Science.gov

Sample records for monobutyl phosphate

  1. Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether ; CASRN 143 - 22 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  2. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (2-Butoxyethanol)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER ( EGBE ) ( CAS No . 111 - 76 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER Thi

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of propionaldehyde that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  5. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether...

  6. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether...

  7. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether...

  8. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether...

  9. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE,2-Butoxyethanol...

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  14. Dibutyl Phthalate Rather Than Monobutyl Phthalate Facilitates Contact Hypersensitivity to Fluorescein Isothiocyanate in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kurohane, Kohta; Sekiguchi, Kota; Ogawa, Erina; Tsutsumi, Masato; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2017-08-26

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a plasticizer used for many consumer products including cosmetics. Potential health concerns regarding DBP include reproductive and developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity. DBP is a high priority chemical as to reduction of exposure of children to it. Through reproductive toxicity studies, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) has been proposed to be the active metabolite derived from DBP. We previously demonstrated that DBP activates transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels expressed on sensory neurons. We have also shown that DBP enhanced skin sensitization in a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mouse model. Through MBP formation by esterase in the skin, it is possible that MBP exerts a major effect on the biological activity we observed. To test this possibility, we directly compared DBP and MBP. A more than 40-fold higher concentration of MBP as compared with DBP was required for activation of TRPA1 in vitro. Unlike DBP, MBP did not enhance skin sensitization to FITC. These results demonstrated that DBP directly, i.e., not through its metabolite MBP, activates TRPA1 and enhances FITC-CHS. It is noteworthy that butyl benzoate, a related compound, activated TRPA1 and enhanced FITC-CHS.

  15. Fertility and developmental toxicity studies of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE) in rats.

    PubMed

    Sitarek, Krystyna; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Lutz, Piotr; Stetkiewicz, Jan; Świercz, Radosław; Wąsowicz, Wojciech

    2012-09-01

    The solvent, dimethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE), is a component of latex paints, inks; it is used as a degreasing agent, industrial detergent. The aim of the study was evaluating the effects of DGBE administered by gavage on the estrous cycle and given with drinking water on fertility in rats and early development of their progeny. Female rats were exposed to DGBE by gavage during 8 weeks at 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day. Vaginal smears were collected during the exposure and 4 weeks after its cessation. Fertility studies were performed in male and female animals exposed to in drinking water. Males were exposed for 10 weeks and then mated with females exposed before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. Young animals were observed during 3 weeks after birth. DGBE does not cause disturbances of the menstrual cycle in females. Parameters used to assess the general toxicity indicate that males receiving DGBE in drinking water are more sensitive to this compound than females: significantly greater, dose-dependent relative spleen weight, significant decrease in hematological parameters from 8% to 15% depending on the dose, were observed. Clinical chemistry parameters (HDL-cholesterol, BUN) and some markers of oxidative stress differ between the exposed groups and the control one, but without adverse health effect. The microscopic examination of internal organs did not reveal morphological changes in male and female rats. The results of our study on the impact of exposure to DGBE on fertility in rats indicate that the substance administered for 9-10 weeks to females and males at a limit dose of 1000 mg/kg did not impair fertility or viability of their offspring during the first three weeks of life.

  16. Bioaugmentation for treatment of full-scale diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE) wastewater by Serratia sp. BDG-2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maoxia; Fan, Rong; Zou, Wenhui; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang; Li, Xudong

    2016-05-15

    A novel bacterial strain BDG-2 was isolated and used to augment the treatment of silicon plate manufacturing wastewater that primarily contains diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE). BDG-2 was identified as a Serratia sp. Under the optimal conditions of 30 °C, pH 9 and DGBE concentration of 2000 mg L(-1), the bioaugmented system achieved 96.92% COD removal after 39.9h. Laboratory-scale technological matching results indicated that, in a biofilm process with the addition of 100 mg L(-1) ammonia and 5 mg L(-1) total phosphorus (TP), 70.61% COD removal efficiency could be obtained in 46 h. Addition of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) to the reactors during the suspension process enhanced the settleability of the BDG-2 culture. Subsequently, successful start-up and stable operation of a full-scale bioaugmented treatment facilities were accomplished, and the volumetric organic load in the plug-flow aeration tank was 2.17 ± 0.81 kg m(-3) d(-1). The effluent COD of the facilities was stable and always below 100 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of 14 monoalkyl phosphates, dialkyl phosphates and dialkyl thiophosphates by LC-MS/MS in human urinary samples.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Lingott, Jana; Roegler, Stefanie

    2011-04-15

    Human urine was analyzed for nine dialkyl (DAP) and five monoalkyl phosphates (MAP) by LC-MS/MS. Some phosphoric acid esters are industrial chemicals and other hydrolysis products of trialkyl or triaryl phosphates, used as pesticides, flame retardants or plasticizers. Five MAP and two DAP were detected here for the first time in human urine. Monobutyl, diethyl, diphenyl and diethylhexyl phosphate were determined with median concentrations in the μg/L-range. The total urinary concentration of the 14 DAP and MAP summed up to a median of 20μg/L. Inclusion of MAP in future biomonitoring studies should provide a more comprehensive picture of the exposure of humans to organophosphorus compounds.

  18. Assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl and monophenyl ether reproductive toxicity using a continuous breeding protocol in Swiss CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Heindel, J J; Gulati, D K; Russell, V S; Reel, J R; Lawton, A D; Lamb, J C

    1990-11-01

    A continuous breeding reproduction study design was utilized to examine the reproductive toxicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) and ethylene glycol monophenyl ether (EGPE). Swiss CD-1 mice were administered EGBE in drinking water (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%, i.e., 0.7, 1.3, and 2.1 g/kg body wt/day) and EGPE was administered via the feed (0, 0.25, 1.25, and 2.5%, i.e., 0, 0.4, 2.0, and 4 g/kg body wt/day). Both male and female mice were dosed for 7 days prior to and during a 98-day cohabitation period. EGBE was toxic at the high (2%) and mid dose (1%) to adult F0 female mice: 13 out of 22 females at the high dose and 6 out of 20 at the mid dose died during the cohabitation period. Both the high- and mid-dose animals produced fewer litters/pair, fewer pups/litter, with decreased pup weight. These effects occurred in the presence of decreased body weight, decreased water consumption, and increased kidney weight. A crossover mating trial indicated that the reproductive effects could be attributed primarily to an effect on the female. This was substantiated at necropsy where testes and epididymis weights were normal as were sperm number and motility. Fertility of the offspring of the 0.5% group was normal in the presence of increased liver weights. With respect to EGPE, there was no change in the ability to produce five litters during the continuous breeding period. There was, however, a significant but small (10-15%) decrease in the number of pups/litter and in pup weight in the high-dose group. A crossover mating trial suggested a female component of the reproductive toxicity of EGPE. While fertility was only minimally compromised, severe neonatal toxicity was observed. By Day 21 there were only 8 out of 40 litters in the mid- and high-dose groups which had at least one male and female/litter. Second generation reproductive performance of the mid-dose group (1.25%) was unaffected except for a small decrease in live pup weight. In summary the reproductive

  19. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  20. Direct determination of phosphate esters in concentrated nitrate media by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rivasseau, C; Lando, L; Rey-Gaurez, F; Bisel, I; Sans, D; Faucon, M; Adnet, J M

    2003-10-10

    The potential of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for the determination of dibutyl phosphate (DBP) and monobutyl phosphate (MBP), two degradation products of the tributyl phosphate extractant used in the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry, was evaluated. Analysis conditions were optimised, taking particularly into account that many determinations had to be performed in concentrated aqueous nitrate or nitric acid solutions. Separations were therefore carried out using the counter-electroosmotic mode with cathodic detection in a pH 8.3 electrolyte containing a suitably selected chromophore, salicylate, to ensure the indirect UV detection of the analytes. Various aspects of the method, including its sensitivity, working range, repeatability, and rapidity, were examined. Quantification of both phosphate esters was achieved in less than 3 min at concentrations ranging from 2 x 10(-6) to 10(-3) mol l(-1) in samples containing no macro-component. The lower end of this range increased to 5 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) for MBP and 1.5 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) for DBP in samples containing 5 x 10(-2) mol l(-1) of sodium nitrate, thus enabling their determination in solutions containing nitrate or nitric acid at concentrations up to, respectively, 10,000 and 3000 times higher than the target analyte concentration. This simple, fast and reliable method is routinely applicable to aqueous samples with no other preliminary treatment than a proper dilution; analysis was also performed in organic matrices after a prior extraction. The method was validated by an excellent correlation with the standard DBP analysis technique, gas chromatography (GC). In order to develop appropriate chemical treatments to destroy these compounds, the method was applied to the monitoring of DBP and MBP degradation by hydrogen peroxide in 1 mol l(-1) nitric acid solutions.

  1. Regulation of serum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  2. Phosphate Uptake by Phosphate-Starved Euglena

    PubMed Central

    BLUM, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Phosphate-deprived Euglena acquire the ability to rapidly in-corporate added phosphate and, also, synthesize an induced acid phosphatase localized in the pellicle. The phosphate uptake system is saturated at low concentrations of phosphate and is inhibited by dinitrophenol, by low temperature, by K+, Li+, and Na+ ions, and competitively by arsenate. The orthophosphate incorporated into the cell is rapidly converted into organic forms but enough remains unesterified to suggest that the uptake is an active transport process. The data do not rule out the possibility that the induced phosphatase is involved in the transport process. PMID:5924104

  3. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders.

    PubMed

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  4. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  5. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that ...

  7. Why nature chose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, F H

    1987-03-06

    Phosphate esters and anhydrides dominate the living world but are seldom used as intermediates by organic chemists. Phosphoric acid is specially adapted for its role in nucleic acids because it can link two nucleotides and still ionize; the resulting negative charge serves both to stabilize the diesters against hydrolysis and to retain the molecules within a lipid membrane. A similar explanation for stability and retention also holds for phosphates that are intermediary metabolites and for phosphates that serve as energy sources. Phosphates with multiple negative charges can react by way of the monomeric metaphosphate ion PO3- as an intermediate. No other residue appears to fulfill the multiple roles of phosphate in biochemistry. Stable, negatively charged phosphates react under catalysis by enzymes; organic chemists, who can only rarely use enzymatic catalysis for their reactions, need more highly reactive intermediates than phosphates.

  8. Phosphate, inositol and polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Thomas M; Azevedo, Cristina; Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Wilson, Miranda S C; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells have ubiquitously utilized the myo-inositol backbone to generate a diverse array of signalling molecules. This is achieved by arranging phosphate groups around the six-carbon inositol ring. There is virtually no biological process that does not take advantage of the uniquely variable architecture of phosphorylated inositol. In inositol biology, phosphates are able to form three distinct covalent bonds: phosphoester, phosphodiester and phosphoanhydride bonds, with each providing different properties. The phosphoester bond links phosphate groups to the inositol ring, the variable arrangement of which forms the basis of the signalling capacity of the inositol phosphates. Phosphate groups can also form the structural bridge between myo-inositol and diacylglycerol through the phosphodiester bond. The resulting lipid-bound inositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, further expand the signalling potential of this family of molecules. Finally, inositol is also notable for its ability to host more phosphates than it has carbons. These unusual organic molecules are commonly referred to as the inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs), due to the presence of high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds (pyro- or diphospho-). PP-IPs themselves constitute a varied family of molecules with one or more pyrophosphate moiety/ies located around the inositol. Considering the relationship between phosphate and inositol, it is no surprise that members of the inositol phosphate family also regulate cellular phosphate homoeostasis. Notably, the PP-IPs play a fundamental role in controlling the metabolism of the ancient polymeric form of phosphate, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). Here we explore the intimate links between phosphate, inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  9. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Ito, A; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemotactic response to phosphate regardless of whether the cells were starved for phosphate.

  10. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  11. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  12. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  13. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  14. Acute phosphate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Monfared, Ali; Habibzadeh, Seyed Mahmoud; Mesbah, Seyed Alireza

    2014-05-01

    We present acute phosphate nephropathy in a 28-year-old man, which was developed after a car accident due to rhabdomyolysis. Treatment of acute kidney injury was done with administration of sodium bicarbonate.

  15. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-21

    Jordan leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 17, 2005.

  16. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  17. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  18. Phosphate control in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-10-04

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive-convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200-300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients.

  19. Sodium phosphate-derived calcium phosphate cements

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R. )

    1995-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) were synthesized by the acid-base reaction between sodium phosphate, NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] or -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n], as the acid solution, and calcium aluminate cements (CAC) as the base reactant at 25 C. The extent of reactivity of -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] with CAC was much higher than that of NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4], thereby resulting in a compressive strength of > 20 MPa. Sodium calcium orthophosphate (SCOP) salts as amorphous reaction products were responsible for the development of this strength. When this CPC specimen as exposed in an autoclave, in-situ amorphous [r arrow] crystal conversions, such as SCOP [r arrow] hydroxyapatite (HOAp), and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] [center dot] xH[sub 2]O [r arrow] [gamma]-AlOOH, occurred at [approx] 100 C, while the rate of reaction of the residual CAC with the phosphate reactant was increasingly accelerated by hydrothermal catalysis. Based upon this information, the authors prepared lightweight CPC specimens by hydrothermally treating a low-density cement slurry (1.28 g/cc) consisting of CAC powder, -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] solution, and mullite-hollow microspheres. The characteristics of the autoclaved lightweight specimens were a compressive strength of > 9.0 MPa, water permeability of [approx] 5.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] milli darcy, and a low rate of alkali carbonation. The reasons for such a low carbonation rate reflected the presence of a minimum amount of residual CAC, in conjunction with the presence of HOAp and [gamma]-AlOOH phases that are unsusceptible to wet carbonation.

  20. Improved Manganese Phosphate Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    Conversion coatings 3 . Phosphating bath 20 AGrjC onln odd*. ta It .. c..soMV midP 1J.,alft. by block noc.mb) Work was conducted to determine the mechanism by...34 TABULAR DATA Table I Analyses of Solution and Coating for Phosphating Baths 4 of Di-ferlng Compositions 11 Atomic Absorption...manganese and iron phosphate coating: k * a. Mn(H 2PO4) 2 Nn-P0 4 + H3PO0 k2 k) b. 3MnHPO4 - Mn3 (P04) 2 + H3i’O4 k4 k5 c. Fe(H 2PO4) 2 -01 FeHPO4

  1. Codeine dihydrogen phosphate hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Langes, Christoph; Gelbrich, Thomas; Griesser, Ulrich J; Kahlenberg, Volker

    2009-08-01

    The cation of the title structure [systematic name: (5alpha,6alpha)-6-hydroxy-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinanium dihydrogen phosphate hemihydrate], C18H22NO3+.H2PO4-.0.5H2O, has a T-shaped conformation. The dihydrogen phosphate anions are linked by O-H...O hydrogen bonds to give an extended ribbon chain. The codeine cations are linked together by O-H...O hydrogen bonds into a zigzag chain. There are also N-H...O bonds between the two types of hydrogen-bonded units. Additionally, they are connected to one another via O...H-O-H...O bridging water molecules. The asymmetric unit contains two codeine hydrogen cations, two dihydrogen phosphate anions and one water molecule. This study shows that the water molecules are firmly bound within a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded framework.

  2. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  4. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  5. Evaluation of Manganese Phosphate Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    84003 _____________ 4 . TTLE and -bitle)5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EVALUATION OF MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS Final 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...rosion resistance of the Endurion phosphate was significantly superior to the 4 . basic manganese phosphate . Endurion phosphate with a Supplementary...OF CONTENTS Page STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 BACKGROUND 1 APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM 3 RESULTS 4 CONCLUSIONS 7 TABLES I. Falex Wear Life Test Procedure 8

  6. Calcium Phosphates and Human Beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the general importance of calcium phosphates for human beings. The basic information on the structure and chemical properties of the biologically relevant calcium phosphates is summarized. Basic facts on the natural occurrence and the industrial use of natural calcium phosphates are discussed. Fundamental details on the presence of calcium phosphates in major calcified tissues (bones and teeth) of humans and mammals, as well as on biomaterials made of calcium phosphates are discussed. The article will be of value for chemistry teachers for expansion of their general background and point the students' attention to the rapidly growing topic of bone-substituting biomaterials.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-0975...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  12. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  13. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  14. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Bhadauria, Dharmendra

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body. PMID:23961477

  15. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  16. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  17. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, Fe... ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  19. Phosphate nutrition: improving low-phosphate tolerance in crops.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that is required for all major developmental processes and reproduction in plants. It is also a major constituent of the fertilizers required to sustain high-yield agriculture. Levels of phosphate--the only form of phosphorus that can be assimilated by plants--are suboptimal in most natural and agricultural ecosystems, and when phosphate is applied as fertilizer in soils, it is rapidly immobilized owing to fixation and microbial activity. Thus, cultivated plants use only approximately 20-30% of the applied phosphate, and the rest is lost, eventually causing water eutrophication. Recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms by which wild and cultivated species adapt to low-phosphate stress and the implementation of alternative bacterial pathways for phosphorus metabolism have started to allow the design of more effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to produce highly phosphate-efficient crops, optimize fertilizer use, and reach agricultural sustainability with a lower environmental cost. In this review, we outline the current advances in research on the complex network of plant responses to low-phosphorus stress and discuss some strategies used to manipulate genes involved in phosphate uptake, remobilization, and metabolism to develop low-phosphate-tolerant crops, which could help in designing more efficient crops.

  20. Crystallization of calcium phosphate in polyacrylamide hydrogels containing phosphate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Taishi; Kawashita, Masakazu; Kikuta, Koichi; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2010-08-01

    Calcium phosphate crystals were formed in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels containing phosphate ions by diffusion of calcium ions from calcium nitrate (Ca(NO 3) 2) solutions covering the gels. Changes in crystalline phases and crystal morphology of calcium phosphate, and in ion concentrations of the Ca(NO 3) 2 solutions were investigated as a function of reaction time. Single or two coexisting crystalline phases of calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite (HAp), HAp/dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) or octacalcium phosphate (OCP)/DCPD were formed in the gels. HAp crystals are formed near the surface of the gels. The dense HAp layer and HAp/DCPD layer prevented diffusion of calcium ions from the Ca(NO 3) 2 solution, thus formation of calcium phosphate in the gel phase was inhibited. Formation of DCPD was observed to follow the formation of OCP or HAp. The size of the OCP crystals gradually increased with reaction time, while changes in size of HAp crystals were not observed. The reaction time required for DCPD formation depended on the degree of supersaturation with respect to DCPD in the systems. DCPD formed within 1 day under high supersaturation conditions, whereas it formed at 10 days in low supersaturation conditions.

  1. A water setting tetracalcium phosphate-dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cement.

    PubMed

    Burguera, E F; Guitián, F; Chow, L C

    2004-11-01

    The development of a calcium phosphate cement, comprising tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), that hardens in 14 min with water as the liquid or 6 min with a 0.25 mol/L sodium phosphate solution as the liquid, without using hydroxyapatite (HA) seeds as setting accelerator, is reported. It was postulated that reduction in porosity would increase cement strength. Thus, the effects of applied pressure during the initial stages of the cement setting reaction on cement strength and porosity were studied. The cement powder comprised an equimolar mixture of TTCP and DCPD (median particle sizes 17 and 1.7 microm, respectively). Compressive strengths (CS) of samples prepared with distilled water were 47.6 +/- 2.4 MPa, 50.7 +/- 4.2 MPa, and 52.9 +/- 4.7 MPa at applied pressures of 5 MPa, 15 MPa, and 25 MPa, respectively. When phosphate solution was used, the CS values obtained were 41.5 +/- 2.3 MPa, 37.9 +/- 1.7 MPa, and 38.1 +/- 2.3 MPa at the same pressure levels. Statistical analysis of the results showed that pressure produced an improvement in CS when water was used as liquid but not when the phosphate solution was used. Compared to previously reported TTCP-DCPD cements, the greater CS values and shorter setting times together with a simplified formulation should make the present TTCP-DCPD cement a useful material as a bone substitute for clinical applications.

  2. Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticle Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Mitchell, Alaina R.; Johnson, Stacy L.; Wagner-Bartak, Claus; Morcol, Tulin; Bell, Steve J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Vaccination to protect against human infectious diseases may be enhanced by using adjuvants that can selectively stimulate immunoregulatory responses. In a murine model, a novel nanoparticulate adjuvant composed of calcium phosphate (CAP) was compared with the commonly used aluminum (alum) adjuvants for its ability to induce immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Results indicated that CAP was more potent as an adjuvant than alum, elicited little or no inflammation at the site of administration, induced high titers of immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) antibody and neutralizing antibody, and facilitated a high percentage of protection against HSV-2 infection. Additional benefits of CAP include (i) an insignificant IgE response, which is an important advantage over injection of alum compounds, and (ii) the fact that CAP is a natural constituent of the human body. Thus, CAP is very well tolerated and absorbed. These studies were performed with animal models. By virtue of the potency of this CAP adjuvant and the relative absence of side effects, we believe that this new CAP formulation has great potential for use as an adjuvant in humans. PMID:11063495

  3. Piperaquine phosphate: reproduction studies.

    PubMed

    Longo, Monica; Pace, Silvia; Messina, Monica; Ferraris, Laura; Brughera, Marco; Ubben, David; Mazuè, Guy

    2012-12-01

    In embryofetal studies in rat and rabbit Piperaquine phosphate (PQP) was not teratogenic at the maximal tolerated dose, even in presence of fetal exposure. In peri- post-natal study in rat, PQP did not interfere with the course of delivery at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day (treatment Gestation Day(GD)6-Lactation Day(LD)21) as well as up to the dose of 20 mg/kg/day (treatment GD6-17 and LD1-21). PQP at the dose of 80 mg/kg, induced prolonged gestation, dystocic delivery and increase perinatal mortality both with interruption of treatment (GD6 to GD17 and LD1-21) and with continuous dosing (GD19-LD21). PQP did not interfere with lactation and pup growth and development, in presence of clear exposure during suckling period, irrespective of the dose and treatment schedules. It was not possible to identify the mechanism leading to the delivery delay. In a comparative study using other antimalarials, only Mefloquine gave similar findings to PQP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent advances in phosphate biosensors.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan; Verma, Nishant

    2015-07-01

    A number of biosensors have been developed for phosphate analysis particularly, concerning its negative impact within the environmental and biological systems. Enzymatic biosensors comprising either a single or multiple enzymatic system have been extensively used for the direct and indirect analysis of phosphate ions. Furthermore, some non-enzymatic biosensors, such as affinity-based biosensors, provide an alternative analytical approach with a higher selectivity. This article reviews the recent advances in the field of biosensor developed for phosphate estimation in clinical and environmental samples, concerning the techniques involved, and the sensitivity toward phosphate ions. The biosensors have been classified and discussed on the basis of the number of enzymes used to develop the analytical system, and a comparative analysis has been performed.

  5. Toxicological review of inorganic phosphates.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Salminen, W F; Larson, P R; Barter, R A; Kranetz, J L; Simon, G S

    2001-08-01

    Inorganic phosphate salts are widely used as food ingredients and in a variety of commercial applications. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers inorganic phosphates "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) (FDA, 1973a, 1979) [FDA: Food and Drug Administration 1973a. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) food ingredients-phosphates. NTIS PB-221-224, FDA, Food and Drug Administration, 1979. Phosphates; Proposed Affirmation of and Deletion From GRAS Status as Direct and Human Food Ingredients. Federal Register 44 (244). 74845-74857, 18 December (1979)] and the European Union (EU) allows inorganic phosphates to be added directly to food (EU Directive 95/2/EC as amended by 98/72/EC). In this review, data on the acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity from the published literature and from unpublished studies by the manufacturers are reviewed. Based on the toxicity data and similar chemistry, the inorganic phosphates can be separated into four major classes, consisting of monovalent salts, divalent salts, ammonium salts and aluminum salts. The proposed classification scheme supports the use of toxicity data from one compound to assess the toxicity of another compound in the same class. However, in the case of eye and skin irritation, the proposed classification scheme cannot be used because a wide range of responses exists within each class. Therefore, the eye and skin hazards associated with an individual inorganic phosphate should be assessed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. A large amount of toxicity data exists for all four classes of inorganic phosphates. The large and comprehensive database allows an accurate assessment of the toxicity of each class of inorganic phosphate. Overall, all four classes of inorganic phosphates exhibit low oral, inhalation and dermal toxicities. Based on these data, humans are unlikely to experience adverse effects when the daily phosphorus consumption remains

  6. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and...

