  12. Make Your Own Mashup Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.; Whiting, Mervyn J.

    2008-01-01

    "Mashup" is a new technology term used to describe a web application that combines data or technology from several different sources. You can apply this concept in your classroom by having students create their own mashup maps. Google Maps provides you with the simple tools, map databases, and online help you'll need to quickly master this…

  13. Topographic Maps and Coal Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1984-01-01

    Geography teachers can illustrate the patterns associated with mineral fuel production, especially coal, by using United States Geological Survey topographic maps, which are illustrated by symbols that indicate mine-related features, such as shafts and tailings. Map reading exercises are presented; an interpretative map key that can facilitate…

  14. Developmentally Appropriate Map Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxim, George W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a kindergarten/first-grade and a second-grade program for teaching map reading skills. Suggests that map- reading instruction is required to improve children's geography knowledge. Provides ideas on how to observe the environment, use photos, encourage block play, use books, share maps, construct a model of the classroom, read cardinal…

  15. Geologic map of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  16. Geologic mapping of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W.; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  17. Single-edition quadrangle maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    In August 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Division and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service signed an Interagency Agreement to begin a single-edition joint mapping program. This agreement established the coordination for producing and maintaining single-edition primary series topographic maps for quadrangles containing National Forest System lands. The joint mapping program saves money by eliminating duplication of effort by the agencies and results in a more frequent revision cycle for quadrangles containing national forests. Maps are revised on the basis of jointly developed standards and contain normal features mapped by the USGS, as well as additional features required for efficient management of National Forest System lands. Single-edition maps look slightly different but meet the content, accuracy, and quality criteria of other USGS products. The Forest Service is responsible for the land management of more than 191 million acres of land throughout the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, including 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands. These areas make up the National Forest System lands and comprise more than 10,600 of the 56,000 primary series 7.5-minute quadrangle maps (15-minute in Alaska) covering the United States. The Forest Service has assumed responsibility for maintaining these maps, and the USGS remains responsible for printing and distributing them. Before the agreement, both agencies published similar maps of the same areas. The maps were used for different purposes, but had comparable types of features that were revised at different times. Now, the two products have been combined into one so that the revision cycle is stabilized and only one agency revises the maps, thus increasing the number of current maps available for National Forest System lands. This agreement has improved service to the public by requiring that the agencies share the same maps and that the maps meet a

  18. Maps of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sells a variety of maps of the United States. Who needs these maps? Students, land planners, politicians, teachers, marketing specialists, delivery companies, authors and illustrators, attorneys, railroad enthusiasts, travelers, Government agencies, military recruiters, newspapers, map collectors, truckers, boaters, hikers, sales representatives, communication specialists. Everybody. Users of these maps range from a corporation planning a regional expansion or a national marketing campaign, to a person who wants a decoration to hang on the wall. If you are not sure which map best meets your needs, call the Earth Science Information Center for assistance.

  19. Optical filtering of aeromagnetic maps.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, H H; Séguin, M K; Brousseau, N

    1974-05-01

    An optical processor has been used to filter aeromagnetic contour maps in order to obtain information on underground magnetic ore deposits. This was accomplished by directional filtering of the spatial Fourier transform of the contour map. The directional filtering yields maps of gradients having given directions. A digital analysis was also performed on the data so that the feasibility of the optical technique could be evaluated. The results obtained so far suggest that a systematic filtering of aeromagnetic maps can be carried out at low cost and that the filtered maps can yield useful information to the interpreter.

  20. Looking for an old map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    Many people want maps that show an area of the United States as it existed many years ago. These are called historical maps, and there are two types. The most common type consists of special maps prepared by commercial firms to show such historical features as battle-fields, military routes, or the paths taken by famous travelers. Typically, these maps are for sale to tourists at the sites of historical events. The other type is the truly old map--one compiled by a surveyor or cartographer many years ago. Lewis and Clark, for example, made maps of their journeys into the Northwest Territories in 1803-6, and originals of some of these maps still exist.

  1. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  2. Building a million beacon map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julier, Simon J.; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2001-10-01

    Many future missions for mobile robots demand multi-robot systems which are capable of operating in large environments for long periods of time. A critical capability is that each robot must be able to localize itself. However, GPS cannot be used in many environments (such as within city streets, under water, indoors, beneath foliage or extra-terrestrial robotic missions) where mobile robots are likely to become commonplace. A widely researched alternative is Simultaneous Localization and Map Building (SLAM): the vehicle constructs a map and, concurrently, estimates its own position. In this paper we consider the problem of building and maintaining an extremely large map (of one million beacons). We describe a fully distributed, highly scaleable SLAM algorithm which is based on distributed data fusion systems. A central map is maintained in global coordinates using the Split Covariance Intersection (SCI) algorithm. Relative and local maps are run independently of the central map and their estimates are periodically fused with the central map.

  3. Radon mapping strategies in Austria.

    PubMed

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Friedmann, H

    2015-11-01

    According to current European and international recommendations (e.g. by IAEA, WHO and European Union), countries shall identify high radon areas. In Austria, this task was initiated already in the early 1990s, which yielded the first Austrian Radon Potential Map. This map is still in use, updated with recent indoor radon data in 2012. The map is based on radon gas measurements in randomly selected dwellings, normalised to a standard situation. To meet the current (legal) requirements, uncertainties in the existing Austrian radon map should be reduced. A new indoor radon survey with a different sampling strategy was started, and possible mapping methods are studied and tested. In this paper, the methodology for the existing map as well as the planned strategies to improve this map is discussed.

  4. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  5. The National Map - Elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean; Evans, Gayla; Mauck, James; Hutchinson, John; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is the primary elevation data product produced and distributed by the USGS. The NED provides seamless raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the island territories. The NED is derived from diverse source data sets that are processed to a specification with a consistent resolution, coordinate system, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED is the logical result of the maturation of the long-standing USGS elevation program, which for many years concentrated on production of topographic map quadrangle-based digital elevation models. The NED serves as the elevation layer of The National Map, and provides basic elevation information for earth science studies and mapping applications in the United States. The NED is a multi-resolution dataset that is updated bimonthly to integrate newly available, improved elevation source data. NED data are available nationally at grid spacings of 1 arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, and at 1/3 and 1/9 arc-seconds (approximately 10 and 3 meters, respectively) for parts of the United States. Most of the NED for Alaska is available at 2-arc-second (about 60 meters) grid spacing, where only lower resolution source data exist. Part of Alaska is available at the 1/3-arc-second resolution, and plans are in development for a significant upgrade in elevation data coverage of the State over the next 5 years. Specifications for the NED include the following: *Coordinate system: Geographic (decimal degrees of latitude and longitude), *Horizontal datum: North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), *Vertical datum: North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) over the conterminous United States and varies in other areas, and *Elevation units: Decimal meters.

  6. MAp GENeralization COntroller

    1995-02-24

    MAGENCO is a geographic information systems (GIS) tool for managing geospatial data. It assists in choosing an appropriate level of cartographic simplification (removal of vertices while preserving line character). While an effective algorithm for this task exists (Douglas-Peucker, published in 1973), the tolerance parameter depends on the fractal dimension or the natural or manmade feature, the scale of mapping, and the uses to which the data will be put. It is thus necessary to iterativelymore » test different parameters until an acceptable one is found.« less

  7. Variable Sampling Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey, S.; Aronstein, David L.; Dean, Bruce H.; Lyon, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an optical system (for example, a telescope) is limited by the misalignments and manufacturing imperfections of the optical elements in the system. The impact of these misalignments and imperfections can be quantified by the phase variations imparted on light traveling through the system. Phase retrieval is a methodology for determining these variations. Phase retrieval uses images taken with the optical system and using a light source of known shape and characteristics. Unlike interferometric methods, which require an optical reference for comparison, and unlike Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors that require special optical hardware at the optical system's exit pupil, phase retrieval is an in situ, image-based method for determining the phase variations of light at the system s exit pupil. Phase retrieval can be used both as an optical metrology tool (during fabrication of optical surfaces and assembly of optical systems) and as a sensor used in active, closed-loop control of an optical system, to optimize performance. One class of phase-retrieval algorithms is the iterative transform algorithm (ITA). ITAs estimate the phase variations by iteratively enforcing known constraints in the exit pupil and at the detector, determined from modeled or measured data. The Variable Sampling Mapping (VSM) technique is a new method for enforcing these constraints in ITAs. VSM is an open framework for addressing a wide range of issues that have previously been considered detrimental to high-accuracy phase retrieval, including undersampled images, broadband illumination, images taken at or near best focus, chromatic aberrations, jitter or vibration of the optical system or detector, and dead or noisy detector pixels. The VSM is a model-to-data mapping procedure. In VSM, fully sampled electric fields at multiple wavelengths are modeled inside the phase-retrieval algorithm, and then these fields are mapped to intensities on the light detector, using the properties

  8. MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

  9. A new catalog of planetary maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Inge, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A single, concise reference to all existing planetary maps, including lunar ones, is being prepared that will allow map users to identify and locate maps of their areas of interest. This will be the first such comprehensive listing of planetary maps. Although the USGS shows index maps on the collar of each map sheet, periodically publishes index maps of Mars, and provides informal listings of the USGS map database, no tabulation exists that identifies all planetary maps, including those published by DMA and other organizations. The catalog will consist of a booklet containing small-scale image maps with superimposed quadrangle boundaries and map data tabulations.

  10. BAC-HAPPY mapping (BAP mapping): a new and efficient protocol for physical mapping.

    PubMed

    Vu, Giang T H; Dear, Paul H; Caligari, Peter D S; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2010-02-08

    Physical and linkage mapping underpin efforts to sequence and characterize the genomes of eukaryotic organisms by providing a skeleton framework for whole genome assembly. Hitherto, linkage and physical "contig" maps were generated independently prior to merging. Here, we develop a new and easy method, BAC HAPPY MAPPING (BAP mapping), that utilizes BAC library pools as a HAPPY mapping panel together with an Mbp-sized DNA panel to integrate the linkage and physical mapping efforts into one pipeline. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as an exemplar, a set of 40 Sequence Tagged Site (STS) markers spanning approximately 10% of chromosome 4 were simultaneously assembled onto a BAP map compiled using both a series of BAC pools each comprising 0.7x genome coverage and dilute (0.7x genome) samples of sheared genomic DNA. The resultant BAP map overcomes the need for polymorphic loci to separate genetic loci by recombination and allows physical mapping in segments of suppressed recombination that are difficult to analyze using traditional mapping techniques. Even virtual "BAC-HAPPY-mapping" to convert BAC landing data into BAC linkage contigs is possible.

  11. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-01-28

    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  12. Mapping a Better Vintage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Vineyards such as those located in California's Napa Valley tend to be subdivided into relatively large fields or blocks that often encompass heterogeneous physical conditions. Since growers typically treat the entire block as a single minimum management unit for cultivation and harvest, mapping and monitoring the variability within a block is a concern. Over the last decade, an increasing number of vineyard managers have utilized digital remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) to visualize the variability within their blocks. With computer software designed to overlay remotely sensed imagery with environmental and agronomic geographic data on a map, GIS helps growers recognize and explain patterns that might not have been obvious otherwise. GIS can also serve as a valuable archiving mechanism for future reference. To further develop the use of image technology and GIS for vineyard management support, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise partnered with the U.S. wine and commercial remote sensing industries for a project known as the Viticultural Integration of NASA Technologies for Assessment of the Grapevine Environment (VINTAGE). With project investigators from NASA's Ames Research Center, the California State University at Monterey Bay, and the University of Montana, several prototype products have been developed to support agricultural decisions concerning canopy management and irrigation practice. One key VINTAGE aspect involved the evaluation of satellite and airborne multispectral imagery for delineation of sub-block management zones within a vineyard.

  13. Defect mapping system

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-04-11

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline materials in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a laser for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate rastor mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. 20 figures.

  14. Mapping contigs using CONTIGuator.

    PubMed

    Galardini, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Bazzicalupo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining bacterial genomic sequences has become a routine task in today's biology. The emergence of the comparative genomics approach has led to an increasing number of bacterial species having more than one strain sequenced, thus facilitating the annotation process. On the other hand, many genomic sequences are now left in the "draft" status, as a series of contigs, mainly for the labor-intensive finishing task. As a result, many genomic analyses are incomplete (e.g., in their annotation) or impossible to be performed (e.g., structural genomics analysis). Many approaches have been recently developed to facilitate the finishing process or at least to produce higher quality scaffolds; taking advantage of the comparative genomics paradigm, closely related genomes are used to align the contigs and determine their relative orientation, thus facilitating the finishing process, but also producing higher quality scaffolds. In this chapter we present the use of the CONTIGuator algorithm, which aligns the contigs from a draft genome to a closely related closed genome and resolves their relative orientation based on this alignment, producing a scaffold and a series of PCR primer pairs for the finishing process. The CONTIGuator algorithm is also capable of handling multipartite genomes (i.e., genomes having chromosomes and other plasmids), univocally mapping contigs to the most similar replicon. The program also produces a series of contig maps that allow to perform structural genomics analysis on the draft genome. The functionalities of the web interface, as well as the command line version, are presented.

  15. Defect mapping system

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline materials in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a laser for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate rastor mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities.

  16. Karst Map of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma B.

    2010-01-01

    This map is a digital compilation, combining the mapping of earlier geologists. Their work, cited on the map, contains more detailed descriptions of karst areas and landforms in Puerto Rico. This map is the basis for the Puerto Rico part of a new national karst map currently being compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, this product is a standalone, citable source of digital karst data for Puerto Rico. Nearly 25 percent of the United States is underlain by karst terrain, and a large part of that area is undergoing urban and industrial development. Accurate delineations of karstic rocks are needed at scales suitable for national, State, and local maps. The data on this map contribute to a better understanding of subsidence hazards, groundwater contamination potential, and cave resources as well as serve as a guide to topical research on karst. Because the karst data were digitized from maps having a different scale and projection from those on the base map used for this publication, some karst features may not coincide perfectly with physiographic features portrayed on the base map.

  17. Statistical methods in physical mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.O.

    1995-05-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like fragile X syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. This dissertation concentrates on constructing high-resolution physical maps. It demonstrates how probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis can aid molecular geneticists in the tasks of planning, execution, and evaluation of physical maps of chromosomes and large chromosomal regions. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the field of physical mapping, describing the role of physical mapping in gene isolation and ill past efforts at mapping chromosomal regions. The next two chapters review and extend known results on predicting progress in large mapping projects. Such predictions help project planners decide between various approaches and tactics for mapping large regions of the human genome. Chapter 2 shows how probability models have been used in the past to predict progress in mapping projects. Chapter 3 presents new results, based on stationary point process theory, for progress measures for mapping projects based on directed mapping strategies. Chapter 4 describes in detail the construction of all initial high-resolution physical map for human chromosome 19. This chapter introduces the probability and statistical models involved in map construction in the context of a large, ongoing physical mapping project. Chapter 5 concentrates on one such model, the trinomial model. This chapter contains new results on the large-sample behavior of this model, including distributional results, asymptotic moments, and detection error rates. In addition, it contains an optimality result concerning experimental procedures based on the trinomial model. The last chapter explores unsolved problems and describes future work.

  18. Knowledge Maps for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jae Hwa; Segev, Aviv

    2012-01-01

    Maps such as concept maps and knowledge maps are often used as learning materials. These maps have nodes and links, nodes as key concepts and links as relationships between key concepts. From a map, the user can recognize the important concepts and the relationships between them. To build concept or knowledge maps, domain experts are needed.…

  19. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  20. Mapping the lunar shadow - the earliest solar eclipse maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gent, Robert H.

    The English astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742) is commonly credited as the first to draw and publish maps delineating the paths of totality for solar eclipses. Halley published such maps for the solar eclipses of 3 May 1715 and 22 May 1724, which were both visible from southern England. In this paper, the author presents examples of earlier maps depicting solar eclipse paths from Germany, the Netherlands and France. The earliest eclipse maps of this kind appear to be those showing the path of totality for the solar eclipses of 23 September 1699 and 12 May 1706.

  1. Genetic map construction with constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.; Rawlings, C.J.; Soursenot, S.

    1994-12-31

    A pilot program, CME, is described for generating a physical genetic map from hybridization fingerprinting data. CME is implemented in the parallel constraint logic programming language ElipSys. The features of constraint logic programming are used to enable the integration of preexisting mapping information (partial probe orders from cytogenetic maps and local physical maps) into the global map generation process, while parallelism enables the search space to be traversed more efficiently. CME was tested using data from chromosome 2 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and was found able to generate maps as well as (and sometimes better than) a more traditional method. This paper illustrates the practical benefits of using a symbolic logic programming language and shows that the features of constraint handling and parallel execution bring the development of practical systems based on Al programming technologies nearer to being a reality.

  2. Map kinases in fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Xu, J R

    2000-12-01

    MAP kinases in eukaryotic cells are well known for transducing a variety of extracellular signals to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Recently, MAP kinases homologous to the yeast Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinases have been identified in several fungal pathogens and found to be important for appressorium formation, invasive hyphal growth, and fungal pathogenesis. This MAP kinase pathway also controls diverse growth or differentiation processes, including conidiation, conidial germination, and female fertility. MAP kinases homologous to yeast Slt2 and Hog1 have also been characterized in Candida albicans and Magnaporthe grisea. Mutants disrupted of the Slt2 homologues have weak cell walls, altered hyphal growth, and reduced virulence. The Hog1 homologues are dispensable for growth but are essential for regulating responses to hyperosmotic stress in C. albicans and M. grisea. Overall, recent studies have indicated that MAP kinase pathways may play important roles in regulating growth, differentiation, survival, and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. PMID:11273677

  3. Visualizing Dynamic Data with Maps.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Daisuke; Kobourov, Stephen G; Hu, Yifan

    2012-09-01

    Maps offer a familiar way to present geographic data (continents, countries), and additional information (topography, geology), can be displayed with the help of contours and heat-map overlays. In this paper, we consider visualizing large-scale dynamic relational data by taking advantage of the geographic map metaphor. We describe a map-based visualization system which uses animation to convey dynamics in large data sets, and which aims to preserve the viewer's mental map while also offering readable views at all times. Our system is fully functional and has been used to visualize user traffic on the Internet radio station last.fm, as well as TV-viewing patterns from an IPTV service. All map images in this paper are available in high-resolution at [1] as are several movies illustrating the dynamic visualization.

  4. The Circumpolar Arctic vegetation map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Donald A.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Einarsson, E.; Elvebakk, A.; Gould, W.A.; Katenin, A.E.; Kholod, S.S.; Markon, C.J.; Melnikov, E.S.; Moskalenko, N.G.; Talbot, S. S.; Yurtsev, B.A.; Bliss, L.C.; Edlund, S.A.; Zoltai, S.C.; Wilhelm, M.; Bay, C.; Gudjonsson, G.; Ananjeva, G.V.; Drozdov, D.S.; Konchenko, L.A.; Korostelev, Y.V.; Ponomareva, O.E.; Matveyeva, N.V.; Safranova, I.N.; Shelkunova, R.; Polezhaev, A.N.; Johansen, B.E.; Maier, H.A.; Murray, D.F.; Fleming, Michael D.; Trahan, N.G.; Charron, T.M.; Lauritzen, S.M.; Vairin, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Question: What are the major vegetation units in the Arctic, what is their composition, and how are they distributed among major bioclimate subzones and countries? Location: The Arctic tundra region, north of the tree line. Methods: A photo-interpretive approach was used to delineate the vegetation onto an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) base image. Mapping experts within nine Arctic regions prepared draft maps using geographic information technology (ArcInfo) of their portion of the Arctic, and these were later synthesized to make the final map. Area analysis of the map was done according to bioclimate subzones, and country. The integrated mapping procedures resulted in other maps of vegetation, topography, soils, landscapes, lake cover, substrate pH, and above-ground biomass. Results: The final map was published at 1:7 500 000 scale map. Within the Arctic (total area = 7.11 x 106 km 2), about 5.05 ?? 106 km2 is vegetated. The remainder is ice covered. The map legend generally portrays the zonal vegetation within each map polygon. About 26% of the vegetated area is erect shrublands, 18% peaty graminoid tundras, 13% mountain complexes, 12% barrens, 11% mineral graminoid tundras, 11% prostrate-shrub tundras, and 7% wetlands. Canada has by far the most terrain in the High Arctic mostly associated with abundant barren types and prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra, whereas Russia has the largest area in the Low Arctic, predominantly low-shrub tundra. Conclusions: The CAVM is the first vegetation map of an entire global biome at a comparable resolution. The consistent treatment of the vegetation across the circumpolar Arctic, abundant ancillary material, and digital database should promote the application to numerous land-use, and climate-change applications and will make updating the map relatively easy. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  5. Shape analysis of counts maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, M. A.; Göring, D.; Stegmann, C.; Mecke, K.

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach for source detection via structural deviations from the typical features of a random background counts map is presented. Minkowski functionals, powerful tools from integral geometry, quantify the shape of level sets of a counts map. Compared to standard techniques, which use the total number of counts only, additional morphometric information is incorporated without the need for any prior knowledge about the source. Minkowski sky maps quantify local structural deviations; they localize and visualize potential sources.

  6. Symbolic dynamics for Lozi maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiurewicz, M.; Štimac, S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the family of Lozi maps {{L}a,b}:{{{R}}2}\\to {{{R}}2} , {{L}a,b}(x,y)=(1+y-a|x|,bx) , and their strange attractors {{ Λ }a,b} . We introduce the set of kneading sequences for the Lozi map and prove that it determines the symbolic dynamics for that map. We also introduce two other equivalent approaches.

  7. Cosmic string induced CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Landriau, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.

    2011-02-15

    We compute maps of CMB temperature fluctuations seeded by cosmic strings using high resolution simulations of cosmic strings in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We create full-sky, 18 deg. and 3 deg. CMB maps, including the relevant string contribution at each resolution from before recombination to today. We extract the angular power spectrum from these maps, demonstrating the importance of recombination effects. We briefly discuss the probability density function of the pixel temperatures, their skewness, and kurtosis.

  8. Mapping human genetic ancestry.

    PubMed

    Ebersberger, Ingo; Galgoczy, Petra; Taudien, Stefan; Taenzer, Simone; Platzer, Matthias; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2007-10-01

    The human genome is a mosaic with respect to its evolutionary history. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of 23,210 DNA sequence alignments from human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus, we present a map of human genetic ancestry. For about 23% of our genome, we share no immediate genetic ancestry with our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. This encompasses genes and exons to the same extent as intergenic regions. We conclude that about 1/3 of our genes started to evolve as human-specific lineages before the differentiation of human, chimps, and gorillas took place. This explains recurrent findings of very old human-specific morphological traits in the fossils record, which predate the recent emergence of the human species about 5-6 MYA. Furthermore, the sorting of such ancestral phenotypic polymorphisms in subsequent speciation events provides a parsimonious explanation why evolutionary derived characteristics are shared among species that are not each other's closest relatives.

  9. Martian City Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 May 2004 Seasonal frost can enhance the view from orbit of polar polygonal patterns on the surface of Mars. Sometimes these patterns look something like a city map, or the view from above a city lit-up at night. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the south polar region near 80.7oS, 70.6oW. Polar polygons on Mars are generally believed, though not proven, to be the result of freeze/thaw cycles of ice occurring within the upper few meters (several yards) of the martian subsurface. The image shown here covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  10. Globally mapping baseflow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing baseflow, the slowly varying portion of streamflow, is important for water resources management, hydropower generation, tracking contaminant transport, and other applications. Most previous studies of baseflow have analyzed small groups of catchments with similar characteristics. Now, to develop globally applicable models of baseflow characteristics, Beck et al. studied observations from 3394 catchments around the world with a variety of climatic, hydrological, and physiographic characteristics. Their novel approach investigates the relationship between catchment characteristics and baseflow characteristics, showing how baseflow is related to annual potential evaporation, mean snow water equivalent depth, abundance of surface water bodies, and other landscape characteristics. Their global maps of baseflow characteristics—which could be useful for benchmarking and calibrating hydrological models and for a variety of other hydrological applications—are freely available at http://www.hydrology-amsterdam.nl.

  11. Mapping the universe.

    PubMed

    Geller, M J; Huchra, J P

    1989-11-17

    Maps of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe reveal large coherent structures. The extent of the largest features is limited only by the size of the survey. Voids with a density typically 20 percent of the mean and with diameters of 5000 km s(-1) are present in every survey large enough to contain them. Many galaxies lie in thin sheet-like structures. The largest sheet detected so far is the "Great Wall" with a minimum extent of 60 h(-1) Mpc x 170 h(-1) Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The frequent occurrence of these structures is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe.

  12. Mapping the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Maps of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe reveal large coherent structures. The extent of the largest features is limited only by the size of the survey. Voids with a density typically 20 percent of the mean and with diameters of 5000 km/s are present in every survey large enough to contain them. Many galaxies lie in thin sheet-like structures. The largest sheet detected so far is the 'Great Wall' with a minimum extent of 60/h Mpc x 170/h Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km/s per Mpc. The frequent occurrence of these structures is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe.