  7. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and...

  8. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and...

  9. Thiosulfate Reduces Calcium Phosphate Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Asplin, John R.; Donahue, Susan E.; Lindeman, Christina; Michalenka, Anne; Strutz, Kelly Laplante; Bushinsky, David A.

    2009-01-01

    An uncontrolled trial reported that sodium thiosulfate reduces formation of calcium kidney stones in humans, but this has not been established in a controlled human study or animal model. Using the genetic hypercalciuric rat, an animal model of calcium phosphate stone formation, we studied the effect of sodium thiosulfate on urine chemistries and stone formation. We fed genetic hypercalciuric rats normal food with or without sodium thiosulfate for 18 wk and measured urine chemistries, supersaturation, and the upper limit of metastability of urine. Eleven of 12 untreated rats formed stones compared with only three of 12 thiosulfate-treated rats (P < 0.002). Urine calcium and phosphorus were higher and urine citrate and volume were lower in the thiosulfate-treated rats, changes that would increase calcium phosphate supersaturation. Thiosulfate treatment lowered urine pH, which would lower calcium phosphate supersaturation. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in calcium phosphate supersaturation or upper limit of metastability between thiosulfate-treated and control rats. In vitro, thiosulfate only minimally affected ionized calcium, suggesting a mechanism of action other than calcium chelation. In summary, sodium thiosulfate reduces calcium phosphate stone formation in the genetic hypercalciuric rat. Controlled trials testing the efficacy and safety of sodium thiosulfate for recurrent kidney stones in humans are needed. PMID:19369406

  10. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Tallent, Othar K.; Dodson, Karen E.; Mailen, James C.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel processing solution containing (1) hydrocarbon diluent, (2) tri-n-butyl phosphate or tri-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, and (3) monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or a complex formed by plutonium, uranium, or a fission product thereof with monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate is contacted with silica gel having alkali ions absorbed thereon to remove any one of the degradation products named in section (3) above from said solution.

  12. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  13. Phosphate-Bonded Fly Ash.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-09

    FCODE OC ______________ ARLINGTON VA 22217-5660 - dis~bu~i.19~ 3 B Navy Case No. 75,787 PATENTS PHOSPHATE -BONDED FLY ASH IN’NA G. TALMY DEBORAH A. HAUGHT...2 3 , CaO. MgO, etc. with which the H.PO4 reacts to form the polymer-like phosphate bonds which hold the fly ash particles together. In the second...conventional means. The moisture (water) content of the aqueous HP0 4 /fly ash mixture is preferably from about 3 to about 5 weight percent for semidry

  14. Photorelease of phosphates: Mild methods for protecting phosphate derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Yousef, Abraham L

    2014-01-01

    Summary We have developed a new photoremovable protecting group for caging phosphates in the near UV. Diethyl 2-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14a) quantitatively releases diethyl phosphate upon irradiation in aq MeOH or aq MeCN at 350 nm, with quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.021 to 0.067 depending on the solvent composition. The deprotection reactions originate from the triplet excited state, are robust under ambient conditions and can be carried on to 100% conversion. Similar results were found with diethyl 2-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14b), although it was significantly less efficient compared with 14a. A key step in the deprotection reaction in aq MeOH is considered to be a Favorskii rearrangement of the naphthyl ketone motif of 14a,b to naphthylacetate esters 25 and 26. Disruption of the ketone-naphthyl ring conjugation significantly shifts the photoproduct absorption away from the effective incident wavelength for decaging of 14, driving the reaction to completion. The Favorskii rearrangement does not occur in aqueous acetonitrile although diethyl phosphate is released. Other substitution patterns on the naphthyl or quinolin-5-yl core, such as the 2,6-naphthyl 10 or 8-benzyloxyquinolin-5-yl 24 platforms, also do not rearrange by aryl migration upon photolysis and, therefore, do not proceed to completion. The 2,6-naphthyl ketone platform instead remains intact whereas the quinolin-5-yl ketone fragments to a much more complex, highly absorbing reaction mixture that competes for the incident light. PMID:25246963

  15. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Revisited

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Jerome T.; Henderson, Alfred R.

    1984-01-01

    Hemolytic diseases associated with drugs have been recognized since antiquity. Many of these anemias have been associated with oxidizing agents and deficiencies in the intraerythrocytic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This paper outlines the discovery, prevalence, and variants of this enzyme. Methods of diagnosis of associated anemias are offered. PMID:6502728

  16. Why nature really chose phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kamerlin, Shina C L; Sharma, Pankaz K; Prasad, Ram B; Warshel, Arieh

    2013-02-01

    Phosphoryl transfer plays key roles in signaling, energy transduction, protein synthesis, and maintaining the integrity of the genetic material. On the surface, it would appear to be a simple nucleophile displacement reaction. However, this simplicity is deceptive, as, even in aqueous solution, the low-lying d-orbitals on the phosphorus atom allow for eight distinct mechanistic possibilities, before even introducing the complexities of the enzyme catalyzed reactions. To further complicate matters, while powerful, traditional experimental techniques such as the use of linear free-energy relationships (LFER) or measuring isotope effects cannot make unique distinctions between different potential mechanisms. A quarter of a century has passed since Westheimer wrote his seminal review, 'Why Nature Chose Phosphate' (Science 235 (1987), 1173), and a lot has changed in the field since then. The present review revisits this biologically crucial issue, exploring both relevant enzymatic systems as well as the corresponding chemistry in aqueous solution, and demonstrating that the only way key questions in this field are likely to be resolved is through careful theoretical studies (which of course should be able to reproduce all relevant experimental data). Finally, we demonstrate that the reason that nature really chose phosphate is due to interplay between two counteracting effects: on the one hand, phosphates are negatively charged and the resulting charge-charge repulsion with the attacking nucleophile contributes to the very high barrier for hydrolysis, making phosphate esters among the most inert compounds known. However, biology is not only about reducing the barrier to unfavorable chemical reactions. That is, the same charge-charge repulsion that makes phosphate ester hydrolysis so unfavorable also makes it possible to regulate, by exploiting the electrostatics. This means that phosphate ester hydrolysis can not only be turned on, but also be turned off, by fine tuning

  17. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

  18. Magnetite seeded precipitation of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Nuray; Hoffmann, Erhard; Hahn, Hermann H

    2004-07-01

    Seeded precipitation of Ca phosphate on magnetite mineral (Fe3O4) surfaces was investigated using a Jar Test system in supersaturated solutions at 20 degrees C and ionic strength 0.01 mol l(-1) with relative super saturation, 12.0-20.0 for HAP. pH of the solution, initial phosphorus concentration and molar Ca/P ratio were investigated as the main parameters, which effect the seeded precipitation of Ca phosphate. Results showed that there is no pronounced effect of magnetite seed, neither positive nor negative on the amount of calcium phosphate precipitation. pH was found to be the main parameter that determines the phosphate precipitated onto the seed surface. Increasing of the pH of precipitation reaction was resulted in the decrease in percentage amount of phosphate precipitated onto seed surfaces to total precipitation (magnetite seeded precipitation efficiency). It was concluded that the pH dependence of magnetite-seeded precipitation should be considered in the light of its effect on the supersaturated conditions of solution. Saturation index (SI) of solution with respect to the precipitate phase was considered the driving force for the precipitation. A simulation programme PHREEQC (Version 2) was employed to calculate the Saturation-index with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAP) of the chemically defined precipitation system. It was found a good relationship between SI of solution with respect to HAP and the magnetite seeded precipitation efficiency, a second order polynomial function. Results showed that more favorable solution conditions for precipitation (higher SI values of solution) causes homogenous nucleation whereas heterogeneous nucleation led to a higher magnetite seeded precipitation efficiency.

  19. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful.

  20. Phosphate based oil well cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Ramkumar

    The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

  1. Urea phosphate as granular or fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are being conducted of the production and agronomic characteristics of the phosphoric acid-urea adduct, urea phosphate, and of the various granular and fluid fertilizers that can be produced from it. Flowsheets are given for the production of urea phosphate. Characteristics of unpurified and purified urea phosphate are also given. (DLC)

  2. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6285 Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b) Conditions...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  17. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b) Conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b) Conditions...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b) Conditions...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.5217 Section 582.5217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6290 Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic). (b...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 582.5301 Section 582.5301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5995 - Polyalkyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkyl phosphate. 721.5995 Section... Substances § 721.5995 Polyalkyl phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyalkyl phosphate (PMN P-95-1772) is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  9. [Phosphate sensing and parathyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Masahide; Suzuki, Taihei

    2012-10-01

    In the latter 1990s, phosphate, as well as calcium, has been shown to have a direct action on parathyroid function. Since then although many researchers have tried to detect the phosphate sensor in parathyroid gland, none has found it yet. In 2000s, the importance of FGF23 was revealed in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets and then investigating the role of FGF23 in mineral metabolism has spread. FGF23 target organs comprise those that express coreceptor Klotho, such as kidney and parathyroid glands. While associations of calcium sensing receptor or vitamin D receptor with parathyroid function have been mainly investigated for parathyroid dysfunction, many efforts recently have made to study the effects of FGF23 on parathyroid glands.

  10. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue.

  11. Nucleoside phosphorylation by phosphate minerals.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Saladino, Raffaele; Crestini, Claudia; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2007-06-08

    In the presence of formamide, crystal phosphate minerals may act as phosphate donors to nucleosides, yielding both 5'- and, to a lesser extent, 3'-phosphorylated forms. With the mineral Libethenite the formation of 5'-AMP can be as high as 6% of the adenosine input and last for at least 10(3) h. At high concentrations, soluble non-mineral phosphate donors (KH(2)PO(4) or 5'-CMP) afford 2'- and 2':3'-cyclic AMP in addition to 5'-and 3'-AMP. The phosphate minerals analyzed were Herderite Ca[BePO(4)F], Hureaulite Mn(2+)(5)(PO(3)(OH)(2)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4), Libethenite Cu(2+)(2)(PO(4))(OH), Pyromorphite Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl, Turquoise Cu(2+)Al(6)(PO(4))(4)(OH)(8)(H(2)O)(4), Fluorapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F, Hydroxylapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, Vivianite Fe(2+)(3)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(8), Cornetite Cu(2+)(3)(PO(4))(OH)(3), Pseudomalachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), Reichenbachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), and Ludjibaite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4)). Based on their behavior in the formamide-driven nucleoside phosphorylation reaction, these minerals can be characterized as: 1) inactive, 2) low level phosphorylating agents, or 3) active phosphorylating agents. Instances were detected (Libethenite and Hydroxylapatite) in which phosphorylation occurs on the mineral surface, followed by release of the phosphorylated compounds. Libethenite and Cornetite markedly protect the beta-glycosidic bond. Thus, activated nucleic monomers can form in a liquid non-aqueous environment in conditions compatible with the thermodynamics of polymerization, providing a solution to the standard-state Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG degrees ') problem, the major obstacle for polymerizations in the liquid phase in plausible prebiotic scenarios.

  12. Resorbable calcium phosphate bone substitute.

    PubMed

    Knaack, D; Goad, M E; Aiolova, M; Rey, C; Tofighi, A; Chakravarthy, P; Lee, D D

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo properties of a novel, fully resorbable, apatitic calcium phosphate bone substitute (ABS) are described. The ABS was prepared from calcium phosphate precursors that were hydrated to form an injectable paste that hardens endothermically at 37 degrees C to form a poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphate (PCA). The PCA reaction product is stable in vivo as determined by FTIR and XRD analysis of rabbit intramuscular implants of ABS retrieved 4, 7, and 14 days postimplantation. Bone formation and resorption characteristics of the ABS material were characterized in a canine femoral slot defect model. Femoral slot defects in dogs were filled with either autologous bone implants or the ABS material. Sections of femoral bone defect site from animals sacrificed at 3, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks demonstrated that new bone formation proceeded similarly in both autograft and ABS filled slots. Defects receiving either material were filled with trabecular bone in the first 3 to 4 weeks after implantation; lamellar or cortical bone formation was well established by week 12. New bone formation in ABS filled defects followed a time course comparable to autologous bone graft filled defects. Histomorphometric evaluation of ABS resorption and new bone formation indicated that the ABS material was greater than 99% resorbed within 26 weeks; residual ABS occupied 0.36+/-0.36% (SEM, n = 4) of the original defect area at 26 weeks. Quantitatively and qualitatively, the autograft and ABS were associated with similar new bone growth and defect filling characteristics.

  13. Apyrase Functions in Plant Phosphate Nutrition and Mobilizes Phosphate from Extracellular ATP1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Collin; Sun, Yu; Naus, Katie; Lloyd, Alan; Roux, Stanley

    1999-01-01

    ATP, which is present in the extracellular matrix of multicellular organisms and in the extracellular fluid of unicellular organisms, has been shown to function as a signaling molecule in animals. The concentration of extracellular ATP (xATP) is known to be functionally modulated in part by ectoapyrases, membrane-associated proteins that cleave the γ- and β-phosphates on xATP. We present data showing a previously unreported (to our knowledge) linkage between apyrase and phosphate transport. An apyrase from pea (Pisum sativum) complements a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) phosphate-transport mutant and significantly increases the amount of phosphate taken up by transgenic plants overexpressing the gene. The transgenic plants show enhanced growth and augmented phosphate transport when the additional phosphate is supplied as inorganic phosphate or as ATP. When scavenging phosphate from xATP, apyrase mobilizes the γ-phosphate without promoting the transport of the purine or the ribose. PMID:9952450

  14. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-11-24

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored in the vacuole, allowing plants to adapt to variable Pi availability in the soil. The transporters that mediate Pi sequestration into vacuole remain unknown, however. Here we report the functional characterization of Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter 1 (VPT1), an SPX domain protein that transports Pi into the vacuole in Arabidopsis. The vpt1 mutant plants were stunted and consistently retained less Pi than wild type plants, especially when grown in medium containing high levels of Pi. In seedlings, VPT1 was expressed primarily in younger tissues under normal conditions, but was strongly induced by high-Pi conditions in older tissues, suggesting that VPT1 functions in Pi storage in young tissues and in detoxification of high Pi in older tissues. As a result, disruption of VPT1 rendered plants hypersensitive to both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, reducing the adaptability of plants to changing Pi availability. Patch-clamp analysis of isolated vacuoles showed that the Pi influx current was severely reduced in vpt1 compared with wild type plants. When ectopically expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells, VPT1 mediates vacuolar influx of anions, including Pi, SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), and malate with Pi as that preferred anion. The VPT1-mediated Pi current amplitude was dependent on cytosolic phosphate concentration. Single-channel analysis showed that the open probability of VPT1 was increased with the increase in transtonoplast potential. We conclude that VPT1 is a transporter responsible for vacuolar Pi storage and is essential for Pi adaptation in Arabidopsis.

  15. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored in the vacuole, allowing plants to adapt to variable Pi availability in the soil. The transporters that mediate Pi sequestration into vacuole remain unknown, however. Here we report the functional characterization of Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter 1 (VPT1), an SPX domain protein that transports Pi into the vacuole in Arabidopsis. The vpt1 mutant plants were stunted and consistently retained less Pi than wild type plants, especially when grown in medium containing high levels of Pi. In seedlings, VPT1 was expressed primarily in younger tissues under normal conditions, but was strongly induced by high-Pi conditions in older tissues, suggesting that VPT1 functions in Pi storage in young tissues and in detoxification of high Pi in older tissues. As a result, disruption of VPT1 rendered plants hypersensitive to both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, reducing the adaptability of plants to changing Pi availability. Patch-clamp analysis of isolated vacuoles showed that the Pi influx current was severely reduced in vpt1 compared with wild type plants. When ectopically expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells, VPT1 mediates vacuolar influx of anions, including Pi, SO42−, NO3−, Cl−, and malate with Pi as that preferred anion. The VPT1-mediated Pi current amplitude was dependent on cytosolic phosphate concentration. Single-channel analysis showed that the open probability of VPT1 was increased with the increase in transtonoplast potential. We conclude that VPT1 is a transporter responsible for vacuolar Pi storage and is essential for Pi adaptation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26554016

  16. Properties of Calcium Phosphate Cements With Different Tetracalcium Phosphate and Dicalcium Phosphate Anhydrous Molar Ratios.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Takagi, Shozo; Markovic, Milenko; Chow, Laurence C

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were prepared using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), with TTCP/DCPA molar ratios of 1/1, 1/2, or 1/3, with the powder and water as the liquid. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), porosity, and phase composition (powder x-ray diffraction) were determined after the set specimens have been immersed in a physiological-like solution (PLS) for 1 d, 5 d, and 10 d. Cement dissolution rates in an acidified PLS were measured using a dual constant composition method. Setting times ((30 ± 1) min) were the same for all cements. DTS decreased with decreasing TTCP/DCPA ratio and, in some cases, also decreased with PLS immersion time. Porosity and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation increased with PLS immersion time. Cements with TTCP/DCPA ratios of 1/2 and 1/3, which formed calcium-deficient HA, dissolved more rapidly than the cement with a ratio of 1/1. In conclusion, cements may be prepared with a range of TTCP/DCPA ratios, and those with lower ratio had lower strengths but dissolved more rapidly in acidified PLS.

  17. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    PubMed

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use.

  18. The role of phosphate in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vervloet, Marc G; Sezer, Siren; Massy, Ziad A; Johansson, Lina; Cozzolino, Mario; Fouque, Denis

    2017-01-01

    The importance of phosphate homeostasis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized for decades, but novel insights - which are frequently relevant to everyday clinical practice - continue to emerge. Epidemiological data consistently indicate an association between hyperphosphataemia and poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, compelling evidence suggests direct toxicity of increased phosphate concentrations. Importantly, serum phosphate concentration has a circadian rhythm that must be considered when interpreting patient phosphate levels. Detailed understanding of dietary sources of phosphate, including food additives, can enable phosphate restriction without risking protein malnutrition. Dietary counselling provides an often underestimated opportunity to target the increasing exposure to dietary phosphate of both the general population and patients with CKD. In patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone can be an important source of serum phosphate, and adequate appreciation of this fact should impact treatment. Dietary and pharmotherapeutic interventions are efficacious strategies to lower phosphate intake and serum concentration. However, strong evidence that targeting serum phosphate improves patient outcomes is currently lacking. Future studies are, therefore, required to investigate the effects of modern dietary and pharmacological interventions on clinically meaningful end points.

  19. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy.

  20. Inherited Disorders of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gattineni, Jyothsna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review Inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate homeostasis have variable presentation and can cause significant morbidity. Understanding the mode of inheritance and pathophysiology of these conditions will help in the diagnosis and early institution of therapy. Recent Findings Identification of genetic mutations in human subjects and animal models has advanced our understanding of many inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate regulation. Identification of mutations of CaSR also has improved our understanding of hypocalcemic and hypercalcemic conditions. Mutations of Fgf23, Klotho and phosphate transporter genes have been identified as causes for disorders of phosphate metabolism. Summary Calcium and phosphate homeostasis is tightly regulated in a narrow range due to their vital role in many biological processes. Inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism though uncommon can have severe morbidity. Genetic counseling of the affected families is an important part of the follow up of these patients. PMID:24553630

  1. Inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gattineni, Jyothsna

    2014-04-01

    Inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate homeostasis have variable presentation and can cause significant morbidity. An understanding of the mode of inheritance and pathophysiology of these conditions will help in the diagnosis and early institution of therapy. Identification of genetic mutations in humans and animal models has advanced our understanding of many inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate regulation. Identification of mutations of calcium-sensing receptor has improved our understanding of hypocalcemic and hypercalcemic conditions. Mutations of Fgf23, Klotho and phosphate transporter genes have been identified to cause disorders of phosphate metabolism. Calcium and phosphate homeostasis is tightly regulated in a narrow range due to their vital role in many biological processes. Inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism though uncommon can have severe morbidity. Genetic counseling of the affected families is an important part of the follow-up of these patients.

  2. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  3. Tetracalcium phosphate: Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Moseke, C; Gbureck, U

    2010-10-01

    Monoclinic tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca(4)(PO(4))(2)O), also known by the mineral name hilgenstockite, is formed in the (CaO-P(2)O(5)) system at temperatures>1300 degrees C. TTCP is the only calcium phosphate with a Ca/P ratio greater than hydroxyapatite (HA). It appears as a by-product in plasma-sprayed HA coatings and shows moderate reactivity and concurrent solubility when combined with acidic calcium phosphates such as dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, monetite) or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite). Therefore it is widely used in self-setting calcium phosphate bone cements, which form HA under physiological conditions. This paper aims to review the synthesis and properties of TTCP in biomaterials applications such as cements, sintered ceramics and coatings on implant metals.

  4. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  5. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Ishima, Yuya; Takenaka, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  6. Calcium phosphates: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sune

    2010-03-01

    A number of different calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cements and solid beta-tricalcium phosphate products have been introduced during the last decade. The chemical composition mimics the mineral phase of bone and as a result of this likeness, the materials seem to be remodeled as for normal bone through a cell-mediated process that involves osteoclastic activity. This is a major difference when compared with, for instance, calcium sulphate compounds that after implantation dissolve irrespective of the new bone formation rate. Calcium phosphates are highly biocompatible and in addition, they act as synthetic osteoconductive scaffolds after implantation in bone. When placed adjacent to bone, osteoid is formed directly on the surface of the calcium phosphate with no soft tissue interposed. Remodeling is slow and incomplete, but by adding more and larger pores, like in ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate, complete or nearly complete resorption can be achieved. The indications explored so far include filling of metaphyseal fracture voids or bone cysts, a volume expander in conjunction with inductive products, and as a carrier for various growth factors and antibiotics. Calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cement and beta-tricalcium phosphate will most certainly be part of the future armamentarium when dealing with fracture treatment. It is reasonable to believe that we have so far only seen the beginning when it comes to clinical applications.

  7. Next generation calcium phosphate-based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Chow, L C

    2009-01-01

    It has been close to a century since calcium phosphate materials were first used as bone graft substitutes. Numerous studies conducted in the last two decades have produced a wealth of information on the chemistry, in vitro properties, and biological characteristics of granular calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cement biomaterials. An in depth analysis of several key areas of calcium phosphate cement properties is presented with the aim of developing strategies that could lead to break-through improvements in the functional efficacies of these materials.

  8. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or ‘pragmatic’ designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  9. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of phosphate from solution by adsorption and precipitation of calcium phosphate onto monohydrocalcite.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shintaro; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2012-10-15

    The sorption behavior and mechanism of phosphate on monohydrocalcite (CaCO(3)·H(2)O: MHC) were examined using batch sorption experiments as a function of phosphate concentrations, ionic strengths, temperatures, and reaction times. The mode of PO(4) sorption is divisible into three processes depending on the phosphate loading. At low phosphate concentrations, phosphate is removed by coprecipitation of phosphate during the transformation of MHC to calcite. The sorption mode at the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations is most likely an adsorption process because the sorption isotherm at the conditions can be fitted reasonably with the Langmuir equation. The rapid sorption kinetics at the conditions is also consistent with the adsorption reaction. The adsorption of phosphate on MHC depends strongly on ionic strength, but slightly on temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of MHC obtained from the regression of the experimental data to the Langmuir equation are higher than those reported for stable calcium carbonate (calcite or aragonite) in any conditions. At high phosphate concentrations, the amount of sorption deviates from the Langmuir isotherm, which can fit the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations. Speciation-saturation analyses of the reacted solutions at the conditions indicated that the solution compositions which deviate from the Langmuir equation are supersaturated with respect to a certain calcium phosphate. The obtained calcium phosphate is most likely amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)·xH(2)O). The formation of the calcium phosphate depends strongly on ionic strength, temperature, and reaction times. The solubility of MHC is higher than calcite and aragonite because of its metastability. Therefore, the higher solubility of MHC facilitates the formation of the calcium phosphates more than with calcite and aragonite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug-pyridoxal phosphate interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, M; Gessert, C F; Al-Sayegh, A

    1982-01-01

    phosphate. Some interesting relationships are pointed out between vitamin B6, picolinic acid, and zinc. It is postulated that the intestinal absorption of zinc is facilitated by picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan. The derivation of picolinic acid from tryptophan depends on the action of the enzyme kynureninase, which is dependent on pyridoxal phosphate; therefore, the adequate absorption of zinc is indirectly dependent on an adequate supply of vitamin B6. The formation of pyridoxal phosphate, on the other hand, appears to be indirectly dependent on Zn2++ which activates pyridoxal kinase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  12. 21 CFR 573.320 - Diammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.320 Diammonium phosphate. The food additive diammonium phosphate may be safely used in ruminant feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is the...