  13. Mapping the universe.

    PubMed

    Geller, M J; Huchra, J P

    1989-11-17

    Maps of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe reveal large coherent structures. The extent of the largest features is limited only by the size of the survey. Voids with a density typically 20 percent of the mean and with diameters of 5000 km s(-1) are present in every survey large enough to contain them. Many galaxies lie in thin sheet-like structures. The largest sheet detected so far is the "Great Wall" with a minimum extent of 60 h(-1) Mpc x 170 h(-1) Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The frequent occurrence of these structures is one of several serious challenges to our current understanding of the origin and evolution of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe. PMID:17812575

  14. NIMS Ganymede Surface Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Galileo has eyes that can see more than ours can. By looking at what we call the infrared wavelengths, the NIMS (Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) instrument can determine what type and size of material is on the surface of a moon. Here, 3 images of Ganymede are shown.

    Left: Voyager's camera.

    Middle: NIMS, showing water ice on the surface. Dark is less water, bright is more.

    Right: NIMS, showing the locations of minerals in red, and the size of ice grains in shades of blue.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  15. Arctic region mapping tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    An interactive online mapping tool is now available to assist with scientific, environmental, and emergency response needs in the Arctic region, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 31 July. The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) already has been used in other regions, including in the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The tool—which is a product of the combined work of NOAA, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), the University of New Hampshire, and others—offers near-real time oceanographic observations, weather data, environmental and commercial information, and other data.

  16. Universal map for cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2012-08-01

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived.

  17. Revision of Primary Series Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a 50-year effort to provide primary series map coverage of the United States. Many of these maps now need to be updated to reflect the construction of new roads and highways and other changes that have taken place over time. The USGS has formulated a graphic revision plan to help keep the primary series maps current. Primary series maps include 1:20,000-scale quadrangles of Puerto Rico, 1:24,000- or 1:25,000-scale quadrangles of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and U.S. Territories, and 1:63,360-scale quadrangles of Alaska. The revision of primary series maps from new collection sources is accomplished using a variety of processes. The raster revision process combines the scanned content of paper maps with raster updating technologies. The vector revision process involves the automated plotting of updated vector files. Traditional processes use analog stereoplotters and manual scribing instruments on specially coated map separates. The ability to select from or combine these processes increases the efficiency of the National Mapping Division map revision program.

  18. Preliminary northeast Asia geodynamics map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2003-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in Northeast Asia in the last few decades and is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists from Russia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA. The map was compiled by a large group of international geologists using the below concepts and definitions during collaborative workshops over a six-year period. The map is a major new compilation and re-interpretation of pre-existing geologic maps of the region. The map is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analysis, petroleum resource analysis, neotectonic analysis, and analysis of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. The map consists of two sheets. Sheet 1 displays the map at a scale of 1:5,000,000, explanation. Sheet 2 displays the introduction, list of map units, and source references. Detailed descriptions of map units and stratigraphic columns are being published separately. This map is one of a series of publications on the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and geodynamics,of Northeast Asia. Companion studies and other articles and maps , and various detailed reports are: (1) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000; Obolenskiy and others, in press a); (2) a series of

  19. Crowdsourcing for the National Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is testing out a new approach to its National Map Corps volunteer program and is launching a project for volunteers in Colorado to map man-made structures and facilities for updates to the National Map. “Even members of the public who can't tell a sandstone from a rhyolite but have Internet access can now help the USGS keep its popular maps up to date through our new experiment in crowdsourcing,” according to USGS director Marcia McNutt.

  20. Hail Size Distribution Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A 3-D weather radar visualization software program was developed and implemented as part of an experimental Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor System. 3DRadPlot, a radar plotting program, is one of several software modules that form building blocks of the hail data processing and analysis system (the complete software processing system under development). The spatial and temporal mapping algorithms were originally developed through research at the University of Central Florida, funded by NASA s Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), where the goal was to merge National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) volume reflectivity data with drop size distribution data acquired from a cluster of raindrop disdrometers. In this current work, we adapted these algorithms to process data from a cluster of hail disdrometers positioned around Launch Pads 39A or 39B, along with the corresponding NWS radar data. Radar data from all NWS NEXRAD sites is archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). That data can be readily accessed at . 3DRadPlot plots Level III reflectivity data at four scan elevations (this software is available at Open Channel Software, ). By using spatial and temporal interpolation/extrapolation based on hydrometeor fall dynamics, we can merge the hail disdrometer array data coupled with local Weather Surveillance Radar-1988, Doppler (WSR-88D) radial velocity and reflectivity data into a 4-D (3-D space and time) picture of hail size distributions. Hail flux maps can then be generated and used for damage prediction and assessment over specific surfaces corresponding to structures within the disdrometer array volume. Immediately following a hail storm, specific damage areas and degree of damage can be identified for inspection crews.

  1. Aeromagnetic map of Nevada: Las Vegas sheet, Map 95

    SciTech Connect

    Saltus, R.W.; Ponce, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A 1:250,000-scale map showing total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at intervals of 10 to 500 nanoteslas, and a 1:1,000,000-scale merged aeromagnetic map. The topographic base with drainage pattern and cultural information is from the Las Vegas 1/degree/ by 2/degree/ Quadrangle. (6 refs.)

  2. Mapping for the Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal Szymanski, Cynthia

    1987-01-01

    Describes the importance of children developing proper mapping skills to help them understand their life space as they mature. Explains topological, projective, and Euclidean concepts in relation to how children should be taught about space concepts used in mapping. Focuses on integrating topological experiences into pre-school, primary grades…

  3. ANL's Map and Data Browser

    1998-07-13

    The MaD browser is a web browser Java applet developed to display and interact with vector graphic (map) objects, relational database tables, and other data sources. It was designed for use in remedial action projects to quickly and widely disseminate sampling results but is generally applicable to many other mapping situations. Its primary value is its simplicity and general availability.

  4. Some remarks on assignment maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masillo, F.; Scolarici, G.; Solombrino, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of general linear assignment maps, showing that positivity axiom can be suitably relaxed, and propose a new class of dynamical maps (generalized dynamics). A puzzling result, arising in such a context in quantum information theory, is also discussed.

  5. JournalMap: Research. Reimagined.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    JournalMap is a scientific literature search engine that empowers you to find relevant research based on location and biophysical variables as well as traditional keyword searches. All publications are geotagged based on reported location information and plotted on a world map showing where the rese...

  6. Three-Dimensional Contour Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In summary, this highly conceptual activity helps middle school students understand that the lines on the contour map represent intersections of the surface of the landform with regularly spaced horizontal planes. Building the landform and relating its features to the contour map offer many opportunities for visualization, all grounded in concrete…

  7. Map Study Committee. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidlage, Bob; And Others

    A study undertaken to evaluate the status of the University of Missouri-Columbia's map collections is described in this report, and forecasts are made for necessary facilities, equipment, and personnel to accomplish a proposed reorganization and online cataloging of the university's geology and geography map collections. Included in plans for…

  8. Mind Maps as Classroom Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Mind Map is an outline in which the major categories radiate from a central image and lesser categories are portrayed as branches of larger branches. The author describes an in-class exercise in which small groups of students each create a Mind Map for a specific topic. This exercise is another example of an active and collaborative learning…

  9. Concept Maps in Introductory Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are tools for organizing thoughts on the main ideas in a course. I present an example of a concept map that was created through the work of students in an introductory class and discuss major topics in statistics and relationships among them.

  10. STS-59 MAPS experiment view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-59's MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites) experiment is sending real-time data that provides the most comprehensive view of carbon monoxide concentrations on Earth ever recorded. This computer image shows a summary of 'quick look' data obtained by the MAPS instrument during its first days of operations as part of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's SRL-1 payload.

  11. Curriculum Mapping in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Heidi; Webb, Katy Kavanagh; Houk, Amy Harris; Tingelstad, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Librarians at four different academic institutions concurrently completed curriculum mapping projects using varying methods to analyze their information literacy instruction. Curriculum mapping is a process for systematically evaluating components of an instructional program for cohesiveness, proper sequencing, and goal achievement. There is a…

  12. Global Geologic Map of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Hare, T.; Kolb, E.; Mullins, K.; Senske, D.; Tanaka, K.; Weiser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Europa, with its indications of a sub-ice ocean, is of keen interest to astrobiology and planetary geology. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step for the synthesis of data from the Galileo mission, and for the planning of future missions to the satellite. The first geologic map of Europa was produced at a hemisphere scale with low resolution Voyager data. Following the acquisition of higher resolution data by the Galileo mission, researchers have identified surface units and determined sequences of events in relatively small areas of Europa through geologic mapping using images at various resolutions acquired by Galileo's Solid State Imaging camera. These works provided a local to subregional perspective and employed different criteria for the determination and naming of units. Unified guidelines for the identification, mapping and naming of Europan geologic units were put forth by and employed in regional-to-hemispheric scale mapping which is now being expanded into a global geologic map. A global photomosaic of Galileo and Voyager data was used as a basemap for mapping in ArcGIS, following suggested methodology of all-stratigraphy for planetary mapping. The following units have been defined in global mapping and are listed in stratigraphic order from oldest to youngest: ridged plains material, Argadnel Regio unit, dark plains material, lineaments, disrupted plains material, lenticulated plains material and Chaos material.

  13. Mapping the backbone of science.

    SciTech Connect

    Klavans, Richard; BÞorner, Katy; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents a new map representing the structure of all of science, based on journal articles, including both the natural and social sciences. Similar to cartographic maps of our world, the map of science provides a bird's eye view of today's scientific landscape. It can be used to visually identify major areas of science, their size, similarity, and interconnectedness. In order to be useful, the map needs to be accurate on a local and on a global scale. While our recent work has focused on the former aspect, this paper summarizes results on how to achieve structural accuracy. Eight alternative measures of journal similarity were applied to a data set of 7,121 journals covering over 1 million documents in the combined Science Citation and Social Science Citation Indexes. For each journal similarity measure we generated two-dimensional spatial layouts using the force-directed graph layout tool, VxOrd. Next, mutual information values were calculated for each graph at different clustering levels to give a measure of structural accuracy for each map. The best co-citation and inter-citation maps according to local and structural accuracy were selected and are presented and characterized. These two maps are compared to establish robustness. The inter-citation map is then used to examine linkages between disciplines. Biochemistry appears as the most interdisciplinary discipline in science.

  14. Map Projections: Approaches and Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, H. J.

    1970-01-01

    Map projections take on new meaning with location systems needed for satellites, other planets and space. A classroom approach deals first with the relationship between the earth and the globe, then with transformations to flat maps. Problems of preserving geometric qualities: distance, angles, directions are dealt with in some detail as are…

  15. The Structure-Mapping Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenhainer, Brian; And Others

    This paper describes the Structure-Mapping Engine (SME), a cognitive simulation program for studying human analogical processing. SME is based on Gentner's Structure-Mapping theory of analogy, and provides a "tool kit" for constructing matching algorithms consistent with this theory. This flexibility enhances cognitive simulation studies by…

  16. Traditional Navajo Maps and Wayfinding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Harris; Kelley, Klara

    2005-01-01

    An example of the way finding process when using verbal and other traditional maps among the Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States is presented. The scholarly literature on the Southwest offers examples of verbal maps that construct both linear space, such as trails, and broad geographical space, including hunting territories and large…

  17. Map characteristics of Landsat mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Map characteristics of the Landsat mosaics developed at JPL are considered. Procedures for digital mosaicking of Landsat frames to standard map projections were used to mosaic at full resolution ten scenes over the California desert region and twenty-one scenes over Arizona. The procedures are analyzed for horizontal positioning error (global and local) and the potential for classification error associated with the adjustment of brightness of Z values between frames; the use of this technology for the mapping of extensive features is discussed. Mosaicking facilities, techniques, mapping accuracy, and thematic mapping characteristics are described. A comparative analysis of Landsat mosaicking technology developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, IBM Gaithersburg, and USGS Flagstaff is made, and suggestions are given for algorithm development to improve systems capacity and ability to handle a variety of cases.

  18. Protein folding using contact maps.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, M; Domany, E

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the problem of representations of protein structure and give the definition of contact maps. We present a method to obtain a three-dimensional polypeptide conformation from a contact map. We also explain how to deal with the case of nonphysical contact maps. We describe a stochastic method to perform dynamics in contact map space. We explain how the motion is restricted to physical regions of the space. First, we introduce the exact free energy of a contact map and discuss two simple approximations to it. Second, we present a method to derive energy parameters based on perception learning. We prove in an extensive number of situations that the pairwise contact approximation both when alone and when supplemented with a hydrophobic term is unsuitable for stabilizing proteins' native states. PMID:10668399

  19. Automated mapping of hammond's landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallant, A.L.; Brown, D.D.; Hoffer, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    We automated a method for mapping Hammond's landforms over large landscapes using digital elevation data. We compared our results against Hammond's published landform maps, derived using manual interpretation procedures. We found general agreement in landform patterns mapped by the manual and the automated approaches, and very close agreement in characterization of local topographic relief. The two approaches produced different interpretations of intermediate landforms, which relied upon quantification of the proportion of landscape having gently sloping terrain. This type of computation is more efficiently and consistently applied by computer than human. Today's ready access to digital data and computerized geospatial technology provides a good foundation for mapping terrain features, but the mapping criteria guiding manual techniques in the past may not be appropriate for automated approaches. We suggest that future efforts center on the advantages offered by digital advancements in refining an approach to better characterize complex landforms. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  20. Deforming the hippocampal map.

    PubMed

    Touretzky, David S; Weisman, Wendy E; Fuhs, Mark C; Skaggs, William E; Fenton, Andre A; Muller, Robert U

    2005-01-01

    To investigate conjoint stimulus control over place cells, Fenton et al. (J Gen Physiol 116:191-209, 2000a) recorded while rats foraged in a cylinder with 45 degrees black and white cue cards on the wall. Card centers were 135 degrees apart. In probe trials, the cards were rotated together or apart by 25 degrees . Firing field centers shifted during these trials, stretching and shrinking the cognitive map. Fenton et al. (2000b) described this deformation with an ad hoc vector field equation. We consider what sorts of neural network mechanisms might be capable of accounting for their observations. In an abstract, maximum likelihood formulation, the rat's location is estimated by a conjoint probability density function of landmark positions. In an attractor neural network model, recurrent connections produce a bump of activity over a two-dimensional array of cells; the bump's position is influenced by landmark features such as distances or bearings. If features are chosen with appropriate care, the attractor network and maximum likelihood models yield similar results, in accord with previous demonstrations that recurrent neural networks can efficiently implement maximum likelihood computations (Pouget et al. Neural Comput 10:373-401, 1998; Deneve et al. Nat Neurosci 4:826-831, 2001). PMID:15390166

  1. Compressor map prediction tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Arjun; Sznajder, Lukasz; Bennett, Ian

    2015-08-01

    Shell Global Solutions uses an in-house developed system for remote condition monitoring of centrifugal compressors. It requires field process data collected during operation to calculate and assess the machine's performance. Performance is assessed by comparing live results of polytropic head and efficiency versus design compressor curves provided by the Manufacturer. Typically, these design curves are given for specific suction conditions. The further these conditions on site deviate from those prescribed at design, the less accurate the health assessment of the compressor becomes. To address this specified problem, a compressor map prediction tool is proposed. The original performance curves of polytropic head against volumetric flow for varying rotational speeds are used as an input to define a range of Mach numbers within which the non-dimensional invariant performance curve of head and volume flow coefficient is generated. The new performance curves of polytropic head vs. flow for desired set of inlet conditions are then back calculated using the invariant non-dimensional curve. Within the range of Mach numbers calculated from design data, the proposed methodology can predict polytropic head curves at a new set of inlet conditions within an estimated 3% accuracy. The presented methodology does not require knowledge of detailed impeller geometry such as throat areas, blade number, blade angles, thicknesses nor other aspects of the aerodynamic design - diffusion levels, flow angles, etc. The only required mechanical design feature is the first impeller tip diameter. Described method makes centrifugal compressor surveillance activities more accurate, enabling precise problem isolation affecting machine's performance.

  2. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  3. Contour Error Map Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis; Lane, John; Immer, Christopher; Case, Jonathan; Manobianco, John

    2005-01-01

    The contour error map (CEM) algorithm and the software that implements the algorithm are means of quantifying correlations between sets of time-varying data that are binarized and registered on spatial grids. The present version of the software is intended for use in evaluating numerical weather forecasts against observational sea-breeze data. In cases in which observational data come from off-grid stations, it is necessary to preprocess the observational data to transform them into gridded data. First, the wind direction is gridded and binarized so that D(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on forecast data and d(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on gridded observational data. Here, i and j are spatial indices representing 1.25-km intervals along the west-to-east and south-to-north directions, respectively; and n is a time index representing 5-minute intervals. A binary value of D or d = 0 corresponds to an offshore wind, whereas a value of D or d = 1 corresponds to an onshore wind. CEM includes two notable subalgorithms: One identifies and verifies sea-breeze boundaries; the other, which can be invoked optionally, performs an image-erosion function for the purpose of attempting to eliminate river-breeze contributions in the wind fields.

  4. Mapping the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, Charles R.

    1989-06-01

    The following pages aim to lay a foundation for understanding the excitement surrounding the ''human genome project,'' as well as to convey a flavor of the ongoing efforts and plans at the Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Our own work, of course, is only part of a broad international effort that will dramatically enhance our understanding of human molecular genetics before the end of this century. In this country, the bulk of the effort will be carried out under the auspices of the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, but significant contributions have already been made both by nonprofit private foundations and by private corporation. The respective roles of the DOE and the NIH are being coordinated by an inter-agency committee, the aims of which are to emphasize the strengths of each agency, to facilitate cooperation, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort. The NIH, for example, will continue its crucial work in medical genetics and in mapping the genomes of nonhuman species. The DOE, on the other hand, has unique experience in managing large projects, and its national laboratories are repositories of expertise in physics, engineering, and computer science, as well as the life sciences. The tools and techniques the project will ultimately rely on are thus likely to be developed in multidisciplinary efforts at laboratories like LBL. Accordingly, we at LBL take great pride in this enterprise -- an enterprise that will eventually transform our understanding of ourselves.

  5. The National Map: Topographic Maps for the 21st Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is committed to meeting the Nation's needs for current base geographic data and maps. Our vision is that, by working with partners, we will provide the Nation with access to current, accurate, and nationally consistent digital data and topographic maps derived from those data. This synthesis of information, products, and capabilities, The National Map, will be a seamless, continuously maintained set of geographic base information that will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently.

  6. The National Map: Topographic Maps for the 21st Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is committed to meeting the Nation's needs for current base geographic data and maps. Our vision is that, by working with partners, we will provide the Nation with access to current, accurate, and nationally consistent digital data and topographic maps derived from those data. This synthesis of information, products, and capabilities, The National Map, will be a seamless, continuously maintained set of geographic base information that will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently.

  7. The National Map: Topographic Maps for the 21st Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is committed to meeting the Nation's needs for current base geographic data and maps. Our vision is that, by working with partners, we will provide the Nation with access to current, accurate, and nationally consistent digital data and topographic maps derived from those data. This synthesis of information, products, and capabilities, The National Map, will be a seamless, continuously maintained set of geographic base information that will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently.

  8. Piri Reis and the Columbus Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the origins and impact of the Piri Reis map, an early world map based on the voyages of Columbus and 20 other source maps. Maintains that evidence exists that Christopher Columbus may have drawn part of the map. Includes lengthy quotes from the map's legend written by Reis. (CFR)

  9. Mapping the Natchez Trace Parkway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri; Ramsey, Elijah W.

    2011-01-01

    Based on a National Park Service (NPS) landcover classification, a landcover map of the 715-km (444-mile) NPS Natchez Trace Parkway (hereafter referred to as the "Parkway") was created. The NPS landcover classification followed National Vegetation Classification (NVC) protocols. The landcover map, which extended the initial landcover classification to the entire Parkway, was based on color-infrared photography converted to 1-m raster-based digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles, according to U.S. Geological Survey mapping standards. Our goal was to include as many alliance classes as possible in the Parkway landcover map. To reach this goal while maintaining a consistent and quantifiable map product throughout the Parkway extent, a mapping strategy was implemented based on the migration of class-based spectral textural signatures and the congruent progressive refinement of those class signatures along the Parkway. Progressive refinement provided consistent mapping by evaluating the spectral textural distinctiveness of the alliance-association classes, and where necessary, introducing new map classes along the Parkway. By following this mapping strategy, the use of raster-based image processing and geographic information system analyses for the map production provided a quantitative and reproducible product. Although field-site classification data were severely limited, the combination of spectral migration of class membership along the Parkway and the progressive classification strategy produced an organization of alliances that was internally highly consistent. The organization resulted from the natural patterns or alignments of spectral variance and the determination of those spectral patterns that were compositionally similar in the dominant species as NVC alliances. Overall, the mapped landcovers represented the existent spectral textural patterns that defined and encompassed the complex variety of compositional alliances and associations of the Parkway. Based

  10. Topological visual mapping in robotics.

    PubMed

    Romero, Anna; Cazorla, Miguel

    2012-08-01

    A key problem in robotics is the construction of a map from its environment. This map could be used in different tasks, like localization, recognition, obstacle avoidance, etc. Besides, the simultaneous location and mapping (SLAM) problem has had a lot of interest in the robotics community. This paper presents a new method for visual mapping, using topological instead of metric information. For that purpose, we propose prior image segmentation into regions in order to group the extracted invariant features in a graph so that each graph defines a single region of the image. Although others methods have been proposed for visual SLAM, our method is complete, in the sense that it makes all the process: it presents a new method for image matching; it defines a way to build the topological map; and it also defines a matching criterion for loop-closing. The matching process will take into account visual features and their structure using the graph transformation matching (GTM) algorithm, which allows us to process the matching and to remove out the outliers. Then, using this image comparison method, we propose an algorithm for constructing topological maps. During the experimentation phase, we will test the robustness of the method and its ability constructing topological maps. We have also introduced new hysteresis behavior in order to solve some problems found building the graph.

  11. Angola Seismicity MAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  12. Tectonic map of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Oyhantcabal, P.

    2008-05-01

    A compilation of available data about the geology of Uruguay allowed the definition of its main events and tectonic units. Based on a critical revision of different tectonic hypothesis found in the literature, a parsimonious tectonic evolution schema is presented, in the context of Western Gondwana. The tectonic map illustrates the general features of the structure and main tectonic units of Uruguay. The Precambrian shield, cropping out in the South and Southeast of the country is an Archean to Paleoprtoerozoic basement divided in three main tectonostratigraphic terrranes: the Piedra Alta (PAT) a juvenile Paleoproterozoic unit not reworked by later events; the Nico Pérez (NPT) a complex unit composed of several blocks where Archean to Mesoproterozoic events are recognised. The NPT was strongly reworked by Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano) orogeny. The Dom Feliciano Belt cropping out in eastern Uruguay is related to Western Gondwana amalgamation. Different tectonic settings are considered: pre-Brasiliano Basement inliers; supracrustal successions representing the evolution from a back- arc to a foreland basin; a magmatic arc; and post-collisional basins and related magmatism. In lower Paleozoic the Paraná foreland basin was generated as a consequence of orogenic events. The sedimentary successions in Uruguay include continental to shallow marine deposits where the influence of carboniferous to Permian glacial episode is recorded. The Mesozoic record is characterised by the influence of extension related to the break-up of Gondwana and the formation of the Atlantic Ocean: huge amounts of tholeiitic basalt were erupted (near 30.000 km3 in Uruguay), followed by cretaceous sediments in the northern area of the country while in the south-east, bimodal magmatism and sediments of the same age are associated to rift basins. The Cenozoic is characterised by tectonic quiescence. Subsidence is only observed in the western region (Chaco-Paraná Basin) and in the east (Laguna Mer

  13. The National Map: from geography to mapping and back again

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelmelis, John A.; DeMulder, Mark L.; Ogrosky, Charles E.; Van Driel, J. Nicholas; Ryan, Barbara J.

    2003-01-01

    When the means of production for national base mapping were capital intensive, required large production facilities, and had ill-defined markets, Federal Government mapping agencies were the primary providers of the spatial data needed for economic development, environmental management, and national defense. With desktop geographic information systems now ubiquitous, source data available as a commodity from private industry, and the realization that many complex problems faced by society need far more and different kinds of spatial data for their solutions, national mapping organizations must realign their business strategies to meet growing demand and anticipate the needs of a rapidly changing geographic information environment. The National Map of the United States builds on a sound historic foundation of describing and monitoring the land surface and adds a focused effort to produce improved understanding, modeling, and prediction of land-surface change. These added dimensions bring to bear a broader spectrum of geographic science to address extant and emerging issues. Within the overarching construct of The National Map, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is making a transition from data collector to guarantor of national data completeness; from producing paper maps to supporting an online, seamless, integrated database; and from simply describing the Nation’s landscape to linking these descriptions with increased scientific understanding. Implementing the full spectrum of geographic science addresses a myriad of public policy issues, including land and natural resource management, recreation, urban growth, human health, and emergency planning, response, and recovery. Neither these issues nor the science and technologies needed to deal with them are static. A robust research agenda is needed to understand these changes and realize The National Map vision. Initial successes have been achieved. These accomplishments demonstrate the utility of

  14. 2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map Showing Progress for the Fiscal Year 1927. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1927. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, District #4, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  15. The history of dermatome mapping.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Steven A

    2003-01-01

    Dermatome maps are commonly used in clinical neurology. These maps are valuable for the localization of varied sensory phenomena in patients with neurological disorders. The methods used in the construction of the classic maps by Sir Henry Head, Sir Charles Sherrington, Otfrid Foerster, and Jay Keegan and Frederic Garrett are of historical interest and are relevant to the current understanding of dermatome anatomy and physiology. In particular, the work of Derek Denny-Brown and his colleagues demonstrates that patterns of dermatomal sensory loss depend on the anatomical and physiological characteristics of large regions of nervous tissue, multiple adjacent dorsal ganglia, and the nearby caudal and rostral spinal cord.

  16. Mine soil classification and mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.

    1998-12-31

    This presentation covers the history of surface coal mining and reclamation methods and equipment for the pre-Federal law, interim-Federal law, and post-Federal law periods. It discusses the difficulties with traditional mine soil mapping methods on five soils series in Illinois. These methods fail to recognize the effects of compaction and methods to ameliorate compaction. The current status of mine soil mapping methods on eight soil series in Illinois are presented. Areas where additional work is needed and future potential difficulties are identified for mine soil mapping efforts.

  17. Mapping the Universe: Slices and Bubbles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    Map making is described in the context of extraterrestrial areas. An analogy to terrestrial map making is used to provide some background. The status of projects designed to map extraterrestrial areas are discussed including problems unique to this science. (CW)

  18. Integrating Databases with Maps: The Delivery of Cultural Data through TimeMap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian

    TimeMap is a unique integration of database management, metadata and interactive maps, designed to contextualise and deliver cultural data through maps. TimeMap extends conventional maps with the time dimension, creating and animating maps "on-the-fly"; delivers them as a kiosk application or embedded in Web pages; links flexibly to detailed…

  19. Mapping a flood before it happens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    What's missing from flood forecasts? Maps—The only maps generally available today are maps used for planning. They are maps of theoretical floods, not maps of flooding forecast for an approaching storm. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed a way to bring flood forecasting and flood mapping together, producing flood maps for tomorrow's flood today...and getting them on the Internet in time for those in harm's way to react.

  20. CUBISM: CUbe Builder for IRS Spectra Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sings Irs Team; Smith, J. D.; Armus, Lee; Bot, Caroline; Buckalew, Brent; Dale, Danny; Helou, George; Jarrett, Tom; Roussel, Helene; Sheth, Kartik

    2011-11-01

    CUBISM, written in IDL, is a tool for constructing spectral cubes, maps, and arbitrary aperture 1D spectral extractions from sets of mapping mode spectra taken with Spitzer's IRS spectrograph. CUBISM is optimized for non-sparse maps of extended objects, e.g. the nearby galaxy sample of SINGS, but can be used with data from any spectral mapping AOR (primarily validated for maps which are designed as suggested by the mapping HOWTO).

  1. Chemical Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Yamashita, N.; Lawrence, D. J.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.; Feldman, W. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Titus, T. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Forni, O.; Mizzon, H.; Peplowski, P. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    Vesta s surface mineralogy and composition have been studied for decades via telescopic spectroscopy and laboratory analyses of the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, which are thought to originate from Vesta. Visible and infrared reflectance measurements by Dawn have broadly confirmed the paradigm established by Earth-based work, strengthening the Vesta-HED connection. The Dawn mission has achieved a milestone by completing the first chemical measurements of a main-belt asteroid using nuclear spectroscopy. Dawn s Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) has globally mapped the composition of Vesta, including the portions of the northern hemisphere not illuminated by solar radiation. GRaND is sensitive to the composition of the bulk regolith to depths of several decimeters. Abundances and/or detection limits for specific elements and elemental ratios, such as H, Fe, Si, Fe/O, Fe/Si, and K, have been measured. Variations in the average atomic mass and neutron macroscopic absorption cross section have been characterized. The measurements constrain the relative proportions of HED whole-rock end-members, providing measurements of the pyroxene and plagioclase content of the regolith, thereby constraining the processes underlying Vesta s differentiation and crustal evolution. The spatial resolution of GRaND is sufficient to determine basin-average compositions of Veneneia and Rheasilvia, which may contain outcrops of Vesta s olivine-rich mantle. While the elemental composition of Vesta s regolith is similar to the meteorites, there are notable departures from HED whole-rock compositions. While these differences are not sufficient to topple the Vesta-HED paradigm, they provide insight into global-scale processes that have shaped Vesta s surface. Questions addressed by the analysis of GRaND data include: (i) Is Vesta the source of the Fe-rich mesosiderites? (ii) Are evolved, igneous lithologies present on Vesta s surface? (iii) What are the origins of

  2. Chemical mapping of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Naoyuki; Prettyman, T. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lawrence, D. J.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.; Feldman, W. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Titus, T. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Forni, O.; Mizzon, H.; Peplowski, P. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-10-01

    Vesta’s surface mineralogy and composition have been studied for decades via telescopic spectroscopy and laboratory analyses of the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, which are thought to originate from Vesta. Visible and infrared reflectance measurements by Dawn have broadly confirmed the paradigm established by Earth-based work, strengthening the Vesta-HED connection. The Dawn mission has achieved a milestone by completing the first chemical measurements of a main-belt asteroid using nuclear spectroscopy. Dawn’s Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) has globally mapped the composition of Vesta, including the portions of the northern hemisphere not illuminated by solar radiation. GRaND is sensitive to the composition of the bulk regolith to depths of several decimeters. Abundances and/or detection limits for specific elements and elemental ratios, such as H, Fe, Si, Fe/O, Fe/Si, and K, have been measured. Variations in the average atomic mass and neutron macroscopic absorption cross section have been characterized. The measurements constrain the relative proportions of HED whole-rock end-members, providing measurements of the pyroxene and plagioclase content of the regolith, thereby constraining the processes underlying Vesta’s differentiation and crustal evolution. The spatial resolution of GRaND is sufficient to determine basin-average compositions of Veneneia and Rheasilvia, which may contain outcrops of Vesta’s olivine-rich mantle. While the elemental composition of Vesta’s regolith is similar to the meteorites, there are notable departures from HED whole-rock compositions. While these differences are not sufficient to topple the Vesta-HED paradigm, they provide insight into global-scale processes that have shaped Vesta’s surface. Questions addressed by the analysis of GRaND data include: (i) Is Vesta the source of the Fe-rich mesosiderites? (ii) Are evolved, igneous lithologies present on Vesta’s surface? (iii) What are the

  3. Map of Jupiter's moon Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-04-01

    Map of Jupiter's moon Io The first global geologic map of the Jovian satellite Io has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the agency announced on 19 March. “More than 130 years after the USGS first began producing quality geologic maps here on Earth, it is exciting to have the reach of our science extend across 400 million miles to this volcanically active moon of Jupiter,” said USGS director Marcia McNutt. “Somehow it makes the vast expanse of space seem less forbidding to know that similar geologic processes which have shaped our planet are active elsewhere.” The map illustrates the geologic character of the unique and active volcanoes on Io, a planetary body that has about 25 times more volcanic activity than Earth does, according to USGS.

  4. Conformal mapping of rectangular heptagons

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatyrev, Andrei B

    2012-12-31

    A new effective approach to calculating the direct and inverse conformal mapping of rectangular polygons onto a half-plane is put forward; it is based on the use of Riemann theta functions. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  5. Topographic mapping: A challenging future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1964-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey was established by Congress in 1879 to make a systematic study of the geology and natural resources of the United States. To provide the essential base maps for these studies, the Survey immediately began a program of topographic mapping. In 1882 a general plan was adopted for a standard series of general-purpose topographic maps covering the entire country. Today ... the primary job of the Topographic Division of the Geological Survey is to carry out topographic surveys, and to publish the results as quadrangles in the National Topographic Map Series.

  6. Lung-MAP Clinical Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the Lung-MAP study, which will examine treatment outcomes for patients with squamous cell lung cancer assigned to different targeted drugs based on the results of genomic tumor profiling.

  7. The National Map - Orthoimagery Layer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Many Federal, State, and local agencies use a common set of framework geographic information databases as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and homeland security applications rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continually maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, framework geographic information databases. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using data easily and consistently. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. The National Map includes digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information.

  8. Tectonic Maps of the Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These tectonic relief maps of the north (left, view large [540k]) and south (right, view large [411k]) poles are the result of new satellite-based technologies which are being used to analyze tectonic activity in the Earth's crust. These maps, known as Digital Tectonic Activity Maps (DTAMs), synoptically depict the architecture of the Earth's crust including current and past tectonic activity. This is significant because it permits researchers to view broad zones of activity over the entire surface of the Earth, rather than focusing on single boundary features. By looking at these 'big pictures,' scientists can possibly identify regions of activity which were not previously recognized or mapped using traditional methods. For more information, see: DTAM web site Putting Earthquakes in Their Place Images courtesy Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC; data by Paul Lowman and Jacob Yates, NASA GSFC

  9. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  10. A map of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Gott III, J. Richard; Juric, Mario; Schlegel, David; Hoyle, Fiona; Vogeley, Michael; Tegmark, Max; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jon

    2003-10-20

    We have produced a new conformal map of the universe illustrating recent discoveries, ranging from Kuiper belt objects in the Solar system, to the galaxies and quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map projection, based on the logarithm map of the complex plane, preserves shapes locally, and yet is able to display the entire range of astronomical scales from the Earth s neighborhood to the cosmic microwave background. The conformal nature of the projection, preserving shapes locally, may be of particular use for analyzing large scale structure. Prominent in the map is a Sloan Great Wall of galaxies 1.37 billion light years long, 80 percent longer than the Great Wall discovered by Geller and Huchra and therefore the largest observed structure in the universe.

  11. YouGenMap: a web platform for dynamic multi-comparative mapping and visualization of genetic maps.

    PubMed

    Batesole, Keith; Wimalanathan, Kokulapalan; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Fan; Echt, Craig S; Liang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genetic maps are used in examination of genome organization, detection of conserved gene order, and exploration of marker order variations. YouGenMap is an open-source web tool that offers dynamic comparative mapping capability of users' own genetic mapping between 2 or more map sets. Users' genetic map data and optional gene annotations are uploaded, either publically or privately, as long as they follow our template which is available in several standard file formats. Data is parsed and loaded into MySQL relational database to be displayed and compared against users' genetic maps or other public data available on YouGenMap. With the highly interactive GUIs, all public data on YouGenMap are maps available for visualization, comparison, search, filtration and download. YouGenMap web tool is available on the website (http://conifergdb.miamioh.edu/yougenmap) with the source-code repository at (http://sourceforge.net/projects/yougenmap/?source=directory).

  12. Planetary maps - Passports for the mind

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The various types of planetary maps are reviewed. Included are basic descriptions of planimetric, topographic, geologic, and digital maps. It is noted that planimetric maps are pictorial representations of a planet's round surface flattened into a plane, such as controlled photomosaic maps and shaded relief maps. Topographic maps, those usually made with data from altimeters and stereoscopic images, have contour lines indicating the shapes and elevations of landforms. Geologic maps carry additional information about landforms, such as rock types, the processes that formed them, and their relative ages. The International Astronomical Union nomenclature system is briefly discussed, pointing out that the Union often assigns themes to areas to be mapped.

  13. Satellite image maps of Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Georeferenced Landsat satellite image maps of Pakistan are now being made available for purchase from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The first maps to be released are a series of Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) color image maps compiled from Landsat scenes taken before 1979. The Pakistan image maps were originally developed by USGS as an aid for geologic and general terrain mapping in support of the Coal Resource Exploration and Development Program in Pakistan (COALREAP). COALREAP, a cooperative program between the USGS, the United States Agency for International Development, and the Geological Survey of Pakistan, was in effect from 1985 through 1994. The Pakistan MSS image maps (bands 1, 2, and 4) are available as a full-country mosaic of 72 Landsat scenes at a scale of 1:2,000,000, and in 7 regional sheets covering various portions of the entire country at a scale of 1:500,000. The scenes used to compile the maps were selected from imagery available at the Eros Data Center (EDC), Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Where possible, preference was given to cloud-free and snow-free scenes that displayed similar stages of seasonal vegetation development. The data for the MSS scenes were resampled from the original 80-meter resolution to 50-meter picture elements (pixels) and digitally transformed to a geometrically corrected Lambert conformal conic projection. The cubic convolution algorithm was used during rotation and resampling. The 50-meter pixel size allows for such data to be imaged at a scale of 1:250,000 without degradation; for cost and convenience considerations, however, the maps were printed at 1:500,000 scale. The seven regional sheets have been named according to the main province or area covered. The 50-meter data were averaged to 150-meter pixels to generate the country image on a single sheet at 1:2,000,000 scale

  14. Mars high-resolution mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, R. M.; Thomas, P. K.

    1991-06-01

    A series of photomosaics of high-resolution Viking Orbiter images of Mars is being prepared and published to support the Mars 1:500,000 scale geologic mapping program. More than 100 of these photomosaics were made manually, but for the last several years they have all been made digitally. The digital mosaics are published on the Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) system, and they are also available to the appropriate principal investigators as digital files in the mosaicked digital image model (MDIM) format. The mosaics contain Viking Orbiter images with the highest available resolution: in some areas as high as 10 m/pixel. This resolution, where it exists, will support a 1:100,000 map scale. The full resolution of a mosaic is preserved in a digital file, but conventional lithographic publication of such large-scale inset maps will be done only if required by the geologic map author. When high-resolution images do not fill the neat lines of an MTM quadrangle, the medium-resolution (1/256 degrees/pixel, or 231 m/pixel) MDIM is used. The mosaics are tied by image-matching to the planetwide MDIM, in which random errors as large as 5 km (10 mm at 1:500,000 scale) are common; a few much larger, worst-case errors also occur. Because of the distribution of the errors, many large discrepancies appear along the cutlines between frames with very different resolutions. Furthermore, each block of quadrangles is compiled on its own local control system, and adjacent blocks, compiled later, are unlikely to match. Selection of areas to be mapped is based on geologic mapping proposals reviewed and recommended by the Mars 1:500,000 scale geologic mapping review panel. There is no intention to map the entire planet at this scale.

  15. Attention maps in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Somers, David C.; Sheremata, Summer L.

    2014-01-01

    Over 20 distinct cerebral cortical areas contain spatial map representations of the visual field. These retinotopic, or visuotopic, cortical areas occur not only in the occipital lobe but also in the parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes. The cognitive influences of visuospatial attention operate via these cortical maps and can support selection of multiple objects at the same time. In early visual cortical areas, spatial attention enhances responses of selected items and diminishes the responses to distracting items. In higher order cortex, the maps support a spatial indexing role, keeping track of the items to be attended. These maps also support visual short-term memory (VSTM) representations. In each hemisphere, all the known maps respond selectively to stimuli presented within the contralateral visual field. However, a hemispheric asymmetry emerges when the attentional or VSTM demands of a task become significant. In the parietal lobe, the right hemisphere visuotopic maps switch from coding only contralateral visual targets to coding memory and attention targets across the entire visual field. This emergent asymmetry has important implications for understanding hemispatial neglect syndrome, and supports a dynamic network form of the representational model of neglect. PMID:25089167

  16. Smartphones Based Mobile Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamad, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosive growth in the demand for geo-spatial data. This demand has numerous sources and takes many forms; however, the net effect is an ever-increasing thirst for data that is more accurate, has higher density, is produced more rapidly, and is acquired less expensively. For mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) projects, this has been achieved through the major development of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS). MMS integrate various navigation and remote sensing technologies which allow mapping from moving platforms (e.g. cars, airplanes, boats, etc.) to obtain the 3D coordinates of the points of interest. Such systems obtain accuracies that are suitable for all but the most demanding mapping and engineering applications. However, this accuracy doesn't come cheaply. As a consequence of the platform and navigation and mapping technologies used, even an "inexpensive" system costs well over 200 000 USD. Today's mobile phones are getting ever more sophisticated. Phone makers are determined to reduce the gap between computers and mobile phones. Smartphones, in addition to becoming status symbols, are increasingly being equipped with extended Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities, Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensors, extremely powerful computing power and very high resolution cameras. Using all of these components, smartphones have the potential to replace the traditional land MMS and portable GPS/GIS equipment. This paper introduces an innovative application of smartphones as a very low cost portable MMS for mapping and GIS applications.

  17. Global geologic map of Ganymede

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Geoffrey C.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Head, James W.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louise M.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.; Kay, Johnathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ganymede is the largest satellite of Jupiter, and its icy surface has been formed through a variety of impact cratering, tectonic, and possibly cryovolcanic processes. The history of Ganymede can be divided into three distinct phases: an early phase dominated by impact cratering and mixing of non-ice materials in the icy crust, a phase in the middle of its history marked by great tectonic upheaval, and a late quiescent phase characterized by a gradual drop in heat flow and further impact cratering. Images of Ganymede suitable for geologic mapping were collected during the flybys of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 (1979), as well as during the Galileo Mission in orbit around Jupiter (1995–2003). This map represents a synthesis of our understanding of Ganymede geology after the conclusion of the Galileo Mission. We summarize the properties of the imaging dataset used to construct the map, previously published maps of Ganymede, our own mapping rationale, and the geologic history of Ganymede. Additional details on these topics, along with detailed descriptions of the type localities for the material units, may be found in the companion paper to this map (Patterson and others, 2010).

  18. Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Hare, T.

    2008-01-01

    Two factors drive us to map the Athabasca Valles area in unusual detail: (1) the extremely well-preserved and exposed surface morphologies and (2) the extensive high resolution imaging. In particular, the near-complete CTX coverage of Athabasca Valles proper and the extensive coverage of its surroundings have been invaluable. The mapping has been done exclusively in ArcGIS, using individual CTX, THEMIS VIS, and MOC frames overlying the THEMIS IR daytime basemap. MOLA shot points and gridded DTMs are also included. It was found that CTX images processed through ISIS are almost always within 300 m of the MOLA derived locations, and usually within tens of meters, with no adjustments to camera pointing. THEMIS VIS images appear to be systematically shifted to the southwest of their correct positions and MOC images are often kilometers off. The good SNR and minimal artifacts make the CTX images vastly more useful than the THEMIS VIS or MOC images. The bulk of the mapping was done at 1:50,000 scale on CTX images. In more complex areas, mapping at 1:24,000 proved necessary. The CTX images were usually simultaneously viewed on a second monitor using the ISIS3 qview program to display the full dynamic range of the CTX data. Where CTX data was not available, mapping was often done at 1:100,000 and most contacts are mapped as approximate.

  19. Coronal Modeling and Synchronic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Downs, C.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C.

    2013-07-01

    MHD simulations of the solar corona rely on maps of the solar magnetic field (typically measured at the photosphere) for input as boundary conditions. These "synoptic" maps (available from a number of ground-based and space-based solar observatories), which are perhaps better described as "diachronic," are built up over a solar rotation. A well-known problem with this approach is that the maps contain data that is as much as 27 days old. The Sun's magnetic flux is always evolving, and these changes in the flux affect coronal and heliospheric structure. Flux evolution models can in principle provide a more accurate specification, by estimating the likely state of the photospheric magnetic field on unobserved portions of the Sun. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport (ADAPT) model (Arge et al. 2010), which incorporates data assimilation techniques into the Worden and Harvey (2000) flux evolution model, is especially well-suited for this purpose. In this presentation we describe the use of such "synchronic" maps with coronal models. We compare results using synchronic maps versus the traditional synoptic maps. Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  20. Global Map of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    and south pole regions that lack digital color coverage have been completed with the monochrome map coverage. The final global mosaic was then reprojected so that the entire surface of Ganymede is portrayed in a manner suitable for the production of a globe. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The projections for adjacent petals overlap by 2 degrees of longitude, so that some features are shown twice. Names shown on the globe are approved by the International Astronomical Union. The number, size, and placement of text were chosen for a 9-inch globe. A complete list of Ganymede nomenclature can be found at the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature at http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov. The northern hemisphere is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere is shown on the right.

  1. Data Assimilation with Optimal Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moselhy, T.; Marzouk, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Tarek El Moselhy and Youssef Marzouk Massachusetts Institute of Technology We present a new approach to Bayesian inference that entirely avoids Markov chain simulation and sequential importance resampling, by constructing a map that pushes forward the prior measure to the posterior measure. Existence and uniqueness of a suitable measure-preserving map is established by formulating the problem in the context of optimal transport theory. The map is written as a multivariate polynomial expansion and computed efficiently through the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. While our previous work [1] focused on static Bayesian inference problems, we now extend the map-based approach to sequential data assimilation, i.e., nonlinear filtering and smoothing. One scheme involves pushing forward a fixed reference measure to each filtered state distribution, while an alternative scheme computes maps that push forward the filtering distribution from one stage to the other. We compare the performance of these schemes and extend the former to problems of smoothing, using a map implementation of the forward-backward smoothing formula. Advantages of a map-based representation of the filtering and smoothing distributions include analytical expressions for posterior moments and the ability to generate arbitrary numbers of independent uniformly-weighted posterior samples without additional evaluations of the dynamical model. Perhaps the main advantage, however, is that the map approach inherently avoids issues of sample impoverishment, since it explicitly represents the posterior as the pushforward of a reference measure, rather than with a particular set of samples. The computational complexity of our algorithm is comparable to state-of-the-art particle filters. Moreover, the accuracy of the approach is controlled via the convergence criterion of the underlying optimization problem. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the map approach via data assimilation in

  2. Beebook: light field mapping app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Di Pietro, Gianfranco; Rinnone, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade the mobile systems for field digital mapping were developed (see Wikipedia for "Digital geologic mapping"), also against many skeptic traditional geologists. Until now, hardware was often heavy (tablet PC) and software sometime difficult also for expert GIS users. At present, the advent of light tablet and applications makes things easier, but we are far to find a whole solution for a complex survey like the geological one where you have to manage complexities such information, hypothesis, data, interpretation. Beebook is a new app for Android devices, has been developed for fast ad easy mapping work in the field trying to try to solve this problem. The main features are: • off-line raster management, GeoTIFF ed other raster format using; • on-line map visualisation (Google Maps, OSM, WMS, WFS); • SR management and conversion using PROJ.4; • vector file mash-up (KML and SQLite format); • editing of vector data on the map (lines, points, polygons); • augmented reality using "Mixare" platform; • export of vector data in KML, CSV, SQLite (Spatialite) format; • note: GPS or manual point inserting linked to other application files (pictures, spreadsheet, etc.); • form: creation, edition and filling of customized form; • GPS: status control, tracker and positioning on map; • sharing: synchronization and sharing of data, forms, positioning and other information can be done among users. The input methods are different from digital keyboard to fingers touch, from voice recording to stylus. In particular the most efficient way of inserting information is the stylus (or pen): field geologists are familiar with annotation and sketches. Therefore we suggest the use of devices with stylus. The main point is that Beebook is the first "transparent" mobile GIS for tablet and smartphone deriving from previous experience as traditional mapping and different previous digital mapping software ideation and development (MapIT, BeeGIS, Geopaparazzi

  3. Developing a Map Use Model for Web Mapping and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, B.

    2015-06-01

    Web mapping and GIS technology and applications are developing rapidly in response to growing user and application demands. Technologies over the past decade, including digital globes, positioning-enabled mobile devices and cloud-based geoweb services, have been instrumental in fostering this growth. However, not only technology, but the dissemination and access to geoweb information and services by users and applications have been and are continuing to be important drivers of growth and expansion. The access and use of geospatial information and services is widespread and worldwide, and its use is driving the need to further develop and expand geospatial web information and services. This paper considers a model for web mapping use that is based on the original map use cube by MacEachren & Kraak (1997). The model incorporates technology, usability and knowledge that must be considered for the development and future of geospatial web mapping and services. Such a model assists in the design and development of intelligent web mapping and GIS, and informs the research directions being taken in this fast evolving discipline.