  13. 21 CFR 573.320 - Diammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.320 Diammonium phosphate. The food additive diammonium phosphate may be safely used in ruminant feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is the...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  18. Calcium Phosphate Transfection of Primary Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DiBona, Victoria L.; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Huaye

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate precipitation is a convenient and economical method for transfection of cultured cells. With optimization, it is possible to use this method on hard-to-transfect cells like primary neurons. Here we describe our detailed protocol for calcium phosphate transfection of hippocampal neurons cocultured with astroglial cells. PMID:24300106

  19. Mineral resource of the month: phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate rock minerals provide the only significant global resources of phosphorus, which is an essential element for plant and animal nutrition. Phosphate rock is used primarily as a principal component of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, but also to produce elemental phosphorus and animal feed.

  20. Phosphate functionalized graphene with tunable mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Goods, John B; Sydlik, Stefanie A; Walish, Joseph J; Swager, Timothy M

    2014-02-01

    The synthesis of a covalently modified graphene oxide derivative with exceptional and tunable compressive strength is reported. Treatment of graphene oxide with triethyl phosphite in the presence of LiBr produces monolithic structures comprised of lithium phosphate oligomers tethered to graphene through covalent phosphonate linkages. Variation of the both phosphate content and associated cation produces materials of various compressive strengths and elasticity.

  1. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  2. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  3. Calcium phosphate: a substitute for aluminum adjuvants?

    PubMed

    Masson, Jean-Daniel; Thibaudon, Michel; Bélec, Laurent; Crépeaux, Guillemette

    2017-03-01

    Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale. Expert commentary: Calcium phosphate is a compound naturally present in the organism, safe and already used in human vaccination. Beyond comparisons with the other adjuvants, calcium phosphate represents a good candidate to replace or to complete alum salts as a vaccine adjuvant.

  4. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    PubMed Central

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735

  5. Genetics Home Reference: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is an inherited disorder that ...

  6. The phosphates of IIIAB iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Kracher, Alfred; Davis, Andrew M.; Steele, Ian M.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Bunch, T. E.

    1999-03-01

    Thirteen phosphate minerals are found in IIIAB iron meteorites. Four of these, sarcopside-graftonite, johnsomervilleite, galileiite comprise the majority of occurrences. IIIB irons are confined to occurrences of only these four phosphates. IIIA irons may contain one or more of these four phases, and may also contain other rarer phosphates, and, in two instances, silica, and in one instance, a silicate rock. Thus, the IIIA lithophile chemistry is more varied than that of the IIIBs. Based on petrographic relations, sarcopside appears to be the first phosphate to form. Graftonite is probably formed by recrystallization of sarcopside. Johnsomervilleite and galileiite exsolved as enclaves in sarcopside or graftonite at lower temperatures, although some of these also nucleate as separate crystals. IIIAB phosphates are carriers of a group of incompatible lithophile elements: Fe, Mn, Na, Ca and K, and (rarely) Mg, as well as Pb. These elements, and oxygen, were concentrated in a residual, sulfur-rich liquid during igneous fractional crystallization of the IIIAB core mass. The phosphates formed by oxidation of phosphorus as the core solidified and excluded oxygen, which increased its partial pressure in the residual liquid. The trace siderophile trends in bulk IIIAB metal are paralleled by a mineralogical trend of the phosphate minerals that formed. For IIIABs with low Ir contents in the metal, the phosphates are mainly Fe-Mn phases; at intermediate Ir values more Na-bearing phosphates appear; at the highest Ir values the rarer Na, K, Mg, Cr, Pb bearing phosphates appear. The absence of significant amounts of Mg, Si, Al and Ti suggest depletion of these elements in the core by the overlying mantle.

  7. Novel oral phosphate binder with nanocrystalline maghemite-phosphate binding capacity and pH effect.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T M-H; Müller, R H; Taupitz, M; Schnorr, J; Hamm, B; Wagner, S

    2015-03-30

    Hyperphosphatemia is one of the main risk factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease. The demand for a new phosphate binder is continuously increasing since the number of patients suffering under hyperphosphatemia is growing. However, side effects and high pill burden of currently available phosphate binders are the main reasons for low compliance and uncontrolled serum phosphate levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a novel phosphate binder with a high phosphate binding capacity over the entire gastrointestinal (GI) pH range. This novel phosphate binder C-PAM-10 is based on d-mannose coated nanocrystalline maghemite and belongs to the new class of phosphate binders, called the "iron based agents". It was possible to obtain a phosphate binding product that showed very high phosphate binding capacities with the characteristic of being pH independent at relevant pH ranges. The simulation of a GI passage ranging from pH 1.2 to pH 7.5 showed a 2.5 times higher phosphate binding capacity compared to the commonly used phosphate binder sevelamer carbonate. The simulation of a pH sensitive coating that releases the iron based phosphate binder at pH values ≥4.5 still showed a very high phosphate binding capacity combined with very low iron release which might decrease iron related side effects in vivo. Therefore, C-PAM-10 and its variations may be very promising candidates as a superior phosphate binder.

  8. Uptake of glycerol 3-phosphate and some of its analogs by the hexose phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Guth, A; Engel, R; Tropp, B E

    1980-01-01

    The hexose phosphate transport system transported glycerol 3-phosphate and its analogs 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and 3-hydroxy-4-oxobutyl-1-phosphonate. PMID:6995450

  9. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  10. Pharmacology of the Phosphate Binder, Lanthanum Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Damment, Stephen JP

    2011-01-01

    Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [32P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses. PMID:21332344

  11. Recent advances in renal phosphate handling.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Emily G; White, Kenneth E

    2010-04-01

    Phosphate is critical for the maintenance of skeletal integrity, is a necessary component of important biomolecules, and is central to signal transduction and cell metabolism. It is becoming clear that endocrine communication between the skeleton, kidney, and the intestine is involved in maintaining appropriate serum phosphate concentrations, and that the kidney is the primary site for minute-to-minute regulation of phosphate levels. The identification of genetic alterations in Mendelian disorders of hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia has led to the isolation of novel genes and the identification of new roles for existing proteins--such as fibroblast growth factor 23 and its processing systems, the co-receptor alpha-klotho, and phosphate transporters--in the control of renal phosphate handling. Recent findings also indicate that fibroblast growth factor 23 has feedback mechanisms involving parathyroid hormone and vitamin D that control phosphate homeostasis. This Review will highlight genetic, in vitro and in vivo findings, and will discuss how these clinical and experimental discoveries have uncovered novel aspects of renal phosphate handling and opened new research and therapeutic avenues.

  12. Pharmacology of the phosphate binder, lanthanum carbonate.

    PubMed

    Damment, Stephen J P

    2011-01-01

    Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology. To examine the phosphate-binding efficacy, rats with normal renal function and chronic renal failure received lanthanum carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or sevelamer hydrochloride in several experimental models. Lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide markedly increased excretion of [(32)P]-phosphate in feces and reduced excretion in urine in rats with normal renal function (p < 0.05), indicating good dietary phosphate-binding efficacy. In rats with chronic renal failure, lanthanum carbonate and aluminum hydroxide reduced urinary phosphate excretion to a greater degree and more rapidly than calcium carbonate, which in turn was more effective than sevelamer hydrochloride. The potential to induce adverse pharmacological effects was assessed systematically in mice, rats, and dogs with normal renal function using standard in vivo models. There was no evidence of any adverse secondary pharmacological effects of lanthanum carbonate on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, or gastrointestinal systems. These studies indicate that lanthanum carbonate is the more potent of the currently available dietary phosphate binders. No adverse secondary pharmacological actions were observed in vivo in a systematic evaluation at high doses.

  13. Remnants of an Ancient Metabolism without Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Goldford, Joshua E; Hartman, Hyman; Smith, Temple F; Segrè, Daniel

    2017-03-09

    Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have emerged prior to the incorporation of phosphate. Surprisingly, we identified a cryptic phosphate-independent core metabolism producible from simple prebiotic compounds. This network is predicted to support the biosynthesis of a broad category of key biomolecules. Its enrichment for enzymes utilizing iron-sulfur clusters, and the fact that thermodynamic bottlenecks are more readily overcome by thioester rather than phosphate couplings, suggest that this network may constitute a "metabolic fossil" of an early phosphate-free nonenzymatic biochemistry. Our results corroborate and expand previous proposals that a putative thioester-based metabolism could have predated the incorporation of phosphate and an RNA-based genetic system. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of the pentose phosphate cycle

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Leonard V.; Krebs, Hans A.

    1974-01-01

    1. A search was made for mechanisms which may exert a `fine' control of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction in rat liver, the rate-limiting step of the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle. 2. The glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction is expected to go virtually to completion because the primary product (6-phosphogluconate lactone) is rapidly hydrolysed and the equilibrium of the joint dehydrogenase and lactonase reactions is in favour of virtually complete formation of phosphogluconate. However, the reaction does not go to completion, because glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is inhibited by NADPH (Neglein & Haas, 1935). 3. Measurements of the inhibition (which is competitive with NADP+) show that at physiological concentrations of free NADP+ and free NADPH the enzyme is almost completely inhibited. This indicates that the regulation of the enzyme activity is a matter of de-inhibition. 4. Among over 100 cell constituents tested only GSSG and AMP counteracted the inhibition by NADPH; only GSSG was highly effective at concentrations that may be taken to occur physiologically. 5. The effect of GSSG was not due to the GSSG reductase activity of liver extracts, because under the test conditions the activity of this enzyme was very weak, and complete inhibition of the reductase by Zn2+ did not abolish the GSSG effect. 6. Preincubation of the enzyme preparation with GSSG in the presence of Mg2+ and NADP+ before the addition of glucose 6-phosphate and NADPH much increased the GSSG effect. 7. Dialysis of liver extracts and purification of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase abolished the GSSG effect, indicating the participation of a cofactor in the action of GSSG. 8. The cofactor removed by dialysis or purification is very unstable. The cofactor could be separated from glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase by ultrafiltration of liver homogenates. Some properties of the cofactor are described. 9. The hypothesis that GSSG exerts a fine control of the pentose

  15. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  16. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  17. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  18. The glucose-6-phosphate transport is not mediated by a glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate exchange in liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Marcolongo, Paola; Fulceri, Rosella; Giunti, Roberta; Margittai, Eva; Banhegyi, Gabor; Benedetti, Angelo

    2012-09-21

    A phosphate-linked antiporter activity of the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) has been recently described in liposomes including the reconstituded transporter protein. We directly investigated the mechanism of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) transport in rat liver microsomal vesicles. Pre-loading with inorganic phosphate (Pi) did not stimulate G6P or Pi microsomal inward transport. Pi efflux from pre-loaded microsomes could not be enhanced by G6P or Pi addition. Rapid G6P or Pi influx was registered by light-scattering in microsomes not containing G6P or Pi. The G6PT inhibitor, S3483, blocked G6P transport irrespectively of experimental conditions. We conclude that hepatic G6PT functions as an uniporter.

  19. Inhibition of Recombinant Aldose-6-Phosphate Reductase from Peach Leaves by Hexose-Phosphates, Inorganic Phosphate and Oxidants.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Arias, Diego G; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2017-01-01

    Glucitol, also known as sorbitol, is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. This sugar alcohol is synthesized from glucose-6-phosphate by the combined activities of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (Ald6PRase) and glucitol-6-phosphatase. In this work we show the purification and characterization of recombinant Ald6PRase from peach leaves. The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by glucose-1-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and orthophosphate. Oxidizing agents irreversibly inhibited the enzyme and produced protein precipitation. Enzyme thiolation with oxidized glutathione protected the enzyme from insolubilization caused by diamide, while incubation with NADP+ (one of the substrates) completely prevented enzyme precipitation. Our results suggest that Ald6PRase is finely regulated to control carbon partitioning in peach leaves. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Adsorption of Phosphate by Lanthanum Hydroxide/Natural Zeolite Composites from Low Concentration Phosphate Solution].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-wei; Wang, Hong; Zhan, Yan-hui; Chen, Dong-mei

    2016-01-15

    A series of composites of lanthanum hydroxide/natural zeolite ( La( OH) 3/NZ composites) were prepared by co-precipitation method, and these composites were used as adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. The phosphate adsorption capacities of different composites prepared with different precipitated pH values were compared in batch mode. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 was investigated using batch experiments. The results showed that the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH values of 5-7 and 13 had a low adsorption capacity for phosphate in aqueous solution, while the La( OH) 3/NZ composites prepared with the precipitated pH values of 9-12 exhibited much higher phosphate adsorption capacity. The phosphate adsorption capacity of the La (OH)3/NZ composite increased with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 9 to 11, but remained basically unchanged with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 11 to 12. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La ( OH ) 3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model with the predicted maximum phosphate adsorption of 44 mg x g(-1) (phosphate solution pH 7 and 30 degrees C). The kinetic data of phosphate adsorption from low concentration phosphate solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The presence of Cl- and SO4(2-) in low concentration phosphate solution had no negative effect on phosphate adsorption onto the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11, while the presence of HCO3- slightly inhibited the adsorption of phosphate. Coexisting humic acid had a negative effect on the adsorption of phosphate at low concentration on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the

  1. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and cancer.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Nigel J; El Buri, Ashref; Adams, David R; Pyne, Susan

    2017-09-15

    The bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is produced by phosphorylation of sphingosine and this is catalysed by two sphingosine kinase isoforms (SK1 and SK2). Here we discuss structural functional aspects of SK1 (which is a dimeric quaternary enzyme) that relate to coordinated coupling of membrane association with phosphorylation of Ser225 in the 'so-called' R-loop, catalytic activity and protein-protein interactions (e.g. TRAF2, PP2A and Gq). S1P formed by SK1 at the plasma-membrane is released from cells via S1P transporters to act on S1P receptors to promote tumorigenesis. We discuss here an additional novel mechanism that can operate between cancer cells and fibroblasts and which involves the release of the S1P receptor, S1P2 in exosomes from breast cancer cells that regulates ERK-1/2 signalling in fibroblasts. This novel mechanism of signalling might provide an explanation for the role of S1P2 in promoting metastasis of cancer cells and which is dependent on the micro-environmental niche. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. FRUCTOSE-6-PHOSPHATE REDUCTASE FROM SALMONELLA GALLINARUM

    PubMed Central

    Zancan, Glaci T.; Bacila, Metry

    1964-01-01

    Zancan, Glaci T. (Universidade do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), and Metry Bacila. Fructose-6-phosphate reductase from Salmonella gallinarum. J. Bacteriol. 87:614–618. 1964.—A fructose-6-phosphate reductase present in cell-free extracts of Salmonella gallinarum was purified approximately 42 times. The optimal pH for this enzyme is 8.0. The enzyme is specific for fructose-6-phosphate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The dissociation constants are 1.78 × 10−4m for fructose-6-phosphate and 8.3 × 10−5m for NADH. The Q10, reaction order, and equilibrium constant were determined. The enzyme is sensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, but not to o-iodosobenzoic acid nor to N-ethylmaleimide. PMID:14127579

  3. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days.

  4. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  5. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  6. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1953-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

  7. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days.

  8. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. The oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate in Elkhorn Slough, California: A tracer for phosphate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Karen; Cade-Menun, Barbara J.; Paytan, Adina

    2006-11-01

    Elkhorn Slough, a small seasonal estuary in central California, has been subjected to increased nutrient loading from agricultural and other non-point sources. However, because nutrients do not behave conservatively, tracing nutrient sources and cycling in ecosystems like Elkhorn Slough has been difficult to assess. This is particularly true of phosphorus (P), which has only one stable isotope and cannot be used as an isotopic tracer. However, isotopic fractionation of oxygen in phosphate at surface water temperatures only occurs as a result of enzyme-mediated, biochemical reactions. Thus, if phosphate demand is low relative to input and is not heavily cycled within the ecosystem, the δ18O of phosphate will reflect the isotopic composition of phosphate sources to the system. We utilized the δ18O of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) within the main channel of the slough and nearby Moss Landing Harbor and the δ18O of reactive phosphate from sediment and soil samples collected within the watershed to understand phosphate sources and cycling within Elkhorn Slough. Trends in the δ18O of DIP were seasonally consistent with high values near the mouth reflecting oceanic phosphate (19.1‰-20.3‰), dropping to a minimum value near Hummingbird Island in the central slough (point source, 14.1‰-14.4‰), and increasing again near the head of the slough, reflecting fertilizer input (18.9‰-19.3‰). Reactive phosphate δ18O values extracted from sediments and soils in the watershed range from 10.6‰ in a drainage ditch to 22.3‰ in creek sediments near agriculture fields. The wide range in phosphate δ18O values reflects the variations in land use and application of different fertilizers in this agriculturally dominated landscape. These data suggest that phosphate δ18O can be an effective tool for identifying P sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in estuarine ecosystems.

  10. An investigation of iron phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiangyu

    The effect of melting history on the iron redox equilibrium, structure, crystallization and properties of a binary iron phosphate glass with a 40Fe 2O3-60P2O5, mol%, batch composition were investigated. The structure and properties of single and mixed alkali iron phosphate glasses were also studied. Mossbauer, Raman and infrared spectroscopy were used to determine the changes in the concentration of iron ions and phosphate units in the structure. Differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were used to investigate crystallization. Density, molar volume, thermal expansion, dc electrical conductivity and dielectric constant and loss tangent were measured. The heat capacity and glass transition behavior of the glasses was also measured by the differential scanning calorimeter method. The effect of the melting temperature is stronger than the melting time on the concentration of Fe2+ ions in iron phosphate glasses. The pyrophosphate network in iron phosphate glasses and their general properties do not change either with melting temperature and time or with adding up to 20 mol% of single and mixed alkali oxides. The dissolution rate (in deionized water) of these glasses is generally very low (˜10-9 g/cm2/min) and nearly independent of the relative concentration of Fe 2+ or Fe3+ ions. The dissolution rate of the iron phosphate glasses containing 20 mol% of single or mixed alkali oxide can be comparable to that of window glass. There is no mixed alkali effect in the iron phosphate glasses. The crystallization tendency indicates that the glass structure becomes closer to that of crystalline Fe3(P2O 7)2 with increasing concentration of Fe2+ ions in the glass. The large fragility parameters indicates that the iron phosphate glasses belong in the category of the fragile glass-forming liquids.

  11. Phosphate Inhibits Acetotrophic Methanogenesis on Rice Roots

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Ralf; Klose, Melanie; Claus, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of acetate- and H2/CO2-dependent methanogenesis to total CH4 production was determined in excised washed rice roots by radiolabeling, methyl fluoride inhibition, and stable carbon isotope fractionation. Addition of ≥20 mM phosphate inhibited methanogenesis, which then was exclusively from H2/CO2. Otherwise, acetate contributed about 50 to 60% of the total methanogenesis, demonstrating that phosphate specifically inhibited acetotrophic methanogens on rice roots. PMID:10653759

  12. Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    September 1995 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings 6. AUTHOR(S) T. Sugama, N. Carciello and C.I...ADVANCED POLYELECTROLYTE-MODIFIED ZINC PHOSPHATE COATINGS ft PAL - ?y- 3 $> Phase I. Annual Report (October 1994 - September 1995) ^ by T. Sugama, N...and Cr-nitrates, 3 ) the substitution of environmentally safe polyelectrolyte for the conventional chrome-based compounds in the rinsing process, 4

  13. The role of phosphates in chemical evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponnamperuma, C.; Chang, S.

    1971-01-01

    The hypohydrous thermal reaction between inorganic phosphates and nucleoside was investigated. The products of the reactions have been identified, and an attempt has been made to determine the mechanism. It was found that orthophosphates can be readily converted into condensed phosphates which are effective phosphorylating agents. Thermal polymerization of inorganic orthophosphates at moderate temperature as a general source of polyphosphates might have provided efficient phosphorylation and condensing agents for primordial syntheses.

  14. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days. The purpose of this project is to find a better material for adsorption of phosphate from water treatment facilities. The material is made into pellets which allow for adsorption and are easier to remove from the system when capacity is reached.

  15. Phosphate transporter mediated lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under phosphate starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    James, Antoni W; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, when phosphate transporters pho88 and pho86 were knocked out they resulted in significant accumulation (84% and 43%) of triacylglycerol (TAG) during phosphate starvation. However in the presence of phosphate, TAG accumulation was only around 45% in both pho88 and pho86 mutant cells. These observations were confirmed by radio-labeling, fluorescent microscope and RT-PCR studies. The TAG synthesizing genes encoding for acyltransferases namely LRO1 and DGA1 were up regulated. This is the first report for accumulation of TAG in pho88Δ and pho86Δ cells under phosphate starvation conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  17. Using phosphate supplementation to reverse hypophosphatemia and phosphate depletion in neurological disease and disturbance.

    PubMed

    Håglin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Hypophosphatemia (HP) with or without intracellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate has been associated with central and peripheral nervous system complications and can be observed in various diseases and conditions related to respiratory alkalosis, alcoholism (alcohol withdrawal), diabetic ketoacidosis, malnutrition, obesity, and parenteral and enteral nutrition. In addition, HP may explain serious muscular, neurological, and haematological disorders and may cause peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and metabolic encephalopathy, resulting in confusion and seizures. The neuropathy may be improved quickly after proper phosphate replacement. Phosphate depletion has been corrected using potassium-phosphate infusion, a treatment that can restore consciousness. In severe ataxia and tetra paresis, complete recovery can occur after adequate replacement of phosphate. Patients with multiple risk factors, often with a chronic disease and severe HP that contribute to phosphate depletion, are at risk for neurologic alterations. To predict both risk and optimal phosphate replenishment requires assessing the nutritional status and risk for re-feeding hypophosphatemia. The strategy for correcting HP depends on the severity of the underlying disease and the goal for re-establishing a phosphate balance to limit the consequences of phosphate depletion.

  18. AMENDING SOILS WITH PHOSPHATE AS MEANS TO ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feasible for addressing widely disseminated contamination in populated areas often encountered in urban environments. The rationale for amending soils with phosphate is that phosphate will promote formation of highly insoluble Pb species (e.g., pyromorphite minerals) in soil, which will remain insoluble after ingestion and, therefore, inaccessible to absorption mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Amending soil with phosphate might potentially be used in combination with other methods that reduce contact with or migration of contaminated soils, such as covering the soil with a green cap such as sod, clean soil with mulch, raised garden beds, or gravel. These remediation strategies may be less expensive and far less disruptive than excavation and removal of soil. This review evaluates evidence for efficacy of phosphate amendments for decreasing soil Pb bioavailability. Evidence is reviewed for (1) physical and chemical interactions of Pb and phosphate that would be expected to influence bioavailability, (2) effects of phosphate amendments on soil Pb bioaccessibility (i.e., predicted solubility of Pb in the GIT), and (3) results of bioavailability bioassays of amended soils con

  19. Hyperphosphatemia and phosphate binders: effectiveness and safety.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Elisaf, Moses S

    2014-01-01

    In patients with kidney dysfunction hyperphosphatemia is more evident as renal failure progresses. It is related to increased FGF-23 levels, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and accelerated progressive vascular calcification. In CKD patients advanced coronary artery calcification is strongly associated with future cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality. Apart from the above, phosphate per se is suspected as a causal risk factor for CKD progression. Keeping serum phosphorus within the target values are linked to improvement in life expectancy. A low phosphate diet, an efficient dialysis removal of phosphate load, and the administration of phosphate binders are the main recommended steps to control hyperphosphatemia. Calcium-based phosphate binders can lead to a positive calcium balance, hypercalcaemia, parathyroid gland suppression, adynamic bone disease, and coronary artery and aortic calcification. On the other hand Sevelamer hydrochloride and Lanthanum carbonate has been shown to be effective, safe and useful therapeutic tools for hyperphosphatemia. When prescribe pharmacological agents, one must take into account the large increase in health-care expenditure and the choice of phosphate binder should be individualized.

  20. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir.

    PubMed

    Planavsky, Noah J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Bekker, Andrey; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W

    2010-10-28

    Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth's history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ∼750 to ∼635 Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude 'snowball Earth' glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life.