  4. Cat-Map: putting cataract on the map

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Thomas M.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2010-01-01

    Lens opacities, or cataract(s), may be inherited as a classic Mendelian disorder usually with early-onset or, more commonly, acquired with age as a multi-factorial or complex trait. Many genetic forms of cataract have been described in mice and other animal models. Considerable progress has been made in mapping and identifying the genes and mutations responsible for inherited forms of cataract, and genetic determinants of age-related cataract are beginning to be discovered. To provide a convenient and accurate summary of current information focused on the increasing genetic complexity of Mendelian and age-related cataract we have created an online chromosome map and reference database for cataract in humans and mice (Cat-Map). PMID:21042563

  5. Current trends in geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological mapping is a world currently in motion, driven by technological advances and the availability of new high resolution data. As a consequence, classic (paper) geomorphological maps which were the standard for more than 50 years are rapidly being replaced by digital geomorphological information layers. This is witnessed by the following developments: 1. the conversion of classic paper maps into digital information layers, mainly performed in a digital mapping environment such as a Geographical Information System, 2. updating the location precision and the content of the converted maps, by adding more geomorphological details, taken from high resolution elevation data and/or high resolution image data, 3. (semi) automated extraction and classification of geomorphological features from digital elevation models, broadly separated into unsupervised and supervised classification techniques and 4. New digital visualization / cartographic techniques and reading interfaces. Newly digital geomorphological information layers can be based on manual digitization of polygons using DEMs and/or aerial photographs, or prepared through (semi) automated extraction and delineation of geomorphological features. DEMs are often used as basis to derive Land Surface Parameter information which is used as input for (un) supervised classification techniques. Especially when using high-res data, object-based classification is used as an alternative to traditional pixel-based classifications, to cluster grid cells into homogeneous objects, which can be classified as geomorphological features. Classic map content can also be used as training material for the supervised classification of geomorphological features. In the classification process, rule-based protocols, including expert-knowledge input, are used to map specific geomorphological features or entire landscapes. Current (semi) automated classification techniques are increasingly able to extract morphometric, hydrological

  6. Catalyst-Controlled Stereoselective Olefin Metathesis as a Principal Strategy in Multi-Step Synthesis Design. A Concise Route to (+)-Neopeltolide**

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Miao; Schrock, Richard R.

    2014-01-01

    Mo-, W- and Ru-based complexes that control the stereochemical outcome of olefin metathesis reactions have been recently introduced. However, the complementary nature of these systems through their combined use in multistep complex molecule synthesis has not been illustrated. Here, we disclose a concise diastereo- and enantioselective route that furnishes the anti-proliferative natural product neopeltolide. Catalytic transformations are employed to address every stereochemical issue. Among the featured processes are an enantioselective ring-opening/cross-metathesis promoted by a Mo monopyrrolide aryloxide (MAP) complex and a macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis affording a trisubstituted alkene catalyzed by a Mo bis-aryloxide species. Furthermore, Z-selective cross-metathesis reactions, facilitated by Mo and Ru complexes, have been employed in stereoselective synthesis of the acyclic dienyl moiety of the target molecule. PMID:25377347

  7. 25 CFR 169.6 - Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shown on the maps. (b) A separate map shall be filed for each section of 20 miles of right-of-way, but the map of the last section may include any excess of 10 miles or less. (c) The scale of maps showing... larger scale when necessary and when an increase in scale cannot be avoided through the use of...

  8. 25 CFR 169.6 - Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shown on the maps. (b) A separate map shall be filed for each section of 20 miles of right-of-way, but the map of the last section may include any excess of 10 miles or less. (c) The scale of maps showing... larger scale when necessary and when an increase in scale cannot be avoided through the use of...

  9. Computer-composite mapping for geologists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Driel, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program for overlaying maps has been tested and evaluated as a means for producing geologic derivative maps. Four maps of the Sugar House Quadrangle, Utah, were combined, using the Multi-Scale Data Analysis and Mapping Program, in a single composite map that shows the relative stability of the land surface during earthquakes. Computer-composite mapping can provide geologists with a powerful analytical tool and a flexible graphic display technique. Digitized map units can be shown singly, grouped with different units from the same map, or combined with units from other source maps to produce composite maps. The mapping program permits the user to assign various values to the map units and to specify symbology for the final map. Because of its flexible storage, easy manipulation, and capabilities of graphic output, the composite-mapping technique can readily be applied to mapping projects in sedimentary and crystalline terranes, as well as to maps showing mineral resource potential. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. Federal Government Map Collecting; A Brief History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Richard W., Ed.

    The text of four papers originally presented at a 1968 meeting of the Geography and Map Group, Washington Chapter, Special Libraries Association is printed in this booklet. Each of the papers deals with the origins and growth of Federal map collections. The first of these, "History of the Army Map Service Map Collection" by Mary Murphy, traces the…

  11. Volunteer map data collection at the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eric, B. Wolf; Poore, Barbara S.; Caro, Holly K.; Matthews, Greg D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1994, citizen volunteers have helped the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) improve its topographic maps. Through the Earth Science Corps program, citizens were able to "adopt a quad" and collect new information and update existing map features. Until its conclusion in 2001, as many as 300 volunteers annotated paper maps which were incorporated into the USGS topographic-map revision process.

  12. Concept Mapping and the Cartography of Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandersee, James H.

    1990-01-01

    Because concept maps are designed to find out what the learner knows about a subject and are, in effect, maps of cognition, this article synthesizes relevant facts, concepts, and principles from cartography and applies them to concept mapping. The metaphor of the map and its applicability for representing scientific concepts are discussed. (PR)

  13. Elementary Map and Globe Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heebink, William B.

    The document contains sequential lessons on map and global skills for grades K-6. The program relies on three commercial products: Maps Show the Earth and Where and Why (both by A.J. Nystrom) and Level A of the map and globe section from the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skills Development. Kindergarten students examine map representation, position…

  14. Topographic Map and Compass Use. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Michael

    This student manual is designed to introduce students to topographic maps and compass use. The first of five units included in the manual is an introduction to topographic maps. Among the topics discussed in this unit are uses, sources, and care and maintenance of topographic maps. Unit 2 discusses topographic map symbols and colors and provides a…

  15. Mapping for Geographic Awareness: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    What are maps? Maps are representations of actual surface areas of the world. But what makes the use of maps so important for scientific thinking? The answer is simple: Map use relies on one's ability to identify relationships between two things. For example, the distance between Key West, Florida, and New Orleans, Louisiana, is 1024 kilometers…

  16. USGS US topo maps for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Becci; Fuller, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, the USGS National Geospatial Program began producing new topographic maps for Alaska, providing a new map series for the state known as US Topo. Prior to the start of US Topo map production in Alaska, the most detailed statewide USGS topographic maps were 15-minute 1:63,360-scale maps, with their original production often dating back nearly fifty years. The new 7.5-minute digital maps are created at 1:25,000 map scale, and show greatly increased topographic detail when compared to the older maps. The map scale and data specifications were selected based on significant outreach to various map user groups in Alaska. This multi-year mapping initiative will vastly enhance the base topographic maps for Alaska and is possible because of improvements to key digital map datasets in the state. The new maps and data are beneficial in high priority applications such as safety, planning, research and resource management. New mapping will support science applications throughout the state and provide updated maps for parks, recreation lands and villages.

  17. A Method for Teaching Topographic Map Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuit, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Students learn how to read and interpret topographic maps by using a set of simplified map exercise cards. Students learn in the field as opposed to a traditional classroom. Map symbols, distance, direction, form, and relief are among the map interpretation topics taught with this method. The multiple-choice format of the exercise also allows for…

  18. 30 CFR 75.1505 - Escapeway maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Escapeway maps. 75.1505 Section 75.1505 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine Emergencies § 75.1505 Escapeway maps. Escapeway maps. (a) Content and accessibility. An escapeway map shall show the designated escapeways from the working...

  19. Teaching and Learning with Online Historical Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolick, Cheryl Mason

    2006-01-01

    Teaching social studies with historical maps allows teachers and students not only to examine a historical event or place, but to analyze the story behind the map. Historical maps can provide insight into the people and cultures of earlier times. Studying these historic maps may help students challenge the notion that people of earlier time…

  20. A Parent's Guide to MAP. NWEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This guide was created as a resource to help families better understand "Measures of Academic Progress"® (MAP®), and their child's results. The guide provides answers to a variety of questions such as: "What is MAP?"; "What does MAP measure?"; "How do schools and teachers use MAP scores?"; "Can MAP tell…

  1. Analytics for massive heat maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Shawn J.; Payne, Deborah; Nakamura, Grant; Love, Douglass

    2009-01-01

    High throughput instrumentation for genomics is producing data orders of magnitude greater than even a decade before. Biologists often visualize the data of these experiments through the use of heat maps. For large datasets, heat map visualizations do not scale. These visualizations are only capable of displaying a portion of the data, making it difficult for scientists to find and detect patterns that span more than a subsection of the data. We present a novel method that provides an interactive visual display for massive heat maps [O(108)]. Our process shows how a massive heat map can be decomposed into multiple levels of abstraction to represent the underlying macrostructures. We aggregate these abstractions into a framework that can allow near real-time navigation of the space. To further assist pattern discovery, we ground our system on the principle of focus+context. Our framework also addresses the issue of balancing the memory and display resolution and heat map size. We will show that this technique for biologists provides a powerful new visual metaphor for analyzing massive datasets.

  2. Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; French, Raymond; Nall,Mark; Muery, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL and USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single, common, intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. LMMP will provide such products as DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data.

  3. Analytics for Massive Heat Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Shawn J.; Payne, Deborah A.; Nakamura, Grant C.; Love, Douglas V.

    2009-01-19

    High throughput instrumentation for genomics is producing data orders of magnitude greater than even a decade before. Biologists often visualize the data of these experiments through the use of heat maps. For large datasets, heat map visualizations do not scale. These visualizations are only capable of displaying a portion of the data, making it difficult for scientists to find and detect patterns that span more than a subsection of the data. We present a novel method that provides an interactive visual display for massive heat maps [O(108)]. Our process shows how a massive heat map can be decomposed into multiple levels of abstraction to represent the underlying macrostructures. We aggregate these abstractions into a framework that can allow real-time navigation of the space. To further assist pattern discovery, we ground our system on the principle of focus+context. Our framework also addresses the issue of balancing the memory and display resolution and heat map size. We will show that this technique for biologists provides a powerful new visual metaphor for analyzing massive datasets.

  4. In vivo correlation mapping microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, James; Alexandrov, Sergey; Owens, Peter; Subhash, Hrebesh; Leahy, Martin

    2016-04-01

    To facilitate regular assessment of the microcirculation in vivo, noninvasive imaging techniques such as nailfold capillaroscopy are required in clinics. Recently, a correlation mapping technique has been applied to optical coherence tomography (OCT), which extends the capabilities of OCT to microcirculation morphology imaging. This technique, known as correlation mapping optical coherence tomography, has been shown to extract parameters, such as capillary density and vessel diameter, and key clinical markers associated with early changes in microvascular diseases. However, OCT has limited spatial resolution in both the transverse and depth directions. Here, we extend this correlation mapping technique to other microscopy modalities, including confocal microscopy, and take advantage of the higher spatial resolution offered by these modalities. The technique is achieved as a processing step on microscopy images and does not require any modification to the microscope hardware. Results are presented which show that this correlation mapping microscopy technique can extend the capabilities of conventional microscopy to enable mapping of vascular networks in vivo with high spatial resolution in both the transverse and depth directions.

  5. Optical Polarimetric Mapping of Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Jian-Yang; Kelley, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres, with one quarter of its mass possibly as water, is of particular importance to understanding the origin and the evolution history of water in the inner solar system. It is also a real-life laboratory to study astrobiology. NASA's Dawn is returning detailed geological maps of Ceres until the end of this year. As a complement to the Dawn mission, using SPHERE/ZIMPOL at one of Very Large Telescopes in Chile, we obtained the optical polarimetric maps in the I and V band of the whole surface of Ceres in July and August, 2015. Polarimetric maps of Ceres are sensitive to the physical conditions (such as packing density and particle size distribution) and composition of its surface regolith. The comparative studies between our polarimetric maps and Dawn maps help us to understand the geological evolution and the space weathering processes on Ceres' surface. At the time of the ZIMPOL observations, with the best spatial resolution of about 0.02 arcsecond (equivalent to 30 km), we effectively obtained about 700 independent measurements of the surface in one polarimetric set. I will present the SPHERE observations and discuss our major findings.

  6. Increasing the availability of national mapping products.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roney, J.I.; Ogilvie, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion of the means employed by the US Geological Survey to facilitate map usage, covering aspects of project Map Accessibility Program including special rolled and folded map packaging, new market testing, parks and campgrounds program, expanded map dealer program, new booklet-type State sales index and catalog and new USGS map reference code. The USGS is seen as the producer of a tremendous nation-wide inventory of topographic and related map products available in unprecedented types, formats and scales, and as endeavouring to increase access to its products. The new USGS map reference code is appended. -J.C.Stone

  7. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects, such as regions of high density, are of interest.

  8. Automatic metro map layout using multicriteria optimization.

    PubMed

    Stott, Jonathan; Rodgers, Peter; Martínez-Ovando, Juan Carlos; Walker, Stephen G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic mechanism for drawing metro maps. We apply multicriteria optimization to find effective placement of stations with a good line layout and to label the map unambiguously. A number of metrics are defined, which are used in a weighted sum to find a fitness value for a layout of the map. A hill climbing optimizer is used to reduce the fitness value, and find improved map layouts. To avoid local minima, we apply clustering techniques to the map-the hill climber moves both stations and clusters when finding improved layouts. We show the method applied to a number of metro maps, and describe an empirical study that provides some quantitative evidence that automatically-drawn metro maps can help users to find routes more efficiently than either published maps or undistorted maps. Moreover, we have found that, in these cases, study subjects indicate a preference for automatically-drawn maps over the alternatives.

  9. Heterogeneous, weakly coupled map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo Herrera, M.a. Dolores; San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.

    2016-07-01

    Coupled map lattices (CMLs) are often used to study emergent phenomena in nature. It is typically assumed (unrealistically) that each component is described by the same map, and it is important to relax this assumption. In this paper, we characterize periodic orbits and the laminar regime of type-I intermittency in heterogeneous weakly coupled map lattices (HWCMLs). We show that the period of a cycle in an HWCML is preserved for arbitrarily small coupling strengths even when an associated uncoupled oscillator would experience a period-doubling cascade. Our results characterize periodic orbits both near and far from saddle-node bifurcations, and we thereby provide a key step for examining the bifurcation structure of heterogeneous CMLs.

  10. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  11. BrainMap `95 workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The fourth annual BrainMap workshop was held at La Mansion del Rio Hotel in San Antonio December 3--4, 1995. The conference title was ``Human Brain Mapping and Modeling.`` The meeting was attended by 137 registered participants and 30 observers from 82 institutions representing 12 countries. The meeting focused on the technical issues associated with brain mapping and modeling. A total of 23 papers were presented covering the following topics: spatial normalization and registration; functional image analysis; metanalysis and modeling; and new horizons in biological databases. The full program with abstracts was available on the Research Imaging Center`s web site. A book will be published by John Wiley and Sons prior to the end of 1998.

  12. Map projections for satellite tracking.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    New map projections to be used for plotting successive satellite groundtracks show these tracks as straight lines. The map may be made conformal along any 2 parallels of latitude between the limits of latitude reached by the groundtrack, or the 'tracking limits'. If these parallels are equidistant from the Equator, they may both be made true to scale, and a cylindrical projection results. If these parallels are not equidistant from the Equator, only one may be made true to scale, and a conic projection results. The groundtracks generally have sharp breaks at either tracking limit. If the tracking limit is one of the parallels at which the map is conformal, there is no break in the groundtrack, and the conic projection may approach (but cannot become) an azimuthal projection.-Author

  13. Map learning with indistinguishable locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basye, Kenneth; Dean, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Nearly all spatial reasoning problems involve uncertainty of one sort or another. Uncertainty arises due to the inaccuracies of sensors used in measuring distances and angels. This is inferred as directional uncertainty. Uncertainty also arises in combining spatial information when one location is mistakenly identified with another. This is referred to as recognition uncertainty. Most problems in constructing spatial representations (maps) for the purpose of navigation involve both directional and recognition uncertainty. It is shown that a particular class of spatial reasoning problems involving the construction of representations of large-scale space can be solved efficiently even in the presence of directional and recognition uncertainty. Particular attention is paid to the problems that arise due to recognition uncertainty. The results described are applicable to the construction of global maps from satellite data as well as the construction of local navigation maps from measurements made by a rover in exploring a planetary surface.

  14. Chinese Constellations and Star Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Star observations can be traced back to as early as the twenty-third century BC in ancient China. By the fifth century BC, the Chinese had named the 28 asterisms that formed the basic reference points for the Chinese equatorial coordinate system. By the first century BC, the Chinese had developed a unique system of constellations that reflected Chinese cosmological ideas with the central theme of the correlation between Heaven and Man. Star charts have been discovered on tomb ceilings dating back to Han times. But most of them are illustrative in their presentation of stars. The Dunhuang star maps from the ninth century, the star maps in the Xin yixiang fa yao of the eleventh century, and the Suzhou Astronomical Planisphere of the thirteenth century are examples of precise star maps from ancient China.

  15. Image enhancement based on gamma map processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chen-Yu; Wang, Sheng-Jyh; Chen, Yi-An

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel image enhancement technique based on Gamma Map Processing (GMP). In this approach, a base gamma map is directly generated according to the intensity image. After that, a sequence of gamma map processing is performed to generate a channel-wise gamma map. Mapping through the estimated gamma, image details, colorfulness, and sharpness of the original image are automatically improved. Besides, the dynamic range of the images can be virtually expanded.

  16. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  17. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  18. Circum-Arctic Map Compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, Richard W.; Gaina, Carmen

    2007-05-01

    Second Workshop of the Circum-Arctic Geophysical Maps Project, Trondheim, Norway, 12-13 February 2007 The eyes of the world are increasingly focused on the polar regions. Exploration and assessment of energy and mineral resources for the growing world economy are moving to high-latitude frontier areas. The effects of climatic changes are particularly pronounced at these ends of the Earth and have already attracted worldwide attention and concern. Many recent articles related to the International Polar Year underscore the importance of even basic mapping of the Arctic and Antarctic.

  19. Putting Mars on the map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, G.

    1987-11-01

    An account is given of the techniques employed by USGS cartographers in their efforts to map the surface of Mars on the basis of spacecraft-obtained photomosaics. Photogrammetrists are entrusted with the task of designating surface elevations for a waterless planet lacking a sea level that can serve as a basis for comparison; instead, the planet's center of gravity is used as the reference point for surface elevations. Artists are needed for the reconciliation of conflicts that arise among photographic plates in virtue of differences in viewing and illumination angles. The final maps are painted with careful airbrush work.

  20. Rapid mapping of volumetric errors

    SciTech Connect

    Krulewich, D.; Hale, L.; Yordy, D.

    1995-09-13

    This paper describes a relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to execute approach to mapping the volumetric errors of a machine tool, coordinate measuring machine, or robot. An error map is used to characterize a machine or to improve its accuracy by compensating for the systematic errors. The method consists of three steps: (1) modeling the relationship between the volumetric error and the current state of the machine; (2) acquiring error data based on length measurements throughout the work volume; and (3) optimizing the model to the particular machine.

  1. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  2. Genetic map of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, R.K.; Schild, D.

    1980-12-01

    Researchers present a compilation of most of the published yeast mapping data, as well as a large amount of unpublished data, according to chromosomes and intervals; the numbers of independent sets of data for the different intervals ranged from 1 to 12. These data have been analyzed and a new genetic map has been constructed. Although all of the data presented in this article are from tetrad analyses, many other techniques have been used to assign genes to chromosomes or to specific chromosome arms. These techniques include aneuploid analysis, mitotic recombination analysis, mitotic chromosome loss or nondisjunction, and random spore analysis.

  3. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently.

  4. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechrist, C. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A directory of scientists associated with the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) is presented. The MAP steering committee, the standing committees, MAP study groups, and MAP projects are mentioned along with the MAP secretariat and regional consultative group.

  5. Global Geological Map of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. A.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: The Magellan SAR images provide sufficient data to compile a geological map of nearly the entire surface of Venus. Such a global and selfconsistent map serves as the base to address the key questions of the geologic history of Venus. 1) What is the spectrum of units and structures that makes up the surface of Venus [1-3]? 2) What volcanic/tectonic processes do they characterize [4-7]? 3) Did these processes operated locally, regionally, or globally [8- 11]? 4) What are the relationships of relative time among the units [8]? 5) At which length-scale these relationships appear to be consistent [8-10]? 6) What is the absolute timing of formation of the units [12-14]? 7) What are the histories of volcanism, tectonics and the long-wavelength topography on Venus? 7) What model(s) of heat loss and lithospheric evolution [15-21] do these histories correspond to? The ongoing USGS program of Venus mapping has already resulted in a series of published maps at the scale 1:5M [e.g. 22-30]. These maps have a patch-like distribution, however, and are compiled by authors with different mapping philosophy. This situation not always results in perfect agreement between the neighboring areas and, thus, does not permit testing geological hypotheses that could be addressed with a self-consistent map. Here the results of global geological mapping of Venus at the scale 1:10M is presented. The map represents a contiguous area extending from 82.5oN to 82.5oS and comprises ~99% of the planet. Mapping procedure: The map was compiled on C2- MIDR sheets, the resolution of which permits identifying the basic characteristics of previously defined units. The higher resolution images were used during the mapping to clarify geologic relationships. When the map was completed, its quality was checked using published USGS maps [e.g., 22-30] and the catalogue of impact craters [31]. The results suggest that the mapping on the C2-base provided a highquality map product. Units and

  6. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  7. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  8. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of Oregon have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecoregi...

  9. Map It Then Write It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Kimberly; Read, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    All writing begins with ideas, but young students often need visual cues to help them organize their thoughts before beginning to write. For this reason, many elementary teachers use graphic organizers or thinking maps to help students visualize patterns and organize their ideas within the different genres of writing. Graphic organizers such as…

  10. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of Wyoming have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecore...

  11. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map.

    PubMed

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-08-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process.

  12. Integrating maps requires integrated data

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenbach, J.; Bentolila, S.

    1996-06-01

    The molecular genetics movement has proceeded admirably thanks to new technologies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing. However, the integration of mapping data has not yet been achieved. This article discussing several problem areas and serves as a reminder of the urgency of such concerns.

  13. Genetic mapping with octoploid strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2004, the USDA-CSREES call for proposals for the National Research Initiative (NRI) Program 52.1, Plant Genetics, focused on crops within the plant family Rosaceae. Two of the funded projects focus on molecular marker mapping of flowering traits of strawberry: sex determination and remontancy. Bo...

  14. Demographic Mapping via Computer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banghart, Frank W.; And Others

    A computerized system, developed at Florida State University, is designed to locate students and resources on a geographic network. Using addresses of resources and students as input, the system quickly and accurately locates the addresses on a grid and creates a map showing their distribution. This geographical distribution serves as an…

  15. Applications of Geocoding and Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Crist H.

    The application of computer programing to construction of maps and geographic distributions of data has been called geocoding. This new use of the computer allows much more rapid analysis of various demographic characteristics. In particular, this paper describes the use of computer geocoding in the development of a plot of student density in…

  16. Mapping School Types in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The number and range of school types in England is increasing rapidly in response to a neoliberal policy agenda aiming to expand choice of provision as a mechanism for raising educational standards. In this paper, I seek to undertake a mapping of these school types in order to describe and explain what is happening. I capture this busy terrain…

  17. 'Columbia Hills' Color Elevation Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450

    This elevation map shows the region of the 'Columbia Hills' where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been working since mid-2004. Areas colored blue are lower in elevation and areas colored yellow are higher in elevation. The map imagery is from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

    Spirit's Long Journey, Sol 450 More than 15 months after landing on Mars, NASA's Spirit rover is still going strong, having traveled a total of 4,276 meters (2.66 miles) as of martian day, or sol, 450 (April 8, 2005). This elevation map shows the traverse followed by Spirit since arriving at the 'Columbia Hills' in June, 2004. The areas colored blue are low in elevation and areas colored yellow are high in elevation. The blue area at the foot of the 'Columbia Hills' is approximately 20 meters (66 feet) higher in elevation than the site where Spirit landed in Gusev Crater. The highest peak is on the order of 80 meters (262 feet) higher still. In other words, the hills Spirit is exploring are more than 250 feet high. The map imagery is from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor.

  18. Map and Globe Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Although the guide was designed to accompany an instructional television series, it contains teacher-developed activities on map and globe skills which can be selected and adapted to the needs of elementary students independent of the series. Geographic concepts include direction, the globe, boundaries, hemispheres, scale, latitude, longitude, and…

  19. Hydrologic Unit Map -- 1974, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1974-01-01

    This map and accompanying table show Hydrologic Units that are basically hydrographic in nature.  The Cataloging Units shown will supplant the Cataloging Units previously used by the U.S. Geological Survey in its Catalog of Information on Water Data (1966-72).   