  1. Maize endophytic bacteria as mineral phosphate solubilizers.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, C S; Figueiredo, J E F; Oliveira, C A; Dos Santos, V L; Gomes, E A; Ribeiro, V P; Barros, B A; Lana, U G P; Marriel, I E

    2017-02-16

    In the present study, we demonstrated the in vitro activity of endophytic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Fifty-five endophytic PSB that were isolated from sap, leaves, and roots of maize were tested for their ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate and produce organic acid. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene showed that the isolates were from the genus Bacillus and different species of Enterobacteriaceae. The phosphate solubilization index on solid medium and phosphate solubilization in liquid medium varied significantly among the isolates. There was a statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) for both, the values of phosphate-solubilizing activity and pH of the growth medium, among the isolates. Pearson correlation was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) between P-solubilization and pH (R = -0.38), and between the gluconic acid production and the lowering of the pH of the liquid medium at 6 (R = 0.28) and 9 days (R = 0.39). Gluconic acid production was prevalent in all the PSB studied, and Bacillus species were most efficient in solubilizing phosphate. This is the first report on the characterization of bacterial endophytes from maize and their use as potential biofertilizers. In addition, this may provide an alternative strategy for improving the phosphorus acquisition efficiency of crop plants in tropical soils.

  2. FGF23 and disorders of phosphate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xijie; White, Kenneth E

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members are associated with embryonic development and are critical for basic metabolic functions. This review will focus upon fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its roles in disorders associated with phosphate handling. The discovery that mutations in FGF23 were responsible for the isolated renal phosphate wasting disorder autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) has ascribed novel functions to the FGF family. FGF23 circulates in the bloodstream, and animal models demonstrate that FGF23 controls phosphate and Vitamin D homeostasis through the regulation of specific renal proteins. The ADHR mutations in FGF23 produce a protein species less susceptible to proteolytic processing. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO), and fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD) are disorders involving phosphate homeostasis that share phenotypes with ADHR, indicating that FGF23 may be a common denominator for the pathophysiology of these syndromes. Our understanding of FGF23 will help to develop novel therapies for phosphate wasting disorders, as well as for disorders of increased serum phosphate, such as tumoral calcinosis, a rare disorder, and renal failure, a common disorder.

  3. Effects of inositol phosphates on mineral utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, S.H.; Fox, M.R.S.; Phillippy, B.Q.; Fry, B.E. Jr.; Johnson, M.L.; Johnston, M.R.

    1986-03-05

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphate (IP3, IP4, and IP5) with those of phytic acid (IP6) on growth, development and mineral utilization of young quail. Day-old Japanese quail were fed a purified casein-gelatin control diet containing 20 ppm Zn with 0 or 8.33 mmoles/kg of each inositol phosphate, corresponding to 0.55% of IP6, for a week. As compared with controls, IP6 caused reduced body weight, poor feathering, severe perosis, decreased tibia Zn and ash, and decreased pancreas Zn and liver Mn. IP5 produced all the same adverse effects and tissue mineral changes as those by phytic acid, whereas birds fed IP3 or IP4 were normal. Moreover, IP3 and IP4 caused an increased tibia weight and ash. None of the above effects was produced by feeding inositol or inorganic phosphate. In a second experiment, the inositol phosphates were fed at either 8.33 or 16.66 mmoles/kg diet. Doubling inositol phosphate levels resulted in similar effects as those observed previously. Additionally, IP4 decreased pancreas Zn and IP3 increased tibia Zn. These results indicate that unlike IP6 and IP5, inositol phosphates with 4 or fewer phosphate groups, which can arise from hydrolysis of phytic acid during food processing, have very minor adverse effects but may be beneficial for bone mineralization.

  4. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  5. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    PubMed

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation.

  6. 75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... phosphate salts, provided for in subheadings 2835.24.00 and 2835.39.10 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of... the subject merchandise as anhydrous Monopotassium Phosphate (MKP), anhydrous Dipotassium Phosphate...

  7. 75 FR 42783 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of certain potassium phosphate salts, specifically anhydrous dipotassium phosphate (``DKP'') and... monopotassium phosphate (``MKP''), provided for in subheading 2835.24.00 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  8. Amorphous calcium (ortho)phosphates.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2010-12-01

    Amorphous calcium phosphates (ACPs) represent a unique class of biomedically relevant calcium orthophosphate salts, having variable chemical but essentially identical glass-like physical properties, in which there is neither translational nor orientational long-range ordering of the atomic positions. Normally, ACPs are the first solid phases, precipitated after a rapid mixing of aqueous solutions containing ions of Ca(2+) and PO₄³⁻; however, other production techniques are known. Interestingly, ACPs prepared by wet-chemical techniques were found to have a relatively constant chemical composition over a relatively wide range of preparation conditions, which suggests the presence of a well-defined local structural unit, presumably with the structure of Ca₉(PO₄)₆ - so-called Posner cluster. However, the presence of similar clusters in ACPs produced by other techniques remains uncertain. All ACPs are thermodynamically unstable compounds and, unless stored in dry conditions or doped by stabilizers, spontaneously tend to transform to crystalline calcium orthophosphates, mainly to calcium apatites. This solution instability of ACPs and their easy transformation to crystalline phases are of a great biological relevance. Specifically, the initiating role ACPs play in matrix vesicle biomineralization raises the importance of ACPs from a mere laboratory curiosity to that of a key intermediate in skeletal calcification. In addition, due to significant chemical and structural similarities with calcified mammalian tissues, as well as excellent biocompatibility and bioresorbability, all types of ACPs are very promising candidates for the manufacture of artificial bone grafts. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the occurrence, preparation, composition, structure, major properties and biomedical applications of ACPs. To assist readers in looking for the specific details on ACPs, a great number of references have been collected and systematized. Copyright

  9. Effect of the calcium to phosphate ratio of tetracalcium phosphate on the properties of calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Elena F; Guitian, Francisco; Chow, Laurence C

    2008-06-01

    Six different tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) products were synthesized by solid state reaction at high temperature by varying the overall calcium to phosphate ratio of the synthesis mixture. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the calcium to phosphate ratio on a TTCP-dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cement. The resulting six TTCP-DCPD cement mixtures were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pH measurements. Setting times and compressive strength (CS) were also measured. Using the TTCP product with a Ca/P ratio of 2.0 resulted in low strength values (25.61 MPa) when distilled water was used as the setting liquid, even though conversion to hydroxyapatite was not prevented, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The suspected CaO presence in this TTCP may have affected the cohesiveness of the cement mixture but not the cement setting reaction, however no direct evidence of CaO presence was found. Lower Ca/P ratio products yielded cements with CS values ranging from 46.7 MPa for Ca/P ratio of 1.90 to 38.32 MPa for Ca/P ratio of 1.85. When a dilute sodium phosphate solution was used as the setting liquid, CS values were 15.3% lower than those obtained with water as the setting liquid. Setting times ranged from 18 to 22 min when water was the cement liquid and from 7 to 8 min when sodium phosphate solution was used, and the calcium to phosphate ratio did not have a marked effect on this property.

  10. Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transmission electron microscopic study on setting mechanism of tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous-based calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Jiin-Huey Chern; Ju, Chien-Ping

    2003-03-15

    This work studied transmission electron microscopy on the setting mechanism of tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (TTCP/DCPA)-based calcium phosphate cement. The results suggest the process for early-stage apatite formation as the follows: when TTCP and DCPA powders are mixed in the phosphate-containing solution, the TTCP powder is quickly dissolved because of its higher solubility in the acidic solution. The dissolved calcium and phosphate ions, along with those ions readily in the solution, are then precipitated predominantly on the surface of DCPA particles. Few apatite crystals were observed on the surface of TTCP powder. During the later stages of reaction, the extensive growth of apatite crystals/whiskers, with a calcium/phosphorous ratio very close to that of hydroxyapatite, effectively linked DCPA particles together and also bridged the larger TTCP particles. It is suggested that, when the large TTCP particles are locked in place by the bridging apatite crystals/whiskers, the CPC is set and would not dissolve when immersed in Hanks' solution after 20-40 min of reaction.

  12. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme

    PubMed Central

    Hudek, L.; Premachandra, D.; Webster, W. A. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB−) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme. IMPORTANCE Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes

  13. Platinum in phosphate laser glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Click, Carol Ann

    The platinum concentration in phosphate laser glasses has been characterized as a function of composition, melting time and temperature. The highest measured ionic platinum concentration is 2042 ppmw in a potassium-alumino-metaphosphate glass after 24 hours of melting at 900°C. The maximum platinum concentration in a given composition decreases with increasing temperature. The time, temperature and composition dependent platinum concentration in the melt depends on the relative rates of the platinum dissolution from the crucible wall into and platinum oxide volatilization out of the glass melt. As such, the platinum concentration in the melt can be seen to decrease with increasing time under some conditions. The local environment of the ionic platinum in these glasses has been investigated using optical spectroscopy. The ionic platinum is incorporated as Pt4+ ions in a distorted octahedral symmetry. This platinum is characterized by optical absorption occurring at wavelengths less than 500nm (energy > 20,000 cm-1) due to d-d electronic transitions. The addition of chlorine to the system results in an electronic transition shift to greater wavelengths in barium free glasses, which indicates that the chlorine is coordinating to the platinum in the barium free glasses. The effect of platinum on the Nd3+ 4F 3/2 → 4I11/2 fluorescence decay rate in a commercial laser glass has been investigated, and the effect is negligible. However, the effects of hydroxyl concentration and Nd2O3 concentration on the fluorescence decay rate are substantial and have been investigated in potassium-magnesium-aluminometaphosphate glasses with Nd 2O3 contents ranging from 0.5 to 8.0 weight%. The hydroxyl concentration ranged from ˜3 to 43 cm-1 at 3.33 mum, corresponding to hydroxyl concentrations of ˜300 to 4300 ppm. The fluorescence quenching rate of the Nd3+ ions by hydroxyls increases linearly with Nd atomic concentration, and when extrapolated to zero Nd concentration, has a value

  14. Phosphate closes the solution structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Júlio C; Pereira, José H; Vasconcelos, Igor B; dos Santos, Giovanni C; Olivieri, Johnny R; Ramos, Carlos H I; Palma, Mário S; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diógenes S; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2006-08-15

    The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase catalyses the sixth step of the shikimate pathway that is responsible for synthesizing aromatic compounds and is absent in mammals, which makes it a potential target for drugs development against microbial diseases. Here, we report the phosphate binding effects at the structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This enzyme is formed by two similar domains that close on each other induced by ligand binding, showing the occurrence of a large conformation change. We have monitored the phosphate binding effects using analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle X-ray scattering and, circular dichroism techniques. The low resolution results showed that the enzyme in the presence of phosphate clearly presented a more compact structure. Thermal-induced unfolding experiments followed by circular dichroism suggested that phosphate rigidified the enzyme. Summarizing, these data suggested that the phosphate itself is able to induce conformational change resulting in the closure movement in the M. tuberculosis 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.

  15. Phosphate binding sites identification in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Parca, Luca; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ausiello, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Nearly half of known protein structures interact with phosphate-containing ligands, such as nucleotides and other cofactors. Many methods have been developed for the identification of metal ions-binding sites and some for bigger ligands such as carbohydrates, but none is yet available for the prediction of phosphate-binding sites. Here we describe Pfinder, a method that predicts binding sites for phosphate groups, both in the form of ions or as parts of other non-peptide ligands, in proteins of known structure. Pfinder uses the Query3D local structural comparison algorithm to scan a protein structure for the presence of a number of structural motifs identified for their ability to bind the phosphate chemical group. Pfinder has been tested on a data set of 52 proteins for which both the apo and holo forms were available. We obtained at least one correct prediction in 63% of the holo structures and in 62% of the apo. The ability of Pfinder to recognize a phosphate-binding site in unbound protein structures makes it an ideal tool for functional annotation and for complementing docking and drug design methods. The Pfinder program is available at http://pdbfun.uniroma2.it/pfinder. PMID:20974634

  16. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).

    PubMed

    Franz, M

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency.

  17. Biochemical effects of oral sodium phosphate.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, J A; Buckley, S E; Warner, B A; Culpepper, R M

    1996-04-01

    Our objective was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes after oral sodium phosphate cleansing in a prospectively designed study. The study subjects were seven healthy, asymptomatic adults. Sodium phosphate 45 ml diluted in 45 ml water was given orally at baseline and 12 hr later. Calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, creatinine, and PTH were analyzed at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 21 and 24 hr after the first challenge. Urinary calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP were analyzed at baseline and every 2 hr after oral sodium phosphate. Blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate were recorded every 2 hr and symptom questionnaires using visual analog scales were completed. A marked rise in phosphorus (peak range 3.6-12.4 mg/dl, P < 0.001) and falls in calcium (P < 0.001) and ionized calcium (P < 0.001) were seen. Rises seen in PTH and urinary cAMP confirmed the physiologic significance of the biochemical effect. There were no significant changes in other serum and urine laboratory or clinical assessments. Reported significant symptoms included bloating, cramps, abdominal pain, and nausea. Significant hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia after oral sodium phosphate raises concern about its use in normal individuals. Oral sodium phosphate should not be administered in patients with cardiopulmonary, renal, or hepatic disease.

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  19. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  20. Removal of phosphate by seafood processing wasted sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Choi, B J; Kim, K H

    2002-01-01

    There is a need for developing low cost, easily and abundantly available, yet efficient, adsorbents for the removal of phosphates during the tertiary treatment of wastewater. The wasted sludge from a cuttlefish processing factory prepared on a laboratory scale has been used to evaluate its performance for phosphate adsorption. The material has been shown to be a good alternative adsorbent. As much as 90% phosphate removal by the prepared sludge is possible in about 20 h under the test conditions. Phosphate removal is seen to increase with decreasing adsorbent particle size, increasing the relative concentration of phosphate to sludge and increasing adsorbent dose. Models for predicting phosphate removal incorporate operational variables such as the ratio of phosphate to wasted material and adsorbent dose. These models also manifest high values of the correlation coefficients. Calcium phosphate precipitation in the present experimental system is not a significant phosphate removal mechanism.

  1. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  2. Phosphorylation of Kraft fibers with phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Belosinschi, Dan; Brouillette, François; Belfkira, Ahmed; Chabot, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    Phosphate esters, derived from two different long-chain aliphatic alcohols, were used as phosphorylating reagents for Kraft pulp fibers. High phosphorus contents and almost non-degraded fibers were obtained by following this pathway. The phosphorylation efficiency was influenced by the alkyl chain length of PEs since the phosphorus content in modified fibers was higher for the shorter chain reagent. Due to the heterogeneous reaction environment, the amount of grafted phosphorus was found to be almost three times higher at the surface than in the bulk of the fibers. Analyses also indicated that the phosphorus was bonded to fibers as a phosphate-like structure. Furthermore, the situation seemed to be different for the fiber surface where significant amounts of phosphorus were present in more complex structures like pyrophosphate or even oligo-phosphate.

  3. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  4. Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamoto, I.; Kofuji, H.; Myochin, M.; Takasaki, Y.; Terai, T.

    2009-06-01

    The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO 4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li 3PO 4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

  5. Sonochemical synthesis of calcium phosphate powders.

    PubMed

    de Campos, M; Müller, F A; Bressiani, A H A; Bressiani, J C; Greil, P

    2007-05-01

    beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate powders (BCP), consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-TCP, were synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursor powders obtained from neutralization method. The precursor powders with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5 were prepared by adding an orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) solution to an aqueous suspension containing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)). Mixing was carried out by vigorous stirring and under sonochemical irradiation at 50 kHz, respectively. Glycerol and D-glucose were added to evaluate their influence on the precipitation of the resulting calcium phosphate powders. After calcination at 1000 degrees C for 3 h BCP nanopowders of various HA/beta-TCP ratio were obtained.

  6. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis. PMID:26510127

  7. Dicalcium phosphate cements: brushite and monetite.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Faleh; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Barralet, Jake

    2012-02-01

    Dicalcium phosphate cements were developed two decades ago and ever since there has been a substantial growth in research into improving their properties in order to satisfy the requirements needed for several clinical applications. The present paper presents an overview of the rapidly expanding research field of the two main dicalcium phosphate bioceramics: brushite and monetite. This review begins with a summary of all the different formulae developed to prepare dicalcium phosphate cements, and their setting reaction, in order to set the scene for the key cement physical and chemical properties, such as compressive and tensile strength, cohesion, injectability and shelf-life. We address the issue of brushite conversion into either monetite or apatite. Moreover, we discuss the in vivo behavior of the cements, including their ability to promote bone formation, biodegradation and potential clinical applications in drug delivery, orthopedics, craniofacial surgery, cancer therapy and biosensors.

  8. Phosphate Solubilization and Gene Expression of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 under Different Levels of Soluble Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingwei; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jiangchuan; Ding, Xiaolei

    2017-04-28

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate and enhance soil fertility. However, the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB could be affected by exogenous soluble phosphate and the mechanism has not been fully understood. In the present study, the growth and mineral phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of PSB strain Burkholderia multivorans WS-FJ9 were investigated at six levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mM). The WS-FJ9 strain showed better growth at high levels of soluble phosphate. The phosphate-solubilizing activity of WS-FJ9 was reduced as the soluble phosphate concentration increased, as well as the production of pyruvic acid. Transcriptome profiling of WS-FJ9 at three levels of exogenous soluble phosphate (0, 5, and 20 mM) identified 446 differentially expressed genes, among which 44 genes were continuously up-regulated when soluble phosphate concentration was increased and 81 genes were continuously down-regulated. Some genes related to cell growth were continuously up-regulated, which would account for the better growth of WS-FJ9 at high levels of soluble phosphate. Genes involved in glucose metabolism, including glycerate kinase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and sugar ABC-type transporter, were continuously down-regulated, which indicates that metabolic channeling of glucose towards the phosphorylative pathway was negatively regulated by soluble phosphate. These findings represent an important first step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of soluble phosphate effects on the growth and mineral phosphate solubilization of PSB.

  9. Comparison of Phosphate Binding Capacities of PA21, A Novel Phosphate Binder, with those of other Phosphate Binders in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, A; Yonekubo, S; Maruyama, I; Tatemichi, S; Maruyama, K; Kobayashi, M

    2016-05-01

    The phosphate binding capacity of PA21, a novel phosphate binder, was compared with those of other phosphate binders in vitro and in vivo. 1) For in vitro studies, PA21, sevelamer hydrochloride, lanthanum carbonate hydrate, calcium carbonate, and ferric citrate hydrate were incubated with a phosphate solution at 37°C for 2 h. Phosphate binding capacity was assessed at simulated gastrointestinal tract pH levels of 2, 5, and 8 for estimation of clinical effects, and the quantity of phosphate adsorbed by each phosphate binder was determined. 2) For in vivo studies, rats were orally administered various phosphate binders after the oral administration of phosphate solution (100 mg/kg) adjusted to pH 2, 5, or 8, and the effects of PA21 and other phosphate binders on the serum phosphorus level of the rats were investigated. 1) The in vitro studies revealed that PA21 and sevelamer hydrochloride adsorbed phosphate better at all tested pH levels than lanthanum carbonate hydrate, calcium carbonate, and ferric citrate hydrate, and PA21 showed the most potent phosphate binding capacity among the tested compounds. 2) The in vivo studies showed that PA21 dose-dependently inhibited the increase in the serum phosphorus level after the administration of phosphate solution and no difference in the extent of inhibition by PA21 was observed at the different pH levels (in contrast to other phosphate binders). These results indicated that PA21 has a phosphate binding capacity over the entire pH range of the GI tract. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    1999-12-21

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  11. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  12. Phosphate Glass Gamma-Radiation Dosimeter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-11-30

    phosphate i 3 5 6 1 8 10 10 11 11 12 12 i3 lit it Hi 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 1? 3 18 33 id 39 19 39 29 39 20...INFORMATION — RESTRICTED wmmtm POLAROID CORPORATION —RESEARCH DEPARTMENT RESTRICTED -10- Seotion 3 -A. Properties of Silver Phosphate Glass A...Dose Fluorescence* fi it i. - 4 " J" S®,’ As indicated above, when the glass has been exposed to 100 v of 1» 3

  13. Xenobiotic conjugation with phosphate - a metabolic rarity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    1. Although not unknown, the conjugation of a xenobiotic with phosphate appears a rarity amongst the routes available for foreign compound metabolism. This is especially true in mammals and may be somewhat surprising as conjugation with sulphate, a seemingly similar moiety, is commonplace. 2. Information from the literature, where xenobiotic phosphate conjugates have been described or suggested, has been collated and presented in this article. By bringing together this diverse material, hopefully interest will be generated in this unusual xenobiotic reaction, and perhaps further research undertaken to better understand and delineate the reasons for its relative absence from the xenobiotic scene.

  14. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  15. Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Perry, Lamar; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2001-01-01

    A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

  16. Dual mechanism of ion permeation through VDAC revealed with inorganic phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Eva-Maria; Vu, Giang Thi; Homblé, Fabrice; Prévost, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the exchange of metabolites and ions between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key element, as it forms the major transport pathway for these compounds through the mitochondrial outer membrane. Numerous experimental studies have promoted the idea that VDAC acts as a regulator of essential mitochondrial functions. In this study, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations, and electrophysiological measurements, we investigated the transport of ions through VDAC, with a focus on phosphate ions and metabolites. We showed that selectivity of VDAC towards small anions including monovalent phosphates arises from short-lived interactions with positively charged residues scattered throughout the pore. In dramatic contrast, permeation of divalent phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites (AMP and ATP) involves binding sites along a specific translocation pathway. This permeation mechanism offers an explanation for the decrease in VDAC conductance measured in the presence of ATP or AMP at physiological salt concentration. The binding sites occur at similar locations for the divalent phosphate ions, AMP and ATP, and contain identical basic residues. ATP features a marked affinity for a central region of the pore lined by two lysines and one arginine of the N-terminal helix. This cluster of residues together with a few other basic amino acids forms a "charged brush" which facilitates the passage of the anionic metabolites through the pore. All of this reveals that VDAC controls the transport of the inorganic phosphates and phosphate metabolites studied here through two different mechanisms.

  17. The growth of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate on octacalcium phosphate at 25°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heughebaert, Jean-Claude; De Rooij, J. F.; Nancollas, G. H.

    1986-07-01

    The crystallization of calcium phosphate phases from metastable supersaturated solutions following seeding with well characterized octacalcium phosphate [OCP) has been studied at 25°C, using a constant composition method. At pH 6.00, and at low supersaturation (σ<1.02), OCP is grown, whereas at higher supersaturation, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) nucleates and grows on the OCP seed, after well-defined induction periods. The linear dependencies of the logarithm of the induction periods upon (log supersaturation) -2, is indicative of a surface nucleation process for DCPD with an effective surface energy of 7±1 mJ m -2.