  20. Towards Sustainable Text Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have indicated that young people's text comprehension and summarisation skills can be improved by techniques based on text concept mapping (TCM). However, these studies have done little to elucidate a practical pedagogy that can make the techniques adoptable within the context of typical secondary school classrooms.…

  1. Globes, Maps, Photographs: Geographic Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul D.; And Others

    This compilation of reprinted articles that originally appeared in the Journal of Geography from September 1969 through the May 1970 issues, is intended to help teachers use globes, maps, and photographs with skill and understanding. The articles were designed with several objectives in mind: 1) to provide information regarding the design,…

  2. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  3. Mapping "Scientometrics" (1981-2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei; McCain, Katherine; White, Howard; Lin, Xia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates an integrated approach to scientometrics, or science mapping, with emphasis on the use of information visualization and animation techniques. Describes citation and cocitation patterns derived from articles published in the journal "Scientometrics", 1981-2001 and presents the growth of citation rates through an animation sequence of a…

  4. Topographic mapping of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Contour maps of the Moon have been compiled by photogrammetric methods that use stereoscopic combinations of all available metric photographs from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. The maps utilize the same format as the existing NASA shaded-relief Lunar Planning Charts (LOC-1, -2, -3, and -4), which have a scale of 1:2 750 000. The map contour interval is 500m. A control net derived from Apollo photographs by Doyle and others was used for the compilation. Contour lines and elevations are referred to the new topographic datum of the Moon, which is defined in terms of spherical harmonics from the lunar gravity field. Compilation of all four LOC charts was completed on analytical plotters from 566 stereo models of Apollo metric photographs that cover approximately 20% of the Moon. This is the first step toward compiling a global topographic map of the Moon at a scale of 1:5 000 000. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  5. Homozygosity mapping in Andermann syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Melanson, M.; Casaubon, L; Lopes-Cendes, I.

    1994-09-01

    Objective: To identify the gene causing Andermann syndrome using homozygosity mapping in a large founder population. Background: Andermann syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease found almost exclusively in the Charlevoix-Saguenay region of Quebec. Patients have dysmorphic facies, moderate mental retardation and progressive motor neuropathy. Total or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum is found in over 66% of patients. The majority of the affected individuals can be traced to a common ancestral couple living in Quebec in 1957. Homozygosity mapping is a technique which takes advantage of this founder effect by assuming that a single ancestral mutation is responsible for the disease. It is expected that all affected individuals should be homozygous for a common polymorphic marker which is closely linked to the disease gene. Method: Nine nuclear families were studied using DNA from healthy parents and 2 to 4 affected children. Linkage was sought by PCR using microsatellite markers 20 cM throughout the genome. Results: To date, 100 markers representing 50% of the genome have been excluded for linkage to Andermann syndrome using homozygosity mapping. As our study progresses, we will report up-to-date results. Conclusion: Homozygosity mapping is an efficient strategy that allows rapid analysis of a minimal number of individuals for the purposes of screening the entire genome in rare recessive disorders.

  6. Listening Walks and Singing Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    The Listening Walk by Paul Showers and illustrated by Aliki, and "It's My City: A Singing Map" by April Pulley Sayre with pictures by Denis Roche, provide two examples of texts that aid in building children's phonological awareness for reading and music. The author describes each narrative and discusses its function as a springboard to composition…

  7. [ECG mapping in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Boudík, F; Aschermann, M; Anger, Z

    2002-12-01

    First the authors present a review of important cornerstones in the history of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and ECG mapping. The first to describe the electric cardiac field based on twenty ECGs was A.D. Waller in 1889. The decisive cornerstone for practical use was the introduction of a string galvanometer in 1901 by W. Einthoven and his triaxial lead system. Another very important cornerstone in the development of ECG were the findings of F.N. Wilson. Merits as regards the development and application of ECG mapping are due to B. Taccardi. Workers of the Second Medical Clinic in Prague enhanced after 15 years of studies and comparison of ECG maps with coronarographic findings in subjects with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and microvascular coronary dysfunction (syndrome X--SyX) substantially the specificity of this method in impaired myocardial vascularization. Better diagnosis was achieved by introduction of diagnostic tests which influence coronary vascularization such as e.g. hyperventilation, as well as other tests. After their application progression of chronic myocardial ischaemia occurs, e.g. by the mechanism of the "steal phenomenon" or restriction of the microcirculation after hyperventilation in patients with SyX. Furthermore the authors present examples of ECG maps after PTCA, after application of diagnostic tests in IHD and SyX and also regression of myocardial ischaemia after marked reduction of total cholesterol. PMID:12744039

  8. Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

  9. Mapping the protistan 'rare biosphere'.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Scott C; Hagen, Kari D

    2009-01-01

    The use of cultivation-independent approaches to map microbial diversity, including recent work published in BMC Biology, has now shown that protists, like bacteria/archaea, are much more diverse than had been realized. Uncovering eukaryotic diversity may now be limited not by access to samples or cost but rather by the availability of full-length reference sequence data.

  10. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  11. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  12. Geologic Mapping of Athabasca Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keszthelyi, L. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Hare, T.

    2009-01-01

    We are approaching the end of the third year of mapping the Athabasca Valles region of Mars. The linework has been adjusted in response to new CTX images and we are on schedule to submit the 4 MTM quads (05202, 05207, 10202, 10207) and ac-companying paper by the end of this fiscal year.

  13. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  14. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  15. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  16. The Cartographic Concept of the Image Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozenilek, V.; Belka, L.

    2016-06-01

    Image maps have become very popular and frequently produced cartographical outputs during recent years. However, the unambiguous terminology, definitions, content and appearance specification have not been widely researched. The paper deals with the new definition of image map, its components delineation, and basic classification. The authors understand the image map as a special map portraying geographic space in a particular cartographical projection and map scale, where its content consists of two basic components - image and symbol components. Image component is represented by remote sensing image(s), while symbol component is represented by cartographical symbols. An image map has to have three essential attributes: cartographical projection, map scale and symbol component by means of map language. The authors also present aspects of topographic and thematic image maps.

  17. Mapping specific soil functions based on digital soil property maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Fodor, Nándor; Farkas-Iványi, Kinga; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Koós, Sándor

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil functions and services is a great challenge in itself even if the spatial relevance is supposed to be identified and regionalized. Proxies and indicators are widely used in ecosystem service mapping. Soil services could also be approximated by elementary soil features. One solution is the association of soil types with services as basic principle. Soil property maps however provide quantified spatial information, which could be utilized more versatilely for the spatial inference of soil functions and services. In the frame of the activities referred as "Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary" (DOSoReMI.hu) numerous soil property maps have been compiled so far with proper DSM techniques partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of its predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.). The elaborated maps have been further utilized, since even DOSoReMI.hu was intended to take steps toward the regionalization of higher level soil information (secondary properties, functions, services). In the meantime the recently started AGRAGIS project requested spatial soil related information in order to estimate agri-environmental related impacts of climate change and support the associated vulnerability assessment. One of the most vulnerable services of soils in the context of climate change is their provisioning service. In our work it was approximated by productivity, which was estimated by a sequential scenario based crop modelling. It took into consideration long term (50 years) time series of both measured and predicted climatic parameters as well as accounted for the potential differences in agricultural practice and crop production. The flexible parametrization and multiple results of modelling was then applied for the spatial assessment of sensitivity, vulnerability, exposure and adaptive capacity of soils in the context of the forecasted changes in

  18. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  19. Applications of statistics to thematic mapping.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.; Melley, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two statistical problems occurring in the effort to analyze thematic maps and mapping are determining the accuracy of thematic content and comparing factors studied in thematic mapping. Statistical procedures applicable to thematic mapping involve sampling, determining accuracy, and comparing factors. A sampling procedure using an unaligned pattern within a square grid network is applicable for use with thematic maps. Sample size may be determined using the binomial distribution based upon the confidence interval to define the true mean of the population within certain limits. The confidence interval may also be used to define the upper and lower limits of the accuracy of the thematic map. - from Authors

  20. Automated geologic mapping using rock reflectances.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. D.; Rowan, L. C.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the feasibility of preparing geologic maps automatically through computer processing of calibrated narrow-band visible and near IR reflectivity data collected with a 12-channel scanner. Five procedures were followed in the computer analysis of the radiances recorded as voltages on analog magnetic tape. Three recognition maps have been generated iteratively using a progressively more complex classification scheme. The overall accuracy of the first recognition map was 80%, but the discrimination of the limestone and dolomite was only 50-60%. All three maps are very accurate outcrop maps. The results demonstrate the feasibility of automated geologic mapping in this relatively simple setting.

  1. Plotting Maps and Mapping Minds: What Can Maps Tell Us about the People Who Made Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweerts, Evelyn; Cavanagh, Marie Claire

    2004-01-01

    As historians, we know that "factual" information should never be uncritically accepted. And yet, too often, that is exactly what we do with the maps we use to locate ourselves and our students. Evelyn Sweerts and Marie-Claire Cavanagh, who now work in a European School in Brussels but until recently worked in English schools, have…

  2. Concept Mapping, Mind Mapping and Argument Mapping: What Are the Differences and Do They Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, academics and educators have begun to use software mapping tools for a number of education-related purposes. Typically, the tools are used to help impart critical and analytical skills to students, to enable students to see relationships between concepts, and also as a method of assessment. The common feature of all these tools is…

  3. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  4. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pitching coalbeds. Contour lines may be placed on overlays or tracings attached to mine maps. (d) The... bodies of water may be shown on overlays or tracings attached to the mine maps; (g) All prospect...

  5. Geologic Map of the Umiat Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, Charles G.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pessel, G.H.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2004-01-01

    This geologic map of the Umiat quadrangle is a compilation of previously published USGS geologic maps and unpublished mapping done for the Richfield Oil Corporation. Geologic mapping from these three primary sources was augmented with additional unpublished map data from British Petroleum Company. This report incorporates recent revisions in stratigraphic nomenclature. Stratigraphic and structural interpretations were revised with the aid of modern high-resolution color infrared aerial photographs. The revised geologic map was checked in the field during the summers of 2001 and 2002. The geologic unit descriptions on this map give detailed information on thicknesses, regional distributions, age determinations, and depositional environments. The paper version of this map is available for purchase from the USGS Store.

  6. The Challenges of Standardized Planetary Geologic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    The process and product of creating standardized geologic maps of planetary bodies has been met with particular challenges. Addressing these challenges helps ensure that benchmark contextual geologic map products remain a reliable community resource.

  7. Geomorphologic Map of Titan's Polar Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, S. P. D.; Hayes, A. G.; Malaska, M. J.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Schoenfeld, A.; Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    Titan's lakes and seas contain vast amounts of information regarding the history and evolution of Saturn's largest moon. To understand this landscape, we created a geomorphologic map, and then used our map to develop an evolutionary model.

  8. RAPID MAPPING TOOL: AN ARCMAP EXTENSION

    SciTech Connect

    STEVE P. LINGER; PAUL M. RICH; DOUG WALTHER; MARC S. WITKOWSKI; MARCIA A. JONES; HARI S. KHALSA

    2002-06-18

    Cartographic production laboratories produce large volumes of maps for diverse customers. Turnaround time and consistency are key concerns. The Rapid Mapping Tool is an ArcMap based tool that enables rapid creation of maps to meet customer needs. This tool was constructed using VB/VBA, ArcObjects, and ArcGIS templates. The core capability of ArcMap is extended for custom map production by storing specifications associated with a map or template in a companion XML document. These specifications include settings and preferences used to create custom maps. The tool was developed as a component of an enterprise GIS, which enables spatial data management and delivery using ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Oracle, and a web-based request tracking system.

  9. Mapping Venus: Modeling the Magellan Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Doug

    1997-01-01

    Provides details of an activity designed to help students understand the relationship between astronomy and geology. Applies concepts of space research and map-making technology to the construction of a topographic map of a simulated section of Venus. (DDR)

  10. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  11. The heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1981-01-01

    The first in a series of low cost Atmospheric Explorer Satellites, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) was designed to evaluate the utility of thermal inertial and other thermal and reflectance data for: (1) discriminating bedrock and unconsolidated regolith types; (2) mapping soil moisture; (3) measuring plant canopy temperatures; (4) examining thermal circulation in large bodies of water; and (5) monitoring urban heat islands. Final reports from the HCMM investigator's program are beginning to define the utility of day/the night thermal data. Under favorable circumstances, some major rock types can be identified, soil moisture in extensive agricultural and alluvial terrains can be detected and at least semiqualitatively assessed; and circulation of currents in large bodies of water can be followed by noting thermal patterns.

  12. Landsat applied to landslide mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauchyn, D. J.; Trench, N. R.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of features characteristic of rotational landslides may be identified on Landsat imagery. These include tonal mottling, tonal banding, major and secondary scarps, and ponds. Pseudostereoscopic viewing of 9 by 9 in. transparencies was useful for the detailed identification of landslides, whereas 1:250,000 prints enlarged from 70 mm negatives were most suitable for regional analysis. Band 7 is the most useful band for landslide recognition, due to accentuation of ponds and shadows. Examination of both bands 7 and 5, including vegetation information, was found to be most suitable. Although, given optimum terrain conditions, some landslides in Colorado may be recognized, many smaller landslides are not identifiable. Consequently, Landsat is not recommended for detailed regional mapping, or for use in areas similar to Colorado, where alternative (aircraft) imagery is available. However, Landsat may prove useful for preliminary landslide mapping in relatively unknown areas.

  13. Process mapping in screening mammography.

    PubMed

    Whitman, G J; Venable, S L; Downs, R L; Garza, D; Levy, S; Ophir, K J; Spears, K F; Sprinkle-Vincent, S K; Stelling, C B

    1999-05-01

    Successful screening mammography programs aim to screen large numbers of women efficiently and inexpensively. Development of an effective screening mammography program requires skilled personnel, solid infrastructure, and a robust computer system. A group of physicians, technologists, computer support personnel, and administrators carefully analyzed a growing screening mammography program as a series of steps, starting with the request for the examination and ending with the receipt of a hard-copy consultation. The analysis involved a detailed examination of every step and every possible outcome in the screening process. The information gained through process mapping may be used for identification of systemic and personnel problems, allocation of resources, modification of workplace architecture, and design of computer networks. Process mapping is helpful for those involved in designing and improving screening mammography programs. Viewing a process (i.e., obtaining a screening mammogram) as a series of steps may allow for the identification of inefficient components that may limit growth. PMID:10342216

  14. Geologic Map Database of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

  15. Creating Maps of Forbush Decreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, A.; Lara, A.; Niembro, T.

    2013-05-01

    The flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) to the inner Heliosphere and in particular to the Earth surroundings, is modulated by the solar activity. In a time scale of hours the GCR flux may diminish abruptly, reach a minimum value and then follow a slow recovery phase lasting one or two days.The so called Forbush Decreases (FD) are caused by large scale structures of plasma and magnetic field traveling at high speed i. e. interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Using the new observational capability of imaging the interplanetary space (e.g. Stereo spacecraft) and assuming a direct relationship between density and magnetic field inside ICMEs, in this work we create maps of ICMEs, as GCR sinks seen by an observer at the Earth surface. The objective is to survey the observational necessities of new cosmic ray detectors in order to perform such maps.

  16. Maps of the Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Alyssa A; Barton, Brian

    2016-07-01

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration. PMID:27145914

  17. Growing self-reconstruction maps.

    PubMed

    do Rêgo, Renata Lúcia Mendonça Ernesto; Araújo, Aluizio Fausto Ribeiro; de Lima Neto, Fernando Buarque

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for surface reconstruction based on growing self-organizing maps (SOMs), called growing self-reconstruction maps (GSRMs). GSRM is an extension of growing neural gas (GNG) that includes the concept of triangular faces in the learning algorithm and additional conditions in order to include and remove connections, so that it can produce a triangular two-manifold mesh representation of a target object given an unstructured point cloud of its surface. The main modifications concern competitive Hebbian learning (CHL), the vertex insertion operation, and the edge removal mechanism. The method proposed is able to learn the geometry and topology of the surface represented in the point cloud and to generate meshes with different resolutions. Experimental results show that the proposed method can produce models that approximate the shape of an object, including its concave regions, boundaries, and holes, if any. PMID:20007030

  18. Stable maps and Quot schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Mihnea; Roth, Mike

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between two different compactifications of the space of vector bundle quotients of an arbitrary vector bundle on a curve. One is Grothendieck's Quot scheme, while the other is a moduli space of stable maps to the relative Grassmannian. We establish an essentially optimal upper bound on the dimension of the two compactifications. Based on that, we prove that for an arbitrary vector bundle, the Quot schemes of quotients of large degree are irreducible and generically smooth. We precisely describe all the vector bundles for which the same thing holds in the case of the moduli spaces of stable maps. We show that there are in general no natural morphisms between the two compactifications. Finally, as an application, we obtain new cases of a conjecture on effective base point freeness for pluritheta linear series on moduli spaces of vector bundles.

  19. Antarctic Meteorite Location Map Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John (Editor); Fessler, Brian (Editor); Cassidy, William (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Antarctica has been a prolific source of meteorites since meteorite concentrations were discovered in 1969. The Antarctic Search For Meteorites (ANSMET) project has been active over much of the Trans-Antarctic Mountain Range. The first ANSMET expedition (a joint U.S.-Japanese effort) discovered what turned out to be a significant concentration of meteorites at the Allan Hills in Victoria Land. Later reconnaissance in this region resulted in the discovery of meteorite concentrations on icefields to the west of the Allan Hills, at Reckling Moraine, and Elephant Moraine. Antarctic meteorite location maps (reduced versions) of the Allan Hills main, near western, middle western, and far western icefields and the Elephant Moraine icefield are presented. Other Antarctic meteorite location maps for the specimens found by the ANSMET project are being prepared.

  20. [Groundwater pollution risk mapping method].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-na; Li, Guang-he

    2010-04-01

    Based on methods for groundwater vulnerability assessment not involving in contamination source elements, and lack of the systemic and effective techniques and parameter system on groundwater pollution risk mapping in present, through analyzing the structure of groundwater system and characteristics of contaminant sources, and coupling groundwater intrinsic vulnerability with contaminant sources, the integrated multi-index models were developed to evaluate the risk sources of groundwater contaminant and form the groundwater pollution risk mapping in this paper. The models had been used to a large-scale karst groundwater source of northern China as a case study. The results indicated that vulnerability assessment overlaid risk pollution sources of groundwater could effectively confirm the high risk regions of groundwater pollution, and the methods might provide necessary support for the supervision of groundwater pollution.

  1. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  2. Geodesic self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingxin; Takatsuka, Masahiro

    2005-03-01

    Self-Organizing map (SOM) is a widely used tool to find clustering and also to visualize high dimensional data. Several spherical SOMs have been proposed to create a more accurate representation of the data by removing the "border effect". In this paper, we compare several spherical lattices for the purpose of implementation of a SOM. We then introduce a 2D rectangular grid data structure for representing the geodesic dome. This new approach improves the neighborhood searching process in the spherical gird. The new Geodesic SOM and its data structure are tested using socio-demographic data. In the experiments, we try to create a notion of direction in the Geodesic SOM. The direction facilitates more consistent visual comparison of different datasets as well as to assist viewers building their mental maps.

  3. Mapping Elasticity at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Gheorghe; Price, William

    2006-03-01

    In the last few years Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy has been developed to investigate the elastic response of materials at the nanoscale ^[1],[2]. We have extended this technique to the real-time mapping of nanomechanical properties of material surfaces. This mapping allows us to investigate the local variation of elastic properties with nanometer resolution and to reduce the uncertainties that arise from single measurements. Quantitative measurements are acquired by first performing an accurate calibration of the elastic properties of the Atomic Force Microscope’s probes with respect to single crystal reference materials. A wide variety of surfaces with different mechanical properties have been investigated to illustrate the applicability of this technique. ^[1] U. Rabe et al., Surf. Interface Anal. 33 , 65 (2002)^[2] D.C. Hurley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2347 (2003)

  4. Competency Mapping of the Employees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisha, N.

    2012-10-01

    Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each other are met. Nowadays it is not possible to show a good financial or operating report unless your personnel relations are in order. Over the years, highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing. Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization, the jobs and functions within it. Competency mapping, the buzz word in any industry is not complicated as it may appear. At the heart of any successful activity lies a competence or skill. In the recent years, various thought leaders in business strategy have emphasized the need to identify what competencies a business needs, in order to compete in a specific environment. In this article explains the why competencies needed and how is measured competency of employees in the organization.

  5. Atom mapping with constraint programming.

    PubMed

    Mann, Martin; Nahar, Feras; Schnorr, Norah; Backofen, Rolf; Stadler, Peter F; Flamm, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Chemical reactions are rearrangements of chemical bonds. Each atom in an educt molecule thus appears again in a specific position of one of the reaction products. This bijection between educt and product atoms is not reported by chemical reaction databases, however, so that the "Atom Mapping Problem" of finding this bijection is left as an important computational task for many practical applications in computational chemistry and systems biology. Elementary chemical reactions feature a cyclic imaginary transition state (ITS) that imposes additional restrictions on the bijection between educt and product atoms that are not taken into account by previous approaches. We demonstrate that Constraint Programming is well-suited to solving the Atom Mapping Problem in this setting. The performance of our approach is evaluated for a manually curated subset of chemical reactions from the KEGG database featuring various ITS cycle layouts and reaction mechanisms.

  6. Inner mappings of Bruck loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    K-loops have their origin in the theory of sharply 2-transitive groups. In this paper a proof is given that K-loops and Bruck loops are the same. For the proof it is necessary to show that in a (left) Bruck loop the left inner mappings L(b)L(a) L(ab)[minus sign]1 are automorphisms. This paper generalizes results of Glauberman [3], Kist [8] and Kreuzer [9].

  7. Mapping Temperatures On Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunnerson, Fred S.; Thorncroft, Glen E.

    1993-01-01

    Paints containing thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC's) used to map temperatures on heat pipes and thermosyphons. Color of thermally sensitive TLC coat changes reversibly upon heating or cooling. Each distinct color indicates particular temperature. Transient and steady-state isotherms become visible as colored bands. Positions and movements of bands yield information about startup transients, steady-state operation, cooler regions containing noncondensible gas, and other phenomena relevant to performance of heat pipe.

  8. Benchmarking short sequence mapping tools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of next-generation sequencing instruments has led to the generation of millions of short sequences in a single run. The process of aligning these reads to a reference genome is time consuming and demands the development of fast and accurate alignment tools. However, the current proposed tools make different compromises between the accuracy and the speed of mapping. Moreover, many important aspects are overlooked while comparing the performance of a newly developed tool to the state of the art. Therefore, there is a need for an objective evaluation method that covers all the aspects. In this work, we introduce a benchmarking suite to extensively analyze sequencing tools with respect to various aspects and provide an objective comparison. Results We applied our benchmarking tests on 9 well known mapping tools, namely, Bowtie, Bowtie2, BWA, SOAP2, MAQ, RMAP, GSNAP, Novoalign, and mrsFAST (mrFAST) using synthetic data and real RNA-Seq data. MAQ and RMAP are based on building hash tables for the reads, whereas the remaining tools are based on indexing the reference genome. The benchmarking tests reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each tool. The results show that no single tool outperforms all others in all metrics. However, Bowtie maintained the best throughput for most of the tests while BWA performed better for longer read lengths. The benchmarking tests are not restricted to the mentioned tools and can be further applied to others. Conclusion The mapping process is still a hard problem that is affected by many factors. In this work, we provided a benchmarking suite that reveals and evaluates the different factors affecting the mapping process. Still, there is no tool that outperforms all of the others in all the tests. Therefore, the end user should clearly specify his needs in order to choose the tool that provides the best results. PMID:23758764

  9. Faraday rotation in CMB maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Granados, Beatriz; Battaner, Eduardo; Florido, Estrella

    2016-10-01

    WMAP CMB polarization maps have been used to detect a low signal of Faraday Rotation (FR). If this detection is not interpreted as simple noise, it could be produced: at the last scattering surface (LSS) (z=1100), being primordial, at Reionization (z=10), in the Milky Way. The second interpretation is favoured here. In this case magnetic fields at Reionization with peak values of the order of 10-8 G should produce this observational FR.

  10. Map-based neuron networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarz, Borja; Cao, Hongjun; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2007-02-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Hodgkin and Huxley, biological neuron models have consisted of ODEs representing the evolution of the transmembrane voltage and the dynamics of ionic conductances. It is only recently that maps — or difference equations — have begun to receive attention as valid conductance neuron models. They can not only be computationally advantageous substitutes of ODE models, but, since they accommodate chaotic dynamics in a natural way, they may reproduce rich collective behaviors that we explore here.

  11. Friction Stir Process Mapping Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Kooney, Alex; Russell, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    The weld process performance for a given weld joint configuration and tool setup is summarized on a 2-D plot of RPM vs. IPM. A process envelope is drawn within the map to identify the range of acceptable welds. The sweet spot is selected as the nominal weld schedule The nominal weld schedule is characterized in the expected manufacturing environment. The nominal weld schedule in conjunction with process control ensures a consistent and predictable weld performance.