  18. Enteral administration of monosodium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate for the treatment of hypophosphataemia in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Idink, M J; Grünberg, W

    2015-05-09

    Hypohosphataemia is a frequent finding in early lactating and anorectic dairy cows. Sodium phosphate is commonly used for oral phosphorus (P) supplementation, although other phosphate salts may present useful treatment alternatives. Objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) and monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) to monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) in P-depleted cows. Furthermore, the effect of concentrated NaH2PO4 on the reticular groove reflex was studied. Six healthy but P-depleted dairy cows underwent four treatments in randomised order. Treatments consisted of intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4, KH2PO4 and Ca(H2PO4)2 providing the equivalent of 60 g P. A fourth treatment consisting of concentrated NaH2PO4 combined with acetaminophen as a marker substance was administered orally to determine whether the reticular groove reflex could be induced. Intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 and KH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentrations ([Pi]) while intraruminal Ca(H2PO4)2 resulted in lower increases in plasma [Pi]. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar times to peak plasma [Pi] and acetaminophen concentration, indicating that concentrated NaH2PO4 administered orally did not trigger the reticular groove reflex. These results suggest that oral administration of KH2PO4 is equally effective as NaH2PO4. Oral administration of Ca(H2PO4)2 in contrast has a less pronounced effect on the plasma [Pi]. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Attenuation of Phosphate Starvation Responses by Phosphite in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ticconi, Carla A.; Delatorre, Carla A.; Abel, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    When inorganic phosphate is limiting, Arabidopsis has the facultative ability to metabolize exogenous nucleic acid substrates, which we utilized previously to identify insensitive phosphate starvation response mutants in a conditional genetic screen. In this study, we examined the effect of the phosphate analog, phosphite (Phi), on molecular and morphological responses to phosphate starvation. Phi significantly inhibited plant growth on phosphate-sufficient (2 mm) and nucleic acid-containing (2 mm phosphorus) media at concentrations higher than 2.5 mm. However, with respect to suppressing typical responses to phosphate limitation, Phi effects were very similar to those of phosphate. Phosphate starvation responses, which we examined and found to be almost identically affected by both anions, included changes in: (a) the root-to-shoot ratio; (b) root hair formation; (c) anthocyanin accumulation; (d) the activities of phosphate starvation-inducible nucleolytic enzymes, including ribonuclease, phosphodiesterase, and acid phosphatase; and (e) steady-state mRNA levels of phosphate starvation-inducible genes. It is important that induction of primary auxin response genes by indole-3-acetic acid in the presence of growth-inhibitory Phi concentrations suggests that Phi selectively inhibits phosphate starvation responses. Thus, the use of Phi may allow further dissection of phosphate signaling by genetic selection for constitutive phosphate starvation response mutants on media containing organophosphates as the only source of phosphorus. PMID:11706178

  20. Biodegradation of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Heitkamp, M.A.; Freeman, J.P.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    The biodegradation of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP) was examined in microcosms containing sediment and water from five different ecosystems as part of studies to elucidate the environmental fate of phosphate ester flame retardants. Biodegradation of (/sup 14/C)BPDP was monitored in the environmental microcosms by measuring the evolution of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Over 37% of BPDP was mineralized after 8 weeks in microcosms from an ecosystem which had chronic exposure to agricultural chemicals. In contrast, only 1.7% of BPDP was degraded to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in samples collected from a noncontaminated site. The exposure concentration of BPDP affected the percentage which was degraded to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in microcosms from the two most active ecosystems. Mineralization was highest at a concentration of 0.1 mg of BPDP and was inhibited with 10- and 100-fold higher concentrations of BPDP. The authors observed adaptive increases in both microbial populations and phosphoesterase enzymes in some sediments acclimated to BPDP. Chemical analyses of the residues in the microcosms indicated undegraded BPDP and minor amounts of phenol, tert-butylphenol, diphenyl phosphate, and triphenyl phosphate as biodegradation products. These data suggest that the microbial degradation of BPDP results from at least three catabolic processes and is highest when low concentrations of BPDP are exposed to sediment microorganisms of eutrophic ecosystems which have high phosphotri- and diesterase activities and previous exposure to anthropogenic chemicals.

  1. Gene regulation by phosphate in enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wanner, B L

    1993-01-01

    The Escherichia coli phosphate (PHO) regulon includes 31 (or more) genes arranged in eight separate operons. All are coregulated by environmental (extra-cellular) phosphate and are probably involved in phosphorus assimilation. Pi control of these genes requires the sensor PhoR, the response regulator PhoB, the binding protein-dependent Pi-specific transporter Pst, and the accessory protein PhoU. During Pi limitation, PhoR turns on genes of the PHO regulon by phosphorylating PhoB that in turn activates transcription by binding to promoters that share an 18-base consensus PHO Box. When Pi is in excess, PhoR, Pst, and PhoU together turn off the PHO regulon, presumably by dephosphorylating PhoB. In addition, two Pi-independent controls that may be forms of cross regulation turn on the PHO regulon in the absence of PhoR. The sensor CreC, formerly called PhoM, phosphorylates PhoB in response to some (unknown) catabolite, while acetyl phosphate may directly phosphorylate PhoB. Cross regulation of the PHO regulon by CreC and acetyl phosphate may be examples of underlying control mechanisms important for the general (global) control of cell growth and metabolism.

  2. IN-SITU MINING OF PHOSPHATE ORES

    SciTech Connect

    H. El-Shall; R. Stana; A. El-Midany; S. Malekzadah

    2004-12-17

    Presently the mining of Florida phosphate requires the movement of over a 100-ton of materials (overburden, sand, clay) for every ton of phosphate concentrate recovered. Not only is this energy intensive, but it also causes significant stress on the environment. In 2003, the Department of Energy solicited ideas for innovative mining ideas that could significantly improve the efficiency of mining. An award was made to the University of Florida Engineering Research Center to evaluate the in situ mining of phosphates using an aqueous CO{sub 2} solution. Tests were carried out in a 15.2 cm (6-inch) diameter column, 1.83 meter (6 feet) long at pressures up to 117.2 kg/cm{sup 2} (40 psi). Results to date demonstrate that initially the MgO is leached from the ore and then the phosphate. While the tests are continuing, so far they have not demonstrated P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations that are economically attractive.

  3. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  4. PREVENTION OF PHOSPHATE - INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Arnold J.; Kuwabara, Toichiro

    1962-01-01

    The prevention of phosphate-induced mitochondrial swelling in the whole retina of the rabbit was studied with the electron microscope. It was found that a mixture of ATP, Mg++, and bovine serum albumin protected the mitochondria in vitro. This finding confirmed the results obtained spectrophotometrically with isolated rat liver mitochondria by Lehninger. PMID:13927020

  5. Inositol pyrophosphates: why so many phosphates?

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    The inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are a specialized group of “energetic” signaling molecules found in yeasts, plants and animals. PP-InsPs boast the most crowded three dimensional phosphate arrays found in Nature; multiple phosphates and diphosphates are crammed around the six-carbon, inositol ring. Yet, phosphate esters are also a major energy currency in cells. So the synthesis of PP-InsPs, and the maintenance of their levels in the face of a high rate of ongoing turnover, all requires significant bioenergetic input. What are the particular properties of PP-InsPs that repay this investment of cellular energy? Potential answers to that question are discussed here, against the backdrop of a recent hypothesis that signaling by PP-InsPs is evolutionarily ancient. The latter idea is extended herein, with the proposal that the primordial origins of PP-InsPs is reflected in the apparent lack of isomeric specificity of certain of their actions. Nevertheless, there are other aspects of signaling by these polyphosphates that are more selective for a particular PP-InsP isomer. Consideration of the nature of both specific and non-specific effects of PP-InsPs can help rationalize why such molecules possess so many phosphates. PMID:25453220

  6. Etoposide phosphate: what, why, where, and how?

    PubMed

    Schacter, L

    1996-12-01

    The podophyllotoxin derivatives etoposide and teniposide are active in the treatment of a variety of malignant conditions. Both represent chemical modifications of podophyllin, an extract of Podophyllum peltatum (May apple, mandrake, Indian apple, wild lemon, or duck's foot), a plant long used as a folk remedy and recognized in the 19th century to be effective in the treatment of cancer. While etoposide is active in the treatment of many cancers and is widely used, it has a number of limitations due to its lack of water solubility. Etoposide phosphate (Etopophos; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) is a water-soluble prodrug of etoposide that is rapidly and completely converted to the parent compound after intravenous dosing. The pharmacokinetic profile of etoposide after treatment with either etoposide or etoposide phosphate is identical. Toxicity and clinical activity also are the same. Because etoposide phosphate is water soluble and can be made up to a concentration of 20 mg/mL, however, it can be given as a 5-minute bolus, in high doses in small volumes, and as a continuous infusion. Furthermore, it is not formulated with polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80 (Tween; ICI Americas, Wilmington, DE), and ethanol, and does not cause acidosis when given at high doses. The easier-to-use etoposide phosphate represents an improved formulation of etoposide.

  7. Analysis of Jordanian phosphate using nuclear techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, N.S.; Al-Saleh, K.A.

    1987-09-01

    The concentrations of major, minor and trace element content of Jordanian phosphate ores were determined using different complementary nuclear techniques. These techniques were: Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (GRS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Special emphasis was given to the determination of Uranium and rare earth element concentrations.

  8. Biomedical aspects of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate availability.

    PubMed

    di Salvo, Martino L; Safo, Martin K; Contestabile, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), is a cofactor in over 160 enzyme activities involved in a number of metabolic pathways, including neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. In humans, PLP is recycled from food and from degraded PLP-dependent enzymes in a salvage pathway requiring the action of pyridoxal kinase, pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase and phosphatases. Once pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is made, it is targeted to the dozens different apoenzymes that need it as a cofactor. The regulation of the salvage pathway and the mechanism of addition of PLP to the apoenzymes are poorly understood and represent a very challenging research field. Severe neurological disorders, such as convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy, result from a reduced availability of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the cell, due to inborn errors in the enzymes of the salvage pathway or other metabolisms and to interactions of drugs with PLP or pyridoxal kinase. Multifactorial neurological pathologies, such as autism, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy have also been correlated to inadequate intracellular levels of PLP.

  9. Superconducting oxides containing sulphate and phosphate groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Angel Bustamante; Scorzelli, R. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Giordanengo, B.; Elmassalami, M.

    1994-12-01

    The effects of partial substitution of Sr and Ca in YBaCuO related materials containing sulphate and phosphate groups have been investigated. 57Fe Mössbauer measurements were performed on samples doped with lat.% 57Fe and the spectral components related to different Cu sites and oxygen vacancies.

  10. Superconducting oxides containing sulphate and phosphate groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorzelli, R. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Giordanengo, B.; Elmassalami, M.; Dominguez, A. B.; Bustamante Dominguez, A.

    1994-12-01

    The effects of partial substitution of Sr and Ca in Y-Ba-Cu-O related materials containing sulphate and phosphate groups have been investigated. e57Fe Mössbauer measurements were performed on samples doped with lat. % e57Fe and the spectral components related to different Cu sites and oxygen vacancies.

  11. Interaction of cadmium with phosphate on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1997-08-01

    Interactions between different ions are of importance in understanding chemical processes in natural systems. In this study simultaneous adsorption of phosphate and cadmium on goethite is studied in detail. The charge distribution (CD)-multisite complexation (MUSIC) model has been successful in describing extended data sets of cadmium adsorption and phosphate adsorption on goethite. In this study, the parameters of this model for these two data sets were combined to describe a new data set of simultaneous adsorption of cadmium and phosphate on goethite. Attention is focused on the surface speciation of cadmium. With the extra information that can be obtained from the interaction experiments, the cadmium adsorption model is refined. For a perfect description of the data, the singly coordinated surface groups at the 110 face of goethite were assumed to form both monodentate and bidentate surface species with cadmium. The CD-MUSIC model is able to describe data sets of both simultaneous and single adsorption of cadmium and phosphate with the same parameters. The model calculations confirmed the idea that only singly coordinated surface groups are reactive for specific ion binding.

  12. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  13. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  15. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  16. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  17. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material

    PubMed Central

    Isherwood, F. A.; Barrett, F. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol–water–aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether–formic acid–2-methylpropan-2-ol–water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5′-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract

  18. Phosphates in some missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Foord, E.E.; Keller, D.J.; Keller, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays. The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspora, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore ("burley" clay). The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality. The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore host

  19. MEASURED AND PREFORMED PHOSPHATE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO REGION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Measured and preformed phosphate-phosphorous versus depth are presented for three recent cruises to the Gulf of Mexico region. Phosphate...are discussed for a hypothetical idealized station in the Gulf of Mexico . (Author)

  20. Relationship between iron and phosphate in mammalian ferritins.

    PubMed

    de Silva, D; Guo, J H; Aust, S D

    1993-06-01

    The core of mammalian ferritin is known to contain varying amounts of phosphate as well as iron. This study examined the variations in phosphate found in ferritins from horse spleen, rat liver, and bovine liver. The amount of phosphate varied inversely with the amount of iron present in the core. Theoretical extrapolation showed that in the absence of phosphate approximately 4400 atoms of iron could be incorporated into ferritin. Reconstitution of ferritin with iron and ceruloplasmin followed by prolonged incubation with phosphate produced cores similar to native ferritin in terms of iron to phosphate ratios and rates of iron release. However, ferritin reconstituted in the presence of phosphate differed markedly from native ferritins. The data suggest that phosphate is an integral part of mammalian ferritin cores and influences both core formation and the ease by which iron is released from ferritin.

  1. Enzyme-enzyme interaction in the chloroplast: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase and aldolase.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L E; Goldhaber-Gordon, I M; Li, D; Tang, X Y; Xiang, M; Prakash, N

    1995-01-01

    Apparent physical interaction between pea chloroplast (Pisum sativum L.) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) and aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13) is seen in phase-partitioning, fluorescent-anisotropy and isoelectric-focusing experiments. Similarly, results obtained in phase-partitioning and isoelectric-focusing experiments indicate physical interaction between aldolase and triose-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.1). Kinetic experiments suggest that both aldolase-bound glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can act as substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. These results are consistent with the notion that there is interaction between these three enzymes both during photosynthetic CO2 fixation and during glycolysis in the chloroplast.

  2. Comparative study on in vitro biocompatibility of synthetic octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate ceramics used clinically.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Shinji; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the extent to which calcium phosphate bone substitute materials, including osteoconductive octacalcium phosphate (OCP), display cytotoxic and inflammatory responses based on their dissolution in vitro. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics, which are clinically used, as well as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and synthesized OCP were compared. The materials were well characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and the pH of culture media after immersion of the materials were determined. The colony forming rate of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts was estimated with extraction of the materials. Proliferation of bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production by THP-1 cells grown on the material-coated plates were examined. The materials had characteristics that corresponded to those reported. DCPD was shown to dissolve the most in the culture media, with a marked increase in phosphate ion concentration and a reduction in pH. ST-2 cells proliferated well on the materials, with the exception of DCPD, which markedly inhibited cellular growth. The colony forming capacity was the lowest on DCPD, while that of the other calcium phosphates was not altered. In contrast, TNF-α was not detected even in cells grown on DCPD, suggesting that calcium phosphate materials are essentially non-inflammatory, while the solubility of the materials can affect osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular attachment. These results indicate that OCP is biocompatible, which is similar to the materials used clinically, such as HA. Therefore, OCP could be clinically used as a biocompatible bone substitute material.

  3. Tetrathiafulvalene diindolylquinoxaline: a dual signaling anion receptor with phosphate selectivity†

    PubMed Central

    Bejger, Christopher; Park, Jung Su; Silver, Eric S.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of tetrathiafulvalene into the backbone of a known neutral phosphate receptor, diindolylquinoxaline, yields a dual optical-electrochemical chemosensor for dihydrogen phosphate that functions in dichloromethane. This system shows selectivity for dihydrogen phosphate over other small anions and can be used to detect the presence of this analyte via fluorescence quenching or cyclic voltammetry. PMID:20856940

  4. 40 CFR 721.10436 - Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine neutralized phosphated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10436 Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic). (a) Chemical... as amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (PMN P-99-1217 and P-99-1218) are subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10436 - Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine neutralized phosphated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10436 Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic). (a) Chemical... as amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (PMN P-99-1217 and P-99-1218) are subject to reporting...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  4. Phosphate Ions - Does Exposure Lead to Degradation of Cementitious Materials?

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J; Mattus, Catherine H; Dole, Leslie Robert

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of the potential effects of phosphate ions on cementitious materials was made through a review of the literature, contacts with concrete research personnel, and conduct of a "bench-scale" laboratory investigation. Results indicate that no harmful interactions occur between phosphate ions and cememtitious materials unless phosphates are present in form of phosphoric acid.

  5. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  6. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase enzyme...

  11. 1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH IDAHO PHOSPHATE COMPANY PLANTS. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST, WITH THE SHIPPING AND STORAGE WAREHOUSE, AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT, AND PHOSPHORIC ACID PLANT APPEARING IN SUCCESSION DOWN GOVERNMENT GULCH. - North Idaho Phosphate Company, Silver King Community, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  12. l-Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate, a Bactericidal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chu-Tay; Engel, Robert; Tropp, Burton E.

    1977-01-01

    At a concentration of 2.5 mM, dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate has a bactericidal effect upon Escherichia coli. The glycerol 3-phosphate transport system is required for the entry of the biologically active l-enantiomer. l-Glyceraldehyde must be phosphorylated by the cell to exert its full effect upon growth. The addition of dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to a culture of E. coli caused no preferential inhibition of the accumulation of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or phosphoglycerides, although protein accumulation was less affected. Studies with mutant strains ruled out catabolic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, anabolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate):sn-glycerol 3-phosphate oxidoreductase, and fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase as the primary sites of action. l-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is a competitive inhibitor of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in the reactions catalyzed by acyl coenzyme A:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (Ki of 1.8 mM) and cytidine 5′-diphosphate-diglyceride:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate phosphatidyltransferase (Ki of 2.7 mM). A Km mutant for the former enzyme was susceptible to the inhibitor. l-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate does not affect acyl coenzyme A:lysophosphatidate acyltransferase activity. In vivo, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol accumulation are inhibited to the same extent by the addition of dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to a culture of E. coli. PMID:319747

  13. Substitution of calcium by strontium within selected calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Hermes, C.; Nolting, H.-F.; Ryczek, J.

    1993-06-01

    Sr incorporation in the molecules of amorphous calcium phosphate, apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate was investigated. The concentration of Sr ranged from 225 to 1010 μ g / g, i.e. it overlapped with the physiological range of Sr concentrations in human bone. The leading experimental technique was extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Sr K edge. Results of these studies demonstrated the following: (1) Sr incorporation in the calcium phosphates is compound-dependent, (2) the coordination of incorporated Sr atoms in the Ca-P molecules is similar to that of Ca atoms, but interatomic distances are ≈0.015 nm larger, (3) in apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate lattices Sr atoms may occupy selected Ca sites, which was not the case for dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, (4) in the apatite lattice Sr atoms are coordinated by 6 PO 4 tetrahedrals and (5) EXAFS spectra at the K edge of the incorporated Sr may be used to distinguish the structures of amorphous calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as well as apatite and its derivatives (apatitic tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate).

  14. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10332 - Lithium metal phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium metal phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10332 Lithium metal phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as lithium metal phosphate (PMN...

  17. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Mikhail V; Martin, Adrian P; Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J

    2015-07-22

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting (33)P-phosphate-pulsed (32)P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellular buffer of labile phosphate up to 5-40 times larger than the amount of phosphate required to replicate their chromosomes. Mathematical modelling is shown to support this conclusion. The fuller the buffer the slower the cellular uptake of phosphate, to the point that in phosphate-replete tropical waters, cells can saturate their buffer and their phosphate uptake becomes marginal. Hence, buffer stocking is a generic, growth-securing adaptation for SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria, which lack internal reserves to reduce their dependency on bioavailable ambient phosphate.

  18. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5980 Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical... as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642 through 1649) are subject to reporting...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5980 Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical... as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642 through 1649) are subject to reporting...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1244 - Levamisole phosphate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole phosphate injection. 522.1244 Section... § 522.1244 Levamisole phosphate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains levamisole phosphate equivalent to 136.5 or 182 milligrams of levamisole hydrochloride...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P...

  14. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  15. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1244 - Levamisole phosphate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Levamisole phosphate injection. 522.1244 Section... § 522.1244 Levamisole phosphate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains levamisole phosphate equivalent to 136.5 or 182 milligrams of levamisole hydrochloride...

  17. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section 721.10213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with phosphoric...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1244 - Levamisole phosphate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Levamisole phosphate injection. 522.1244 Section... § 522.1244 Levamisole phosphate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains levamisole phosphate equivalent to 136.5 or 182 milligrams of levamisole hydrochloride...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section 721.10213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this section...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with phosphoric...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1244 - Levamisole phosphate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Levamisole phosphate injection. 522.1244 Section... § 522.1244 Levamisole phosphate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains levamisole phosphate equivalent to 136.5 or 182 milligrams of levamisole hydrochloride...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monobasic calcium phosphate. 182.6215 Section 182.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with phosphoric...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See No...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate). (b...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section 721.10213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5980 Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical... as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642 through 1649) are subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5980 Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical... as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642 through 1649) are subject to reporting...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with phosphoric...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section 721.10213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate). (b...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate). (b...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate). (b...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6215 - Monobasic calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monobasic calcium phosphate. 582.6215 Section 582.6215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6215 Monobasic calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Monobasic calcium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5980 - Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5980 Dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds. (a) Chemical... as dialkyl phosphorodithioate phosphate compounds (P-90-1642 through 1649) are subject to reporting...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate ester...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate). (b...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  8. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation of uniform, nonsegregating mixtures of nitrogen/phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers,...

  9. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation of uniform, nonsegregating mixtures of nitrogen/phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers,...

  10. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation of uniform, nonsegregating mixtures of nitrogen/phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers,...

  11. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation of uniform, nonsegregating mixtures of nitrogen/phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers,...

  12. Dominant oceanic bacteria secure phosphate using a large extracellular buffer

    PubMed Central

    Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Martin, Adrian P.; Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria manage to maintain a sufficient supply of phosphate in phosphate-poor surface waters of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Furthermore, it seems that their phosphate uptake may counter-intuitively be lower in more productive tropical waters, as if their cellular demand for phosphate decreases there. By flow sorting 33P-phosphate-pulsed 32P-phosphate-chased cells, we demonstrate that both Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells exploit an extracellular buffer of labile phosphate up to 5–40 times larger than the amount of phosphate required to replicate their chromosomes. Mathematical modelling is shown to support this conclusion. The fuller the buffer the slower the cellular uptake of phosphate, to the point that in phosphate-replete tropical waters, cells can saturate their buffer and their phosphate uptake becomes marginal. Hence, buffer stocking is a generic, growth-securing adaptation for SAR11 and Prochlorococcus bacteria, which lack internal reserves to reduce their dependency on bioavailable ambient phosphate. PMID:26198420

  13. Differentiating phosphate-dependent and phosphate-independent systemic phosphate-starvation response networks in Arabidopsis thaliana through the application of phosphite.

    PubMed

    Jost, Ricarda; Pharmawati, Made; Lapis-Gaza, Hazel R; Rossig, Claudia; Berkowitz, Oliver; Lambers, Hans; Finnegan, Patrick M

    2015-05-01

    Phosphite is a less oxidized form of phosphorus than phosphate. Phosphite is considered to be taken up by the plant through phosphate transporters. It can mimic phosphate to some extent, but it is not metabolized into organophosphates. Phosphite could therefore interfere with phosphorus signalling networks. Typical physiological and transcriptional responses to low phosphate availability were investigated and the short-term kinetics of their reversion by phosphite, compared with phosphate, were determined in both roots and shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phosphite treatment resulted in a strong growth arrest. It mimicked phosphate in causing a reduction in leaf anthocyanins and in the expression of a subset of the phosphate-starvation-responsive genes. However, the kinetics of the response were slower than for phosphate, which may be due to discrimination against phosphite by phosphate transporters PHT1;8 and PHT1;9 causing delayed shoot accumulation of phosphite. Transcripts encoding PHT1;7, lipid-remodelling enzymes such as SQD2, and phosphocholine-producing NMT3 were highly responsive to phosphite, suggesting their regulation by a direct phosphate-sensing network. Genes encoding components associated with the 'PHO regulon' in plants, such as At4, IPS1, and PHO1;H1, generally responded more slowly to phosphite than to phosphate, except for SPX1 in roots and MIR399d in shoots. Two uncharacterized phosphate-responsive E3 ligase genes, PUB35 and C3HC4, were also highly phosphite responsive. These results show that phosphite is a valuable tool to identify network components directly responsive to phosphate.

  14. Co-adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and phosphate on boehmite: Influence of temperature, phosphate initial concentration and pH.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Shen, Mengmeng; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hu, Jing; Hou, Jun; Ao, Yanhui; Zheng, Hao; Li, Kun; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-03-01

    The co-presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and phosphate in wastewater of various industries has been detected. Removing PFOS and phosphate simultaneously before discharging sewage into natural water can decrease effectively the environmental risk caused by the combined pollution of PFOS and phosphate. In this study, laboratory batch experiments were conducted for investigating the co-adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite and the influences of temperature, phosphate initial concentration and pH on the co-adsorption. The adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite were also investigated completely and systematically. The results showed that lower temperature favored the co-adsorptions of PFOS and phosphate. The adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption parameters of thermodynamics are ΔH=-16.9 and -20.0kJmol(-1) (PFOS and phosphate), ΔS=-5.69 and -7.63Jmol(-1) K(-1) (PFOS and phosphate) and ΔG <0 (PFOS and phosphate). It demonstrated that the co-adsorption of PFOS and phosphate on boehmite is a spontaneously exothermic process. Moreover, the co-adsorption process can be described well by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. With increasing phosphate initial concentration, more phosphate could be adsorbed on boehmite, while the adsorption of PFOS decreased at phosphate initial concentration of less than 30mgL(-1) and increased at that of larger than 30mgL(-1). In the co-adsorption process, the adsorption amount of PFOS decreased with pH increasing, but that of phosphate changed little. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Kinetics of phosphate absorption in lactating dairy cows after enteral administration of sodium phosphate or calcium phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Grünberg, Walter; Dobbelaar, Paul; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-09-28

    Hypophosphataemia is frequently encountered in dairy cows during early lactation. Although supplementation of P is generally recommended, controversy exists over the suitability of oral P supplementation in animals with decreased or absent rumen motility. Since the effects of transruminal P absorption and the reticular groove reflex on the absorption kinetics of P are not well understood, it is unclear in how far treatment efficacy of oral P supplementation is affected by decreased rumen motility. Phosphate absorption was studied in six phosphate-depleted dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulas and treated with test solutions containing either NaH2PO4 or CaHPO4 with acetaminophen. Each animal was treated orally, intraruminally and intra-abomasally in randomised order. Absorption kinetics of P were studied and compared with the absorption kinetics of acetaminophen, a marker substance only absorbed from the small intestine. Intra-abomasal treatment with NaH2PO4 resulted in the most rapid and highest peaks in plasma inorganic P (Pi) concentration. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentration from 4 to 7 h in both groups. Treatment with NaH2PO4 caused more pronounced peaks in plasma Pi concentration compared with CaHPO4. Neither transruminal P absorption nor the reticular groove reflex affected P absorption kinetics as determined by comparing plasma concentration–time curves of P and acetaminophen after administration of 1M-phosphate salt solutions. It is concluded that oral treatment with NaH2PO4 but not CaHPO4 is effective in supplementing P in hypophosphataemic cows with adequate rumen motility. Decreased rumen motility is likely to hamper the efficacy of oral phosphate treatment.

  16. Alkaline phosphatase revisited: hydrolysis of alkyl phosphates.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Patrick J; Herschlag, Daniel

    2002-03-05

    Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) is the prototypical two metal ion catalyst with two divalent zinc ions bound approximately 4 A apart in the active site. Studies spanning half a century have elucidated many structural and mechanistic features of this enzyme, rendering it an attractive model for investigating the potent catalytic power of bimetallic centers. Unfortunately, fundamental mechanistic features have been obscured by limitations with the standard assays. These assays generate concentrations of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) in excess of its inhibition constant (K(i) approximately 1 muM). This tight binding by P(i) has affected the majority of published kinetic constants. Furthermore, binding limits k(cat)/K(m) for reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the most commonly employed substrate. We describe a sensitive (32)P-based assay for hydrolysis of alkyl phosphates that avoids the complication of product inhibition. We have revisited basic mechanistic features of AP with these alkyl phosphate substrates. The results suggest that the chemical step for phosphorylation of the enzyme limits k(cat)/K(m). The pH-rate profile and additional results suggest that the serine nucleophile is active in its anionic form and has a pK(a) of < or = 5.5 in the free enzyme. An inactivating pK(a) of 8.0 is observed for binding of both substrates and inhibitors, and we suggest that this corresponds to ionization of a zinc-coordinated water molecule. Counter to previous suggestions, inorganic phosphate dianion appears to bind to the highly charged AP active site at least as strongly as the trianion. The dependence of k(cat)/K(m) on the pK(a) of the leaving group follows a Brønsted correlation with a slope of beta(lg) = -0.85 +/- 0.1, differing substantially from the previously reported value of -0.2 obtained from data with a less sensitive assay. This steep leaving group dependence is consistent with a largely dissociative transition state for AP-catalyzed hydrolysis of

  17. Phosphate additives in food--a health risk.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Eberhard; Hahn, Kai; Ketteler, Markus; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Mann, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated. We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases (www.zusatzstoffe-online.de, www.codexalimentarius.de), with the search terms "phosphate additives" and "hyperphosphatemia." There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and "fast" food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines. Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling

  18. Application of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and organic acids on phosphate solubilization from phosphate rock in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg(-1)), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot(-1)), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g(-1)) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  19. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  20. Determining the Origin of Phosphates in Lherzolitic Shergottites Through Phosphate Saturation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, C.; Rutherford, M.

    2007-12-01

    Phosphorous has been correlated with sulfur and chlorine in martian soils with some soils containing several wt % P2O5 and high-P2O5 layer covers many rocks. However, using the RAT to remove the top few mm of some rocks revealed zones of low-P2O5 in the outer mm relative to the interior composition. This suggests that some igneous rocks of Mars are high in P2O5 and that over time phosphorous has been mobilized into the martian soils. In martian meteorites, phosphorous has been detected in high concentrations relative to terrestrial basalts and cumulates. High intensity x-ray maps of lherzolitic shergottite ALH 77005 reveal phosphates in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and P2O5 zoning in the host-olivine. Analyses of rehomogenized olivine-hosted melt inclusions reveal high-P2O5 glasses (>5 wt %). As phosphates are the major reservoir of REE in martian meteorites, determining if the phosphates are primary igneous or secondary sedimentary minerals may have significant consequences for use of REE as oxybarometers and radiogenic-isotopic dating systems in these meteorites. Therefore, an experimental investigation was initiated to determine whether the phosphates are primary igneous minerals or secondary weathering products. The phosphate saturation curve in SNC magmatic compositions has been studied experimentally by synthesizing the parental melt composition of lherzolitic shergottite ALH 77005 and performing anhydrous crystallization experiments in TZM pressure vessels. The parental melt composition was then doped with 5 wt % P2O5 in the form of CaHPO4 and the crystallization experiments were repeated. ALH 77005's parental melt saturated phosphate near 7 wt % at 1165°C and 5 wt % at 1150°C. These saturation values illustrate how high-P2O5 would have to build up before phosphates would nucleate and are consistent with high-2O5 content found in rehomogenized olivine-hosted melt inclusions. These saturation values are higher than the reported saturation for lunar and

  1. Radioactive rock phosphate: the feed stock of phosphate fertilizers used in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Tufail, M; Akhtar, Nasim; Waqas, M

    2006-04-01

    The existence of natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers originates from the rock phosphate that is used as a feed stock for the manufacturing of various types of phosphate fertilizers. Gamma ray activity mass concentrations have been determined in phosphate rock and fertilizer samples collected from different fertilizer manufacturing factories and suppliers in Pakistan. The technique of gamma ray spectrometry was applied using a HPGe (high purity germanium) gamma ray detector coupled with a personal computer (PC) based multichannel analyzer (MCA). The specific activity values of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th were widely distributed in the rock and fertilizer samples. Activity mass concentrations of 238U (226Ra) in the rock phosphate from Jordan and Pakistan were 428 +/- 11 and 799 +/- 10 Bq kg(-1), respectively, and that in the triple-superphosphate fertilizer was 701 +/- 21 (-1), which was greater than the average values of 238U (226Ra) for other types of fertilizers under study. The concentrations of 40K and 232Th were of the order of background level on the Earth's crust. Chemical analysis for concentration of different constituents in rock phosphate was also carried out. The higher the concentrations of P2O5 and K2O were, the higher the specific activities of 226Ra and 40K were, respectively, in the rocks under study. The amount of radioactivity in the rock phosphate is a source of continuous exposure to radiation, which varies widely depending upon the origin and grade of rock; therefore, radiation dose rate has been estimated. The values of dose rate and other derived quantities were many folds larger than the limits specified for those quantities.

  2. Dual Mechanism of Ion Permeation through VDAC Revealed with Inorganic Phosphate Ions and Phosphate Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Krammer, Eva-Maria; Vu, Giang Thi; Homblé, Fabrice; Prévost, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the exchange of metabolites and ions between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key element, as it forms the major transport pathway for these compounds through the mitochondrial outer membrane. Numerous experimental studies have promoted the idea that VDAC acts as a regulator of essential mitochondrial functions. In this study, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations, and electrophysiological measurements, we investigated the transport of ions through VDAC, with a focus on phosphate ions and metabolites. We showed that selectivity of VDAC towards small anions including monovalent phosphates arises from short-lived interactions with positively charged residues scattered throughout the pore. In dramatic contrast, permeation of divalent phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites (AMP and ATP) involves binding sites along a specific translocation pathway. This permeation mechanism offers an explanation for the decrease in VDAC conductance measured in the presence of ATP or AMP at physiological salt concentration. The binding sites occur at similar locations for the divalent phosphate ions, AMP and ATP, and contain identical basic residues. ATP features a marked affinity for a central region of the pore lined by two lysines and one arginine of the N-terminal helix. This cluster of residues together with a few other basic amino acids forms a “charged brush” which facilitates the passage of the anionic metabolites through the pore. All of this reveals that VDAC controls the transport of the inorganic phosphates and phosphate metabolites studied here through two different mechanisms. PMID:25860993

  3. International Strategic Minerals Inventory summary report; phosphate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ulrich H.; Saam, Henning G.; Schmidt, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    Major world resources of phosphate, a strategic mineral commodity, are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI}. ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of phosphate on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  4. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of different phosphates structures.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębski, W; Sitarz, M; Rokita, M; Bułat, K

    2011-08-15

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies of mineral and synthetic phosphates have been presented. The interpretation of the spectra has been preceded by the isolated [PO(4)](3-) tetrahedron spectra analyse. The K(3)PO(4) saturated aqueous solution was measured in the special cell for liquids. The obtained IR results have been compared with the theoretical number of IR-active modes. The number and positions of the bands due to P-O vibrations have been established. The phase composition of the phosphates has been determined using XRD and IR spectroscopy methods. The influence of non-tetrahedral cations on the shape of the spectra and the positions of bands has been analysed and the crystalline field splitting effect has been discussed.

  6. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ensar

    2004-10-18

    Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential of particles, specific surface area, and images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the particles before and after adsorption. The specific surface area of the blast furnace slag was 0.4m(2)g(-1). The removal of phosphate predominantly has taken place by a precipitation mechanism and weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent and the metallic salts of phosphate. In this study, phosphate removal in excess of 99% was obtained, and it was concluded that blast furnace slag is an efficient adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from solution.

  7. [Effect of phosphate upon calcium intestinal absorption (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y; Digaud, A; Fournier, A

    1976-11-01

    Adult rats receive 5 to 50 mM CaCl2 solutions in which glycerophosphate or sodium diacid phosphate may be added in variable quantity. These solutions are administered by gavage or in situ ligatured jejunal loop. The inhibition of calcium absorption dependent on simultaneously administered phosphate doses is well characterized: high for the lowest concentration, the inhibiting effect of phosphate doses decreases more and more reaching a limit from which phosphate supplementation has no effect. These observations discarding an intervention of phosphate by calcium insolubilization seem to demonstrate that the control supplied by phosphates on calcium absorption is of enzymatic character. Facts related to the respective effects of calcium and phosphates on the action of alkaline phosphatases lead to discuss a possible intervention of these enzymes upon calcium transfer.

  8. Calcium-Activated Phosphate Uptake in Contracting Corn Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Truelove, B.; Hanson, J. B.

    1966-01-01

    The phosphate inhibition of succinate-powered contraction in corn mitochondria can be reversed with calcium. Associated with this reversal is an accumulation of phosphate and calcium. Both ions are essential for accumulation, although strontium will partially substitute for calcium. Arsenate does not substitute for phosphate except in producing the inhibition of contraction. The antibiotics oligomycin and aurovertin do not block the phosphate inhibition of contraction or the calcium-activated phosphate uptake associated with the release of the inhibition. Dinitrophenol uncouples the phosphate uptake but permits full contraction. Calcium promotes inorganic phosphate accumulation in root tissue as well as in mitochondria. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of theories of calcium reaction with high energy intermediates of oxidative phosphorylation. It is concluded that calcium probably reacts with X∼P in corn mitochondria, rather than with X∼I as with animal mitochondria. PMID:16656343

  9. Osteoclastic resorption of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leeuwenburgh, S; Layrolle, P; Barrère, F; de Bruijn, J; Schoonman, J; van Blitterswijk, C A; de Groot, K

    2001-08-01

    A new biomimetic method for coating metal implants enables the fast formation of dense and homogeneous calcium phosphate coatings. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) disks were coated with a thin, carbonated, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) by immersion in a saturated solution of calcium, phosphate, magnesium, and carbonate. The ACP-coated disks then were processed further by incubation in calcium phosphate solutions to produce either crystalline carbonated apatite (CA) or octacalcium phosphate (OCP). The resorption behavior of these three biomimetic coatings was studied using osteoclast-enriched mouse bone-marrow cell cultures for 7 days. Cell-mediated degradation was observed for both carbonated apatite and octacalcium phosphate coatings. Numerous resorption lacunae characteristic of osteoclastic resorption were found on carbonated apatite after cell culture. The results showed that carbonated apatite coatings are resorbed by osteoclasts in a manner consistent with normal osteoclastic resorption. Osteoclasts also degraded the octacalcium phosphate coatings but not by classical pit formation.

  10. Phosphate Bonded Solidification of Radioactive Incinerator Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B. W.

    1999-04-13

    The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Clindamycin phosphate 1% gel in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rizer, R L; Sklar, J L; Whiting, D; Bucko, A; Shavin, J; Jarratt, M

    2001-01-01

    A 12-week study compared Clindagel, a unique water-based gel formulation of clindamycin phosphate 1%, administered once daily, and Cleocin T, a slightly different gel formulation indicated for twice-daily use, in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clindagel was safe and effective and equivalent to Cleocin T gel, albeit with a better tolerability profile. Clindagel is a viable alternative to Cleocin T gel.

  12. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C.

    2005-06-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration.

  13. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C.

    2005-06-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB's) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration.

  14. Modifier coordination and phosphate glass networks

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.; Click, C.A.; Alam, T.M.

    1999-11-30

    The addition of up to approximately 16 mole% Cs{sub 2}O to vitreous P{sub 2}O{sub 5} reduces the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) by 150 K, whereas further additions up to 50 mole% produce little additional change in T{sub g}. {sup 31}P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicate that the phosphate network is progressively dipolymerized over the entire range of compositions. The property trend is explained by a transition in the Cs{sup +} coordination environment, from isolated Cs-polyhedra below {approximately}16 mole% Cs{sub 2}O to a corner-sharing Cs-polyhedral sub-structure in the glasses with greater Cs{sub 2}O contents. This modifier transition does not occur in Al-phosphate glasses. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that the average Al coordination number decreases with increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content to avoid the formation of Al-O-Al bonds in these binary phosphate glasses.

  15. Inositol phosphates induce DAPI fluorescence shift.

    PubMed

    Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Parisi, Federica; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2014-06-15

    The polymer inorganic polyP (polyphosphate) and inositol phosphates, such as IP6 (inositol hexakisphosphate; also known as phytic acid), share many biophysical features. These similarities must be attributed to the phosphate groups present in these molecules. Given the ability of polyP to modify the excitation-emission spectra of DAPI we decided to investigate whether inositol phosphates possess the same property. We discovered that DAPI-IP6 complexes emit at approximately 550 nm when excited with light of wavelength 410-420 nm. IP5 (inositol pentakisphosphate) is also able to induce a similar shift in DAPI fluorescence. Conversely, IP3 (inositol trisphosphate) and IP4 (inositol tetrakisphosphate) are unable to shift DAPI fluorescence. We have employed this newly discovered feature of DAPI to study the enzymatic activity of the inositol polyphosphate multikinase and to monitor phytase phosphatase reactions. Finally, we used DAPI-IP6 fluorescence to determine the amount of IP6 in plant seeds. Using an IP6 standard curve this straight-forward analysis revealed that among the samples tested, borlotti beans possess the highest level of IP6 (9.4 mg/g of dry mass), whereas the Indian urad bean the lowest (3.2 mg/g of dry mass). The newly identified fluorescence properties of the DAPI-IP5 and DAPI-IP6 complexes allow the levels and enzymatic conversion of these two important messengers to be rapidly and reliably monitored.

  16. Second-harmonic generation in noncentrosymmetric phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Qiong; Wang, Ying; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Su, Haibin; Tohyama, Takami; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the discovery of more and more phosphates with relatively strong nonlinear optic effect, we studied the mechanism of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) effect in several phosphates by band model and first-principles calculations. When the energy of an incident photon is much smaller than the band gap of material, the SHG is almost frequency independent and determined by the combination of Berry connection and a symmetric tensor. The SHG effect in phosphates can be enhanced by the enhancement of orbital hybridization or the reduction of charge-transfer energy, which results in widened bandwidth of occupied state and reduced band gap in the electronic structure, respectively. By the first-principles calculation on the electronic structures of several phosphates—BPO4, LiCs2PO4 , β -Li3VO4 , and β -Li3PO4 —we interpreted the relatively strong SHG effect in LiCs2PO4 and β -Li3VO4 as the consequence of the reduced charge-transfer energy compared to their parent β -Li3PO4 , while the enhanced SHG in BPO4 is resulting from enhanced orbital hybridization.

  17. Nano-porous calcium phosphate balls.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ildyko; Kosmella, Sabine; Prietzel, Claudia; Bagdahn, Christian; Koetz, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    By dropping a NaH2PO4·H2O precursor solution to a CaCl2 solution at 90°C under continuous stirring in presence of two biopolymers, i.e. gelatin (G) and chitosan (C), supramolecular calcium phosphate (CP) card house structures are formed. Light microscopic investigations in combination with scanning electron microscopy show that the GC-based flower-like structure is constructed from very thin CP platelets. Titration experiments indicate that H-bonding between both biopolymers is responsible for the synergistic effect in presence of both polymers. Gelatin-chitosan-water complexes play an important role with regard to supramolecular ordering. FTIR spectra in combination with powder X-ray diffraction show that after burning off all organic components (heating up >600°C) dicalcium and tricalcium phosphate crystallites are formed. From high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) it is obvious to conclude, that individual crystal platelets are dicalcium phosphates, which build up ball-like supramolecular structures. The results reveal that the GC guided crystal growth leads to nano-porous supramolecular structures, potentially attractive candidates for bone repair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua; Li, Li; Yao, Xiangdong; Rudolph, Victor; Haghseresht, Fouad

    2008-10-01

    Red mud, a waste residue of alumina refinery, has been used to develop effective adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid and acid-thermal treatments were employed to treat the raw red mud. The effects of different treatment methods, pH of solution and operating temperature on adsorption have been examined in batch experiments. It was found that all activated red mud samples show higher surface area and total pore volume as well as higher adsorption capacity for phosphate removal. The red mud with HCl treatment shows the highest adsorption capacity among all the red mud samples, giving adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg P/g at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the red mud adsorbents decreases with increase of pH. At pH 2, the red mud with HCl treatment exhibits adsorption of 0.8 mg P/g while the adsorption can be lowered to 0.05 mg P/g at pH 10. However, the adsorption is improved at higher temperature by increasing 25% from 30 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic studies of phosphate adsorption onto red mud indicate that the adsorption mainly follows the parallel first-order kinetics due to the presence of two acidic phosphorus species, H(2)PO(4)(-) and HPO(4)(2-). An analysis of the adsorption data indicates that the Freundlich isotherm provides a better fitting than the Langmuir model.

  19. Method for phosphate-accelerated bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Lombard, Kenneth H.; Hazen, Terry C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Borthen, James W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for supplying a vapor-phase nutrient to contaminated soil for in situ bioremediation. The apparatus includes a housing adapted for containing a quantity of the liquid nutrient, a conduit in fluid communication with the interior of the housing, means for causing a gas to flow through the conduit, and means for contacting the gas with the liquid so that a portion thereof evaporates and mixes with the gas. The mixture of gas and nutrient vapor is delivered to the contaminated site via a system of injection and extraction wells configured to the site. The mixture has a partial pressure of vaporized nutrient that is no greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid. If desired, the nutrient and/or the gas may be heated to increase the vapor pressure and the nutrient concentration of the mixture. Preferably, the nutrient is a volatile, substantially nontoxic and nonflammable organic phosphate that is a liquid at environmental temperatures, such as triethyl phosphate or tributyl phosphate.

  20. Phosphate adsorption on lanthanum loaded biochar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Dekui; Shen, Fei; Li, Tianyu

    2016-05-01

    To attain a low-cost and high-efficient phosphate adsorbent, lanthanum (La) loaded biochar (La-BC) prepared by a chemical precipitation method was developed. La-BC and its pristine biochar (CK-BC) were comparatively characterized using zeta potential, BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption ability and the mechanisms during adsorption process for the La-BC samples were also investigated. La loaded on the surface of biochar can be termed as La-composites (such as LaOOH, LaONO3 and La(OH)3), leading to the decrease of negative charge and surface area of biochar. La-BC exhibited the high adsorption capacity to phosphate compared to CK-BC. Adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm and second order model could well describe the adsorption process of La-BC, indicating that the adsorption was dominated by a homogeneous and chemical process. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity was as high as 46.37 mg g(-1) (computed in P). Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. SEM, XRD, XPS and FT-IR analysis suggested that the multi-adsorption mechanisms including precipitation, ligand exchange and complexation interactions can be evidenced during the phosphate adsorption process by La-composites in La-BC.

  1. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biostimulation by Glycerol Phosphate to Precipitate Recalcitrant Uranium(IV) Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Laura; Morris, Katherine; Trivedi, Divyesh; Bewsher, Alastair; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-09-15

    Stimulating the microbial reduction of aqueous uranium(VI) to insoluble U(IV) via electron donor addition has been proposed as a strategy to remediate uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. However, concerns have been raised regarding the longevity of microbially precipitated U(IV) in the subsurface, particularly given that it may become remobilized if the conditions change to become oxidizing. An alternative mechanism is to stimulate the precipitation of poorly soluble uranium phosphates via the addition of an organophosphate and promote the development of reducing conditions. Here, we selected a sediment sample from a U.K. nuclear site and stimulated the microbial community with glycerol phosphate under anaerobic conditions to assess whether uranium phosphate precipitation was a viable bioremediation strategy. Results showed that U(VI) was rapidly removed from solution and precipitated as a reduced crystalline U(IV) phosphate mineral similar to ningyoite. This mineral was considerably more recalcitrant to oxidative remobilization than the products of microbial U(VI) reduction. Bacteria closely related to Pelosinus species may have played a key role in uranium removal in these experiments. This work has implications for the stewardship of uranium-contaminated groundwater, with the formation of U(IV) phosphates potentially offering a more effective strategy for maintaining low concentrations of uranium in groundwater over long time periods.

  3. Apatite Formation from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Mixed Amorphous Calcium Phosphate/Amorphous Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Casper J S; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-08-22

    Crystallization from amorphous phases is an emerging pathway for making advanced materials. Biology has made use of amorphous precursor phases for eons and used them to produce structures with remarkable properties. Herein, we show how the design of the amorphous phase greatly influences the nanocrystals formed therefrom. We investigate the transformation of mixed amorphous calcium phosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate phases into bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The speciation of phosphate was controlled by pH to favor HPO4 (2-) . In a carbonate free system, the reaction produces anisotropic apatite crystallites with large aspect ratios. The first formed crystallites are highly calcium deficient and hydrogen phosphate rich, consistent with thin octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-like needles. During growth, the crystallites become increasingly stoichiometric, which indicates that the crystallites grow through addition of near-stoichiometric apatite to the OCP-like initial crystals through a process that involves either crystallite fusion/aggregation or Ostwald ripening. The mixed amorphous phases were found to be more stable against phase transformations, hence, the crystallization was inhibited. The resulting crystallites were smaller and less anisotropic. This is rationalized by the idea that a local phosphate-depletion zone formed around the growing crystal until it was surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate, which stopped the crystallization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    El-Bahi, S M; Sroor, A; Mohamed, Gehan Y; El-Gendy, N S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A safer disposal of hazardous phosphate coating sludge by formation of an amorphous calcium phosphate matrix.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Duran, A; Pérez-Nicolás, M; Fernández, J M; Sirera, R; Alvarez, J I

    2015-08-15

    Phosphate coating hazardous wastes originated from the automotive industry were efficiently encapsulated by an acid-base reaction between phosphates present in the sludge and calcium aluminate cement, yielding very inert and stable monolithic blocks of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Two different compositions of industrial sludge were characterized and loaded in ratios ranging from 10 to 50 wt.%. Setting times and compressive strengths were recorded to establish the feasibility of this method to achieve a good handling and a safe landfilling of these samples. Short solidification periods were found and leaching tests showed an excellent retention for toxic metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Mn) and for organic matter. Retentions over 99.9% for Zn and Mn were observed even for loadings as high as 50 wt.% of the wastes. The formation of ACP phase of low porosity and high stability accounted for the effective immobilization of the hazardous components of the wastes.