  12. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  13. Friction Stir Process Mapping Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kooney, Alex; Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In FSW (friction stir welding), the weld process performance for a given weld joint configuration and tool setup is summarized on a 2-D plot of RPM vs. IPM. A process envelope is drawn within the map to identify the range of acceptable welds. The sweet spot is selected as the nominal weld schedule. The nominal weld schedule is characterized in the expected manufacturing environment. The nominal weld schedule in conjunction with process control ensures a consistent and predictable weld performance.

  14. CDC field mapping device - ''ROTOTRACK''

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Hawtree, J.; Kaczar, K.; Leverence, R.; McGuire, K.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Schmidt, E.E.; Shallenberger, J.

    1985-10-01

    A field mapping device for the magnet of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) was constructed. The device was used for extensive study of the CDF magnetic field distribution. The mechanical and electrical features of the device, as well as the data acquisition system and software, are described. The mechanical system was designed so that the errors on the position and angle of the probe were +-0.75 mm and +-1 mrad, respectively.

  15. Venus - Detailed mapping of Maxwell Montes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Yu. N.; Crymov, A. A.; Kotelnikov, V. A.; Petrov, G. M.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.; Sinilo, V. P.; Zakharov, A. I.; Akim, E. L.; Basilevski, A. T.; Kadnichanski, S. A.; Tjuflin, Yu. S.

    1986-03-01

    From October 1983 to July 1984, the north hemisphere of Venus, from latitude 30° to latitude 90°, was mapped by means of the radar imagers and altimeters of the spacecraft Venera 15 and Venera 16. This report presents the results of the radar mapping of the Maxwell Montes region, one of the most interesting features of Venus' surface. A radar mosaic map and contour map have been compiled.

  16. Geoinquiries: Maps and Data for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Ever want to take a quick, deep-dive into a map found in students' textbooks? Ever want to use a web-based map to bring that static, print map to life? Maybe the map would be better with interactive or near real-time data. This article discusses the new Earth Science GeoInquiries! Earth Science GeoInquiries from Esri are instructional resources…

  17. Permutations and topological entropy for interval maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2003-05-01

    Recently Bandt, Keller and Pompe (2002 Entropy of interval maps via permutations Nonlinearity 15 1595-602) introduced a method of computing the entropy of piecewise monotone interval maps by counting permutations exhibited by initial pieces of orbits. We show that for topological entropy this method does not work for arbitrary continuous interval maps. We also show that for piecewise monotone interval maps topological entropy can be computed by counting permutations exhibited by periodic orbits.

  18. WebMapping at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Norbert

    2010-11-01

    The paper discusses the position of GIS in Geography as a subject especially at German schools. It points out that students only need simple GIS-functions in order to explore digital atlases or webbased data viewers. Furthermore it is widely accepted that learning achievements improve if students make use of the idea of self-employed and explorative working on information produced by themselves. These two arguments have led to the development of the WebMapping tool "kartografix_school". It allows users to generate maps with new and individually defined content on the internet. For that purpose the tool contains generalized outlines of all countries of the world as well as of German States. As these boundaries are given users can assign new attribute data to these geoobjects. These data are transferred to a graphic presentation. It is possible to define the classification and colours for each class. Users can change and update all information (data as well as number of classes, definition of classes, colours) at any time. Moreover "kartografix_school" offers the possibility to produce maps which are composed of two layers. All data are stored at a server located in the University of Osnabrück. "kartografix_school" is integrated in an e-Learning environment.

  19. WebMapping at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Norbert

    2009-09-01

    The paper discusses the position of GIS in Geography as a subject especially at German schools. It points out that students only need simple GIS-functions in order to explore digital atlases or webbased data viewers. Furthermore it is widely accepted that learning achievements improve if students make use of the idea of self-employed and explorative working on information produced by themselves. These two arguments have led to the development of the WebMapping tool "kartografix_school". It allows users to generate maps with new and individually defined content on the internet. For that purpose the tool contains generalized outlines of all countries of the world as well as of German States. As these boundaries are given users can assign new attribute data to these geoobjects. These data are transferred to a graphic presentation. It is possible to define the classification and colours for each class. Users can change and update all information (data as well as number of classes, definition of classes, colours) at any time. Moreover "kartografix_school" offers the possibility to produce maps which are composed of two layers. All data are stored at a server located in the University of Osnabrück. "kartografix_school" is integrated in an e-Learning environment.

  20. MAP stability, design, and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson-Jackson, A. J.; Andrews, S. F.; O'Donnell, J. R., Jr.; Markley, F. L.

    1998-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. The design and analysis of the MAP attitude control system (ACS) have been refined since work previously reported. The full spacecraft and instrument flexible model was developed in NASTRAN, and the resulting flexible modes were plotted and reduced with the Modal Significance Analysis Package (MSAP). The reduced-order model was used to perform the linear stability analysis for each control mode, the results of which are presented in this paper. Although MAP is going to a relatively disturbance-free Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Sun L(2) Lagrange point, a detailed disturbance-torque analysis is required because there are only a small number of opportunities for momentum unloading each year. Environmental torques, including solar pressure at L(2), aerodynamic and gravity gradient during phasing-loop orbits, were calculated and simulated. Thruster plume impingement torques that could affect the performance of the thruster modes were estimated and simulated, and a simple model of fuel slosh was derived to model its effect on the motion of the spacecraft. In addition, a thruster mode linear impulse controller was developed to meet the accuracy requirements of the phasing loop burns. A dynamic attitude error limiter was added to improve the performance of the ACS during large attitude slews. The result of this analysis is a stable ACS subsystem that meets all of the mission's requirements.

  1. Building online brand perceptual map.

    PubMed

    Chiang, I-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ying; Wang, Kaisheng M

    2008-10-01

    Many companies have launched their products or services online as a new business focus, but only a few of them have survived the competition and made profits. The most important key to an online business's success is to create "brand value" for the customers. Although the concept of online brand has been discussed in previous studies, there is no empirical study on the measurement of online branding. As Web 2.0 emerges to be critical to online branding, the purpose of this study was to measure Taiwan's major Web sites with a number of personality traits to build a perceptual map for online brands. A pretest identified 10 most representative online brand perceptions. The results of the correspondence analysis showed five groups in the perceptual map. This study provided a practical view of the associations and similarities among online brands for potential alliance or branding strategies. The findings also suggested that brand perceptions can be used with identified consumer needs and behaviors to better position online services. The brand perception map in the study also contributed to a better understanding of the online brands in Taiwan.

  2. The National Map - geographic names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  3. An automated mapping satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvocoreses, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    Topographic maps are compiled by manually operated stereoplotters that recreate the geometry of two wide-angle overlapping stereo frame photographs. Continuous imaging systems such as strip cameras, electro-optical scanners, or linear arrays of detectors (push brooms) can also create stereo coverage from which topography can be compiled; however, the instability of an aircraft in the atmosphere makes this approach impractical. The benign environment of space permits a satellite to orbit the Earth with very high stability as long as no local perturbing forces are involved. Solid-state linear-array sensors have no moving parts and create no perturbing force on the satellite. Digital data from highly stabilized stereo linear arrays are amenable to simplified processing to produce both planimetric imagery and elevation data. A proposed satellite, called MAPSAT, could accomplish automated mapping in near real time. Image maps as large as 1:50,000 scale with contours as close as 20-m interval may be produced from MAPSAT data.

  4. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  5. MapReduce SVM Game

    DOE PAGES

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently andmore » recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.« less

  6. MapReduce SVM Game

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently and recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.

  7. Fuzzy associative conjuncted maps network.

    PubMed

    Goh, Hanlin; Lim, Joo-Hwee; Quek, Chai

    2009-08-01

    The fuzzy associative conjuncted maps (FASCOM) is a fuzzy neural network that associates data of nonlinearly related inputs and outputs. In the network, each input or output dimension is represented by a feature map that is partitioned into fuzzy or crisp sets. These fuzzy sets are then conjuncted to form antecedents and consequences, which are subsequently associated to form if-then rules. The associative memory is encoded through an offline batch mode learning process consisting of three consecutive phases. The initial unsupervised membership function initialization phase takes inspiration from the organization of sensory maps in our brains by allocating membership functions based on uniform information density. Next, supervised Hebbian learning encodes synaptic weights between input and output nodes. Finally, a supervised error reduction phase fine-tunes the network, which allows for the discovery of the varying levels of influence of each input dimension across an output feature space in the encoded memory. In the series of experiments, we show that each phase in the learning process contributes significantly to the final accuracy of prediction. Further experiments using both toy problems and real-world data demonstrate significant superiority in terms of accuracy of nonlinear estimation when benchmarked against other prominent architectures and exhibit the network's suitability to perform analysis and prediction on real-world applications, such as traffic density prediction as shown in this paper.

  8. Nutrition: the new world map.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    The map of nutrition, evident in the structure of any course or textbook, derives from theses that framed a science begun in the 1840s, developed until the 1940s, and consolidated until now. Nutritionists now are as perplexed as the explorers of half a millennium ago, who continued to use maps that did not fit the wider world they found. Until the 1600s, alternatives to Ptolemaic cosmology remained unthinkable despite its obvious inadequacy, because it was of a universe with the earth, and man made in the divine image, at its centre. Nutritionists now are inhibited for similar reasons. Two determining principles of nutrition science, the identification of health with growth and the belief that animal food is superior to plant food, have a deep origin; they derive from the materialist ideology that asserts a manifest destiny of humans to exploit and consume the living and natural world. In response, a new nutrition is emerging, with a global perspective, whose ideology places humans within nature, and whose theses make a wider frame, able to fit the world as we can discern it now. The new nutrition gives equal value to personal, population and planetary health, with all that implies, including the concept that the world is best perceived as a whole. The Copernican revolution changed the meaning of movement on earth. The new nutrition can change the meaning of life on earth. Now is the time to draw its map. PMID:12492639

  9. Optical Potential Field Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical system for creating a potential field map of a bounded two dimensional region containing a goal location and an arbitrary number of obstacles. The potential field mapping system has an imaging device and a processor. Two image writing modes are used by the imaging device, electron deposition and electron depletion. Patterns written in electron deposition mode appear black and expand. Patterns written in electron depletion mode are sharp and appear white. The generated image represents a robot's workspace. The imaging device under processor control then writes a goal location in the work-space using the electron deposition mode. The black image of the goal expands in the workspace. The processor stores the generated images, and uses them to generate a feedback pattern. The feedback pattern is written in the workspace by the imaging device in the electron deposition mode to enhance the expansion of the original goal pattern. After the feedback pattern is written, an obstacle pattern is written by the imaging device in the electron depletion mode to represent the obstacles in the robot's workspace. The processor compares a stored image to a previously stored image to determine a change therebetween. When no change occurs, the processor averages the stored images to produce the potential field map.

  10. A gene mapping expert system.

    PubMed

    Galland, J; Skolnick, M H

    1990-08-01

    Expert systems are now commonly developed to solve practical problems. Nevertheless, genetics has just begun to benefit from this new technology, since genetic expert systems are extremely rare and often purely experimental. A prototype for risk calculation in pedigrees was developed at the University of Utah, using a commercial frames/rules developmental shell (Intelligence Compiler), which runs on an IBM PC. When small data sets were used, the implementation functioned well, but it could not handle larger data sets. Performance became a major issue, with two possible solutions. The first possibility would have been to port the system to a more powerful machine, and the second would have been to use several different shells or languages, each efficiently representing a specific type of knowledge. Neither of these solutions was applicable in this case. From this experience, we learned that performance, portability, and modifiability were three major requirements for genetic expert systems. To achieve these goals, we implemented the gene mapping expert system GMES: (GMES is unrelated to the gene mapping system, GMS in Lisp combined with a frame/object shell (FROBS). We were able to efficiently represent, control, and optimize a gene mapping experiment, achieving portability by building GMES on top of a C-based version of Common Lisp. Lisp combined with the FROBS expert system shell permitted a declarative representation of each of the components of the experiment, resulting in a transplant specification of the problem within a maintainable system. PMID:2394090

  11. Building online brand perceptual map.

    PubMed

    Chiang, I-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ying; Wang, Kaisheng M

    2008-10-01

    Many companies have launched their products or services online as a new business focus, but only a few of them have survived the competition and made profits. The most important key to an online business's success is to create "brand value" for the customers. Although the concept of online brand has been discussed in previous studies, there is no empirical study on the measurement of online branding. As Web 2.0 emerges to be critical to online branding, the purpose of this study was to measure Taiwan's major Web sites with a number of personality traits to build a perceptual map for online brands. A pretest identified 10 most representative online brand perceptions. The results of the correspondence analysis showed five groups in the perceptual map. This study provided a practical view of the associations and similarities among online brands for potential alliance or branding strategies. The findings also suggested that brand perceptions can be used with identified consumer needs and behaviors to better position online services. The brand perception map in the study also contributed to a better understanding of the online brands in Taiwan. PMID:18785819

  12. Community Mapping: Developing A Geographic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymon, James F.

    Choropleth maps and scattergrams (scatter diagrams) provide a way for teachers to use available statistics from census tracts to map area differences among neighborhoods. This document describes and illustrates a method of constructing and comparing choropleth maps for selected Iowa communities. The use and construction of scatter diagrams as a…

  13. Mapping Visual Culture in Comparative Education Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1997-01-01

    Asks how mapping changes in the visual culture of comparative education before and after the postmodern turn could increase understanding about the emergence of social mapping. Illustrates modernist scopic regimes, describes how social cartography has elaborated a new social mapping rationale, and notes implications for theory and practice of…

  14. Core mapping application programming interface (CMAPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Michael J.; Barnum, Doug J.; Barth, Stephen W.

    2002-07-01

    Geographic data elements are an essential part of any intelligence information system. Visualization of this data on map displays is indispensable in supporting data analysis for mission objectives. No matter what the application domain, (DoD/State Government/e-commerce) the display of information on a geographic map is no longer a "nice-to-have" feature; it's now a mandatory one. The need for data visualization with map graphics has created an abundant supply of mapping products. The capabilities of these products range from advanced Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to basic products for map graphics presentation. The Core Mapping Application Programming Interface, CMAPI, provides a standardized interface to commercial and government off-the-shelf map engines. Using CMAPI allows application developers and their customers to avoid being locked into a specific vendor. As a result, sites where applications are deployed can avoid having to license multiple products that perform the same function. CMAPI is designed and implemented using software component technology for "plug and play" map engine compatibility. CMAPI front-end software components are easy to integrate with web-based thin-client and multi-platform thick client applications. CMAPI back-end components provide implementation of core mapping functionality using any one of several off-the-shelf map engines. In addition, CMAPI provides an XML import and export capability that allows applications to share map data while using different map engines.

  15. 7 CFR 718.7 - Furnishing maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnishing maps. 718.7 Section 718.7 Agriculture... General Provisions § 718.7 Furnishing maps. A reasonable number, as determined by FSA, of reproductions of photographs, mosaics and maps shall be available to the owner of a farm insurance companies reinsured by...

  16. An Annotated Bibliography of Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, GNA

    2008-01-01

    A rich narrative-style bibliography of concept mapping (reviewing six articles published between 1992-2005). Articles reviewed include: (1) Cognitive mapping: A qualitative research method for social work (C. Bitoni); (2) Collaborative concept mapping: Provoking and supporting meaningful discourse (C. Boxtel, J. Linden, E. Roelofs, and G. Erkens);…

  17. Meteor radiant mapping with MU radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichi; Nakamura, Tsuko; Tsuda, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Miyashita, A.; Yoshikawa, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radiant point mapping of meteor showers with the MU radar by using a modified mapping method originally proposed by Morton and Jones (1982) was carried out. The modification is that each meteor echo was weighted by using the beam pattern of the radar system. A preliminary result of the radiant point mapping of the Geminids meteor shower in 1989 is presented.

  18. Concept Mapping with Multimedia on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Sherman R.; Gruenberg, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Discusses concept maps and describes an extension to computer-based concept mapping tools that provides representational capabilities that allows students to express their knowledge more fully by incorporating dynamic media-sound, video, and animated images. Explains multimedia knowledge maps, accessibility via Web browsers, and possible future…

  19. Elevate Your Students with Topographic Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voltmer, Rita K.; Paulson, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Instructions for constructing contour models from topographic maps are presented. Includes materials needed, sources of topographic maps, tips for drawing lines, and preparing the model using cardboard. Indicates that the model is a valuable instructional tool for turning topographic maps into "real" contours of land. (Author/JN)

  20. Ordered chromatic number of planar maps

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that there exist planar maps and orderings of the regions of those maps foe which no finite number of colors will suffice for a parsimonious proper coloring. In particular, planar maps with 0(2/sup n/2/) regions are exhibited that require n colors for their proper ordered coloring.

  1. Mental Maps and Metaphors in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Raymond G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of mental (or cognitive) maps--the images we construct in our minds to help us understand something--and argues that geographers' literature on mental maps can provide greater understanding of scientific literature's formats, conventions, processes, and formulations. Three classes of perception studies for mental maps are…

  2. Concept Mapping: An "Instagram" of Students' Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Laurie O.

    2016-01-01

    Minimal research has been accumulated in the field of social studies education for Novakian concept mapping, yet there are many benefits from adding this learning tool to a teacher's instructional toolbox. The article defines Novakian concept mapping and invites readers to adopt digital Novakian concept mapping into the social studies classroom as…

  3. Mathematical Model for Mapping Students' Cognitive Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambunan, Hardi

    2016-01-01

    The quality mapping of educational unit program is important issue in education in Indonesia today in an effort to improve the quality of education. The objective of this study is to make a mathematical model to find out the map of students' capability in mathematics. It has been made a mathematical model to be used in the mapping of students'…

  4. The New Approach for Earhtquake Hazard Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, B.; Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.

    2008-05-01

    It is the fact the hazard map, such as Earthquake Hazard Map, may not always effectively implemented in the mitigation effort. All of the hazard maps are technical maps which is not always easy to be understood and followed by the community living in the vulnerable areas. Therefore, some effots must be done to guarantee the effectiveness of hazard map. This paper will discuss about the approach and method for developing more appropriate earthquake hazard map in Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Psychological mapping to identify levels and distributions of community trauma is proposed as the early reference for earhquake hazard mapping. By referring to this trauma zonation and combining with the seismicity and geological mapping, the earthquake hazard mapping can be established. It is also interesting that this approach is not only providing more appropriate hazard map, but also stimulating the community empowerement in the earthquake vulnerable areas. Several training for improving community awareness are also conducted as a part of the mapping process.

  5. Concept Maps: Experiments on Dynamic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derbentseva, Natalia; Safayeni, Frank; Canas, Alberto J.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of map structure, concept quantification, and focus question on dynamic thinking during a Concept Map (CMap) construction task. The first experiment compared cyclic and hierarchical structures. The second experiment examined the impact of the quantification of the header concept in the map.…

  6. Mapping Seafloor Tectonics from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Smith, W. H.

    2005-12-01

    Our current understanding of the topography and tectonics of the ocean basins is largely derived from dense satellite altimeter measurements of the marine gravity field combined with sparse geophysical measurements from research vessels. First generation satellite altimetry was initiated in the 1970s by NASA with the Skylab and GEOS-3 missions, followed by the brief but highly successful Seasat mission of 1978. Seasat provided the first global view of the marine gravity field, well illustrated by Bill Haxby's maps of the early 1980s. It is difficult to express the excitement in the scientific community when the global signatures of the postulated ridges, transforms, and subduction zones were revealed. Moreover, Seasat proved that non-repeat orbit altimetry was the obvious way to map the ocean basins and the US Navy quickly developed Geosat in 1985 to finish the job. For 10 years the Geosat data remained classified until ESA's ERS-1 duplicated the secret information. The sudden availability of dense measurements from these second generation altimeters (Geosat and ERS-1) is perhaps the most important ocean science observation in the last two decades. These data provided not only a spectacular confirmation of plate tectonics but also partly revealed smaller-scale structures including thousands of seamounts, propagating rifts, ridge jumps, and global-scale variations in seafloor roughness. In addition, the dense gravity information was combined with sparse ship soundings to construct global bathymetry maps at ~10 km resolution - a great improvement over hand-drawn maps but still far worse than our current maps of Mars, Venus, and the Moon. While these data filled a huge gap in our understanding of the ocean basins, they also triggered a thirst for more. Third generation altimeters with improved range precision are on the horizon. The scientific rationale for a factor of 5 improvement in altimeter precision spans three broad areas of earth science: one, resolving the

  7. YouGenMap: a web platform for dynamic multi-comparative mapping and visualization of genetic maps.

    PubMed

    Batesole, Keith; Wimalanathan, Kokulapalan; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Fan; Echt, Craig S; Liang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genetic maps are used in examination of genome organization, detection of conserved gene order, and exploration of marker order variations. YouGenMap is an open-source web tool that offers dynamic comparative mapping capability of users' own genetic mapping between 2 or more map sets. Users' genetic map data and optional gene annotations are uploaded, either publically or privately, as long as they follow our template which is available in several standard file formats. Data is parsed and loaded into MySQL relational database to be displayed and compared against users' genetic maps or other public data available on YouGenMap. With the highly interactive GUIs, all public data on YouGenMap are maps available for visualization, comparison, search, filtration and download. YouGenMap web tool is available on the website (http://conifergdb.miamioh.edu/yougenmap) with the source-code repository at (http://sourceforge.net/projects/yougenmap/?source=directory). PMID:25009553

  8. An Inquiry-Oriented Curriculum in Map Making and Map Interpretation for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeway, W. Whitney

    This publication contains class activities and provocative inquiry questions for intermediate-grade teachers to use to involve students in map making and map interpretation. The author believes that the only things that are needed to develop an inquiry-oriented unit on mapping are a good map, a small group of students, and a perceptive teacher who…

  9. Automatic color map digitization by spectral classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, N. Y.; Anuta, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A method of converting polygon map information into a digital form which does not require manual tracing of polygon edges is discussed. The maps must be in color-coded format with a unique color for each category in the map. Color scanning using a microdensitometer is employed and a three-channel color separation digital data set is generated. The digital data are then classified by using a Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier, and the resulting digitized map is evaluated. Very good agreement is observed between the classified and original map.

  10. Coastal resource and sensitivity mapping of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Odin, L.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes a project to establish a relationship between environmental sensitivity (primarily to oil pollution) and response planning and prevention priorities for Vietnamese coastal regions. An inventory of coastal environmental sensitivity and the creation of index mapping was performed. Satellite and geographical information system data were integrated and used for database creation. The database was used to create a coastal resource map, coastal sensitivity map, and a field inventory base map. The final coastal environment sensitivity classification showed that almost 40 percent of the 7448 km of mapped shoreline has a high to medium high sensitivity to oil pollution.

  11. Geologic Map of Loudoun County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Burton, William C.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Froelich, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The geology of Loudoun County, Va., was mapped from 1988 through 1991 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Loudoun County Office of Mapping and Geographic Information. This geologic map was compiled in 1993 from a series of detailed published and unpublished field investigations at scales of 1:12,000 and 1:24,000. Some of these same data were compiled as a digital geologic map at 1:100,000 scale (Burton and others, 1992a) and were the basis for a cost-benefit analysis of the societal value of geologic maps (Bernknopf and others, 1993).

  12. A physical map of the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, J.D.; Marra, M.; Hillier, L.; Waterston, R.H.; Chinwalla, A.; Wallis, J.; Sekhon, M.; Wylie, K.; Mardis, E.R.; Wilson, R.K.; Fulton, R.; Kucaba, T.A.; Wagner-McPherson, C.; Barbazuk, W.B.; Gregory, S.G.; Humphray, S.J.; French, L.; Evans, R.S.; Bethel, G.; Whittaker, A.; Holden, J.L.; McCann, O.T.; Dunham, A.; Soderlund, C.; Scott, C.E.; Bentley, D.R.; Schuler, G.; Chen, H.-C.; Jang, W.; Green, E.D.; Idol, J.R.; Maduro, V.V. Braden; Montgomery, K.T.; Lee, E.; Miller, A.; Emerling, S.; Kucherlapati; Gibbs, R.; Scherer, S.; Gorrell, J.H.; Sodergren, E.; Clerc-Blankenburg, K.; Tabor, P.; Naylor, S.; Garcia, D.; de Jong, P.J.; Catanese, J.J.; Nowak, N.; Osoegawa, K.; Qin, S.; Rowen, L.; Madan, A.; Dors, M.; Hood, L.; Trask, B.; Friedman, C.; Massa, H.; Cheung, V.G.; Kirsch, I.R.; Reid, T.; Yonescu, R.; Weissenbach, J.; Bruls, T.; Heilig, R.; Branscomb, E.; Olsen, A.; Doggett, N.; Cheng, J.F.; Hawkins, T.; Myers, R.M.; Shang, J.; Ramirez, L.; Schmutz, J.; Velasquez, O.; Dixon, K.; Stone, N.E.; Cox, D.R.; Haussler, D.; Kent, W.J.; Furey, T.; Rogic, S.; Kennedy, S.; Jones, S.; Rosenthal, A.; Wen, G.; Schilhabel, M.; Gloeckner, G.; Nyakatura, G.; Siebert, R.; Schlegelberger, B.; Korenberg, J.; Chen, X.N.; Fujiyama, A.; Hattori, M.; Toyoda, A.; Yada, T.; Park, H.S.; Sakaki, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Asakawa, S.; Kawasaki, K.; Sasaki, T.; Shintani, A.; Shimizu, A.; Shibuya, K.; Kudoh, J.; Minoshima, S.; Ramser, J.; Seranski, P.; Hoff, C.; Poustka, A.; Reinhardt, R.; Lehrach, H.

    2001-01-01

    The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the construction of the whole-genome bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) map and its integration with previous landmark maps and information from mapping efforts focused on specific chromosomal regions. We also describe the integration of sequence data with the map.

  13. Operational Characterization of Divisibility of Dynamical Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Joonwoo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we show the operational characterization to the divisibility of dynamical maps in terms of the distinguishability of quantum channels. It is proven that the distinguishability of any pair of quantum channels does not increase under divisible maps, in which the full hierarchy of divisibility is isomorphic to the structure of entanglement between system and environment. This shows that (i) channel distinguishability is the operational quantity signifying (detecting) divisibility (indivisibility) of dynamical maps and (ii) the decision problem for the divisibility of maps is as hard as the separability problem in entanglement theory. We also provide the information-theoretic characterization to the divisibility of maps with conditional min-entropy.

  14. DistMap: a toolkit for distributed short read mapping on a Hadoop cluster.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid and steady increase of next generation sequencing data output, the mapping of short reads has become a major data analysis bottleneck. On a single computer, it can take several days to map the vast quantity of reads produced from a single Illumina HiSeq lane. In an attempt to ameliorate this bottleneck we present a new tool, DistMap - a modular, scalable and integrated workflow to map reads in the Hadoop distributed computing framework. DistMap is easy to use, currently supports nine different short read mapping tools and can be run on all Unix-based operating systems. It accepts reads in FASTQ format as input and provides mapped reads in a SAM/BAM format. DistMap supports both paired-end and single-end reads thereby allowing the mapping of read data produced by different sequencing platforms. DistMap is available from http://code.google.com/p/distmap/

  15. DistMap: a toolkit for distributed short read mapping on a Hadoop cluster.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid and steady increase of next generation sequencing data output, the mapping of short reads has become a major data analysis bottleneck. On a single computer, it can take several days to map the vast quantity of reads produced from a single Illumina HiSeq lane. In an attempt to ameliorate this bottleneck we present a new tool, DistMap - a modular, scalable and integrated workflow to map reads in the Hadoop distributed computing framework. DistMap is easy to use, currently supports nine different short read mapping tools and can be run on all Unix-based operating systems. It accepts reads in FASTQ format as input and provides mapped reads in a SAM/BAM format. DistMap supports both paired-end and single-end reads thereby allowing the mapping of read data produced by different sequencing platforms. DistMap is available from http://code.google.com/p/distmap/ PMID:24009693

  16. DistMap: A Toolkit for Distributed Short Read Mapping on a Hadoop Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid and steady increase of next generation sequencing data output, the mapping of short reads has become a major data analysis bottleneck. On a single computer, it can take several days to map the vast quantity of reads produced from a single Illumina HiSeq lane. In an attempt to ameliorate this bottleneck we present a new tool, DistMap - a modular, scalable and integrated workflow to map reads in the Hadoop distributed computing framework. DistMap is easy to use, currently supports nine different short read mapping tools and can be run on all Unix-based operating systems. It accepts reads in FASTQ format as input and provides mapped reads in a SAM/BAM format. DistMap supports both paired-end and single-end reads thereby allowing the mapping of read data produced by different sequencing platforms. DistMap is available from http://code.google.com/p/distmap/ PMID:24009693

  17. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall.

  18. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We are in the second year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe early mapping results, which include updating of previous northern plains mapping [3], including delineation of mainly Amazonian units and regional fault mapping, as well as other advances.

  19. Validating maps from single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Peter B; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-10-01

    Progress in single particle cryo-EM, most recently due to the introduction of direct detector devices, has made the high-resolution structure determination of biological assemblies smaller than 500kDa more routine, but has also increased attention on the need for tools to demonstrate the validity of single particle maps. Although map validation is a continuing subject of research, some consensus has been reached on procedures that reduce model bias and over-fitting during map refinement as well as specific tests that demonstrate map validity. Tilt-pair analysis may be used as a method for demonstrating the consistency at low resolution of a map with image data. For higher-resolution maps, new procedures for more robust resolution assessment and for validating the refinement of atomic coordinate models into single particle maps have been developed.

  20. Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

    2012-06-01

    Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

  1. National Atlas of the United States Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    The 'National Atlas of the United States of America?', published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1970, is out of print, but many of its maps can be purchased separately. Maps that span facing pages in the atlas are printed on one sheet. Maps dated after 1970 and before 1997 are either revisions of original atlas maps or new maps published in the original atlas format. The USGS and its partners in government and industry began work on a new 'National Atlas' in 1997. Though most new atlas products are designed for the World Wide Web, we are continuing our tradition of printing high-quality maps of America. In 1998, the first completely redesigned maps of the 'National Atlas of the United States?' were published.

  2. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    DOE PAGES

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects,more » such as regions of high density, are of interest.« less

  3. Validating maps from single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Peter B; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-10-01

    Progress in single particle cryo-EM, most recently due to the introduction of direct detector devices, has made the high-resolution structure determination of biological assemblies smaller than 500kDa more routine, but has also increased attention on the need for tools to demonstrate the validity of single particle maps. Although map validation is a continuing subject of research, some consensus has been reached on procedures that reduce model bias and over-fitting during map refinement as well as specific tests that demonstrate map validity. Tilt-pair analysis may be used as a method for demonstrating the consistency at low resolution of a map with image data. For higher-resolution maps, new procedures for more robust resolution assessment and for validating the refinement of atomic coordinate models into single particle maps have been developed. PMID:26605834

  4. Mental Tectonics - Rendering Consistent μMaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Falko

    The visualization of spatial information for wayfinding assistance requires a substantial amount of display area. Depending on the particular route, even large screens can be insufficient to visualize all information at once and in a scale such that users can understand the specific course of the route and its spatial context. Personalized wayfinding maps, such as μMaps are a possible solution for small displays: they explicitly consider the prior knowledge of a user with the environment and tailor maps toward it. The resulting schematic maps require substantially less space due to the knowledge based visual information reduction. In this paper we extend and improve the underlying algorithms of μMaps to enable efficient handling of fragmented user profiles as well as the mapping of fragmented maps. Furthermore we introduce the concept of mental tectonics, a process that harmonizes mental conceptual spatial representations with entities of a geographic frame of reference.

  5. Seismotectonic Map of Afghanistan and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This map is part of an assessment of Afghanistan's geology, natural resources, and natural hazards. One of the natural hazards is from earthquake shaking. One of the tools required to address the shaking hazard is a probabilistic seismic-hazard map, which was made separately. The information on this seismotectonic map has been used in the design and computation of the hazard map. A seismotectonic map like this one shows geological, seismological, and other information that previously had been scattered among many sources. The compilation can show spatial relations that might not have been seen by comparing the original sources, and it can suggest hypotheses that might not have occurred to persons who studied those scattered sources. The main map shows faults and earthquakes of Afghanistan. Plate convergence drives the deformations that cause the earthquakes. Accordingly, smaller maps and text explain the modern plate-tectonic setting of Afghanistan and its evolution, and relate both to patterns of faults and earthquakes.

  6. Global geological map of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2011-10-01

    The surface area of Venus (∼460×106 km2) is ∼90% of that of the Earth. Using Magellan radar image and altimetry data, supplemented by Venera-15/16 radar images, we compiled a global geologic map of Venus at a scale of 1:10 M. We outline the history of geological mapping of the Earth and planets to illustrate the importance of utilizing the dual stratigraphic classification approach to geological mapping. Using this established approach, we identify 13 distinctive units on the surface of Venus and a series of structures and related features. We present the history and evolution of the definition and characterization of these units, explore and assess alternate methods and approaches that have been suggested, and trace the sequence of mapping from small areas to regional and global scales. We outline the specific defining nature and characteristics of these units, map their distribution, and assess their stratigraphic relationships. On the basis of these data, we then compare local and regional stratigraphic columns and compile a global stratigraphic column, defining rock-stratigraphic units, time-stratigraphic units, and geological time units. We use superposed craters, stratigraphic relationships and impact crater parabola degradation to assess the geologic time represented by the global stratigraphic column. Using the characteristics of these units, we interpret the geological processes that were responsible for their formation. On the basis of unit superposition and stratigraphic relationships, we interpret the sequence of events and processes recorded in the global stratigraphic column. The earliest part of the history of Venus (Pre-Fortunian) predates the observed surface geological features and units, although remnants may exist in the form of deformed rocks and minerals. We find that the observable geological history of Venus can be subdivided into three distinctive phases. The earlier phase (Fortunian Period, its lower stratigraphic boundary cannot be

  7. USGS standard quadrangle maps for emergency response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Laurence R.

    2009-01-01

    The 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangle was the primary product of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Program from 1947-1992. This map series includes about 54,000 map sheets for the conterminous United States, and is the only uniform map series ever produced that covers this area at such a large scale. This map series partially was revised under several programs, starting as early as 1968, but these programs were not adequate to keep the series current. Through the 1990s the emphasis of the USGS mapping program shifted away from topographic maps and toward more specialized digital data products. Topographic map revision dropped off rapidly after 1999, and stopped completely by 2004. Since 2001, emergency-response and homeland security requirement have revived the question of whether a standard national topographic series is needed. Emergencies such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and California wildfires in 2007-08 demonstrated that familiar maps are important to first responders. Maps that have a standard scale, extent, and grids help reduce confusion and save time in emergencies. Traditional maps are designed to allow the human brain to quickly process large amounts of information, and depend on artistic layout and design that cannot be fully automated. In spite of technical advances, creating a traditional, general-purpose topographic map is still expensive. Although the content and layout of traditional topographic maps probably is still desirable, the preferred packaging and delivery of maps has changed. Digital image files are now desired by most users, but to be useful to the emergency-response community, these files must be easy to view and easy to print without specialized geographic information system expertise or software.

  8. ActionMap: A web-based software that automates loci assignments to framework maps.

    PubMed

    Albini, Guillaume; Falque, Matthieu; Joets, Johann

    2003-07-01

    Genetic linkage computation may be a repetitive and time consuming task, especially when numerous loci are assigned to a framework map. We thus developed ActionMap, a web-based software that automates genetic mapping on a fixed framework map without adding the new markers to the map. Using this tool, hundreds of loci may be automatically assigned to the framework in a single process. ActionMap was initially developed to map numerous ESTs with a small plant mapping population and is limited to inbred lines and backcrosses. ActionMap is highly configurable and consists of Perl and PHP scripts that automate command steps for the MapMaker program. A set of web forms were designed for data import and mapping settings. Results of automatic mapping can be displayed as tables or drawings of maps and may be exported. The user may create personal access-restricted projects to store raw data, settings and mapping results. All data may be edited, updated or deleted. ActionMap may be used either online or downloaded for free (http://moulon.inra.fr/~bioinfo/).

  9. ActionMap: a web-based software that automates loci assignments to framework maps

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Guillaume; Falque, Matthieu; Joets, Johann

    2003-01-01

    Genetic linkage computation may be a repetitive and time consuming task, especially when numerous loci are assigned to a framework map. We thus developed ActionMap, a web-based software that automates genetic mapping on a fixed framework map without adding the new markers to the map. Using this tool, hundreds of loci may be automatically assigned to the framework in a single process. ActionMap was initially developed to map numerous ESTs with a small plant mapping population and is limited to inbred lines and backcrosses. ActionMap is highly configurable and consists of Perl and PHP scripts that automate command steps for the MapMaker program. A set of web forms were designed for data import and mapping settings. Results of automatic mapping can be displayed as tables or drawings of maps and may be exported. The user may create personal access-restricted projects to store raw data, settings and mapping results. All data may be edited, updated or deleted. ActionMap may be used either online or downloaded for free (http://moulon.inra.fr/~bioinfo/). PMID:12824426

  10. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Hoeller, Hartmut; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos; Pinto, Osmar; Saba, Marcelo M.; Naccarato, Kleber; Hembury, Nikki; Nag, Amitabh; Heckman, Stan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Betz, Hans-Dieter; Said, Ryan; Rauenzahn, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of S o Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be collected

  11. Mapping products of Titan's surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Karkoschka, Erich; Barnes, Jason W.; Tomasko, Martin G.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Le Corre, Lucille; Langhans, Mirjam; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Lorenz, Ralf D.; Perry, Jason; Brown, Robert H.; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing instruments aboard the Cassini spacecraft have been observed the surface of Titan globally in the infrared and radar wavelength ranges as well as locally by the Huygens instruments revealing a wealth of new morphological features indicating a geologically active surface. We present a summary of mapping products of Titan's surface derived from data of the remote sensing instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft (ISS, VIMS, RADAR) as well as the Huygens probe (DISR) that were achieved during the nominal Cassini mission including an overview of Titan's recent nomenclature.

  12. Geometry of a mapping satellite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed mapping satellite Mapsat is to consist of fixed fore, vertical, and aft linear detector arrays, any two of which may be used simultaneously to obtain digital images for one- dimensional stereo correlation. The satellite attitude may be varied according to Fourier series to enable a given detector on one array to follow closely the groundtrack sensed by the corresponding detector on another array throughout the orbit. These tracking errors are negligible for a satellite stable within anticipated ranges. The required computations have been programmed in FORTRAN IV. -Author

  13. Iterates of maps with symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chossat, Pascal; Golubitsky, Martin

    1988-01-01

    Fixed-point bifurcation, period doubling, and Hopf bifurcation (HB) for iterates of equivariant mappings are investigated analytically, with a focus on HB in the presence of symmetry. An algebraic formulation for the hypotheses of the theorem of Ruelle (1973) is derived, and the case of standing waves in a system of ordinary differential equations with O(2) symmetry is considered in detail. In this case, it is shown that HB can lead directly to motion on an invariant 3-torus, with an unexpected third frequency due to drift of standing waves along the torus.

  14. Physical mapping of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Glen A.

    1993-01-01

    Method for simultaneous identification of overlapping cosmid clones among multiple cosmid clones and the use of the method for mapping complex genomes are provided. A library of cosmid clones that contains the DNA to be mapped is constructed and arranged in a manner such that individual clones can be identified and replicas of the arranged clones prepared. In preferred embodiments, the clones are arranged in a two dimensional matrix. In such embodiments, the cosmid clones in a row are pooled, mixed probes complementary to the ends of the DNA inserts int he pooled clones are synthesized, hybridized to a first replica of the library. Hybridizing clones, which include the pooled row, are identified. A second portion of clones is prepared by pooling cosmid clones that correspond to a column in the matrix. The second pool thereby includes one clone from the first portion pooled clones. This common clone is located on the replica at the intersection of the column and row. Mixed probes complementary to the ends of the DNA inserts in the second pooled portion of clones are prepared and hybridized to a second replica of the library. The hybridization pattern on the first and second replicas of the library are compared and cross-hybridizing clones, other than the clones in the pooled column and row, that hybridize to identical clones in the first and second replicas are identified. These clones necessarily include DNA inserts that overlap with the DNA insert int he common clone located at the intersection of the pooled row and pooled column. The DNA in the entire library may be mapped by pooling the clones in each of the rows and columns of the matrix, preparing mixed end-specific probes and hybridizing the probes from each row or column to a replica of the library. Since all clones in the library are located at the intersection of a column and a row, the overlapping clones for all clones in the library may be identified and a physical map constructed. In other preferred

  15. Physical mapping of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Evans, G.A.

    1993-06-15

    A method for the simultaneous identification of overlapping cosmid clones among multiple cosmid clones and the use of the method for mapping complex genomes are provided. A library of cosmid clones that contains the DNA to be mapped is constructed and arranged in a manner such that individual clones can be identified and replicas of the arranged clones prepared. In preferred embodiments, the clones are arranged in a two dimensional matrix. In such embodiments, the cosmid clones in a row are pooled, mixed probes complementary to the ends of the DNA inserts in the pooled clones are synthesized, hybridized to a first replica of the library. Hybridizing clones, which include the pooled row, are identified. A second portion of clones is prepared by pooling cosmid clones that correspond to a column in the matrix. The second pool thereby includes one clone from the first portion pooled clones. This common clone is located on the replica at the intersection of the column and row. Mixed probes complementary to the ends of the DNA inserts in the second pooled portion of clones are prepared and hybridized to a second replica of the library. The hybridization pattern on the first and second replicas of the library are compared and cross-hybridizing clones, other than the clones in the pooled column and row, that hybridize to identical clones in the first and second replicas are identified. These clones necessarily include DNA inserts that overlap with the DNA insert in the common clone located at the intersection of the pooled row and pooled column. The DNA in the entire library may be mapped by pooling the clones in each of the rows and columns of the matrix, preparing mixed end-specific probes and hybridizing the probes from each row or column to a replica of the library. Since all clones in the library are located at the intersection of a column and a row, the overlapping clones for all clones in the library may be identified and a physical map constructed.

  16. Topographic mapping of collagenous gastritis.

    PubMed

    Freeman, H J

    2001-07-01

    A 74-year-old woman was investigated for abdominal pain and diarrhea. Endoscopic examinations including biopsies of the stomach and colon demonstrated the typical subepithelial deposits characteristic of collagenous gastritis and collagenous colitis. Histochemical and ultrastructural methods confirmed the presence of collagen in the subepithelial deposits. The topographic distribution of these collagen deposits and their relationship to the inflammatory process in the stomach were then defined by endoscopic mapping and multiple site biopsies of the mucosa in the gastric body and antrum. These studies indicate that collagenous gastritis not only is distinctive, but also is a far more extensive and diffuse inflammatory process than has previously been appreciated. PMID:11493952

  17. The mapping of the heavens.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, P.

    Throughout history, people have sought ways in which to "map" the heavens. From the twin sources of mythology and mathematics sprang the classical star chart. In this well illustrated book, the author reveals some of the many ways in which the underlying structure of the universe has been conceived and explained. With examples ranging from the Stone Age to the Space Age - ancient observatories, the angelic vision of Dante, images from Copernican Revolution, the rationalized heavens of Newton and Flamsteed, through to modern deep space photography - he offers a challenging and entertaining exploration of the tension between rigorous scientific knowledge and the continuing search for cause, certainty and harmony in the universe.

  18. Generating maps, invariant manifolds, conjugacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaperon, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The idea of generating functions and maps is presented, first in global symplectic geometry and then in the theory of invariant manifolds, as introduced by McGehee and Sander in 1996. Their result on the stable manifold theorem is generalised and simplified; the proofs no longer use any functional analysis. Then comes an original "non-autonomous" version of the previous results, yielding-besides Pesin's invariant laminations-seemingly unrelated results on invariant manifolds and conjugacies, presented in the end after a basic example.

  19. Geoconservation mapping using digital geomorphological maps in Vorarlberg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; De Jong, M. G. G.; de Graaff, L. W. S.; Anders, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological inventories are being made in the State of Vorarlberg (Austria) since the mid-1950s by the University of Amsterdam. Starting as an academic training fieldwork for undergraduate geomorphology students, PhD students and staff members soon recognized the research potential of the unique alpine landscape. In particular, landforms and deposits of the ice-marginal environment and pollen records preserved in peat provide valuable proxies for climate reconstruction and give detailed insight in the former growth and decay of the Rhine glacier network and of local glaciers, and assist in reconstructing landscape development in general. A project was started in 2007 to prepare community wide inventory maps of potential geoconservation areas, based on digital geomorphological mapping in a Geographical Information System (GIS). A stepwise protocol was designed for the identification of potential geoconservation areas in the landscape, comprising: 1. Preparing digital geomorphological maps, using a morphogenetic classification scheme 2. Assigning values for selected geoconservation assessment criteria to types of geomorphological features 3. Ranking the criteria assessment values into three categories of potential geoconservation value, and 4. Storing, visualizing and describing the geoconservation data. Four major traits are used in the weighting and ranking protocol (steps 2 and 3): scientific relevance, frequency of occurrence, disturbance, and environmental vulnerability. The process of assigning values and of ranking the landforms and deposits has been automated in GIS. For the evaluation of disturbance we use digital infrastructure layers in GIS which can be intersected with the potential geoconservation areas to determine the level of disturbance. The proposed method is demonstrated for the municipality of Lech, a well-known winter skiing resort. To illustrate the loss of high-rank potential geoconservation areas due to human influence over the last 50

  20. Comparative genome mapping in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Lagercrantz, U; Lydiate, D J

    1996-12-01

    A Brassica nigra genetic linkage map was developed from a highly polymorphic cross analyzed with a set of low copy number Brassica RFLP probes. The Brassica genome is extensively duplicated with eight distinct sets of chromosomal segments, each present in three copies, covering virtually the whole genome. Thus, B. nigra could be descended from a hexaploid ancestor. A comparative analysis of B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa genomes, based on maps developed using a common set of RFLP probes, was also performed. The three genomes have distinct chromosomal structures differentiated by a large number of rearrangements, but collinear regions involving virtually the whole of each the three genomes were identified. The genic contents of B. nigra, B. oleracea and B. rapa were basically equivalent and differences in chromosome number (8, 9 and 10, respectively) are probably the result of chromosome fusions and/ or fissions. The strong conservation of overall genic content across the three Brassica genomes mirrors the conservation of genic content observed over a much longer evolutionary span in cereals. However, the rate of chromosomal rearrangement in crucifers is much higher than that observed in cereal genomes.

  1. Pan-information Location Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. Y.; Guo, W.; Huang, L.; Hu, T.; Gao, W. X.

    2013-11-01

    A huge amount of information, including geographic, environmental, socio-economic, personal and social network information, has been generated from diverse sources. Most of this information exists separately and is disorderly even if some of it is about the same person, feature, phenomenon or event. Users generally need to collect related information from different sources and then utilize them in applications. An automatic mechanism, therefore, for establishing a connection between potentially-related information will profoundly expand the usefulness of this huge body of information. A connection tie is semantic location describing semantically concepts and attributes of locations as well as relationships between locations, since 80% of information contains some kind of geographic reference but not all of geographic reference has explicit geographic coordinates. Semantic location is an orthogonal form of location representation which can be represented as domain ontology or UML format. Semantic location associates various kinds of information about a same object to provide timely information services according to users' demands, habits, preferences and applications. Based on this idea, a Pan-Information Location Map (PILM) is proposed as a new-style 4D map to associates semantic location-based information dynamically to organize and consolidate the locality and characteristics of corresponding features and events, and delivers on-demand information with a User-Adaptive Smart Display (UASD).

  2. Linear Response for Intermittent Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, Viviane; Todd, Mike

    2016-11-01

    We consider the one parameter family {α mapsto T_{α}} ({α in [0,1)}) of Pomeau-Manneville type interval maps {T_{α}(x) = x(1+2^{α} x^{α})} for {x in [0,1/2)} and {T_{α}(x)=2x-1} for {x in [1/2, 1]}, with the associated absolutely continuous invariant probability measure {μ_{α}}. For {α in (0,1)}, Sarig and Gouëzel proved that the system mixes only polynomially with rate {n^{1-1/{α}}} (in particular, there is no spectral gap). We show that for any {ψ in Lq}, the map {α to int_01 ψ d μ_{α}} is differentiable on {[0,1-1/q)}, and we give a (linear response) formula for the value of the derivative. This is the first time that a linear response formula for the SRB measure is obtained in the setting of slowly mixing dynamics. Our argument shows how cone techniques can be used in this context. For {α ≥ 1/2} we need the {n^{-1/{α}}} decorrelation obtained by Gouëzel under additional conditions.

  3. Deep learning regularized Fisher mappings.

    PubMed

    Wong, W K; Sun, Mingming

    2011-10-01

    For classification tasks, it is always desirable to extract features that are most effective for preserving class separability. In this brief, we propose a new feature extraction method called regularized deep Fisher mapping (RDFM), which learns an explicit mapping from the sample space to the feature space using a deep neural network to enhance the separability of features according to the Fisher criterion. Compared to kernel methods, the deep neural network is a deep and nonlocal learning architecture, and therefore exhibits more powerful ability to learn the nature of highly variable datasets from fewer samples. To eliminate the side effects of overfitting brought about by the large capacity of powerful learners, regularizers are applied in the learning procedure of RDFM. RDFM is evaluated in various types of datasets, and the results reveal that it is necessary to apply unsupervised regularization in the fine-tuning phase of deep learning. Thus, for very flexible models, the optimal Fisher feature extractor may be a balance between discriminative ability and descriptive ability.