  6. Radioactivity of phosphate ore, superphosphate, and phosphogypsum in Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    A measurement of the radioactivity content of phosphate ore material, phosphatic fertilizer (superphosphate), and by-product phosphogypsum in the Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt, has been carried out. According to the results of gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, {sup 238}U was found in concentrations of 523, 473, and 134 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}; {sup 226}Ra in concentrations of 514, 301, and 411 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}; {sup 232}Th in concentrations of 37, 24, and 19 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}; and {sup 40}K in concentrations of 19, 3, and 16 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} for the analyzed materials, respectively. The data are discussed and compared with those given in the literature for some other countries in light of permissible radiation dose rates. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Phosphates sensing: two polyamino-phenolic zinc receptors able to discriminate and signal phosphates in water.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Gianluca; Formica, Mauro; Fusi, Vieri; Giorgi, Luca; Guerri, Annalisa; Macedi, Eleonora; Micheloni, Mauro; Paoli, Paola; Pontellini, Roberto; Rossi, Patrizia

    2009-07-06

    Two Zn(II)-dinuclear systems were studied as receptors for phosphates; they were obtained by using the two polyamino-phenolic ligands 3,3'-bis[N,N-bis(2-aminoethyl)aminomethyl]-2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl (L1) and 2,6-bis[N,N-bis(2-aminoethyl)aminomethyl]phenol (L2) in which the difference lies in the spacers between the two dien units, biphenol or phenol in L1 and L2, respectively. The metallo-receptors obtained are able to selectively discriminate phosphate (Pi) from pyrophosphate (PPi) and vice versa in aqueous solution in a wide range of pH (6 < pH < 10). The L1 receptor system shows selectivity toward PPi over Pi, and on the contrary the L2 system exhibits opposite selectivity. This different selectivity is ascribed to the different Zn(II)-Zn(II) distances between the two metal centers which, showing a similar coordination requirement and binding phosphate in a bridge disposition, fit in a different way with the different guests. Furthermore, NMR studies supported the model of interaction proposed between guests and receptors, highlighting that they are also able to bind biological phosphates such as G6P and ATP at physiological pH. Fluorescence studies showed that the receptor system based on L1 is able to signal the presence in solution of Pi and PPi at physiological pH; the presence of Pi is detected by a quenching of the emission, that of PPi by an enhancement of it. With the aid of an external colored sensor (PCV), the receptors were then used to produce simple signaling systems for phosphates based on the displacement method; the two chemosensors obtained are able to signal and quantify these anions at physiological pH, preserving the selectivity between phosphate and pyrophosphate and extending it to G6P and ATP.

  8. Corneal calcification and phosphates: do you need to prescribe phosphate free?

    PubMed

    Popiela, Magdalena Zuzanna; Hawksworth, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Both superficial band keratopathy and deeper calcareous calcification have been linked to the presence of phosphate excipients in topical ophthalmic medicines. (1-3) The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has concluded that patients with ocular surface disease are at greatest risk. This potential side effect should be highlighted to both prescribers and patients. (4) We aimed to review the excipients of commonly prescribed ophthalmic medicines to prepare a list of phosphate-containing drugs and also to investigate where to find this information. We reviewed 78 commonly used ophthalmic drops and ointments for the information about their excipients. We reviewed the information written on drug boxes, bottles, patient leaflets, and in the electronic Medicines Compendium (EMC), which contains up-to-date details of all medicines licensed for use in the United Kingdom. The British National Formulary (BNF) was also reviewed. We found 22 phosphate-containing, 13 unbuffered, and 43 ophthalmic drugs containing buffers other than phosphate based. Most displayed the list of their excipients on their boxes and in patient leaflets. This information was also available on the EMC website but not in the BNF. Despite the EMA recommendation, none of the phosphate-containing medicines mentions corneal calcification as a potential side effect. We present a reference list of phosphate-based ophthalmic drugs to be used with caution for patients with a compromised ocular surface. We found the EMC to be a reliable and easily accessible source of information about drug components. This information will also be included in the new editions of the BNF.

  9. Accumulation of nitrite in denitrifying barriers when phosphate is limiting.

    PubMed

    Hunter, W J

    2003-10-01

    Permeable in situ denitrifying barriers can remove nitrate from groundwater. Barriers may be constructed by filling an excavated area with a porous mixture of sand, fine gravel, and substrate or by the injection of a nonaqueous phase substrate into an aquifer. The substrate stimulates the development of a denitrifying microbial community by providing an electron donor. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of denitrifying barriers to function under low-phosphate conditions. Sand columns injected with a soybean oil emulsion were used as laboratory models of denitrifying barriers. When a natural groundwater containing 17 mg l(-1) nitrate-N and 0.009 mg l(-1) phosphate-P was pumped through the columns, only a small amount of nitrate was removed from the water and, in some effluent fractions, 52% to 88% of the influent nitrate had converted to nitrite. Nitrite also accumulated when the phosphate concentration of the groundwater was increased to 0.040 or 0.080 mg l(-1) phosphate-P. Only when a 0.160 mg l(-1) phosphate-P supplement was added to the groundwater was there a loss of nitrate without a large accumulation of nitrite. The addition of solid calcium phosphate or rock phosphate to the sand columns was found to provide adequate phosphate for denitrification in short-term studies. These studies point out the need to ensure that adequate phosphate is present in denitrifying barriers especially when such barriers are used beneath phosphate-binding soils.

  10. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  11. Phosphate sources and their suitability for remediation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Knox, A S; Kaplan, D I; Paller, M H

    2006-03-15

    Phosphate minerals and specifically apatite show promise for environmental cleanup because they can form stable compounds with a wide range of cationic contaminants. However, phosphate minerals naturally accumulate some heavy metals that may cause additional contamination of the environment if used improperly. Nine commercially available phosphate materials were evaluated for remediation of contaminated soil based on solubility, concentration of metal/metalloid impurities, and leachability of impurity metal/metalloids. The phosphate materials consisted of three groups: processed (i.e., fertilizers), mined (rock phosphates from different formations), and biogenic (ground fish bone). Processed and mined rock phosphates contained relatively high total concentrations of As, Co, Cr, and Cu but did not exceed the RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Biogenic apatite contained much lower metal concentrations than processed and mined rock phosphate and was appreciably more soluble. By combining biogenic and mined phosphate it is possible to obtain a wide range of phosphate release rates, permitting rapid immobilization of contaminants while providing a slow release of phosphate for continued long-term treatment.

  12. THE DISTRIBUTION OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE IN AMPHIBIAN MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Briner, G. P.; Simon, Shirley E.; Shaw, F. H.

    1958-01-01

    The Na+, K+, and inorganic phosphate levels of the plasma and sartorius muscle of the toad Bufo marinus were determined. Soaking in normal Ringer brought about the usual cation shifts, but did not alter the level of inorganic phosphate in the cell. Increases in the external phosphate level brought about an increase in the internal phosphate, but the apparent phosphate space of muscle is somewhat smaller than the apparent Cl- space. Phosphate spaces were compared with inulin spaces and were found to be significantly greater. Alteration of the H+ concentration of the high phosphate Ringer did not alter the partition of phosphate across the cell membrane. These results have been found to be consistent with the theory of a three compartment system for muscle, wherein the tissue is assumed to consist of an extracellular phase, and two intracellular phases. The inorganic phosphate of the cell is assumed to be adsorbed onto the "ordered phase," and increments in organic phosphate found on raising the external level are assumed to take place in the "free intracellular phase." PMID:13514009

  13. Insight into chemical phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Li, Jixiang; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xinbo; Jia, Hui

    2017-01-15

    Phosphate plays an irreplaceable role in the production of fertilizers. However, its finite availability may not be enough to satisfy increasing demands for the fertilizer production worldwide. In this scenario, phosphate recovery can effectively alleviate this problem. Municipal wastewater has received high priority to recover phosphate because its quantity is considerable. Therefore, phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater can bring many benefits such as relieving the burden of increasing production of fertilizers and reduction in occurrence of eutrophication caused by the excessive concentration of phosphate in the released effluent. The chemical processes are the most widely applied in phosphate recovery in municipal wastewater treatment because they are highly stable and efficient, and simple to operate. This paper compares chemical technologies for phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater. As phosphate in the influent is transferred to the liquid and sludge phases, a technical overview of chemical phosphate recovery in both phases is presented with reference to mechanism, efficiency and the main governing parameters. Moreover, an analysis on their applications at plant-scale is also presented. The properties of recovered phosphate and its impact on crops and plants are also assessed with a discussion on the economic feasibility of the technologies.

  14. Phosphate transport in membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Konings, W N; Rosenberg, H

    1978-04-04

    Escherichia coli strain AN710 possesses only the PIT system for phosphate transport. Membrane vesicles from this strain, which contain phosphate internally, perform exchange and active transport of phosphate. The energy for active transport is supplied by the respiratory chain with ascorbate phenazine methosulphate as electron donor. To a lesser extent also the oxidation of D-lactate energizes phosphate transport; the oxidation of succinate is only marginally effective. Phosphate transport is driven by the proton-motive force and in particular by the pH gradient across the membrane. This view is supported by the observation that phosphate transport is stimulated by valinomycin, inhibited by nigericin and abolished by the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Neither inhibitor affects phosphate exchange. The phosphate analogue arsenate inhibits both the exchange reaction and active transport. Both processes are stimulated by K+ and Mg2+, the highest activities being observed with both ions present. Membrane vesicles have also been isolated from Escherichia coli K10, a strain which possesses only a functional PST phosphate transport system. These vesicles perform neither exchange nor active transport of phosphate, although active transport of amino acids is observed in the presence of ascorbate-phenazine methosulphate or D-lactate.

  15. How to assess the efficacy of phosphate binders.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Francisco; Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Azevedo, Lilia; Luna, Enrique

    The efficacy of phosphate binders is difficult to be estimated clinically. This study analyzes the changes in serum phosphate and urinary phosphate excretion after the prescription of phosphate binders (PB) in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4-5 pre-dialysis, and the usefulness of the ratio between total urinary phosphate and protein catabolic rate (Pu/PCR) for estimating the efficacy of PB. This retrospective observational cohort study included adult chronic kidney disease patients. Biochemical parameters were determined baseline and after 45-60 days on a low phosphate diet plus PB ("binder" subgroup=260 patients) or only with dietary advice ("control" subgroup=79 patients). Phosphate load (total urinary excretion) per unit of renal function (Pu/GFR) was the best parameter correlated with serum phosphate levels (R(2)=0.61). Mean±SD level of Pu/PCR was 8.2±2.3mg of urinary phosphate per each g of estimated protein intake. After treatment with PB, serum phosphate levels decreased by 11%, urinary phosphate 22%, protein catabolic rate 7%, and Pu/PCR 15%. In the control subgroup, Pu/PCR increased by 20%. Urinary phosphate and urea nitrogen excretion correlated strongly, both baseline and after PB or dietary advice. The proposed parameter Pu/PCR may reflect the rate of intestinal phosphate absorption, and therefore, its variations after PB prescription may be a useful tool for estimating the pharmacological efficacy of these drugs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The aluminum phosphate zone in the Peace River area, land-pebble phosphate field, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.

    1953-01-01

    The Peace River area, comprising T. 30 and 31 S., R. 24 and 25 E., contains a thicker and more persistent aluminum phosphate zone, and one that is higher in P2O5 and uranium content than is known elsewhere in the land-pebble phosphate district. This report has been prepared to bring together all of the information on the aluminum phosphate zone in the area where the first plant to treat this material will probably be located. The area may be divided into three physiographic units, (1) the ridge, (2) the flatwoods, and (3) the valley. Maps showing distribution and grade of the aluminum phosphate zone indicate that the zone is thin or absent in the ridge unit, thickest and most persistent, and of the best grade in P2O5 and uranium in the flatwoods unit, and absent or very low in grade in the valley unit. Maps of thickness and of chemical composition show that even in favorable areas there are places where the aluminum phosphate zone is missing or of questionable economic importance. The distribution maps also show that areas of high P2O5 and high uranium content coincide closely. Areas containing thick aluminum phosphate material usually have high uranium and P2O5 contents. It is estimated that an average of 13,000 tons per day of aluminum phosphate material might be mined from this area. This figure is based on the probable amount of time, per year, that mining would be in favorable ground. When all mines in the area are in favorable ground, the tonnage per day might be about 23,000 tons. Tonnages of aluminum phosphate material have been computed for about 36 percent of the area of T. 30 S., R. 25 E., and for 18 percent of the area of T. 31 S., R. 25 E. The total inferred tonnage is about 150,000,000 short tons, with an average grade of 0.012 percent U3O8.

  17. Using oxygen isotopes of phosphate to investigate phosphate release from sediments and phosphate input from waste water treatment plants into Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, K.; Klass, T.; Watson, S.; Mah, B.; Paytan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus is often a limiting nutrient in freshwater systems; however increased inputs have been promoting eutrophication in many of these systems. Phosphate is one of the more bio-available forms of phosphate and it has been suggested by Elsbury et al., (2009) that in addition to riverin input some other yet unidentified phosphate source contributes to the phosphorous loading in Lake Erie. We are using the oxygen isotope of phosphate to identify two potential sources of phosphorus into Lake Erie. Specifically we determine the isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate which is associated with various sedimentary phases at two sites in Lake Erie. The distinct sedimentary phases have different phosphate mobility and thus release potential to the lake. In addition we determine the isotopic signature of phosphate that is released into the lake from treated waste water effluent throughout the year. Results will be compared to the isotopic signature of phosphate in Lake water to evaluate the potential contribution form each of these sources.

  18. Deposition of calcium phosphate coatings using condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) as phosphate source through induction heating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Hou, Saisai; Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Mengmeng; Deng, Linhong; Xiong, Xinbo; Ni, Xinye

    2016-12-01

    In present work condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) were used as phosphate source in induction heating to deposit calcium phosphate coatings. The phase, morphology, and composition of different phosphate-related coatings were characterized and compared using XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Results showed that P2O7(4-)formed calcium pyrophosphate hydrate coatings with interconnected cuboid-like particles. The as-deposited calcium tripolyphosphate hydrate coating with P3O10(5-) was mainly composed of flower-like particles assembled by plate-like crystals. The bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were also studied. Moreover, the feasibility of using hybrid phosphate sources for preparing and depositing coatings onto magnesium alloy was investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokturk, H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  20. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry. [Radiological impact of uranium extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  1. Effect of fatty acids on the phosphate binding of TRK-390, a novel, highly selective phosphate-binding polymer.

    PubMed

    Nakaki, Junko; Yamaguchi, Shinichi; Torii, Yuichi; Inoue, Atsushi; Minakami, Satoshi; Kanno, Takami; Murakami, Masanori; Tsuzuki, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Hidenori; Suyama, Kazuharu; Miyamoto, Mitsuko

    2013-08-15

    Phosphate binders are used for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Sevelamer, a phosphate-binding polymer, has been reported to bind bile acids or fatty acids and thereby decrease its phosphate-binding capacity. The novel phosphate binder TRK-390 is a poly (allylamine) polymer that has been shown to have enhanced phosphate selectivity, with low bile-acid-binding. In this study we evaluated the effect of fatty acids on the phosphate-binding capacity of TRK-390. In the absence of fatty acids and bile acids, the phosphate-binding capacity of TRK-390 was similar to that of sevelamer. In the presence of fatty acids and bile acids, the phosphate-binding capacity of TRK-390 was reduced to 83%; in contrast, that of sevelamer was reduced to 35%. TRK-390 and sevelamer showed a similar effect in lowering urinary phosphate excretion in normal rats fed a normal diet. However, urinary phosphate excretion of rats treated with TRK-390 was reduced by about one half of that obtained with sevelamer, when given with a high-fat diet that had a fat content similar to the diet of hemodialysis patients. TRK-390 was superior in terms of phosphate selectivity in the presence of fatty acids and bile acids in vitro, and the phosphate-binding capacity of TRK-390 in vivo was shown to be less affected by fat in comparison with that of sevelamer. Thus, TRK-390 is expected to be useful as a novel highly selective phosphate binder. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Bone and tooth in calcium and phosphate metabolism].

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate is indispensable for maintaining normal physiological condition. Imbalance of this regulation leads to pathophysiological disorders including heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and ectopic calcification. Formation and mineralization of bone and tooth are greatly influenced by calcium and phosphate metabolism since both organs are mainly consist of calcium-phosphate. Calcium and phosphate homeostasis is under hormonal control on its target organs such as kidney, bone and intestine. Calcium and phosphate are absorbed in intestine and reabsorbed and excreted in kidney. Bone store and release them in response to changing physiological demand by osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Bone is also important as an endocrine organ that releases FGF23 from osteocytes, a novel hormone that targets the kidney to inhibit phosphate reabsorption and 1α, 25 (OH) (2)D(3) production.

  3. A phosphate binding assay for sevelamer hydrochloride by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, J R; Peters, R M; Hanus, M R; Chen, X; Norton, K A

    1999-05-01

    Sevelamer hydrochloride is a cross-linked polymeric amine; it is the active ingredient of Renagel capsules. Renagel is indicated for the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease. An in vitro phosphate-binding assay is required to measure the drug's efficacy. The assay developed for this purpose involves mixing the drug (polymer) with a solution of known phosphate concentration, filtering off the polymer-phosphate complex, and quantitating the unbound phosphate concentration by ion chromatography. The binding capacity, reported as mmol of phosphate bound g of polymer(-1), is calculated from the calculated amount of bound phosphate and the weight of polymer used. The method has been validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, and ruggedness.

  4. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40-66 percent PbO, 30-55 percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  5. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-07-11

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40--66 percent PbO, 30--55 percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].

  6. Root architecture remodeling induced by phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Aiko; Miura, Kenji

    2011-08-01

    Plants have evolved efficient strategies for utilizing nutrients in the soil in order to survive, grow, and reproduce. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a major macroelement source for plant growth; however, the availability and distribution of Pi are varying widely across locations. Thus, plants in many areas experience Pi deficiency. To maintain cellular Pi homeostasis, plants have developed a series of adaptive responses to facilitate external Pi acquisition, limit Pi consumption, and adjust Pi recycling internally under Pi starvation conditions. This review focuses on the molecular regulators that modulate Pi starvation-induced root architectural changes.

  7. Cobalt-phosphate oxygen-evolving compound.

    PubMed

    Kanan, Matthew W; Surendranath, Yogesh; Nocera, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy on a large scale requires efficient storage. Solar-to-fuels has the capacity to meet large scale storage needs as demonstrated by natural photosynthesis. This process uses sunlight to rearrange the bonds of water to furnish O2 and an H2-equivalent. We present a tutorial review of our efforts to develop an amorphous cobalt-phosphate catalyst that oxidizes water to O2. The use of earth-abundant materials, operation in water at neutral pH, and the formation of the catalyst in situ captures functional elements of the oxygen evolving complex of Photosystem II.

  8. Crystal growth of calcium phosphates - epitaxial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoukos, P. G.; Nancollas, G. H.

    1981-05-01

    The growth of one crystalline phase on the surface of another that offers a good crystal lattice match, may be important in environmental, physiological and pathological mineralization processes. The epitaxial relationships and kinetics of growth of hydroxyapatite on crystals of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, calcium fluoride and calcite have been studied at sustained low supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite. At the very low supersaturations, the crystallization of hydroxyapatite takes place without the formation of precursor phases. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical predictions for epitaxial growth, while the kinetics of hydroxyapatite crystallization on the foreign substrates is the same as that for the growth of hydroxyapatite on synthetic hydroxyapatite crystals.

  9. Biologic activity of cyclic and caged phosphates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lorke, Dietrich E; Stegmeier-Petroianu, Anka; Petroianu, Georg A

    2017-01-01

    The recognition in the early 1960s by Morifusa Eto that tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) is hydroxylated by the cytochrome P450 system to an intermediate that spontaneously cyclizes to a neurotoxic phosphate (saligenin phosphate ester) ignited the interest in this group of compounds. Only the ortho isomer can cyclize and clinically cause Organo Phosphate Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity (OPIDN); the meta and para isomers of tri-cresyl phosphate are not neuropathic because they are unable to form stable cyclic saligenin phosphate esters. This review identifies the diverse biological effects associated with various cyclic and caged phosphates and phosphonates and their possible use. Cyclic compounds that inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE), such as salithion, can be employed as pesticides. Others are neurotoxic, most probably because of inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE). Cyclic phosphates that inhibit lipases, the cyclipostins, possibly represent promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or microbial infections; those compounds inhibiting β-lactamase may prevent bacterial resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. Naturally occurring cyclic phosphates, such as cyclic AMP, cyclic phosphatidic acid and the ryanodine receptor modulator cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose, play an important physiological role in signal transduction. Moreover, some cyclic phosphates are GABA-antagonists, while others are an essential component of Molybdenum-containing enzymes. Some cyclic phosphates (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide) are clinically used in tumor therapy, while the coupling of therapeutic agents with other cyclic phosphates (HepDirect® Technology) allows drugs to be targeted to specific organs. Possible clinical applications of these compounds are considered. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Phosphate import at the arbuscule: just a nutrient?

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Yi; Paszkowski, Uta

    2011-11-01

    Central to the mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is the arbuscule, the site where symbiotic phosphate is delivered. Initial investigations in legumes have led to the exciting observation that symbiotic phosphate uptake not only enhances plant growth but also regulates arbuscule dynamics and is, furthermore, required for maintenance of the symbiosis. This review evaluates the possible role of the phosphate ion, not only as a nutrient but also as a signal that is necessary for reprogramming the host cortex cell for symbiosis.

  11. Agrochemical assessment of bog phosphates in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamzikov, G. P.; Marmulev, A. N.

    2007-09-01

    Bog phosphates of Western Siberia were characterized; the agrochemical properties of vivianite in peat deposits were studied, and its positive effect on the phosphate pool of zonal soils was revealed. A high and prolonged effect of peat vivianite on the main agricultural crops was experimentally proved. It was shown that the wide use of bog phosphates as fertilizers offers much promise for the regional agriculture.

  12. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM PHOSPHATIC ORE

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1959-04-14

    A proccss is described for the recovery of uranium from phosphatic products derived from phosphatic ores. It has been discovered that certain alkyl phosphatic, derivatives can be employed in a direct solvent extraction operation to recover uranium from solid products, such as superphosphates, without first dissolving such solids. The organic extractants found suitable include alkyl derivatives of phosphoric, pyrophosphoric, phosof the derivative contains from 4 to 7 carbon atoms. A diluent such as kerosene is also used.

  13. Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-1 degrades exogenous glycerolipid and sphingolipid phosphate esters.

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, R; Zhang, Q X; Pilquil, C; Singh, I; Xu, J; Dewald, J; Dillon, D A; Berthiaume, L G; Carman, G M; Waggoner, D W; Brindley, D N

    1999-01-01

    Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (LPP)-1 cDNA was cloned from a rat liver cDNA library. It codes for a 32-kDa protein that shares 87 and 82% amino acid sequence identities with putative products of murine and human LPP-1 cDNAs, respectively. Membrane fractions of rat2 fibroblasts that stably expressed mouse or rat LPP-1 exhibited 3.1-3. 6-fold higher specific activities for phosphatidate dephosphorylation compared with vector controls. Increases in the dephosphorylation of lysophosphatidate, ceramide 1-phosphate, sphingosine 1-phosphate and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate were similar to those for phosphatidate. Rat2 fibroblasts expressing mouse LPP-1 cDNA showed 1.6-2.3-fold increases in the hydrolysis of exogenous lysophosphatidate, phosphatidate and ceramide 1-phosphate compared with vector control cells. Recombinant LPP-1 was located partially in plasma membranes with its C-terminus on the cytosolic surface. Lysophosphatidate dephosphorylation was inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ and this inhibition was diminished by extracellular Mg2+. Changing intracellular Ca2+ concentrations did not alter exogenous lysophosphatidate dephosphorylation significantly. Permeabilized fibroblasts showed relatively little latency for the dephosphorylation of exogenous lysophosphatidate. LPP-1 expression decreased the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and DNA synthesis by exogenous lysophosphatidate. The product of LPP-1 cDNA is concluded to act partly to degrade exogenous lysophosphatidate and thereby regulate its effects on cell signalling. PMID:10359651

  14. Studies of inositol 1-phosphate analogues as inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate synthase in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Morii, Hiroyuki; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Nomiya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2013-03-01

    We previously reported a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol in mycobacteria via phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) [Morii H., Ogawa, M., Fukuda, K., Taniguchi, H., and Koga, Y (2010) J. Biochem. 148, 593-602]. PIP synthase in the pathway is a promising target for the development of new anti-mycobacterium drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the characteristics of the PIP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four types of compounds were chemically synthesized based on the assumption that structural homologues of inositol 1-phosphate, a PIP synthase substrate, would act as PIP synthase inhibitors, and the results confirmed that all synthesized compounds inhibited PIP synthase activity. The phosphonate analogue of inositol 1-phosphate (Ino-C-P) had the greatest inhibitory effect among the synthesized compounds examined. Kinetic analysis indicated that Ino-C-P acted as a competitive inhibitor of inositol 1-phosphate. The IC(50) value for Ino-C-P inhibition of the PIP synthase activity was estimated to be 2.0 mM. Interestingly, Ino-C-P was utilized in the same manner as the normal PIP synthase substrate, leading to the synthesis of a phosphonate analogue of PIP (PI-C-P), which had a structure similar to that of the natural product, PIP. In addition, PI-C-P had high inhibitory activity against PIP synthase.