  4. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  5. US Topo: Topographic Maps for the Nation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hytes, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    US Topo is the next generation of topographic maps from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Arranged in the familiar 7.5-minute quadrangle format, digital US Topo maps are designed to look and feel (and perform) like the traditional paper topographic maps for which the USGS is so well known. In contrast to paper-based maps, US Topo maps provide modern technical advantages that support faster, wider public distribution and enable basic, on-screen geographic analysis for all users. US Topo maps are available free on the Web. Each map quadrangle is constructed in GeoPDF? format from key layers of geographic data (orthoimagery, roads, geographic names, topographic contours, and hydrographic features) found in The National Map. US Topo quadrangles can be printed from personal computers or plotters as complete, full-sized, maps or in customized sections, in a user-desired specific format. Paper copies of the maps can also be purchased from the USGS Store. Download links and a users guide are featured on the US Topo Web site. US Topo users can turn geographic data layers on and off as needed; they can zoom in and out to highlight specific features or see a broader area. File size for each digital 7.5-minute quadrangle, about 15-20 megabytes, is suitable for most users. Associated electronic tools for geographic analysis are available free for download.

  6. Mapping of earthquakes vulnerability area in Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad Fawzy Ismullah, M.; Massinai, Muh. Altin

    2016-05-01

    Geohazard is a geological occurrence which may lead to a huge loss for human. A mitigation of these natural disasters is one important thing to be done properly in order to reduce the risks. One of the natural disasters that frequently occurs in the Papua Province is the earthquake. This study applies the principle of Geospatial and its application for mapping the earthquake-prone area in the Papua region. It uses earthquake data, which is recorded for 36 years (1973-2009), fault location map, and ground acceleration map of the area. The earthquakes and fault map are rearranged into an earthquake density map, as well as an earthquake depth density map and fault density map. The overlaid data of these three maps onto ground acceleration map are then (compiled) to obtain an earthquake unit map. Some districts area, such as Sarmi, Nabire, and Dogiyai, are identified by a high vulnerability index. In the other hand, Waropen, Puncak, Merauke, Asmat, Mappi, and Bouven Digoel area shows lower index. Finally, the vulnerability index in other places is detected as moderate.

  7. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  8. Animation of Mapped Photo Collections for Storytelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hideyuki; Arikawa, Masatoshi

    Our research goal is to facilitate the sharing of stories with digital photographs. Some map websites now collect stories associated with peoples' relationships to places. Users map collections of places and include their intangible emotional associations with each location along with photographs, videos, etc. Though this framework of mapping stories is important, it is not sufficiently expressive to communicate stories in a narrative fashion. For example, when the number of the mapped collections of places is particularly large, it is neither easy for viewers to interpret the map nor is it easy for the creator to express a story as a series of events in the real world. This is because each narrative, in the form of a sequence of textual narratives, a sequence of photographs, a movie, or audio is mapped to just one point. As a result, it is up to the viewer to decide which points on the map must be read, and in what order. The conventional framework is fairly suitable for mapping and expressing fragments or snapshots of a whole story and not for conveying the whole story as a narrative using the entire map as the setting. We therefore propose a new framework, Spatial Slideshow, for mapping personal photo collections and representing them as stories such as route guidances, sightseeing guidances, historical topics, fieldwork records, personal diaries, and so on. It is a fusion of personal photo mapping and photo storytelling. Each story is conveyed through a sequence of mapped photographs, presented as a synchronized animation of a map and an enhanced photo slideshow. The main technical novelty of this paper is a method for creating three-dimensional animations of photographs that induce the visual effect of motion from photo to photo. We believe that the proposed framework may have considerable significance in facilitating the grassroots development of spatial content driven by visual communication concerning real-world locations or events.

  9. Testing the Effectiveness of Classroom Maps. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack W.

    This study tested four physical-political map layouts designed for pupils in grades 4-6. The project studied the effect of modifying traditional classroom and textbook maps on performance in map reading. The four map designs tested were the traditional map; a map using a unified legend, more elaborate symbols, and fewer type sizes and styles; a…

  10. One map policy (OMP) implementation strategy to accelerate mapping of regional spatial planing (RTRW) in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasyim, Fuad; Subagio, Habib; Darmawan, Mulyanto

    2016-06-01

    A preparation of spatial planning documents require basic geospatial information and thematic accuracies. Recently these issues become important because spatial planning maps are impartial attachment of the regional act draft on spatial planning (PERDA). The needs of geospatial information in the preparation of spatial planning maps preparation can be divided into two major groups: (i). basic geospatial information (IGD), consist of of Indonesia Topographic maps (RBI), coastal and marine environmental maps (LPI), and geodetic control network and (ii). Thematic Geospatial Information (IGT). Currently, mostly local goverment in Indonesia have not finished their regulation draft on spatial planning due to some constrain including technical aspect. Some constrain in mapping of spatial planning are as follows: the availability of large scale ofbasic geospatial information, the availability of mapping guidelines, and human resources. Ideal conditions to be achieved for spatial planning maps are: (i) the availability of updated geospatial information in accordance with the scale needed for spatial planning maps, (ii) the guideline of mapping for spatial planning to support local government in completion their PERDA, and (iii) capacity building of local goverment human resources to completed spatial planning maps. The OMP strategies formulated to achieve these conditions are: (i) accelerating of IGD at scale of 1:50,000, 1: 25,000 and 1: 5,000, (ii) to accelerate mapping and integration of Thematic Geospatial Information (IGT) through stocktaking availability and mapping guidelines, (iii) the development of mapping guidelines and dissemination of spatial utilization and (iv) training of human resource on mapping technology.

  11. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  12. Comparing the Performance of Japan's Earthquake Hazard Maps to Uniform and Randomized Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S. A.; Spencer, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    The devastating 2011 magnitude 9.1 Tohoku earthquake and the resulting shaking and tsunami were much larger than anticipated in earthquake hazard maps. Because this and all other earthquakes that caused ten or more fatalities in Japan since 1979 occurred in places assigned a relatively low hazard, Geller (2011) argued that "all of Japan is at risk from earthquakes, and the present state of seismological science does not allow us to reliably differentiate the risk level in particular geographic areas," so a map showing uniform hazard would be preferable to the existing map. Defenders of the maps countered by arguing that these earthquakes are low-probability events allowed by the maps, which predict the levels of shaking that should expected with a certain probability over a given time. Although such maps are used worldwide in making costly policy decisions for earthquake-resistant construction, how well these maps actually perform is unknown. We explore this hotly-contested issue by comparing how well a 510-year-long record of earthquake shaking in Japan is described by the Japanese national hazard (JNH) maps, uniform maps, and randomized maps. Surprisingly, as measured by the metric implicit in the JNH maps, i.e. that during the chosen time interval the predicted ground motion should be exceeded only at a specific fraction of the sites, both uniform and randomized maps do better than the actual maps. However, using as a metric the squared misfit between maximum observed shaking and that predicted, the JNH maps do better than uniform or randomized maps. These results indicate that the JNH maps are not performing as well as expected, that what factors control map performance is complicated, and that learning more about how maps perform and why would be valuable in making more effective policy.

  13. Usability Evaluation of Public Web Mapping Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    Web mapping sites are interactive maps that are accessed via Webpages. With the rapid development of Internet and Geographic Information System (GIS) field, public web mapping sites are not foreign to people. Nowadays, people use these web mapping sites for various reasons, in that increasing maps and related map services of web mapping sites are freely available for end users. Thus, increased users of web mapping sites led to more usability studies. Usability Engineering (UE), for instance, is an approach for analyzing and improving the usability of websites through examining and evaluating an interface. In this research, UE method was employed to explore usability problems of four public web mapping sites, analyze the problems quantitatively and provide guidelines for future design based on the test results. Firstly, the development progress for usability studies were described, and simultaneously several usability evaluation methods such as Usability Engineering (UE), User-Centered Design (UCD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were generally introduced. Then the method and procedure of experiments for the usability test were presented in detail. In this usability evaluation experiment, four public web mapping sites (Google Maps, Bing maps, Mapquest, Yahoo Maps) were chosen as the testing websites. And 42 people, who having different GIS skills (test users or experts), gender (male or female), age and nationality, participated in this test to complete the several test tasks in different teams. The test comprised three parts: a pretest background information questionnaire, several test tasks for quantitative statistics and progress analysis, and a posttest questionnaire. The pretest and posttest questionnaires focused on gaining the verbal explanation of their actions qualitatively. And the design for test tasks targeted at gathering quantitative data for the errors and problems of the websites. Then, the results mainly from the test part were analyzed. The

  14. High-order control for symplectic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansottera, M.; Giorgilli, A.; Carletti, T.

    2016-02-01

    We revisit the problem of introducing an a priori control for devices that can be modeled via a symplectic map in a neighborhood of an elliptic equilibrium. Using a technique based on Lie transform methods we produce a normal form algorithm that avoids the usual step of interpolating the map with a flow. The formal algorithm is completed with quantitative estimates that bring into evidence the asymptotic character of the normal form transformation. Then we perform an heuristic analysis of the dynamical behavior of the map using the invariant function for the normalized map. Finally, we discuss how control terms of different orders may be introduced so as to increase the size of the stable domain of the map. The numerical examples are worked out on a two dimensional map of Hénon type.

  15. Using ontology for map personalization visualization application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Weihua; Liu, Jiping; Guo, Qingsheng

    2008-12-01

    The growth of web and wireless of geographical information systems presents a new set of challenges for map personalization services, because web and wireless mobile users of geographical information systems require information that is directly relevant to the specific task in which they are engaged. In this paper, we propose to set up user ontology for map personalization. Based on the user ontology, we put forward and adopt the cartographic generalization for web map personalization visualization driven by user ontology, which remain or reduce online web map description data according to user's interests and increase user's understanding of the web map. Based on this, we set up automatic web cartographic prototype systems to generate web mapping on demand.

  16. Noodle-map chaos - A simple example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, O. E.; Hudson, J. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    Chaos-generating folded two-dimensional maps can be generalized to higher dimensions in two ways: as folded-towel (or pancake) maps and as bent-walking-stick (or noddle) maps. The noodle case is of mathematical interest because the topologically one-dimensional attractors involved may, despite their thinness, be of the 'non-sink' type (that is, stand in a bijective relation to their domain of attraction). Moreover, Shtern recently showed that the well-known Kaplan-Yorke conjecture on the fractal dimensionality of chaotic attractors may fail in the case of noodle maps. We present here an explicit 3-variable noodle map with constant divergence (constant Jacobian determinant). The example is a higher analogue to the Henon diffeomorphism. A map of similar shape was recently found experimentally by Rob Shaw in a study of the irregularly dripping faucet.

  17. Preliminary Mapping of Asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stooke, P. J.

    1996-03-01

    The Small Body Mapping Program is being extended to include asteroids resolved by delay-Doppler radar. An experimental shape model and map of 4769 Castalia is described by Stooke P. J., but the radar data for Castalia barely warranted mapping except to build experience and to address issues such as suitable map projections for two-lobed objects. The first object for which well resolved delay-Doppler images were obtained is 4179 Toutatis. Preliminary work included shape and preliminary mapping. Toutatis radar images can be superimposed on the shape model for conventional mapping, but some must be mirror-reversed from their published orientation. This body may possess grooves like those of Phobos, Gaspra and Ida.

  18. Topographic mapping for stereo and motion processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Zielke, Thomas; Storjohann, Kai; von Seelen, Werner

    1991-02-01

    Topographic mappings are neigbourhood preserving transformations between twodimensional data structures. Mappings of this type are a general means of information processing in the vertebrate visual system. In this paper we present an application of a special topographic mapping termed the inverse perspective mapping for the computation of stereo and motion. More specifically we study a class of algorithms for the detection of deviations from an expected " normal" situation. These expectations concern the global spacevariance of certain image parameters (e. g. disparity or speed of feature motion) and can thus be implemented in the mapping rule. The resulting algorithms are minimal in the sense that no irrelevant information is extracted from the scene. In a technical application we use topographic mappings for a stereo obstacle detection system. The implementation has been tested on an automatically guided vehicle (AGV) in an industrial environment. 1

  19. Methods for FMCW radar map georeferencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaud, Marion; Rouveure, Raphaël; Faure, Patrice; Monod, Marie-Odile

    2013-10-01

    In a context of mobile environment mapping, a vehicle-based radar system, K2Pi, has been developed. A mapping of the environment is carried out from the radar datasets. Given the specificities of radar maps, the main problem at this stage is to find a method to georeference these maps. This article proposes three radar map georeferencing methods. The first method is a typical manual selection of a set of control point pairs. The second method consists of matching the relative trajectory computed by a specific radar algorithm with a trajectory recorded from absolute DGPS recording. Finally, the third method, inspired by the image-to-image approach, is based on Fourier-Mellin transform which automatically registers the radar map with respect to a georeferenced aerial photograph. Successfully tested on radar datasets, this method could be applied to many other types of data.

  20. An interactive method for digitizing zone maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.; Thompson, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for digitizing maps that consist of zones, such as contour or climatic zone maps. A color-coded map is prepared by any convenient process. The map is then read into memory of an Image 100 computer by means of its table scanner, using colored filters. Zones are separated and stored in themes, using standard classification procedures. Thematic data are written on magnetic tape and these data, appropriately coded, are combined to make a digitized image on tape. Step-by-step procedures are given for digitization of crop moisture index maps with this procedure. In addition, a complete example of the digitization of a climatic zone map is given.

  1. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  2. The Greenland Ice Mapping Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joughin, I.; Smith, B.; Howat, I. M.; Moon, T. A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous glaciers in Greenland have sped up rapidly and unpredictably during the first part of the 21st Century. We started the Greenland Ice Mapping Project (GIMP) to produce time series of ice velocity for Greenland's major outlet glaciers. We are also producing image time series to document the advance and retreat of glacier calving fronts and other changes in ice-sheet geometry (e.g., shrinking ice caps and ice shelves). When the project began, there was no digital elevation model (DEM) with sufficient accuracy and resolution to terrain-correct the SAR-derived products. Thus, we also produced the 30-m GIMP DEM, which, aside from improving our processing, is an important product in its own right. Although GIMP focuses on time series, complete spatial coverage for initializing ice sheet models also is important. There are insufficient data, however, to map the full ice sheet in any year. There is good RADARSAT coverage for many years in the north, but the C-band data decorrelate too quickly to measure velocity in the high accumulation regions of the southeast. For such regions, ALOS data usually correlate well, but speckle-tracking estimates at L-band are subject to large ionospheric artifacts. Interferometric phase data are far less sensitive to the effect of the ionosphere, but velocity estimates require results from crossing orbits. Thus, to produce a nearly complete mosaic we used data from multiple sensors, beginning with ERS-1/2 data from the mid 1990s. By using a primarily phase-only solution for much of the interior, we have reduced the velocity errors to ~1-3 m/yr. For the faster moving ice-sheet margin where phase data cannot be unwrapped, we used speckle-tracking data. In particular, we have relied on TerraSAR-X for many fast-moving glaciers because the ionosphere far less affects X-band data. This pan-Greenland velocity map as well as many of the time series would not have been possible without an extensive archive of data collected using six

  3. US Topo - a new national map deries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Laurence R.

    2011-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, the foundation of the U.S. Geological Survey's national map series was the handcrafted 7.5-minute topographic map. Times change, budgets get squeezed and currency expectations become ever more challenging. The USGS's Larry Moore, who oversees data production operations at two National Geospatial Technical Operations Centers, provides an introduction to the new US Topo quadrangle maps.

  4. Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Glen F.

    1972-01-01

    This tectonic map of the Arabian peninsula, prepared for the Audi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resource, is the first of a series of peninsular maps that attempt to show regional features. Much recent information resulting from detailed geologic mapping notably within the Arabian craton, from geophysical surveys, both airborne and oceanographic in adjacent seas, from deep exploratory drilling, and from photography from the Gemini and Apollo space programs, has been used in the tectonic evaluation.

  5. Seismicity map of the state of Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagor, B.G.; Stover, C.W.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This map is one of a series of seismicity maps produced by the U.S. Geological Survey that show earthquake data of individual states or groups of states at the scale of 1:1,000,000.  This map shows only those earthquakes with epicenters located within the boundaries of Tennessee, even though earthquakes in nearby states or countries may have been felt or may have caused damage in Tennessee.

  6. Seismicity map of the state of Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stover, C.W.; Reagor, B.G.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This map is one of a series of seismicity maps produced by the U.S. Geological Survey that show earthquake data of individual states or groups of states at the scale of 1:1,000,000. This map shows only those earthquakes with epicenters located within the boundaries of Kentucky, even though earthquakes in nearby states or countries may have been felt or may have caused damage in Kentucky. 

  7. Visual SLAM Using Variance Grid Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Marks, Tim K.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm denoted Gamma-SLAM performs further processing, in real time, of preprocessed digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard an off-road robotic ground vehicle to build accurate maps of the terrain and determine the location of the vehicle with respect to the maps. Part of the name of the algorithm reflects the fact that the process of building the maps and determining the location with respect to them is denoted simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Most prior real-time SLAM algorithms have been limited in applicability to (1) systems equipped with scanning laser range finders as the primary sensors in (2) indoor environments (or relatively simply structured outdoor environments). The few prior vision-based SLAM algorithms have been feature-based and not suitable for real-time applications and, hence, not suitable for autonomous navigation on irregularly structured terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm incorporates two key innovations: Visual odometry (in contradistinction to wheel odometry) is used to estimate the motion of the vehicle. An elevation variance map (in contradistinction to an occupancy or an elevation map) is used to represent the terrain. The Gamma-SLAM algorithm makes use of a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) from Bayesian estimation theory for maintaining a distribution over poses and maps. The core idea of the RBPF approach is that the SLAM problem can be factored into two parts: (1) finding the distribution over robot trajectories, and (2) finding the map conditioned on any given trajectory. The factorization involves the use of a particle filter in which each particle encodes both a possible trajectory and a map conditioned on that trajectory. The base estimate of the trajectory is derived from visual odometry, and the map conditioned on that trajectory is a Cartesian grid of elevation variances. In comparison with traditional occupancy or elevation grid maps, the grid elevation variance

  8. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  9. MAPPER: A personal computer map projection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Steven A.

    1993-01-01

    MAPPER is a set of software tools designed to let users create and manipulate map projections on a personal computer (PC). The capability exists to generate five popular map projections. These include azimuthal, cylindrical, mercator, lambert, and sinusoidal projections. Data for projections are contained in five coordinate databases at various resolutions. MAPPER is managed by a system of pull-down windows. This interface allows the user to intuitively create, view and export maps to other platforms.

  10. Catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis as a principal strategy in multistep synthesis design: a concise route to (+)-neopeltolide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Schrock, Richard R; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    Molybdenum-, tungsten-, and ruthenium-based complexes that control the stereochemical outcome of olefin metathesis reactions have been recently introduced. However, the complementary nature of these systems through their combined use in multistep complex molecule synthesis has not been illustrated. A concise diastereo- and enantioselective route that furnishes the anti-proliferative natural product neopeltolide is now disclosed. Catalytic transformations are employed to address every stereochemical issue. Among the featured processes are an enantioselective ring-opening/cross-metathesis promoted by a Mo monoaryloxide pyrrolide (MAP) complex and a macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis that affords a trisubstituted alkene and is catalyzed by a Mo bis(aryloxide) species. Furthermore, Z-selective cross-metathesis reactions, facilitated by Mo and Ru complexes, have been employed in the stereoselective synthesis of the acyclic dienyl moiety of the target molecule. PMID:25377347

  11. Catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis as a principal strategy in multistep synthesis design: a concise route to (+)-neopeltolide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Schrock, Richard R; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    Molybdenum-, tungsten-, and ruthenium-based complexes that control the stereochemical outcome of olefin metathesis reactions have been recently introduced. However, the complementary nature of these systems through their combined use in multistep complex molecule synthesis has not been illustrated. A concise diastereo- and enantioselective route that furnishes the anti-proliferative natural product neopeltolide is now disclosed. Catalytic transformations are employed to address every stereochemical issue. Among the featured processes are an enantioselective ring-opening/cross-metathesis promoted by a Mo monoaryloxide pyrrolide (MAP) complex and a macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis that affords a trisubstituted alkene and is catalyzed by a Mo bis(aryloxide) species. Furthermore, Z-selective cross-metathesis reactions, facilitated by Mo and Ru complexes, have been employed in the stereoselective synthesis of the acyclic dienyl moiety of the target molecule.

  12. Mapping auroral activity with Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, N. A.; MacDonald, E. A.; Heavner, M.; Tapia, A. H.; Lalone, N.

    2015-05-01

    Twitter is a popular, publicly accessible, social media service that has proven useful in mapping large-scale events in real time. In this study, for the first time, the use of Twitter as a measure of auroral activity is investigated. Peaks in the number of aurora-related tweets are found to frequently coincide with geomagnetic disturbances (detection rate of 91%). Additionally, the number of daily aurora-related tweets is found to strongly correlate with several auroral strength proxies (ravg≈0.7). An examination is made of the bias for location and time of day within Twitter data, and a first-order correction of these effects is presented. Overall, the results suggest that Twitter can provide both specific details about an individual aurora and accurate real-time indication of when, and even from where, an aurora is visible.

  13. Charting the map of life.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C W

    2001-01-01

    Scientists expect that mapping the human genome will lead to a host of innovations in biology and research. For example, it may become possible to use DNA microarrays to accurately diagnose cancer and infectious disease subtypes and to predict clinical outcomes. Scientists might also use the genome to look at the interactions of the environment, genetic makeup, and toxic exposures, including the ability of certain beneficial genes to detoxify the body and resist disease. But despite the great potential of the field of genomics, scientists caution that public expectations need to be tempered by reality. People are as much a product of their environment as they are of their genes, say experts, and to suggest that genetics is the sole determinant that defines humans as individuals stretches the science beyond the current data. PMID:11171541

  14. Comparative gene map of hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Seda, O

    2004-01-01

    Elevated triglyceride levels in the circulation are currently recognized as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Hypertriglyceridaemia represents one of the attributes of metabolic syndrome and is present in the most common genetic dyslipidaemia, the familial combined hyperlipidaemia. The factual concentration of triglycerides is determined by a complex interaction of environmental and genetic components. Deeper understanding of the causative gene variants and the mode of their participation in the pathogenesis of hypertriglyceridaemia is required for devising efficient therapy of hypertriglyceridaemia. This is the first systematic review of linkage and candidate gene studies dealing with the dissection of genetic determinants of (hyper)triglyceridaemia in human and two major mammalian model species, mouse and rat. Based on the merged sets of data, a synthetic view of the genetic component of triglyceridaemia, the "hypertriglyceridaemia gene map", is presented.

  15. Vesta surface thermal properties map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capria, Maria Teresa; Tosi, F.; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Frigeri, A.; Zambon, F; Fonte, S.; Palomba, E.; Turrini, D.; Titus, T.N.; Schroder, S.E.; Toplis, M.J.; Liu, J.Y.; Combe, J.-P.; Raymond, C.A.; Russell, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    The first ever regional thermal properties map of Vesta has been derived from the temperatures retrieved by infrared data by the mission Dawn. The low average value of thermal inertia, 30 ± 10 J m−2 s−0.5 K−1, indicates a surface covered by a fine regolith. A range of thermal inertia values suggesting terrains with different physical properties has been determined. The lower thermal inertia of the regions north of the equator suggests that they are covered by an older, more processed surface. A few specific areas have higher than average thermal inertia values, indicative of a more compact material. The highest thermal inertia value has been determined on the Marcia crater, known for its pitted terrain and the presence of hydroxyl in the ejecta. Our results suggest that this type of terrain can be the result of soil compaction following the degassing of a local subsurface reservoir of volatiles.

  16. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing. PMID:26117153

  17. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  18. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing.

  19. Window defect planar mapping technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, F. R.; Minton, U. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method of planar mapping defects in a window having an edge surface and a planar surface. The method is comprised of steps for mounting the window on a support surface. Then a light sensitive paper is placed adjacent to the window surface. A light source is positioned adjacent to the window edge. The window is then illuminated with the source of light for a predetermined interval of time. Defects on the surface of the glass, as well as in the interior of the glass are detected by analyzing the developed light sensitive paper. The light source must be in the form of optical fibers or a light tube whose light transmitting ends are placed near the edge surface of the window.

  20. Phonon Mapping in Flowing Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, J. P. C.

    2015-03-01

    When a material conducts heat, a modification of the phonon population occurs. The equilibrium Bose-Einstein distribution is perturbed towards flowing-equilibrium, for which the distribution function is not analytically known. Here I argue that the altered phonon population can be efficiently mapped over broad regions of reciprocal space, via diffuse x-ray scattering or time-of-flight neutron scattering, while a thermal gradient is applied across a single crystal sample. When compared to traditional transport measurements, this technique offers a superior, information-rich new perspective on lattice thermal conductivity, wherein the band and momentum dependences of the phonon thermal current are directly resolved. The proposed method is benchmarked using x-ray thermal diffuse scattering measurements of single crystal diamond under transport conditions. CHESS is supported by the NSF & NIH/NIGMS via NSF Award DMR-1332208.