  15. Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-1 degrades exogenous glycerolipid and sphingolipid phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Jasinska, R; Zhang, Q X; Pilquil, C; Singh, I; Xu, J; Dewald, J; Dillon, D A; Berthiaume, L G; Carman, G M; Waggoner, D W; Brindley, D N

    1999-06-15

    Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (LPP)-1 cDNA was cloned from a rat liver cDNA library. It codes for a 32-kDa protein that shares 87 and 82% amino acid sequence identities with putative products of murine and human LPP-1 cDNAs, respectively. Membrane fractions of rat2 fibroblasts that stably expressed mouse or rat LPP-1 exhibited 3.1-3. 6-fold higher specific activities for phosphatidate dephosphorylation compared with vector controls. Increases in the dephosphorylation of lysophosphatidate, ceramide 1-phosphate, sphingosine 1-phosphate and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate were similar to those for phosphatidate. Rat2 fibroblasts expressing mouse LPP-1 cDNA showed 1.6-2.3-fold increases in the hydrolysis of exogenous lysophosphatidate, phosphatidate and ceramide 1-phosphate compared with vector control cells. Recombinant LPP-1 was located partially in plasma membranes with its C-terminus on the cytosolic surface. Lysophosphatidate dephosphorylation was inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ and this inhibition was diminished by extracellular Mg2+. Changing intracellular Ca2+ concentrations did not alter exogenous lysophosphatidate dephosphorylation significantly. Permeabilized fibroblasts showed relatively little latency for the dephosphorylation of exogenous lysophosphatidate. LPP-1 expression decreased the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and DNA synthesis by exogenous lysophosphatidate. The product of LPP-1 cDNA is concluded to act partly to degrade exogenous lysophosphatidate and thereby regulate its effects on cell signalling.

  16. StMYB44 negatively regulates phosphate transport by suppressing expression of PHOSPHATE1 in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus is an important macronutrient for plant growth, but often deficient in soil. To understand the molecular basis of the complex responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to phosphate (Pi) deficiency stress, the RNA-Seq approach was taken to identify genes responding to Pi starvation in pot...

  17. Preventing acid phosphate attack in coordinated phosphate programs for high-pressure boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, O.

    1999-12-01

    Coordinated phosphate programs were introduced to maintain bulk water and underdeposit chemistries in a safe pH range. With the wide assortment of additives routinely employed in modern treatment programs, it is no longer a simple matter to control the treatment. The errors induced by the additives and impurities can lead to acid attack and boiler tube failure.

  18. Increasing Soluble Phosphate Species by Treatment of Phosphate Rocks with Acidic Waste.

    PubMed

    Santos, Wedisson O; Hesterberg, Dean; Mattiello, Edson M; Vergütz, Leonardus; Barreto, Matheus S C; Silva, Ivo R; Souza Filho, Luiz F S

    2016-11-01

    The development of efficient fertilizers with a diminished environmental footprint will help meet the increasing demand for food and nutrients by a growing global population. Our objective was to evaluate whether an acidic mine waste (AMW) could be used beneficially by reacting it with sparingly soluble phosphate rocks (PRs) to produce more soluble P fertilizer materials. Three PRs from Brazil and Peru were reacted with different concentrations of AMW. Changes in mineralogy and P species were determined using a combination of X-ray diffraction and phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in addition to extractable P concentrations. Increasing the AMW concentration typically increased extractable P. X-ray diffraction data showed transformation of apatite to other species when PRs were reacted with AMW at ≥50% (v/v) in water, with gypsum or anhydrite forming at AMW concentrations as low as 12.5%. Linear combination fitting analysis of X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra also indicated a progressive transformation of apatite to noncrystalline Fe(III)-phosphate and more soluble Ca-phosphates with increasing AMW concentration. Because this AMW is costly to dispose of, reacting it with PR to produce a higher-grade phosphate fertilizer material could decrease the environmental impacts of the AMW and diminish the consumption of pure acids in conventional P fertilizer production.

  19. WRKY42 Modulates Phosphate Homeostasis through Regulating Phosphate Translocation and Acquisition in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tong; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Fei-Cui; Chen, Yun; Li, Li-Qin; Wu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) WRKY transcription factor family has more than 70 members, and some of them have been reported to play important roles in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study shows that WRKY42 regulated phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis. The WRKY42-overexpressing lines, similar to the phosphate1 (pho1) mutant, were more sensitive to low-inorganic phosphate (Pi) stress and had lower shoot Pi content compared with wild-type plants. The PHO1 expression was repressed in WRKY42-overexpressing lines and enhanced in the wrky42 wrky6 double mutant. The WRKY42 protein bound to the PHO1 promoter under Pi-sufficient condition, and this binding was abrogated during Pi starvation. These data indicate that WRKY42 modulated Pi translocation by regulating PHO1 expression. Furthermore, overexpression of WRKY42 increased root Pi content and Pi uptake, whereas the wrky42 mutant had lower root Pi content and Pi uptake rate compared with wild-type plants. Under Pi-sufficient condition, WRKY42 positively regulated PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1;1 (PHT1;1) expression by binding to the PHT1;1 promoter, and this binding was abolished by low-Pi stress. During Pi starvation, the WRKY42 protein was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. Our results showed that AtWRKY42 modulated Pi homeostasis by regulating the expression of PHO1 and PHT1;1 to adapt to environmental changes in Pi availability. PMID:25733771

  20. Processing and in vivo evaluation of multiphasic calcium phosphate cements with dual tricalcium phosphate phases.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Heredia, Marco A; Bongio, Matilde; Bohner, Marc; Cuijpers, Vincent; Winnubst, Louis A J A; van Dijk, Natasja; Wolke, Joop G C; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Jansen, John A

    2012-09-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) use the simultaneous presence of several calcium phosphates phases. This is done to generate specific bulk and in vivo properties. This work has processed and evaluated novel multiphasic CPCs containing dual tricalcium phosphate (TCPs) phases. Dual TCPs containing α- and β-TCP phases were obtained by thermal treatment. Standard CPC (S-CPC) was composed of α-TCP, anhydrous dicalcium phosphate and precipitated hydroxyapatite, while modified CPC (DT-CPC) included both α- and β-TCP. Physicochemical characterization of these CPCs was based on scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area (SSA) and particle size (PS) analysis and mechanical properties. This characterization allowed the selection of one DT-CPC for setting time, cohesion and biological assessment compared with S-CPC. Biological assessment was carried out using a tibial intramedullary cavity model and subcutaneous pouches in guinea pigs. Differences in the surface morphology and crystalline phases of the treated TCPs were detected, although PS analysis of the milled CPC powders produced similar results. SSA analysis was significantly higher for DT-CPC with α-TCP treated at 1100°C for 5h. Poorer mechanical properties were found for DT-CPC with α-TCP treated at 1000°C. Setting time and cohesion, as well as the in vivo performance, were similar in the selected DT-CPC and the S-CPC. Both CPCs created the desired host reactions in vivo.

  1. Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases play an important role in phosphate recycling and phosphate sensing in white lupin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.), a well adapted species to phosphate (Pi) impoverished soils, develops short, densely clustered lateral roots (cluster/proteoid roots) to increase Pi uptake. Here, we report two white lupin glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GPX-PDE) genes which share strong homo...

  2. Recycling of used commercial phosphate-bonded investments with additional mono-ammonium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutai; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2005-03-01

    Industrial waste is on the increase, resulting in severe environmental contamination. Against this background, this study sought to investigate the possibility of recycling used phosphate-bonded investments. Commercial phosphate-bonded investment was mixed and heated according to manufacturer's instructions, then powdered with a ball mill machine to be used as recycled investment (Code: R). Mono-ammonium phosphate (NH4H2PO4) of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 g were added to 100 g of R because of residual MgO, and coded as Ra, Rb, Rc, Rd, and Re respectively. Investment properties were then examined. Particle size of R was 50.66 microm and close to the original investment. It was found that more NH4H2PO4 led to larger setting expansion, smaller thermal expansion, and lower fired strength. The data of Re in these three aspects were 1.42 +/- 0.09%, 0.78 +/- 0.21%, and 8.85 +/- 0.88 MPa respectively, and differences against the original investment were significant. Ra showed significantly longer setting time than other investments. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that it was possible to set used phosphate-bonded investments by adding NH4H2PO4; in particular, Rd showed suitable expansion and acceptable mechanical properties.

  3. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R.

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  4. Allosteric Regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum Xylulose 5-Phosphate/Fructose 6-Phosphate Phosphoketolase (Xfp)

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Katie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp), which catalyzes the conversion of xylulose 5-phosphate (X5P) or fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) to acetyl phosphate, plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Recently, we demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus neoformans Xfp2 exhibits both substrate cooperativity for all substrates (X5P, F6P, and Pi) and allosteric regulation in the forms of inhibition by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), oxaloacetic acid (OAA), and ATP and activation by AMP (K. Glenn, C. Ingram-Smith, and K. S. Smith. Eukaryot Cell 13:657–663, 2014). Allosteric regulation has not been reported previously for the characterized bacterial Xfps. Here, we report the discovery of substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation among bacterial Xfps, specifically the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp. L. plantarum Xfp is an allosteric enzyme inhibited by PEP, OAA, and glyoxylate but unaffected by the presence of ATP or AMP. Glyoxylate is an additional inhibitor to those previously reported for C. neoformans Xfp2. As with C. neoformans Xfp2, PEP and OAA share the same or possess overlapping sites on L. plantarum Xfp. Glyoxylate, which had the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the three inhibitors, binds at a separate site. This study demonstrates that substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation may be common properties among bacterial and eukaryotic Xfp enzymes, yet important differences exist between the enzymes in these two domains. IMPORTANCE Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism in a number of bacteria. Although we recently demonstrated that the fungal Cryptococcus Xfp is subject to substrate cooperativity and allosteric regulation, neither phenomenon has been reported for a bacterial Xfp. Here, we report that the Lactobacillus plantarum Xfp displays substrate cooperativity and is allosterically inhibited by

  5. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solution by hydrous zirconium oxide.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Liana Alvares; Maschio, Leandro José; Coppio, Luciana de Simone Cividanes; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio; da Silva, Maria Lúcia Caetano Pinto

    2012-06-01

    Synthetic ZrO2 x nH2O was used for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. The optimum adsorbent dose obtained for phosphate adsorption on to hydrous zirconium oxide was 0.1 g. The kinetic process was described very well by a pseudo-second-order rate model. The phosphate adsorption tended to increase with the decrease in pH. The adsorption capacity increased from 61 to 66 mg g(-1) when the temperature was increased from 298 to 338 K. A phosphate desorption of approximately 74% was obtained using water at pH 12.

  6. Phosphate immobilization using an acidic type F fly ash.

    PubMed

    Grubb, D G; Guimaraes, M S; Valencia, R

    2000-09-15

    Batch equilibration experiments using a low calcium ( approximately 1 wt.% as CaO), acidic (pH approximately 4.5) Type F fly ash demonstrated phosphate immobilization on the order of 100% to 75% for 50 and 100 mg P/l solutions, respectively. A loosely compacted column of fly ash similarly removed 10 mg P/l for over 85 pore volumes. While the interactions between phosphate and calcium-rich (Type C) ashes are relatively well understood, insight into the mechanisms of phosphate immobilization in Type F ash necessitated a review of the phosphate chemistry and interactions with acidic geomedia. Phosphate adsorption was subsequently modeled using a constant capacitance model approach (CCM) excluding precipitation reactions. Our CCM predictions of total phosphate immobilization (20%) were substantially less than the results of the batch equilibration experiments and phosphate adsorption predicted by other researchers examining near pure natural and synthetic geomedia due to the compositional heterogeneity of the fly ash. Nevertheless, for the amorphous and crystalline phases studied, the immobilization of phosphate in the Type F fly ash is attributed to the formation of insoluble aluminum and iron phosphates at low to medium values of pH.

  7. Inorganic Phosphate as an Important Regulator of Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos-Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi). Pi starvation-responsive genes appear to be involved in multiple metabolic pathways, implying a complex Pi regulation system in microorganisms and plants. A group of enzymes is required for absorption and maintenance of adequate phosphate levels, which is released from phosphate esters and anhydrides. The phosphatase system is particularly suited for the study of regulatory mechanisms because phosphatase activity is easily measured using specific methods and the difference between the repressed and derepressed levels of phosphatase activity is easily detected. This paper analyzes the protein phosphatase system induced during phosphate starvation in different organisms. PMID:21755037

  8. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solution using activated red mud

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, J.; Das, J.; Das, S.; Thakur, R.S.

    1998-08-01

    Adsorption of phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) from aqueous solution on activated red mud (ARM) was studied as a function of time, pH, temperature, concentration of adsorbent and adsorbate in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer medium. The adsorption of phosphate follows Langmuir as well as Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The process efficiency was found to be 80--90% at room temperature. This can be extended to the treatment of industrial effluents containing phosphates like that from phosphatic fertilizer plants.

  9. Physiology of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism: 1980 Refresher Course, Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Franklyn G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This syllabus reviews information concerning calcium and phosphate regulation. Topics of interest include the following: calcium metabolism, phosphorus metabolism, bone, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D. (CS)

  10. Physiology of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism: 1980 Refresher Course, Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Franklyn G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This syllabus reviews information concerning calcium and phosphate regulation. Topics of interest include the following: calcium metabolism, phosphorus metabolism, bone, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D. (CS)

  11. Direct Effects of Phosphate on Vascular Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wei Ling; Pai, Ashwini; Moe, Sharon M.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate has clinically been associated with vascular stiffness and cardiovascular mortality. Mechanistic studies over the past decade looking at phosphate’s local effects on the vessel wall have lent insight into various pathways that culminate in vascular calcification.Smooth muscle cell phenotype change and apoptosis play prominent roles. The sodium-phosphate cotransporter PiT-1 is required for the osteochondrogenic differentiation of smooth muscle cellsin vitro. Less is known about phosphate-driven valve interstitial cell calcification and elastin degradation.In this paper, we review the current knowledge about phosphate-induced changes in the vascular wall. PMID:21406295

  12. Preparation of fodder dicalcium phosphate from phosphorous-containing solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Teplov, Y.A.; Dmitrevskii, B.A.; Maksimenko, N.F.; Olifson, A.L.; Yarosh, E.B.

    1985-02-01

    Fodder dicalcium phosphate is produced in chemical plants by neutralization of electrothermal phosphoric acid with chalk, or by high-temperature defluorination of a mixture of phosphate raw material with phosphoric acid. The deficiencies of the first technology include the scarcity and high cost of phosphoric acid, and the disadvantages of the second include the high expenditure of energy and low concentration of useful substance in the product. This paper reports on studies which demonstrate the possibility of preparing fodder dicalcium phosphate from different types of phosphate raw material which is not inferior in quality to the product produced from expensive and scarce electrothermal phosphoric acid.

  13. Structure of dihydroxyacetone phosphate dimethyl acetal, a stable dihydroxyacetone phosphate precursor, in the crystalline state.

    PubMed

    Slepokura, Katarzyna; Lis, Tadeusz

    2006-03-20

    Crystal and molecular structures of four different salts of a dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) precursor, its dimethyl acetal [2,2-dimethoxy-1,3-propanediol phosphate, C(5)H(13)O(7)P, (MeO)(2)DHAP]: (cha)(2)[(MeO)(2)DHAP].H(2)O (6a), (cha)[(MeO)(2)DHAP] (6b), Na(2)[(MeO)(2)DHAP].5.75H(2)O (6c) and K(2)[(MeO)(2)DHAP].H(2)O (6d), along with the cyclohexylammonium (cha) salt of its phenyl ester (cha)[(MeO)(2)DHAP(Ph)] (6e) are described. In the (MeO)(2)DHAP mono- and dianions, slightly different orientation of the phosphate group in relation to the acetal carbon atom is observed, with a delicate tendency of phosphate group to be located antiperiplanar in the monoanions and anticlinal in the dianions. The 2,2-dimethoxy-1,3-propandiol moiety, (MeO)(2)DHA, seems to be very rigid and its conformation is independent of phosphorylation, the ionization state of the inserted phosphate group and its additional substitution. The overall structures of the cyclohexylammonium (6a,b) and potassium salts (6d) have a double-layered architecture, while the sodium cation network in 6c forms the system of channels, which are filled up with the [(MeO)(2)DHAP](2-) ions. The different architectures of 6c and 6d crystals result from the different ways in which the relevant dianions coordinate to sodium and potassium ions and affect also the hydrogen bonding system observed in 6c and 6d crystals.

  14. Expanding sapphyrin: towards selective phosphate binding.

    PubMed

    Katayev, Evgeny A; Boev, Nikolay V; Myshkovskaya, Ekaterina; Khrustalev, Victor N; Ustynyuk, Yu A

    2008-01-01

    The anion-templated syntheses and binding properties of novel macrocyclic oligopyrrole receptors in which pyrrole rings are linked through amide or imine bonds are described. The efficient synthesis was accomplished by anion-templated [1+1] Schiff-base condensation and acylation macrocyclization reactions. Free receptors and their host-guest complexes with hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, tetrabutylammonium chloride, and hydrogen sulfate were analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Stability constants with different tetrabutylammonium salts of inorganic acids were determined by standard 1H NMR and UV/Vis titration techniques in [D6]DMSO/0.5% water solution. According to the titration data, receptors containing three pyrrole rings (10 and 12) exhibit high affinity (log Ka=5-7) for bifluoride, acetate, and dihydrogen phosphate, and interact weakly with chloride and hydrogen sulfate. The amido-bipyrrole receptors 11 and 13 with four pyrrole rings exhibit 10(4)- and 10(2)-fold selectivity for dihydrogen phosphate, respectively, as inferred from competitive titrations in the presence of tetrabutylammonium acetate.

  15. Thermodynamics of the reactions of carbamoyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Alberty, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Two measurements of equilibrium constants by Marshall and Cohen make it possible to calculate standard Gibbs energies of formation of the species of carbamate and carbamoyl phosphate. Carbamate formation from carbon dioxide and ammonia does not require an enzyme, and the equilibrium concentrations of carbamate in ammonium bicarbonate are calculated. Knowing the values of standard Gibbs energies of formation of species of carbamate and carbamoyl phosphate make it possible to calculate the dependencies of the standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation of these reactants on pH and ionic strength and to calculate apparent equilibrium constants for several enzyme-catalyzed reactions and several chemical reactions. These calculations are sufficiently complicated that computer programs in Mathematica are used to make tables and plots. The dependences of apparent equilibrium constants on pH are consequences of the production or consumption of hydrogen ions, which are shown in plots. As usual the increase in the number of enzyme-catalyzed reactions for which apparent equilibrium constants can be calculated is larger than the number of reactions required to obtain the thermodynamic properties of the species involved.

  16. Leishmanial phosphatase hydrolyzes phosphoproteins and inositol phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, A.K.; Das, S.; Glew, R.H.

    1986-05-01

    An extensively purified preparation of the predominant, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACP) from the external surface of Leishmania donovani promastigotes form catalyzes the dephosphorylation of several phosphoproteins; these include: pyruvate kinase, phosphorylase kinase and histones. However, the protein phosphatase activity of ACP is very low compared with that of other protein phosphates known to be involved in regulating various metabolic pathways. /sup 32/P-labelled inositoltriphosphate (IP3), a well-established second messenger derived from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate (PIP2), was a substrate for the leishmanial acid phosphatase; incubation of the IP3 preparation with 13.2 milliunits (1 unit equals 1 ..mu..mol 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (MUP) cleaved per min at pH 5.5) of ACP at pH 5.5 for 4 hr resulted in hydrolysis of 75% of the radiolabelled substrate resulting in a mixture of inositoldiphosphate and inositolmonophosphate. In addition PIP2 was hydrolyzed rapidly by ACP at pH 5.5 (V/sub max/, 71 units/mg protein; k/sub m/, 4.16 ..mu..M). In contrast, to MUP which is hydrolzyed most rapidly at pH 5.5, PIP2 hydrolysis was optimal at pH 6.8. These observations raise the possibility that ACP could play a role in the host-phagocyte interaction by degrading the precursor of the second messenger, PIP2 or the second messenger itself, IP3.

  17. Bacterial phosphating of mild (unalloyed) steel.

    PubMed

    Volkland, H P; Harms, H; Müller, B; Repphun, G; Wanner, O; Zehnder, A J

    2000-10-01

    Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached -510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at -510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion.

  18. Bacterial Phosphating of Mild (Unalloyed) Steel

    PubMed Central

    Volkland, Hans-Peter; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Beat; Repphun, Gernot; Wanner, Oskar; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached −510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at −510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion. PMID:11010888

  19. [Synthetic calcium phosphate ceramics in secondary alveoloplasty].

    PubMed

    Corre, P; Khonsari, R-H; Laure, B; Elamrani, K; Weiss, P; Mercier, J-M

    2012-04-01

    Bone substitutes are rarely used in the reconstruction of cleft lip and palate. The graft material of choice is cancellous bone, harvested in the hip or tibia. Tibial harvesting may lead to postoperative morbidity, or even complications. This has lead surgeons to develop alternative solution. We present a secondary alveolar bone grafting technique using synthetic calcium phosphate ceramics. A patient presenting with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was treated by alveolar bone grafting at the age of nine years, using a mixture of autologous bone, harvested on the operative field, and particles of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP); the graft was included in a platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel. The patient was followed up for eight years after the procedure. No sign of early or late infection was observed. At the end of facial growth, the cuspid had erupted correctly in a safe periodontal environment. Sequential X-rays showed complete filling of the initial bone defect, progressive resorption of ceramics, and spontaneous eruption of the cuspid. In this long-term follow-up report, the use of BCP mixed with autologous bone did not interfere with dental eruption or maxilla growth. A second bone-harvesting site was thus avoided. BCP could be a suitable alternative to autologous bone graft for secondary alveoloplasty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Phosphate Metabolism in Cardiorenal Metabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepashree; Brietzke, Stephen; Hayden, M.R.; Kurukulasuriya, L. Romayne; Sowers, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, abnormalities of mineral metabolism and bone disease, and the progression of renal insufficiency in patients with chronic renal disease. In early renal disease, serum phosphate levels are maintained within the ‘normal laboratory range’ by compensatory increases in phosphaturic hormones such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). An important co-factor for FGF-23 is Klotho; a deficiency in Klotho plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperphosphatemia, renal tubulointerstitial disease, and parathyroid and bone abnormalities. Clinical hyperphosphatemia occurs when these phosphaturic mechanisms cannot counterbalance nephron loss. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with calcific uremic arteriolopathy and uremic cardiomyopathy, which may explain, in part, the epidemiologic connections between phosphate excess and cardiovascular disease. However, no clinical trials have been conducted to establish a causal relationship, and large, randomized trials with hard endpoints are urgently needed to prove or disprove the benefits and risks of therapy. In summary, hyperphosphatemia accelerates renal tubulointerstitial disease, renal osteodystrophy, as well as cardiovascular disease, and it is an important mortality risk factor in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:22096458